Science.gov

Sample records for major carbon impact

  1. Major role of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in dark ocean carbon fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Sintes, Eva; Bergauer, Kristin; Brown, Julia M.; Record, Nicholas R.; Swan, Brandon K.; Mathyer, Mary Elizabeth; Hallam, Steven J.; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Woyke, Tanja; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2017-11-01

    Carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic microorganisms in the dark ocean has a major impact on global carbon cycling and ecological relationships in the ocean’s interior, but the relevant taxa and energy sources remain enigmatic. We show evidence that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria affiliated with the Nitrospinae phylum are important in dark ocean chemoautotrophy. Single-cell genomics and community metagenomics revealed that Nitrospinae are the most abundant and globally distributed nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the ocean. Metaproteomics and metatranscriptomics analyses suggest that nitrite oxidation is the main pathway of energy production in Nitrospinae. Microautoradiography, linked with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, indicated that Nitrospinae fix 15 to 45% of inorganic carbon in the mesopelagic western North Atlantic. Nitrite oxidation may have a greater impact on the carbon cycle than previously assumed.

  2. Major role of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in dark ocean carbon fixation.

    PubMed

    Pachiadaki, Maria G; Sintes, Eva; Bergauer, Kristin; Brown, Julia M; Record, Nicholas R; Swan, Brandon K; Mathyer, Mary Elizabeth; Hallam, Steven J; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nunoura, Takuro; Woyke, Tanja; Herndl, Gerhard J; Stepanauskas, Ramunas

    2017-11-24

    Carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic microorganisms in the dark ocean has a major impact on global carbon cycling and ecological relationships in the ocean's interior, but the relevant taxa and energy sources remain enigmatic. We show evidence that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria affiliated with the Nitrospinae phylum are important in dark ocean chemoautotrophy. Single-cell genomics and community metagenomics revealed that Nitrospinae are the most abundant and globally distributed nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the ocean. Metaproteomics and metatranscriptomics analyses suggest that nitrite oxidation is the main pathway of energy production in Nitrospinae. Microautoradiography, linked with catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, indicated that Nitrospinae fix 15 to 45% of inorganic carbon in the mesopelagic western North Atlantic. Nitrite oxidation may have a greater impact on the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Preface: Impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances on carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Liu, Shuguang; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances (ECE&D) on the carbon cycle have received growing attention in recent years. This special issue showcases a collection of recent advances in understanding the impacts of ECE&D on carbon cycling. Notable advances include quantifying how harvesting activities impact forest structure, carbon pool dynamics, and recovery processes; observed drastic increases of the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved methane in thermokarst lakes in western Siberia during a summer warming event; disentangling the roles of herbivores and fire on forest carbon dioxide flux; direct and indirect impacts of fire on the global carbon balance; and improved atmospheric inversion of regional carbon sources and sinks by incorporating disturbances. Combined, studies herein indicate several major research needs. First, disturbances and extreme events can interact with one another, and it is important to understand their overall impacts and also disentangle their effects on the carbon cycle. Second, current ecosystem models are not skillful enough to correctly simulate the underlying processes and impacts of ECE&D (e.g., tree mortality and carbon consequences). Third, benchmark data characterizing the timing, location, type, and magnitude of disturbances must be systematically created to improve our ability to quantify carbon dynamics over large areas. Finally, improving the representation of ECE&D in regional climate/earth system models and accounting for the resulting feedbacks to climate are essential for understanding the interactions between climate and ecosystem dynamics.

  4. Impact melting of carbonates from the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Claeys, P.; Heuschkel, S.

    We have recently interpreted distinctive feathery-textured spinifex carbonate in the upper part of the Chicxulub suevite breccia as quenched carbonate melts (Jones et al. 1998); these distinctive fragments make up to 10 vol% of the breccia. Carbonate clasts and spherules occurring in the ejecta-rich basal part of the coarse clastic sequence, which marks the K/T boundary all around the Gulf of Mexico, may represent distal quenched droplets of carbonate liquids. In seeking to explain this widespread carbonate impact-melting phenomenon, we have re-examined the available experimental evidence. The important decarbonation reaction for calcite CaCO3=CaO+CO2 is inhibited by very small pressures up to temperatures >2000 K. We conclude that massive decarbonation by direct shock pressure is unlikely without attainment of temperatures >4000 K. Therefore, decarbonation generally can only occur during post-shock cooling for carbonates at low pressure (< 10 bars). We assume that post-shock cooling is quasi-thermodynamic, and provide a general P-T model for carbonate spanning 11 orders of magnitude in pressure (atmosphere to core). Subtle differences in sample preconditioning can probably explain the wildly divergent experimental shock data. A major planetary implication for the formation of the Earth's early atmosphere is that impacts on limestone would be less likely to have contributed substantial CO2 than has previously been assumed. Lastly, we note that carbonate melts at high pressures serve as excellent catalysts for diamond growth, and may have contributed to the widespread formation of some impact diamond.

  5. Simulating the impacts of disturbances on forest carbon cycling in North America: processes, data, models, and challenges

    Treesearch

    Shuguang Liu; Ben Bond-Lamberty; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Rodrigo Vargas; Shuqing Zhao; Jing Chen; Steven L. Edburg; Yueming Hu; Jinxun Liu; A. David McGuire; Jingfeng Xiao; Robert Keane; Wenping Yuan; Jianwu Tang; Yiqi Luo; Christopher Potter; Jennifer Oeding

    2011-01-01

    Forest disturbances greatly alter the carbon cycle at various spatial and temporal scales. It is critical to understand disturbance regimes and their impacts to better quantify regional and global carbon dynamics. This review of the status and major challenges in representing the impacts of disturbances in modeling the carbon dynamics across North America revealed some...

  6. Quantitative attribution of major driving forces on soil organic carbon dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) storage plays a major role in the global carbon cycle and is affected by many factors including land use/management changes (e.g., biofuel production-oriented changes). However, the contributions of various factors to SOC changes are not well understood and quantified. This study was designed to investigate the impacts of changing farming practices, initial SOC levels, and biological enhancement of grain production on SOC dynamics and to attribute the relative contributions of major driving forces (CO2 enrichment and farming practices) using a fractional factorial modeling design. The case study at a crop site in Iowa in the United States demonstrated that the traditional corn-soybean (CS) rotation could still accumulate SOC over this century (from 4.2 to 6.8 kg C/m2) under the current condition; whereas the continuous-corn (CC) system might have a higher SOC sequestration potential than CS. In either case, however, residue removal could reduce the sink potential substantially. Long-term simulation results also suggested that the equilibrium SOC level may vary greatly (∼5.7 to ∼11 kg C/m2) depending on cropping systems and management practices, and projected growth enhancement could make the magnitudes higher (∼7.8 to ∼13 kg C/m2). Importantly, the factorial design analysis indicated that residue management had the most significant impact (contributing 49.4%) on SOC changes, followed by CO2 Enrichment (37%), Tillage (6.2%), the combination of CO2Enrichment-Residue removal (5.8%), and Fertilization (1.6%). In brief, this study is valuable for understanding the major forces driving SOC dynamics of agroecosystems and informative for decision-makers when seeking the enhancement of SOC sequestration potential and sustainability of biofuel production, especially in the Corn Belt region of the United States.

  7. Impacts of crop rotations on soil organic carbon sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Vos, Johan; Joris, Ingeborg; Van De Vreken, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Agricultural land use and crop rotations can greatly affect the amount of carbon sequestered in the soil. We developed a framework for modelling the impacts of crop rotations on soil carbon sequestration at the field scale with test case Flanders. A crop rotation geo-database was constructed covering 10 years of crop rotation in Flanders using the IACS parcel registration (Integrated Administration and Control System) to elicit the most common crop rotation on major soil types in Flanders. In order to simulate the impact of crop cover on carbon sequestration, the Roth-C model was adapted to Flanders' environment and coupled to common crop rotations extracted from the IACS geodatabases and statistical databases on crop yield. Crop allometric models were used to calculate crop residues from common crops in Flanders and subsequently derive stable organic matter fluxes to the soil (REGSOM). The REGSOM model was coupled to Roth-C model was run for 30 years and for all combinations of seven main arable crops, two common catch crops and two common dosages of organic manure. The common crops are winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, potato, grain maize, silage maize and winter rapeseed; the catch crops are yellow mustard and Italian ryegrass; the manure dosages are 35 ton/ha cattle slurry and 22 ton/ha pig slurry. Four common soils were simulated: sand, loam, sandy loam and clay. In total more than 2.4 million simulations were made with monthly output of carbon content for 30 years. Results demonstrate that crop cover dynamics influence carbon sequestration for a very large percentage. For the same rotations carbon sequestration is highest on clay soils and lowest on sandy soils. Crop residues of grain maize and winter wheat followed by catch crops contribute largely to the total carbon sequestered. This implies that agricultural policies that impact on agricultural land management influence soil carbon sequestration for a large percentage. The framework is therefore

  8. Oxidation of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Subjected to Hypervelocity Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Pham, Vuong T.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results from arc jet tests conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples subjected to hypervelocity impact. The RCC test specimens are representative of RCC components used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The arc jet testing established the oxidation characteristics of RCC when hypervelocity projectiles, simulating meteoroid/orbital debris, impact the RCC material. In addition to developing correlations for use in trajectory simulations, we discuss analytical modeling of the increased material oxidation in the impacted area using measured hole growth data. Entry flight simulations are useful in assessing the increased Space Shuttle RCC component degradation as a result of impact damage and the hot gas flow through an enlarging hole into the wing leading-edge cavity.

  9. Simulating the impacts of disturbances on forest carbon cycling in North America: Processes, data, models, and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Shuguang; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Zhao, Shuqing; Chen, Jing; Edburg, Steven L.; Hu, Yueming; Liu, Jinxun; McGuire, A. David; Xiao, Jingfeng; Keane, Robert; Yuan, Wenping; Tang, Jianwu; Luo, Yiqi; Potter, Christopher; Oeding, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Forest disturbances greatly alter the carbon cycle at various spatial and temporal scales. It is critical to understand disturbance regimes and their impacts to better quantify regional and global carbon dynamics. This review of the status and major challenges in representing the impacts of disturbances in modeling the carbon dynamics across North America revealed some major advances and challenges. First, significant advances have been made in representation, scaling, and characterization of disturbances that should be included in regional modeling efforts. Second, there is a need to develop effective and comprehensive process‐based procedures and algorithms to quantify the immediate and long‐term impacts of disturbances on ecosystem succession, soils, microclimate, and cycles of carbon, water, and nutrients. Third, our capability to simulate the occurrences and severity of disturbances is very limited. Fourth, scaling issues have rarely been addressed in continental scale model applications. It is not fully understood which finer scale processes and properties need to be scaled to coarser spatial and temporal scales. Fifth, there are inadequate databases on disturbances at the continental scale to support the quantification of their effects on the carbon balance in North America. Finally, procedures are needed to quantify the uncertainty of model inputs, model parameters, and model structures, and thus to estimate their impacts on overall model uncertainty. Working together, the scientific community interested in disturbance and its impacts can identify the most uncertain issues surrounding the role of disturbance in the North American carbon budget and develop working hypotheses to reduce the uncertainty

  10. Simulation of Hypervelocity Impact Effects on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young-Keun; Fahrenthold, Eric P.

    2004-01-01

    Spacecraft operating in low earth orbit face a significant orbital debris impact hazard. Of particular concern, in the case of the Space Shuttle, are impacts on critical components of the thermal protection system. Recent research has formulated a new material model of reinforced carbon-carbon, for use in the analysis of hypervelocity impact effects on the Space Shuttle wing leading edge. The material model has been validated in simulations of published impact experiments and applied to model orbital debris impacts at velocities beyond the range of current experimental methods. The results suggest that momentum scaling may be used to extrapolate the available experimental data base, in order to predict the size of wing leading edge perforations at impact velocities as high as 13 km/s.

  11. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  12. The Impact of Carbon Dioxide on Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Gordon J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the relationship between climatic change and carbon dioxide from the historical perspective; details the contributions of carbon-based fuels to increasing carbon dioxide concentrations; and using global circulation models, discusses the future impact of the heavy reliance of our society on carbon-based fuels on climatic change. (BT)

  13. Impact of a Regional Drought on Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes and Atmospheric Carbon: Results from a Coupled Carbon Cycle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Eunjee; Koster, Randal D.; Ott, Lesley E.; Weir, Brad; Mahanama, Sarith; Chang, Yehui; Zeng, Fan-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the underlying processes that control the carbon cycle is key to predicting future global change. Much of the uncertainty in the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) stems from uncertainty in terrestrial carbon fluxes, and the relative impacts of temperature and moisture variations on regional and global scales are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of a regional drought on terrestrial carbon fluxes and CO2 mixing ratios over North America using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model. Results show a sequence of changes in carbon fluxes and atmospheric CO2, induced by the drought. The relative contributions of meteorological changes to the neighboring carbon dynamics are also presented. The coupled modeling approach allows a direct quantification of the impact of the regional drought on local and proximate carbon exchange at the land surface via the carbon-water feedback processes.

  14. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F.; Fisher, Joshua B.

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here in this paper, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inversemore » modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphereatmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks.« less

  15. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F; Fisher, Joshua B; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Desai, Ankur R; Richardson, Andrew D; Scott, Russell L; Law, Beverly E; Litvak, Marcy E; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Peters, Wouter; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T

    2016-05-24

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks.

  16. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Trevor F.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Scott, Russell L.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy E.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Peters, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world’s fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inverse modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphere-atmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere–atmosphere feedbacks. PMID:27114518

  17. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Sebastian; Keenan, Trevor F.; Fisher, Joshua B.; ...

    2016-04-25

    The global terrestrial carbon sink offsets one-third of the world's fossil fuel emissions, but the strength of this sink is highly sensitive to large-scale extreme events. In 2012, the contiguous United States experienced exceptionally warm temperatures and the most severe drought since the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s, resulting in substantial economic damage. It is crucial to understand the dynamics of such events because warmer temperatures and a higher prevalence of drought are projected in a changing climate. Here in this paper, we combine an extensive network of direct ecosystem flux measurements with satellite remote sensing and atmospheric inversemore » modeling to quantify the impact of the warmer spring and summer drought on biosphereatmosphere carbon and water exchange in 2012. We consistently find that earlier vegetation activity increased spring carbon uptake and compensated for the reduced uptake during the summer drought, which mitigated the impact on net annual carbon uptake. The early phenological development in the Eastern Temperate Forests played a major role for the continental-scale carbon balance in 2012. The warm spring also depleted soil water resources earlier, and thus exacerbated water limitations during summer. Our results show that the detrimental effects of severe summer drought on ecosystem carbon storage can be mitigated by warming-induced increases in spring carbon uptake. However, the results also suggest that the positive carbon cycle effect of warm spring enhances water limitations and can increase summer heating through biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks.« less

  18. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.T.; Salter, M.A.; Harborne, A.R.; Crowley, S.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Wilson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly <2 ??m) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., >4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ???6.1 ?? 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 ??m fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ???14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  19. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ~14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  20. Carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility upon impact melting, Ries Crater, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graup, Guenther

    1999-05-01

    The 24-km-diameter Ries impact crater in southern Germany is one of the most studied impact structures on Earth. The Ries impactor struck a Triassic to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequence overlying Hercynian crystalline basement. At the time of impact (14.87 +/- 0.36 Ma; Storzer et al., 1995), the 350 m thick Malm limestone was present only to the S and E of the impact site. To the N and W, the Malm had been eroded away, exposing the underlying Dogger and Lias. The largest proportion of shocked target material is in the impact melt-bearing breccia suevite. The suevite had been believed to be derived entirely from the crystalline basement. Calcite in the suevite has been interpreted as a post-impact hydrothermal deposit. From optical inspection of 540 thin sections of suevite from 32 sites, I find that calcite in the suevite shows textural evidence of liquid immiscibility with the silicate impact melt. Textural evidence of liquid immiscibility between silicate and carbonate melt in the Ries suevite includes: carbonate globules within silicate glass, silicate globules embedded in carbonate, deformable and coalescing carbonate spheres within silicate glass, sharp menisci or cusps and budding between silicate and carbonate melt, fluidal textures and gas vesicles in carbonate schlieren, a quench crystallization sequence of the carbonate, spinifex textured quenched carbonate, separate carbonate spherules in the suevite mineral-fragment-matrix, and inclusions of mineral fragments suspended in carbonate blebs. Given this evidence of liquid immiscibility, the carbonate in the suevite has, therefore, like the silicate melt a primary origin by impact shock melting. Evidence of carbonate-silicate liquid immiscibility is abundant in the suevites to the SW to E of the Ries crater. The rarer suevites to the W to NE of the crater are nearly devoid of carbonate melts. This correspondence between the occurrence of outcropping limestones at the target surface and the formation of

  1. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts (“low” and “high” Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly < 2 μm) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the < 63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past. PMID:21368155

  2. Potential impacts of carbon taxes on carbon flux in western Oregon private forests

    Treesearch

    Eun Ho Im; Darius M. Adams; Gregory S. Latta

    2007-01-01

    This study considers a carbon tax system as a policy tool for encouraging carbon sequestration through modification of management in existing forests and examines its welfare impacts and costs of the carbon sequestered. The simulated carbon tax leads to reduced harvest and increased carbon stock in the standing trees and understory biomass. Changes in the level of...

  3. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  4. Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Subcomponent Flat Plate Impact Testing for Space Shuttle Orbiter Return to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Brand, Jeremy H.; Pereira, J. Michael; Revilock, Duane M.

    2007-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the Space Shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) and various debris materials which could potentially shed on ascent and impact the Orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS DYNA to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the Orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic material model properties of materials of interest, sub-component impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and full-scale impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This paper discusses the second level subcomponent test program in detail and its application to the LS DYNA model validation process. The level two testing consisted of over one hundred impact tests in the NASA Glenn Research Center Ballistic Impact Lab on 6 by 6 in. and 6 by 12 in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: BX 265 External Tank foam, ice, and PDL 1034 External Tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile. The information obtained from this testing validated the LS DYNA damage prediction models and provided a certain level of confidence to begin performing analysis for full-size RCC test articles for returning NASA to flight with STS 114 and beyond.

  5. Impact of a regional drought on terrestrial carbon fluxes and atmospheric carbon: results from a coupled carbon cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Koster, R. D.; Ott, L. E.; Weir, B.; Mahanama, S. P. P.; Chang, Y.; Zeng, F.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the underlying processes that control the carbon cycle is key to predicting future global change. Much of the uncertainty in the magnitude and variability of the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) stems from uncertainty in terrestrial carbon fluxes. Budget-based analyses show that such fluxes exhibit substantial interannual variability, but the relative impacts of temperature and moisture variations on regional and global scales are poorly understood. Here we investigate the impact of a regional drought on terrestrial carbon fluxes and CO2 mixing ratios over North America using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model. Two 48-member ensembles of NASA GEOS-5 simulations with fully coupled land and atmosphere carbon components are performed - a control ensemble and an ensemble with an artificially imposed dry land surface anomaly for three months (April-June) over the lower Mississippi River Valley. Comparison of the results using the ensemble approach allows a direct quantification of the impact of the regional drought on local and proximate carbon exchange at the land surface via the carbon-water feedback processes.

  6. Impact of tectonic and volcanism on the Neogene evolution of isolated carbonate platforms (SW Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courgeon, S.; Jorry, S. J.; Jouet, G.; Camoin, G.; BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.; Bachèlery, P.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Révillon, S.; Thomas, Y.; Thereau, E.; Guérin, C.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the impact of tectonic activity and volcanism on long-term (i.e. millions years) evolution of shallow-water carbonate platforms represents a major issue for both industrial and academic perspectives. The southern central Mozambique Channel is characterized by a 100 km-long volcanic ridge hosting two guyots (the Hall and Jaguar banks) and a modern atoll (Bassas da India) fringed by a large terrace. Dredge sampling, geophysical acquisitions and submarines videos carried out during recent oceanographic cruises revealed that submarine flat-top seamounts correspond to karstified and drowned shallow-water carbonate platforms largely covered by volcanic material and structured by a dense network of normal faults. Microfacies and well-constrained stratigraphic data indicate that these carbonate platforms developed in shallow-water tropical environments during Miocene times and were characterized by biological assemblages dominated by corals, larger benthic foraminifera, red and green algae. The drowning of these isolated carbonate platforms is revealed by the deposition of outer shelf sediments during the Early Pliocene and seems closely linked to (1) volcanic activity typified by the establishment of wide lava flow complexes, and (2) to extensional tectonic deformation associated with high-offset normal faults dividing the flat-top seamounts into distinctive structural blocks. Explosive volcanic activity also affected platform carbonates and was responsible for the formation of crater(s) and the deposition of tuff layers including carbonate fragments. Shallow-water carbonate sedimentation resumed during Late Neogene time with the colonization of topographic highs inherited from tectonic deformation and volcanic accretion. Latest carbonate developments ultimately led to the formation of the Bassas da India modern atoll. The geological history of isolated carbonate platforms from the southern Mozambique Channel represents a new case illustrating the major

  7. Independence of nutrient limitation and carbon dioxide impacts on the Southern Ocean coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Müller, Marius N; Trull, Thomas W; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2017-08-01

    Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50 o S, 149 o E) with pH/CO 2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO 2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions. Both nutrient limitations decreased per cell photosynthesis (particulate organic carbon (POC) production) and calcification (particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) production) rates for all pCO 2 levels, with more than 50% reductions under nitrogen limitation. These impacts, however, became indistinguishable from nutrient-replete conditions when normalized to cell volume. Calcification decreased three-fold and linearly with increasing pCO 2 under all nutrient conditions, and was accompanied by a smaller ~30% nonlinear reduction in POC production, manifested mainly above 3 × current pCO 2 . Our results suggest that normalization to cell volume allows the major impacts of nutrient limitation (changed cell sizes and reduced PIC and POC production rates) to be treated independently of the major impacts of increasing pCO 2 and, additionally, stresses the importance of including cell volume measurements to the toolbox of standard physiological analysis of coccolithophores in field and laboratory studies.

  8. Independence of nutrient limitation and carbon dioxide impacts on the Southern Ocean coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Marius N; Trull, Thomas W; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2017-01-01

    Future oceanic conditions induced by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions include warming, acidification and reduced nutrient supply due to increased stratification. Some parts of the Southern Ocean are expected to show rapid changes, especially for carbonate mineral saturation. Here we compare the physiological response of the model coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (strain EHSO 5.14, originating from 50oS, 149oE) with pH/CO2 gradients (mimicking ocean acidification ranging from 1 to 4 × current pCO2 levels) under nutrient-limited (nitrogen and phosphorus) and -replete conditions. Both nutrient limitations decreased per cell photosynthesis (particulate organic carbon (POC) production) and calcification (particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) production) rates for all pCO2 levels, with more than 50% reductions under nitrogen limitation. These impacts, however, became indistinguishable from nutrient-replete conditions when normalized to cell volume. Calcification decreased three-fold and linearly with increasing pCO2 under all nutrient conditions, and was accompanied by a smaller ~30% nonlinear reduction in POC production, manifested mainly above 3 × current pCO2. Our results suggest that normalization to cell volume allows the major impacts of nutrient limitation (changed cell sizes and reduced PIC and POC production rates) to be treated independently of the major impacts of increasing pCO2 and, additionally, stresses the importance of including cell volume measurements to the toolbox of standard physiological analysis of coccolithophores in field and laboratory studies. PMID:28430186

  9. Climate change impacts on soil carbon storage in global croplands: 1901-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, W.; Tian, H.

    2015-12-01

    New global data finds 12% of earth's surface in cropland at present. Croplands will take on the responsibility to support approximate 60% increase in food production by 2050 as FAO estimates. In addition to nutrient supply to plants, cropland soils also play a major source and sink of greenhouse gases regulating global climate system. It is a big challenge to understand how soils function under global changes, but it is also a great opportunity for agricultural sector to manage soils to assure sustainability of agroecosystems and mitigate climate change. Previous studies have attempted to investigate the impacts of different land uses and climates on cropland soil carbon storage. However, large uncertainty still exists in magnitude and spatiotemporal patterns of global cropland soil organic carbon, due to the lack of reliable environmental databases and relatively poorly understanding of multiple controlling factors involved climate change and land use etc. Here, we use a process-based agroecosystem model (DLEM-Ag) in combination with diverse data sources to quantify magnitude and tempo-spatial patterns of soil carbon storage in global croplands during 1901-2010. We also analyze the relative contributions of major environmental variables (climate change, land use and management etc.). Our results indicate that intensive land use management may hidden the vulnerability of cropland soils to climate change in some regions, which may greatly weaken soil carbon sequestration under future climate change.

  10. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels with Ice Projectiles for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1--fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2--subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3--full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with ice projectile impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: Single-crystal, polycrystal, and "soft" ice. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the ice and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  11. Major geochemical processes in the evolution of carbonate-Aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanshaw, B.B.; Back, W.

    1979-01-01

    As a result of recent advances by carbonate petrologists and geochemists, hydrologists are provided with new insights into the origin and explanation of many aquifer characteristics and hydrologic phenomena. Some major advances include the recognition that: (1) most carbonate sediments are of biological origin; (2) they have a strong bimodal size-distribution; and (3) they originate in warm shallow seas. Although near-surface ocean water is oversaturated with respect to calcite, aragonite, dolomite and magnesite, the magnesium-hydration barrier effectively prevents either the organic or inorganic formation of dolomite and magnesite. Therefore, calcareous plants and animals produce only calcite and aragonite in hard parts of their bodies. Most carbonate aquifers that are composed of sand-size material have a high initial porosity; the sand grains that formed these aquifers originated primarily as small shells, broken shell fragments of larger invertebrates, or as chemically precipitated oolites. Carbonate rocks that originated as fine-grained muds were initially composed primarily of aragonite needles precipitated by algae and have extremely low permeability that requires fracturing and dissolution to develop into aquifers. Upon first emergence, most sand beds and reefs are good aquifers; on the other hand, the clay-sized carbonate material initially has high porosity but low permeability, a poor aquifer property. Without early fracture development in response to influences of tectonic activity these calcilutites would not begin to develop into aquifers. As a result of selective dissolution, inversion of the metastable aragonite to calcite, and recrystallization, the porosity is collected into larger void spaces, which may not change the overall porosity, but greatly increases permeability. Another major process which redistributes porosity and permeability in carbonates is dolomitization, which occurs in a variety of environments. These environments include back

  12. Impact assessment of the carbon reduction strategy for transport, low carbon transport : a greener future

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-07-01

    This is an impact assessment for the Carbon Reduction Strategy for Transport (DfT, 2009), Low Carbon Transport: A Greener Future, which is part of the UK Governments wider UK Low Carbon Transition Plan (DECC, 2009), Britains path to ta...

  13. Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells.

    PubMed

    Orecchioni, Marco; Bedognetti, Davide; Sgarrella, Francesco; Marincola, Francesco M; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2014-05-21

    It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine.

  14. Impact of carbon nanotubes and graphene on immune cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that nanomaterials, alone or in concert with their specific biomolecular conjugates, can be used to directly modulate the immune system, therefore offering a new tool for the enhancement of immune-based therapies against infectious disease and cancer. Here, we revised the publications on the impact of functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs), graphene and carbon nanohorns on immune cells. Whereas f-CNTs are the nanomaterial most widely investigated, we noticed a progressive increase of studies focusing on graphene in the last couple of years. The majority of the works (56%) have been carried out on macrophages, following by lymphocytes (30% of the studies). In the case of lymphocytes, T cells were the most investigated (22%) followed by monocytes and dendritic cells (7%), mixed cell populations (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, 6%), and B and natural killer (NK) cells (1%). Most of the studies focused on toxicity and biocompatibility, while mechanistic insights on the effect of carbon nanotubes on immune cells are generally lacking. Only very recently high-throughput gene-expression analyses have shed new lights on unrecognized effects of carbon nanomaterials on the immune system. These investigations have demonstrated that some f-CNTs can directly elicitate specific inflammatory pathways. The interaction of graphene with the immune system is still at a very early stage of investigation. This comprehensive state of the art on biocompatible f-CNTs and graphene on immune cells provides a useful compass to guide future researches on immunological applications of carbon nanomaterials in medicine. PMID:24885781

  15. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  16. The impact of climate and reservoirs on longitudinal riverine carbon fluxes from two major watersheds in the Central and Intermontane West

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stackpoole, Sarah M.; Stets, Edward G.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    A nested sampling network on the Colorado (CR) and Missouri Rivers (MR) provided data to assess impacts of large-scale reservoir systems and climate on carbon export. The Load Estimator (LOADEST) model was used to estimate both dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) fluxes for a total of 22 sites along the main stems of the CR and MR. Both the upper CR and MR DIC and DOC fluxes increased longitudinally, but the lower CR fluxes decreased while the lower MRs continued to increase. We examined multiple factors through space and time that help explain these flux patterns. Seasonal variability in precipitation and temperature, along with site-level concentration versus discharge relationships proved to be significant factors explaining much of the difference among sites located below reservoirs as compared to sites located in more free-flowing segments of the river. The characterization of variability in carbon exports over space and time provides a basis for understanding carbon cycling and transport within river basins affected by large reservoir systems, particular in arid-to semi-arid ecosystems.

  17. Mangroves, a major source of dissolved organic carbon to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Hertkorn, Norbert; Kattner, Gerhard; Lara, RubéN. J.

    2006-03-01

    Organic matter, which is dissolved in low concentrations in the vast waters of the oceans, contains a total amount of carbon similar to atmospheric carbon dioxide. To understand global biogeochemical cycles, it is crucial to quantify the sources of marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We investigated the impact of mangroves, the dominant intertidal vegetation of the tropics, on marine DOC inventories. Stable carbon isotopes and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that mangroves are the main source of terrigenous DOC in the open ocean off northern Brazil. Sunlight efficiently destroyed aromatic molecules during transport offshore, removing about one third of mangrove-derived DOC. The remainder was refractory and may thus be distributed over the oceans. On a global scale, we estimate that mangroves account for >10% of the terrestrially derived, refractory DOC transported to the ocean, while they cover only <0.1% of the continents' surface.

  18. Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

    2014-05-01

    Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

  19. Finite Element Simulation of Low Velocity Impact Damage on an Aeronautical Carbon Composite Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanle Sanga, Roger Pierre; Garnier, Christian; Pantalé, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    Low velocity barely visible impact damage (BVID) in laminated carbon composite structures has a major importance for aeronautical industries. This contribution leads with the development of finite element models to simulate the initiation and the propagation of internal damage inside a carbon composite structure due by a low velocity impact. Composite plates made from liquid resin infusion process (LRI) have been subjected to low energy impacts (around 25 J) using a drop weight machine. In the experimental procedure, the internal damage is evaluated using an infrared thermographic camera while the indentation depth of the face is measured by optical measurement technique. In a first time we developed a robust model using homogenised shells based on degenerated tri-dimensional brick elements and in a second time we decided to modelize the whole stacking sequence of homogeneous layers and cohesive interlaminar interfaces in order to compare and validate the obtained results. Both layer and interface damage initiation and propagation models based on the Hashin and the Benzeggagh-Kenane criteria have been used for the numerical simulations. Comparison of numerical results and experiments has shown the accuracy of the proposed models.

  20. Forest cutting and impacts on carbon in the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Decheng; Liu, Shuguang; Oeding, Jennifer; Zhao, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    Forest cutting is a major anthropogenic disturbance that affects forest carbon (C) storage and fluxes. Yet its characteristics and impacts on C cycling are poorly understood over large areas. Using recent annualized forest inventory data, we estimated cutting-related loss of live biomass in the eastern United States was 168 Tg C yr−1 from 2002 to 2010 (with C loss per unit forest area of 1.07 Mg ha−1 yr−1), which is equivalent to 70% of the total U.S. forest C sink or 11% of the national annual CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion over the same period. We further revealed that specific cutting-related C loss varied with cutting intensities, forest types, stand ages, and geographic locations. Our results provide new insights to the characteristics of forest harvesting activities in the eastern United States and highlight the significance of partial cutting to regional and national carbon budgets.

  1. Indirect Human Impacts Reverse Centuries of Carbon Sequestration and Salt Marsh Accretion

    PubMed Central

    Coverdale, Tyler C.; Brisson, Caitlin P.; Young, Eric W.; Yin, Stephanie F.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Bertness, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect human impacts on coastal ecosystems have increased over the last several centuries, leading to unprecedented degradation of coastal habitats and loss of ecological services. Here we document a two-century temporal disparity between salt marsh accretion and subsequent loss to indirect human impacts. Field surveys, manipulative experiments and GIS analyses reveal that crab burrowing weakens the marsh peat base and facilitates further burrowing, leading to bank calving, disruption of marsh accretion, and a loss of over two centuries of sequestered carbon from the marsh edge in only three decades. Analogous temporal disparities exist in other systems and are a largely unrecognized obstacle in attaining sustainable ecosystem services in an increasingly human impacted world. In light of the growing threat of indirect impacts worldwide and despite uncertainties in the fate of lost carbon, we suggest that estimates of carbon emissions based only on direct human impacts may significantly underestimate total anthropogenic carbon emissions. PMID:24675669

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of the impact breccias and post-impact carbonates from borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatán, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    We report the magnetostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence between the impact breccias and the post-impact carbonate sequence conducted on samples recovered by Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1). Samples of impact breccias show reverse polarities that span up to ~56 cm into the postimpact carbonate lithologies. We correlate these breccias to those of PEMEX boreholes Yucatán-6 and Chicxulub-1, from which we tied our magnetostratigraphy to the radiometric age from a melt sample from the Yucatán-6 borehole. Thin section analyses of the carbonate samples showed a significant amount of dark minerals and glass shards that we identified as the magnetic carriers; therefore, we propose that the mechanism of magnetic acquisition within the carbonate rocks for the interval studied is detrital remanent magnetism (DRM). With these samples, we constructed the scale of geomagnetic polarities where we find two polarities within the sequence, a reverse polarity event within the impact breccias and the base of the post-impact carbonate sequence (up to 794.07 m), and a normal polarity event in the last ~20 cm of the interval studied. The polarities recorded in the sequence analyzed are interpreted to span from chron 29r to 29n, and we propose that the reverse polarity event lies within the 29r chron. The magnetostratigraphy of the sequence studied shows that the horizon at 794.11 m deep, interpreted as the K/T boundary, lies within the geomagnetic chron 29r, which contains the K/T boundary.

  3. The Impact of Radiation Changes on the Terrestrial Carbon Sink over the Post Pinatubo Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitch, S.; Mercado, L. M.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Huntingford, C.; Cox, P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The amount of solar radiation reaching the earth surface is one of the major drivers of plant photosynthesis and therefore changes in radiation are likely to indirectly have an effect on the terrestrial carbon cycle. For example, changes in surface radiation that lead to increasing diffuse surface irradiance are reported to enhance plant photosynthesis (Gu et al., 2003, Niyogi et al., 2004, Oliveira et al., 2007, Roderick et al., 2001). Solar radiation reaching the land surface has changed over the industrial era due to aerosols emitted from volcanoes and various anthropogenic sources (Kvalevag and Myhre, 2007). Such changes in total surface radiation are accompanied by changes in direct and diffuse surface solar radiation. Recent major volcanic events include the eruptions of el Chichón in 1986 and Mount Pinatubo in 1991. In this study we estimate the impact of changes in surface radiation on photosynthetic carbon uptake during the Post Pinatubo period. We use an offline version of the Hadley Centre land surface scheme (Mercado et al., 2007) modified to account for variations in direct and diffuse radiation on sunlit and shaded canopy photosynthesis. We use meteorological forcing from the Climate Research Unit Data set. Additionally short wave and photosynthetic active radiation are reconstructed from the Hadley centre climate model, which accounts for the scattering and absorption of light by tropospheric and stratospheric aerosols. We describe the development of the land carbon cycle through the Pinatubo event and diagnose the impact of changes in diffuse radiation on the atmospheric [CO2] growth-rate

  4. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  5. Hypervelocity Impact Studies of Carbon Nanotubes and Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Suman

    This dissertation studies the hypervelocity impact characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and investigates the use of CNTs as reinforcements in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber composites for hypervelocity impact shielding applications. The first part of this dissertation is aimed at developing an understanding of the hypervelocity impact response of CNTs--at the nanotube level. Impact experiments are designed with CNTs as projectiles to impact and crater aluminum plates. The results show that carbon nanotubes are resistant to the high-energy shock pressures and the ultra-high strain loading during hypervelocity impacts. Under our experimental conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes survive impacts up to 4.07 km/s, but transform to graphitic ribbons and nanodiamonds at higher impact velocities. The nanodiamonds are metastable and transform to onion-like nanocarbon over time. Double-walled carbon nanotubes retain their form and structure even at impacts over 7 km/s. Higher hypervelocity impact resistance of DWCNTs could be attributed to the absorption of additional energy due to relative motion between the layers in the transverse direction of these coaxial nanotubes. The second part of this dissertation researches the effect of reinforcement of carbon nanotubes and their buckypapers on the hypervelocity impact shielding properties of UHMWPE-fiber composites arranged in a Whipple Shield configuration (a shield design used for the protection of the international space station from hypervelocity impacts by orbital debris). Composite laminates were prepared via compression molding and nanotube buckypapers via vacuum filtration. Dispersed nanotubes were introduced to the composite laminates via direct spraying onto the fabric prior to composite processing. The experimental results show that nanotubes dispersed in polymer matrix do not affect the hypervelocity impact resistance of the composite system. Nanotube buckypapers, however, improve

  6. Carbon fluxes in an acid rain impacted boreal headwater catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Anne; Hintze, Simone; Jankovec, Jakub; Sanda, Martin; Dusek, Jaromir; Vogel, Tomas; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon export via inland aquatic systems is a key process in the budget of the global carbon cycle. This includes loss of carbon to the atmosphere via gas evasion from rivers or reservoirs as well as carbon fixation in freshwater sediments. Headwater streams are the first endmembers of the transition of carbon between soils, groundwater and surface waters and the atmosphere. In order to quantify these processes the experimental catchment Uhlirska (1.78 km2) located in the northern Czech Republic was studied. Dissolved inorganic, dissolved organic and particulate organic carbon (DIC, DOC, POC) concentrations and isotopes were analyzed in ground-, soil -and stream waters between 2014 and 2015. In addition, carbon dioxide degassing was quantified via a stable isotope modelling approach. Results show a discharge-weighted total carbon export of 31.99 g C m-2 yr-1 of which CO2 degassing accounts 79 %. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of DIC, DOC, and POC (in ‰ VPDB) ranged from -26.6 to -12.4 ‰ from -29.4 to -22.7 ‰ and from -30.6 to -26.6 ‰ respectively. The mean values for DIC are -21.8 ±3.8 ‰ -23.6 ±0.9 ‰ and -19.5 ±3.0 ‰ for soil, shallow ground and surface water compartments. For DOC, these compartments have mean values of -27.1 ±0.3 ‰ -27.0 ±0.8 ‰ and -27.4 ±0.7 ‰Ṁean POC value of shallow groundwaters and surface waters are -28.8 ±0.8 ‰ and -29.3 ±0.5 ‰ respectively. These isotope ranges indicate little turnover of organic material and predominant silicate weathering. The degassing of CO2 caused an enrichment of the δ13C-DIC values of up to 6.8 ‰ between a catchment gauge and the catchment outlet over a distance of 866 m. In addition, the Uhlirska catchment has only negligible natural sources of sulphate, yet SO42- accounts for 21 % of major stream water ions. This is most likely a remainder from acid rain impacts in the area.

  7. Drivers of Water Column Calcium Carbonate Fluxes and Dissolution in the Gulf of Maine: Impacts on the Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilskaln, C. H.; Wang, A. Z.; Lawson, G. L.; Hayashi, K.; Salisbury, J.

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that the U.S. Northeast coastal region, particularly the Gulf of Maine (GoME), may be more susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) than previously thought due to the low buffer capacity, low pH, and low calcium carbonate saturation measured in the region. In particular, sub-surface waters of the GoME already experience under-saturation with respect to aragonite in spring and summer and recent data suggest that water-column aragonite dissolution may occur throughout the year, even when aragonite is slightly over-saturated. This dissolution process appears associated with organic carbon remineralization in the extensive benthic nepheloid layers and may thus represent a major control over the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) budget of deep, near-bottom waters of the GoME. These findings are surprising for shallow, non-upwelling shelf systems and have important implications for the CaCO3 cycle, shell-building organisms, and the GoME planktonic ecosystem. Additionally, freshening of the GoME over the past several decades due to an increase in low-salinity water input originating in the Labrador Sea may further decrease seawater pH and aragonite saturation in the gulf. We present a variety of biogeochemical data that suggest linkages between potential water column CaCO3 dissolution and their impacts on the GoME carbon cycle.

  8. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  9. Modelling long-term impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreaks on merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, albedo, and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Parrott, Lael; Price, David T.; Ramankutty, Navin; Damon Matthews, H.

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing major outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) in forests of western North America has led to considerable research efforts. However, many questions remain unaddressed regarding its long-term impacts, especially when accounting for the range of possible responses from the non-target vegetation (i.e., deciduous trees and lower-canopy shrubs and grasses). We used the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) process-based ecosystem model along with the recently incorporated Marauding Insect Module (MIM) to quantify, over 240 years, the impacts of various MPB outbreak regimes on lodgepole pine merchantable biomass, ecosystem carbon, surface albedo, and the net radiative forcing on global climate caused by the changes in ecosystem carbon and albedo. We performed simulations for three locations in British Columbia, Canada, with different climatic conditions, and four scenarios of various coexisting vegetation types with variable growth release responses. The impacts of MPB outbreaks on merchantable biomass (decrease) and surface albedo (increase) were similar across the 12 combinations of locations and vegetation coexistence scenarios. The impacts on ecosystem carbon and radiative forcing, however, varied substantially in magnitude and sign, depending upon the presence and response of the non-target vegetation, particularly for the two locations not subjected to growing-season soil moisture stress; this variability represents the main finding from our study. Despite major uncertainty in the value of the resulting radiative forcing, a simple analysis also suggested that the MPB outbreak in British Columbia will have a smaller impact on global temperature over the coming decades and centuries than a single month of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production. Moreover, we found that (1) outbreak severity (i.e., per-event mortality) had a stronger effect than outbreak return interval on the variables studied, (2) MPB

  10. Environmental Impacts from Photovoltaic Solar Cells Made with Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ilke; Mason, Brooke E; Phillips, Adam B; Heben, Michael J; Apul, Defne

    2017-04-18

    An ex-ante life cycle inventory was developed for single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) PV cells, including a laboratory-made 1% efficient device and an aspirational 28% efficient four-cell tandem device. The environmental impact of unit energy generation from the mono-Si PV technology was used as a reference point. Compared to monocrystalline Si (mono-Si), the environmental impacts from 1% SWCNT was ∼18 times higher due mainly to the short lifetime of three years. However, even with the same short lifetime, the 28% cell had lower environmental impacts than mono-Si. The effects of lifetime and efficiency on the environmental impacts were further examined. This analysis showed that if the SWCNT device efficiency had the same value as the best efficiency of the material under comparison, to match the total normalized impacts of the mono- and poly-Si, CIGS, CdTe, and a-Si devices, the SWCNT devices would need a lifetime of 2.8, 3.5, 5.3, 5.1, and 10.8 years, respectively. It was also found that if the SWCNT PV has an efficiency of 4.5% or higher, its energy payback time would be lower than other existing and emerging PV technologies. The major impacts of SWCNT PV came from the cell's materials synthesis.

  11. Design of Higher Education Teaching Models and Carbon Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Sally; Lane, Andy; Swithenby, Ed; Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the main findings of the SusTEACH study of the carbon-based environmental impacts of 30 higher education (HE) courses in 15 UK institutions, based on an analysis of the likely energy consumption and carbon emissions of a range of face-to-face, distance, online and information and communication technology…

  12. In vitro toxicity of carbon nanotubes, nano-graphite and carbon black, similar impacts of acid functionalization.

    PubMed

    Figarol, Agathe; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Akono, Céline; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Lecompte, Jean-Pierre; Cottier, Michèle; Bernache-Assollant, Didier; Grosseau, Philippe

    2015-12-25

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and nano-graphite (NG) are graphene-based nanomaterials which share exceptional physicochemical properties, but whose health impacts are unfortunately still not well understood. On the other hand, carbon black (CB) is a conventional and widely studied material. The comparison of these three carbon-based nanomaterials is thus of great interest to improve our understanding of their toxicity. An acid functionalization was carried out on CNT, NG and CB so that, after a thorough characterization, their impacts on RAW 264.7 macrophages could be compared for a similar surface chemistry (15 to 120 μg·mL(-1) nanomaterials, 90-min to 24-h contact). Functionalized nanomaterials triggered a weak cytotoxicity similar to the pristine nanomaterials. Acid functionalization increased the pro-inflammatory response except for CB which did not trigger any TNF-α production before or after functionalization, and seemed to strongly decrease the oxidative stress. The toxicological impact of acid functionalization appeared thus to follow a similar trend whatever the carbon-based nanomaterial. At equivalent dose expressed in surface and equivalent surface chemistry, the toxicological responses from murine macrophages to NG were higher than for CNT and CB. It seemed to correspond to the hypothesis of a platelet and fiber paradigm. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The ocean carbon sink - impacts, vulnerabilities and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, C.; Meyer, S.; Goris, N.; Anderson, L.; Steinfeldt, R.; Chang, N.; Le Quéré, C.; Bakker, D. C. E.

    2015-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is, next to water vapour, considered to be the most important natural greenhouse gas on Earth. Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations caused by human actions such as fossil fuel burning, land-use change or cement production over the past 250 years have given cause for concern that changes in Earth's climate system may progress at a much faster pace and larger extent than during the past 20 000 years. Investigating global carbon cycle pathways and finding suitable adaptation and mitigation strategies has, therefore, become of major concern in many research fields. The oceans have a key role in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations and currently take up about 25% of annual anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Questions that yet need to be answered are what the carbon uptake kinetics of the oceans will be in the future and how the increase in oceanic carbon inventory will affect its ecosystems and their services. This requires comprehensive investigations, including high-quality ocean carbon measurements on different spatial and temporal scales, the management of data in sophisticated databases, the application of Earth system models to provide future projections for given emission scenarios as well as a global synthesis and outreach to policy makers. In this paper, the current understanding of the ocean as an important carbon sink is reviewed with respect to these topics. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay of different physical, chemical and biological processes that yield both positive and negative air-sea flux values for natural and anthropogenic CO2 as well as on increased CO2 (uptake) as the regulating force of the radiative warming of the atmosphere and the gradual acidification of the oceans. Major future ocean carbon challenges in the fields of ocean observations, modelling and process research as well as the relevance of other biogeochemical cycles and greenhouse gases are discussed.

  14. Impacts of software and its engineering on the carbon footprint of ICT

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Eva, E-mail: e.kern@umwelt-campus.de; Dick, Markus, E-mail: sustainablesoftwareblog@gmail.com; Naumann, Stefan, E-mail: s.naumann@umwelt-campus.de

    2015-04-15

    The energy consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) is still increasing. Even though several solutions regarding the hardware side of Green IT exist, the software contribution to Green IT is not well investigated. The carbon footprint is one way to rate the environmental impacts of ICT. In order to get an impression of the induced CO{sub 2} emissions of software, we will present a calculation method for the carbon footprint of a software product over its life cycle. We also offer an approach on how to integrate some aspects of carbon footprint calculation into software development processes and discussmore » impacts and tools regarding this calculation method. We thus show the relevance of energy measurements and the attention to impacts on the carbon footprint by software within Green Software Engineering.« less

  15. Understanding Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Leakage from Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA held a technical Geochemical Impact Workshop in Washington, DC on July 10 and 11, 2007 to discuss geological considerations and Area of Review (AoR) issues related to geologic sequestration (GS) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). Seventy=one (71) representatives of the electric uti...

  16. Assessing and Synthesizing the Last Decade of Research on the Major Pools and Fluxes of the Carbon Cycle in the US and North America: An Interagency Governmental Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallaro, N.; Shrestha, G.; Stover, D. B.; Zhu, Z.; Ombres, E. H.; Deangelo, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR-2) is focused on US and North American carbon stocks and fluxes in managed and unmanaged systems, including relevant carbon management science perspectives and tools for supporting and informing decisions. SOCCR-2 is inspired by the US Carbon Cycle Science Plan (2011) which emphasizes global scale research on long-lived, carbon-based greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, and the major pools and fluxes of the global carbon cycle. Accordingly, the questions framing the Plan inform this report's topical roadmap, with a focus on US and North America in the global context: 1) How have natural processes and human actions affected the global carbon cycle on land, in the atmosphere, in the oceans and in the ecosystem interfaces (e.g. coastal, wetlands, urban-rural)? 2) How have socio-economic trends affected the levels of the primary carbon-containing gases, carbon dioxide and methane, in the atmosphere? 3) How have species, ecosystems, natural resources and human systems been impacted by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, the associated changes in climate, and by carbon management decisions and practices? To address these aspects, SOCCR-2 will encompass the following broad assessment framework: 1) Carbon Cycle at Scales (Global Perspective, North American Perspective, US Perspective, Regional Perspective); 2) Role of carbon in systems (Soils; Water, Oceans, Vegetation; Terrestrial-aquatic Interfaces); 3) Interactions/Disturbance/Impacts from/on the carbon cycle. 4) Carbon Management Science Perspective and Decision Support (measurements, observations and monitoring for research and policy relevant decision-support etc.). In this presentation, the Carbon Cycle Interagency Working Group and the U.S. Global Change Research Program's U.S. Carbon Cycle Science Program Office will highlight the scientific context, strategy, structure, team and production process of the report, which is part of the USGCRP's Sustained

  17. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels With BX-265 and PDL-1034 External Tank Foam for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1-fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2-subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3-full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with external tank foam impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated two types of debris projectiles: BX-265 and PDL-1034 external tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the foam and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  18. Post-wildfire erosion in mountainous terrain leads to rapid and major redistribution of soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abney, Rebecca B.; Sanderman, Jonathan; Johnson, Dale; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw

    2017-11-01

    Catchments impacted by wildfire typically experience elevated rates of post-fire erosion and formation and deposition of pyrogenic carbon (PyC). To better understand the role of erosion in post-fire soil carbon dynamics, we determined distribution of soil organic carbon in different chemical fractions before and after the Gondola fire in South Lake Tahoe, CA. We analyzed soil samples from eroding and depositional landform positions in control and burned plots pre- and post-wildfire (in 2002, 2003, and 10-years post-fire in 2013). We determined elemental concentrations, stable isotope compositions, and biochemical composition of organic matter (OM) using mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy for all of the samples. A subset of samples was analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (CPMAS 13C-NMR). We combined the MIR and CPMAS 13C-NMR data in the Soil Carbon Research Program partial least squares regression model to predict distribution of soil carbon into three different fractions: 1) particulate, humic, and resistant organic matter fractions representing relatively fresh larger pieces of OM, 2) fine, decomposed OM, and 3) pyrogenic C, respectively. Samples from the post-fire eroding landform position showed no major difference in soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions one year post-fire. The depositional samples, however, had increased concentrations of all SOC fractions, particularly the fraction that resembles PyC, one year post-fire (2002), which had a mean of 160 g/kg compared with burned hillslope soils, which had 84 g/kg. The increase in all SOC fractions in the post-fire depositional landform position one year post-fire indicates significant lateral mobilization of the eroded PyC. In addition, our NMR analyses revealed a post-fire increase in both the aryl and O-aryl carbon compounds in the soils from the depositional landform position, indicating increases in soil PyC concentrations post-fire. After 10 years, the

  19. Cross-sectional examination of the damage zone in impacted specimens of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Magold, N. J.

    1990-01-01

    Drop weight impact testing was utilized to inflict damage on eight-ply bidirectional and unidirectional samples of carbon/epoxy and carbon/PEEK (polyetheretherketone) test specimens with impact energies ranging from 0.80 J to 1.76 J. The impacting tip was of a smaller diameter (4.2-mm) than those used in most previous studies, and the specimens were placed with a diamond wheel wafering saw through the impacted area perpendicular to the outer fibers. Photographs at 12 x magnification were taken of these cross-sections and examined. The results on the bidirectional samples show little damage until 1.13 J, at which point delaminations were seen in the epoxy specimens. The PEEK specimens showed less delamination than the epoxy specimens for a given impact energy level. The unidirectional specimens displayed more damage than the bidirectional samples for a given impact energy, with the PEEK specimens showing much less damage than the epoxy material.

  20. Disturbance and the carbon balance of US forests: A quantitative review of impacts from harvests, fires, insects, and droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Gu, Huan; MacLean, Richard; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Collatz, G. James

    2016-08-01

    Disturbances are a major determinant of forest carbon stocks and uptake. They generally reduce land carbon stocks but also initiate a regrowth legacy that contributes substantially to the contemporary rate of carbon stock increase in US forestlands. As managers and policy makers increasingly look to forests for climate protection and mitigation, and because of increasing concern about changes in disturbance intensity and frequency, there is a need for synthesis and integration of current understanding about the role of disturbances and other processes in governing forest carbon cycle dynamics, and the likely future of this and other sinks for atmospheric carbon. This paper aims to address that need by providing a quantitative review of the distribution, extent and carbon impacts of the major disturbances active in the US. We also review recent trends in disturbances, climate, and other global environmental changes and consider their individual and collective contributions to the US carbon budget now and in the likely future. Lastly, we identify some key challenges and opportunities for future research needed to improve current understanding, advance predictive capabilities, and inform forest management in the face of these pressures. Harvest is found to be the most extensive disturbance both in terms of area and carbon impacts, followed by fire, windthrow and bark beetles, and lastly droughts. Collectively these lead to the gross loss of about 200 Tg C y- 1 in live biomass annually across the conterminous US. At the same time, the net change in forest carbon stocks is positive (190 Tg C y- 1), indicating not only forest resilience but also an apparently large response to growth enhancements such as fertilization by CO2 and nitrogen. Uncertainty about disturbance legacies, disturbance interactions, likely trends, and global change factors make the future of the US forest carbon sink unclear. While there is scope for management to enhance carbon sinks in US forests

  1. Disturbance and the Carbon Balance of US Forests: A Quantitative Review of Impacts from Harvests, Fires, Insects, and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Christopher A.; Gu, Huan; MacLean, Richard; Masek, Jeffrey G.; Collatz, G. James

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances are a major determinant of forest carbon stocks and uptake. They generally reduce land carbon stocks but also initiate a regrowth legacy that contributes substantially to the contemporary rate of carbon stock increase in US forestlands. As managers and policy makers increasingly look to forests for climate protection and mitigation, and because of increasing concern about changes in disturbance intensity and frequency, there is a need for synthesis and integration of current understanding about the role of disturbances and other processes in governing forest carbon cycle dynamics, and the likely future of this and other sinks for atmospheric carbon. This paper aims to address that need by providing a quantitative review of the distribution, extent and carbon impacts of the major disturbances active in the US. We also review recent trends in disturbances, climate, and other global environmental changes and consider their individual and collective contributions to the US carbon budget now and in the likely future. Lastly, we identify some key challenges and opportunities for future research needed to improve current understanding, advance predictive capabilities, and inform forest management in the face of these pressures. Harvest is found to be the most extensive disturbance both in terms of area and carbon impacts, followed by fire, windthrow and bark beetles, and lastly droughts. Collectively these lead to the gross loss of about 200 Tg C y(exp -1) in live biomass annually across the conterminous US. At the same time, the net change in forest carbon stocks is positive (190 Tg C y(exp -1)), indicating not only forest resilience but also an apparently large response to growth enhancements such as fertilization by CO2 and nitrogen. Uncertainty about disturbance legacies, disturbance interactions, likely trends, and global change factors make the future of the US forest carbon sink unclear. While there is scope for management to enhance carbon sinks in US

  2. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Walz, Ariane; Rammig, Anja; Tietjen, Britta; Thonicke, Kirsten; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it depend on temperature, atmospheric CO2, terrestrial productivity and carbon storage, as well as discharge. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. The coupled LPJmL and RivCM model system (Langerwisch et al., 2016) has been applied to assess the combined impacts of climate and land use change on the Amazon riverine carbon dynamics. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. We find that high deforestation (business-as-usual scenario) will strongly decrease (locally by up to 90 %) riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon amount until the end of the current century. At the same time, increase in discharge leaves net carbon transport during the first decades of the century roughly unchanged only if a sufficient area is still forested. After 2050 the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to that, increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration determine the amount of riverine inorganic carbon stored in the Amazon basin. Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase riverine inorganic carbon amount by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on carbon export, either to the atmosphere via outgassing or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. The outgassed carbon will increase slightly in the Amazon basin, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  3. Deforestation in Amazonia impacts riverine carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langerwisch, F.; Walz, A.; Rammig, A.; Tietjen, B.; Thonicke, K.; Cramer, W.

    2015-10-01

    Fluxes of organic and inorganic carbon within the Amazon basin are considerably controlled by annual flooding, which triggers the export of terrigenous organic material to the river and ultimately to the Atlantic Ocean. The amount of carbon imported to the river and the further conversion, transport and export of it, depend on terrestrial productivity and discharge, as well as temperature and atmospheric CO2. Both terrestrial productivity and discharge are influenced by climate and land use change. To assess the impact of these changes on the riverine carbon dynamics, the coupled model system of LPJmL and RivCM (Langerwisch et al., 2015) has been used. Vegetation dynamics (in LPJmL) as well as export and conversion of terrigenous carbon to and within the river (RivCM) are included. The model system has been applied for the years 1901 to 2099 under two deforestation scenarios and with climate forcing of three SRES emission scenarios, each for five climate models. The results suggest that, following deforestation, riverine particulate and dissolved organic carbon will strongly decrease by up to 90 % until the end of the current century. In parallel, discharge increases, leading to roughly unchanged net carbon transport during the first decades of the century, as long as a sufficient area is still forested. During the following decades the amount of transported carbon will decrease drastically. In contrast to the riverine organic carbon, the amount of riverine inorganic carbon is only determined by climate change forcing, namely increased temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration. Mainly due to the higher atmospheric CO2 it leads to an increase in riverine inorganic carbon by up to 20 % (SRES A2). The changes in riverine carbon fluxes have direct effects on the export of carbon, either to the atmosphere via outgassing, or to the Atlantic Ocean via discharge. Basin-wide the outgassed carbon will increase slightly, but can be regionally reduced by up to 60 % due to

  4. Application of Non-Deterministic Methods to Assess Modeling Uncertainties for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Debris Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Melis, Matthew; Carney, Kelly; Gabrys, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) made several recommendations for improving the NASA Space Shuttle Program. An extensive experimental and analytical program has been developed to address two recommendations related to structural impact analysis. The objective of the present work is to demonstrate the application of probabilistic analysis to assess the effect of uncertainties on debris impacts on Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The probabilistic analysis is used to identify the material modeling parameters controlling the uncertainty. A comparison of the finite element results with limited experimental data provided confidence that the simulations were adequately representing the global response of the material. Five input parameters were identified as significantly controlling the response.

  5. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities.

    PubMed

    Alatalo, Juha M; Jägerbrand, Annika K; Juhanson, Jaanis; Michelsen, Anders; Ľuptáčik, Peter

    2017-03-15

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  6. Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Juha M.; Jägerbrand, Annika K.; Juhanson, Jaanis; Michelsen, Anders; Ľuptáčik, Peter

    2017-03-01

    High-altitude and alpine areas are predicted to experience rapid and substantial increases in future temperature, which may have serious impacts on soil carbon, nutrient and soil fauna. Here we report the impact of 20 years of experimental warming on soil properties and soil mites in three contrasting plant communities in alpine/subarctic Sweden. Long-term warming decreased juvenile oribatid mite density, but had no effect on adult oribatids density, total mite density, any major mite group or the most common species. Long-term warming also caused loss of nitrogen, carbon and moisture from the mineral soil layer in mesic meadow, but not in wet meadow or heath or from the organic soil layer. There was a significant site effect on the density of one mite species, Oppiella neerlandica, and all soil parameters. A significant plot-scale impact on mites suggests that small-scale heterogeneity may be important for buffering mites from global warming. The results indicated that juvenile mites may be more vulnerable to global warming than adult stages. Importantly, the results also indicated that global warming may cause carbon and nitrogen losses in alpine and tundra mineral soils and that its effects may differ at local scale.

  7. Impact of the 2015 El Niño on the Indonesian carbon balance: implications for carbon mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Bloom, A. A.; Parazoo, N.; Lee, M.; Walker, T. W.; Menemenlis, D.; Jiang, Z.; Gierach, M.; Gurney, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    The COP21 or Paris Agreement in Dec. 2015 was a landmark step in a cooperative approach to reduce anthropogenic emissions from both fossil fuel and deforestation. During that same period, one of the strongest El Niños on record led to devastating droughts, fires, and air pollution in Indonesia. We assess the impact of this El Niño on the Indonesia carbon balance using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) pilot project, which assimilates satellite observations across the entire carbon cycle to attribute the CO2 growth rate to spatially resolved surface fluxes. We assimilate new xCO2 observations from the Orbital Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) to quantify net carbon fluxes and validate those fluxes against independent in-situ atmospheric data. The contribution of biomass burning to the carbon balance is independently determined from the assimilation of Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). The impact of the concomitant drought on productively is assessed from the assimilation of new solar induced fluorescence (SIF) measurements. Using these multiple lines of evidence, we investigate the relative role of biomass burning and productivity in the contribution of Indonesia to the global atmospheric growth rate. The exceptionally long turnover rates of peat carbon pools lead to effectively irreversible carbon loss to the atmosphere. The implications of these losses to Indonesian Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) as part of the Paris agreement will be explored.

  8. Floodplain Impact on Riverine Dissolved Carbon Cycling in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DelDuco, E.; Xu, Y. J.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have shown substantial increases in the export of terrestrial carbon by rivers over the past several decades, and have linked these increases to human activity such as changes in land use, urbanization, and intensive agriculture. The Mississippi River (MR) is the largest river in North America, and is among the largest in the world, making its carbon export globally significant. The Atchafalaya River (AR) receives 25% of the Mississippi River's flow before traveling 189 kilometers through the largest bottomland swamp in North America, providing a unique opportunity to study floodplain impacts on dissolved carbon in a large river. The aim of this study was to determine how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the AR change spatially and seasonally, and to elucidate which processes control carbon cycling in this intricate swamp river system. From May 2015 -May 2016, we conducted monthly river sampling from the river's inflow to its outflow, analyzing samples for DOC and DIC concentrations and δ 13C stable isotope composition. During the study period, the river discharged a total of 5.35 Tg DIC and a total of 2.34 Tg DOC into the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the mass inflow-outflow balance, approximately 0.53 Tg ( 10%) of the total DIC exported was produced within the floodplain, while 0.24 Tg ( 10%) of DOC entering the basin was removed. The AR was consistently saturated with pCO2 above atmospheric pressure, indicating that this swamp-river system acts a large source of DIC to the atmosphere as well as to coastal margins. Largest changes in carbon constituents occurred during periods of greatest inundation of the basin, and corresponded with shifts in isotopic composition that indicated large inputs of DIC from floodplains. This effect was particularly pronounced during initial flood stages. This study demonstrates that a major river with extensive floodplains in its coastal margin can act as an important source of DIC as well

  9. Quantitative assessment of the differential impacts of arbuscular and ectomycorrhiza on soil carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Makarov, Mikhail I; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Maslov, Mikhail N; Akhmetzhanova, Asem A; van Bodegom, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    A significant fraction of carbon stored in the Earth's soil moves through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and ectomycorrhiza (EM). The impacts of AM and EM on the soil carbon budget are poorly understood. We propose a method to quantify the mycorrhizal contribution to carbon cycling, explicitly accounting for the abundance of plant-associated and extraradical mycorrhizal mycelium. We discuss the need to acquire additional data to use our method, and present our new global database holding information on plant species-by-site intensity of root colonization by mycorrhizas. We demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait. To exemplify our method, we assessed the differential impacts of AM : EM ratio and EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra. AM and EM affect tundra carbon stocks at different magnitudes, and via partly distinct dominant pathways: via extraradical mycelium (both EM and AM) and via mycorrhizal impacts on above- and belowground biomass carbon (mostly AM). Our method provides a powerful tool for the quantitative assessment of mycorrhizal impact on local and global carbon cycling processes, paving the way towards an improved understanding of the role of mycorrhizas in the Earth's carbon cycle. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Assessment of climate impacts on the karst-related carbon sink in SW China using MPD and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Sibo; Jiang, Yongjun; Liu, Zaihua

    2016-09-01

    Riverine carbon fluxes of some catchments in the world have significantly changed due to contemporary climate change and human activities. As a large region with an extensive karstic area of nearly 7.5 × 105 km2, Southwest (SW) China has experienced dramatic climate changes during recent decades. Although some studies have investigated the karst-related carbon sink in some parts of this region, the importance of climate impacts have not been assessed. This research examined the impacts of recent climate change on the karst-related carbon sink in the SW China for the period 1970-2013, using a modified maximal potential dissolution (MPD) method and GIS. We first analyzed the major determinants of carbonate dissolution at a spatial scale, calculated the total karst-related carbon sink (TCS) and carbon sink fluxes (CSFs) in the SW China karst region with different types of carbonate rocks, and then compared with other methods, and analyzed the causes of CSFs variations under the changed climate conditions. The results show that the TCS in SW China experienced a dramatic change with regional climate, and there was a trend with TCS decreasing by about 19% from 1970s to 2010s. This decrease occurred mostly in Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, which experienced larger decreases in runoff depth in the past 40 years (190 mm and 90 mm, respectively) due to increased air temperature (0.33 °C and 1.04 °C, respectively) and decreased precipitation (156 mm and 106 mm, respectively). The mean value of CSFs in SW China, calculated by the modified MPD method, was approximately 9.36 t C km- 2 a- 1. In addition, there were large differences in CSFs among the provinces, attributed to differences in regional climate and to carbonate lithologies. These spatiotemporal changes depended mainly on hydrological variations (i.e., discharge or runoff depth). This work, thus, suggests that the karst-related carbon sink could respond to future climate change quickly, and needs to be considered in

  11. Major role of microbes in carbon fluxes during Austral winter in the Southern Drake Passage.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Maura; Malfatti, Francesca; Samo, Ty J; Mitchell, B Greg; Wang, Haili; Azam, Farooq

    2009-09-14

    Carbon cycling in Southern Ocean is a major issue in climate change, hence the need to understand the role of biota in the regulation of carbon fixation and cycling. Southern Ocean is a heterogeneous system, characterized by a strong seasonality, due to long dark winter. Yet, currently little is known about biogeochemical dynamics during this season, particularly in the deeper part of the ocean. We studied bacterial communities and processes in summer and winter cruises in the southern Drake Passage. Here we show that in winter, when the primary production is greatly reduced, Bacteria and Archaea become the major producers of biogenic particles, at the expense of dissolved organic carbon drawdown. Heterotrophic production and chemoautotrophic CO(2) fixation rates were substantial, also in deep water, and bacterial populations were controlled by protists and viruses. A dynamic food web is also consistent with the observed temporal and spatial variations in archaeal and bacterial communities that might exploit various niches. Thus, Southern Ocean microbial loop may substantially maintain a wintertime food web and system respiration at the expense of summer produced DOC as well as regenerate nutrients and iron. Our findings have important implications for Southern Ocean ecosystem functioning and carbon cycle and its manipulation by iron enrichment to achieve net sequestration of atmospheric CO(2).

  12. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-05-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. impact fatigue loading caused delamination

  13. Electron impact excitation of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M. J.

    2009-02-01

    The fourth positive emissions of carbon monoxide in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp have been assumed to be due mainly to fluorescence induced by sunlight. Based on this assumption they were used to deduce the abundance of carbon monoxide in the comet, giving a value higher than in other comets. Emissions produced by electron impact excitation of CO were not considered. Recent measurements and theoretical calculations of integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of CO allow the contribution of electron impact to be calculated, giving about 40% of the total. This implies that the abundance of CO in the outer coma of comet Hale-Bopp was only 60% of that previously deduced. However, as the high proportion of CO in comet Hale-Bopp was also seen in some other measurements, alternative explanations are considered. The method of calculation is tested by successfully predicting the O I emission at 1356 Å, supporting the belief that this line is due to electron impact excitation.

  14. Impact of seawater carbonate variables on post-larval bivalve calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; Mao, Yuze; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that shellfish calcification rate has been impacted by ocean acidification. However, the carbonate system variables responsible for regulating calcification rate are controversial. To distinguish the key variables, we manipulated a seawater carbonate system by regulating seawater pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Calcification rates of juvenile blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) and Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) were measured in different carbonate systems. Our results demonstrated that neither [HCO{3/-}], DIC, or pH ([H+]) were determining factors for the shellfish calcification rate of blue mussel or Zhikong scallop. However, a significant correlation was detected between calcification rate and DIC/[H+] and [CO{3/2-}] in both species.

  15. Assessing Impacts of 20 yr Old Miscanthus on Soil Organic Carbon Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaxian; Schäfer, Gerhard; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2015-04-01

    The use of biomass as a renewable energy source has become increasingly popular in Upper Rhine Region to meet the demand for renewable energy. Miscanthus is one of the most favorite biofuel crops, due to its long life and large yields, as well as low energy and fertilizer inputs. However, current research on Miscanthus is mostly focused on the techniques and economics to produce biofuel or the impacts of side products such as ash and sulfur emissions to human health. Research on the potential impacts of Miscanthus onto soil quality, especially carbon quality after long-term adoption, is very limited. Some positive benefits, such as sequestrating organic carbon, have been repeatedly reported in previous research. Yet the quality of newly sequestrated organic carbon and its potential impacts onto global carbon cycling remain unclear. To fully account for the risks and benefits of Miscanthus, it is required to investigate the quality as well as the potential CO2 emissions of soil organic carbon on Miscanthus fields. As a part of the Interreg Project to assess the environmental impacts of biomass production in the Upper Rhine Region, this study aims to evaluate the carbon quality and the potential CO2 emissions after long-term Miscanthus adoption. Soils were sampled at 0-10, 10-40, 40-70, and 70-100 cm depths on three Miscanthus fields with up to 20 years of cultivation in Ammerzwiller France, Münchenstein Switzerland, and Farnsburg Switzerland. Soil texture, pH, organic carbon and nitrogen content were measured for each sampled layer. Topsoils of 0-10 cm and subsoils of 10-40 cm were also incubated for 40 days to determine the mineralization potential of the soil organic matter. Our results show that: 1) only in top soils of 0-10 cm, the 20 year old Miscanthus field has significantly higher soil organic carbon concentrations, than the control site. No significant differences were observed in deeper soil layers. Similar tendencies were also observed for organic

  16. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-04-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally, from eight world regions, and from three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8%) and avoids 157 000 (95% confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. While most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving East Asian emissions (54%), followed by South Asian emissions (31%), South Asian emissions have 50% greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, the contribution of residential, industrial, and transportation BC emissions to PM2.5-related mortality is 1.3, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's contribution to anthropogenic BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population. Impacts of residential BC emissions are underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ~8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting that these results greatly underestimate the full air pollution-related mortality benefits of BC mitigation strategies which generally decrease both BC and OC. Confidence in our results would be strengthened by reducing uncertainties in emissions, model parameterization of aerosol processes, grid resolution, and PM2

  17. An Analytical Framework for the Steady State Impact of Carbonate Compensation on Atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omta, Anne Willem; Ferrari, Raffaele; McGee, David

    2018-04-01

    The deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration impacts the fraction of the marine calcium carbonate production that is buried in sediments. This gives rise to the carbonate compensation feedback, which is thought to restore the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration on multimillennial timescales. We formulate an analytical framework to investigate the impact of carbonate compensation under various changes in the carbon cycle relevant for anthropogenic change and glacial cycles. Using this framework, we show that carbonate compensation amplifies by 15-20% changes in atmospheric CO2 resulting from a redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean (e.g., due to changes in temperature, salinity, or nutrient utilization). A counterintuitive result emerges when the impact of organic matter burial in the ocean is examined. The organic matter burial first leads to a slight decrease in atmospheric CO2 and an increase in the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration. Subsequently, enhanced calcium carbonate burial leads to outgassing of carbon from the ocean to the atmosphere, which is quantified by our framework. Results from simulations with a multibox model including the minor acids and bases important for the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon are consistent with our analytical predictions. We discuss the potential role of carbonate compensation in glacial-interglacial cycles as an example of how our theoretical framework may be applied.

  18. Modulation of the Major Paths of Carbon in Photorespiratory Mutants of Synechocystis

    PubMed Central

    Huege, Jan; Goetze, Jan; Schwarz, Doreen; Bauwe, Hermann; Hagemann, Martin; Kopka, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies using transcript and metabolite profiles of wild-type and gene deletion mutants revealed that photorespiratory pathways are essential for the growth of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under atmospheric conditions. Pool size changes of primary metabolites, such as glycine and glycolate, indicated a link to photorespiration. Methodology/Principal Findings The 13C labelling kinetics of primary metabolites were analysed in photoautotrophically grown cultures of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to demonstrate the link with photorespiration. Cells pre-acclimated to high CO2 (5%, HC) or limited CO2 (0.035%, LC) conditions were pulse-labelled under very high (2% w/w) 13C-NaHCO3 (VHC) conditions followed by treatment with ambient 12C at HC and LC conditions, respectively. The 13C enrichment, relative changes in pool size, and 13C flux of selected metabolites were evaluated. We demonstrate two major paths of CO2 assimilation via Rubisco in Synechocystis, i.e., from 3PGA via PEP to aspartate, malate and citrate or, to a lesser extent, from 3PGA via glucose-6-phosphate to sucrose. The results reveal evidence of carbon channelling from 3PGA to the PEP pool. Furthermore, 13C labelling of glycolate was observed under conditions thought to suppress photorespiration. Using the glycolate-accumulating ΔglcD1 mutant, we demonstrate enhanced 13C partitioning into the glycolate pool under conditions favouring photorespiration and enhanced 13C partitioning into the glycine pool of the glycine-accumulating ΔgcvT mutant. Under LC conditions, the photorespiratory mutants ΔglcD1 and ΔgcvT showed enhanced activity of the additional carbon-fixing PEP carboxylase pathway. Conclusions/Significance With our approach of non-steady-state 13C labelling and analysis of metabolite pool sizes with respective 13C enrichments, we identify the use and modulation of major pathways of carbon assimilation in Synechocystis in the presence of

  19. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  20. Impact of Media on Major Choice: Survey of Communication Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoag, Anne; Grant, August E.; Carpenter, Serena

    2017-01-01

    Popular and news media sources may play a key role in influencing undergraduate choice of major, yet their unique impact has not been investigated. Most research has focused on the influence of unmediated salient referents, such as parents, on students' major choices. Therefore, we developed a scale to examine the role of media professionals and…

  1. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Biogeochemical processes of the major ions and dissolved inorganic carbon in the Guijiang River].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wen-Kui; Tao, Zhen; Gao, Quan-Zhou; Mao, Hai-Ruo; Jiang, Guang-Hui; Jiao, Shu-Lin; Zheng, Xiong-Bo; Zhang, Qian-Zhu; Ma, Zan-Wen

    2014-06-01

    Within the drainage basin, information about natural processes and human activities can be recorded in the chemical composition of riverine water. The analysis of the Guijiang River, the first level tributary of the Xijiang River, demonstrated that the chemical composition of water in the Guijiang River was mainly influenced by the chemical weathering of carbonate rocks within the drainage basin, in which CO2 was the main erosion medium, and that the weathering of carbonate rock by H2SO4 had a remarkable impact on the water chemical composition in the Guijiang River. Precipitation, human activities, the weathering of carbonate rocks and silicate rocks accounted for 2.7%, 6.3%, 72.8% and 18.2% of the total dissolved load, respectively. The stable isotopic compositions of dissolved inorganic carbon (delta13C(DIC)) indicated that DIC in the Guijiang River had been assimilated by the phytoplankton in photosynthesis. The primary production of phytoplankton contributed to 22.3%-30.9% of particulate organic carbon (POC) in the Guijiang River, which implies that phytoplankton can transform DIC into POC by photosynthesis, and parts of POC will sink into the bottom of the river in transit, which leads into the formation of burial organic carbon.

  3. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  4. Impact of seawater carbonate variables on post-larval bivalve calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiaqi; Mao, Yuze; Jiang, Zengjie; Zhang, Jihong; Bian, Dapeng; Fang, Jianguang

    2018-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that shellfish calcification rate has been impacted by ocean acidification. However, the carbonate system variables responsible for regulating calcification rate are controversial. To distinguish the key variables, we manipulated a seawater carbonate system by regulating seawater pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Calcification rates of juvenile blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) were measured in different carbonate systems. Our results demonstrated that neither [HCOˉ3], DIC, or pH ([H+]) were determining factors for the shellfish calcification rate of blue mussel or Zhikong scallop. However, a significant correlation was detected between calcification rate and DIC/[H+] and [CO3 2ˉ] in both species.

  5. Effects of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle: concepts, processes and potential future impacts.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Thonicke, Kirsten; Frank, David; Mahecha, Miguel D; Smith, Pete; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Babst, Flurin; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Canadell, Josep G; Ciais, Philippe; Cramer, Wolfgang; Ibrom, Andreas; Miglietta, Franco; Poulter, Ben; Rammig, Anja; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin; Zavala, Miguel A; Zscheischler, Jakob

    2015-08-01

    Extreme droughts, heat waves, frosts, precipitation, wind storms and other climate extremes may impact the structure, composition and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems, and thus carbon cycling and its feedbacks to the climate system. Yet, the interconnected avenues through which climate extremes drive ecological and physiological processes and alter the carbon balance are poorly understood. Here, we review the literature on carbon cycle relevant responses of ecosystems to extreme climatic events. Given that impacts of climate extremes are considered disturbances, we assume the respective general disturbance-induced mechanisms and processes to also operate in an extreme context. The paucity of well-defined studies currently renders a quantitative meta-analysis impossible, but permits us to develop a deductive framework for identifying the main mechanisms (and coupling thereof) through which climate extremes may act on the carbon cycle. We find that ecosystem responses can exceed the duration of the climate impacts via lagged effects on the carbon cycle. The expected regional impacts of future climate extremes will depend on changes in the probability and severity of their occurrence, on the compound effects and timing of different climate extremes, and on the vulnerability of each land-cover type modulated by management. Although processes and sensitivities differ among biomes, based on expert opinion, we expect forests to exhibit the largest net effect of extremes due to their large carbon pools and fluxes, potentially large indirect and lagged impacts, and long recovery time to regain previous stocks. At the global scale, we presume that droughts have the strongest and most widespread effects on terrestrial carbon cycling. Comparing impacts of climate extremes identified via remote sensing vs. ground-based observational case studies reveals that many regions in the (sub-)tropics are understudied. Hence, regional investigations are needed to allow a global

  6. Separating the Air Quality Impact of a Major Highway and Nearby Sources by Nonparametric Trajectory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonparametric Trajectory Analysis (NTA), a receptor-oriented model, was used to assess the impact of local sources of air pollution at monitoring sites located adjacent to highway I-15 in Las Vegas, NV. Measurements of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur di...

  7. Impact of rapeseed cropping on the soil carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, Antje Maria; Herbst, Mathias; Huth, Vytas; Andres, Monique; Augustin, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Winter oilseed rape is the dominant biofuel crop in the young moraine landscape in Northern Germany. Since the cultivation of biofuel crops requires sustainability compared to fossil fuels by law, detailed knowledge about their green house gas (GHG) balance is necessary. The soil carbon balance is one of the key contributors to the total GHG balance and also very important for the assessment of soil fertility. However, the knowledge about the impact of different management practices on the soil carbon balance is very limited up to now. Therefore, we investigated the carbon fluxes of winter oilseed rape at field plots near Dedelow/Uckermark in NE Germany with different treatments of fertilization (mineral versus organic) and tillage (no-till and mulch-till versus ploughing). The dynamics of the carbon fluxes are mainly driven by the current climatic conditions but the overall response depends strongly on the ecosystem state (with its physiological and microbiological properties) which is affected by management. To get the full carbon flux dynamics but also the impact of the different management practices, two different approaches were used: The eddy covariance technique to get continuous fluxes throughout the year and the manual chamber technique to detect flux differences between specific management practices. The manual chamber measurements were conducted four-weekly as all-day campaigns using a flow-through non-steady-state closed chamber system. The fluxes in-between campaigns were gap-filled based on functional relationships with soil and air temperature (for the ecosystem respiration) and photosynthetic active radiation (for the gross primary production). All results presented refer to the cropping season 2012-2013. The combination of the two measurement techniques allows the evaluation of chamber fluxes including an independent estimate of the error on the overall balances. Despite the considerable errors, there are significant differences in the soil carbon

  8. Apollo 16 impact-melt splashes - Petrography and major-element composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich; Morris, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic and major-element analyses are applied to 50 Apollo 16 impact-melt splash (IMS) samples in order to determine their origin and assess the nature of the subregolith source. The macroscopic analyses reveal that the IMSs exhibit a glassy appearance, but the textures range from holohyaline to hyalopilitic. Schlieren-rich glasses dominate the holohyaline areas, and the crystalline areas are mainly spherulitic. It is observed that most IMSs contain feldspathic monomineralic and lithic clasts and no regolithic materials. It is detected that the chemistry of most IMSs is not like the local regolith and appears to represent varied mixtures of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosite; the host rocks are mainly dimict breccias. It is concluded that the Cayley Formation is a polymict deposit composed of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosites. Tables revealing the macroscopic characteristics of the IMSs and the major-element composition of IMSs and various host rock are presented.

  9. The Geography of Metropolitan Carbon Footprints

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Southworth, Frank; Sarzynski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The world s metropolitan carbon footprints have distinct geographies that are not well understood or recognized in debates about climate change, partly because data on greenhouse gas emissions is so inadequate. This article describes the results of the most comprehensive assessment of carbon footprints for major American metropolitan areasavailable to date, focusing on residential and transportation carbon emissions for the largest 100 metropolitan areas in the United States. These findings are put into the context of effortsacross the country and the globe to characterize carbon impacts and policy linkages.

  10. Attributing impacts to emissions traced to major fossil energy and cement producers over specific historical time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Allen, M. R.; Boneham, J.; Heede, R.; Dalton, M. W.; Licker, R.

    2017-12-01

    Given the progress in climate change attribution research over the last decade, attribution studies can inform policymakers guided by the UNFCCC principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities." Historically this has primarily focused on nations, yet requests for information on the relative role of the fossil energy sector are growing. We present an approach that relies on annual CH4 and CO2 emissions from production through to the sale of products from the largest industrial fossil fuel and cement production company records from the mid-nineteenth century to present (Heede 2014). Analysis of the global trends with all the natural and human drivers compared with a scenario without the emissions traced to major carbon producers over full historical versus select periods of recent history can be policy relevant. This approach can be applied with simple climate models and earth system models depending on the type of climate impacts being investigated. For example, results from a simple climate model, using best estimate parameters and emissions traced to 90 largest carbon producers, illustrate the relative difference in global mean surface temperature increase over 1880-2010 after removing these emissions from 1980-2010 (29-35%) compared with removing these emissions over 1880-2010 (42-50%). The changing relative contributions from the largest climate drivers can be important to help assess the changing risks for stakeholders adapting to and reducing exposure and vulnerability to regional climate change impacts.

  11. Production of Prebiotic Molecule Precursors from Hypervelocity Impact Simulation Experiments on Carbonate Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farcy, B. J.; Grubisic, A.; Li, X.; Pinnick, V. T.; Sutton, M.; Pavlov, A.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Organic molecules, including amino acids and other biotic precursors, have been shown to form in the cooling and expanding plasma plume generated from hypervelocity impacts through the processes of atomization, ionization, and molecular recombination of impactor and impact surface. Various sources of carbon, such as atmospheric methane and carbonaceous material from meteorites, are known to yield cyano-bearing molecules and simple amino acids from impact plasmas. However, the role of mineralogical carbon has not yet been investigated in this process. We have performed experiments using laser ablation mass spectrometry (LA-MS) to study the negative ion yield of plasma-produced prebiotic molecules. A mixture of 10% NH4Cl and 90% CaCO3 was pressed into a pellet and ablated with a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, and the resultant negative ions were measured by a plasma analyzer quadrupole MS. Mass spectra show characteristic peaks at m/z = 26 and m/z = 42, indicating the presence of CN- and CNO- ions. When isotopically labeled 15NH4Cl and Ca13CO3 were used in the sample ablation pellet, the purported CN- and CNO- peaks shifted according to their added isotopic mass. Indeed, comparison of resulting ion formation from momentum-based techniques, such as massive cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry, show comparable fragmentation and recombination of CN- and CNO- ions. These findings show that CN- ions, as well as CN radicals and thus HCN, can be formed during meteoritic bombardment of carbonate minerals. During the late heavy bombardment of the earth from 4.1-3.8 Ga, impact-driven chemistry could have played a dominant role in shaping the earth's early prebiotic inventory and sources of chemical energy. As carbonate sediments are common in the Archean, carbonate deposits are most likely an important contributor of carbon for this process, along with atmospheric and meteoritic carbon sources.

  12. Costs and global impacts of black carbon abatement strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, Kristin; Rive, Nathan; Berntsen, Terje K.; Klimont, Zbigniew; Mideksa, Torben K.; Myhre, Gunnar; Skeie, Ragnhild B.

    2009-09-01

    Abatement of particulate matter has traditionally been driven by health concerns rather than its role in global warming. Here we assess future abatement strategies in terms of how much they reduce the climate impact of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) from contained combustion. We develop global scenarios which take into account regional differences in climate impact, costs of abatement and ability to pay, as well as both the direct and indirect (snow-albedo) climate impact of BC and OC. To represent the climate impact, we estimate consistent region-specific values of direct and indirect global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature potential (GTP). The indirect GWP has been estimated using a physical approach and includes the effect of change in albedo from BC deposited on snow. The indirect GWP is highest in the Middle East followed by Russia, Europe and North America, while the total GWP is highest in the Middle East, Africa and South Asia. We conclude that prioritizing emission reductions in Asia represents the most cost-efficient global abatement strategy for BC because Asia is (1) responsible for a large share of total emissions, (2) has lower abatement costs compared to Europe and North America and (3) has large health cobenefits from reduced PM10 emissions.

  13. Effects of Carbon Nanomaterial Reinforcement on Composite Joints Under Cyclic and Impact Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    prepreg . 2 Figure 1. Composite decks on DDG1000. (From [3]) Figure 2. USV built from nanotube-reinforced carbon fiber composites. (From [2...been proven that the infusion of CNTs enhances the strength and fracture toughness of CFRP laminates under static loading (mode I and mode II...Kostopoulos et al. [5] investigated the influence of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the impact and after-impact behavior of CFRP laminates

  14. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan, E-mail: wyn3615@126.com

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions,more » and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.« less

  15. Ballistic impact velocity response of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy laminates for aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, I.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Saadon, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aerospace and other industries use fibre metal laminate composites extensively due to their high specific strength, stiffness and fire resistance, in addition to their capability to be tailored into different forms for specific purposes. The behaviours of such composites under impact loading is another factor to be considered due to the impacts that occur in take-off, landing, during maintenance and operations. The aim of the study is to determine the specific perforation energy and impact strength of the fibre metal laminates of different layering pattern of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy and hybrid laminate composites of carbon fibre and natural fibres (kenaf and flax). The composites are fabricated using the hand lay-up method in a mould with high bonding polymer matrix and compressed by a compression machine, cured at room temperature for one day and post cure in an oven for three hours. The impact tests are conducted using a gun tunnel system with a flat cylindrical bullet fired using a helium gas at a distance of 14 inches to the target. Impact and residual velocity of the projectile are recorded by high speed video camera. Specific perforation energy of carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CF+AA) for both before and after fire test are higher than the specific perforation energy of the other composites considered before and after fire test respectively. CF +AA before fire test is 55.18% greater than after. The same thing applies to impact strength of the composites where CF +AA before the fire test has the highest percentage of 11.7%, 50.0% and 32.98% as respectively compared to carbon fibre reinforced aluminium alloy (CARALL), carbon fibre reinforced flax aluminium alloy (CAFRALL) and carbon fibre reinforced kenaf aluminium alloy (CAKRALL), and likewise for the composites after fire test. The considered composites in this test can be used in the designated fire zone of an aircraft engine to protect external debris from penetrating the engine

  16. Experimental high strain-rate deformation products of carbonate-silicate rocks: Comparison with terrestrial impact materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Bogert, C. H.; Schultz, P. H.; Spray, J. G.

    2008-09-01

    similar in many aspects to impact products at terrestrial craters in mixed carbonate-silicate targets. The experiments show that decarbonation of carbonate targets and high temperature reactions between carbonate and silicates in the target rocks are not exclusive effects of shock deformation. Shear deformation alone can generate temperature and pressure conditions necessary to decarbonate dolomitic marble and generate calcitic melts. Thus, high strain-rate deformation is a potentially major contributor to the total impact-related energy deposited into the target, especially for oblique impacts. Shear deformation occuring during and after shock deformation could, in fact, enhance the release of CO2 as a gas, by creating pathways that allow gases to escape from target materials. Understanding the relative importance and interaction of each CO2 releasing or trapping mechanism is important for the determination of the environmental significance of impacts in targets containing carbonates. References. [1] Lange M. A. and Ahrens T. J. (1986) EPSL 77, 409-418. [2] Tyburczy J. A. and Ahrens T. J. (1986) JGR 91, 4730-4744. [3] Schultz P. H. (1996) GSA Abstracts, A384. [4] Agrinier P., et al. (2001) GCA 65, 2615-2632. [5] Spray J. G. (1995) Geology 23, 1119-1122. [6] van der Bogert C. H., et al. (2007) LPI Contribution No. 1360, 123-124. [7] Martinez I., et al. (1995) JGR 100, 15456-15476. [8] Ivanov B. A. and Deutsch A. (2002) Phys. Earth Planet. Int. 129, 131-143. [9] Martinez I., et al. (1994) EPSL 121, 559-574. [10] Redeker H.-J. and Stöffler D. (1988) Meteoritics 23, 185-196. [11] Skála R. and Jakes P. (1999). In Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution II (eds. B. O. Dressler and V. L. Sharpton), pp. 205-214. [12] Osinski G. R. and Spray J. G. (2001) EPSL 194, 17-29. [13] Kenkmann T., et al. (1999) LPS XXX, Abstract #1561.

  17. An outbreak of carbon monoxide poisoning after a major ice storm in Maine.

    PubMed

    Daley, W R; Smith, A; Paz-Argandona, E; Malilay, J; McGeehin, M

    2000-01-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) exposure kills over 500 people in the U.S. annually. Outbreaks of CO poisoning have occurred after winter storms. The objective of this study was to describe clinical features and identify important risk factors of a CO poisoning outbreak occurring after a major ice storm. The study design included a case series of CO poisoning patients, a telephone survey of the general community, and a case-controlled study of households using specific CO sources. The setting was the primary service area of four hospital emergency departments located in the heavily storm-impacted interior region of Maine. Participants included all patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of CO poisoning during the 2 weeks after the storm onset, and a population-based comparison group of 522 households selected by random digit dialing. There were 100 cases identified, involving 42 common-source exposure incidents, most of them during the first week. Though classic CO symptoms of headache, dizziness, and nausea predominated, 9 patients presented with chest pain and 10 were asymptomatic. One patient died and 5 were transferred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Gasoline-powered electric generators were a CO source in 30 incidents, kerosene heaters in 8, and propane heaters in 4. In the community, 31.4% of households used a generator after the ice storm. The strongest risk factor for poisoning was locating a generator in a basement or an attached structure such as a garage. Cases of CO poisoning with various presentations can be expected in the early aftermath of a severe ice storm. Generators are a major CO source and generator location an important risk factor for such disasters.

  18. Prediction of the effect of temperature on impact damage in carbon/epoxy laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez del Río, T.; Zaera, R.; Navarro, C.

    2003-09-01

    The effect of temperature on impact damage in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) tape laminates produced by low velocity impact was studied by numerical simulations made to model drop weight tower impact tests on carbon/epoxy laminate composites. The damage model was implemented into a user subroutine of the finite element code ABAQUS. The model takes into account the thermal stresses resulting form the different thermal expansion coefficients in each ply of the laminate. The tests and simulations show how temperature affects the propagation of each damage mode. Matrix cracking and delamination are greatly affected by low temperature, white matrix crushing and fibre failure appear only in a small region at all the impact energies and test temperatures.

  19. Impact absorption properties of carbon fiber reinforced bucky sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevamaran, Ramathasan; Saini, Deepika; Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M.; Daraio, Chiara

    2017-05-01

    We describe the super compressible and highly recoverable response of bucky sponges as they are struck by a heavy flat-punch striker. The bucky sponges studied here are structurally stable, self-assembled mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon fibers (CFs). We engineered the microstructure of the sponges by controlling their porosity using different CF contents. Their mechanical properties and energy dissipation characteristics during impact loading are presented as a function of their composition. The inclusion of CFs improves the impact force damping by up to 50% and the specific damping capacity by up to 7% compared to bucky sponges without CFs. The sponges also exhibit significantly better stress mitigation characteristics compared to vertically aligned CNT foams of similar densities. We show that delamination occurs at the MWCNT-CF interfaces during unloading, and it arises from the heterogeneous fibrous microstructure of the bucky sponges.

  20. Long-term impacts of boreal wildfire on carbon cycling dynamics in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaglioti, B.; Mann, D. H.; Finney, B.; Pohlman, J.; Jones, B. M.; Arp, C. D.; Wooller, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Wildland fire is a major disturbance in the boreal forest, and warming climate will likely increase the frequency and severity of burning. Fires trigger thermokarst, the thawing of permafrost (perennially frozen ground), which can release large amounts of ancient carbon to the atmosphere. But how vulnerable is the organic carbon stored in permafrost in the boreal forest to a changing fire regime? Paleolimnological records can tell us how the landscape actually responded during prehistoric fires and provide a valuable perspective on future events. Here we present a whole-watershed summary of terrestrial and aquatic carbon dynamics during multiple fire and thermokarst disturbances over the last millennia. We use laminated lake sediments laid down in a permanently stratified, thermokarst lake basin in Interior Alaska to decipher the impacts of wildfires on permafrost carbon release from the surrounding watershed. Sediment chronologies based on layer counts, lead and cesium dating, and radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossils, provide a near-annual resolution of environmental changes over the last 1100 years. Charcoal accumulation rates quantified from sediment thin-sections and fire-scarred spruce trees constrain the timing of fires. The variability of permafrost carbon release before and after fires was investigated by analyzing several geochemical indices including radiocarbon dating on the sediment organic matter directly above and below charcoal layers in the sediment stack. The difference between a sediment layers 'true' age of deposition based on layer counts and the apparent radiocarbon age on the same bulk sediment material (radiocarbon age offset) is then used as a proxy for permafrost carbon release. The relative age of permafrost-derived organic carbon entering the lake before and after past fires was determined by radiocarbon age offsets before and after wildfire events. Fires are not the only triggers of permafrost-C release. Thermokarst caused by

  1. Changes in light intensity reveal a major role for carbon balance in Arabidopsis responses to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Vasseur, François; Pantin, Florent; Vile, Denis

    2011-09-01

    High temperature (HT) is a major limiting factor for plant productivity. Because some responses to HT, notably hyponasty, resemble those encountered in low light (LL), we hypothesized that plant responses to HT are under the control of carbon balance. We analysed the interactive effects of HT and irradiance level on hyponasty and a set of traits related to plant growth in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and mutants affected in heat dissipation through transpiration (NCED6-OE, ost2) and starch metabolism (pgm). HT induced hyponasty, reduced plant growth and modified leaf structure. LL worsened the effects of HT, while increasing light restored trait values close to levels observed at control temperature. Leaf temperature per se did not play a major role in the observed responses. By contrast, a major role of carbon balance was supported by hyponastic growth of pgm, as well as morphological, physiological (photosynthesis, sugar and starch contents) and transcriptional data. Carbon balance could be a common sensor of HT and LL, leading to responses specific of the shade avoidance syndrome. Hyponasty and associated changes in plant traits could be key traits conditioning plant performance under competition for light, particularly in warm environments. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Quantifying uncertainties influencing the long-term impacts of oil prices on energy markets and carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, David L.; Jewell, Jessica; Krey, Volker; Bazilian, Morgan; Fay, Marianne; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-07-01

    Oil prices have fluctuated remarkably in recent years. Previous studies have analysed the impacts of future oil prices on the energy system and greenhouse gas emissions, but none have quantitatively assessed how the broader, energy-system-wide impacts of diverging oil price futures depend on a suite of critical uncertainties. Here we use the MESSAGE integrated assessment model to study several factors potentially influencing this interaction, thereby shedding light on which future unknowns hold the most importance. We find that sustained low or high oil prices could have a major impact on the global energy system over the next several decades; and depending on how the fuel substitution dynamics play out, the carbon dioxide consequences could be significant (for example, between 5 and 20% of the budget for staying below the internationally agreed 2 ∘C target). Whether or not oil and gas prices decouple going forward is found to be the biggest uncertainty.

  3. A Review of Major Non-Power-Related Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs as a result of rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents in CO2 source streams selected for sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g., density, viscosity, interfacial tension) properties of CO2 in the deep subsurface. The nature and concentrations of these impurities are a function of both the industrial source(s) of CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for subsurfacemore » injection and geologic sequestration. This article reviews the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy-related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, the authors then summarize the relative proportions of the remaining impurities assumed to be present in CO2 source streams that could be targeted for geologic sequestration. The summary is presented relative to five potential sources of CO2: 1) Flue Gas with Flue Gas Desulfurization, 2) Combustion Stack from Coke Production, 3) Portland Cement Kilns, 4) Natural Gas Combustion, and 5) Lime Production.« less

  4. Impact of sulfur oxides on mercury capture by activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Presto, Albert A; Granite, Evan J

    2007-09-15

    Recent field tests of mercury removal with activated carbon injection (ACI) have revealed that mercury capture is limited in flue gases containing high concentrations of sulfur oxides (SOx). In order to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of SOx on ACl, mercury capture was tested under varying conditions of SO2 and SO3 concentrations using a packed bed reactor and simulated flue gas (SFG). The final mercury content of the activated carbons is independent of the SO2 concentration in the SFG, but the presence of SO3 inhibits mercury capture even at the lowest concentration tested (20 ppm). The mercury removal capacity decreases as the sulfur content of the used activated carbons increases from 1 to 10%. In one extreme case, an activated carbon with 10% sulfur, prepared by H2SO4 impregnation, shows almost no mercury capacity. The results suggest that mercury and sulfur oxides are in competition for the same binding sites on the carbon surface.

  5. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Miranda Caroline; Wrobel, Jeremy P

    2014-01-01

    Comorbidities are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and significantly impact on patients’ quality of life, exacerbation frequency, and survival. There is increasing evidence that certain diseases occur in greater frequency amongst patients with COPD than in the general population, and that these comorbidities significantly impact on patient outcomes. Although the mechanisms are yet to be defined, many comorbidities likely result from the chronic inflammatory state that is present in COPD. Common problems in the clinical management of COPD include recognizing new comorbidities, determining the impact of comorbidities on patient symptoms, the concurrent treatment of COPD and comorbidities, and accurate prognostication. The majority of comorbidities in COPD should be treated according to usual practice, and specific COPD management is infrequently altered by the presence of comorbidities. Unfortunately, comorbidities are often under-recognized and under-treated. This review focuses on the epidemiology of ten major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Further, we emphasize the clinical impact upon prognosis and management considerations. This review will highlight the importance of comorbidity identification and management in the practice of caring for patients with COPD. PMID:25210449

  6. Lignin carbon fiber: The path for quality

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Joshua S.; Li, Qiang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2017-03-01

    Lignin represents an abundant biopolymer and a major waste from lignocellulosic processing plants, yet the utilization of lignin for fungible products remains one of the most challenging technical barriers for pulp mills and the modern biorefinery industry. In recent decades, lignin has been sought after as a precursor polymer for carbon fiber due to the high carbon content (up to 60%). Furthermore lignin carbon fiber is expected to be compatible with the market size of the pulp and paper industry and may have transformative impact on petroleum-based carbon fiber.

  7. The carbon cycle implications of chemical weathering in retrogressive thaw slump-impacted streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolkos, S.; Tank, S. E.; Kokelj, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost thaw is "unlocking" and exposing significant amounts of sediment, solutes and organic carbon previously maintained in frozen soils to biochemical processing and fluvial transport. While microbial respiration of permafrost organic carbon contributes significantly to CO2 in Arctic headwater streams, chemical weathering of minerals unearthed by thawing permafrost may fix CO2 as bicarbonate (HCO3), thus removing it from the active carbon cycle. However, the degree to which mineral weathering acts to temper CO2 generated during permafrost thaw is largely unknown. During summer 2015, we investigated these dynamics in eight streams (orders 1-3) impacted by retrogressive thaw slumps across the Peel Plateau (NT, Canada), where thaw slumps expose permafrost that is comprised of abundant glacial tills, and glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine sediments. Thaw slump activity had a discernible signature in all streams: conductivity, pH, dissolved inorgnaic carbon (DIC), and solute concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, Cl) increased in the downstream (thaw slump-impacted) reach, relative to upstream, while CO2 decreased. This corresponded with an isotopically-enriched DIC pool in impacted streams (mean δ13CDIC = -9.80‰), perhaps indicating the dissolution of carbonate minerals following exposure by thaw slump activity. Despite a general decrease downstream of thaw slumps, CO2 remained supersaturated in impacted streams (mean pCO2 = 915 µatm). However, the highest partial pressures of CO2 were found in thaw slump runoff (mean pCO2 = 4,600 µatm), above the point where runoff entered downstream systems. High pCO2 levels in slump runoff may be derived from microbial respiration of slump-released dissolved organic carbon or, for some slumps, carbonate dissolution (range δ13CDIC = 0.67 - -23.37‰). While this work suggests thaw slumps in the Western Canadian Arctic may act to partially temper CO2 in headwater streams, these stream networks will likely persist as

  8. The Impact Response of Carbon/Epoxy Laminates (Center Director's Discretionary Fund, Project No. 94-13)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    Low velocity dropweight impact tests were conducted on carbon/epoxy laminates under various boundary conditions. The composite plates were 8-ply (+45,0,-45,90)s laminates supported in a clamped-clamped/free-free configuration with varying amounts of in-plane load, N(sub x), applied. Specimens were impacted at energies of 3.4, 4.5, and 6 Joules (2.5, 3.3, and 4.4 ft-lb). The amount of damage induced into the specimen was evaluated using instrumented impact techniques, x-ray inspection, and cross-sectional photomicroscopy. Some static identation tests were performed to examine if the impact events utilized in this study were of a quasi-static nature and also to gain insight into the shape of the deflected surface at various impact load combinations. Load-displacement curves from these tests were compared to those of the impact tests, as was damage determined from x-ray inspection. The finite element technique was used to model the impact event and determine the stress field within the laminae. Results showed that for a given impact energy level, more damage was induced into the specimen as the external in-plane load, N(sub x), was increased. The majority of damage observed consisted of back face splitting of the matrix parallel to the fibers in that ply, associated with delaminations emanating from these splits. The analysis showed qualitatively the results of impact conditions on maximum load of impact, maximum transverse deflection, and first failure mode and location.

  9. Management Impacts on Carbon Dynamics in a Sierra Nevada Mixed Conifer Forest

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Sabina; Fry, Danny L.; Collins, Brandon M.; Vargas, Rodrigo; York, Robert A.; Stephens, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Forest ecosystems can act as sinks of carbon and thus mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When forests are actively managed, treatments can alter forests carbon dynamics, reducing their sink strength and switching them from sinks to sources of carbon. These effects are generally characterized by fast temporal dynamics. Hence this study monitored for over a decade the impacts of management practices commonly used to reduce fire hazards on the carbon dynamics of mixed-conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Soil CO2 efflux, carbon pools (i.e. soil carbon, litter, fine roots, tree biomass), and radial tree growth were compared among un-manipulated controls, prescribed fire, thinning, thinning followed by fire, and two clear-cut harvested sites. Soil CO2 efflux was reduced by both fire and harvesting (ca. 15%). Soil carbon content (upper 15 cm) was not significantly changed by harvest or fire treatments. Fine root biomass was reduced by clear-cut harvest (60–70%) but not by fire, and the litter layer was reduced 80% by clear-cut harvest and 40% by fire. Thinning effects on tree growth and biomass were concentrated in the first year after treatments, whereas fire effects persisted over the seven-year post-treatment period. Over this period, tree radial growth was increased (25%) by thinning and reduced (12%) by fire. After seven years, tree biomass returned to pre-treatment levels in both fire and thinning treatments; however, biomass and productivity decreased 30%-40% compared to controls when thinning was combined with fire. The clear-cut treatment had the strongest impact, reducing ecosystem carbon stocks and delaying the capacity for carbon uptake. We conclude that post-treatment carbon dynamics and ecosystem recovery time varied with intensity and type of treatments. Consequently, management practices can be selected to minimize ecosystem carbon losses while increasing future carbon uptake, resilience to high severity fire, and climate related

  10. Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Jerry; Stahl, Henrik; Bull, Jonathan M.; Bergès, Benoît J. P.; Cevatoglu, Melis; Lichtschlag, Anna; Connelly, Douglas; James, Rachael H.; Kita, Jun; Long, Dave; Naylor, Mark; Shitashima, Kiminori; Smith, Dave; Taylor, Peter; Wright, Ian; Akhurst, Maxine; Chen, Baixin; Gernon, Tom M.; Hauton, Chris; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Leighton, Timothy G.; Sato, Toru; Sayer, Martin D. J.; Suzumura, Masahiro; Tait, Karen; Vardy, Mark E.; White, Paul R.; Widdicombe, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Fossil fuel power generation and other industrial emissions of carbon dioxide are a threat to global climate, yet many economies will remain reliant on these technologies for several decades. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations provides an effective option to remove these emissions from the climate system. In many regions storage reservoirs are located offshore, over a kilometre or more below societally important shelf seas. Therefore, concerns about the possibility of leakage and potential environmental impacts, along with economics, have contributed to delaying development of operational CCS. Here we investigate the detectability and environmental impact of leakage from a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2. We show that the biological impact and footprint of this small leak analogue (<1 tonne CO2 d-1) is confined to a few tens of metres. Migration of CO2 through the shallow seabed is influenced by near-surface sediment structure, and by dissolution and re-precipitation of calcium carbonate naturally present in sediments. Results reported here advance the understanding of environmental sensitivity to leakage and identify appropriate monitoring strategies for full-scale carbon storage operations.

  11. Unmanned launch vehicle impacts on existing major facilities : V23

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1984-10-18

    This study measures the impact on the existing major facilities of Space Launch Complex (SLC-6) to accommodate the launching of an Unmanned Launch Vehicle (ULV). Modifications to the existing facilities were determined for two basic vehicle concepts,...

  12. Black Carbon Emissions and Impacts on the South American Glacial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, L. T.; Gallardo, L.; Schmitt, C. G.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon is one of the key short-lived climate pollutants, which is a topic of growing interest for near-term mitigation of climate change and air quality improvement. In this presentation we will examine the emissions and impact of black carbon and co-pollutants on the South American glacial region and describe some recent measurements associated with the PISAC (Pollution and its Impacts on the South American Cryosphere) Initiative. The Andes is the longest continental mountain range in the world, extending about 7000 km along western South America through seven countries with complex topography and covering several climate zones, diversity of ecosystems and communities. Air pollution associated with biomass burning and urban emissions affects extensive areas in the region and is a serious public health concern. Scientific evidence indicates that the Andean cryosphere is changing rapidly as snow fields and glaciers generally recede, leading to changes in stream flow and water quality along the Andes. The challenge is to identify the principal causes of the observed changes so that action can be taken to mitigate this negative trend. Despite the paucity of systematic observations along the Andes, a few modeling and observational studies have indicated the presence of black carbon in the high Andes, with potentially significant impact on the Andean cryosphere.

  13. Impact-generated carbonate melts: evidence from the Haughton structure, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, Gordon R.; Spray, John G.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence is presented for the melting of dolomite-rich target rocks during formation of the 24 km diameter, 23 Ma Haughton impact structure on Devon Island in the Canadian high Arctic. Field studies and analytical scanning electron microscopy reveal that the >200 m thick crater-fill deposit, which currently covers an ˜60 km2 area in the center of the structure, comprises fragmented target rocks set within a carbonate-silicate matrix. The silicate component of the matrix consists of Si-Al-Mg-rich glass. The carbonate component is microcrystalline calcite, containing up to a few wt% Si and Al. The calcite also forms spherules and globules within the silicate glass, with which it develops microtextures indicative of liquid immiscibility. Dolomite clasts exhibit evidence of assimilation and may show calcite and rare dolomite overgrowths. Some clasts are penetrated by calcite and silicate injections. Along with the carbonate-silicate glass textures, the presence of pigeonite and spinifex-textured diopside suggests that the matrix to the crater-fill deposit was originally molten and was rapidly cooled. This indicates that the impact event that generated Haughton caused fusion of the predominantly dolomitic target rocks. It appears that the Ca-Mg component of the dolomite may have dissociated, with Mg entering the silicate melt phase, while the Ca component formed a CaCO3-dominant melt. The silicates were derived by the fusion of Lower Paleozoic sandstones, siltstones, shales and impure dolomites. Evidence for melting is corroborated by a review of theoretical and experimental work, which shows that CaCO3 melts at >10 GPa and >2000 K, instead of dissociating to release CO2. This work indicates that carbonate-rich sedimentary targets may also undergo impact melting and that the volume of CO2 released into the atmosphere during such events may be considerably less than previously estimated.

  14. Peatland hydrology and carbon release: why small-scale process matters.

    PubMed

    Holden, Joseph

    2005-12-15

    Peatlands cover over 400 million hectares of the Earth's surface and store between one-third and one-half of the world's soil carbon pool. The long-term ability of peatlands to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere means that they play a major role in moderating global climate. Peatlands can also either attenuate or accentuate flooding. Changing climate or management can alter peatland hydrological processes and pathways for water movement across and below the peat surface. It is the movement of water in peats that drives carbon storage and flux. These small-scale processes can have global impacts through exacerbated terrestrial carbon release. This paper will describe advances in understanding environmental processes operating in peatlands. Recent (and future) advances in high-resolution topographic data collection and hydrological modelling provide an insight into the spatial impacts of land management and climate change in peatlands. Nevertheless, there are still some major challenges for future research. These include the problem that impacts of disturbance in peat can be irreversible, at least on human time-scales. This has implications for the perceived success and understanding of peatland restoration strategies. In some circumstances, peatland restoration may lead to exacerbated carbon loss. This will also be important if we decide to start to create peatlands in order to counter the threat from enhanced atmospheric carbon.

  15. Integrating a process-based ecosystem model with Landsat imagery to assess impacts of forest disturbance on terrestrial carbon dynamics: Case studies in Alabama and Mississippi

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Guangsheng; Tian, Hanqin; Huang, Chengquan; ...

    2013-07-01

    Forest ecosystems in the southern United States are dramatically altered by three major disturbances: timber harvesting, hurricane, and permanent land conversion. Understanding and quantifying effects of disturbance on forest carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles is critical for sustainable forest management in this region. In this study, we introduced a process-based ecosystem model for simulating forest disturbance impacts on ecosystem carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles. Based on forest mortality data classified from Landsat TM/ETM + images, this model was then applied to estimate changes in carbon storage using Mississippi and Alabama as a case study. Mean annual forest mortality rate formore » these states was 2.37%. Due to frequent disturbance, over 50% of the forest land in the study region was less than 30 years old. Forest disturbance events caused a large carbon source (138.92 Tg C, 6.04 Tg C yr -1; 1 Tg = 10 12 g) for both states during 1984–2007, accounting for 2.89% (4.81% if disregard carbon storage changes in wood products) of the total forest carbon storage in this region. Large decreases and slow recovery of forest biomass were the main causes for carbon release. Forest disturbance could result in a carbon sink in few areas if wood product carbon was considered as a local carbon pool, indicating the importance of accounting for wood product carbon when assessing forest disturbance effects. The legacy effects of forest disturbance on ecosystem carbon storage could last over 50 years. Lastly, this study implies that understanding forest disturbance impacts on carbon dynamics is of critical importance for assessing regional carbon budgets.« less

  16. Webinar Presentation: Particle-Resolved Simulations for Quantifying Black Carbon Climate Impact and Model Uncertainty

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Particle-Resolved Simulations for Quantifying Black Carbon Climate Impact and Model Uncertainty, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Changing Chemistry over Time held on Oct. 31, 2016.

  17. Carbonate Melt Rocks from the Haughton Impact Structure, Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.; Lee, P.

    2002-01-01

    The target rocks at the Haughton impact structure, Canada, are predominantly carbonates. The well preserved allochthonous crater-fill deposits are reinterpreted here as being carbonatitic impact melt rocks. The implications of our findings will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Treesearch

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  19. Impact of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on wastewater microbial communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Deepankar

    Aim: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hold great promise in advancing our future, with potential applications such as adsorbents, conductive composites, energy storage devices, and more. Despite of numerous potential applications of CNTs, almost nothing so far is known about how such carbon-based nanomaterials would in future impact environmental processes such as wastewater treatment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on microbial communities and wastewater treatment processes in activated sludge bioreactors. Method: Closed system batch-scale reactors were used to simulate the activated sludge process. Two sets of triplicate reactors were analyzed to determine the effects of SWNTs and associated impurities compared to control reactors that contained no CNTs. Sub-samples for microbial community analyses were aseptically removed periodically from the bioreactors every ˜1 hour 15 minutes and held at -80°C until analyzed. Genomic DNA was extracted from bioreactor samples, and molecular profiles of the bacterial communities were determined using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The clones for the ARISA profiles having distinct ARISA peaks were picked and sequenced. Result: ARISA profiles revealed adverse changes in CNT-exposed bacterial communities compared to control reactors associated with CNTs. The phylogenetic analysis of cloned insert containing Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region plus the 16S rRNA genes identified them belonging to taxonomic groups of the families Sphingomonadaceae and Cytophagacaceae , and the genus Zoogloea. Changes in community structure were observed in both SWNT-exposed and control reactors over the experimental time period. Also the date on which activated sludge was obtained from a wastewater treatment plant facility seemed to play a critical role in changing the community structure altogether, indicating the importance of analyzing microbial

  20. Return to the Strangelove Ocean?: Preliminary results of carbon and oxygenisotope compositions of post-impact sediments, IODP Expedition 364 "Chicxulub Impact Crater"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K. E.; Ikehara, M.; Hayama, H.; Takiguchi, S.; Masuda, S.; Ogura, C.; Fujita, S.; Kurihara, E.; Matsumoto, T.; Oshio, S.; Ishihata, K.; Fuchizawa, Y.; Noda, H.; Sakurai, U.; Yamane, T.; Morgan, J. V.; Gulick, S. P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Chicxulub crater in the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico was formed by the asteroid impact at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary (66.0 Ma). In early 2016 the IODP Exp. 364 successfully drilled the materials from the topographic peak ring within the crater that was previously identified by seismological observations. A continuous core was recovered. The 112m-thick uppermost part of the continuous core (505.7-1334.7 mbsf) is post-impact sediments, including the PETM, that are mainly composed of carbonate with intercalation of siliciclastics and variable contents of organic carbon. More than 300 samples from the post-impact section were finely powdered for a variety of geochemical analysis. Here we report their carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate fraction (mostly in the lower part of the analyzed section) and carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of organic matter (mostly in the middle-upper part of the analyzed section). Isotope mass spectrometer Isoprime was used for the former analysis, and EA-irMS (elemental analyzer - isotope ratio mass spectrometer) was used for the latter analysis, both at CMCR, Kochi Univ. Depth profile of oxygen isotope compositions of carbonate fraction is variable and somewhat similar to those of Zachos et al. (2001; Science). Carbon isotope compositions of carbonate and organic carbon in the lower part of the analyzed section exhibit some excursions that could correspond to the hyperthemals in the early Paleogene. Their variable nitrogen isotope compositions reflect temporal changes in the style of biogeochemical cycles involving denitrification and nitrogen fixation. Coupled temporal changes in the carbon isotope compositions of organic and carbonate carbon immediately after the K-Pg boundary might support a Strangelove ocean (Kump, 1991; Geology), however high export production (Ba/Ti, nannoplankton and calcisphere blooms, high planktic foram richness, and diverse and abundant micro- and macrobenthic organisms

  1. Inequality, climate impacts on the future poor, and carbon prices.

    PubMed

    Dennig, Francis; Budolfson, Mark B; Fleurbaey, Marc; Siebert, Asher; Socolow, Robert H

    2015-12-29

    Integrated assessment models of climate and the economy provide estimates of the social cost of carbon and inform climate policy. We create a variant of the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE)-a regionally disaggregated version of the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE)-in which we introduce a more fine-grained representation of economic inequalities within the model's regions. This allows us to model the common observation that climate change impacts are not evenly distributed within regions and that poorer people are more vulnerable than the rest of the population. Our results suggest that this is important to the social cost of carbon-as significant, potentially, for the optimal carbon price as the debate between Stern and Nordhaus on discounting.

  2. The impact and control of major southern forest diseases

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson; Theodor D. Leininger; William J. Otrosina; L. David Dwinell; Nathan M. Schiff

    2004-01-01

    A variety of forest health issues, concerns, and events have rapidly changed southern forests and plantations in the past two decades. These factors have strongly impacted the ways we manage forest pests in the Southern United States. This trend will no doubt continue to shape forest pest management in the future. The major issues and events of concern include changing...

  3. Impact of drought on the North America carbon balance: implications for global carbon mitigation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Parazoo, N.; Bloom, A. A.; Wunch, D.; Jiang, Z.; Gurney, K. R.; Schimel, D.

    2017-12-01

    Drought and heat events are significant contributors to the interanual variability of terrestrial biosphere carbon flux in temperate North America. In order to be understand the drivers of this variability, we quantified the impact of two drought events in Texas and Mexico in 2011 as wells as the United States Midwest in 2012 on Net Biome Exchange, Gross Primary Productivity, Biomass Burning, and total ecosystem respiration using the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) carbon cycle data assimilation system constrained with a suite of satellite observations. The global spatial distribution of NBE was constrained by column CO2 (XCO2) observations from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) accounting for fossil fuel contributions, while GPP was estimated with Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), and biomass burning was computed from CO emissions constrained by MOPITT. Total ecosystem respiration (TER) was calculated as a residual term. We found that both drought events greatly reduced NBE and GPP during the seasonal peak, but had quite different effects on the annual NBE. Due to the year-long duration of the 2011 Texas-Northern Mexico (Tex-Mex) drought, the annual net uptake was reduced by 0.28 ± 0.10 GtC, which was dominated by the reduction of GPP (-0.34 ± 0.14 GtC). The regional contribution to the atmospheric CO2 growth, which is the sum of fossil fuel emissions and the biosphere net uptake, increased by more than a factor of 3 from an average of 0.09 GtC to 0.30 GtC in 2011. In contrast, a seasonally enhanced NBE in the Midwest partially offset the drought leading to an annual NBE reduction of only 0.16 ± 0.16 GtC. The reduction of net carbon uptake from the 2011 and 2012 drought impact was 50% and 25% respectively of the regional annual fossil fuel emissions. The results show that climate variability needs to be considered in order to relate carbon mitigation strategies to regional and

  4. Carbon outcomes of major land-cover transitions in SE Asia: great uncertainties and REDD+ policy implications.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Alan D; Phelps, Jacob; Yuen, Jia Qi; Webb, Edward L; Lawrence, Deborah; Fox, Jeff M; Bruun, Thilde B; Leisz, Stephen J; Ryan, Casey M; Dressler, Wolfram; Mertz, Ole; Pascual, Unai; Padoch, Christine; Koh, Lian Pin

    2012-10-01

    Policy makers across the tropics propose that carbon finance could provide incentives for forest frontier communities to transition away from swidden agriculture (slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation) to other systems that potentially reduce emissions and/or increase carbon sequestration. However, there is little certainty regarding the carbon outcomes of many key land-use transitions at the center of current policy debates. Our meta-analysis of over 250 studies reporting above- and below-ground carbon estimates for different land-use types indicates great uncertainty in the net total ecosystem carbon changes that can be expected from many transitions, including the replacement of various types of swidden agriculture with oil palm, rubber, or some other types of agroforestry systems. These transitions are underway throughout Southeast Asia, and are at the heart of REDD+ debates. Exceptions of unambiguous carbon outcomes are the abandonment of any type of agriculture to allow forest regeneration (a certain positive carbon outcome) and expansion of agriculture into mature forest (a certain negative carbon outcome). With respect to swiddening, our meta-analysis supports a reassessment of policies that encourage land-cover conversion away from these [especially long-fallow] systems to other more cash-crop-oriented systems producing ambiguous carbon stock changes - including oil palm and rubber. In some instances, lengthening fallow periods of an existing swidden system may produce substantial carbon benefits, as would conversion from intensely cultivated lands to high-biomass plantations and some other types of agroforestry. More field studies are needed to provide better data of above- and below-ground carbon stocks before informed recommendations or policy decisions can be made regarding which land-use regimes optimize or increase carbon sequestration. As some transitions may negatively impact other ecosystem services, food security, and local livelihoods, the

  5. Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil

  6. Harvest impacts on soil carbon storage in temperate forests

    Treesearch

    L.E. Nave; E.D. Vance; C.W. Swanston; P.S. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Forest soil carbon (C) storage is a significant component of the global C cycle, and is important for sustaining forest productivity. Although forest management may have substantial impacts on soil C storage, experimental data from forest harvesting studies have not been synthesized recently. To quantify the effects of harvesting on soil C, and to identify sources of...

  7. The impact of environmental factors on carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marcia; Sánchez, León; Revah, Sergio

    2018-02-01

    Microalgae are among the most productive biological systems for converting sunlight into chemical energy, which is used to capture and transform inorganic carbon into biomass. The efficiency of carbon dioxide capture depends on the cultivation system configuration (photobioreactors or open systems) and can vary according to the state of the algal physiology, the chemical composition of the nutrient medium, and environmental factors such as irradiance, temperature and pH. This mini-review is focused on some of the most important environmental factors determining photosynthetic activity, carbon dioxide biofixation, cell growth rate and biomass productivity by microalgae. These include carbon dioxide and O2 concentrations, light intensity, cultivation temperature and nutrients. Finally, a review of the operation of microalgal cultivation systems outdoors is presented as an example of the impact of environmental conditions on biomass productivity and carbon dioxide fixation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impacts of global, regional, and sectoral black carbon emission reductions on surface air quality and human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anenberg, S. C.; Talgo, K.; Arunachalam, S.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    As a component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC) is associated with premature human mortality. BC also affects climate by absorbing solar radiation and reducing planetary albedo. Several studies have examined the climate impacts of BC emissions, but the associated health impacts have been studied less extensively. Here, we examine the surface PM2.5 and premature mortality impacts of halving anthropogenic BC emissions globally and individually from eight world regions and three major economic sectors. We use a global chemical transport model, MOZART-4, to simulate PM2.5 concentrations and a health impact function to calculate premature cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths. We estimate that halving global anthropogenic BC emissions reduces outdoor population-weighted average PM2.5 by 542 ng m-3 (1.8 %) and avoids 157 000 (95 % confidence interval, 120 000-194 000) annual premature deaths globally, with the vast majority occurring within the source region. Most of these avoided deaths can be achieved by halving emissions in East Asia (China; 54 %), followed by South Asia (India; 31 %), however South Asian emissions have 50 % greater mortality impacts per unit BC emitted than East Asian emissions. Globally, halving residential, industrial, and transportation emissions contributes 47 %, 35 %, and 15 % to the avoided deaths from halving all anthropogenic BC emissions. These contributions are 1.2, 1.2, and 0.6 times each sector's portion of global BC emissions, owing to the degree of co-location with population globally. We find that reducing BC emissions increases regional SO4 concentrations by up to 28 % of the magnitude of the regional BC concentration reductions, due to reduced absorption of radiation that drives photochemistry. Impacts of residential BC emissions are likely underestimated since indoor PM2.5 exposure is excluded. We estimate ∼8 times more avoided deaths when BC and organic carbon (OC) emissions are halved together, suggesting

  9. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE PAGES

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; ...

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO 2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continentalmore » United States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  10. One Carbon Metabolism in Pregnancy: Impact on Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kalhan, Satish C

    2016-01-01

    One carbon metabolism or methyl transfer, a crucial component of metabolism in all cells and tissues, supports the critical function of synthesis of purines, thymidylate and methylation via multiple methyl transferases driven by the ubiquitous methyl donor s-adenosylmethionine. Serine is the primary methyl donor to the one carbon pool. Intracellular folates and methionine metabolism are the critical components of one carbon transfer. Methionine metabolism requires vitamin B12, B6 as cofactors and is modulated by endocrine signals and is responsive to nutrient intake. Perturbations in one carbon transfer can have profound effects on cell proliferation, growth and function. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental model have established a strong relationship between impaired fetal growth and the immediate and long term consequences to the health of the offspring. It is speculated that during development, maternal environmental and nutrient influences by their effects on one carbon transfer can impact the health of the mother, impair growth and reprogram metabolism of the fetus, and cause long term morbidity in the offspring. The potential for such effects is underscored by the unique responses in methionine metabolism in the human mother during pregnancy, the absence of transsulfuration activity in the fetus, ontogeny of methionine metabolism in the placenta and the unique metabolism of serine and glycine in the fetus. Dietary protein restriction in animals and marginal protein intake in humans causes characteristic changes in one carbon metabolism. The impact of perturbations in one carbon metabolism on the health of the mother during pregnancy, on fetal growth and the neonate are discussed and their possible mechanism explored. PMID:27267668

  11. Can frequent precipitation moderate drought impact on peatmoss carbon uptake in northern peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijp, Jelmer; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Berendse, Frank; Robroek, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands represent one of the largest global carbon stores that can potentially be released by water table drawdown during extreme summer droughts. Small precipitation events may moderate negative impacts of deep water levels on carbon uptake by sustaining photosynthesis of peatmoss (Sphagnum spp.), the key species in these ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the importance of the temporal distribution of precipitation for Sphagnum water supply and carbon uptake during a stepwise decrease in water levels in a growth chamber. CO2 exchange and the water balance were measured for intact cores of three peatmoss species representative of three contrasting habitats in northern peatlands (Sphagnum fuscum, S. balticum and S. majus). For shallow water levels, capillary rise was the most important source of water for peatmoss photosynthesis and precipitation did not promote carbon uptake irrespective of peatmoss species. For deep water levels, however, precipitation dominated over capillary rise and moderated adverse effects of drought on carbon uptake by peat mosses. The ability to use the transient water supply by precipitation was species-specific: carbon uptake of S. fuscum increased linearly with precipitation frequency for deep water levels, whereas S. balticum and S. majus showed depressed carbon uptake at intermediate precipitation frequencies. Our results highlight the importance of precipitation for carbon uptake by peatmosses. The potential of precipitation to moderate drought impact, however, is species specific and depends on the temporal distribution of precipitation and water level. These results also suggest that modelling approaches in which water level depth is used as the only state variable determining water availability in the living moss layer and (in)directly linked to Sphagnum carbon uptake may have serious drawbacks. The predictive power of peatland ecosystem models may be reduced when deep water levels prevail, as precipitation

  12. Assessing the environmental impact of energy production from hydrochar generated via hydrothermal carbonization of food wastes.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Li, Liang; Flora, Joseph R V; Ro, Kyoung S

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous studies suggesting hydrothermal carbonization is an environmentally advantageous process for transformation of wastes to value-added products, a systems level evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion has not been conducted. The specific objectives of this work are to use a life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with the HTC of food wastes and the subsequent combustion of the generated solid product (hydrochar) for energy production, and to understand how parameters and/or components associated with food waste carbonization and subsequent hydrochar combustion influence system environmental impact. Results from this analysis indicate that HTC process water emissions and hydrochar combustion most significantly influence system environmental impact, with a net negative GWP impact resulting for all evaluated substituted energy-sources except biomass. These results illustrate the importance of electricity production from hydrochar particularly when it is used to offset coal-based energy sources. HTC process water emissions result in a net impact to the environment, indicating a need for developing appropriate management strategies. Results from this analysis also highlight a need for additional exploration of liquid and gas-phase composition, a better understanding of how changes in carbonization conditions (e.g., reaction time and temperature) influence metal and nutrient fate, and the exploration of liquid-phase treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-scale impact of climate temporal variability on ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    DOE PAGES

    Paschalis, Athanasios; Fatichi, Simone; Katul, Gabriel G.; ...

    2015-08-07

    While the importance of ecosystem functioning is undisputed in the context of climate change and Earth system modeling, the role of short-scale temporal variability of hydrometeorological forcing (~1 h) on the related ecosystem processes remains to be fully understood. Additionally, various impacts of meteorological forcing variability on water and carbon fluxes across a range of scales are explored here using numerical simulations. Synthetic meteorological drivers that highlight dynamic features of the short temporal scale in series of precipitation, temperature, and radiation are constructed. These drivers force a mechanistic ecohydrological model that propagates information content into the dynamics of water andmore » carbon fluxes for an ensemble of representative ecosystems. The focus of the analysis is on a cross-scale effect of the short-scale forcing variability on the modeled evapotranspiration and ecosystem carbon assimilation. Interannual variability of water and carbon fluxes is emphasized in the analysis. The main study inferences are summarized as follows: (a) short-scale variability of meteorological input does affect water and carbon fluxes across a wide range of time scales, spanning from the hourly to the annual and longer scales; (b) different ecosystems respond to the various characteristics of the short-scale variability of the climate forcing in various ways, depending on dominant factors limiting system productivity; (c) whenever short-scale variability of meteorological forcing influences primarily fast processes such as photosynthesis, its impact on the slow-scale variability of water and carbon fluxes is small; and (d) whenever short-scale variability of the meteorological forcing impacts slow processes such as movement and storage of water in the soil, the effects of the variability can propagate to annual and longer time scales.« less

  14. Cross-scale impact of climate temporal variability on ecosystem water and carbon fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Paschalis, Athanasios; Fatichi, Simone; Katul, Gabriel G.

    While the importance of ecosystem functioning is undisputed in the context of climate change and Earth system modeling, the role of short-scale temporal variability of hydrometeorological forcing (~1 h) on the related ecosystem processes remains to be fully understood. Additionally, various impacts of meteorological forcing variability on water and carbon fluxes across a range of scales are explored here using numerical simulations. Synthetic meteorological drivers that highlight dynamic features of the short temporal scale in series of precipitation, temperature, and radiation are constructed. These drivers force a mechanistic ecohydrological model that propagates information content into the dynamics of water andmore » carbon fluxes for an ensemble of representative ecosystems. The focus of the analysis is on a cross-scale effect of the short-scale forcing variability on the modeled evapotranspiration and ecosystem carbon assimilation. Interannual variability of water and carbon fluxes is emphasized in the analysis. The main study inferences are summarized as follows: (a) short-scale variability of meteorological input does affect water and carbon fluxes across a wide range of time scales, spanning from the hourly to the annual and longer scales; (b) different ecosystems respond to the various characteristics of the short-scale variability of the climate forcing in various ways, depending on dominant factors limiting system productivity; (c) whenever short-scale variability of meteorological forcing influences primarily fast processes such as photosynthesis, its impact on the slow-scale variability of water and carbon fluxes is small; and (d) whenever short-scale variability of the meteorological forcing impacts slow processes such as movement and storage of water in the soil, the effects of the variability can propagate to annual and longer time scales.« less

  15. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    La Scala, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  16. Impact of two hydrothermal carbonization filtrates on soil greenhouse production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical treatment process that allows for the conversion of wet biomass slurries to new liquid and solid products. A majority of the research to date has focused on the solid HTC product (hydrochar). Less attention has been paid to the utilization of the ...

  17. Human impact on long-term organic carbon export to rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noacco, Valentina; Wagener, Thorsten; Worrall, Fred; Burt, Tim P.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.

    2017-04-01

    Anthropogenic landscape alterations have increased global carbon transported by rivers to oceans since preindustrial times. Few suitable observational data sets exist to distinguish different drivers of carbon increase, given that alterations only reveal their impact on fluvial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) over long time periods. We use the world's longest record of DOC concentrations (130 years) to identify key drivers of DOC change in the Thames basin (UK). We show that 90% of the long-term rise in fluvial DOC is explained by increased urbanization, which released to the river 671 kt C over the entire period. This source of carbon is linked to rising population, due to increased sewage effluent. Soil disturbance from land use change explained shorter-term fluvial responses. The largest land use disturbance was during the Second World War, when almost half the grassland area in the catchment was converted into arable land, which released 45 kt C from soils to the river. Carbon that had built up in soils over decades was released to the river in only a few years. Our work suggests that widespread population growth may have a greater influence on fluvial DOC trends than previously thought.

  18. Tree species diversity mitigates disturbance impacts on the forest carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Silva Pedro, Mariana; Rammer, Werner; Seidl, Rupert

    2015-03-01

    Biodiversity fosters the functioning and stability of forest ecosystems and, consequently, the provision of crucial ecosystem services that support human well-being and quality of life. In particular, it has been suggested that tree species diversity buffers ecosystems against the impacts of disturbances, a relationship known as the "insurance hypothesis". Natural disturbances have increased across Europe in recent decades and climate change is expected to amplify the frequency and severity of disturbance events. In this context, mitigating disturbance impacts and increasing the resilience of forest ecosystems is of growing importance. We have tested how tree species diversity modulates the impact of disturbance on net primary production and the total carbon stored in living biomass for a temperate forest landscape in Central Europe. Using the simulation model iLand to study the effect of different disturbance regimes on landscapes with varying levels of tree species richness, we found that increasing diversity generally reduces the disturbance impact on carbon storage and uptake, but that this effect weakens or even reverses with successional development. Our simulations indicate a clear positive relationship between diversity and resilience, with more diverse systems experiencing lower disturbance-induced variability in their trajectories of ecosystem functioning. We found that positive effects of tree species diversity are mainly driven by an increase in functional diversity and a modulation of traits related to recolonization and resource usage. The results of our study suggest that increasing tree species diversity could mitigate the effects of intensifying disturbance regimes on ecosystem functioning and improve the robustness of forest carbon storage and the role of forests in climate change mitigation.

  19. The impact of Indonesian peatland degradation on downstream marine ecosystems and the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jesse F; Hohn, Sönke; Rixen, Tim; Baum, Antje; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Tropical peatlands are among the most space-efficient stores of carbon on Earth containing approximately 89 Gt C. Of this, 57 Gt (65%) are stored in Indonesian peatlands. Large-scale exploitation of land, including deforestation and drainage for the establishment of oil palm plantations, is changing the carbon balance of Indonesian peatlands, turning them from a natural sink to a source via outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere and leakage of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the coastal ocean. The impacts of this perturbation to the coastal environment and at the global scale are largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the downstream effects of released Indonesian peat carbon on coastal ecosystems and on the global carbon cycle. We use a biogeochemical box model in combination with novel and literature observations to investigate the impact of different carbon emission scenarios on the combined ocean-atmosphere system. The release of all carbon stored in the Indonesian peat pool, considered as a worst-case scenario, will increase atmospheric pCO2 by 8 ppm to 15 ppm within the next 200 years. The expected impact on the Java Sea ecosystems is most significant on the short term (over a few hundred years) and is characterized by an increase of 3.3% in phytoplankton, 32% in seagrass biomass, and 5% decrease in coral biomass. On the long term, however, the coastal ecosystems will recover to reach near pre-excursion conditions. Our results suggest that the ultimate fate of the peat carbon is in the deep ocean with 69% of it landing in the deep DIC pool after 1000 years, but the effects on the global ocean carbonate chemistry will be marginal. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Environmental impact of an Italian wine bottle: Carbon and water footprint assessment.

    PubMed

    Bonamente, Emanuele; Scrucca, Flavio; Rinaldi, Sara; Merico, Maria Cleofe; Asdrubali, Francesco; Lamastra, Lucrezia

    2016-08-01

    The food sector represents one of the major impacting sectors from an environmental point of view and, among all the products, wine emerges as one of the most studied by the literature. Single-issue approaches are commonly used, but a more comprehensive analysis is desirable, since a single indicator does not properly track the pressure on the environment. This paper presents a combined carbon and water footprint assessment, with a cradle to grave approach, for a protected designation of origin Italian red wine, and suggests a correlation among the two indicators across the life cycle phases. A total CF equal to 1.07±0.09kgCO2eq/bottle and a total WF equal to 580±30l/bottle were calculated for the studied product and a direct proportionality was found between the total CF and the sum of WFgrey(indirect) and WFblue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocean Fertilization for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.

    The ocean is a major sink for both preindustrial and anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Both physically and biogeochemically driven pumps, termed the solubility and biological pump, respectively Fig.5.1) are responsible for the majority of carbon sequestration in the ocean's interior [1]. The solubility pump relies on ocean circulation - specifically the impact of cooling of the upper ocean at high latitudes both enhances the solubility of carbon dioxide and the density of the waters which sink to great depth (the so-called deepwater formation) and thereby sequester carbon in the form of dissolved inorganic carbon (Fig.5.1). The biological pump is driven by the availability of preformed plant macronutrients such as nitrate or phosphate which are taken up by phytoplankton during photosynthetic carbon fixation. A small but significant proportion of this fixed carbon sinks into the ocean's interior in the form of settling particles, and in order to maintain equilibrium carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is transferred across the air-sea interface into the ocean (the so-called carbon drawdown) thereby decreasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (Fig.5.1).Fig.5.1

  2. Water-carbon Links in a Tropical Forest: How Interbasin Groundwater Flow Affects Carbon Fluxes and Ecosystem Carbon Budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Genereux, David; Osburn, Christopher; Oberbauer, Steven

    This report covers the outcomes from a quantitative, interdisciplinary field investigation of how carbon fluxes and budgets in a lowland tropical rainforest are affected by the discharge of old regional groundwater into streams, springs, and wetlands in the forest. The work was carried out in a lowland rainforest of Costa Rica, at La Selva Biological Station. The research shows that discharge of regional groundwater high in dissolved carbon dioxide represents a significant input of carbon to the rainforest "from below", an input that is on average larger than the carbon input "from above" from the atmosphere. A stream receiving dischargemore » of regional groundwater had greatly elevated emissions of carbon dioxide (but not methane) to the overlying air, and elevated downstream export of carbon from its watershed with stream flow. The emission of deep geological carbon dioxide from stream water elevates the carbon dioxide concentrations in air above the streams. Carbon-14 tracing revealed the presence of geological carbon in the leaves and stems of some riparian plants near streams that receive inputs of regional groundwater. Also, discharge of regional groundwater is responsible for input of dissolved organic matter with distinctive chemistry to rainforest streams and wetlands. The discharge of regional groundwater in lowland surface waters has a major impact on the carbon cycle in this and likely other tropical and non-tropical forests.« less

  3. Crustal evolution of the early earth: The role of major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1979-01-01

    The role of major impact basins (such as those which formed on the moon before 4 billion years ago) is examined to determine the effects of such impacts on the early crustal evolution of the earth. Specifically addressed is the fundamental problem of what is the origin of the earth's fundamental crustal dichotomy of low density continental and high density oceanic crust and its relationship to the superficially similar highlands/maria crustal dichotomies of the moon, Mercury and Mars.

  4. Consistent quantification of climate impacts due to biogenic carbon storage across a range of bio-product systems

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, Geoffrey, E-mail: geoffrey.guest@ntnu.no; Bright, Ryan M., E-mail: ryan.m.bright@ntnu.no; Cherubini, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cherubini@ntnu.no

    2013-11-15

    Temporary and permanent carbon storage from biogenic sources is seen as a way to mitigate climate change. The aim of this work is to illustrate the need to harmonize the quantification of such mitigation across all possible storage pools in the bio- and anthroposphere. We investigate nine alternative storage cases and a wide array of bio-resource pools: from annual crops, short rotation woody crops, medium rotation temperate forests, and long rotation boreal forests. For each feedstock type and biogenic carbon storage pool, we quantify the carbon cycle climate impact due to the skewed time distribution between emission and sequestration fluxesmore » in the bio- and anthroposphere. Additional consideration of the climate impact from albedo changes in forests is also illustrated for the boreal forest case. When characterizing climate impact with global warming potentials (GWP), we find a large variance in results which is attributed to different combinations of biomass storage and feedstock systems. The storage of biogenic carbon in any storage pool does not always confer climate benefits: even when biogenic carbon is stored long-term in durable product pools, the climate outcome may still be undesirable when the carbon is sourced from slow-growing biomass feedstock. For example, when biogenic carbon from Norway Spruce from Norway is stored in furniture with a mean life time of 43 years, a climate change impact of 0.08 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year time horizon (TH)) would result. It was also found that when biogenic carbon is stored in a pool with negligible leakage to the atmosphere, the resulting GWP factor is not necessarily − 1 CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored. As an example, when biogenic CO{sub 2} from Norway Spruce biomass is stored in geological reservoirs with no leakage, we estimate a GWP of − 0.56 kg CO{sub 2}eq per kg CO{sub 2} stored (100 year TH) when albedo effects are also included. The large variance in GWPs across the

  5. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation

  6. Impacts of tropical cyclones on U.S. forest tree mortality and carbon flux from 1851 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hongcheng; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Negrón-Juárez, Robinson I.; Hurtt, George C.; Baker, David B.; Powell, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical cyclones cause extensive tree mortality and damage to forested ecosystems. A number of patterns in tropical cyclone frequency and intensity have been identified. There exist, however, few studies on the dynamic impacts of historical tropical cyclones at a continental scale. Here, we synthesized field measurements, satellite image analyses, and empirical models to evaluate forest and carbon cycle impacts for historical tropical cyclones from 1851 to 2000 over the continental U.S. Results demonstrated an average of 97 million trees affected each year over the entire United States, with a 53-Tg annual biomass loss, and an average carbon release of 25 Tg y−1. Over the period 1980–1990, released CO2 potentially offset the carbon sink in forest trees by 9–18% over the entire United States. U.S. forests also experienced twice the impact before 1900 than after 1900 because of more active tropical cyclones and a larger extent of forested areas. Forest impacts were primarily located in Gulf Coast areas, particularly southern Texas and Louisiana and south Florida, while significant impacts also occurred in eastern North Carolina. Results serve as an important baseline for evaluating how potential future changes in hurricane frequency and intensity will impact forest tree mortality and carbon balance. PMID:19416842

  7. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE PAGES

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; ...

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO₂, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore » States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  8. Impact of different fertilizers on carbonate weathering in a typical karst area, Southwest China: a field column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chao; Liu, Changli; Han, Guilin; Liu, Congqiang

    2017-09-01

    Carbonate weathering, as a significant vector for the movement of carbon both between and within ecosystems, is strongly influenced by agricultural fertilization, since the addition of fertilizers tends to change the chemical characteristics of soil such as the pH. Different fertilizers may exert a different impact on carbonate weathering, but these discrepancies are as yet not well-known. In this study, a field column experiment was conducted to explore the response of carbonate weathering to the addition of different fertilizers. We compared 11 different treatments, including a control treatment, using three replicates per treatment. Carbonate weathering was assessed by measuring the weight loss of limestone and dolostone tablets buried at the bottom of soil-filled columns. The results show that the addition of urea, NH4NO3, NH4HCO3, NH4Cl and (NH4)2CO3 distinctly increased carbonate weathering, which was attributed to the nitrification of NH4+. The addition of Ca3(PO4)2, Ca-Mg-P and K2CO3 induced carbonate precipitation due to the common ion effect. The addition of (NH4)3PO4 and NaNO3 had a relatively small impact on carbonate weathering in comparison to those five NH4-based fertilizers above. The results of NaNO3 treatment raise a new question: the negligible impact of nitrate on carbonate weathering may result in an overestimation of the impact of N fertilizer on CO2 consumption by carbonate weathering on the regional/global scale if the effects of NO3 and NH4 are not distinguished.

  9. Changes in Eocene-Miocene shallow marine carbonate factories along the tropical SE Circum-Caribbean responded to major regional and global environmental and tectonic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Tamayo, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Changes in the factory of Cenozoic tropical marine carbonates have been for long attributed to major variations on climatic and environmental conditions. Although important changes on the factories of Cenozoic Caribbean carbonates seem to have followed global climatic and environmental changes, the regional impact of such changes on the factories of shallow marine carbonate along the Caribbean is not well established. Moreover, the influence of transpressional tectonics on the occurrence, distribution and stratigraphy of shallow marine carbonate factories along this area is far from being well understood. Here we report detailed stratigraphic, petrographic and Sr-isotope chemostratigraphic information of several Eocene-Miocene carbonate successions deposited along the equatorial/tropical SE Circum-Caribbean (Colombia and Panama) from which we further assess the influence of changing environmental conditions, transtentional tectonics and sea level change on the development of the shallow marine carbonate factories. Our results suggest that during the Eocene-early Oligocene interval, a period of predominant high atmospheric pCO2, coralline algae constitute the principal carbonate builders of shallow marine carbonate successions along the SE Circum-Caribbean. Detailed stratigraphic and paragenetic analyses suggest the developed of laterally continuous red algae calcareous build-ups along outer-rimmed carbonate platforms. The predominance of coralline red algae over corals on the shallow marine carbonate factories was likely related to high sea surface temperatures and high turbidity. The occurrence of such build-ups was likely controlled by pronounce changes in the basin paleotopography, i.e. the occurrence of basement highs and lows, resulting from local transpressional tectonics. The occurrence of these calcareous red algae dominated factories was also controlled by diachronic opening of different sedimentary basins along the SE Circum Caribbean resulting from

  10. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Lawrence, D. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through its impact on terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignition and efforts to suppress fires (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to generate a quantitative understanding of the impacts on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycling that can be attributed to changes in human ignition and suppression over the 20th century. We find that the net impact of increases in human ignition and suppression significantly reduce the 20th century averaged global burned area by 38 Mha/yr. The reduction increases since 1920, rising to 103 Mha/yr less burned area at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire also weakens the 20th century upward trend of global runoff by 6%, and enhances the upward trend in global evaportranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  11. Major cellular and physiological impacts of ocean acidification on a reef building coral.

    PubMed

    Kaniewska, Paulina; Campbell, Paul R; Kline, David I; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Miller, David J; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2012-01-01

    As atmospheric levels of CO(2) increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of physiology measurements and cDNA microarrays, we show that changes in pH and ocean chemistry consistent with two scenarios put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) drive major changes in gene expression, respiration, photosynthesis and symbiosis of the coral, Acropora millepora, before affects on biomineralisation are apparent at the phenotype level. Under high CO(2) conditions corals at the phenotype level lost over half their Symbiodinium populations, and had a decrease in both photosynthesis and respiration. Changes in gene expression were consistent with metabolic suppression, an increase in oxidative stress, apoptosis and symbiont loss. Other expression patterns demonstrate upregulation of membrane transporters, as well as the regulation of genes involved in membrane cytoskeletal interactions and cytoskeletal remodeling. These widespread changes in gene expression emphasize the need to expand future studies of ocean acidification to include a wider spectrum of cellular processes, many of which may occur before impacts on calcification.

  12. Major Cellular and Physiological Impacts of Ocean Acidification on a Reef Building Coral

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewska, Paulina; Campbell, Paul R.; Kline, David I.; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Miller, David J.

    2012-01-01

    As atmospheric levels of CO2 increase, reef-building corals are under greater stress from both increased sea surface temperatures and declining sea water pH. To date, most studies have focused on either coral bleaching due to warming oceans or declining calcification due to decreasing oceanic carbonate ion concentrations. Here, through the use of physiology measurements and cDNA microarrays, we show that changes in pH and ocean chemistry consistent with two scenarios put forward by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) drive major changes in gene expression, respiration, photosynthesis and symbiosis of the coral, Acropora millepora, before affects on biomineralisation are apparent at the phenotype level. Under high CO2 conditions corals at the phenotype level lost over half their Symbiodinium populations, and had a decrease in both photosynthesis and respiration. Changes in gene expression were consistent with metabolic suppression, an increase in oxidative stress, apoptosis and symbiont loss. Other expression patterns demonstrate upregulation of membrane transporters, as well as the regulation of genes involved in membrane cytoskeletal interactions and cytoskeletal remodeling. These widespread changes in gene expression emphasize the need to expand future studies of ocean acidification to include a wider spectrum of cellular processes, many of which may occur before impacts on calcification. PMID:22509341

  13. A comparative study on the tensile and impact properties of Kevlar, carbon, and S-glass/epoxy composites reinforced with SiC particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Alsaadi, Mohamad; Erkliğ, Ahmet

    2018-02-01

    Present study compares the tensile and impact characteristics of Kevlar, carbon and glass fiber reinforced composites with addition of microscale silicon carbide (SiC) within the common matrix of epoxy. The variation of tensile and impact strength values was explored for different content of SiC in the epoxy resin by weight (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%). Resulting failure characteristics were identified by assisting Charpy impact tests. The influence of interfacial adhesion between particle and fiber/matrix on failure and tensile properties was discussed from obtained results and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) figures. It is concluded from results that the content of SiC particles, and fiber types used as reinforcement are major parameters those effecting on tensile and impact resistance of composites as a result of different interface strength properties between particle-matrix and particle-fiber.

  14. Allochthonous Carbon--a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, D; Rowe, O F; Paczkowska, J; Legrand, C; Andersson, A

    2016-05-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60% of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2%. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60%. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  15. A retrospective multicenter study of carbon-ion radiotherapy for major salivary gland carcinomas: Subanalysis of J-CROS 1402 HN.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Koto, Masashi; Demizu, Yusuke; Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Suefuji, Hiroaki; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Takagi, Ryo; Ikawa, Hiroaki; Nemoto, Kenji; Nakano, Takashi; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-01

    A retrospective multicenter study was carried out to assess the clinical outcomes of carbon-ion radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies (Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group [J-CROS] study: 1402 HN). We evaluated the safety and efficacy of carbon-ion radiotherapy in patients with major salivary gland carcinoma. Sixty-nine patients treated with carbon-ion radiotherapy at four Japanese institutions were analyzed. Thirty-three patients (48%) had adenoid cystic carcinomas, 10 (14%) had mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and 26 (38%) had other disease types. Three patients (4%) had T1 disease, 8 (12%) had T2, 25 (36%) had T3, and 33 (48%) had T4. The median radiation dose was 64 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) in 16 fractions. The median gross tumor volume was 27 mL. The median follow-up period was 32.7 months. The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate were 81% and 94%, respectively. Regarding acute toxicities, seven patients had grade 3 mucositis and seven had grade 3 dermatitis. Regarding late toxicities, one patient had grade 3 dysphagia and one had a grade 3 brain abscess. No grade 4 or worse late reactions were observed. In conclusion, definitive carbon-ion radiotherapy was effective with acceptable toxicity for major salivary gland carcinomas. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  16. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà I Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M

    2015-06-16

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation.

  17. Spatial patterns of agricultural expansion determine impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Sharp, Richard P.; Mandle, Lisa; Sim, Sarah; Johnson, Justin; Butnar, Isabela; Milà i Canals, Llorenç; Eichelberger, Bradley A.; Ramler, Ivan; Mueller, Carina; McLachlan, Nikolaus; Yousefi, Anahita; King, Henry; Kareiva, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural expansion and intensification required to meet growing food and agri-based product demand present important challenges to future levels and management of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Influential actors such as corporations, governments, and multilateral organizations have made commitments to meeting future agricultural demand sustainably and preserving critical ecosystems. Current approaches to predicting the impacts of agricultural expansion involve calculation of total land conversion and assessment of the impacts on biodiversity or ecosystem services on a per-area basis, generally assuming a linear relationship between impact and land area. However, the impacts of continuing land development are often not linear and can vary considerably with spatial configuration. We demonstrate what could be gained by spatially explicit analysis of agricultural expansion at a large scale compared with the simple measure of total area converted, with a focus on the impacts on biodiversity and carbon storage. Using simple modeling approaches for two regions of Brazil, we find that for the same amount of land conversion, the declines in biodiversity and carbon storage can vary two- to fourfold depending on the spatial pattern of conversion. Impacts increase most rapidly in the earliest stages of agricultural expansion and are more pronounced in scenarios where conversion occurs in forest interiors compared with expansion into forests from their edges. This study reveals the importance of spatially explicit information in the assessment of land-use change impacts and for future land management and conservation. PMID:26082547

  18. A SEM-ATEM and stable isotope study of carbonates from the Haughton impact crater, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Isabelle; Agrinier, Pierre; Schärer, Urs; Javoy, Marc

    1994-02-01

    Highly and intermediately shocked carbonate-rich fragments of the allochtonous polymict breccia from the Haughton impact crater (Canada) were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Analytical Transmission Electron Microscopy (ATEM) and analyses of carbon and oxygen stable isotopes ( δ13C and δ18O). In areas subjected to severe shock conditions, carbonates represent only about 10 vol% of the shocked samples and they are located in holes and fractures within a matrix of SiO 2-rich glass. Shock features are absent in these crystals. High-temperature reactions have occurred between molten silicates and carbonates, producing Ca sbnd Mg-rich glasses, or crystalline phases such as augite and larnite (Ca 2SiO 4). The carbonates are dominated by calcite and they generally have significantly positive δ13C, ranging up to +9‰, with a weighted average value of +1.75‰. Their δ18O values range between +15‰ and +20‰ and they are about 5‰ lower than in unshocked reference sediments, a trend consistent with that resulting from silicate-carbonate reactions. The microstructures of the carbonates suggest that they did not undergo shock conditions but, instead, were produced by back-reactions between impact-released CO 2 and highly reactive residual oxides. Such a process would introduce isotope fractionations, which might explain the positive δ13C values observed. A simple kinetic fractionation model involving a Rayleigh distillation process is used to estimate the CO 2 fraction actually lost from the carbonates. It appears that this fraction is related to the amount of high-temperature carbonate-silicate reactions. Moderately shocked fragments from other areas of the polymict breccia consist of 40-81 vol% carbonates. Their δ13C values lie in the range of unshocked reference sediments between -2‰ and -4‰, whereas their δ18O values are by about 5‰ lower than in the unshocked equivalents. No evidence for important decarbonatization is observed from 13C, and

  19. Assessing fire impacts on the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lauren T; Bruce, Matthew J; Machunter, Josephine; Kohout, Michele; Krishnaraj, Saravanan Jangammanaidu; Aponte, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests is often assumed but less frequently assessed, limiting the potential to anticipate threats to forest carbon posed by predicted increases in forest fire activity. Assessing the carbon stability of fire-tolerant forests requires multi-indicator approaches that recognize the myriad ways that fires influence the carbon balance, including combustion, deposition of pyrogenic material, and tree death, post-fire decomposition, recruitment, and growth. Five years after a large-scale wildfire in southeastern Australia, we assessed the impacts of low- and high-severity wildfire, with and without prescribed fire (≤10 yr before), on carbon stocks in multiple pools, and on carbon stability indicators (carbon stock percentages in live trees and in small trees, and carbon stocks in char and fuels) in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests. Relative to unburned forest, high-severity wildfire decreased short-term (five-year) carbon stability by significantly decreasing live tree carbon stocks and percentage stocks in live standing trees (reflecting elevated tree mortality), by increasing the percentage of live tree carbon in small trees (those vulnerable to the next fire), and by potentially increasing the probability of another fire through increased elevated fine fuel loads. In contrast, low-severity wildfire enhanced carbon stability by having negligible effects on aboveground stocks and indicators, and by significantly increasing carbon stocks in char and, in particular, soils, indicating pyrogenic carbon accumulation. Overall, recent preceding prescribed fire did not markedly influence wildfire effects on short-term carbon stability at stand scales. Despite wide confidence intervals around mean stock differences, indicating uncertainty about the magnitude of fire effects in these natural forests, our assessment highlights the need for active management of carbon assets in fire-tolerant eucalypt forests under contemporary fire regimes

  20. An analysis of burn-off impact on the structure microporous of activated carbons formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Mirosław; Kopac, Türkan

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results on the application of the LBET numerical method as a tool for analysis of the microporous structure of activated carbons obtained from a bituminous coal. The LBET method was employed particularly to evaluate the impact of the burn-off on the obtained microporous structure parameters of activated carbons.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on ocean acidification and the inorganic carbon system.

    PubMed

    Doney, Scott C; Mahowald, Natalie; Lima, Ivan; Feely, Richard A; Mackenzie, Fred T; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Rasch, Phil J

    2007-09-11

    Fossil fuel combustion and agriculture result in atmospheric deposition of 0.8 Tmol/yr reactive sulfur and 2.7 Tmol/yr nitrogen to the coastal and open ocean near major source regions in North America, Europe, and South and East Asia. Atmospheric inputs of dissociation products of strong acids (HNO(3) and H2SO(4)) and bases (NH(3)) alter surface seawater alkalinity, pH, and inorganic carbon storage. We quantify the biogeochemical impacts by using atmosphere and ocean models. The direct acid/base flux to the ocean is predominately acidic (reducing total alkalinity) in the temperate Northern Hemisphere and alkaline in the tropics because of ammonia inputs. However, because most of the excess ammonia is nitrified to nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the upper ocean, the effective net atmospheric input is acidic almost everywhere. The decrease in surface alkalinity drives a net air-sea efflux of CO(2), reducing surface dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC); the alkalinity and DIC changes mostly offset each other, and the decline in surface pH is small. Additional impacts arise from nitrogen fertilization, leading to elevated primary production and biological DIC drawdown that reverses in some places the sign of the surface pH and air-sea CO(2) flux perturbations. On a global scale, the alterations in surface water chemistry from anthropogenic nitrogen and sulfur deposition are a few percent of the acidification and DIC increases due to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO(2). However, the impacts are more substantial in coastal waters, where the ecosystem responses to ocean acidification could have the most severe implications for mankind.

  2. Impacts of urbanization on carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems of the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Tian, Hanqin; Chen, Guangsheng; Chappelka, Arthur; Xu, Xiaofeng; Ren, Wei; Hui, Dafeng; Liu, Mingliang; Lu, Chaoqun; Pan, Shufen; Lockaby, Graeme

    2012-05-01

    Using a process-based Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, we assessed carbon dynamics of urbanized/developed lands in the Southern United States during 1945-2007. The results indicated that approximately 1.72 (1.69-1.77) Pg (1P = 10(15)) carbon was stored in urban/developed lands, comparable to the storage of shrubland or cropland in the region. Urbanization resulted in a release of 0.21 Pg carbon to the atmosphere during 1945-2007. Pre-urbanization vegetation type and time since land conversion were two primary factors determining the extent of urbanization impacts on carbon dynamics. After a rapid decline of carbon storage during land conversion, an urban ecosystem gradually accumulates carbon and may compensate for the initial carbon loss in 70-100 years. The carbon sequestration rate of urban ecosystem diminishes with time, nearly disappearing in two centuries after land conversion. This study implied that it is important to take urbanization effect into account for assessing regional carbon balance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Dams impact carbon dynamics in U.S. rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC)—which leaches into freshwater systems from plants, soils, and sediments, and from other detritus present in the water itself—is the major food supplement for microorganisms and plays an important role in several environmental processes and in the global carbon cycle. In some aquatic systems such as estuaries, the optically measurable colored component of dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is often proportional to the concentration of DOC. CDOM forms when light-absorbing compounds are released into the water by decaying organic material and through photochemical degradation of certain organic compounds. Hence, CDOM reflects not just the environment and ecosystem, which is the source of the detritus, but also the processes that deliver the organic matter into aquatic systems. Human activities, such as logging, agriculture, and waste water treatment, also affect CDOM levels in aquatic systems. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to measure the CDOM content in small volumes of water.

  4. Rubidium-Strontium Formation Age of Allan Hills 84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Reese, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our preferred age for the formation of carbonates in the martian meteorite ALH 84001 is 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) equals 0.01402 Ga (exp -1), or 3.85 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) = 0.0142 Ga(exponent -1). This age is determined by a three-point Rb-Sr isochron defined by leachates of high-graded carbonate-rich material. Major cation and especially phosphorous analyses of the leachates permit contributions from igneous whitlockite to be recognized for low-acidity leachates, and the corresponding data are omitted from the isochron. Data for the two highest acidity leachates plot close to the preferred isochron, but are omitted because we believe they contain contributions leached from the pyroxene substrate on which most of the carbonates are found. Nevertheless, the isochron age for all five highest-acidity leachates is 3.94 plus or minus 0.04 Ga, and is within error of the age obtained for the more restricted data set. All leachates used to define the isochron have major cation compositions that are singular to those obtained by microprobe analyses of the carbonate rosettes and are consistent with progressive digestion of the carbonates according to their composition. The age thus obtained for the carbonates is about 600 m.y. younger than the crystalization age of ALH 84001 determined by Sm-Nd analyses but is within error limits of the age of impact metamorphism inferred from the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar systematics of silicates. which yield ages of 3.85 plus or minus 0.05 Ga and 4.05- 3.80 Ga to 4.3-3.8 Ga, respectively. Similarities between the carbonate crystallization age and the age of impact metamorphism as determined by Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr suggest that the carbonate formation is impact-related. Nevertheless, both high and low- temperature scenarios for the origin of the carbonates are possible.

  5. 78 FR 28205 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Lake Charles Carbon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project (DOE/EIS-0464D) AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy...) announces the availability of the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project Draft [[Page 28206... potential environmental impacts associated with the Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project...

  6. Application of probabilistic event attribution in the summer heat extremes in the western US to emissions traced to major industrial carbon producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, R. J.; Allen, M. R.; Mote, P.; Ekwurzel, B.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Rupp, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Heat waves in the western US have become progressively more severe due to increasing relative humidity and nighttime temperatures, increasing the health risks of vulnerable portions of the population, including Latino farmworkers in California's Central Valley and other socioeconomically disadvantaged communities. Recent research has shown greenhouse gas emissions doubled the risk of the hottest summer days during the 2000's in the Central Valley, increasing public health risks and costs, and raising the question of which parties are responsible for paying these costs. It has been argued that these costs should not be taken up solely by the general public through taxation, but that additional parties can be considered, including multinational corporations who have extracted and marketed a large proportion of carbon-based fuels. Here, we apply probabilistic event attribution (PEA) to assess the contribution of emissions traced to the world's 90 largest major industrial carbon producers to the severity and frequency of these extreme heat events. Our research uses very large ensembles of regional climate model simulations to calculate fractional attribution of policy-relevant extreme heat variables. We compare a full forcings world with observed greenhouse gases, sea surface temperatures and sea ice extent to a counter-factual world devoid of carbon pollution from major industrial carbon producers. The results show a discernable fraction of record-setting summer temperatures in the western US during the 2000's can be attributed to emissions sourced from major carbon producers.

  7. [Carbon footprints of major staple grain crops production in three provinces of Northeast China during 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao Min; Chen, Chang Qing; Chen, Ming Zhou; Song, Zhen Wei; Deng, Ai Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Cheng Yan; Zhang, Wei Jian

    2016-10-01

    Northeast China is one of the most important farming regions in China, due to its great contribution to national food security. Crop production is a main source of carbon emission. To assess the differences in carbon footprints of major grain crop production will benefit the achievement of low carbon agriculture. Therefore, this study calculated the regional carbon foot prints of rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) production in Northeast China du-ring 2004-2013 using the provincial statistical data, including crop yield, sown area and production inputs. The results showed that the highest area-scale carbon footprint was found in rice production, with the average value of (2463±56) kg CE·hm -2 , while the second was found in maize production during 2004-2013. The sharpest rise occurred in maize production, from 1164 kg CE·hm -2 in 2004 to 1768 kg CE·hm -2 in 2013, with the average rate of 67 kg CE·hm -2 ·a -1 . The application of chemical fertilizer contributed to the carbon footprint largely, accounting for 45%, 90% and 83% for rice, maize and soybean, respectively. Moreover, the contribution of electricity for irrigation in rice production ranged from 29% to 42%, which was larger than that in maize and soybean production. The carbon footprints were significantly different among the three provinces of Northeast China. The highest yield-scaled carbon footprints for three crops were found in Jilin Province, while the lowest area-scaled carbon footprints found in Heilongjiang Province. Given to the large transfer of rural labor from agricultural to non-agricultural sections and the development of mechanization, diesel and other mechanical inputs would increase rapidly in the future. Therefore, improving ferti-lizer utilization, mechanical and irrigation efficiencies in crop production would be the main approaches to promoting low-carbon agriculture in Northeast China.

  8. NATIVE PLANTS FOR OPTIMIZING CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN RECLAIMED LANDS

    SciTech Connect

    P. UNKEFER; M. EBINGER; ET AL

    Carbon emissions and atmospheric concentrations are expected to continue to increase through the next century unless major changes are made in the way carbon is managed. Managing carbon has emerged as a pressing national energy and environmental need that will drive national policies and treaties through the coming decades. Addressing carbon management is now a major priority for DOE and the nation. One way to manage carbon is to use energy more efficiently to reduce our need for major energy and carbon source-fossil fuel combustion. Another way is to increase our use of low-carbon and carbon free fuels and technologies.more » A third way, and the focus of this proposal, is carbon sequestration, in which carbon is captured and stored thereby mitigating carbon emissions. Sequestration of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere has emerged as the principle means by which the US will meet its near-term international and economic requirements for reducing net carbon emissions (DOE Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science. 1999; IGBP 1998). Terrestrial carbon sequestration provides three major advantages. First, terrestrial carbon pools and fluxes are of sufficient magnitude to effectively mitigate national and even global carbon emissions. The terrestrial biosphere stores {approximately}2060 GigaTons of carbon and transfers approximately 120 GigaTons of carbon per year between the atmosphere and the earth's surface, whereas the current global annual emissions are about 6 GigaTons. Second, we can rapidly and readily modify existing management practices to increase carbon sequestration in our extensive forest, range, and croplands. Third, increasing soil carbon is without negative environment consequences and indeed positively impacts land productivity. The terrestrial carbon cycle is dependent on several interrelationships between plants and soils. Because the soil carbon pool ({approximately}1500 Giga Tons) is approximately three times that in terrestrial vegetation

  9. The impact of Earth system feedbacks on carbon budgets and climate response.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Bernie, Daniel

    2018-05-13

    A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified. Here, we make initial estimates to show that the combined impact from typically unrepresented Earth system processes may be important for the achievability of limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The size of the effects range up to around a 350 GtCO 2 budget reduction for a 1.5°C warming limit and around a 500 GtCO 2 reduction for achieving a warming limit of 2°C. Median estimates for the extra Earth system forcing lead to around 100 GtCO 2 and 150 GtCO 2 , respectively, for the two warming limits. Our estimates are equivalent to several years of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions at present rates. In addition to the likely reduction of the allowable global carbon budgets, the extra feedbacks also bring forward the date at which a given warming threshold is likely to be exceeded for a particular emission pathway.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. The impact of Earth system feedbacks on carbon budgets and climate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Jason A.; Bernie, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    A number of studies have examined the size of the allowable global cumulative carbon budget compatible with limiting twenty-first century global average temperature rise to below 2°C and below 1.5°C relative to pre-industrial levels. These estimates of cumulative emissions have a number of uncertainties including those associated with the climate sensitivity and the global carbon cycle. Although the IPCC fifth assessment report contained information on a range of Earth system feedbacks, such as carbon released by thawing of permafrost or methane production by wetlands as a result of climate change, the impact of many of these Earth system processes on the allowable carbon budgets remains to be quantified. Here, we make initial estimates to show that the combined impact from typically unrepresented Earth system processes may be important for the achievability of limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The size of the effects range up to around a 350 GtCO2 budget reduction for a 1.5°C warming limit and around a 500 GtCO2 reduction for achieving a warming limit of 2°C. Median estimates for the extra Earth system forcing lead to around 100 GtCO2 and 150 GtCO2, respectively, for the two warming limits. Our estimates are equivalent to several years of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions at present rates. In addition to the likely reduction of the allowable global carbon budgets, the extra feedbacks also bring forward the date at which a given warming threshold is likely to be exceeded for a particular emission pathway. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  11. Comparing Life-Cycle Carbon and Energy Impacts for Biofuel, Wood Product, and Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Bruce Lippke; Richard Gustafson; Richard Venditti; Philip Steele; Timothy A. Volk; Elaine Oneil; Leonard Johnson; Maureen E. Puettmann; Kenneth Skog

    2012-01-01

    The different uses of wood result in a hierarchy of carbon and energy impacts that can be characterized by their efficiency in displacing carbon emissions and/or in displacing fossil energy imports, both being current national objectives. When waste wood is used for biofuels (forest or mill residuals and thinnings) fossil fuels and their emissions are reduced without...

  12. Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir

    SciTech Connect

    Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi

    2011-06-23

    Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these compositesmore » are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.« less

  13. Post-impact fatigue of cross-plied, through-the-thickness reinforced carbon/epoxy composites. M.S. Thesis - Clemson Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serdinak, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the post-impact fatigue response of integrally woven carbon/epoxy composites was conducted. Five different through-the-thickness (TTT) reinforcing fibers were used in an experimental textile process that produced an integrally woven (0/90/0/90/0/90/0/90/0)(sub T) ply layup with 21K AS4 carbon tow fiber. The resin was Hercules 3501-6, and the five TTT reinforcing fibers were Kevlar, Toray carbon, AS4 carbon, glass, and IM6 carbon. The purpose of this investigation was to study the post-impact fatigue response of these material systems and to identify the optimum TTT fiber. Samples were impacted with one half inch diameter aluminum balls with an average velocity of 543 ft/sec. Post-impact static compression and constant amplitude tension-compression fatigue tests were conducted. Fatigue tests were conducted with a loading ratio of R=-5, and frequency of 4 Hz. Damage growth was monitored using x-radiographic and sectioning techniques and by examining the stress-strain response (across the impact site) throughout the fatigue tests. The static compressive stress versus far-field strain response was nearly linear for all material groups. All the samples had a transverse shear failure mode. The average compressive modulus (from far-field strain) was about 10 Msi. The average post-impact static compressive strength was about 35.5 Ksi. The IM6 carbon sample had a strength of over 40 Ksi, more than 16 percent stronger than average. There was considerable scatter in the S-N data. However, the IM6 carbon samples clearly had the best fatigue response. The response of the other materials, while worse than IM6 carbon, could not be ranked definitively. The initial damage zones caused by the impact loading and damage growth from fatigue loading were similar for all five TTT reinforcing materials. The initial damage zones were circular and consisted of delaminations, matrix cracks and ply cracks. Post-impact fatigue loading caused delamination growth

  14. Instrumented impact and residual tensile strength testing of eight-ply carbon eopoxy specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Instrumented drop weight impact testing was utilized to examine a puncture-type impact on thin carbon-epoxy coupons. Four different material systems with various eight-ply lay-up configurations were tested. Specimens were placed over a 10.3-mm diameter hole and impacted with a smaller tup (4.2-mm diameter) than those used in previous studies. Force-time plots as well as data on absorbed energy and residual tensile strength were gathered and examined. It was found that a critical impact energy level existed for each material tested, at which point tensile strength began to rapidly decrease with increasing impact energy.

  15. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a centurymore » average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since ~ 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.« less

  16. Human impacts on 20th century fire dynamics and implications for global carbon and water trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Lawrence, David M.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben

    2018-03-01

    Fire is a fundamental Earth system process and the primary ecosystem disturbance on the global scale. It affects carbon and water cycles through changing terrestrial ecosystems, and at the same time, is regulated by weather and climate, vegetation characteristics, and, importantly, human ignitions and suppression (i.e., the direct human effect on fire). Here, we utilize the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) to quantify the impacts of changes in human ignition and suppression on fire dynamics and associated carbon and water cycles. We find that the impact is to significantly reduce the 20th century global burned area by a century average of 38 Mha/yr and by 103 Mha/yr at the end of the century. Land carbon gain is weakened by 17% over the 20th century, mainly due to increased human deforestation fires and associated escape fires (i.e., degradation fires) in the tropical humid forests, even though the decrease in burned area in many other regions due to human fire suppression acts to increase land carbon gain. The direct human effect on fire weakens the upward trend in global runoff throughout the century by 6% and enhances the upward trend in global evapotranspiration since 1945 by 7%. In addition, the above impacts in densely populated, highly developed (if population density > 0.1 person/km2), or moderately populated and developed regions are of opposite sign to those in other regions. Our study suggests that particular attention should be paid to human deforestation and degradation fires in the tropical humid forests when reconstructing and projecting fire carbon emissions and net atmosphere-land carbon exchange and estimating resultant impacts of direct human effect on fire.

  17. Dissociation of CH4 by electron impact: Production of metastable hydrogen and carbon fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, T. G.; Carnahan, B. L.; Zipf, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Metastable fragments produced by electron impact excitation of CH4 have been investigated for incident electron energies from threshold to 300 eV. Only metastable hydrogen and carbon atoms were observed. Onset energies for the production of metastable hydrogen atoms were observed at electron impact energies of 22.0 + or - .5 eV, 25.5 + or - .6 eV, 36.7 + or - .6 eV and 66 + or - 3 eV, and at 26.6 + or - .6 eV for the production of metastable carbon atoms. Most of the fragments appear to have been formed in high-lying Rydberg states. The total metastable hydrogen cross section reaches a maximum value of approximately 1 X 10 to the minus 18th power sq cm at 100 eV. At the same energy, the metastable carbon cross section is 2 x 10 to the minus 19th power sq cm.

  18. Projecting future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K.; Flanagan, S.; Rourke, O.; Negron Juarez, R. I.

    2011-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial recent progress has been made to estimate the biomass loss and resulting carbon emissions caused by hurricanes impacting the U.S. Additionally, efforts to evaluate the net effects of hurricanes on the regional carbon balance have demonstrated the importance of viewing large disturbance events in the broader context of recovery from a mosaic of past events. Viewed over sufficiently long time scales and large spatial scales, regrowth from previous storms may largely offset new emissions; however, changes in number, strength or spatial distribution of extreme disturbance events will result in changes to the equilibrium state of the ecosystem and have the potential to result in a lasting carbon source or sink. Many recent studies have linked climate change to changes in the frequency and intensity of hurricanes. In this study, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by scenarios of future hurricane activity based on historic activity and future climate projections, to evaluate how changes in hurricane frequency, intensity and spatial distribution could affect regional carbon storage and flux over the coming century. We find a non-linear response where increased storm activity reduces standing biomass stocks reducing the impacts of future events. This effect is highly dependent on the spatial pattern and repeat interval of future hurricane activity. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and recovery is key to our understanding and ability to predict the carbon balance of forests.

  19. Influence of Impact Damage on Carbon-Epoxy Stiffener Crippling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and The Boeing Company have worked to develop new low-cost, light-weight composite structures for aircraft. A Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept has been developed which offers advantages over traditional metallic structure. In this concept a stitched carbon-epoxy material system has been developed with the potential for reducing the weight and cost of transport aircraft structure by eliminating fasteners, thereby reducing part count and labor. By adding unidirectional carbon rods to the top of stiffeners, the panel becomes more structurally efficient. This combination produces a more damage tolerant design. This document describes the results of experimentation on PRSEUS specimens loaded in unidirectional compression subjected to impact damage and loaded in fatigue and to failure. A comparison with analytical predictions for pristine and damaged specimens is included.

  20. Impacts of El Nino Southern Oscillation on the Global Yields of Major Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Sakurai, Gen; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Yamagata, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    The monitoring and prediction of climate-induced variations in crop yields, production and export prices in major food-producing regions have become important to enable national governments in import-dependent countries to ensure supplies of affordable food for consumers. Although the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) often affects seasonal temperature and precipitation, and thus crop yields in many regions, the overall impacts of ENSO on global yields are uncertain. Here we present a global map of the impacts of ENSO on the yields of major crops and quantify its impacts on their global-mean yield anomalies. Results show that El Nino likely improves the global-mean soybean yield by 2.15.4 but appears to change the yields of maize, rice and wheat by -4.3 to +0.8. The global-mean yields of all four crops during La Nina years tend to be below normal (-4.5 to 0.0).Our findings highlight the importance of ENSO to global crop production.

  1. Separating the air quality impact of a major highway and nearby sources by nonparametric trajectory analysis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Ronald C; Vette, Alan; Norris, Gary; Vedantham, Ram; Kimbrough, Sue; Shores, Richard C

    2011-12-15

    Nonparametric Trajectory Analysis (NTA), a receptor-oriented model, was used to assess the impact of local sources of air pollution at monitoring sites located adjacent to highway I-15 in Las Vegas, NV. Measurements of black carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide concentrations were collected from December 2008 to December 2009. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of the highway at three downwind monitoring stations using an upwind station to measure background concentrations. NTA was used to precisely determine the contribution of the highway to the average concentrations measured at the monitoring stations accounting for the spatially heterogeneous contributions of other local urban sources. NTA uses short time average concentrations, 5 min in this case, and constructed local back-trajectories from similarly short time average wind speed and direction to locate and quantify contributions from local source regions. Averaged over an entire year, the decrease of concentrations with distance from the highway was found to be consistent with previous studies. For this study, the NTA model is shown to be a reliable approach to quantify the impact of the highway on local air quality in an urban area with other local sources.

  2. Quasi-Static 3-Point Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Bend Test and Analysis for Shuttle Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Damage Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Sotiris, Kellas

    2006-01-01

    Static 3-point bend tests of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) were conducted to failure to provide data for additional validation of an LS-DYNA RCC model suitable for predicting the threshold of impact damage to shuttle orbiter wing leading edges. LS-DYNA predictions correlated well with the average RCC failure load, and were good in matching the load vs. deflection. However, correlating the detectable damage using NDE methods with the cumulative damage parameter in LS-DYNA material model 58 was not readily achievable. The difficulty of finding internal RCC damage with NDE and the high sensitivity of the mat58 damage parameter to the load near failure made the task very challenging. In addition, damage mechanisms for RCC due to dynamic impact of debris such as foam and ice and damage mechanisms due to a static loading were, as expected, not equivalent.

  3. Fuel Mix Impacts from Transportation Fuel Carbon Intensity Standards in Multiple Jurisdictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witcover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fuel carbon intensity standards have emerged as an important policy in jurisdictions looking to target transportation greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for reduction. A carbon intensity standard rates transportation fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and uses a system of deficits and tradable, bankable credits to reward increased use of fuels with lower carbon intensity ratings while disincentivizing use of fuels with higher carbon intensity ratings such as conventional fossil fuels. Jurisdictions with carbon intensity standards now in effect include California, Oregon, and British Columbia, all requiring 10% reductions in carbon intensity of the transport fuel pool over a 10-year period. The states and province have committed to grow demand for low carbon fuels in the region as part of collaboration on climate change policies. Canada is developing a carbon intensity standard with broader coverage, for fuels used in transport, industry, and buildings. This study shows a changing fuel mix in affected jurisdictions under the policy in terms of shifting contribution of transportation energy from alternative fuels and trends in shares of particular fuel pathways. It contrasts program designs across the jurisdictions with the policy, highlights the opportunities and challenges these pose for the alternative fuel market, and discusses the impact of having multiple policies alongside federal renewable fuel standards and sometimes local carbon pricing regimes. The results show how the market has responded thus far to a policy that incentivizes carbon saving anywhere along the supply chain at lowest cost, in ways that diverged from a priori policy expectations. Lessons for the policies moving forward are discussed.

  4. Carbon Impacts of Fire- and Bark Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality across the Western US using the Community Land Model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meddens, A. J.; Hicke, J. A.; Edburg, S. L.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks cause major forest disturbances in the western US, affecting ecosystem productivity and thereby impacting forest carbon cycling and future climate. Despite the large spatial extent of tree mortality, quantifying carbon flux dynamics following fires and bark beetles over larger areas is challenging because of forest heterogeneity, varying disturbance severities, and field observation limitations. The objective of our study is to estimate these dynamics across the western US using the Community Land Model (version CLM4.5-BGC). CLM4.5-BGC is a land ecosystem model that mechanistically represents the exchanges of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen with the atmosphere. The most recent iteration of the model has been expanded to include vertically resolved soil biogeochemistry and includes improved nitrogen cycle representations including nitrification and denitrification and biological fixation as well as improved canopy processes including photosynthesis. Prior to conducting simulations, we modified CLM4.5-BGC to include the effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on carbon and nitrogen stocks and fluxes. Once modified, we conducted paired simulations (with and without) fire- and bark beetle-caused tree mortality by using regional data sets of observed mortality as inputs. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality was prescribed from a data set derived from US Forest Service aerial surveys from 1997 to 2010. Annual tree mortality area was produced from observed tree mortality caused by bark beetles and was adjusted for underestimation. Fires were prescribed using the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) database from 1984 to 2010. Annual tree mortality area was produced from forest cover maps and inclusion of moderate- and high-severity burned areas. Simulations show that maximum yearly reduction of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) caused by bark beetles is approximately 20 Tg C for the western US. Fires cause similar reductions

  5. Understanding and Projecting Climate and Human Impacts on Terrestrial-Coastal Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W. J.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Fennel, K.

    2017-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. Here, we describe a NASA Carbon Monitoring System project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The nature of our approach, coupling models of terrestrial and ocean ecosystem dynamics and associated carbon processes, allows for assessment of how societal and human-related land use, land use change and forestry and climate-related change affect terrestrial carbon transport as well as export of materials through watersheds to the coastal margins. Our objectives include the following: 1) Provide representation of carbon processes in the terrestrial ecosystem to understand how changes in land use and climatic conditions influence the export of materials to the coastal ocean, 2) Couple the terrestrial exports of carbon, nutrients and freshwater to a coastal biogeochemical model and examine how different climate and land use scenarios influence fluxes across the land-ocean interface, and 3) Project future changes under different scenarios of climate and human impact, and support user needs related to carbon management and other activities (e.g., water quality, hypoxia, ocean acidification). This research is providing information that will contribute to determining an overall carbon balance in North America as well as describing and predicting how human- and climate-related changes impact coastal water quality including possible effects of coastal

  6. Anthropogenic Impacts on Biological Carbon Sequestration in the Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.

    2016-02-01

    The well-known biological mechanism for carbon sequestration in the ocean is the biological pump (BP) which is driven by primary production initially in the surface water and then dependent on particulate organic carbon sinking process in the water column. In contrast microbial carbon pump (MCP) depends on microbial transformation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to refractory DOC (RDOC).Although the BP and the MCP are distinct mechanisms, they are intertwined. Both mechanisms should be considered regarding maximum sequestration of carbon in the ocean. Recent studies have showed that excess nutrients could facilitate the uptake of DOC and enhance both bacterial production and respiration. Bacterial growth efficiency increases with increasing nitrogen concentration to certain levels and then decreases thereafter, while the remaining DOC in the water usually decreases with increasing nitrogen concentration, suggesting that excess nitrogen could simulate uptake of DOC in the environment and thus have negative impacts on the ocean DOC storage.This is somehow against the case of the BP which is known to increase with increasing availability of nutrients. Another responsible factor is the nature of algal products. If it is labile, the organic carbon cannot be preserved in the environment.On top of that, labile organic carbon has priming effects for river discharged semi-labile DOC for bacterial respiration.That is, labile organic matter will become the incubator for bacteria. While bacteria respire DOC into CO2, they consume oxygen, and finally result in hypoxia. Under anoxic condition, anaerobic bacteria successively work on the rest of the organic carbon and produce harmful gasses such as methane and H2S. Such story did have happened during geological events in the history of the earth. The above processes not only result in ecological disasters but also reduce the capacity of carbon sequestration in the ocean. To achieve maximum carbon sinks, both BP and MCP should

  7. The measurement of carbon dioxide levels in a city canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jenny; Budinov, Daniel; Robinson, Iain; Jack, James

    2016-10-01

    Cities today have two major environmental concerns - carbon emissions and air quality. Global carbon levels are increasing and cities require to show plans to tackle and reduce the amount of carbon which they are emitting. At present carbon emissions in urban areas are calculated rather than measured. In some cities where industrial activity is not carbon intensive, the major contributors are the burning of fuel for heating and the emissions from vehicles. Air quality levels have a direct impact on human health and cities are under increased pressure to demonstrate plans to control and reduce levels of air pollution. Of great importance is the way in which emissions, both carbon rich emissions and pollutants, disperse in a city environment. Little work has been reported on the movement of CO2 in the urban environment and the effect the structure of the environment exerts on the movement and dispersion. This paper describes an investigation into the dispersion of CO2 within an urban environment in the Old Town of the City of Edinburgh, using a hand carried low cost portable CO2 sensor.

  8. Determining the Impact of Personal Mobility Carbon Allowance Schemes in Transportation Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; Zhan, Xianyuan

    2016-10-17

    We know that personal mobility carbon allowance (PMCA) schemes are designed to reduce carbon consumption from transportation networks. PMCA schemes influence the travel decision process of users and accordingly impact the system metrics including travel time and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we develop a multi-user class dynamic user equilibrium model to evaluate the transportation system performance when PMCA scheme is implemented. The results using Sioux-Falls test network indicate that PMCA schemes can achieve the emissions reduction goals for transportation networks. Further, users characterized by high value of travel time are found to be less sensitive to carbon budget inmore » the context of work trips. Results also show that PMCA scheme can lead to higher emissions for a path compared with the case without PMCA because of flow redistribution. The developed network equilibrium model allows us to examine the change in system states at different carbon allocation levels and to design parameters of PMCA schemes accounting for population heterogeneity.« less

  9. Determining the Impact of Personal Mobility Carbon Allowance Schemes in Transportation Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul; Ukkusuri, Satish V.; Zhan, Xianyuan

    We know that personal mobility carbon allowance (PMCA) schemes are designed to reduce carbon consumption from transportation networks. PMCA schemes influence the travel decision process of users and accordingly impact the system metrics including travel time and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we develop a multi-user class dynamic user equilibrium model to evaluate the transportation system performance when PMCA scheme is implemented. The results using Sioux-Falls test network indicate that PMCA schemes can achieve the emissions reduction goals for transportation networks. Further, users characterized by high value of travel time are found to be less sensitive to carbon budget inmore » the context of work trips. Results also show that PMCA scheme can lead to higher emissions for a path compared with the case without PMCA because of flow redistribution. The developed network equilibrium model allows us to examine the change in system states at different carbon allocation levels and to design parameters of PMCA schemes accounting for population heterogeneity.« less

  10. Impact of grazing on carbon balance of a Belgian grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Beckers, Yves; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Dumortier, Pierre; Beekkerk van Ruth, Joran; Aubinet, Marc

    2013-04-01

    This work analyzes the impact of grazing on the carbon balance of a grassland grazed by the Belgian Blue breed of cattle. The research was run at the Dorinne terrestrial observatory (DTO). The experimental site is a permanent grassland of ca. 4.2 ha located in the Belgian Condroz (50° 18' 44" N; 4° 58' 07" E; 248 m asl.). Other studies are conducted at the DTO including measurements of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide fluxes (Dumortier et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-2083-1, 2013; Beekkerk van Ruth et al., Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-3211, 2013, respectively). Grassland carbon budget (Net Biome Productivity, NBP) was calculated from Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measured by eddy covariance by taking imports and exports of organic C and losses of carbon as CH4 into account. After 2 years of measurements (May 2010 - May 2012), the grassland behaved on average as a CO2 source (NEE = 73 ±31 g C m-2 y-1). After inclusion of all the C inputs and outputs the site was closed to equilibrium (NBP = 23 ±34 g C m-2 y-1). To analyze the impact of grazing on CO2 fluxes, we studied the temporal evolution of gross maximal photosynthetic capacity GPPmax and dark respiration Rd (deduced from the response of daytime fluxes to radiation over 5-day windows). We calculated GPPmax and Rd variation between the end and the beginning of grazing or non-grazing periods (ΔGPPmax and ΔRd, respectively). We observed a significant decrease of GPPmax during grazing periods and measured a ΔGPPmax dependence on the average stocking rate. This allows us to quantify the assimilation reduction due to grass consumption by cattle. On the contrary, no Rd decrease was observed during grazing periods. Moreover, we found that cumulated monthly NEE increased significantly with the average stocking rate. In addition, a confinement experiment was carried out in order to analyze livestock contribution to Total Ecosystem Respiration. Each experiment extended over

  11. Cumulative Carbon and Anthropocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Pierrehumbert, R.; Solomon, S.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation we will highlight a few of the key findings of the recently completed National Research Council Study Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations and Impacts over Decades to Millennia (NRC, 2010), and discuss their implications for planetary stewardship. A synthesis of published results shows that the single number which most characterizes the magnitude of the human imprint on the climate of the coming millennia is the net amount of carbon released as CO2 by fossil fuel burning and land use changes during the time over which humanity continues such activities. Details of emissions scenarios are not important; rather it is the net carbon released by the time the emissions have been brought to essentially zero that controls long-term climate changes. In this report, we estimate that global temperatures increase by about 1 degree for approximately every 570 Pg of carbon emitted. Each degree of global temperature change is associated with quantifiable impacts on human and natural systems, including loss of arctic sea ice, decreased productivity of several major food crops, decreased precipitation in dry regions, and increases in area burnt by wildfire. Furthermore, the long timescale of temperature changes due to cumulative carbon emissions entails a lock-in to many centuries of continued sea-level rise, as well as the possibility of substantial contributions to sea-level rise from both Greenland and the West-Antarctic ice sheet. Reductions in methane or other short-lived greenhouse gas emissions can be of benefit in mitigating the near term climate changes, but CO2 is unique among major greenhouse gases in its ability to disrupt climate on multi-millennial time scales. This implies a need for correspondingly special treatment of this gas in emissions control protocols, for example by setting targets for allowable cumulative carbon emissions over time. The authoring committee was composed of Susan Solomon, Chair, David Battisti, Scott

  12. The impacts of tropical cyclones on the net carbon balance of eastern US forests (1851-2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J. P.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.; Dolan, K. A.; Negrón-Juárez, R. I.

    2013-12-01

    In temperate forests of the eastern US, tropical cyclones are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Substantial progress has been made to quantify forest damage and resulting gross carbon emissions from tropical cyclones. However, the net effect of storms on the carbon balance of forests depends not only on the biomass lost in single events, but also on the uptake during recovery from a mosaic of past events. This study estimates the net impacts of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance of US forests over the period 1851-2000. To track both disturbance and recovery and to isolate the effects of storms, a modeling framework is used combining gridded historical estimates of mortality and damage with a mechanistic model using an ensemble approach. The net effect of tropical cyclones on the carbon balance is shown to depend strongly on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. On average, tropical cyclones contribute a net carbon source over latter half of the 19th century. However, throughout much of the 20th century a regional carbon sink is estimated resulting from periods of forest recovery exceeding damage. The large-scale net annual flux resulting from tropical cyclones varies by up to 50 Tg C yr-1, an amount equivalent to 17%-36% of the US forest carbon sink.

  13. The Impact of Back-Sputtered Carbon on the Accelerator Grid Wear Rates of the NEXT and NSTAR Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the downstream accelerator grid erosion rates of the NEXT (NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster) Long Duration Test (LDT1). A similar analysis that was conducted for the NSTAR (NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program) Life Demonstration Test (LDT2) was used as a foundation for the analysis developed herein. A new carbon surface coverage model was developed that accounted for multiple carbon adlayers before complete surface coverage is achieved. The resulting model requires knowledge of more model inputs, so they were conservatively estimated using the results of past thin film sputtering studies and particle reflection predictions. In addition, accelerator current densities across the grid were rigorously determined using an ion optics code to determine accelerator current distributions and an algorithm to determine beam current densities along a grid using downstream measurements. The improved analysis was applied to the NSTAR test results for evaluation. The improved analysis demonstrated that the impact of back-sputtered carbon on pit and groove wear rate for the NSTAR LDT2 was negligible throughout most of eroded grid radius. The improved analysis also predicted the accelerator current density for transition from net erosion to net deposition considerably more accurately than the original analysis. The improved analysis was used to estimate the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the accelerator grid pit and groove wear rate of the NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT1). Unlike the NSTAR analysis, the NEXT analysis was more challenging because the thruster was operated for extended durations at various operating conditions and was unavailable for measurements because the test is ongoing. As a result, the NEXT LDT1 estimates presented herein are considered preliminary until the results of future posttest analyses are incorporated. The worst-case impact of carbon back

  14. The Impact of Back-Sputtered Carbon on the Accelerator Grid Wear Rates of the NEXT and NSTAR Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soulas, George C.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to quantify the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the downstream accelerator grid erosion rates of the NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) Long Duration Test (LDT1). A similar analysis that was conducted for the NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Applications Readiness Program (NSTAR) Life Demonstration Test (LDT2) was used as a foundation for the analysis developed herein. A new carbon surface coverage model was developed that accounted for multiple carbon adlayers before complete surface coverage is achieved. The resulting model requires knowledge of more model inputs, so they were conservatively estimated using the results of past thin film sputtering studies and particle reflection predictions. In addition, accelerator current densities across the grid were rigorously determined using an ion optics code to determine accelerator current distributions and an algorithm to determine beam current densities along a grid using downstream measurements. The improved analysis was applied to the NSTAR test results for evaluation. The improved analysis demonstrated that the impact of back-sputtered carbon on pit and groove wear rate for the NSTAR LDT2 was negligible throughout most of eroded grid radius. The improved analysis also predicted the accelerator current density for transition from net erosion to net deposition considerably more accurately than the original analysis. The improved analysis was used to estimate the impact of back-sputtered carbon on the accelerator grid pit and groove wear rate of the NEXT Long Duration Test (LDT1). Unlike the NSTAR analysis, the NEXT analysis was more challenging because the thruster was operated for extended durations at various operating conditions and was unavailable for measurements because the test is ongoing. As a result, the NEXT LDT1 estimates presented herein are considered preliminary until the results of future post-test analyses are incorporated. The worst-case impact of carbon

  15. Inequality, climate impacts on the future poor, and carbon prices

    PubMed Central

    Dennig, Francis; Budolfson, Mark B.; Fleurbaey, Marc; Siebert, Asher; Socolow, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated assessment models of climate and the economy provide estimates of the social cost of carbon and inform climate policy. We create a variant of the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE)—a regionally disaggregated version of the Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE)—in which we introduce a more fine-grained representation of economic inequalities within the model’s regions. This allows us to model the common observation that climate change impacts are not evenly distributed within regions and that poorer people are more vulnerable than the rest of the population. Our results suggest that this is important to the social cost of carbon—as significant, potentially, for the optimal carbon price as the debate between Stern and Nordhaus on discounting. PMID:26644560

  16. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuguang; Bliss, Norman; Sundquist, Eric; Huntington, Thomas G.

    2003-06-01

    Soil erosion and deposition may play important roles in balancing the global atmospheric carbon budget through their impacts on the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Few models and studies have been designed to assess these impacts. In this study, we developed a general ecosystem model, Erosion-Deposition-Carbon-Model (EDCM), to dynamically simulate the influences of rainfall-induced soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in soil profiles. EDCM was applied to several landscape positions in the Nelson Farm watershed in Mississippi, including ridge top (without erosion or deposition), eroding hillslopes, and depositional sites that had been converted from native forests to croplands in 1870. Erosion reduced the SOC storage at the eroding sites and deposition increased the SOC storage at the depositional areas compared with the site without erosion or deposition. Results indicated that soils were consistently carbon sources to the atmosphere at all landscape positions from 1870 to 1950, with lowest source strength at the eroding sites (13 to 24 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (34 gC m-2 yr-1), and highest at the depositional sites (42 to 49 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion reduced carbon emissions via dynamically replacing surface soil with subsurface soil that had lower SOC contents (quantity change) and higher passive SOC fractions (quality change). Soils at all landscape positions became carbon sinks from 1950 to 1997 due to changes in management practices (e.g., intensification of fertilization and crop genetic improvement). The sink strengths were highest at the eroding sites (42 to 44 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (35 gC m-2 yr-1), and lowest at the depositional sites (26 to 29 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion enhanced carbon uptake at the eroding sites by continuously taking away a fraction of SOC that can be replenished with enhanced plant residue

  17. Modeling carbon dynamics in vegetation and soil under the impact of soil erosion and deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, S.; Bliss, N.; Sundquist, E.; Huntington, T.G.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion and deposition may play important roles in balancing the global atmospheric carbon budget through their impacts on the net exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere. Few models and studies have been designed to assess these impacts. In this study, we developed a general ecosystem model, Erosion-Deposition-Carbon-Model (EDCM), to dynamically simulate the influences of rainfall-induced soil erosion and deposition on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in soil profiles. EDCM was applied to several landscape positions in the Nelson Farm watershed in Mississippi, including ridge top (without erosion or deposition), eroding hillslopes, and depositional sites that had been converted from native forests to croplands in 1870. Erosion reduced the SOC storage at the eroding sites and deposition increased the SOC storage at the depositional areas compared with the site without erosion or deposition. Results indicated that soils were consistently carbon sources to the atmosphere at all landscape positions from 1870 to 1950, with lowest source strength at the eroding sites (13 to 24 gC m-2 yr-1), intermediate at the ridge top (34 gC m-2 yr-1), and highest at the depositional sites (42 to 49 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion reduced carbon emissions via dynamically replacing surface soil with subsurface soil that had lower SOC contents (quantity change) and higher passive SOC fractions (quality change). Soils at all landscape positions became carbon sinks from 1950 to 1997 due to changes in management practices (e.g., intensification of fertilization and crop genetic improvement). The sink strengths were highest at the eroding sites (42 to 44 gC m-2 yr-1 , intermediate at the ridge top (35 gC m-2 yr-1), and lowest at the depositional sites (26 to 29 gC m-2 yr-1). During this period, erosion enhanced carbon uptake at the eroding sites by continuously taking away a fraction of SOC that can be replenished with enhanced plant residue

  18. Modelling the side impact of carbon fibre tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsan, Ms R.; Rolfe, B. F., Dr; Hodgson, P. D., Prof

    2010-06-01

    Metallic tubes have been extensively studied for their crashworthiness as they closely resemble automotive crash rails. Recently, the demand to improve fuel economy and reduce vehicle emissions has led automobile manufacturers to explore the crash properties of light weight materials such as fibre reinforced polymer composites, metallic foams and sandwich structures in order to use them as crash barriers. This paper discusses the response of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) tubes and their failure mechanisms during side impact. The energy absorption of CFRP tubes is compared to similar Aluminium tubes. The response of the CFRP tubes during impact was modelled using Abaqus finite element software with a composite fabric material model. The material inputs were given based on standard tension and compression test results and the in-plane damage was defined based on cyclic shear tests. The failure modes and energy absorption observed during the tests were well represented by the finite element model.

  19. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  20. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  1. Life cycle impacts of forest management and wood utilization on carbon mitigation : knowns and unknowns

    Treesearch

    Bruce Lippke; Elaine Oneil; Rob Harrison; Kenneth Skog; Leif Gustavsson; Roger Sathre

    2011-01-01

    This review on research on life cycle carbon accounting examines the complexities in accounting for carbon emissions given the many different ways that wood is used. Recent objectives to increase the use of renewable fuels have raised policy questions, with respect to the sustainability of managing our forests as well as the impacts of how best to use wood from our...

  2. Assessing Impacts of Disturbances and Climate Change on Carbon Stocks in Mexican Semidry Forests of the Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Birdsey, R.; Johnson, K.; Dupuy, J. M.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, J. L.; Richardson, K.

    2014-12-01

    The spatially explicit biogeochemical model Forest-DNDC was used to estimate carbon dynamics with disturbances and climate change in secondary semidry forests in Yucatan Peninsula. The model was validated using observations from 276 field plots in a 350 km2 region of semi-deciduous forest surrounding the intensive monitoring site at Kaxil Kiuic, and it performed well with high performance efficiency (E=0.79, R2=0.83). The simulation results showed substantial spatial differences in biomass in the forests due to historical disturbance patterns and heterogeneous forest environments. The simulated impacts of the disturbances that occurred from 1998-2010 revealed an estimated loss of total biomass carbon storage of 154.7 Gg due mainly to about 12 km2 of forestland loss. The results from disturbance scenarios indicate that disastrous storms, which are not uncommon in the Yucatan Peninsula, can substantially impact carbon storage in a short time. However, warming can produce a long-term impact on carbon sequestration, due principally to the decrease in biomass carbon at a mean rate of over 100 kg ha-1yr-1 with an increase in temperature by 1 degree Celsius. The forests in this area are highly sensitive to warming due to a semidry climate where the evapotranspiration is higher than precipitation. Even if each degree of warming increase is accompanied by an increase in precipitation of 10%, the significant impact of warming cannot be dismissed.

  3. Impact of bioenergy production on carbon storage and soil functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prays, Nadia; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An important renewable energy source is methane produced in biogas plants (BGPs) that convert plant material and animal excrements to biogas and a residue (BGR). If the plant material stems from crops produced specifically for that purpose, a BGP have a 'footprint' that is defined by the area of arable land needed for the production of these energy crops and the area for distributing the BGRs. The BGR can be used to fertilize these lands (reducing the need for carbon and nitrogen fertilizers), and the crop land can be managed to serve as a carbon sink, capturing atmospheric CO2. We focus on the ecological impact of different BGPs in Central Germany, with a specific interest in the long-term effect of BGR-fertilization on carbon storage within the footprint of a BGP. We therefore studied nutrient fluxes using the CANDY (CArbon and Nitrogen Dynamics) model, which processes site-specific information on soils, crops, weather, and land management to compute stocks and fluxes of carbon and nitrogen for agricultural fields. We used CANDY to calculated matter fluxes within the footprints of BGPs of different sizes, and studied the effect of the substrate mix for the BGP on the carbon dynamics of the soil. This included the land requirement of the BGR recycling when used as a fertilizer: the footprint of a BGP required for the production of the energy crop generally differs from its footprint required to take up its BGR. We demonstrate how these findings can be used to find optimal cropping choices and land management for sustainable soil use, maintaining soil fertility and other soil functions. Furthermore, site specific potentials and limitations for agricultural biogas production can be identified and applied in land-use planning.

  4. One carbon cycle: Impacts of model integration, ecosystem process detail, model resolution, and initialization data, on projections of future climate mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; le page, Y.; Patel, P. L.; Chini, L. P.; Sahajpal, R.; Dubayah, R.; Thomson, A. M.; Edmonds, J.; Janetos, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) simulate the interactions between human and natural systems at a global scale, representing a broad suite of phenomena across the global economy, energy system, land-use, and carbon cycling. Most proposed climate mitigation strategies rely on maintaining or enhancing the terrestrial carbon sink as a substantial contribution to restrain the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, however most IAMs rely on simplified regional representations of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Our research aims to reduce uncertainties associated with forest modeling within integrated assessments, and to quantify the impacts of climate change on forest growth and productivity for integrated assessments of terrestrial carbon management. We developed the new Integrated Ecosystem Demography (iED) to increase terrestrial ecosystem process detail, resolution, and the utilization of remote sensing in integrated assessments. iED brings together state-of-the-art models of human society (GCAM), spatial land-use patterns (GLM) and terrestrial ecosystems (ED) in a fully coupled framework. The major innovative feature of iED is a consistent, process-based representation of ecosystem dynamics and carbon cycle throughout the human, terrestrial, land-use, and atmospheric components. One of the most challenging aspects of ecosystem modeling is to provide accurate initialization of land surface conditions to reflect non-equilibrium conditions, i.e., the actual successional state of the forest. As all plants in ED have an explicit height, it is one of the few ecosystem models that can be initialized directly with vegetation height data. Previous work has demonstrated that ecosystem model resolution and initialization data quality have a large effect on flux predictions at continental scales. Here we use a factorial modeling experiment to quantify the impacts of model integration, process detail, model resolution, and initialization data on projections of

  5. Possible Sulfates in the Northeast Syrtis Major Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-16

    A variety of diverse morphological features are present in this image (21 by 5.5 kilometers) located in the southeastern area of the Nili Fossae region and just northeast of Syrtis Major. This particular region has been studied intensely due to the presence of volcanics from Syrtis Major and impact ejecta from the Isidis Basin. The region is rich in unaltered mafic deposits, in contact with diverse altered deposits rich in clays, carbonates, and sulfates. These deposits make the Nili Fossae region one of the most colorful regions on Mars, which is most distinctive in infrared color composites (IRB). HiRISE IRB color aids in chemical and mineral-type mapping, especially when correlated with other MRO instruments such as CRISM. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19940

  6. Impact of seawater carbonate chemistry on the calcification of marine bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Haynert, K.; Wegner, K. M.; Melzner, F.

    2015-07-01

    Bivalve calcification, particularly of the early larval stages, is highly sensitive to the change in ocean carbonate chemistry resulting from atmospheric CO2 uptake. Earlier studies suggested that declining seawater [CO32-] and thereby lowered carbonate saturation affect shell production. However, disturbances of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation by adverse seawater pCO2 and pH can affect calcification in a secondary fashion. In order to determine the exact carbonate system component by which growth and calcification are affected it is necessary to utilize more complex carbonate chemistry manipulations. As single factors, pCO2 had no effects and [HCO3-] and pH had only limited effects on shell growth, while lowered [CO32-] strongly impacted calcification. Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) limiting conditions led to strong reductions in calcification, despite high [CO32-], indicating that [HCO3-] rather than [CO32-] is the inorganic carbon source utilized for calcification by mytilid mussels. However, as the ratio [HCO3-] / [H+] is linearly correlated with [CO32-] it is not possible to differentiate between these under natural seawater conditions. An equivalent of about 80 μmol kg-1 [CO32-] is required to saturate inorganic carbon supply for calcification in bivalves. Below this threshold biomineralization rates rapidly decline. A comparison of literature data available for larvae and juvenile mussels and oysters originating from habitats differing substantially with respect to prevailing carbonate chemistry conditions revealed similar response curves. This suggests that the mechanisms which determine sensitivity of calcification in this group are highly conserved. The higher sensitivity of larval calcification seems to primarily result from the much higher relative calcification rates in early life stages. In order to reveal and understand the mechanisms that limit or facilitate adaptation to future ocean acidification, it is necessary to better

  7. Impact of seawater carbonate chemistry on the calcification of marine bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, J.; Haynert, K.; Wegner, K. M.; Melzner, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve calcification, particular of the early larval stages is highly sensitive to the change of ocean carbonate chemistry resulting from atmospheric CO2 uptake. Earlier studies suggested that declining seawater [CO32-] and thereby lowered carbonate saturation affect shell production. However, disturbances of physiological processes such as acid-base regulation by adverse seawater pCO2 and pH can affect calcification in a secondary fashion. In order to determine the exact carbonate system component by which growth and calcification are affected it is necessary to utilize more complex carbonate chemistry manipulations. As single factors, pCO2 had no and [HCO3-] and pH only limited effects on shell growth, while lowered [CO32-] strongly impacted calcification. Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) limiting conditions led to strong reductions in calcification, despite high [CO32-], indicating that [HCO3-] rather than [CO32-] is the inorganic carbon source utilized for calcification by mytilid mussels. However, as the ratio [HCO3-] / [H+] is linearly correlated with [CO32-] it is not possible to differentiate between these under natural seawater conditions. Therefore, the availability of [HCO3-] combined with favorable environmental pH determines calcification rate and an equivalent of about 80 μmol kg-1 [CO32-] is required to saturate inorganic carbon supply for calcification in bivalves. Below this threshold biomineralization rates rapidly decline. A comparison of literature data available for larvae and juvenile mussels and oysters originating from habitats differing substantially with respect to prevailing carbonate chemistry conditions revealed similar response curves. This suggests that the mechanisms which determine sensitivity of calcification in this group are highly conserved. The higher sensitivity of larval calcification seems to primarily result from the much higher relative calcification rates in early life stages. In order to reveal and understand the

  8. Carbon contamination in scanning transmission electron microscopy and its impact on phase-plate applications.

    PubMed

    Hettler, Simon; Dries, Manuel; Hermann, Peter; Obermair, Martin; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Malac, Marek

    2017-05-01

    We analyze electron-beam induced carbon contamination in a transmission electron microscope. The study is performed on thin films potentially suitable as phase plates for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and phase-plate imaging is utilized to analyze the contamination. The deposited contamination layer is identified as a graphitic carbon layer which is not prone to electrostatic charging whereas a non-conductive underlying substrate charges. Several methods that inhibit contamination are evaluated and the impact of carbon contamination on phase-plate imaging is discussed. The findings are in general interesting for scanning transmission electron microscopy applications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact cratering: The process and its effects on planetary evolution. [and silicate-carbonate reactions on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, R. A. F.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for silicate-carbon dioxide reactions as a geochemical weathering agent on Venus was studied. A tholetitic basalt close to the composition determined by the XRF experiment at the Venera 14 sites was subjected to high temperature and pressure (with pure CO2 as the pressure medium) for varying time durations. The starting basalt material and the run products were examined optically and by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The kinetics of the silicate-carbonate reactions is discussed. A study to elucidate details of impact processes and to assess the effects of impact cratering on planetary evolution is mentioned.

  10. Study of terrestrial carbon cycling as impacted by mountaintop coal mining in the Southern Appalachian forest region using carbon elemental and isotopic data and remote sensing of land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, J. F.; Campbell, J. E.; Martin, D.

    2008-12-01

    The need to quantify the impact of human disturbance upon carbon flux and storage has been recently highlighted in order to more accurately budget carbon. One understudied but critical area of research is surface coal mining's impact on terrestrial carbon storage and sediment carbon transport processes-which has been identified as potentially important to understanding fluxes in global carbon budgeting. While national attention has focused on U.S. coal production to maintain a vibrant economy, scientists are concerned that increased coal production could have unforeseen environmental implications if the relationship between coal mining practices and the environment is not better understood. This issue is particularly important to the coal mining region of the Southern Appalachian forest region, which has been responsible for 23.3% of the coal produced in the United States over the past twenty years and seen approximately 300,000 ha of forested land disturbed by surface coal mining during that time period. Our presentation provides results that focus upon terrestrial carbon cycling as impacted by mountaintop coal mining in the Southern Appalachian forest region. In order to study carbon redistribution due to the mining disturbance, our methods make use of measurements of total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of soils and eroded sediments collected in the region as well as published data, consultation with experts and remote sensing of land cover change. It was found that disturbed terrestrial carbon, including soil C, non-soil or plant C, and geogenic C, is approximately 10% of the carbon emitted to the atmosphere during coal combusting and transportation and mining of coal. Quantification of the fate of terrestrial carbon in different pools is provided and discussed including the fate atmosphere during recovery of the terrestrial system; newly deposited coal fragments within the terrestrial soil reservoir; and carbon

  11. Impact of naturally leaking carbon dioxide on soil properties and ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Deng, Hongzhang; Wang, Wenke; Han, Feng; Li, Chunrong; Zhang, Hui; Dai, Zhenxue

    2017-06-07

    One of the major concerns for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is the potential risk of CO 2 leakage from storage reservoirs on the shallow soil property and vegetation. This study utilizes a naturally occurring CO 2 leaking site in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to analog a "leaking CCS site". Our observations from this site indicates that long-term CO 2 invasion in the vadose zone results in variations of soil properties, such as pH fluctuation, slight drop of total organic carbon, reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus, and concentration changes of soluble ions. Simultaneously, XRD patterns of the soil suggest that crystallization of soil is enhanced and mineral contents of calcite and anorthite in soil are increased substantially. Parts of the whole ecosystem such as natural wild plants, soil dwelling animals and microorganisms in shallow soil are affected as well. Under a moderate CO 2 concentration (less than 110000 ppm), wild plant growth and development are improved, while an intensive CO 2 flux over 112000 ppm causes adverse effects on the plant growth, physiological and biochemical system of plants, and crop quality of wheat. Results of this study provide valuable insight for understanding the possible environmental impacts associated with potential CO 2 leakage into shallow sediments at carbon sequestration sites.

  12. Understanding the Impact of Land Management on Carbon Losses from Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, A.; Holden, J.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-05-01

    underlying causes for such variations. The study focused on three of the driving factors identified by Laiho (2006): substrate quality, environmental conditions and nutrients. In addition, the physical properties of the peat - bulk density and air filled porosity which will control rates of gas and water movement within the peat profile, were studied. This paper will present the results of the work which was carried out at the Moor House, National Nature Reserve. The work involved collection of peat cores from burnt, grazed, drained, afforested and unmanaged areas of peat. The chemical and physical properties of the peat that are relevant to carbon cycling (e.g. nutrients, metals, substrate quality, air filled porosity) were analysed and compared between sites, and correlated with carbon losses which were measured on a fortnightly basis; and meteorological and hydrological data which were collected throughout the study period. Based on these results, suggestions for peatland management strategies that preserve carbon stocks will be presented. Laiho, R. (2006) "Decomposition in peatlands: Reconciling seemingly contrasting results on the impacts of lowered water levels." Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38(8): 2011-2024. Worrall, F. et al. (2003) "Carbon budget for a British upland peat catchment." Science of the Total Environment 312(1-3): 133-146. Worrall, F. et al. (2009) "The Multi-Annual Carbon Budget of a Peat-Covered Catchment" Science of the Total Environment 407: 4084-4094

  13. Global Impacts (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2018-05-04

    Ashok Gadgil, Faculty Senior Scientist and Acting Director, EETD, also Professor of Environmental Engineering, UC Berkeley, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  14. Bi-Directional Ion Emission from Massive Gold Cluster Impacts on Nanometric Carbon Foils.

    PubMed

    Debord, J Daniel; Della-Negra, Serge; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V; Schweikert, Emile A

    2012-04-12

    Carbon cluster emission from thin carbon foils (5-40 nm) impacted by individual Au(n) (+q) cluster projectiles (95-125 qkeV, n/q = 3-200) reveals features regarding the energy deposition, projectile range, and projectile fate in matter as a function of the projectile characteristics. For the first time, the secondary ion emission from thin foils has been monitored simultaneously in both forward and backward emission directions. The projectile range and depth of emission were examined as a function of projectile size, energy, and target thickness. A key finding is that the massive cluster impact develops very differently from that of a small polyatomic projectile. The range of the 125 qkeV Au(100q) (+q) (q ≈ 4) projectile is estimated to be 20 nm (well beyond the range of an equal velocity Au(+)) and projectile disintegration occurs at the exit of even a 5 nm thick foil.

  15. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  16. Carbon from Crust to Core: A history of deep carbon science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitton, Simon

    2017-04-01

    As an academic historian of science, I am writing a history of the discovery of the interior workings of our dynamic planet. I am preparing a book, titled Carbon from Crust to Core: A Chronicle of Deep Carbon Science, in which I will present the first history of deep carbon science. I will identify and document key discoveries, the impact of new knowledge, and the roles of deep carbon scientists and their institutions from the 1400s to the present. This innovative book will set down the engaging human story of many remarkable scientists from whom we have learned about Earth's interior, and particularly the fascinating story of carbon in Earth. I will describe a great journey of discovery that has led to a better understanding of the physical, chemical, and biological behaviour of carbon in the vast majority of Earth's interior. My poster has a list of remarkable Deep Carbon Explorers, from Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) to Claude ZoBell (1904-1989). Come along to my poster and add to my compilation: choose pioneers from history, or nominate your colleagues, or even add a selfie! As a biographer, I am keen to add researchers who may have been overlooked in the standard histories of geology and geophysics. And I am always on the lookout for standout stories and personal recollections. I am equipped to do oral history interviews. What's your story? Cambridge University Press will publish the book in 2019.

  17. Quantitative validation of carbon-fiber laminate low velocity impact simulations

    DOE PAGES

    English, Shawn A.; Briggs, Timothy M.; Nelson, Stacy M.

    2015-09-26

    Simulations of low velocity impact with a flat cylindrical indenter upon a carbon fiber fabric reinforced polymer laminate are rigorously validated. Comparison of the impact energy absorption between the model and experiment is used as the validation metric. Additionally, non-destructive evaluation, including ultrasonic scans and three-dimensional computed tomography, provide qualitative validation of the models. The simulations include delamination, matrix cracks and fiber breaks. An orthotropic damage and failure constitutive model, capable of predicting progressive damage and failure, is developed in conjunction and described. An ensemble of simulations incorporating model parameter uncertainties is used to predict a response distribution which ismore » then compared to experimental output using appropriate statistical methods. Lastly, the model form errors are exposed and corrected for use in an additional blind validation analysis. The result is a quantifiable confidence in material characterization and model physics when simulating low velocity impact in structures of interest.« less

  18. Chicxulub Impact Crater and Yucatan Carbonate Platform - PEMEX Oil Exploratory Wells Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Drago, G.; Gutierrez-Cirlos, A. G.; Pérez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysical oil exploration surveys carried out by PEMEX in the 1940's revealed occurrence of an anomalous pattern of semi-circular concentric gravity anomalies. The Bouguer gravity anomalies covered an extensive area over the flat carbonate platform in the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula; strong density contrasts were suggestive of a buried igneous complex or basement uplift beneath the carbonates, which was referred as the Chicxulub structure. The exploration program carried out afterwards included a drilling program, starting with Chicxulub-1 well in 1952 and comprising eight deep boreholes through the 1970s. An aeromagnetic survey in late 1970's showed high amplitude anomalies in the gravity anomaly central sector. Thus, research showing Chicxulub as a large complex impact crater formed at the K/T boundary was built on the PEMEX decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to PEMEX information and samples, original data and cores have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and integration with results from recent investigations. Core samples largely remain to be analyzed and interpreted in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we report on the stratigraphy and paleontological data for PEMEX wells: Chicxulub- 1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m), Ticul-1 (3575m) Yucatan-4 (2398m), Yucatan-2 (3474m), Yucatan-5A (3003m) and Yucatan-1 (3221m). These wells remain the deepest drilled in Chicxulub, providing samples of impact lithologies, carbonate sequences and basement, which give information on post- and pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on stratigraphic columns, lateral correlations and integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater target the peak ring and central sector, with offshore and onshore boreholes proposed to the IODP and ICDP

  19. Earthworm impacts on organo-mineral interactions and soil carbon inventories in Fennoscandian boreal and sub-arctic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackett, Adrian; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Cameron, Erin; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2017-04-01

    Boreal and sub-arctic environments sustain some of the most pristine and fragile ecosystems in the world and house a disproportionate amount of the global soil carbon pool. Although the historical view of soil carbon turnover has focused on the intrinsic molecular structure of organic matter, recent work has highlighted the importance of stabilizing soil carbon on reactive mineral surfaces. However, the rates and mechanisms controlling these processes at high latitudes are poorly understood. Here we explored the biogeochemical impacts of deep-burrowing earthworm species on a range of Fennoscandian forest soils to investigate how earthworms impact soil carbon inventories and organo-mineral associations across boreal and sub-arctic landscapes. We sampled soils and earthworms at six sites spanning almost ten degrees latitude and encompassing a wide range of soil types and textures, permitting simultaneous consideration of how climate and mineralogy affect earthworm-mediated shifts in soil carbon dynamics. Across all sites, earthworms significantly decreased the carbon and nitrogen contents of the upper 10 cm, presumably through consumption of the humus layer and subsequent incorporation of the underlying mineral soil into upper organic horizons. Their mixing of humus and underlying soil also generally increased the proportion of mineral surface area occluded by organic matter, although the extent to which earthworms facilitate such organo-mineral interactions appears to be controlled by soil texture and mineralogy. This work indicates that quantitative measurements of mineral surface area and its extent of coverage by soil organic matter facilitate scaling up of molecular interactions between organic matter and minerals to the level of soil profiles and landscapes. Our preliminary data also strongly suggests that earthworms have profound effects on the fate of soil carbon and nitrogen in boreal and sub-arctic environments, highlighting the need for a better

  20. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  1. Impact of sea-level rise on Everglades carbon storage capacity in the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Wingard, G. L. L.; Keller, K.; Stackhouse, B.; Landacre, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) and climate have driven environmental changes in South Florida over time. Florida Bay, a shallow carbonate bay located to the south of the Florida Peninsula, contains carbonate islands and mudbanks that formed over the last few thousand years and once comprised the freshwater Everglades. The islands, often ringed with mangroves, provide wildlife habitat, physical barriers to storm surge, tidal flux, and wave development along South Florida's coastline. Because most of South Florida is only 1-2 m above mean sea level, and IPCC AR5 projections of 0.26 to 0.98 m of SLR by 2100, vertical accommodation space could outpace sediment accretion in the southern freshwater Everglades and Florida Bay islands, impacting carbon (C) storage, as well as wildlife habitat and the ability to protect shorelines from coastal storms. We analyzed sediment cores that reached the Plio-Pleistocene limestone bedrock from four islands in Florida Bay to determine how floral and faunal communities and source C change in response to Holocene sea level transgression. We used pollen and mollusk assemblages, δ13C, and C/N ratios, along with radiometric dating, bulk density, and organic C content to calculate changes in C accumulation rates (CAR) over the last 4 ka, as deposition transitioned from freshwater peat to estuarine carbonate mud, to mangrove peat and ultimately to the hyper-saline playa-like carbonate sediments deposited today. Results show that CAR are more than twice as high in the basal freshwater Everglades peat than in the overlying estuarine sediments and slightly greater than the short-lived period of Rhizophora (red mangrove) peat accumulation. Avicennia (black mangrove) and playa-like environments have similar CAR as the estuarine carbonate mud and hypersaline carbonate sediments but accretion rates are less than the current rate of SLR. These results suggest that with current rates of accretion and SLR, these islands could disappear in <200 years, and the C

  2. Understanding the Effectiveness of Carbon Dioxide Removal to Reduce the Impacts of Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, V.; Tett, S. F.; Brander, M.

    2017-12-01

    The current Nationally Determined Contributions to the Paris Agreement suggest exceeding the emissions budgets corresponding to the below 2°C and 1.5°C temperature targets. To address this the future application of Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) is proposed to recapture excess emissions at a later time, so keeping the total net emissions within budget. This assumes that the climate change impact of CO2 emitted now can be fully compensated by a matched CO2 removal in the future. However, the impacts from this pathway of emissions budget overshoot and subsequent recapture may differ from those resulting from a pathway where emissions are held within budget with no temporary overshoot. These pathway dependent impacts could give rise to different climatic and societal futures despite the total net emissions being the same. Using a low resolution fully coupled Earth System Model with an interactive carbon cycle, we present an investigation into the pathway dependence of climate change impacts and how these relate to the scale and duration of the emissions budget overshoot and subsequent recapture. From this we discuss the effectiveness of CDR in avoiding climate change impacts relative to more immediate emissions reductions. We consider how this relative effectiveness might be reflected in GHG accounting methods and national GHG accounts, and explore the implications for Article 2 of the Paris Agreement, where holding temperatures to the targets is recognised to "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change".

  3. Transformation of the released asbestos, carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes from composite materials and the changes of their potential health impacts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Schlagenhauf, Lukas; Setyan, Ari

    2017-02-20

    Composite materials with fibrous reinforcement often provide superior mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties than the matrix. Asbestos, carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely used in composites with profound impacts not only on technology and economy but also on human health and environment. A large number of studies have been dedicated to the release of fibrous particles from composites. Here we focus on the transformation of the fibrous fillers after their release, especially the change of the properties essential for the health impacts. Asbestos fibers exist in a large number of products and the end-of-the-life treatment of asbestos-containing materials poses potential risks. Thermal treatment can transform asbestos to non-hazardous phase which provides opportunities of safe disposal of asbestos-containing materials by incineration, but challenges still exist. Carbon fibers with diameters in the range of 5-10 μm are not considered to be respirable, however, during the release process from composites, the carbon fibers may be split along the fiber axis, generating smaller and respirable fibers. CNTs may be exposed on the surface of the composites or released as free standing fibers, which have lengths shorter than the original ones. CNTs have high thermal stability and may be exposed after thermal treatment of the composites and still keep their structural integrity. Due to the transformation of the fibrous fillers during the release process, their toxicity may be significantly different from the virgin fibers, which should be taken into account in the risk assessment of fiber-containing composites.

  4. Impact of Idealized Stratospheric Aerosol Injection on the Future Ocean and Land Carbon Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjiputra, J.; Lauvset, S.

    2017-12-01

    Using a state-of-the-art Earth system model, we simulate stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) on top of the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 future scenario. Our idealized method prescribes aerosol concentration, linearly increasing from 2020 to 2100, and thereafter remaining constant until 2200. In one of the scenarios, the model able to project future warming below 2 degree toward 2100, despite greatier warming persists in the high latitudes. When SAI is terminated in 2100, a rapid global warming of 0.35 K yr-1 (as compared to 0.05 K yr-1 under RCP8.5) is simulated in the subsequent 10 years, and the global mean temperature rapidly returns to levels close to the reference state. In contrast to earlier findings, we show a weak response in the terrestrial carbon sink during SAI implementation in the 21st century, which we attribute to nitrogen limitation. The SAI increases the land carbon uptake in the temperate forest-, grassland-, and shrub-dominated regions. The resultant lower temperatures lead to a reduction in the heterotrophic respiration rate and increase soil carbon retention. Changes in precipitation patterns are key drivers for variability in vegetation carbon. Upon SAI termination, the level of vegetation carbon storage returns to the reference case, whereas the soil carbon remains high. The ocean absorbs nearly 10% more carbon in the geoengineered simulation than in the reference simulation, leading to a ˜15 ppm lower atmospheric CO2 concentration in 2100. The largest enhancement in uptake occurs in the North Atlantic. In both hemispheres' polar regions, SAI delays the sea ice melting and, consequently, export production remains low. Despite inducing little impact on surface acidification, in the deep water of North Atlantic, SAI-induced circulation changes accelerate the ocean acidification rate and broaden the affected area. Since the deep ocean provides vital ecosystem function and services, e.g., fish stocks, this accelerated changes

  5. Bi-Directional Ion Emission from Massive Gold Cluster Impacts on Nanometric Carbon Foils

    PubMed Central

    DeBord, J. Daniel; Della-Negra, Serge; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco A.; Verkhoturov, Stanislav V.; Schweikert, Emile A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon cluster emission from thin carbon foils (5–40 nm) impacted by individual Aun+q cluster projectiles (95–125 qkeV, n/q = 3–200) reveals features regarding the energy deposition, projectile range, and projectile fate in matter as a function of the projectile characteristics. For the first time, the secondary ion emission from thin foils has been monitored simultaneously in both forward and backward emission directions. The projectile range and depth of emission were examined as a function of projectile size, energy, and target thickness. A key finding is that the massive cluster impact develops very differently from that of a small polyatomic projectile. The range of the 125 qkeV Au100q+q (q ≈ 4) projectile is estimated to be 20 nm (well beyond the range of an equal velocity Au+) and projectile disintegration occurs at the exit of even a 5 nm thick foil. PMID:22888385

  6. Quantitative assessment of carbon sequestration reduction induced by disturbances in temperate Eurasian steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yizhao; Ju, Weimin; Groisman, Pavel; Li, Jianlong; Propastin, Pavel; Xu, Xia; Zhou, Wei; Ruan, Honghua

    2017-11-01

    The temperate Eurasian steppe (TES) is a region where various environmental, social, and economic stresses converge. Multiple types of disturbance exist widely across the landscape, and heavily influence carbon cycling in this region. However, a current quantitative assessment of the impact of disturbances on carbon sequestration is largely lacking. In this study, we combined the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS), the Shiyomi grazing model, and the global fire model (Glob-FIRM) to investigate the impact of the two major types of disturbance in the TES (i.e. domestic grazing and fire) on regional carbon sequestration. Model performance was validated using satellite data and field observations. Model outputs indicate that disturbance has a significant impact on carbon sequestration at a regional scale. The annual total carbon lost due to disturbances was 7.8 TgC yr-1, accounting for 14.2% of the total net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Domestic grazing plays the dominant role in terrestrial carbon consumption, accounting for 95% of the total carbon lost from the two disturbances. Carbon losses from both disturbances significantly increased from 1999 to 2008 (R 2 = 0.82, P < 0.001 for grazing, R 2 = 0.51, P < 0.05 for fire). Heavy domestic grazing in relatively barren grasslands substantially reduced carbon sequestration, particularly in the grasslands of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the far southwest of Inner Mongolia. This spatially-explicit information has potential implications for sustainable management of carbon sequestration in the vast grassland ecosystems.

  7. Using Carbon flux network data to investigate the impact of new European greening rules on carbon budgets - a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Marius; Graf, Alexander; Carsten, Montzka; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    In 2015 the European Commission introduced new greening payments as part of their common agricultural practices to address environmental and sustainability issues. The payment is worth about 30% of the total subsidies for European farmers. Sowing nitrogen fixing catch/cover crops in the off season (generally in fall and winter) is one way to achieve the prerequisite for the greening payments. Therefore it is expected that the proportion of catch/cover crops will increase from 2015 onwards at the expense of bare soil fields. In particular, with regard to more frequently occurring mild weather conditions during fall and winter, we assume that the extensive shift to catch/cover crops will have a significant impact on the carbon cycle of agricultural areas. In this study we aim to evaluate this change in agricultural practice on local and regional CO2 fluxes and carbon budgets of the intensively used northern Rur catchment in Germany. In a preliminary study, we observed the daily courses of net CO2 flux and soil respiration of three different catch/cover crops: greening mix, oil radish, and white mustard (Sinapis alba), by means of a net flux chamber and a soil respiration chamber and compared them against Eddy covariance flux data from fields cultivated with (i) winter barley (Hordeum vulgare), and (ii) without vegetation. In the main study, we compare multi-year measurements of carbon fluxes from a regional network of Eddy Covariance sites, partly included in larger networks like Fluxnet, European Fluxes Database Cluster or ICOS. We especially used site data where comparisons of catch crop seasons and conventional seasons between different sites or years were possible. To allow an assessment of the change in carbon fluxes and budgets on regional scale, a land use comparison based on satellite images for the years 2014 to 2016 was applied. With these results, a first regional evaluation of the impact of the new greening policies on carbon fluxes and budgets for the

  8. Carbon dioxide utilization in a microalga-based biorefinery: Efficiency of carbon removal and economic performance under carbon taxation.

    PubMed

    Wiesberg, Igor Lapenda; Brigagão, George Victor; de Medeiros, José Luiz; de Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia

    2017-12-01

    Coal-fired power plants are major stationary sources of carbon dioxide and environmental constraints demand technologies for abatement. Although Carbon Capture and Storage is the most mature route, it poses severe economic penalty to power generation. Alternatively, this penalty is potentially reduced by Carbon Capture and Utilization, which converts carbon dioxide to valuable products, monetizing it. This work evaluates a route consisting of carbon dioxide bio-capture by Chlorella pyrenoidosa and use of the resulting biomass as feedstock to a microalgae-based biorefinery; Carbon Capture and Storage route is evaluated as a reference technology. The integrated arrangement comprises: (a) carbon dioxide biocapture in a photobioreactor, (b) oil extraction from part of the produced biomass, (b) gasification of remaining biomass to obtain bio-syngas, and (c) conversion of bio-syngas to methanol. Calculation of capital and operational expenditures are estimated based on mass and energy balances obtained by process simulation for both routes (Carbon Capture and Storage and the biorefinery). Capital expenditure for the biorefinery is higher by a factor of 6.7, while operational expenditure is lower by a factor of 0.45 and revenues occur only for this route, with a ratio revenue/operational expenditure of 1.6. The photobioreactor is responsible for one fifth of the biorefinery capital expenditure, with footprint of about 1000 ha, posing the most significant barrier for technical and economic feasibility of the proposed biorefinery. The Biorefinery and Carbon Capture and Storage routes show carbon dioxide capture efficiency of 73% and 48%, respectively, with capture cost of 139$/t and 304$/t. Additionally, the biorefinery has superior performance in all evaluated metrics of environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural transformations of carbon and boron nitride nanoscrolls at high impact collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woellner, C. F.; Machado, L. D.; Autreto, P. A. S.; de Sousa, J. M.; Galvao, D. S.

    The behavior of nanostructures under high strain-rate conditions has been object of theoretical and experimental investigations in recent years. For instance, it has been shown that carbon and boron nitride nanotubes can be unzipped into nanoribbons at high velocity impacts. However, the response of many nanostructures to high strain-rate conditions is still not completely understood. In this work we have investigated through fully atomistic reactive (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the mechanical behavior of carbon (CNS) and boron nitride nanoscrolls (BNS) colliding against solid targets at high velocities,. CNS (BNS) nanoscrolls are graphene (boron nitride) membranes rolled up into papyrus-like structures. Their open-ended topology leads to unique properties not found in close-ended analogues, such as nanotubes. Our results show that the collision products are mainly determined by impact velocities and by two impact angles, which define the position of the scroll (i) axis and (ii) open edge relative to the target. Our MD results showed that for appropriate velocities and orientations large-scale deformations and nanoscroll fracture can occur. We also observed unscrolling (scrolls going back to quasi-planar membranes), scroll unzipping into nanoribbons, and significant reconstruction due to breaking and/or formation of new chemical bonds. For particular edge orientations and velocities, conversion from open to close-ended topology is also possible, due to the fusion of nanoscroll walls.

  10. Rapid Permafrost Carbon Degradation at the Land-Ocean Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanski, G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has a strong impact on permafrost coasts in the Arctic. With increasing air and water temperatures, the ice-rich unlithified permafrost coasts will thaw and erode at a greater pace. Organic carbon that has been stored for thousands of years is mobilized and degrades on its way to the ocean. The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent permafrost carbon degrades after thawing before it enters the ocean in a retrogressive thaw slump. A slump located on Herschel Island (Yukon Territory, Canada) was sampled systematically along transects from the permafrost headwall to the coastline. Concentrations of particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC) as well as its stable carbon isotopes (δ13C-POC and δ13C-DOC) were measured and compared in frozen deposits and in thawed sediments. Ammonium, nitrite and nitrate were also analyzed in order to identify and understand the carbon metabolization mechanisms taking place during slump activity. Our results show that major portions of permafrost carbon are metabolized right after thawing. Ammonium concentrations are highest in areas where thawed permafrost material directly accumulates. We suggest that before entering the nearshore zone permafrost organic carbon and nitrogen is subject to major degradation and metabolization. This makes permafrost coasts and retrogressive thaw slumps degradation hotspots at the land-ocean-interface.

  11. Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Innocenti, Alessio; Bertucci, Anthony; Tambutté, Eric; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-06-03

    Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity.

  12. Comparing carbon to carbon: Organic and inorganic carbon balances across nitrogen fertilization gradients in rainfed vs. irrigated Midwest US cropland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, S. K.; McGill, B.

    2017-12-01

    The top meter of the earth's soil contains about twice the amount of carbon than the atmosphere. Agricultural management practices influence whether a cropland soil is a net carbon source or sink. These practices affect both organic and inorganic carbon cycling although the vast majority of studies examine the former. We will present results from several rarely-compared carbon fluxes: carbon dioxide emissions and sequestration from lime (calcium carbonate) weathering, dissolved gases emitted from groundwater-fed irrigation, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching to groundwater, and soil organic matter storage. These were compared in a corn-soybean-wheat rotation under no-till management across a nitrogen fertilizer gradient where half of the replicated blocks are irrigated with groundwater. DOC and liming fluxes are also estimated from a complementary study in neighboring plots comparing a gradient of management practices from conventional to biologically-based annuals and perennials. These studies were conducted at the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in Michigan where previous work estimated that carbon dioxide emissions from liming accounted for about one quarter of the total global warming impact (GWI) from no-till systems—our work refines that figure. We will present a first time look at the GWI of gases dissolved in groundwater that are emitted when the water equilibrates with the atmosphere. We will explore whether nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation increase soil organic carbon sequestration by producing greater crop biomass and residues or if they enhance microbial activity, increasing decomposition of organic matter. These results are critical for more accurately estimating how intensive agricultural practices affect the carbon balance of cropping systems.

  13. An evaluation of the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on soil microbial community structure and functional diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) triggers the need for an assessment of their effects on organisms in the environment. Soil microbial communities play a significant role in soil organic matter dynamics and nutrient cycling. This study evaluated the impacts of multi-walled carbon nan...

  14. Soil carbon fractions under maize-wheat system: effect of tillage and nutrient management.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, S; Manjaiah, K M; Pal, Sharmistha; Singh, A K

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in sustaining agroecosystems and maintaining environmental quality as it acts as a major source and sink of atmospheric carbon. The present study aims to assess the impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon pools in a maize-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plains, India. Soil samples from a split plot design with two tillage systems (bed planting and conventional tillage) and six nutrient treatments (T1 = control, T2 = 120 kg urea-N ha(-1), T3 = T2 (25 % N substituted by FYM), T4 = T2 (25 % N substituted by sewage sludge), T5 = T2 + crop residue, T6 = 100 % organic source (50 % FYM + 25 % biofertilizer + 25 % crop residue) were used for determining the organic carbon pools. Results show that there was a significant improvement in Walkley and Black carbon in soil under integrated and organic nutrient management treatments. KMnO4-oxidizable carbon content of soil varied from 0.63 to 1.50 g kg(-1) in soils and was found to be a better indicator for monitoring the impact of agricultural management practices on quality of soil organic carbon than microbial biomass carbon. Tillage and its interaction were found to significantly influence only those soil organic carbon fractions closely associated with aggregate stability viz, labile polysaccharides and glomalin. The highest amount of C4-derived carbon was found to be in plots receiving recommended doses of N as urea (29 %) followed by control plots (25 %). The carbon management index ranged between 82 to 195 and was better in integrated nutrient sources than ones receiving recommended doses of nutrients through mineral fertilizers alone.

  15. Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Joos, F.

    2010-12-01

    The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO2 agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process,should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO2 given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  16. Reversible and irreversible impacts of greenhouse gas emissions in multi-century projections with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frölicher, Thomas L.; Joos, Fortunat

    2010-12-01

    The legacy of historical and the long-term impacts of 21st century greenhouse gas emissions on climate, ocean acidification, and carbon-climate feedbacks are investigated with a coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Emission commitment scenarios with zero emissions after year 2100 and 21st century emissions of 1,800, 900, and 0 gigatons of carbon are run up to year 2500. The reversibility and irreversibility of impacts is quantified by comparing anthropogenically-forced regional changes with internal, unforced climate variability. We show that the influence of historical emissions and of non-CO2 agents is largely reversible on the regional scale. Forced changes in surface temperature and precipitation become smaller than internal variability for most land and ocean grid cells in the absence of future carbon emissions. In contrast, continued carbon emissions over the 21st century cause irreversible climate change on centennial to millennial timescales in most regions and impacts related to ocean acidification and sea level rise continue to aggravate for centuries even if emissions are stopped in year 2100. Undersaturation of the Arctic surface ocean with respect to aragonite, a mineral form of calcium carbonate secreted by marine organisms, is imminent and remains widespread. The volume of supersaturated water providing habitat to calcifying organisms is reduced from preindustrial 40 to 25% in 2100 and to 10% in 2300 for the high emission case. We conclude that emission trading schemes, related to the Kyoto Process, should not permit trading between emissions of relatively short-lived agents and CO2 given the irreversible impacts of anthropogenic carbon emissions.

  17. Late Wenlock (middle Silurian) bio-events: Caused by volatile boloid impact/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, W. B. N.; Wilde, P.

    1988-01-01

    Late Wenlockian (late mid-Silurian) life is characterized by three significant changes or bioevents: sudden development of massive carbonate reefs after a long interval of limited reef growth; sudden mass mortality among colonial zooplankton, graptolites; and origination of land plants with vascular tissue (Cooksonia). Both marine bioevents are short in duration and occur essentially simultaneously at the end of the Wenlock without any recorded major climatic change from the general global warm climate. These three disparate biologic events may be linked to sudden environmental change that could have resulted from sudden infusion of a massive amount of ammonia into the tropical ocean. Impact of a boloid or swarm of extraterrestrial bodies containing substantial quantities of a volatile (ammonia) component could provide such an infusion. Major carbonate precipitation (formation), as seen in the reefs as well as, to a more limited extent, in certain brachiopods, would be favored by increased pH resulting from addition of a massive quantity of ammonia into the upper ocean. Because of the buffer capacity of the ocean and dilution effects, the pH would have returned soon to equilibrium. Major proliferation of massive reefs ceased at the same time. Addition of ammonia as fertilizer to terrestrial environments in the tropics would have created optimum environmental conditions for development of land plants with vascular, nutrient-conductive tissue. Fertilization of terrestrial environments thus seemingly preceded development of vascular tissue by a short time interval. Although no direct evidence of impact of a volatile boloid may be found, the bioevent evidence is suggestive that such an impact in the oceans could have taken place. Indeed, in the case of an ammonia boloid, evidence, such as that of the Late Wenlockian bioevents may be the only available data for impact of such a boloid.

  18. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Treesearch

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  19. The Impact of Major-Job Mismatch on College Graduates' Early Career Earnings: Evidence from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the mismatch between a college major and job on college graduates' early career earnings using a sample from China. On average, a major-job mismatched college graduate is found to suffer from an income loss that is much lower than the penalty documented in previous studies. The income losses are also found to be…

  20. Low velocity instrumented impact testing of four new damage tolerant carbon/epoxy composite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, D. G.; Nettles, A. T.

    1990-01-01

    Low velocity drop weight instrumented impact testing was utilized to examine the damage resistance of four recently developed carbon fiber/epoxy resin systems. A fifth material, T300/934, for which a large data base exists, was also tested for comparison purposes. A 16-ply quasi-isotropic lay-up configuration was used for all the specimens. Force/absorbed energy-time plots were generated for each impact test. The specimens were cross-sectionally analyzed to record the damage corresponding to each impact energy level. Maximum force of impact versus impact energy plots were constructed to compare the various systems for impact damage resistance. Results show that the four new damage tolerant fiber/resin systems far outclassed the T300/934 material. The most damage tolerant material tested was the IM7/1962 fiber/resin system.

  1. The air, carbon, water synergies and trade-offs in China's natural gas industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Höglund-Isaksson, L.; Wagner, F.; Byers, E.

    2017-12-01

    Both energy production and consumption can simultaneously affect regional air quality, local water stress, and the global climate. Identifying air, carbon and water impacts of various energy sources and end-uses is important in determining the relative merits of various energy policies. Here, we examine the air-carbon-water interdependencies of China's six major natural gas source choices (domestic conventional natural gas, domestic coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG), domestic shale gas, imported liquefied natural gas, imported Russian pipeline gas, and imported Central Asian pipeline gas) and three end-use coal-to-gas deployment strategies (with substitution strategies that focus in turn on air quality, carbon, and water) in 2020. On the supply side, we find that gas sources other than SNG offer national air-carbon-water co-benefits. However, we find striking air-carbon/water trade-offs for SNG at the national scale. Moreover, the use of SNG significantly increases water demand and carbon emissions in regions already suffering from the most severe water stress and the highest per capita carbon footprint. On the end-use side, gas substitution for coal can result in enormous variations in air quality, carbon, and water impacts, with notable air-carbon synergies but air-water trade-offs. Our study finds that, except for SNG, end-use choices generally have a much larger influence on air quality, carbon emissions and water use than do gas source choices. Simultaneous consideration of air, carbon, and water impacts is necessary in designing both beneficial energy development and deployment policies.

  2. Modeling climate and fuel reduction impacts on mixed-conifer forest carbon stocks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Timothy A. Robards; Donald Stevens; David Saah; Malcolm North; George W. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the impacts of changing climatic conditions on forest growth is integral to estimating future forest carbon balance. We used a growth-and-yield model, modified for climate sensitivity, to quantify the effects of altered climate on mixed-conifer forest growth in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California. Estimates of forest growth and live tree carbon stocks were...

  3. Hydrogeological impact of fault zones on a fractured carbonate aquifer, Semmering (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayaud, Cyril; Winkler, Gerfried; Reichl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Fault zones are the result of tectonic processes and are geometrical features frequently encountered in carbonate aquifer systems. They can hamper the fluid migration (hydrogeological barriers), propagate the movement of fluid (draining conduits) or be a combination of both processes. Numerical modelling of fractured carbonate aquifer systems is strongly bound on the knowledge of a profound conceptual model including geological and tectonic settings such as fault zones. In further consequence, numerical models can be used to evaluate the conceptual model and its introduced approximations. The study was conducted in a fractured carbonate aquifer built up by permomesozoic dolo/limestones of the Semmering-Wechsel complex in the Eastern Alps (Austria). The aquifer has an assumed thickness of about 200 m and dips to the north. It is covered by a thin quartzite layer and a very low permeable layer of quartz-phyllite having a thickness of up to several hundred meters. The carbonate layer crops out only in the southern part of the investigation area, where it receives autogenic recharge. The geological complexity affects some uncertainties related to the extent of the model area, which was determined to be about 15 km². Three vertical fault zones cross the area approximately in a N-S direction. The test site includes an infrastructural pilot tunnel gallery of 4.3 km length with two pumping stations, respectively active since August 1997 and June 1998. The total pumping rate is about 90 l/s and the drawdown data were analysed analytically, providing a hydraulic conductivity of about 5E-05 m/s for the carbonate layer. About 120 m drawdown between the initial situation and situation with pumping is reported by piezometers. This led to the drying up of one spring located at the southern border of the carbonates. A continuum approach using MODFLOW-2005 was applied to reproduce numerically the observed aquifer behaviour and investigate the impact of the three fault zones. First

  4. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2009-03-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15-25%) and Western Europe (5-15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5-6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  5. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships. The contribution from major ship types and ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalsøren, S. B.; Eide, M. S.; Endresen, Ø.; Mjelde, A.; Gravir, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2008-10-01

    A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds), N2O, BC (Black Carbon) and OC (Organic Carbon). The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions. A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM) was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over western North America (contribution 15 25%) and western Europe (5 15%). The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5 6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With regard to acidification we find that ships contribute 11% to nitrate wet deposition and 4.5% to sulphur wet deposition

  6. Impact of naturally leaking carbon dioxide on soil properties and ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Deng, Hongzhang; Wang, Wenke

    One of the major concerns for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is the potential risk of CO 2 leakage from storage reservoirs on the shallow soil property and vegetation. This study utilizes a naturally occurring CO 2 leaking site in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to analog a “leaking CCS site”. Our observations from this site indicates that long-term CO 2 invasion in the vadose zone results in variations of soil properties, such as pH fluctuation, slight drop of total organic carbon, reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus, and concentration changes of soluble ions. Simultaneously, XRD patterns of the soil suggest thatmore » crystallization of soil is enhanced and mineral contents of calcite and anorthite in soil are increased substantially. Parts of the whole ecosystem such as natural wild plants, soil dwelling animals and microorganisms in shallow soil are affected as well. Under a moderate CO 2 concentration (less than 110000 ppm), wild plant growth and development are improved, while an intensive CO2 flux over 112000 ppm causes adverse effects on the plant growth, physiological and biochemical system of plants, and crop quality of wheat. Results of this study provide valuable insight for understanding the possible environmental impacts associated with potential CO 2 leakage into shallow sediments at carbon sequestration sites.« less

  7. Impact of naturally leaking carbon dioxide on soil properties and ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Deng, Hongzhang; Wang, Wenke; ...

    2017-06-07

    One of the major concerns for CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is the potential risk of CO 2 leakage from storage reservoirs on the shallow soil property and vegetation. This study utilizes a naturally occurring CO 2 leaking site in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to analog a “leaking CCS site”. Our observations from this site indicates that long-term CO 2 invasion in the vadose zone results in variations of soil properties, such as pH fluctuation, slight drop of total organic carbon, reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus, and concentration changes of soluble ions. Simultaneously, XRD patterns of the soil suggest thatmore » crystallization of soil is enhanced and mineral contents of calcite and anorthite in soil are increased substantially. Parts of the whole ecosystem such as natural wild plants, soil dwelling animals and microorganisms in shallow soil are affected as well. Under a moderate CO 2 concentration (less than 110000 ppm), wild plant growth and development are improved, while an intensive CO2 flux over 112000 ppm causes adverse effects on the plant growth, physiological and biochemical system of plants, and crop quality of wheat. Results of this study provide valuable insight for understanding the possible environmental impacts associated with potential CO 2 leakage into shallow sediments at carbon sequestration sites.« less

  8. Human impacts on soil carbon dynamics of deep-rooted Amazonian forests and effect of land use change on the carbon cycle in Amazon soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nepstad, Daniel; Stone, Thomas; Davidson, Eric; Trumbore, Susan E.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of these NASA-funded projects is to improve our understanding of land-use impacts on soil carbon dynamics in the Amazon Basin. Soil contains approximately one half of tropical forest carbon stocks, yet the fate of this carbon following forest impoverishment is poorly studied. Our mechanistics approach draws on numerous techniques for measuring soil carbon outputs, inputs, and turnover time in the soils of adjacent forest and pasture ecosystems at our research site in Paragominas, state of Para, Brazil. We are scaling up from this site-specific work by analyzing Basin-wide patterns in rooting depth and rainfall seasonality, the two factors that we believe should explain much of the variation in tropical soil carbons dynamics. In this report, we summarize ongoing measurements at our Paragominas study site, progress in employing new field data to understand soil C dynamics, and some surprising results from our regional, scale-up work.

  9. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using different sources of carbon and its impact on lipid production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransiscus, Yunus; Purwanto, Edy

    2017-05-01

    A cultivation process of Chlorella vulgaris has been done in different treatment to investigate the optimum condition for lipid production. Firstly, autotroph and heterotroph condition have been applied to test the significance impact of carbon availability to the growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris. And for the same purpose, heterotroph condition using glucose, fructose and sucrose as carbon sources was independently implemented. The growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris in autotroph condition was much slower than those in heterotroph. The different sources of carbon gave no significant different in the growth pattern, but in term of lipid production it was presented a considerable result. At lower concentration (3 and 6 gr/L) of carbon sources there was only slight different in lipid production level. At higher concentration (12 gr/L) glucose as a carbon source produced the highest result, 60.18% (w/w) compared to fructose and sucrose that produced 27.34% (w/w) and 18.19% (w/w) respectively.

  10. Impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  11. Carbon emission and sequestration of urban turfgrass systems in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling; Shi, Zhengjun; Chu, L M

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is more than just a global issue. Locally released carbon dioxide may lead to a rise in global ambient temperature and influence the surrounding climate. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and vegetation. On the other hand, urban greenery systems which are under intense management and maintenance may contribute to the emission of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. The impact of urban greenery on carbon balance in major metropolitan areas thus remains controversial. We investigated the carbon footprints of urban turf operation and maintenance by conducting a research questionnaire on different Hong Kong turfs in 2012, and showed that turf maintenance contributed 0.17 to 0.63 kg Ce m(-2)y(-1) to carbon emissions. We also determined the carbon storage of turfs at 0.05 to 0.21 kg C m(-2) for aboveground grass biomass and 1.26 to 4.89 kg C m(-2) for soils (to 15 cm depth). We estimated that the carbon sink capacity of turfs could be offset by carbon emissions in 5-24 years under current management patterns, shifting from carbon sink to carbon source. Our study suggested that maintenance management played a key role in the carbon budget and footprint of urban greeneries. The environmental impact of turfgrass systems can be optimized by shifting away from empirically designed maintenance schedules towards rational ones based on carbon sink and emission principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; ...

    2017-03-28

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomesmore » of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO 2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Finally, our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO 2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.« less

  13. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent; Pitts, G. Stephen; Drapek, Ray; McFarland, James; Ohrel, Sara; Cole, Jefferson

    2017-04-01

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomes of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.

  14. Assessing climate change impacts, benefits of mitigation, and uncertainties on major global forest regions under multiple socioeconomic and emissions scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, John B.; Monier, Erwan; Sohngen, Brent

    We analyze a set of simulations to assess the impact of climate change on global forests where MC2 dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) was run with climate simulations from the MIT Integrated Global System Model-Community Atmosphere Model (IGSM-CAM) modeling framework. The core study relies on an ensemble of climate simulations under two emissions scenarios: a business-as-usual reference scenario (REF) analogous to the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, and a greenhouse gas mitigation scenario, called POL3.7, which is in between the IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and is consistent with a 2 °C global mean warming from pre-industrial by 2100. Evaluating the outcomesmore » of both climate change scenarios in the MC2 model shows that the carbon stocks of most forests around the world increased, with the greatest gains in tropical forest regions. Temperate forest regions are projected to see strong increases in productivity offset by carbon loss to fire. The greatest cost of mitigation in terms of effects on forest carbon stocks are projected to be borne by regions in the southern hemisphere. We compare three sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on the world’s forests: emissions scenarios, the global system climate response (i.e. climate sensitivity), and natural variability. The role of natural variability on changes in forest carbon and net primary productivity (NPP) is small, but it is substantial for impacts of wildfire. Forest productivity under the REF scenario benefits substantially from the CO 2 fertilization effect and that higher warming alone does not necessarily increase global forest carbon levels. Finally, our analysis underlines why using an ensemble of climate simulations is necessary to derive robust estimates of the benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. It also demonstrates that constraining estimates of climate sensitivity and advancing our understanding of CO 2 fertilization effects may considerably reduce the range of projections.« less

  15. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbingmore » secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.« less

  16. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  17. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  18. Open hole and post-impact compression fatigue of stitched and unstitched carbon/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.; Poe, C. C., Jr.; Whitcomb, John D.

    1990-01-01

    The performance is studied of a stitched uniweave fabric composite and that of a toughened tape composite. The effects of stitching on compression fatigue life are addressed. Post impact compression fatigue and open hole fatigue tests were run on an AS4/3501-6 uniweave with stitching and a toughened IM7/8551-7 tape without stitching. Stitching was found to increase the thickness and consequently the weight of the composite material. The two materials were compared on an equal carbon content basis as well as on an equal weight basis. The excess thickness in the stitched uniweave composite was responsible for the lower fatigue life, on an equal carbon basis, compared to the toughened resin tape composite. Comparison of fatigue lives on an equal carbon content basis indicated that puncture or crimp type damage from stitching has very little effect on compression failure. Post impact fatigue test showed that although the damage area in the stitched uniweave composite was twice that of the toughened tape composite, the fatigue lives of the stitched composite were significantly longer than those of the toughened composite. Thus, it appears that the increase in thickness from stitching is much more of a penalty than crimped fibers or puncture type damage from stitching.

  19. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the Earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of Earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the Moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of Earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean. Specifically, high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios are possible if either: (1) the climate was cool (like today's climate), so that hydration of dissolved CO to formate was slow, or (2) the formate formed from CO was efficiently converted into volatile, reduced carbon compounds, such as methane. A high atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio may have helped to facilitate prebiotic synthesis by enhancing the production rates of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. Formaldehyde may have been produced even more efficiently by photochemical reduction of bicarbonate and formate in Fe(++)-rich surface waters.

  20. Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlies, A.

    2009-04-01

    The sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to alterations in the marine biological carbon pump, such as brought about by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization, has repeatedly been investigated by studies employing numerical biogeochemical ocean models. It is shown here that the results of such ocean-centered studies are very sensitive to the assumption made about the response of the carbon reservoirs on the atmospheric side of the sea surface. Assumptions made include prescribed atmospheric pCO2, an interactive atmospheric CO2 pool exchanging carbon with the ocean but not with the terrestrial biosphere, and an interactive atmosphere that exchanges carbon with both oceanic and terrestrial carbon pools. The impact of these assumptions on simulated annual to millennial oceanic carbon uptake is investigated for a hypothetical increase in the C:N ratio of the biological pump and for an idealized enhancement of phytoplankton growth. Compared to simulations with interactive atmosphere, using prescribed atmospheric pCO2 overestimates the sensitivity of the oceanic CO2 uptake to changes in the biological pump, by about 2%, 25%, 100%, and >500% on annual, decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. Adding an interactive terrestrial carbon pool to the atmosphere-ocean model system has a small effect on annual timescales, but increases the simulated fertilization-induced oceanic carbon uptake by about 4%, 50%, and 100% on decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. On longer than decadal timescales, a substantial fraction of oceanic carbon uptake induced by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization may not come from the atmosphere but from the terrestrial biosphere.

  1. Pectin, Hemicellulose, or Lignin? Impact of the Biowaste Source on the Performance of Hard Carbons for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xinwei; Hasa, Ivana; Hekmatfar, Maral; Diemant, Thomas; Behm, R Jürgen; Buchholz, Daniel; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-06-22

    Hard carbons are currently the most widely used negative electrode materials in Na-ion batteries. This is due to their promising electrochemical performance with capacities of 200-300 mAh g -1 and stable long-term cycling. However, an abundant and cheap carbon source is necessary in order to comply with the low-cost philosophy of Na-ion technology. Many biological or waste materials have been used to synthesize hard carbons but the impact of the precursors on the final properties of the anode material is not fully understood. In this study the impact of the biomass source on the structural and electrochemical properties of hard carbons is unraveled by using different, representative types of biomass as examples. The systematic structural and electrochemical investigation of hard carbons derived from different sources-namely corncobs, peanut shells, and waste apples, which are representative of hemicellulose-, lignin- and pectin-rich biomass, respectively-enables understanding and interlinking of the structural and electrochemical properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Field testing a mobile inelastic neutron scattering system to measure soil carbon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping history in conjunction with soil management practices can have a major impact on the amount of organic carbon (C) stored in soil. Current methods of assessing soil C based on soil coring and subsequent processing procedures prior to laboratory analysis are labor intensive and time consuming...

  3. Contrasting soil microbial community functional structures in two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow

    DOE PAGES

    Chu, Houjuan; Wang, Shiping; Yue, Haowei; ...

    2014-07-07

    The grassland and shrubland are two major landscapes of the Tibetan alpine meadow, a region very sensitive to the impact of global warming and anthropogenic perturbation. Herein, we report a study showing that a majority of differences in soil microbial community functional structures, measured by a functional gene array named GeoChip 4.0, in two adjacent shrubland and grassland areas, were explainable by environmental properties, suggesting that the harsh environments in the alpine grassland rendered niche adaptation important. Furthermore, genes involved in labile carbon degradation were more abundant in the shrubland than those of the grassland but genes involved in recalcitrantmore » carbon degradation were less abundant, which was conducive to long-term carbon storage and sequestration in the shrubland despite low soil organic carbon content. In addition, genes of anerobic nitrogen cycling processes such as denitrification and dissimilatory nitrogen reduction were more abundant, shifting soil nitrogen cycling toward ammonium biosynthesis and consequently leading to higher soil ammonium contents. In conclusion, we also noted higher abundances of stress genes responsive to nitrogen limitation and oxygen limitation, which might be attributed to low total nitrogen and higher water contents in the shrubland. Together, these results provide mechanistic knowledge about microbial linkages to soil carbon and nitrogen storage and potential consequences of vegetation shifts in the Tibetan alpine meadow.« less

  4. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  5. Modelling the impacts of barrier-island transgression and anthropogenic disturbance on blue carbon budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The size of backbarrier saltmarsh carbon reservoirs are dictated by transgressive processes, such as erosion and overwash, yet these processes are not included in blue carbon budgets. These carbon reservoirs are presumed to increase through time if marsh elevation is keeping pace with sea-level rise. However, changes in marsh width due to erosion and overwash can alter carbon budgets and reservoirs. To explore the impacts of these processes on transgressive barrier island carbon budgets and reservoirs we developed and tested a transect model. The model couples a carbon storage term driven by backbarrier marsh width and a carbon export term driven by ocean and backbarrier shoreline erosion. We tested the model using data collected from two transgressive barrier islands in North Carolina with different backbarrier settings. Core Banks is an undeveloped barrier island with a wide backbarrier marsh and lagoon, hence, landward migration of the island (rollover) is unimpeded. Barrier rollover is impeded at Onslow Beach as there is no backbarrier lagoon and the island is immediately adjacent to steeper mainland topography. Sediment cores were collected to determine carbon storage rates as well as the quantity of carbon exported from eroding marsh. Backbarrier marsh erosion rates, ocean shoreline erosion rates, and changes in marsh width were determined from aerial photographs. Output from the model indicated that hurricane erosion and overwash as well as human disturbance from the construction of the Intracoastal Waterway temporarily transitioned the Onslow Beach sites to carbon sources. Through time, the carbon reservoir at this barrier continued to decrease as carbon export outpaced carbon storage. The carbon reservoir will continue to exhaust as the ocean shoreline migrates landward given the inability for new marsh to form during island rollover. At Core Banks, barrier rollover is unimpeded and new saltmarsh can form during transgression. The Core Banks site only

  6. Estimating carbon and showing impacts of drought using satellite data in regression-tree models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Howard, Danny; Dahal, Devendra; Gilmanov, Tagir G.

    2018-01-01

    Integrating spatially explicit biogeophysical and remotely sensed data into regression-tree models enables the spatial extrapolation of training data over large geographic spaces, allowing a better understanding of broad-scale ecosystem processes. The current study presents annual gross primary production (GPP) and annual ecosystem respiration (RE) for 2000–2013 in several short-statured vegetation types using carbon flux data from towers that are located strategically across the conterminous United States (CONUS). We calculate carbon fluxes (annual net ecosystem production [NEP]) for each year in our study period, which includes 2012 when drought and higher-than-normal temperatures influence vegetation productivity in large parts of the study area. We present and analyse carbon flux dynamics in the CONUS to better understand how drought affects GPP, RE, and NEP. Model accuracy metrics show strong correlation coefficients (r) (r ≥ 94%) between training and estimated data for both GPP and RE. Overall, average annual GPP, RE, and NEP are relatively constant throughout the study period except during 2012 when almost 60% less carbon is sequestered than normal. These results allow us to conclude that this modelling method effectively estimates carbon dynamics through time and allows the exploration of impacts of meteorological anomalies and vegetation types on carbon dynamics.

  7. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 samplermore » operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.« less

  8. Land use scenarios development and impacts assessment on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration in the West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    ackground: Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), being developed through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) requires information on the carbon/nitrogen stocks in the plant biomass for predicting future climate under scenarios development. The development of land use scenarios in West Africa is needed to predict future impacts of change in the environment and the socio-economic status of rural communities. The study aims at developing land use scenario based on mitigation strategy to climate change as an issue of contributing for carbon and nitrogen sequestration, the condition 'food focused' as a scenario based crop production and 'financial investment' as scenario based on an economic development pathway, and to explore the possible future temporal and spatial impacts on vegetation carbon/nitrogen sequestration/emission and socio-economic status of rural communities. Preliminary results: BEN-LUDAS (Benin-Land Use DyNamic Simulator) model, carbon and nitrogen equations, remote sensing and socio-economic data were used to predict the future impacts of each scenario in the environment and human systems. The preliminary results which are under analysis will be presented soon. Conclusion: The proposed BEN-LUDAS models will help to contribute to policy decision making at the local and regional scale and to predict future impacts of change in the environment and socio-economic status of the rural communities. Keywords: Land use scenarios development, BEN-LUDAS, socio-economic status of rural communities, future impacts of change, assessment, West African Sudan savanna watershed, Benin

  9. Mapping the impact of river regulation on carbon dynamics using coupled field surveys and remotely-sensed optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, C.; Butman, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Many river-reservoir networks are already managed for ecological targets such as stream temperature regulation, but less is known about how management choices alter the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon as well as the concentration of dissolved carbon gases. Understanding these ecological impacts is critical to informing water resources management, especially in light of the global hydropower boom and the increased interest in dam removal in the United States. Here we present results from a field survey and remote sensing imagery analysis quantifying a suite of water quality variables. With this approach, we evaluate spatial differences in carbon signals above, and below eight mainstem dams located on the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Dissolved methane and carbon dioxide concentrations were in excess of atmospheric levels with occasional carbon dioxide undersaturation being observed in the Snake River. CH4 and CO2 δ13C values shifted between the mainstem and the tributaries reflecting changes in carbon sources and processes. Satellite-retrieved estimates of CDOM and chlorophyll-a were compared to in situ measurements to enable surface mapping of concentrations at broader spatial scales. Our technical approach blends cloud-based data fusion techniques and machine learning to link ground-collected observations to remote sensing imagery in order to produce spatially-explicit, cross-scale estimates of carbon dynamics in a large, highly regulated river system. These findings test the feasibility of coupling remote sensing with field-based measurements to observe the complex impacts of run-of-the river impoundments to aquatic carbon cycling.

  10. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties ofmore » underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial

  11. Impact of intentionally injected carbon dioxide hydrate on deep-sea benthic foraminiferal survival.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhard, Joan M; Barry, James P; Buck, Kurt R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ocean is being considered as a feasible mechanism to mitigate the alarming rate in its atmospheric rise. Little is known, however, about how the resulting hypercapnia and ocean acidification may affect marine fauna. In an effort to understand better the protistan reaction to such an environmental perturbation, the survivorship of benthic foraminifera, which is a prevalent group of protists, was studied in response to deep-sea CO2 release. The survival response of calcareous, agglutinated, and thecate foraminifera was determined in two experiments at ~3.1 and 3.3 km water depth in Monterey Bay (California,more » USA). Approximately five weeks after initial seafloor CO2 release, in situ incubations of the live-dead indicator CellTracker Green were executed within seafloor-emplaced pushcores. Experimental treatments included direct exposure to CO2 hydrate, two levels of lesser exposure adjacent to CO2 hydrate, and controls, which were far removed from the CO2 hydrate release. Results indicate that survivorship rates of agglutinated and thecate foraminifera were not significantly impacted by direct exposure but the survivorship of calcareous foraminifera was significantly lower in direct exposure treatments compared to controls. Observations suggest that, if large scale CO2 sequestration is enacted on the deep-sea floor, survival of two major groups of this prevalent protistan taxon will likely not be severely impacted, while calcareous foraminifera will face considerable challenges to maintain their benthic populations in areas directly exposed to CO2 hydrate.« less

  12. Impacts of genetically engineered alterations in carbon sink pathways on photosynthetic performance

    DOE PAGES

    Holland, Steven C.; Artier, Juliana; Miller, Neil T.; ...

    2016-10-05

    Genetic engineering of photosynthetic organisms typically redirects native metabolism towards desirable products, which thereby represent new metabolic sinks. There is limited information on how these modifications impact the evolved mechanisms of photosynthetic energy metabolism and cellular growth. Two engineered strains of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 with altered carbon sink capacity were assayed for their photosynthetic and CO 2 concentrating mechanism properties in conditions of high and low inorganic carbon (Ci) availability. In the ΔglgC mutant, glycogen cannot be synthesized and a carbon sink pathway has been effectively removed. The JU547 strain has been engineered by integration of the Pseudomonas syringaemore » ethylene forming enzyme and provides a new sink. When cultured under high carbon conditions, ΔglgC displayed diminished photochemical efficiency, a more reduced NADPH pool, delayed initiation of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, and impairment of linear and cyclic electron flows. It also exhibited a large decrease in photochemical quenching indicative of the accumulation of Q A-, normally associated with a reduced PQ pool, but appears instead to be the result of an undefined dissipative mechanism to spill excess energy. In the case of carbon sink integration, JU547 displayed slightly more oxidized PQ and NADPH pools and increased rates of cyclic electron flow and an enhanced demand for inorganic carbon as suggested by increase in the expression of the bicarbonate transporter, SbtA. Overall, the results highlight the importance of the native regulatory network of autotrophic metabolism in governing photosynthetic performance and provide cogent examples of both predicable and difficult to predict phenotypic consequences upon installation of new pathways in autotrophs.« less

  13. [Review of lime carbon sink.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li Li; Ling, Jiang Hua; Tie, Li; Wang, Jiao Yue; Bing, Long Fei; Xi, Feng Ming

    2018-01-01

    Under the background of "missing carbon sink" mystery and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology development, this paper summarized the lime material flow process carbon sink from the lime carbonation principles, impact factors, and lime utilization categories in chemical industry, metallurgy industry, construction industry, and lime kiln ash treatment. The results showed that the lime carbonation rate coefficients were mainly impacted by materials and ambient conditions; the lime carbon sink was mainly in chemical, metallurgy, and construction industries; and current researches focused on the mechanisms and impact factors for carbonation, but their carbon sequestration calculation methods had not been proposed. Therefore, future research should focus on following aspects: to establish a complete system of lime carbon sequestration accounting method in view of material flow; to calculate lime carbon sequestration in both China and the world and explain their offset proportion of CO 2 emission from lime industrial process; to analyze the contribution of lime carbon sequestration to missing carbon sink for clarifying part of missing carbon sinks; to promote the development of carbon capture and storage technology and provide some scientific bases for China's international negotiations on climate change.

  14. Low Velocity Impacts of Variable Tip Radius on Carbon/Epoxy Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Mac P.

    With a growing use of composite materials in aircraft structures, there is a greater need to understand the response of these materials to low velocity impacts. Low velocity impacts from tool drops or ground equipment collisions can be of varying bluntness and can leave little or no visible evidence of damage. Therefore, a need exists to investigate the initiation of internal damage and the relationship between this internal damage and the external visible damage with respect to the bluntness of the impactor. A pendulum impactor was used to impact 76.2 x 127 mm carbon/epoxy panels that were 8, 16, and 24 plies thick. The panels were impacted by hardened steel tips with radii of 12.7 to 76.2 mm. The experimental results show that the failure threshold energies for each panel thickness and tip radius combination occur at a distinct and consistent energy. This threshold increases with impactor bluntness, and this effect is greater for the 8 ply panel than it is for the 16 or 24 ply panels. To describe the visibility of impact damage, the area of delamination was compared to the depth of the dents resulting from the impacts. For the sharper impact tips, there is a clear relationship between the delamination area and the depth of the dents. However, these relationships are dependent on the radius of the impact tip, and for the blunter impact tips no strong correlation could be determined between the delamination area and the depth of the dents.

  15. Connecting the cycles: impact of farming practices, Carbon and nutrient erosion on GHG emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    This study focuses on identifying links between GHG emissions, soil management and soil erosion that are not considered in the commonly applied emission calculations associated with farming and soil erosion. The role of agriculture in generating GHG emissions through the use of fertilizers and fossil fuels is well documented. The negative impacts of soil erosion on agricultural land and its productivity have also been studied extensively. The lateral movement of soil through terrestrial ecosystems has also been recognized as a significant flux of C within the global C cycle. Soil erosion removes approximately 0.5 Gt of C per year from agricultural land. Much of this C is deposited in the landscape, effectively burying the organic matter from the atmosphere and taking it, at least for an unspecified time, out of the C exchange between soil and atmosphere. Such calculations raise the notion that soil erosion generates an unintentional benefit for climate, owing to the long-term burial of soil organic Carbon. But limiting the assessment of the impact of soil erosion on climate change to organic carbon burial ignores, apart from economic and social damages, the coupling between biogeochemical cycles. For example, the eroded nitrogen has to be replaced, at least in part by artificial fertilizers, to maintain soil fertility. At this point the sediment, Carbon and nitrogen cycles meet, because the production of fertilizer generates greenhouse gases. The production of one ton of fertilizer generates on the order of 850 kg of carbon dioxide. Applying this number to the 0.5 GT C erosion estimate, the amount of nitrogen lost owing to erosion each year yields carbon dioxide emissions of 0.02-0.04 Pg per year. These emissions correspond to 15-30% of the organic carbon buried owing to soil erosion. In this presentation, the full complexity of biogeochemical cycling on agricultural land is explored and connections between cycles which require consideration for a full GHG emission

  16. Monitoring fatigue damage in carbon fiber composites using an acoustic impact technique

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, A.; Raju, P.K.

    1998-06-01

    The acoustic impact technique (AIT) of nondestructive testing (NDT) has been used to identify the damage that results from the compressive and tension-compression cycle loading around a circular notch of quasiisotropic carbon-fiber composites. This method involves applying a low velocity impact to the test specimen and evaluating the resulting localized acoustic response. Results indicate that AIT can be applied for identification of both compressive and fatigue damage in composite laminates. The gross area of compressive and fatigue damage is detected through an increase in the pulse width, and a decrease in the amplitude, of the force-time signal. The response obtainedmore » in AIT is sensitive to the frequency of the impactor and the amplitude of the impact force and requires careful monitoring of these values to achieve repeatability of results.« less

  17. The effects of compressive preloads on the compression-after-impact strength of carbon/epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    A preloading device was used to examine the effects of compressive prestress on the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of 16-ply, quasi-isotropic carbon epoxy test coupons. T300/934 material was evaluated at preloads from 200 to 4000 lb at impact energies from 1 to 9 joules. IM7/8551-7 material was evaluated at preloads from 4000 to 10,000 lb at impact energies from 4 to 16 joules. Advanced design of experiments methodology was used to design and evaluate the test matrices. The results showed that no statistically significant change in CAI strength could be contributed to the amount of compressive preload applied to the specimen.

  18. Late Holocene vegetation, climate, and land-use impacts on carbon dynamics in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Miriam C.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical peatlands are considered a significant carbon sink. The Florida Everglades includes 6000-km2 of peat-accumulating wetland; however, detailed carbon dynamics from different environments within the Everglades have not been extensively studied or compared. Here we present carbon accumulation rates from 13 cores and 4 different environments, including sawgrass ridges and sloughs, tree islands, and marl prairies, whose hydroperiods and vegetation communities differ. We find that the lowest rates of C accumulation occur in sloughs in the southern Everglades. The highest rates are found where hydroperiods are generally shorter, including near-tails of tree islands and drier ridges. Long-term average rates of 100 to >200 g C m−2 yr−1 are as high, and in some cases, higher than rates recorded from the tropics and 10–20 times higher than boreal averages. C accumulation rates were impacted by both the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age, but the largest impacts to C accumulation rates over the Holocene record have been the anthropogenic changes associated with expansion of agriculture and construction of canals and levees to control movement of surface water. Water management practices in the 20th century have altered the natural hydroperiods and fire regimes of the Everglades. The Florida Everglades as a whole has acted as a significant carbon sink over the mid- to late-Holocene, but reduction of the spatial extent of the original wetland area, as well as the alteration of natural hydrology in the late 19th and 20th centuries, have significantly reduced the carbon sink capacity of this subtropical wetland.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increase organic carbon decomposition under elevated carbon dioxide

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major goal of climate change research is to understand whether and how terrestrial ecosystems can sequester more carbon to mitigate rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. The stimulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) by elevated atmospheric CO2 has been assumed to be a major mecha...

  20. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON... implementation, media, or subject matter. (3) By stage of technological development including federal or...

  1. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON... implementation, media, or subject matter. (3) By stage of technological development including federal or...

  2. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON... implementation, media, or subject matter. (3) By stage of technological development including federal or...

  3. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON... implementation, media, or subject matter. (3) By stage of technological development including federal or...

  4. 40 CFR 1502.4 - Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Major Federal actions requiring the preparation of environmental impact statements. 1502.4 Section 1502.4 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON... implementation, media, or subject matter. (3) By stage of technological development including federal or...

  5. Estimating carbon sequestration in the piedmont ecoregion of the United States from 1971 to 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Jinxun; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Heath, Linda S.; Tan, Zhengxi; Wilson, Tamara; Sherba, Jason T.; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human activities have diverse and profound impacts on ecosystem carbon cycles. The Piedmont ecoregion in the eastern United States has undergone significant land use and land cover change in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to use newly available land use and land cover change data to quantify carbon changes within the ecoregion. Land use and land cover change data (60-m spatial resolution) derived from sequential remotely sensed Landsat imagery were used to generate 960-m resolution land cover change maps for the Piedmont ecoregion. These maps were used in the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) to simulate ecosystem carbon stock and flux changes from 1971 to 2010. Results: Results show that land use change, especially urbanization and forest harvest had significant impacts on carbon sources and sinks. From 1971 to 2010, forest ecosystems sequestered 0.25 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, while agricultural ecosystems sequestered 0.03 Mg C ha−1 yr−1. The total ecosystem C stock increased from 2271 Tg C in 1971 to 2402 Tg C in 2010, with an annual average increase of 3.3 Tg C yr−1. Conclusions: Terrestrial lands in the Piedmont ecoregion were estimated to be weak net carbon sink during the study period. The major factors contributing to the carbon sink were forest growth and afforestation; the major factors contributing to terrestrial emissions were human induced land cover change, especially urbanization and forest harvest. An additional amount of carbon continues to be stored in harvested wood products. If this pool were included the carbon sink would be stronger. Keywords: Land-use change, Carbon change, Piedmont ecoregion, IBIS model

  6. The survivability of phyllosilicates and carbonates impacting Stardust Al foils: Facilitating the search for cometary water

    DOE PAGES

    Wozniakiewicz, Penelope J.; Ishii, Hope A.; Kearsley, Anton T.; ...

    2015-11-05

    Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by NASA's Stardust mission provide an unequalled opportunity to study the contents of, and hence conditions and processes operating on, comets. They can potentially validate contentious interpretations of cometary infrared spectra and in situ mass spectrometry data: specifically the identification of phyllosilicates and carbonates. However, Wild 2 dust was collected via impact into capture media at ~6 km s -1, leading to uncertainty as to whether these minerals were captured intact, and, if subjected to alteration, whether they remain recognizable. Here, we simulated Stardust Al foil capture conditions using a two-stage light-gas gun, and directlymore » compared transmission electron microscope analyses of pre- and postimpact samples to investigate survivability of lizardite and cronstedtite (phyllosilicates) and calcite (carbonate). We find the phyllosilicates do not survive impact as intact crystalline materials but as moderately to highly vesiculated amorphous residues lining resultant impact craters, whose bulk cation to Si ratios remain close to that of the impacting grain. Closer inspection reveals variation in these elements on a submicron scale, where impact-induced melting accompanied by reducing conditions (due to the production of oxygen scavenging molten Al from the target foils) has resulted in the production of native silicon and Fe- and Fe-Si-rich phases. In contrast, large areas of crystalline calcite are preserved within the calcite residue, with smaller regions of vesiculated, Al-bearing calcic glass. Unambiguous identification of calcite impactors on Stardust Al foil is therefore possible, while phyllosilicate impactors may be inferred from vesiculated residues with appropriate bulk cation to Si ratios. Finally, we demonstrate that the characteristic textures and elemental distributions identifying phyllosilicates and carbonates by transmission electron microscopy can also be observed by state

  7. Synthesis of deleobuvir, a potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor, and its major metabolites labeled with carbon-13 and carbon-14.

    PubMed

    Latli, Bachir; Hrapchak, Matt; Chevliakov, Maxim; Li, Guisheng; Campbell, Scot; Busacca, Carl A; Senanayake, Chris H

    2015-05-30

    Deleobuvir, (2E)-3-(2-{1-[2-(5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl)-3-cyclopentyl-1-methyl-1H-indole-6-carboxamido]cyclobutyl}-1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-6-yl)prop-2-enoic acid (1), is a non-nucleoside, potent, and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase. Herein, we describe the detailed synthesis of this compound labeled with carbon-13 and carbon-14. The synthesis of its three major metabolites, namely, the reduced double bond metabolite (2) and the acyl glucuronide derivatives of (1) and (2), is also reported. Aniline-(13) C6 was the starting material to prepare butyl (E)-3-(3-methylamino-4-nitrophenyl-(13) C6 )acrylate [(13) C6 ]-(11) in six steps. This intermediate was then used to obtain [(13) C6 ]-(1) and [(13) C6 ]-(2) in five and four more steps, respectively. For the radioactive synthesis, potassium cyanide-(14) C was used to prepare 1-cylobutylaminoacid [(14) C]-(23) via Buchrer-Bergs reaction. The carbonyl chloride of this acid was then used to access both [(14) C]-(1) and [(14) C]-(2) in four steps. The acyl glucuronide derivatives [(13) C6 ]-(3), [(13) C6 ]-(4) and [(14) C]-(3) were synthesized in three steps from the acids [(13) C6 ]-(1), [(13) C6 ]-(2) and [(14) C]-(1) using known procedures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mulga, a major tropical dry open forest of Australia: recent insights to carbon and water fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo; Cleverly, James; Nolan, Rachael H.; Ma, Xuanlong; Tarin, Tonantzin; Santini, Nadia S.

    2016-12-01

    Mulga, comprised of a complex of closely related Acacia spp., grades from a low open forest to tall shrublands in tropical and sub-tropical arid and semi-arid regions of Australia and experiences warm-to-hot annual temperatures and a pronounced dry season. This short synthesis of current knowledge briefly outlines the causes of the extreme variability in rainfall characteristic of much of central Australia, and then discusses the patterns and drivers of variability in carbon and water fluxes of a central Australian low open Mulga forest. Variation in phenology and the impact of differences in the amount and timing of precipitation on vegetation function are then discussed. We use field observations, with particular emphasis on eddy covariance data, coupled with modelling and remote sensing products to interpret inter-seasonal and inter-annual patterns in the behaviour of this ecosystem. We show that Mulga can vary between periods of near carbon neutrality to periods of being a significant sink or source for carbon, depending on both the amount and timing of rainfall. Further, we demonstrate that Mulga contributed significantly to the 2011 global land sink anomaly, a result ascribed to the exceptional rainfall of 2010/2011. Finally, we compare and contrast the hydraulic traits of three tree species growing close to the Mulga and show how each species uses different combinations of trait strategies (for example, sapwood density, xylem vessel implosion resistance, phenological guild, access to groundwater and Huber value) to co-exist in this semi-arid environment. Understanding the inter-annual variability in functional behaviour of this important arid-zone biome and mechanisms underlying species co-existence will increase our ability to predict trajectories of carbon and water balances for future changing climates.

  9. The impact of surgery on global climate: a carbon footprinting study of operating theatres in three health systems.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, Andrea J; Lillywhite, Robert; Brown, Carl J

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is a major global public health priority. The delivery of health-care services generates considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Operating theatres are a resource-intensive subsector of health care, with high energy demands, consumable throughput, and waste volumes. The environmental impacts of these activities are generally accepted as necessary for the provision of quality care, but have not been examined in detail. In this study, we estimate the carbon footprint of operating theatres in hospitals in three health systems. Surgical suites at three academic quaternary-care hospitals were studied over a 1-year period in Canada (Vancouver General Hospital, VGH), the USA (University of Minnesota Medical Center, UMMC), and the UK (John Radcliffe Hospital, JRH). Greenhouse gas emissions were estimated using primary activity data and applicable emissions factors, and reported according to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Site greenhouse gas evaluations were done between Jan 1 and Dec 31, 2011. The surgical suites studied were found to have annual carbon footprints of 5 187 936 kg of CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e) at JRH, 4 181 864 kg of CO 2 e at UMMC, and 3 218 907 kg of CO 2 e at VGH. On a per unit area basis, JRH had the lowest carbon intensity at 1702 kg CO 2 e/m 2 , compared with 1951 kg CO 2 e/m 2 at VGH and 2284 kg CO 2 e/m 2 at UMMC. Based on case volumes at all three sites, VGH had the lowest carbon intensity per operation at 146 kg CO 2 e per case compared with 173 kg CO 2 e per case at JRH and 232 kg CO 2 e per case at UMMC. Anaesthetic gases and energy consumption were the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions. Preferential use of desflurane resulted in a ten-fold difference in anaesthetic gas emissions between hospitals. Theatres were found to be three to six times more energy-intense than the hospital as a whole, primarily due to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning requirements. Overall, the carbon footprint of surgery in the

  10. Impact ejecta and carbonate sequence in the eastern sector of the Chicxulub crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Chavez-Aguirre, Jose Maria; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia; De la Rosa, Jose Luis

    2008-12-01

    The Chicxulub 200 km diameter crater located in the Yucatan platform of the Gulf of Mexico formed 65 Myr ago and has since been covered by Tertiary post-impact carbonates. The sediment cover and absence of significant volcanic and tectonic activity in the carbonate platform have protected the crater from erosion and deformation, making Chicxulub the only large multi-ring crater in which ejecta is well preserved. Ejecta deposits have been studied by drilling/coring in the southern crater sector and at outcrops in Belize, Quintana Roo and Campeche; little information is available from other sectors. Here, we report on the drilling/coring of a section of ˜34 m of carbonate breccias at 250 m depth in the Valladolid area (120 km away from crater center), which are interpreted as Chicxulub proximal ejecta deposits. The Valladolid breccias correlate with the carbonate breccias cored in the Peto and Tekax boreholes to the south and at similar radial distance. This constitutes the first report of breccias in the eastern sector close to the crater rim. Thickness of the Valladolid breccias is less than that at the other sites, which may indicate erosion of the ejecta deposits before reestablishment of carbonate deposition. The region east of the crater rim appears different from regions to the south and west, characterized by high density and scattered distribution of sinkholes.

  11. Impacts of invasive plants on carbon pools depend on both species' traits and local climate.

    PubMed

    Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Bullock, James M

    2017-04-01

    Invasive plants can alter ecosystem properties, leading to changes in the ecosystem services on which humans depend. However, generalizing about these effects is difficult because invasive plants represent a wide range of life forms, and invaded ecosystems differ in their plant communities and abiotic conditions. We hypothesize that differences in traits between the invader and native species can be used to predict impacts and so aid generalization. We further hypothesize that environmental conditions at invaded sites modify the effect of trait differences and so combine with traits to predict invasion impacts. To test these hypotheses, we used systematic review to compile data on changes in aboveground and soil carbon pools following non-native plant invasion from studies across the World. Maximum potential height (H max ) of each species was drawn from trait databases and other sources. We used meta-regression to assess which of invasive species' H max , differences in this height trait between native and invasive plants, and climatic water deficit, a measure of water stress, were good predictors of changes in carbon pools following invasion. We found that aboveground biomass in invaded ecosystems relative to uninvaded ones increased as the value of H max of invasive relative to native species increased, but that this effect was reduced in more water stressed ecosystems. Changes in soil carbon pools were also positively correlated with the relative H max of invasive species, but were not altered by water stress. This study is one of the first to show quantitatively that the impact of invasive species on an ecosystem may depend on differences in invasive and native species' traits, rather than solely the traits of invasive species. Our study is also the first to show that the influence of trait differences can be altered by climate. Further developing our understanding of the impacts of invasive species using this framework could help researchers to identify not

  12. The impact on rural livelihoods and ecosystem services of a major relocation and settlement program: A case in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W; Li, Jie; Zheng, Hua; Daily, Gretchen C

    2018-03-01

    China's largest-ever resettlement program is underway, aiming to restore ecosystems and lift ecosystem service providers out of the poverty trap and into sustainable livelihoods. We examine the impact of the relocation and settlement program (RSP) to date, reporting on an ecosystem services (ES) assessment and a 1400-household survey. The RSP generally achieves the goals of ES increase and livelihood restore. In biophysical terms, the RSP improves water quality, sediment retention, and carbon sequestration. In social terms, resettled households so far report transformation of livelihoods activities from traditional inefficient agricultural and forest production to non-farm activities. Increased income contributes to decrease the poverty rate and improve resettled households' living condition and standard. Meanwhile, the RSP decreases households' dependence on ES in terms of provisioning services. Difficulty and challenge also showed up subsequently after relocation. A major current challenge is to enable poorer households to move, while providing greater follow-up support to relocated households. While the program is unique to China, it illuminates widespread opportunities for addressing environmental and poverty-related concerns in a rapidly changing world.

  13. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  14. Impact damage resistance of carbon/epoxy composite tubes for the DC-XA liquid hydrogen feedline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Low-velocity impacts were inflicted upon two elbow sections of carbon/epoxy feedline that are to be a part of the Delta Clipper-XA flight vehicle. A soap-based liquid leak detector solution was used to inspect the impact sites for leaks of pressurized gas that was pumped into the tube. Visual surface damage was noted and recorded for each impact site. After impact testing of each of the two sections of tubes was completed, the damage zones were disected from the tube and cross sectioned through the impact site. These specimens were polished after potting them in epoxy and were examined for microcracking using a fluorescent dye penetrant technique. The results showed that nonvisible damage could cause microcracking, thereby resulting in leaks through the tube wall.

  15. Recent trends, drivers, and projections of carbon cycle processes in forests and grasslands of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domke, G. M.; Williams, C. A.; Birdsey, R.; Pendall, E.

    2017-12-01

    In North America forest and grassland ecosystems play a major role in the carbon cycle. Here we present the latest trends and projections of United States and North American carbon cycle processes, stocks, and flows in the context of interactions with global scale budgets and climate change impacts in managed and unmanaged grassland and forest ecosystems. We describe recent trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in these ecosystems as well as the carbon dynamics associated with land use and land cover change. We also highlight carbon management science and tools for informing decisions and opportunities for improving carbon measurements, observations, and projections in forests and grasslands.

  16. Carbon-rich particles in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Benton C.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of particles detected in the coma of Comet Halley contain carbon atoms; many of these grains appear to consist preponderately or only of light elements. These light-element particles may be composed of organic compounds. Of the possible combinations of the elements hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, numerous examples are found of particles containing the combinations (H,C,O,N), (H,C,N), (H,C,O), and (H,C). These results may bear on the recent detection of polyoxymethylene fragments, the observation of cyanojets (CN patterns consistent with release from solid particles), the possible presence of cyanopolyacetylenes or HCN polymer and the make-up of the CHON particles. If cometary matter could reach the surface of the earth without complete disruption, these diverse organic and mixed particles could create unique microenvironments, possibly with significant or even pivotal prebiotic chemical activity. Here a speculative insight into possible relationships between carbon in comets and carbon in life is given, as well as a brief overview of on-going analysis of data from the highly successful Particle Impact Analyzer (PIA) experiment flown on the Giotto spacecraft for the flyby of Comet Halley (development and implementation of PIA was under the direction of J. Kissel of the Max Planck Institute for Kernphysik, Heidelberg). PIA is a time-of-flight analyzer which obtains mass spectra of ions from individual particles impacting on a Pt-Ag foil target within the instrument.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Organic Carbon on Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrami, N.; Horwath, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Fertilized agriculture is a significant source of the most potent green house gas (GHG), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), emissions. N2O's contribution to climate change through radioactive forcing is 265 times higher than that of Carbon dioxide (CO2). While literature has been mainly focused on N2O production, it is critical to point out that N2O emissions are the result of both production and consumption processes. There is not sufficient research in the literature focusing on the N2O consumption pathways and mechanisms as well as quantification of the rate of N2O consumption in soils. This work is an effort to address one of the most important environmental controlling factors for the soil to be assumed as a possible N2O sink and presumably account for N2O budget imbalances. In this study we introduce soil organic carbon (SOC) as a key criterion controlling N2O consumption processes mainly through affecting soil redox potential. We also quantify N2O consumption rates in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions under different carbon content scenarios. A batch incubation study is conducted on soils (0-15) cm collected from rice agricultural lands in Sacramento-San Joaquin delta consisting of 1%, 5%, 11% and 23% carbon. N2O consumption and production rates for all incubations (including 4 replicates) are measured under different treatments and the impact of Oxygen and Carbon content on N2O fluxes is evaluated. Results show higher N2O production and consumption rates in the soils with higher SOC content and lower Oxygen content. This study reveals that peat lands with high organic carbon content can be managed to be hotspots for Nitrous Oxide (N2O) consumption and might have the capacity to act as N2O sinks.

  18. The Impact of Letter Grades on Student Effort, Course Selection, and Major Choice: A Regression-Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Joyce B.; Ost, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The authors apply a regression-discontinuity design to identify the causal impact of letter grades on student effort within a course, subsequent credit hours taken, and the probability of majoring in economics. Their methodology addresses key issues in identifying the causal impact of letter grades: correlation with unobservable factors, such as…

  19. Impact of land-use change and soil organic carbon quality on microbial diversity in soils across Europe.

    PubMed

    Szoboszlay, Márton; Dohrmann, Anja B; Poeplau, Christopher; Don, Axel; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-12-01

    Land-use and their change have dramatic consequences for above-ground biodiversity, but their impact on soil microbial communities is poorly understood. In this study, soils from 19 European sites representing conversion of croplands to grasslands or forests and of grasslands to croplands or forests were characterized for microbial abundance and bacterial diversity. The abundance of Bacteria and Fungi but not Archaea responded to land-use change. Site was the major determinant of the soil bacterial community structure, explaining 32% of the variation in 16S rRNA gene diversity. While the quantity of soil organic carbon (SOC) only explained 5% of the variation, SOC when differentiated by its quality could explain 22%. This was similar to the impact of soil pH (21%) and higher than that of land-use type (15%). Croplands had the highest bacterial diversity. Converting croplands to grassland caused an increase of Verrucomicrobia; croplands to forest increased Rhizobiales but decreased Bacteroidetes and Nitrospirae; and grasslands to cropland increased Gemmatimonadetes but decreased Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes. Network analysis identified associations between particular SOC fractions and specific bacterial taxa. We conclude that land-use-related effects on soil microorganisms can be consistently observed across a continental scale. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Quantifying the impact of legal culture and institution on carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Wang, B.; Yu, C.; Deng, H.; Cai, W.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon emissions has been believed to trigger more than half of the global warming over the past half a century. Climate change analysis based on human activities should not neglect the driving force of human society. Different countries or regions have different legal culture traditions and legal systems that can greatly influence regional carbon emissions. This will lead to differences in implementation way and implementation intensity of the law and policies. Without understanding the social and legal background, it is not enough to understand how the climate change rules work and what the effects enforce. Using the panel data of 71 countries from 1996-2010, this study analyzes the effects of macro channels influencing mitigation policies, which contains rules and regulations including value, religion, genealogy of law, public participation, regulatory, government effectiveness, corruption, rule of law, etc. The results show that the interaction between legal variables and economic variables is very important for carbon emissions reduction. The law affects the carbon emissions by adjusting the economic and other related variables, and vice verse, economic and other variables will also impact the level of the rule of law. The study also reveals that developing national economy is most countries' urgent current task, and there are not sound strategies or strong enforcement to guarantee the achievement of the emissions reduction commitment. It is not enough to make justice dominant by cultivating a fair attitude. Practical measures and institutional means for social justice must be promoted. These results will give insight to policy makers in creating feasible and practical climate polices.

  1. Impact of a Ground Network of Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometers (mini-LHRs) on Global Carbon Flux Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGregorio, A.; Wilson, E. L.; Palmer, P. I.; Mao, J.; Feng, L.

    2017-12-01

    We present the simulated impact of a small (50 instrument) ground network of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR), a small, low cost ( 50k), portable, and high precision CH4 and CO2 measuring instrument. Partnered with AERONET as a non-intrusive accessory, the mini-LHR is able to leverage the 500+ instrument AERONET network for rapid network deployment and testing, and simultaneously retrieve co-located aerosol data, an important input for sattelite measurements. This observing systems simulation experiment (OSSE) uses the 3-D GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model and 50 strategically selected sites to model flux estimate uncertainty reduction of both TCCON and mini-LHR instruments. We found that 50 mini-LHR sites are capable of improving global uncertainty by up to 70%, with local improvements in the Southern Hemisphere reaching to 90%. Our studies show that addition of the mini-LHR to current ground networks will play a major role in reduction of global carbon flux uncertainty.

  2. Major Impact of Fleet Renewal Over Airports Located in the Most Important Region of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maters, Rafael Waltz; deRoodeTorres, Roberta; Santo, Respicio A. Espirito, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The present article discusses and analyses the major impacts of the Brazilian carriers fleet renewal regarding Brazilian airport infrastructure in the most important region of the country, the Southeast (SE). A brief historical overview of the country's airline fleet will be presented, demonstrating the need for its renewal (m fact, Brazilian carriers started a major fleet renewal program m the last five years), while analyzing the periods in which a new breed of aircraft was put into service by the major carriers operating in the SE region. The trend of operating the classic regional jets plus the forthcoming entry into service of the "large regional jets" (LRJ, 70-115 seaters) in several point-to-point routes are presented along with the country's carriers" reality of operating these former aircraft in several high-capacity and medium-range routes. The article will focus on the ability of four of the major Southeast's airports to cope with the fleet modernization, mainly due to the fact that the region studied is the most socioeconomic developed, by far, with the largest demand for air transportation, thus making the impacts much more perceptible for the communities and the airport management involved. With the emergence of these impacts, several new projects and investments are being discussed and pushed forward, despite budgetary constrains being a reality in almost every Brazilian city, even in the SE region. In view of this, the paper presents how the general planning could be carried out in order to adapt the airports' infrastructures in function of the proposed (and in some cases, necessary) fleet renewal. Ultimately, we will present the present picture and two future scenarios m order to determine the level of service in the existent passenger terminal facilities in the wake of the possible operation of several new aircraft. Keywords: Airline fleet planning, Airport planning, Regional development, Regional Jets.

  3. The Effects of Compressive Preloads on the Compression-After-Impact Strength of Carbon/Epoxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, Alan T.

    1994-01-01

    A fixture to apply compressive loads to composite specimens during an impact event was used to assess the effect of prestresses on the compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of 16 ply quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy test coupons. Advanced design of experiments techniques were used to evaluate a range of prestresses and impact energies on two material systems, T300/934 and IM7/8551-7. An instrumented drop tower supplied impact energies between 1 and 9 Joules for the T300/934 material and between 4 and 16 Joules for the IM7/8551-7 material. The prestress values varied between a low of 5.7 Wa and a high of 287 NDa. Results showed some change in CAI strength that could be attributed to the prestresses on the specimens.

  4. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  5. Global Forecasts of Urban Expansion to 2030 and Direct Impacts on Biodiversity and Carbon Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seto, K. C.; Guneralp, B.; Hutyra, L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban land cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. Yet, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to 4.3 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop the first global probabilistic forecasts of urban land cover change and explore the impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue, then by 2030, urban land cover will expand between 800,000 and 3.3 million km2, representing a doubling to five-fold increase from the global urban land cover in 2000. This would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, including the Guinean forests of West Africa, Tropical Andes, Western Ghats and Sri Lanka. Within the pan-tropics, loss in forest biomass from urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr-1), equal to approximately 5% of emissions from tropical land use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and forest carbon losses.

  6. Impact of atmospheric and terrestrial CO2 feedbacks on fertilization-induced marine carbon uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlies, A.

    2009-08-01

    The sensitivity of oceanic CO2 uptake to alterations in the marine biological carbon pump, such as brought about by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization, has repeatedly been investigated by studies employing numerical biogeochemical ocean models. It is shown here that the results of such ocean-centered studies are very sensitive to the assumption made about the response of the carbon reservoirs on the atmospheric side of the sea surface. Assumptions made include prescribed atmospheric pCO2, an interactive atmospheric CO2 pool exchanging carbon with the ocean but not with the terrestrial biosphere, and an interactive atmosphere that exchanges carbon with both oceanic and terrestrial carbon pools. The impact of these assumptions on simulated annual to millennial oceanic carbon uptake is investigated for a hypothetical increase in the C:N ratio of the biological pump and for an idealized enhancement of phytoplankton growth. Compared to simulations with interactive atmosphere, using prescribed atmospheric pCO2 overestimates the sensitivity of the oceanic CO2 uptake to changes in the biological pump, by about 2%, 25%, 100%, and >500% on annual, decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively. The smaller efficiency of the oceanic carbon uptake under an interactive atmosphere is due to the back flux of CO2 that occurs when atmospheric CO2 is reduced. Adding an interactive terrestrial carbon pool to the atmosphere-ocean model system has a small effect on annual timescales, but increases the simulated fertilization-induced oceanic carbon uptake by about 4%, 50%, and 100% on decadal, centennial, and millennial timescales, respectively, for pCO2 sensitivities of the terrestrial carbon storage in the middle range of the C4MIP models (Friedlingstein et al., 2006). For such sensitivities, a substantial fraction of oceanic carbon uptake induced by natural or purposeful ocean fertilization originates, on timescales longer than decades, not from the atmosphere

  7. Vulnerability of high-latitude soil organic carbon in North America to disturbance

    Treesearch

    Guido Grosse; Jennifer Harden; Merritt Turetsky; A. David McGuire; Philip Camill; Charles Tarnocai; Steve Frolking; Edward Schuur; Torre Jorgenson; Sergei Marchenko; Vladimir Romanovsky; Kimberly P. Wickland; Nancy French; Mark Waldrop; Laura Bourgeau-Chavez; Robert G. Streigl

    2011-01-01

    This synthesis addresses the vulnerability of the North American high-latitude soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to climate change. Disturbances caused by climate warming in arctic, subarctic, and boreal environments can result in significant redistribution of C among major reservoirs with potential global impacts. We divide the current northern high-latitude SOC pools...

  8. Impacts of climate change on trends in baseflow and stormflow in major watersheds of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Impacts of climate change on trends in baseflow and stormflow in major watersheds of ChinaLijun Wang1, Fuqiang Tian1*, Hongchang Hu11State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China,Abstracts: During the past 50 years, runoff from the major watersheds in China has demonstrated a decrease trend. The variations in the amount of precipitation will directly influence the runoff, however in some parts of China, it is also found that there is huge variations in the amount of runoff whereas the amount of precipitation has not shown such variations. In the same time, the intensity and duration of rainfall has changed a lot. Therefore, it is important to categorize the different trends of runoff and to identify the major factors responsible for these changes. In this study, we have collected the data of 200 different locations from 8 major watersheds of China. By comparing and analyzing the daily precipitation and the daily runoff data, we have found some significant changes in runoff coefficients between two periods (1979-1988 and 2006-2014). On the basis of this, the further study will be carried out which identify that how the climate change influences the two major components of runoff, baseflow and stormflow. The impact of anthropogenic activity in the study area could not be ignored and it is important to know whether human action and climate change is the main factors for the decline of waterflow in river and how these factors influence the river water.

  9. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  10. Methane hydrate - A major reservoir of carbon in the shallow geosphere?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methane hydrates are solids composed of rigid cages of water molecules that enclose methane. Sediment containing methane hydrates is found within specific pressure-temperature conditions that occur in regions of permafrost and beneath the sea in outer continental margins. Because methane hydrates are globally widespread and concentrate methane within the gas-hydrate structure, the potential amount of methane present in the shallow geosphere at subsurface depths of < ???2000 m is very large. However, estimates of the amount are speculative and range over about three orders of magnitude, from 2 ?? 103 to 4 ?? 106 Gt (gigatons = 1015 g) of carbon, depending on the assumptions made. The estimate I favor is ??? 1 ?? 104 Gt of carbon. The estimated amount of organic carbon in the methane-hydrate reservoir greatly exceeds that in many other reservoirs of the global carbon cycle - for example, the atmosphere (3.6 Gt); terrestrial biota (830 Gt); terrestrial soil, detritus and peat (1960 Gt); marine biota (3 Gt); and marine dissolved materials (980 Gt). In fact, the amount of carbon may exceed that in all fossil fuel deposits (5 ?? 103 Gt). Because methane hydrates contain so much methane and occur in the shallow geosphere, they are of interest as a potential resource of natural gas and as a possible source of atmospheric methane released by global warming. As a potential resource, methane hydrates pose both engineering and production problems. As a contributor to a changing global climate, destabilized methane hydrates, particularly those in shallow, nearshore regions of the Arctic Ocean, may have some effect, but this effect will probably be minimal, at least during the next 100 years. ?? 1988.

  11. Experimental Study and Numerical Modelling of Low Velocity Impact on Laminated Composite Reinforced with Thin Film Made of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moumen, A.; Tarfaoui, M.; Hassoon, O.; Lafdi, K.; Benyahia, H.; Nachtane, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, polymer laminated composites based on Epon 862 Epoxy resin, T300 6 k carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were tested with the aim to elucidate the effect of CNTs on impact properties including impact force and capacity to absorb impact energy. The polymer matrix was reinforced by a random distribution of CNTs with fraction ranging from 0.5 to 4.wt%. Composite panels were manufactured by using the infusion process. Taylor impact test was used to obtain the impact response of specimens. Projectile manufactured from a high strength and hardened steel with a diameter of 20 mm and 1.5 kg of mass was launched by a compressed gas gun within the velocity of 3 m/s. Impact force histories and absorbed energy of specimens were recorded. A numerical model was employed to simulate the impact performance. This model has been accomplished by forming a user established subroutine (VUMAT) and executing it in ABAQUS software. Finally, the effect of CNTs amount on dynamic properties of laminated composites was discussed.

  12. Organic carbon source and salinity shape sediment bacterial composition in two China marginal seas and their major tributaries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Zou, Li; Lu, Xinxin; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2018-08-15

    Marginal sea sediments receive organic substrates of different origins, but whether and to what extent sediment microbial communities are reflective of the different sources of organic substrates remain unclear. To address these questions, sediment samples were collected in two connected China marginal seas, i.e., Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea, and their two major tributaries (Yellow River and Liao River). Sediment bacterial community composition (BCC) was examined using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, physicochemical variables that describe environmental conditions and sediment features were measured. Our results revealed that BCCs changed with salinity and organic carbon (OC) content. Members of Gaiellaceae and Comamonadaceae showed a rapid decrease as salinity and phytoplankton-derived OC increased, while Piscirickettsiaceae and Desulfobulbaceae exhibited an opposite distribution pattern. Differences of riverine vs. marginal sea sediment BCCs could be mostly explained by salinity. However, within the marginal seas, sediment BCC variations were mainly explained by OC-related variables, including terrestrial-derived fatty acids (Terr_FA), phytoplankton-derived polyunsaturated fatty acids (Phyto_PUFA), stable carbon isotopes (δ 13 C), and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). In addition to environmental variables, network analysis suggested that interactions among individual bacterial taxa might be important in shaping sediment BCCs in the studied areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain MRI white matter hyperintensities and one-carbon cycle metabolism in non-geriatric outpatients with major depressive disorder (Part I).

    PubMed

    Iosifescu, Dan V; Papakostas, George I; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Renshaw, Perry F; Alpert, Jonathan E; Nierenberg, Andrew; Fava, Maurizio

    2005-12-30

    The objective of the present work was to study the interrelationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cardiovascular risk factors and elements of the one-carbon cycle including serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels in a relatively young sample of outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and to compare the severity of white matter hyperintensities in MDD patients and healthy volunteers. Fifty MDD outpatients (34% women, age 40.6+/-10.3 years), free of psychotropic medications for at least 2 weeks before enrollment, underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain to detect T2 WMHs and also had (1) serum folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine and cholesterol levels measured, and (2) cardiovascular risk factors assessed during the same study visit. Thirty-five healthy comparison subjects (40% women, age 39.2+/-9.8 years) also underwent brain MRI scans. Hypofolatemia, hypertension and age independently predicted a greater severity of total brain WMHs. Separately, the same factors also predicted a greater severity of subcortical WMHs. Hypofolatemic and hypertensive patients had more severe WMHs than normal controls. In light of the adverse impact of WMHs on a number of health-related outcomes later in life, hypofolatemia and hypertension may represent modifiable risk factors to prevent the occurrence of such adverse outcomes.

  14. Three Connected Climate Education Interactives: Carbon Cycle, Earth System Energy Flows, and Climate Change Impacts/Adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) serves the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) Region. The international entities served by PCEP are the state of Hawai'i (USA); three Freely Associated States (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau), and three Territories (Guam, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa). Funded by NSF, the PCEP aims to educate the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and focus on adaptation strategies that can increase resiliency with respect to climate change impacts. Unfortunately the vast majority of the science texts used in schools come from the US mainland and feature contexts that do not relate to the lives of Pacific island students. The curricular materials also tend to be older and to have very weak climate science content, especially with respect to tropical islands and climate change. In collaboration with public broadcast station WGBH, PCEP has developed three climate education interactives that sequentially provide an introduction to key climate change education concepts. The first in the series focuses on the global carbon cycle and connects increased atmospheric CO2 with rising global temperatures. The second analyzes Earth system energy flows to explain the key role of the increased greenhouse effect. The third focuses on four climate change impacts (higher temperatures, rising sea level, changes in precipitation, and ocean acidification), and adaptation strategies to increase resiliency of local ecosystems and human systems. While the interactives have a Pacific island visual and text perspective, they are broadly applicable for other education audiences. Learners can use the interactives to engage with the basic science concepts, and then apply the climate change impacts to their own contexts.

  15. Bolide impacts and the oxidation state of carbon in the earth's early atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1990-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model was used to examine the effect of bolide impacts on the oxidation state of earth's primitive atmosphere. The impact rate should have been high prior to 3.8 Ga before present, based on evidence derived from the moon. Impacts of comets or carbonaceous asteroids should have enhanced the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by bringing in CO ice and/or organic carbon that can be oxidized to CO in the impact plume. Ordinary chondritic impactors would contain elemental iron that could have reacted with ambient CO2 to give CO. Nitric oxide (NO) should also have been produced by reaction between ambient CO2 and N2 in the hot impact plumes. High NO concentrations increase the atmospheric CO/CO2 ratio by increasing the rainout rate of oxidized gases. According to the model, atmospheric CO/CO2 ratios of unity or greater are possible during the first several hundred million years of earth's history, provided that dissolved CO was not rapidly oxidized to bicarbonate in the ocean.

  16. The impact of traditional fire management on soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a montane forest, southern Ethiopia

    Treesearch

    Dong-Gill Kim; Habitamu Taddese; Abrham Belay; Randy Kolka

    2016-01-01

    We conducted studies to assess the impact of traditional fire management on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen pools. We compared organic carbon and total nitrogen pools in forest floor and mineral soil (0–100-cm depth) in three areas burned by local communities (B) with adjacent unburned areas (UB) (three paired sites; 1, 5 and 9 years since fire; hereafter B1-UB...

  17. An Impact of Mechanical Stress in Coal Briquettes on Sorption of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mirosław

    2017-09-01

    The presence of gases (methane or carbon dioxide) in hard coal is connected with numerous threats for miners employed in underground mining facilities. When analyzing the coal-methane system, it is necessary to determine the relationship between pressure and gas sorption. Such a relationship should be determined under conditions similar to the natural ones - when it comes to both temperature and pressure. The present paper discusses the results of research conducted with the use of coal briquettes under the state of mechanical stress. Carbon dioxide sorption isotherms were determined for different values of stress affecting the coal material. For five coal samples collected in different mines of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Langmuir's sorption isotherms were determined. The results point to significant impact that mechanical stress has upon the sorption process. It is about 1 percent of the value obtained for coal not subjected to stress per 1 MPa. The research results can also prove useful when analyzing hard coal seams from the perspective of their carbon dioxide sequestration abilities.

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on carbon uptake variability in the subtropical North Atlantic: 1992-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudino, Tobia; Messias, Marie-Jose; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Watson, Andrew J.; Halloran, Paul R.; Bernardello, Raffaele; Torres-Valdés, Sinhue; Schuster, Ute; Williams, Richard G.; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-04-01

    Since 1860, anthropogenic emissions have increased atmospheric CO2 by more than 120ppm. The global ocean has lessened the accompanying climate impacts, taking up 33% of the emitted CO2, with the highest storage per unit area occurring in the North Atlantic. To investigate carbon uptake and storage in the subtropical North Atlantic, we compare three estimates of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant) with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) observations. We use data from a repeat (1992-2010) subtropical transect, where we find an average DIC increase of 1.06 μmol/(kg yr). We separate the observed DIC into five components: preindustrial, dissolved hard-tissue, regenerated soft-tissue, Cant, and surface air-sea disequilibrium. Among them, Cant increases approximately linearly over time (0.39-0.62 μmol/(kg yr), depending on the method adopted), contributing to the total DIC rise. Simultaneously, we observe a biologically driven increase (0.38 μmol/(kg yr)) in carbon from regenerated soft-tissue. We link this variation to the possible ongoing Atlantic meridional overturning circulation slow-down (2009-2010) and the associated strengthening of the biological pump. We expand our analysis by assessing outputs from an Earth system model between 1860 and 2100. In the preindustrial control (i.e. with no influence of anthropogenic CO2), we found a predominance of the biological pump in overall carbon uptake, while the industrial simulation leads to a comparable influence of the biological and physical pumps. We conclude that anthropogenic perturbation of the natural long-term variability in oceanic ventilation could affect the remineralized pool of carbon in the subtropical North Atlantic, potentially making it a higher sink for carbon than previously thought.

  19. Using semi-analytic solutions to approximate the area of potential impact for carbon dioxide injection

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines using the threshold critical pressure increase and the extent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) plume to delineate the area of potential impact (AoPI) for geologic CO2 storage projects. The combined area covering both the CO2 plume and the region where the pressure ...

  20. Impact excitation and electron-hole multiplication in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gabor, Nathaniel M

    2013-06-18

    In semiconductor photovoltaics, photoconversion efficiency is governed by a simple competition: the incident photon energy is either transferred to the crystal lattice (heat) or transferred to electrons. In conventional materials, energy loss to the lattice is more efficient than energy transferred to electrons, thus limiting the power conversion efficiency. Quantum electronic systems, such as quantum dots, nanowires, and two-dimensional electronic membranes, promise to tip the balance in this competition by simultaneously limiting energy transfer to the lattice and enhancing energy transfer to electrons. By exploring the optical, thermal, and electronic properties of quantum materials, we may perhaps find an ideal optoelectronic material that provides low cost fabrication, facile systems integration, and a means to surpass the standard limit for photoconversion efficiency. Nanoscale carbon materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes, provide ideal experimental quantum systems in which to explore optoelectronic behavior for applications in solar energy harvesting. Within essentially the same material, researchers can achieve a broad spectrum of energetic configurations, from a gapless semimetal to a large band-gap semiconducting nanowire. Owing to their nanoscale dimensions, graphene and carbon nanotubes exhibit electronic and optical properties that reflect strong electron-electron interactions. Such strong interactions may lead to exotic low-energy electron transport behavior and high-energy electron scattering processes such as impact excitation and the inverse process of Auger recombination. High-energy processes, which become very important under photoexcitation, may be particularly efficient in nanoscale carbon materials due to the relativistic-like, charged particle band structure and sensitivity to the dielectric environment. In addition, due to the covalently bonded carbon framework that makes up these materials, electron-phonon coupling is very weak

  1. Revisiting drought impact on tree mortality and carbon fluxes in ORCHIDEE-CAN DGVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joetzjer, E.; Bartlett, M. K.; Sack, L.; Poulter, B.; Ciais, P.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, two extreme droughts in the Amazon rainforest led to a perturbation of carbon cycle dynamics and forest structure, partly through an increase in tree mortality. While there is a relatively strong consensus in CMIP5 projections for an increase in both frequency and intensity of droughts across the Amazon, the potential for forest die-off constitutes a large uncertainty in projections of climate impacts on terrestrial ecosystems and carbon cycle feedbacks. Two long-term through fall exclusion experiments (TFE) provided novel observations of Amazonian ecosystem responses under drought. These experiments also provided a great opportunity to evaluate and improve models' behavior under drought. While current DGVMs use a wide array of algorithms to represent drought effect on ecosystem, most are associated with large uncertainty for representing drought-induced mortality, and require updating to include current information of physiological processes. During very strong droughts, the leaves desiccate and stems may undergo catastrophic embolism. However, even before that point, stomata close, to minimize excessive water loss and risk of hydraulic failure, which reduces carbon assimilation. Here, we describe a new parameterization of the stomatal conductance and mortality processes induced by drought using the ORCHIDEE-CAN dynamic vegetation model and test it using the two TFE results. We implemented a direct climate effect on mortality through catastrophic stem embolism using a new hydraulic architecture to represent the hydraulic potential gradient from the soil to the leaves based on vulnerability curves, and tree capacitance. In addition, growth primary productivity and transpiration are down-regulated by the hydraulic architecture in case of drought through stomatal conductance, which depends on the hydraulic potential of the leaf. We also explored the role of non structural carbohydrates (NSC) on hydraulic failure and mortality following the idea

  2. Structural transformations of carbon and boron nitride nanoscrolls at high impact collisions.

    PubMed

    Woellner, C F; Machado, L D; Autreto, P A S; de Sousa, J M; Galvao, D S

    2018-02-14

    The behavior of nanostructures under high strain-rate conditions has been the object of theoretical and experimental investigations in recent years. For instance, it has been shown that carbon and boron nitride nanotubes can be unzipped into nanoribbons at high-velocity impacts. However, the response of many nanostructures to high strain-rate conditions is still unknown. In this work, we have investigated the mechanical behavior of carbon (CNS) and boron nitride nanoscrolls (BNS) colliding against solid targets at high velocities, using fully atomistic reactive (ReaxFF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. CNS (BNS) are graphene (boron nitride) membranes rolled up into papyrus-like structures. Their open-ended topology leads to unique properties not found in their close-ended analogs, such as nanotubes. Our results show that collision products are mainly determined by impact velocities and by two orientation angles, which define the position of the scroll (i) axis and (ii) open edge relative to the target. Our MD results showed that for appropriate velocities and orientations, large-scale deformations and nanoscroll fractures could occur. We also observed unscrolling (scrolls going back to quasi-planar membranes), scroll unzipping into nanoribbons, and significant reconstruction due to breaking and/or formation of new chemical bonds. For particular edge orientations and velocities, conversion from open to close-ended topology is also possible, due to the fusion of nanoscroll walls.

  3. Clinical impact and course of major bleeding with rivaroxaban and vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Eerenberg, E S; Middeldorp, S; Levi, M; Lensing, A W; Büller, H R

    2015-09-01

    Rivaroxaban is a new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that can be prescribed in a fixed dose, making regular monitoring and dose adjustments unnecessary. It has been proven to be safe and effective in comparison with enoxaparin/vitamin K antagonists (LMWH/VKA) for the (extended) treatment of venous thromboembolism in the EINSTEIN studies. Nevertheless, there is a need for information regarding the clinical impact of (major) bleeding events with NOACs such as rivaroxaban. A post-hoc analysis was performed to compare the severity of clinical presentation and subsequent clinical course of major bleeding with rivaroxaban vs. LMWH/VKA. Two investigators performed a blinded classification of major bleeding using a priori defined criteria. During the EINSTEIN studies, data concerning the clinical course and measures applied were prospectively collected for each major bleed. Treatment with LMWH/VKA caused more major bleeding events (1.7%) than rivaroxaban (1.0%; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.79). Major bleeding events during rivaroxaban therapy had a milder presentation (23% were adjudicated to the worst categories vs. 38% for LMWH/VKA; hazard ratio or HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17-0.74; P = 0.0062). The clinical course was severe in 25% of all major bleeding events associated with rivaroxaban, compared with 33% of LMWH/VKA-associated bleeds (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.96; P = 0.040). Rivaroxaban-associated major bleeding events occurred less frequently, had a milder presentation and appeared to take a less severe clinical course compared with major bleeding with LMWH/VKA. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörösmarty, Charles J.; Meybeck, Michel; Fekete, Balázs; Sharma, Keshav; Green, Pamela; Syvitski, James P. M.

    2003-10-01

    artificial impoundments, with a discharge-weighted sediment trapping due to LRs of 30%, and an additional contribution of 23% from SRs. If we consider both regulated and unregulated basins, the interception of global sediment flux by all registered reservoirs ( n≈45,000) is conservatively placed at 4-5 Gt year -1 or 25-30% of the total. There is an additional but unknown impact due to still smaller unregistered impoundments ( n≈800,000). Our results demonstrate that river impoundment should now be considered explicitly in global elemental flux studies, such as for water, sediment, carbon, and nutrients. From a global change perspective, the long-term impact of such hydraulic engineering works on the world's coastal zone appears to be significant but has yet to be fully elucidated.

  5. Acidification, not carbonation, is the major regulator of carbon fluxes in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi.

    PubMed

    Kottmeier, Dorothee M; Rokitta, Sebastian D; Rost, Björn

    2016-07-01

    A combined increase in seawater [CO2 ] and [H(+) ] was recently shown to induce a shift from photosynthetic HCO3 (-) to CO2 uptake in Emiliania huxleyi. This shift occurred within minutes, whereas acclimation to ocean acidification (OA) did not affect the carbon source. To identify the driver of this shift, we exposed low- and high-light acclimated E. huxleyi to a matrix of two levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (1400, 2800 μmol kg(-1) ) and pH (8.15, 7.85) and directly measured cellular O2 , CO2 and HCO3 (-) fluxes under these conditions. Exposure to increased [CO2 ] had little effect on the photosynthetic fluxes, whereas increased [H(+) ] led to a significant decline in HCO3 (-) uptake. Low-light acclimated cells overcompensated for the inhibition of HCO3 (-) uptake by increasing CO2 uptake. High-light acclimated cells, relying on higher proportions of HCO3 (-) uptake, could not increase CO2 uptake and photosynthetic O2 evolution consequently became carbon-limited. These regulations indicate that OA responses in photosynthesis are caused by [H(+) ] rather than by [CO2 ]. The impaired HCO3 (-) uptake also provides a mechanistic explanation for lowered calcification under OA. Moreover, it explains the OA-dependent decrease in photosynthesis observed in high-light grown phytoplankton. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. New carbon-isotope evidence from the Polish Basin for a major carbon-cycle perturbation at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointer, Robyn; Hesselbo, Stephen; Littler, Kate; Pieńkowski, Grzegorz; Hodbod, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-isotope analysis of fossil plant material from a Polish core provides new evidence of a perturbation to the atmospheric carbon-cycle at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (~201 Ma). The Triassic-Jurassic boundary was a time of extreme climate change which also coincided with the end-Triassic mass extinction. The new data will allow us to identify climatic changes in the Polish Basin across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and evaluate these changes on a broader scale by comparison to data from other sites located around the world. The Niekłan borehole core, located in the southern Polish Basin, provides a ~200 metre-long terrestrial record spanning the Rhaetian and Hettangian, including the Triassic-Jurassic boundary (~208-199 Ma). The Niekłan core consists of interbedded fluvial and lacustrine sediments containing preserved plant material and thus provides an excellent opportunity to study both terrestrial palaeoenvironmental changes in the Polish Basin and perturbations in the carbon-cycle more broadly. Carbon-isotope analysis of macrofossil plant material and microscopic woody phytoclasts from the Niekłan core reveals a negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~-3‰ at the end of the Rhaetian, before a gradual return to more positive values thereafter. The negative CIE suggests an injection of isotopically-light carbon into the atmosphere occurred just before the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Likely sources of this carbon include volcanogenic gases, methane released from gas hydrates, or a combination of the two. The negative CIE seen in plant material at Niekłan is also recorded in a variety of geological materials from contemporaneous sites world-wide. These time-equivalent, but geographically separated, records indicate that the negative CIE recorded in the Niekłan plant material is the result of a regional or global carbon-cycle perturbation and is not merely a local signal. Future work will focus on using a range of palaeoenvironmental proxies in

  7. Development of environmental impact monitoring protocol for offshore carbon capture and storage (CCS): A biological perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyewon, E-mail: hyewon@ldeo.columbia.edu; Kim, Yong Hoon, E-mail: Yong.Kim@rpsgroup.com; Kang, Seong-Gil, E-mail: kangsg@kriso.re.kr

    Offshore geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), known as offshore carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), has been under active investigation as a safe, effective mitigation option for reducing CO{sub 2} levels from anthropogenic fossil fuel burning and climate change. Along with increasing trends in implementation plans and related logistics on offshore CCS, thorough risk assessment (i.e. environmental impact monitoring) needs to be conducted to evaluate potential risks, such as CO{sub 2} gas leakage at injection sites. Gas leaks from offshore CCS may affect the physiology of marine organisms and disrupt certain ecosystem functions, thereby posing an environmental risk. Here,more » we synthesize current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore CCS with an emphasis on biological aspects and provide suggestions for better practice. Based on our critical review of preexisting literatures, this paper: 1) discusses key variables sensitive to or indicative of gas leakage by summarizing physico-chemical and ecological variables measured from previous monitoring cruises on offshore CCS; 2) lists ecosystem and organism responses to a similar environmental condition to CO{sub 2} leakage and associated impacts, such as ocean acidification and hypercapnia, to predict how they serve as responsive indicators of short- and long-term gas exposure, and 3) discusses the designs of the artificial gas release experiments in fields and the best model simulation to produce realistic leakage scenarios in marine ecosystems. Based on our analysis, we suggest that proper incorporation of biological aspects will provide successful and robust long-term monitoring strategies with earlier detection of gas leakage, thus reducing the risks associated with offshore CCS. - Highlights: • This paper synthesizes the current knowledge on environmental impact monitoring of offshore Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). • Impacts of CO{sub 2} leakage (ocean acidification

  8. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995–2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency. PMID:29207562

  9. The Impact of Technological Progress in the Energy Sector on Carbon Emissions: An Empirical Analysis from China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Duan, Keran; Shi, Chunming; Ju, Xianwei

    2017-12-04

    This paper investigates the relationship between technological progress in the energy sector and carbon emissions based on the Environment Kuznets Curve (EKC) and data from China during the period of 1995-2012. Our study confirms that the situation in China conforms to the EKC hypothesis and presents the inverted U-curve relationship between per capita income and carbon emissions. Furthermore, the inflection point will be reached in at least five years. Then, we use research and development (R & D) investment in the energy industry as the quantitative indicator of its technological progress to test its impact on carbon emissions. Our results show that technological progress in the energy sector contributes to a reduction in carbon emissions with hysteresis. Furthermore, our results show that energy efficiency improvements are also helpful in reducing carbon emissions. However, climate policy and change in industrial structure increase carbon emissions to some extent. Our conclusion demonstrates that currently, China is not achieving economic growth and pollution reduction simultaneously. To further achieve the goal of carbon reduction, the government should increase investment in the energy industry research and improve energy efficiency.

  10. Carbon Footprint in Flexible Ureteroscopy: A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of Reusable and Single-Use Ureteroscopes.

    PubMed

    Davis, Niall F; McGrath, Shannon; Quinlan, Mark; Jack, Gregory; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Bolton, Damien M

    2018-03-01

    There are no comparative assessments on the environmental impact of endourologic instruments. We evaluated and compared the environmental impact of single-use flexible ureteroscopes with reusable flexible ureteroscopes. An analysis of the typical life cycle of the LithoVue™ (Boston Scientific) single-use digital flexible ureteroscope and Olympus Flexible Video Ureteroscope (URV-F) was performed. To measure the carbon footprint, data were obtained on manufacturing of single-use and reusable flexible ureteroscopes and from typical uses obtained with a reusable scope, including repairs, replacement instruments, and ultimate disposal of both ureteroscopes. The solid waste generated (kg) and energy consumed (kWh) during each case were quantified and converted into their equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (kg of CO 2 ) released. Flexible ureteroscopic raw materials composed of plastic (90%), steel (4%), electronics (4%), and rubber (2%). The manufacturing cost of a flexible ureteroscope was 11.49 kg of CO 2 per 1 kg of ureteroscope. The weight of the single-use LithoVue and URV-F flexible ureteroscope was 0.3 and 1 kg, respectively. The total carbon footprint of the lifecycle assessment of the LithoVue was 4.43 kg of CO 2 per endourologic case. The total carbon footprint of the lifecycle of the reusable ureteroscope was 4.47 kg of CO 2 per case. The environmental impacts of the reusable flexible ureteroscope and the single-use flexible ureteroscope are comparable. Urologists should be aware that the typical life cycle of urologic instruments is a concerning source of environmental emissions.

  11. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Ashok Gadgil: global impact

    ScienceCinema

    Ashok Gadgi

    2017-12-09

    Ashok Gadgil speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  12. Modeling impacts of management on carbon sequestration and trace gas emissions in forested wetland ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Changsheng Li; Jianbo Cui

    2004-01-01

    A process- based model, Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration in and trace gas emissions from forested wetland ecosystems. The modifications included parameterization of management practices fe.g., forest harvest, chopping, burning, water management, fertilization, and tree planting),...

  13. Impacts of disturbance history on annual carbon stocks and fluxes in southeastern US forests during 1986-2010 using remote sensing, forest inventory data, and a carbon cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H.; Zhou, Y.; Williams, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate assessment of forest carbon storage and uptake is central to policymaking aimed at mitigating climate change and understanding the role forests play in the global carbon cycle. Disturbance events are highly heterogeneous in space and time, impacting forest carbon dynamics and challenging the quantification and reporting of carbon stocks and fluxes. This study documents annual carbon stocks and fluxes from 1986 and 2010 mapped at 30-m resolution across southeastern US forests, characterizing how they respond to disturbances and ensuing regrowth. Forest inventory data (FIA) are used to parameterize a carbon cycle model (CASA) to represent post-disturbance carbon trajectories of carbon pools and fluxes with time following harvest, fire and bark beetle disturbances of varying severity and across forest types and site productivity settings. Time since disturbance at 30 meters is inferred from two remote-sensing data sources: disturbance year (NAFD, MTBS and ADS) and biomass (NBCD 2000) intersected with FIA-derived curves of biomass accumulation with stand age. All of these elements are combined to map carbon stocks and fluxes at a 30-m resolution for the year 2010, and to march backward in time for continuous, annual reporting. Results include maps of annual carbon stocks and fluxes for forests of the southeastern US, and analysis of spatio-temporal patterns of carbon sources/sinks at local and regional scales.

  14. The Impact of Afforestation on the Carbon Stocks of Mineral Soils Across the Republic of Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellock, M.; Laperle, C.; Kiely, G.; Reidy, B.; Duffy, C.; Tobin, B.

    2009-04-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century forests accounted for only 1% of the total Irish land cover (Pilcher & Mac an tSaoir, 1995). However, due to the efforts of successive governments there has been rapid afforestation since the 1960s resulting in a 10.0% forest land cover as of 2007 (The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, 2007). A large proportion of this afforestation took place after the mid-1980s and was fueled by government grant incentive schemes targeted at private landowners (Renou & Farrell 2005). Consequently, 54% of forests are less than 20 years old (Byrne, 2006). This specific land use change provides an opportunity for Ireland to meet international obligations set forth by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992). These obligations include the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions to 13% above 1990 levels. In order to promote accountability for these commitments, the UNFCCC treaty and the Kyoto Protocol (Kyoto Protocol, 1997) mandate signatories to publish greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories for both greenhouse gas sources and removals by sinks. Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol allows changes in C stocks due to afforestation, reforestation, and deforestation since 1990 to be used to offset inventory emissions. Therefore, due to the rapid rate of afforestation and its increased carbon sequestration since 1990, Ireland has the potential to significantly offset GHG emissions. There is little known as to the impacts of afforestation on the carbon stocks in soils over time, and even less known about the impact on Irish soils. The FORESTC project aims to analyse this impact by undertaking a nationwide study using a method similar to that of the paired plot method in Davis and Condron, 2002. The study will examine 42 forest sites across Ireland selected randomly from the National Forest Inventory (National Forest Inventory, 2007). These 42 sites will be grouped based on the forest type which includes

  15. Nanotechnology for implantable sensors: carbon nanotubes and graphene in medicine.

    PubMed

    Wujcik, Evan K; Monty, Chelsea N

    2013-01-01

    Implantable sensors utilizing nanotechnology are at the forefront of diagnostic, medical monitoring, and biological technologies. These sensors are often equipped with nanostructured carbon allotropes, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), because of their unique and often enhanced properties over forms of bulk carbon, such as diamond or graphite. Because of these properties, the fundamental and applied research of these carbon nanomaterials have become some of the most cited topics in scientific literature in the past decades. The age of carbon nanomaterials is simply budding, however, and is expected to have a major impact in many areas. These areas include electronics, photonics, plasmonics, energy capture (including batteries, fuel cells, and photovoltaics), and--the emphasis of this review--biosensors and sensor technologies. The following review will discuss future prospects of the two most commonly used carbon allotropes in implantable sensors for nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology, CNTs and graphene. Sufficient further reading and resources have been provided for more in-depth and specific reading that is outside the scope of this general review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Carbon budget of oligotrophic mires in the Southern Taiga of Western Siberia under anthropogenic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, Eugenia; Dyukarev, Egor

    2010-05-01

    Role of peatlands in the global greenhouse gases budget is highly relevant. According to present estimates peatlands in undisturbed conditions act as a sink for the atmospheric carbon. Anthropogenic impact on peatlands (melioration, changes in land use, influence of underground water catchments) results in water table lowering, changing in vegetation cover, and degradation of peat deposit. Peatlands could provide a significant positive feedback for climate changes if warming and peatlands drying stimulates bulk soil organic matter decomposition which enhances CO2 release to the atmosphere. Western Siberian peatlands usually represented big bog massifs. Big peatlands have higher stability to external influence. Small peatlands have all signs of big bogs but react on changes in environmental variables more quickly. The present study is devoted to investigation of primary carbon fluxes (CO2 emission and net primary productivity) and carbon balance at oligotrophic bogs in native condition (key area "Bakchar") and under anthropogenic impact (key area "Ob'-Tom'"). The key area "Bakchar" is located between the Iksa and Bakchar rivers (56o58`N 82o36`E) at the Bakcharskoe bog (area 1400 km2). The key area "Ob'-Tom'"is located in the northern part of Ob' and Tom' interfluve (56o21`N 82o31`E). The "Bakchar" key area includes the following ecosystems: pine- shrub-sphagnum community, a similar community with stunted (low) pine trees, and sedge-sphagnum fen. Two small peatlands were studied at Ob' and Tom' interfluve. Kirsanovskoe bog includes pine- shrub-sphagnum community and sedge fen. Timiryazevskoe bog was represented by pine- shrub-sphagnum (TPSS) community and sedge fen. An infrared gas analyzer OPTOGAS 500.4 (OPTEC Corp., St.-Petersburg, Russia) attached to a static opaque plastic been used for carbon dioxide emission measurements. The net primary productivity was measured by clipping method (Golovatskaya and Dyukarev, Plant Soil 2009). Peatlands at "Ob'-Tom'" key area

  17. Impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segschneider, Joachim; Ulrike, Niemeier; Martin, Wiesner; Claudia, Timmreck

    2010-05-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on the marine carbon cycle is investigated for the example of the Pinatubo eruption with model simulations of the distribution of the ash cloud and deposition on the ocean surface and the impact of the nutrient addition from ash leachates on the oceanic biological production and hence biological carbon pump. Natural variations of aerosols, especially due to large-magnitude volcanic eruptions, are recognized as a significant climate forcing, altering the Earth's radiation balance and thus tending to cause global temperature changes. While the impact of such events on climate and the terrestrial biosphere is relatively well documented, scientific knowledge of their effects on marine ecosystems and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere is still very limited. In the deep sea, subaerial eruptive events of global significance are commonly recorded as widespread ash layers, which were often found to be associated with increased abundances of planktic organisms. This has led to the hypothesis that the influx of volcanic ash may provide an external nutrient source for primary production (in particular through iron fertilization) in ocean surface waters. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that pristine volcanic ash indeed releases significant amounts of macronutrients and bioactive trace metals (including phosphate, iron and silica) adsorbed to the surface of the ash particles. The release of these components most likely has its largest impact in ocean regions where their availability is crucial for the growth of oceanic biomass, which are the high-nutrient but low-productivity (low-iron) areas in the Pacific and the Southern Ocean. These in turn are neighbored by most of those subaerially active volcanoes that are capable of ejecting huge amounts of aerosols into the high-velocity stratospheric wind fields. The dispersal and fallout of ash thus has a high potential to induce globally significant, transient net CO2 removal from

  18. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Sales, Marcio H.

    2011-10-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  19. Impact of temperature on nitrification in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters used for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Andersson, A; Laurent, P; Kihn, A; Prévost, M; Servais, P

    2001-08-01

    The impact of temperature on nitrification in biological granular activated carbon (GAC) filters was evaluated in order to improve the understanding of the nitrification process in drinking water treatment. The study was conducted in a northern climate where very cold water temperatures (below 2 degrees C) prevail for extended periods and rapid shifts of temperature are frequent in the spring and fall. Ammonia removals were monitored and the fixed nitrifying biomass was measured using a method of potential nitrifying activity. The impact of temperature was evaluated on two different filter media: an opened superstructure wood-based activated carbon and a closed superstructure activated carbon-based on bituminous coal. The study was conducted at two levels: pilot scale (first-stage filters) and full-scale (second-stage filters) and the results indicate a strong temperature impact on nitrification activity. Ammonia removal capacities ranged from 40 to 90% in pilot filters, at temperatures above 10 degrees C, while more than 90% ammonia was removed in the full-scale filters for the same temperature range. At moderate temperatures (4-10 degrees C), the first stage pilot filters removed 10-40% of incoming ammonia for both media (opened and closed superstructure). In the full-scale filters, a difference between the two media in nitrification performances was observed at moderate temperatures: the ammonia removal rate in the opened superstructure support (more than 90%) was higher than in the closed superstructure support (45%). At low temperatures (below 4 degrees C) both media performed poorly. Ammonia removal capacities were below 30% in both pilot- and full-scale filters.

  20. The Impact of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors on Major Salivary Gland Cancer Survival.

    PubMed

    Olarte, Lucia S; Megwalu, Uchechukwu C

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of demographic and socioeconomic factors on survival in patients with major salivary gland malignancies. Population-based study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer database. The study cohort consisted of 10,735 men and women ages 20 and older who were diagnosed with major salivary gland carcinoma from 1973 to 2009. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the overall and disease-specific survival was higher for women than for men (P < .001). Overall and disease-specific survival decreased with increasing age (P < .001) and differed by race (P < .001) and marital status (P < .001). Patients residing in counties with higher rates of high school completion had higher overall and disease-specific survival (P < .001). Patients residing in counties with higher median household incomes had better overall and disease-specific survival than patients from lower income counties (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, male sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.50), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.27-1.44) had poor prognostic impact on overall survival. Male sex (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49), increasing age, and single status (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.19-1.39) had poor prognostic impact on disease-specific survival. For patients with salivary gland malignancies, there is a survival benefit for younger patients, female patients, and married patients. This highlights the significance of demographic factors on survival outcomes for patients with salivary gland malignancies and highlights areas for further research on health disparities. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  1. Drought impact on forest carbon dynamics and fluxes in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Christopher E; Metcalfe, D B; Girardin, C A J; Amézquita, F Farfán; Cabrera, D Galiano; Huasco, W Huaraca; Silva-Espejo, J E; Araujo-Murakami, A; da Costa, M C; Rocha, W; Feldpausch, T R; Mendoza, A L M; da Costa, A C L; Meir, P; Phillips, O L; Malhi, Y

    2015-03-05

    In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the

  2. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing diamond-like carbon tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieu, F. J.; Chen, Li; Li, Biao

    2002-05-01

    We have devised a method whereby thin particulate-free diamond-like carbon films can be made with good adhesion onto even room-temperature substrates. The method employs a filtered ionized carbon beam created by the vacuum impact of a high-energy, approximately 1 J per pulse, 248 nm excimer laser onto a carbon target. The resultant deposition beam can be steered and deflected by magnetic and electric fields to paint a specific substrate area. An important aspect of this deposition method is that the resultant films are particulate free and formed only as the result of atomic species impact. The vast majority of magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing thin metallic magnetic films have employed a thin oxidized layer of aluminum to form the tunnel barrier. This has presented reproducibility problems because the indicated optimal barrier thickness is only approximately 13 Å thick. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing Co and permalloy films made by evaporation and sputtering have been fabricated with an intervening diamond-like carbon tunnel barrier. The diamond-like carbon thickness profile has been tapered so that seven junctions with different barrier thickness can be formed at once. Magnetoresistive (MR) measurements made between successive permalloy strip ends include contributions from two junctions and from the permalloy and Co strips that act as current leads to the junctions. Magnetic tunnel junctions with thicker carbon barriers exhibit MR effects that are dominated by that of the permalloy strips. Since these tunnel barriers are formed without the need for oxygen, complete tunnel junctions can be formed with all high-vacuum processing.

  3. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange.

    PubMed

    Miller, Scott D; Goulden, Michael L; Hutyra, Lucy R; Keller, Michael; Saleska, Scott R; Wofsy, Steven C; Figueira, Adelaine Michela Silva; da Rocha, Humberto R; de Camargo, Plinio B

    2011-11-29

    We used eddy covariance and ecological measurements to investigate the effects of reduced impact logging (RIL) on an old-growth Amazonian forest. Logging caused small decreases in gross primary production, leaf production, and latent heat flux, which were roughly proportional to canopy loss, and increases in heterotrophic respiration, tree mortality, and wood production. The net effect of RIL was transient, and treatment effects were barely discernable after only 1 y. RIL appears to provide a strategy for managing tropical forest that minimizes the potential risks to climate associated with large changes in carbon and water exchange.

  4. Reduced impact logging minimally alters tropical rainforest carbon and energy exchange

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Scott D.; Goulden, Michael L.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Keller, Michael; Saleska, Scott R.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Figueira, Adelaine Michela Silva; da Rocha, Humberto R.; de Camargo, Plinio B.

    2011-01-01

    We used eddy covariance and ecological measurements to investigate the effects of reduced impact logging (RIL) on an old-growth Amazonian forest. Logging caused small decreases in gross primary production, leaf production, and latent heat flux, which were roughly proportional to canopy loss, and increases in heterotrophic respiration, tree mortality, and wood production. The net effect of RIL was transient, and treatment effects were barely discernable after only 1 y. RIL appears to provide a strategy for managing tropical forest that minimizes the potential risks to climate associated with large changes in carbon and water exchange. PMID:22087005

  5. Impact of surface processes and climate variability on clumped isotope thermometry of soil carbonates, southern Central Andes, Argentina (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, K. W.; Peters, N.; Roe, G.; Hoke, G. D.; Eiler, J.

    2010-12-01

    Soil carbonates archive a potentially rich record of past climate, but rates of pedogenic carbonate formation, erosion, and deposition impact how the isotopic composition and formation temperature of carbonate-bearing paleosols reflect the local environmental conditions under which they form. We investigate these processes using conventional stable isotope (δ18O and δ13C) and clumped isotope thermometry data for Quaternary pedogenic carbonates from the southern Central Andes at ~33°S, Argentina. The study area spans over 2 km of relief in the Río Mendoza and Río de las Cuevas valleys, accessing a range of mean annual temperature conditions and vegetative cover and exhibiting large seasonal variations in temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture. Variations in soil conditions influence carbonate precipitation and dissolution reactions and the rate and depth of pedogenic carbonate formation. Because soil temperature varies predictably as a function of depth in the soil and seasonal and secular variations in air temperature, clumped isotope thermometry of samples collected in soil pits offers a direct way to estimate the seasonality of pedogenic carbonate formation and potential biases in the long-term climate record. We explore potential complications due to the effects of radiative solar heating on the relationship between air and soil temperatures by examining clumped isotope thermometry results in the context of site-to-site variations in vegetative cover. Temperature estimates from clumped isotope thermometry of pedogenic carbonate collected 5-110 cm below geomorphically stable soil surfaces from 1200-3400 m a.s.l. are compared to temperature profiles predicted by simple rule-based models of soil carbonate formation. The models use climate reanalysis daily diagnostic data (soil temperature, soil moisture, and latent heat flux as a proxy for evaporation) and weather station data as input to assess how varying rates of pedogenic carbonate formation

  6. How does soil erosion influence the terrestrial carbon cycle and the impacts of land use and land cover change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naipal, V.; Wang, Y.; Ciais, P.; Guenet, B.; Lauerwald, R.

    2017-12-01

    The onset of agriculture has accelerated soil erosion rates significantly, mobilizing vast quantities of soil organic carbon (SOC) globally. Studies show that at timescales of decennia to millennia this mobilized SOC can significantly alter previously estimated carbon emissions from land use and land cover change (LULCC). However, a full understanding of the impact of soil erosion on land-atmosphere carbon exchange is still missing. The aim of our study is to better constrain the terrestrial carbon fluxes by developing methods, which are compatible with earth system models (ESMs), and explicitly represent the links between soil erosion and carbon dynamics. For this we use an emulator that represents the carbon cycle of ORCHIDEE, which is the land component of the IPSL ESM, in combination with an adjusted version of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model. We applied this modeling framework at the global scale to evaluate how soil erosion influenced the terrestrial carbon cycle in the presence of elevated CO2, regional climate change and land use change. Here, we focus on the effects of soil detachment by erosion only and do not consider sediment transport and deposition. We found that including soil erosion in the SOC dynamics-scheme resulted in two times more SOC being lost during the historical period (1850-2005 AD). LULCC is the main contributor to this SOC loss, whose impact on the SOC stocks is significantly amplified by erosion. Regionally, the influence of soil erosion varies significantly, depending on the magnitude of the perturbations to the carbon cycle and the effects of LULCC and climate change on soil erosion rates. We conclude that it is necessary to include soil erosion in assessments of LULCC, and to explicitly consider the effects of elevated CO2 and climate change on the carbon cycle and on soil erosion, for better quantification of past, present, and future LULCC carbon emissions.

  7. Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Major Constraints in East Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Xinqing; Huang, Yimin; Huang, Daikuan; Hu, Lu; Feng, Zhaodong; Cheng, Jianzhong; Wang, Bing; Ni, Jian; Shurkhuu, Tserenpil

    2016-01-01

    Variation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its major constraints in large spatial scale are critical for estimating global SOC inventory and projecting its future at environmental changes. By analyzing SOC and its environment at 210 sites in uncultivated land along a 3020km latitudinal transect in East Central Asia, we examined the effect of environmental factors on the dynamics of SOC. We found that SOC changes dramatically with the difference as high as 5 times in north China and 17 times in Mongolia. Regardless, C:N remains consistent about 12. Path analysis indicated that temperature is the dominant factor in the variation of SOC with a direct effect much higher than the indirect one, the former breaks SOC down the year round while the latter results in its growth mainly via precipitation in the winter half year. Precipitation helps accumulate SOC, a large part of the effect, however, is taken via temperature. NH4+-N and topography also affect SOC, their roles are played primarily via climatic factors. pH correlates significantly with SOC, the effect, however, is taken only in the winter months, contributing to the decay of SOC primarily via temperature. These factors explained as much as 79% of SOC variations, especially in the summer months, representing the major constraints on the SOC stock. Soil texture gets increasingly fine southward, it does not, however, constitute an apparent factor. Our results suggested that recent global warming should have been adversely affecting SOC stock in the mid-latitude as temperature dominates other factors as the constraint. PMID:26934707

  8. A DIGE analysis of developing poplar leaves subjected to ozone reveals major changes in carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bohler, Sacha; Bagard, Matthieu; Oufir, Mouhssin; Planchon, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Lucien; Jolivet, Yves; Hausman, Jean-François; Dizengremel, Pierre; Renaut, Jenny

    2007-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone pollution is described as having major negative effects on plants, compromising plant survival. Carbon metabolism is especially affected. In the present work, the effects of chronic ozone exposure were evaluated at the proteomic level in developing leaves of young poplar plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 35 days. Soluble proteins (excluding intrinsic membrane proteins) were extracted from leaves after 3, 14 and 35 days of ozone exposure, as well as 10 days after a recovery period. Proteins (pI 4 to 7) were analyzed by 2-D DIGE experiments, followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF identification. Additional observations were obtained on growth, lesion formation, and leaf pigments analysis. Although treated plants showed large necrotic spots and chlorosis in mature leaves, growth decreased only slightly and plant height was not affected. The number of abscised leaves was higher in treated plants, but new leaf formation was not affected. A decrease in chlorophylls and lutein contents was recorded. A large number of proteins involved in carbon metabolism were identified. In particular, proteins associated with the Calvin cycle and electron transport in the chloroplast were down-regulated. In contrast, proteins associated with glucose catabolism increased in response to ozone exposure. Other identified enzymes are associated with protein folding, nitrogen metabolism and oxidoreductase activity.

  9. The impact of biosolids application on organic carbon and carbon dioxide fluxes in soil.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, Hasintha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Thangavel, Ramesh; Seshadri, Balaji; Surapaneni, Aravind; Saint, Christopher; Hetherington, Chris; Matthews, Peter; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-12-01

    A field study was conducted on two texturally different soils to determine the influences of biosolids application on selected soil chemical properties and carbon dioxide fluxes. Two sites, located in Manildra (clay loam) and Grenfell (sandy loam), in Australia, were treated at a single level of 70 Mg ha -1 biosolids. Soil samples were analyzed for SOC fractions, including total organic carbon (TOC), labile, and non-labile carbon contents. The natural abundances of soil δ 13 C and δ 15 N were measured as isotopic tracers to fingerprint carbon derived from biosolids. An automated soil respirometer was used to measure in-situ diurnal CO 2 fluxes, soil moisture, and temperature. Application of biosolids increased the surface (0-15 cm) soil TOC by > 45% at both sites, which was attributed to the direct contribution from residual carbon in the biosolids and also from the increased biomass production. At both sites application of biosolids increased the non-labile carbon fraction that is stable against microbial decomposition, which indicated the soil carbon sequestration potential of biosolids. Soils amended with biosolids showed depleted δ 13 C, and enriched δ 15 N indicating the accumulation of biosolids residual carbon in soils. The in-situ respirometer data demonstrated enhanced CO 2 fluxes at the sites treated with biosolids, indicating limited carbon sequestration potential. However, addition of biosolids on both the clay loam and sandy loam soils found to be effective in building SOC than reducing it. Soil temperature and CO 2 fluxes, indicating that temperature was more important for microbial degradation of carbon in biosolids than soil moisture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Early Triassic fluctuations of the global carbon cycle: New evidence from paired carbon isotopes in the western USA basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Gwénaël; Thomazo, Christophe; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Olivier, Nicolas; Cocquerez, Théophile; Escarguel, Gilles; Fara, Emmanuel; Jenks, James F.; Bylund, Kevin G.; Stephen, Daniel A.; Brayard, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    In the aftermath of the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction, the Early Triassic records recurrent perturbations in the carbon isotope signal, most notably during the Smithian and through the Smithian/Spathian Boundary (SSB; 1.5 myr after the Permian/Triassic boundary), which show some of the largest excursions of the Phanerozoic. The late Smithian also corresponds to major biotic turnovers and environmental changes, such as temperature fluctuations, that deeply impacted the recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we document the paired carbon isotope signal along with an analysis of the trace and major elements at the long-known Hot Springs section (southeastern Idaho, USA). This section records Early Triassic sediments from the Griesbachian-Dienerian up to the lower Spathian. We show that the organic and carbonate δ13C variations mirror the signals identified at a global scale. Particularly, the middle Smithian-SSB event represented by a negative-positive isotopic couplet is well identified and is not of diagenetic origin. We also document a positive excursion potentially corresponding to the Dienerian/Smithian Boundary. Observed Smithian-Spathian excursions are recorded similarly in both the organic and carbonate reservoirs, but the organic matter signal systematically shows unexpectedly dampened variations compared to its carbonate counterpart. Additionally, we show that variations in the net isotopic effect (i.e., Δ13C) probably resulted from a complex set of forcing parameters including either a mixing between terrestrial and marine organic matter depending on the evolution of the depositional setting, or variations in the biological fractionation. We establish that the Δ13C signal cannot be directly related to CO2-driven temperature variations at Hot Springs. Even though the carbon isotope signal mirrors the Early Triassic variations known at the global scale, the Hot Springs signal probably also reflects local influences on the carbon

  11. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven

  12. Impact of Water Level on Carbon Sequestration at a Sub-tropical Peat Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumner, D.; Hinkle, C.; Graham, S.; Li, J.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of water level on sub-tropical peat marsh atmospheric/landscape carbon exchange was explored through eddy-covariance measurement of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes over a site at Blue Cypress Conservation Area in Florida. This site is vegetated with tall, dense sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and a thick accumulation of peat (over 3 m) suggesting a historically high primary productivity and carbon sequestration. Water managers are particularly interested in understanding how water-level controls can be directed to maintain topography through avoidance of excessive drought-induced oxidative losses of peat soil, as well as to minimize releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Comparison of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) during a wet year of continuous inundation and a drier year with a 9-month hydroperiod (NEP of 710 and 180 g C/m2/yr, respectively) suggests the positive impact of inundation on sequestration of carbon dioxide. These results are counter to previous research in short stature (1 m or less) sawgrass marshes in the Florida Everglades which indicate suppression of productivity during inundation. This seeming contradiction is probably best explained by the tall stature (over 2 m) of sawgrass at the study site in which inundation still does not cover a substantial fraction of the green leaves and the lower canopy is largely composed of brown and decaying leaves. Gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) was suppressed during the dry year (GEP = 1380 and 1030 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively), probably as a consequence of canopy moisture stress. Respiration (R) was enhanced the year when water levels were farthest below land surface (R = 670 and 850 g C/m2/yr for wet and dry years, respectively) as a result of soil oxidation. GEP remained suppressed during the dry year even after re-flooding, probably because of relatively low photosynthetic leaf area that was the legacy of reduced canopy growth rates during the drought. Over a seven

  13. Drought Legacy and the Impacts on the Amazon Forest Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sassan Saatchi1,2, Yifan Yu1, Xiang Xu2, Luiz Aragao3, Liana Anderson31Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA2Institute of Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90045. USA3 Remote Sensing Division, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, Brazil, 12227-010, BrazilRecent Amazonian droughts have drawn attention to the vulnerability of tropical forests to climate perturbations. Ground and satellite observations of 2005 and 2010 mega-droughts have shown an increase in fire occurrence and tree mortality during the period of drought. Here, we use a combination of satellite observations over a period of about 15 years to examine the legacy of the droughts in terms of impacts on the ecological structure and function of the forests in years following the droughts and the subsequent carbon exchange. Using data from microwave satellite sensors of rainfall, canopy backscatter (2000-2014) and GRACE and GOSAT, we show that the 2005 drought has a legacy of 2-5 years in western Amazonia, by increasing the disturbance in canopy trees and impacting the gross primary production of the forest significantly. Amazonian forests, particularly in the southern region were again impacted by the 2010 mega-drought, causing a legacy of 2-4 years with potential decrease in GPP and productivity observed by GOSAT fluorescence. The persistent of low canopy water content observed by a joint QSCAT and OceanSAT observations were linked to a delay in recharging of the hydrological system observed by GRACE over a period of 2-5 years. The results suggest that Amazonian forests with distinct dry seasons in southern and western regions of the basin are potentially more vulnerable to droughts compared to regions with less seasonality. The long recovery time from the 2005 and 2010 droughts suggests that the occurence of droughts in Amazonia at 5-10 year frequency may lead to long-term alteration of the

  14. Allochthonous carbon is a major regulator to bacterial growth and community composition in subarctic freshwaters

    PubMed Central

    Roiha, Toni; Peura, Sari; Cusson, Mathieu; Rautio, Milla

    2016-01-01

    In the subarctic region, climate warming and permafrost thaw are leading to emergence of ponds and to an increase in mobility of catchment carbon. As carbon of terrestrial origin is increasing in subarctic freshwaters the resource pool supporting their microbial communities and metabolism is changing, with consequences to overall aquatic productivity. By sampling different subarctic water bodies for a one complete year we show how terrestrial and algal carbon compounds vary in a range of freshwaters and how differential organic carbon quality is linked to bacterial metabolism and community composition. We show that terrestrial drainage and associated nutrients supported higher bacterial growth in ponds and river mouths that were influenced by fresh terrestrial carbon than in large lakes with carbon from algal production. Bacterial diversity, however, was lower at sites influenced by terrestrial carbon inputs. Bacterial community composition was highly variable among different water bodies and especially influenced by concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fulvic acids, proteins and nutrients. Furthermore, a distinct preference was found for terrestrial vs. algal carbon among certain bacterial tribes. The results highlight the contribution of the numerous ponds to cycling of terrestrial carbon in the changing subarctic and arctic regions. PMID:27686416

  15. Allochthonous carbon is a major regulator to bacterial growth and community composition in subarctic freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Roiha, Toni; Peura, Sari; Cusson, Mathieu; Rautio, Milla

    2016-09-30

    In the subarctic region, climate warming and permafrost thaw are leading to emergence of ponds and to an increase in mobility of catchment carbon. As carbon of terrestrial origin is increasing in subarctic freshwaters the resource pool supporting their microbial communities and metabolism is changing, with consequences to overall aquatic productivity. By sampling different subarctic water bodies for a one complete year we show how terrestrial and algal carbon compounds vary in a range of freshwaters and how differential organic carbon quality is linked to bacterial metabolism and community composition. We show that terrestrial drainage and associated nutrients supported higher bacterial growth in ponds and river mouths that were influenced by fresh terrestrial carbon than in large lakes with carbon from algal production. Bacterial diversity, however, was lower at sites influenced by terrestrial carbon inputs. Bacterial community composition was highly variable among different water bodies and especially influenced by concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), fulvic acids, proteins and nutrients. Furthermore, a distinct preference was found for terrestrial vs. algal carbon among certain bacterial tribes. The results highlight the contribution of the numerous ponds to cycling of terrestrial carbon in the changing subarctic and arctic regions.

  16. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Reichstein, Markus; Bahn, Michael; Ciais, Philippe; Frank, Dorothea; Mahecha, Miguel D; Seneviratne, Sonia I; Zscheischler, Jakob; Beer, Christian; Buchmann, Nina; Frank, David C; Papale, Dario; Rammig, Anja; Smith, Pete; Thonicke, Kirsten; van der Velde, Marijn; Vicca, Sara; Walz, Ariane; Wattenbach, Martin

    2013-08-15

    The terrestrial biosphere is a key component of the global carbon cycle and its carbon balance is strongly influenced by climate. Continuing environmental changes are thought to increase global terrestrial carbon uptake. But evidence is mounting that climate extremes such as droughts or storms can lead to a decrease in regional ecosystem carbon stocks and therefore have the potential to negate an expected increase in terrestrial carbon uptake. Here we explore the mechanisms and impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon cycle, and propose a pathway to improve our understanding of present and future impacts of climate extremes on the terrestrial carbon budget.

  17. A chemostratigraphic method to determine the end of impact-related sedimentation at marine-target impact craters (Chesapeake Bay, Lockne, Tvären)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ormö, Jens; Hill, Andrew C.; Self-Trail, Jean M.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the impact cratering process and its environmental consequences at the local to global scale, it is important to know when in the geological record of an impact crater the impact-related processes cease. In many instances, this occurs with the end of early crater modification, leaving an obvious sedimentological boundary between impactites and secular sediments. However, in marine-target craters the transition from early crater collapse (i.e., water resurge) to postimpact sedimentation can appear gradual. With the a priori assumption that the reworked target materials of the resurge deposits have a different chemical composition to the secular sediments we use chemostratigraphy (δ13Ccarb, %Corg, major elements) of sediments from the Chesapeake Bay, Lockne, and Tvären craters, to define this boundary. We show that the end of impact-related sedimentation in these cases is fairly rapid, and does not necessarily coincide with a visual boundary (e.g., grain size shift). Therefore, in some cases, the boundary is more precisely determined by chemostratigraphy, especially carbonate carbon isotope variations, rather than by visual inspection. It is also shown how chemostratigraphy can confirm the age of marine-target craters that were previously determined by biostratigraphy; by comparing postimpact carbon isotope trends with established regional trends.

  18. The Air-Carbon-Water Synergies and Trade-Offs in China's Natural Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yue

    China's coal-dominated energy structure is partly responsible for its domestic air pollution, local water stress, and the global climate change. Primarily to tackle the haze issue, China has been actively promoting a nationwide coal to natural gas end-use switch. My dissertation focuses on evaluating the air quality, carbon, and water impacts and their interactions in China's natural gas industry. Chapter 2 assesses the lifecycle climate performance of China's shale gas in comparison to coal based on stage-level energy consumption and methane leakage rates. I find the mean lifecycle carbon footprint of shale gas is about 30-50% lower than that of coal under both 20 year and 100 year global warming potentials (GWP20 and GWP100). However, primarily due to large uncertainties in methane leakage, the lifecycle carbon footprint of shale gas in China could be 15-60% higher than that of coal across sectors under GWP20. Chapter 3 evaluates the air quality, human health, and the climate impacts of China's coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) development. Based on earlier 2020 SNG production targets, I conduct an integrated assessment to identify production technologies and end-use applications that will bring as large air quality and health benefits as possible while keeping carbon penalties as small as possible. I find that, due to inefficient and uncontrolled coal combustion in households, allocating currently available SNG to the residential sector proves to be the best SNG allocation option. Chapter 4 compares the air quality, carbon, and water impacts of China's six major gas sources under three end-use substitution scenarios, which are focused on maximizing air pollutant emission reductions, CO 2 emission reductions, and water stress index (WSI)-weighted water consumption reductions, respectively. I find striking national air-carbon/water trade-offs due to SNG, which also significantly increases water demands and carbon emissions in regions already suffering from

  19. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  20. Forest Management Shifts in the Western US and Potential Impacts on the Carbon Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, B. E.; Jones, M. O.; Yang, Z.; Berner, L. T.

    2015-12-01

    Forest harvest regimes are changing as land managers cope with fires, drought, and insect damage. Thinning on public lands, typically focused on removal of small trees that could act as fuel ladders, is increasing to reduce risk of crown fires and reduce competition for water in crowded stands. On private lands, drought and wildfires could lead to further shortening of harvest cycles (e.g. from 80 to 45 years) or thinning. To examine the effects of potential changes in management regimes vs climate on carbon processes in forests of Oregon, California and Washington, we used data from ancillary plots, inventories, and satellites to parameterize and test the CLM4.5 model. We first examined contemporary biomass loss over the western US to determine the baseline conditions prior to implementing harvest scenarios. Annual biomass mortality from fires and insects increased significantly (1996-2011), and mortality from insects was about twice that of fires. California, Oregon and Idaho were most impacted by fire-related biomass mortality, whereas Colorado, Montana and Washington were most impacted by insects. Harvest scenarios implemented in CLM4.5 include two thinning scenarios to reduce crown fire risk and drought stress, and a salvage scenario to remove trees remaining after recent beetle or fire related mortality; taking into account our previous work showing 70 - 85 % of salvaged biomass is removed and the remainder is left on-site. We simulated the effect of treatments on current and future net ecosystem carbon balance. Challenges of regional modeling of management effects on carbon and other important considerations are addressed.

  1. Analyzing the impact of climate and management factors on the productivity and soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to investigate how climate and management factors impact poplar plantation production and soil carbon sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and management factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of management factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for managed poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) globally, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar globally was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to management effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil carbon storage. Findings of this work suggests that management factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term carbon sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and management decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress in the reduction of carbon monoxide levels in major urban areas in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sul, Kyung-Hwa; Szulejko, Jan E; Chambers, Scott D; Feng, Xinbin; Lee, Min-Hee

    2015-12-01

    Long-term trends in observed carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were analyzed in seven major South Korean cities from 1989 to 2013. Temporal trends were evident on seasonal and annual timescales, as were spatial gradients between the cities. As CO levels in the most polluted cities decreased significantly until the early 2000s, the data were arbitrarily divided into two time periods (I: 1989-2000 and II: 2001-2013) for analysis. The mean CO concentration of period II was about 50% lower than that of period I. Long-term trends of annual mean CO concentrations, examined using the Mann-Kendall (MK) method, confirm a consistent reduction in CO levels from 1989 to 2000 (period I). The abrupt reduction in CO levels was attributed to a combination of technological improvements and government administrative/regulatory initiatives (e.g., emission mitigation strategies and a gradual shift in the fuel/energy consumption mix away from coal and oil to natural gas and nuclear power). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental impact of engineered carbon nanoparticles: from releases to effects on the aquatic biota.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Antoine; Mouchet, Florence; Pinelli, Éric; Gauthier, Laury; Flahaut, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Nano-ecotoxicology is an emerging science which aims to assess the environmental effect of nanotechnologies. The development of this particular aspect of ecotoxicology was made necessary in order to evaluate the potential impact of recently produced and used materials: nanoparticles (NPs). Among all the types of NPs, carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) especially draw attention giving the increasing number of applications and integration into consumer products. However the potential impacts of CNPs in the environment remain poorly known. This review aims to point out the critical issues and aspects that will govern the toxicity of CNPs in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Land Use and Climate Alter Carbon Dynamics in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; Duan, S.; Grese, M.; Pennino, M. J.; Belt, K. T.; Findlay, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2011-12-01

    There have been long-term changes in the quantity of organic carbon in streams and rivers globally. Shifts in the quality of organic carbon due to environmental changes may also impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants. We investigated long-term impacts of land use and hydrologic variability on organic carbon transport in watersheds of the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and large rivers of the Chesapeake Bay. In small and medium-sized watersheds of the Baltimore LTER site, urban land use increased organic carbon concentrations in streams several-fold compared to forest and agricultural watersheds. Enzymatic activities of stream microbes were significantly altered across watershed land use during a record wet year. During the wet year, short-term bioassays showed that bioavailable dissolved organic carbon varied seasonally, but comprised a substantial proportion of the dissolved organic carbon pool. Similarly, measurements of biochemical oxygen demand across hydrologic variability suggest that reactive organic carbon export from small and medium-sized urban watersheds during storms can be substantial. At a larger regional scale, major tributaries such as the Potomac, Susquehanna, Patuxent, and Choptank rivers also showed similar variability as smaller watersheds in quantity and quality of organic carbon based on land use and climate. There were distinct isotopic values of d13C of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices for rivers influenced by different land uses. Stable isotopic values of d13C of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices showed marked seasonal changes in organic matter quality during spring floods in the Potomac River at Washington D.C. Across watershed size, there appeared to be differences in seasonal cycles of organic carbon quality and this may have been based on the degree of hydrologic connectivity between watersheds and

  5. Differential modification of seawater carbonate chemistry by major coral reef benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Heather N.; Andersson, Andreas J.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Lebrato, Mario; Yeakel, Kiley; Davidson, Charlie; D'Angelo, Sydney; Bahr, Keisha D.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) resulting from uptake of anthropogenic CO2 may negatively affect coral reefs by causing decreased rates of biogenic calcification and increased rates of CaCO3 dissolution and bioerosion. However, in addition to the gradual decrease in seawater pH and Ω a resulting from anthropogenic activities, seawater carbonate chemistry in these coastal ecosystems is also strongly influenced by the benthic metabolism which can either exacerbate or alleviate OA through net community calcification (NCC = calcification - CaCO3 dissolution) and net community organic carbon production (NCP = primary production - respiration). Therefore, to project OA on coral reefs, it is necessary to understand how different benthic communities modify the reef seawater carbonate chemistry. In this study, we used flow-through mesocosms to investigate the modification of seawater carbonate chemistry by benthic metabolism of five distinct reef communities [carbonate sand, crustose coralline algae (CCA), corals, fleshy algae, and a mixed community] under ambient and acidified conditions during summer and winter. The results showed that different communities had distinct influences on carbonate chemistry related to the relative importance of NCC and NCP. Sand, CCA, and corals exerted relatively small influences on seawater pH and Ω a over diel cycles due to closely balanced NCC and NCP rates, whereas fleshy algae and mixed communities strongly elevated daytime pH and Ω a due to high NCP rates. Interestingly, the influence on seawater pH at night was relatively small and quite similar across communities. NCC and NCP rates were not significantly affected by short-term acidification, but larger diel variability in pH was observed due to decreased seawater buffering capacity. Except for corals, increased net dissolution was observed at night for all communities under OA, partially buffering against nighttime acidification. Thus, algal-dominated areas of coral reefs and increased

  6. Hybrid composite laminates reinforced with Kevlar/carbon/glass woven fabrics for ballistic impact testing.

    PubMed

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Jalil, Nawal Aswan Abdul; Majid, Dayang Laila Abang Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers.

  7. Hybrid Composite Laminates Reinforced with Kevlar/Carbon/Glass Woven Fabrics for Ballistic Impact Testing

    PubMed Central

    Randjbaran, Elias; Zahari, Rizal; Abdul Jalil, Nawal Aswan; Abang Abdul Majid, Dayang Laila

    2014-01-01

    Current study reported a facile method to investigate the effects of stacking sequence layers of hybrid composite materials on ballistic energy absorption by running the ballistic test at the high velocity ballistic impact conditions. The velocity and absorbed energy were accordingly calculated as well. The specimens were fabricated from Kevlar, carbon, and glass woven fabrics and resin and were experimentally investigated under impact conditions. All the specimens possessed equal mass, shape, and density; nevertheless, the layers were ordered in different stacking sequence. After running the ballistic test at the same conditions, the final velocities of the cylindrical AISI 4340 Steel pellet showed how much energy was absorbed by the samples. The energy absorption of each sample through the ballistic impact was calculated; accordingly, the proper ballistic impact resistance materials could be found by conducting the test. This paper can be further studied in order to characterise the material properties for the different layers. PMID:24955400

  8. How fuel treatment types, locations, and amounts impact landscape-scale fire behavior and carbon dynamics

    Treesearch

    Christopher A. Dicus; Kevin J. Osborne

    2015-01-01

    When managing for fire across a large landscape, the types of fuel treatments, the locations of treatments, and the percentage of the landscape being treated should all interact to impact not only potential fire size, but also carbon dynamics across that landscape. To investigate these interactions, we utilized a forest growth model (FVS-FFE) and fire simulation...

  9. Rietveld analysis of X-ray powder diffraction patterns as a potential tool for the identification of impact-deformed carbonate rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huson, S. A.; Foit, F. F.; Watkinson, A. J.; Pope, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Previous X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that shock deformed carbonates and quartz have broader XRD patterns than those of unshocked samples. Entire XRD patterns, single peak profiles and Rietveld refined parameters of carbonate samples from the Sierra Madera impact crater, west Texas, unshocked equivalent samples from 95 miles north of the crater and the Mission Canyon Formation of southwest Montana and western Wyoming were used to evaluate the use of X-ray powder diffraction as a potential tool for distinguishing impact deformed rocks from unshocked and tectonically deformed rocks. At Sierra Madera dolostone and limestone samples were collected from the crater rim (lower shock intensity) and the central uplift (higher shock intensity). Unshocked equivalent dolostone samples were collected from well cores drilled outside of the impact crater. Carbonate rocks of the Mission Canyon Formation were sampled along a transect across the tectonic front of the Sevier and Laramide orogenic belts. Whereas calcite subjected to significant shock intensities at the Sierra Madera impact crater can be differentiated from tectonically deformed calcite from the Mission Canyon Formation using Rietveld refined peak profiles, weakly shocked calcite from the crater rim appears to be indistinguishable from the tectonically deformed calcite. In contrast, Rietveld analysis readily distinguishes shocked Sierra Madera dolomite from unshocked equivalent dolostone samples from outside the crater and tectonically deformed Mission Canyon Formation dolomite.

  10. Projecting the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests (1851-2100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, J.; Hurtt, G. C.; Chambers, J. Q.; Zeng, H.

    2009-12-01

    In U.S. Atlantic coastal areas, hurricanes are a principal agent of catastrophic wind damage, with dramatic impacts on the structure and functioning of forests. Estimates of the carbon emissions resulting from single storms range as high as ~100 Tg C, an amount equivalent to the annual U.S. carbon sink in forest trees. Recent studies have estimated the historic regional carbon emissions from hurricane activity using an empirically based approach. Here, we use a mechanistic ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model, driven by maps of mortality and damage based on historic hurricane tracks and future scenarios to predict the past and future impacts of hurricanes on the carbon balance of eastern U.S. forests. Model estimates compare well to previous empirically based estimates, with mean annual biomass loss of 26 Tg C yr-1 (range 0 to ~225 Tg C yr-1) resulting from hurricanes during the period 1851-2000. Using the mechanistic model, we are able to include the effects of both disturbance and recovery on the net carbon flux. We find a regional carbon sink throughout much of the 20th century resulting from forest recovery following a peak in hurricane activity during the late 19th century exceeding biomass loss. Recent increased hurricane activity has resulted in the region becoming a net carbon source. For the future, several recent studies have linked increased sea surface temperatures expected with climate change to increased hurricane activity. Based on these relationships, we investigate a range of scenarios of future hurricane activity and find the potential for substantial increases in emissions from hurricane mortality and reductions in regional carbon stocks. In our scenario with the largest increase in hurricane activity, we find a 35% increase in area disturbed by 2100, but due to the reduction of standing biomass, only a 20% increase in biomass loss per year. Developing this kind of predictive modeling capability that tracks disturbance events and

  11. Effect of restoration on carbon fluxes in urban temperate wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, K. V.; Tripathee, R.; Bohrer, G.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon sequestration as an ecosystem service, has received attraction as a climate change mitigating strategy. The restoration of wetlands has also been an integral part of US management policy, since the clean water act came into effect. How restoration impacts carbon fluxes, however, has seldom been reported. A record of over three years of net carbon exchange from a restored urban temperate wetland, shows that fluxes decreased by 50% concomitant with the management of Phragmites australis, an invasive plant species that has been eliminated by 2011, thus all aboveground biomass has been removed. Likewise, aboveground biomass decreased for Spartina alterniflora, the restored, native species over the same time period as well. The majority of the biomass resides belowground. Comparison between the managed urban wetland and an unmanaged recently restored site nearby shows that the fluxes in the unmanaged wetland in 2011 were significantly higher than those of the managed wetland. Thus, managing wetlands by removing Phragmites may cause diminishing carbon sequestration potential by these wetlands

  12. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools.

    PubMed

    Seto, Karen C; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R

    2012-10-02

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km(2), nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr(-1)), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses.

  13. Global forecasts of urban expansion to 2030 and direct impacts on biodiversity and carbon pools

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Karen C.; Güneralp, Burak; Hutyra, Lucy R.

    2012-01-01

    Urban land-cover change threatens biodiversity and affects ecosystem productivity through loss of habitat, biomass, and carbon storage. However, despite projections that world urban populations will increase to nearly 5 billion by 2030, little is known about future locations, magnitudes, and rates of urban expansion. Here we develop spatially explicit probabilistic forecasts of global urban land-cover change and explore the direct impacts on biodiversity hotspots and tropical carbon biomass. If current trends in population density continue and all areas with high probabilities of urban expansion undergo change, then by 2030, urban land cover will increase by 1.2 million km2, nearly tripling the global urban land area circa 2000. This increase would result in considerable loss of habitats in key biodiversity hotspots, with the highest rates of forecasted urban growth to take place in regions that were relatively undisturbed by urban development in 2000: the Eastern Afromontane, the Guinean Forests of West Africa, and the Western Ghats and Sri Lanka hotspots. Within the pan-tropics, loss in vegetation biomass from areas with high probability of urban expansion is estimated to be 1.38 PgC (0.05 PgC yr−1), equal to ∼5% of emissions from tropical deforestation and land-use change. Although urbanization is often considered a local issue, the aggregate global impacts of projected urban expansion will require significant policy changes to affect future growth trajectories to minimize global biodiversity and vegetation carbon losses. PMID:22988086

  14. Impacts of peatland restoration on dissolved carbon loss from eroded upland peatlands in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M.; Stimson, A.; Allott, T. E. H. A.; Holland, N.

    2012-04-01

    Upland blanket peatlands in the UK are severely degraded by extensive gully erosion. Large areas have experienced complete vegetation loss. In the last decade landscape scale approaches to the restoration of eroded and bare peat have been developed in the Peak District National Park in northern England. Bare peat is re-vegetated with a nurse crop of grasses established by the aerial application of lime, seed, and fertiliser. The approach has successfully re-vegetated large areas of eroded bog a nd has been shown to dramatically reduce particulate carbon losses in runoff. The impacts of the treatment on water quality and dissolved carbon loss have not previously been fully assessed. This paper reports results from a small catchment study assessing the impacts of restoration practice in the Peak District. Data from five small catchments are presented one re-vegetated, one intact and three eroded/bare catchments. Bi-weekly water samples have been taken from the catchments between January 2011 and February 2012 and during July 2012 two of the bare sites were treated with lime, seed, and fertiliser. The data show that there are significant spikes in nutrient flux post treatment and marked effects on dissolved carbon which include initial spikes in in DOC concentration but longer term reductions in DOC concentration. Monitoring is ongoing at these sites but the evidence to date points to at least a short term benefit in DOC flux reduction from this form of peatland restoration.

  15. Galaxy mergers moulding the circum-galactic medium - I. The impact of a major merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hani, Maan H.; Sparre, Martin; Ellison, Sara L.; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Galaxies are surrounded by sizeable gas reservoirs which host a significant amount of metals: the circum-galactic medium (CGM). The CGM acts as a mediator between the galaxy and the extragalactic medium. However, our understanding of how galaxy mergers, a major evolutionary transformation, impact the CGM remains deficient. We present a theoretical study of the effect of galaxy mergers on the CGM. We use hydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations of a major merger selected from the Illustris project such that the z = 0 descendant has a halo mass and stellar mass comparable to the Milky Way. To study the CGM we then re-simulated this system at a 40 times better mass resolution, and included detailed post-processing ionization modelling. Our work demonstrates the effect the merger has on the characteristic size of the CGM, its metallicity, and the predicted covering fraction of various commonly observed gas-phase species, such as H I, C IV, and O VI. We show that merger-induced outflows can increase the CGM metallicity by 0.2-0.3 dex within 0.5 Gyr post-merger. These effects last up to 6 Gyr post-merger. While the merger increases the total metal covering fractions by factors of 2-3, the covering fractions of commonly observed UV ions decrease due to the hard ionizing radiation from the active galactic nucleus, which we model explicitly. Our study of the single simulated major merger presented in this work demonstrates the significant impact that a galaxy interaction can have on the size, metallicity, and observed column densities of the CGM.

  16. Carbon footprint estimation of municipal water cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, Ali A.

    2009-11-01

    This research investigates the embodied energy associated with water use. A geographic information system (GIS) was tested using data from Loudoun County, Virginia. The objective of this study is to estimate the embodied energy and carbon emission levels associated with water service at a geographical location and to improve for sustainability planning. Factors that affect the carbon footprint were investigated and the use of a GIS based model as a sustainability planning framework was evaluated. The carbon footprint metric is a useful tool for prediction and measurement of a system's sustainable performance over its expected life cycle. Two metrics were calculated: tons of carbon dioxide per year to represent the contribution to global warming and watt-hrs per gallon to show the embodied energy associated with water consumption. The water delivery to the building, removal of wastewater from the building and associated treatment of water and wastewater create a sizable carbon footprint; often the energy attributed to this water service is the greatest end use of electrical energy. The embodied energy in water depends on topographical characteristics of the area's local water supply, the efficiency of the treatment systems, and the efficiency of the pumping stations. The questions answered by this research are: What is the impact of demand side sustainable water practices on the embodied energy as represented by a comprehensive carbon footprint? What are the major energy consuming elements attributed to the system? What is a viable and visually identifiable tool to estimate the carbon footprint attributed to those Greenhouse Gas (GHG) producing elements? What is the embodied energy and emission associated with water use delivered to a building? Benefits to be derived from a standardized GIS applied carbon footprint estimation approach include: (1) Improved environmental and economic information for the developers, water and wastewater processing and municipal

  17. Elevated rates of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus accumulation in a highly impacted mangrove wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Eyre, Bradley D.; Santos, Isaac R.; Machado, Wilson; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Smoak, Joseph M.; Breithaupt, Joshua L.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Sanders, Luciana; Marotta, Humberto; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-04-01

    The effect of nutrient enrichment on mangrove sediment accretion and carbon accumulation rates is poorly understood. Here we quantify sediment accretion through radionuclide tracers to determine organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) accumulation rates during the previous 60 years in both a nutrient-enriched and a pristine mangrove forest within the same geomorphological region of southeastern Brazil. The forest receiving high nutrient loads has accumulated OC, TN, and TP at rates that are fourfold, twofold, and eightfold respectively, higher than those from the undisturbed mangrove. Organic carbon and TN stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) reflect an increased presence of organic matter (OM) originating with either phytoplankton, benthic algae, or another allochthonous source within the more rapidly accumulated sediments of the impacted mangrove. This suggests that the accumulation rate of OM in eutrophic mangrove systems may be enhanced through the addition of autochthonous and allochthonous nonmangrove material.

  18. Assessment of potential climate change impacts on peatland dissolved organic carbon release and drinking water treatment from laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Tang, R; Clark, J M; Bond, T; Graham, N; Hughes, D; Freeman, C

    2013-02-01

    Catchments draining peat soils provide the majority of drinking water in the UK. Over the past decades, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) have increased in surface waters. Residual DOC can cause harmful carcinogenic disinfection by-products to form during water treatment processes. Increased frequency and severity of droughts combined with and increased temperatures expected as the climate changes, have potentials to change water quality. We used a novel approach to investigate links between climate change, DOC release and subsequent effects on drinking water treatment. We designed a climate manipulation experiment to simulate projected climate changes and monitored releases from peat soil and litter, then simulated coagulation used in water treatment. We showed that the 'drought' simulation was the dominant factor altering DOC release and affected the ability to remove DOC. Our results imply that future short-term drought events could have a greater impact than increased temperature on DOC treatability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Design Systematic review. Data sources We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Results Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a

  20. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008).

    PubMed

    McCartney, Gerry; Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-05-20

    To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Systematic review. We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a narrative synthesis, but the overall

  1. Lianas reduce carbon accumulation and storage in tropical forests.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Geertje M F; Powers, Jennifer S; Schnitzer, Stefan A

    2015-10-27

    Tropical forests store vast quantities of carbon, account for one-third of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis, and are a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that competition between lianas (woody vines) and trees may reduce forest-wide carbon uptake; however, estimates of the impact of lianas on carbon dynamics of tropical forests are crucially lacking. Here we used a large-scale liana removal experiment and found that, at 3 y after liana removal, lianas reduced net above-ground carbon uptake (growth and recruitment minus mortality) by ∼76% per year, mostly by reducing tree growth. The loss of carbon uptake due to liana-induced mortality was four times greater in the control plots in which lianas were present, but high variation among plots prevented a significant difference among the treatments. Lianas altered how aboveground carbon was stored. In forests where lianas were present, the partitioning of forest aboveground net primary production was dominated by leaves (53.2%, compared with 39.2% in liana-free forests) at the expense of woody stems (from 28.9%, compared with 43.9%), resulting in a more rapid return of fixed carbon to the atmosphere. After 3 y of experimental liana removal, our results clearly demonstrate large differences in carbon cycling between forests with and without lianas. Combined with the recently reported increases in liana abundance, these results indicate that lianas are an important and increasing agent of change in the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.

  2. Ocean Biological Pump Sensitivities and Implications for Climate Change Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The ocean is one of the principal reservoirs of CO2, a greenhouse gas, and therefore plays a crucial role in regulating Earth's climate. Currently, the ocean sequesters about a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the human impact on climate. At the same time, the deeper ocean represents the largest carbon pool in the Earth System and processes that describe the transfer of carbon from the surface of the ocean to depth are intimately linked to the effectiveness of carbon sequestration.The ocean biological pump (OBP), which involves several biogeochemical processes, is a major pathway for transfer of carbon from the surface mixed layer into the ocean interior. About 75 of the carbon vertical gradient is due to the carbon pump with only 25 attributed to the solubility pump. However, the relative importance and role of the two pumps is poorly constrained. OBP is further divided to the organic carbon pump (soft tissue pump) and the carbonate pump, with the former exporting about 10 times more carbon than the latter through processes like remineralization.Major uncertainties about OBP, and hence in the carbon uptake and sequestration, stem from uncertainties in processes involved in OBP such as particulate organicinorganic carbon sinkingsettling, remineralization, microbial degradation of DOC and uptakegrowth rate changes of the ocean biology. The deep ocean is a major sink of atmospheric CO2 in scales of hundreds to thousands of years, but how the export efficiency (i.e. the fraction of total carbon fixation at the surface that is transported at depth) is affected by climate change remains largely undetermined. These processes affect the ocean chemistry (alkalinity, pH, DIC, particulate and dissolved organic carbon) as well as the ecology (biodiversity, functional groups and their interactions) in the ocean. It is important to have a rigorous, quantitative understanding of the uncertainties involved in the observational measurements, the models and the

  3. To Facilitate or Curb? The Role of Financial Development in China's Carbon Emissions Reduction Process: A Novel Approach.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tiancai; Jiang, Qichuan; Ma, Xuejiao

    2017-10-13

    With the Paris Agreement coming into effect, China, as the largest CO₂ emitter in the world, will be facing greater pressure to reduce its carbon emissions. This paper discusses how to solve this issue from the perspective of financial development in China. Although many studies have analyzed its impact on carbon emissions, the conclusions are contradictory. A major criticism of the existing studies is the reasonability of the selection of appropriate indicators and panel estimation techniques. Almost all studies use only one or limited indicators to represent the financial development and ignore the cross-sectional dependence. To fulfil the gaps mentioned above, a financial development index system is built, and with the framework of the STIRPAT (Stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology) model, this paper applies an ARDL approach to investigating the long-run relationship between financial development and carbon emissions and a dynamic panel error-corrected model to capture the short-run impact. The empirical results show that financial development can improve carbon emissions, and such impact not only shows a regional difference but also reflects the features of stage differences. Additionally, based on the discussion on seven specific aspects of financial development, our findings can be helpful for policy makers to enact corresponding policies to realize the goal of reducing carbon emissions in China.

  4. Impacts of Stratospheric Black Carbon on Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, L.; Robock, A.; Elliott, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    A regional nuclear war between India and Pakistan could inject 5 Tg of soot into the stratosphere, which would absorb sunlight, decrease global surface temperature by about 1°C for 5-10 years and have major impacts on precipitation and the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Using two global gridded crop models forced by one global climate model simulation, we investigate the impacts on agricultural productivity in various nations. The crop model in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM-crop4.5) and the parallel Decision Support System for Agricultural Technology (pDSSAT) in the parallel System for Integrating Impact Models and Sectors are participating in the Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison. We force these two crop models with output from the Whole Atmospheric Community Climate Model to characterize the global agricultural impact from climate changes due to a regional nuclear war. Crops in CLM-crop4.5 include maize, rice, soybean, cotton and sugarcane, and crops in pDSSAT include maize, rice, soybean and wheat. Although the two crop models require a different time frequency of weather input, we downscale the climate model output to provide consistent temperature, precipitation and solar radiation inputs. In general, CLM-crop4.5 simulates a larger global average reduction of maize and soybean production relative to pDSSAT. Global rice production shows negligible change with climate anomalies from a regional nuclear war. Cotton and sugarcane benefit from a regional nuclear war from CLM-crop4.5 simulation, and global wheat production would decrease significantly in the pDSSAT simulation. The regional crop yield responses to a regional nuclear conflict are different for each crop, and we present the changes in production on a national basis. These models do not include the crop responses to changes in ozone, ultraviolet radiation, or diffuse radiation, and we would like to encourage more modelers to improve crop models to account for those

  5. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr; Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. Themore » results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.« less

  6. Key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaveewatanaseth, K.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cities become more vulnerable to climate change impacts causing by urbanization, economic growth, increasing of energy consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. People who live in the cities have already been affected from the impacts in terms of socioeconomic and environmental aspects. Sustainable transport plays the key role in CO2 mitigation and contributes positive impacts on sustainable development for the cities. Several studies in megacities both in developed and developing countries support that mass transit system is an important transportation mode in CO2 mitigation and sustainable transport development. This paper aims to study key factors of low carbon development strategy for sustainable transport. The Bangkok Mass Rapid Transit System (MRT) located in Bangkok was the study area. Data collection was using semi-structured in-depth interview protocol with thirty respondents consisting of six groups i.e. governmental agencies, the MRT operators, consulting companies, international organizations, non-profit organizations, and experts. The research findings highlighted the major factors and supplemental elements composing of institution and technical capacity, institutional framework, policy setting and process, and plan of implementation that would support more effective strategic process for low carbon development strategy (LCDS) for sustainable transport. The study would highly recommend on readiness of institution and technical capacities, stakeholder mapping, high-level decision- makers participation, and a clear direction of the governmental policies that are strongly needed in achieving the sustainable transport.

  7. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to <2 °C relative to the preindustrial era. Most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) to reach the 2 °C target. A recent analysis of NETs, including direct air capture, enhanced weathering, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and afforestation/deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phenology of a Vegetation Barrier and Resulting Impacts on Near-Highway Particle Number and Black Carbon Concentrations on a School Campus.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina H; Carter, David R; Hayat, Matthew J; Baldauf, Richard; Watts Hull, Rebecca

    2017-02-08

    Traffic-related air pollution is a persistent concern especially in urban areas where populations live in close proximity to roadways. Innovative solutions are needed to minimize human exposure and the installation of vegetative barriers shows potential as a method to reduce near-road concentrations. This study investigates the impact of an existing stand of deciduous and evergreen trees on near-road total particle number (PNC) and black carbon (BC) concentrations across three seasons. Measurements were taken during spring, fall and winter on the campus of a middle school in the Atlanta (GA, USA) area at distances of 10 m and 50 m from a major interstate highway. We identified consistent decreases in BC concentrations, but not for PNC, with increased distance from the highway. In multivariable models, hour of day, downwind conditions, distance to highway, temperature and relative humidity significantly predicted pollutant concentrations. The magnitude of effect of these variables differed by season, however, we were not able to show a definitive impact of the vegetative barrier on near-road concentrations. More detailed studies are necessary to further examine the specific configurations and scenarios that may produce pollutant and exposure reductions.

  9. Phenology of a Vegetation Barrier and Resulting Impacts on Near-Highway Particle Number and Black Carbon Concentrations on a School Campus

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Christina H.; Carter, David R.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Baldauf, Richard; Watts Hull, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is a persistent concern especially in urban areas where populations live in close proximity to roadways. Innovative solutions are needed to minimize human exposure and the installation of vegetative barriers shows potential as a method to reduce near-road concentrations. This study investigates the impact of an existing stand of deciduous and evergreen trees on near-road total particle number (PNC) and black carbon (BC) concentrations across three seasons. Measurements were taken during spring, fall and winter on the campus of a middle school in the Atlanta (GA, USA) area at distances of 10 m and 50 m from a major interstate highway. We identified consistent decreases in BC concentrations, but not for PNC, with increased distance from the highway. In multivariable models, hour of day, downwind conditions, distance to highway, temperature and relative humidity significantly predicted pollutant concentrations. The magnitude of effect of these variables differed by season, however, we were not able to show a definitive impact of the vegetative barrier on near-road concentrations. More detailed studies are necessary to further examine the specific configurations and scenarios that may produce pollutant and exposure reductions. PMID:28208726

  10. The role of ocean currents for carbonate platform stratigraphy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, C.; Lindhorst, S.; Luedmann, T.; Eberli, G. P.; Reijmer, J.; Huebscher, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    Breaks and turnovers in carbonate bank growth and development record fluctuations in sea-level and environmental changes. For the carbonate banks of the Bahamas, the Maldives, the Queensland, and the Marion Plateau, sea-level changes and synchronous oceanographic and atmospheric circulation events were recorded through compositional and architectural changes. Most of these major carbonate edifices contain drift deposits, indicating that oceanic currents were a major driver of carbonate-bank evolution. It is proposed that such currents have a larger imprint on the growth patterns and the stratigraphic packaging of carbonates than previously thought. In the Bahamas, slope facies of carbonate banks exposed to deep oceanic currents are not arranged into sediment-texture controlled and depth-dependant strike-continuous facies belts. Facies patterns are controlled by the interplay of shallow-water input, succeeding sediment sorting as well as redistribution and erosion processes. This complements the classical windward - leeward classification of carbonate platform slopes and accounts for the significant and potentially dominant process of alongslope sediment transport and dispersal. Deep oceanic currents also have the potential to steepen the carbonate bank slopes, through sediment winnowing at the distal slope, such as for example in the Maldives. This process can be enhanced as the bank grows and expands in size which may accelerate currents. Oceanic current onset or amplification, however, may also account for slope steepening as an externally, i.e. climate-driven agent, thus forcing the banks into an aggradation mode of growth which is not a response to sea-level fluctuations or a result of the windward / leeward exposure of the bank edge. Ignorance of the impact of currents on platforms and platform slopes may lead to an erroneous conclusion that changes in sediment production, distribution, and morphologies of sediment bodies are features solely related to sea

  11. The impact of different management techniques on carbon balance of a pine stand after windthrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Urbaniak, Marek; Merbold, Lutz; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems cover approximately 1/3 of the global land area (and 29.8% in Poland). Since forests are constantly exposed to various types of disturbances - both natural and anthropogenic such as fires, wind, insects outbreaks or clear cuts - it is important to investigate the impact of such damages on the carbon dynamics. This becomes even more important due to the fact that future climate change will most likely result in a higher frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events. Even though wind damages cause large disturbances to forests only few places in the world exist where continuous measurements of carbon exchange (CO2) in windthrown sites are carried out. Besides the opportunity to assess the carbon dynamics following wind disturbance, there is an additional possibility of evaluating differences in post windthrow forest management practices. To fill this knowledge gap we set up two measuring stations in north-western Poland in the 500ha area of pine forest damaged by tornado in July 2012, to assess the impact of such disturbance on CO2 and H2O exchange by use of Eddy Covariance (EC) technique (Tlen I and Tlen II). Both sites are characterized by similar climatic as well as soil conditions and are located 3km from each other. While at the site Tlen I all biomass (coarse and fine woody debris were collected together with stumps) was removed and ploughed thereafter, at Tlen II only trunks and main branches were taken out from the site without ploughing. Total harvested biomass per hectare, as derived from local forest inventory, were almost 18 % higher at Tlen I than Tlen II site (where uprooted stumps were left to decompose). First analysis of the eddy covariance data shows that both sites are significant carbon sources. Emissions of carbon dioxide from the non-ploughed site (Tlen II) are higher than from the ploughed site (Tlen I). Both sites released more than 8.1 t of CO2 per ha during a three month time period (mid July to mid August 2014) after

  12. Perspectives on geochemical proxies: The impact of model and parameter selection on the quantification of carbonate recrystallization rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Christian; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2017-11-01

    Diagenetic reactions in marine sediments, such as the recrystallization of carbonates, can impact the accuracy of paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic reconstructions by geochemical proxies. The extent to which the recrystallization of carbonates affects the chemistry of sedimentary archives depends on the reaction rate, extent of isotopic disequilibrium, and duration of reaction. The reaction rate, which is obviously critical, can be constrained by the elemental and isotopic compositions of pore fluids. Such constraints are affected by assumptions regarding the temperature in the sedimentary column relative to the temperature of formation, the burial rate, pore fluid advection, the composition of the sediments (carbonate-rich versus siliciclastic), and the porosity of the sediment column. In this study, we use a steady-state analytical solution to the diagenetic equations to constrain depth-dependent reaction rates (and extents of recrystallization) based on the Ca isotopic compositions of pore fluids in sedimentary columns at multiple ocean drilling sites (Sites 807, 984, 1170, and 1171), which encompass a diverse range of sedimentary compositions and conditions. We find that carbonates in siliciclastic sediments are generally less altered by diagenesis than their carbonate-rich counterparts. The discrepancy in recrystallization rates between siliciclastic and carbonate-rich sedimentary sections is, however, significantly smaller than previously estimated, suggesting that siliciclastic archives are not immune to diagenetic effects. While we find that diagenesis can decouple contemporaneous proxies of sea surface temperature (Mg/Ca and δ18O), our calculations also reveal that δ18O-based temperature estimates are more robust in siliciclastic sections relative to carbonate-rich sections. Sensitivity tests of the calculated extent of recrystallization suggest that uncertainties in porosity and burial rate are generally the greatest sources of error to proxy

  13. Invasion of non-native grasses causes a drop in soil carbon storage in California grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koteen, Laura E.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Harte, John

    2011-10-01

    Vegetation change can affect the magnitude and direction of global climate change via its effect on carbon cycling among plants, the soil and the atmosphere. The invasion of non-native plants is a major cause of land cover change, of biodiversity loss, and of other changes in ecosystem structure and function. In California, annual grasses from Mediterranean Europe have nearly displaced native perennial grasses across the coastal hillsides and terraces of the state. Our study examines the impact of this invasion on carbon cycling and storage at two sites in northern coastal California. The results suggest that annual grass invasion has caused an average drop in soil carbon storage of 40 Mg/ha in the top half meter of soil, although additional mechanisms may also contribute to soil carbon losses. We attribute the reduction in soil carbon storage to low rates of net primary production in non-native annuals relative to perennial grasses, a shift in rooting depth and water use to primarily shallow sources, and soil respiratory losses in non-native grass soils that exceed production rates. These results indicate that even seemingly subtle land cover changes can significantly impact ecosystem functions in general, and carbon storage in particular.

  14. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon cycling in the United States and Canada

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey A. Hicke; Craig D. Allen; Ankur R. Desai; Michael C. Dietze; Ronald J. Hall; Edward H. Hogg; Daniel M. Kashian; David Moore; Kenneth F. Raffa; Rona N. Sturrock; James Vogelmann

    2011-01-01

    Forest insects and pathogens are major disturbance agents that have affected millions of hectares in North America in recent decades, implying significant impacts to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we review and synthesize published studies of the effects of biotic disturbances on forest C cycling in the United States and Canada. Primary productivity in stands was reduced...

  15. Impacts of Canadian and global black carbon shipping emissions on Arctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R.; von Salzen, K.

    2017-12-01

    Shipping activities have increased across the Arctic and are projected to continue to increase in the future. In this study we compare the climate impacts of Canadian and global shipping black carbon (BC) emissions on the Arctic using the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Earth System Model (CanESM4.1). The model simulations are performed with and without shipping emissions at T63 (128 x 64) spectral resolution. Results indicate that shipping activities enhance BC concentrations across the area close to the shipping emissions, which causes increased absorption of solar radiation (direct effect). An impact of shipping on temperatures is simulated across the entire Arctic, with maximum warming in fall and winter seasons. Although global mean temperature changes are very similar between the two simulations, increase in Canadian BC shipping emissions cause warmer Arctic land surface temperature in summer due to the direct radiative effects of aerosol.

  16. The impact of major trauma network triage systems on patients with major burns.

    PubMed

    Nizamoglu, Metin; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Bache, Sarah; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Sen, Sankhya; Sherren, Peter; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients presenting with severe trauma and burns benefit from specifically trained multidisciplinary teams. Regional trauma systems have shown improved outcomes for trauma patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the development of major trauma systems have improved the management of patients with major burns. A retrospective study was performed over a four-year period reviewing all major burns in adults and children received at a regional burns centre in the UK before and after the implementation of the regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC). Comparisons were drawn between three areas: (1) Patients presenting before the introduction of MTC and after the introduction of MTC. (2) Patients referred from MTC and non-MTC within the region, following the introduction of MTC. (3) Patients referred using the urban trauma protocol and the rural trauma protocol. Following the introduction of regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC), isolated burn patients seen at our regional burns centre did not show any significant improvement in transfer times, admission resuscitation parameters, organ dysfunction or survival when referred from a MTC compared to a non-MTC emergency department. There was also no significant difference in survival when comparing referrals from all hospitals pre and post establishment of the major trauma network. No significant outcome benefit was demonstrated for burns patients referred via MTCs compared to non-MTCs. We suggest further research is needed to ascertain whether burns patients benefit from prolonged transfer times to a MTC compared to those seen at their local hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burns unit for further specialist care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. A mathematical/physics carbon emission reduction strategy for building supply chain network based on carbon tax policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueying; Peng, Ying; Zhang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Under the background of a low carbon economy, this paper examines the impact of carbon tax policy on supply chain network emission reduction. The integer linear programming method is used to establish a supply chain network emission reduction such a model considers the cost of CO2 emissions, and analyses the impact of different carbon price on cost and carbon emissions in supply chains. The results show that the implementation of a carbon tax policy can reduce CO2 emissions in building supply chain, but the increase in carbon price does not produce a reduction effect, and may bring financial burden to the enterprise. This paper presents a reasonable carbon price range and provides decision makers with strategies towards realizing a low carbon building supply chain in an economical manner.

  18. The effect of carbon tax on carbon emission abatement and GDP: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Leung, Yee; Xu, Yuan; Yung, Linda Chor Wing

    2017-10-01

    Carbon tax has been advocated as an effective economic instrument for the abatement of CO2 emission by various countries, including China, the world's biggest carbon emission country. However, carbon emission abatement cannot be done while ignoring the impact on economic growth. A delicate balance needs to be achieved between the two to find an appropriate pathway for sustainable development. This paper applies a multi-objective optimization approach to analyze the impact of levying carbon tax on the energy-intensive sectors of Guangdong province in China under the constraint of emission reduction target. This approach allows us to evaluate carbon emission minimization while maximizing GDP. For policy analysis, we construct five scenarios for evaluation and optimal choice. The results of the analysis show that a lower initial carbon tax rate is not necessarily better, and that a carbon tax is an effective means to reduce CO2 emissions while maintaining a certain level of GDP growth.

  19. Carbon footprint of shopping (grocery) bags in China, Hong Kong and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan; Li, Y.; Hu, J. Y.; Mok, P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon footprint has become a term often used by the media in recent days. The human carbon footprint is professed to be a very serious global threat and every nation is looking at the possible options to reduce it since its consequences are alarming. A carbon footprint is a measure of the impact of human activities on earth and in particular on the environment; more specifically it relates to climate change and to the total amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide emitted. Effort of individuals in minimizing the carbon footprint is vital to save our planet. This article reports a study of the carbon footprint of various types of shopping bags (plastic, paper, non-woven and woven) using life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) technique in two stages. The first stage (baseline study), comprised the study of the impact of different types of shopping bags in the manufacturing phase, without considering their usage and disposal phases (cradle to gate stage). The LCIA was accomplished by the IPCC 2007 method, developed by the Inter Panel on Climate Change in SIMAPRO 7.2. The GWP (Global Warming Potential) values calculated by the IPCC 2007 method for 100 years were considered as a directive to compare the carbon footprint made by the different types of shopping bags under consideration. The next stage was the study of the carbon footprint of these bags including their usage and disposal phases (cradle to grave stage) and the results derived were compared with the results derived from the baseline study, which is the major focus of this research work. The values for usage and end-of-life phases were obtained from the survey questionnaire performed amongst different user groups of shopping bags in China, Hong Kong and India. The results show that the impact of different types of shopping bags in terms of their carbon footprint potential is very high if no usage and disposal options were provided. When the carbon footprint values from different

  20. Simulating coupled carbon and nitrogen dynamics following mountain pine beetle outbreaks in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Edburg, Steven L.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Lawrence, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major ecosystem disturbances, affecting a similar area as forest fires annually across North America. Tree mortality caused by epidemics of bark beetles alters carbon cycling in the first several years following the disturbance by reducing stand-level primary production and increasing decomposition rates. The few studies of biogeochemical cycling following outbreaks have shown a range of impacts from small responses of net carbon fluxes in the first several years after a severe outbreak to large forest areas that are sources of carbon to the atmosphere for decades. To gain more understanding about causes of this range of responses,more » we used an ecosystem model to assess impacts of different bark beetle outbreak conditions on coupled carbon and nitrogen cycling. We modified the Community Land Model with prognostic carbon and nitrogen to include prescribed bark beetle outbreaks. We then compared control simulations (without a bark beetle outbreak) to simulations with various mortality severity, durations of outbreak, and snagfall dynamics to quantify the range of carbon flux responses and recovery rates of net ecosystem exchange to a range of realistic outbreak conditions. Prescribed mortality by beetles reduced leaf area and thus productivity. Gross primary productivity decreased by as much as 80% for a severe outbreak (95% mortality) and by 10% for less severe outbreaks (25% mortality). Soil mineral nitrogen dynamics (immobilization and plant uptake) were important in governing post-outbreak productivity, and were strongly modulated by carbon inputs to the soil from killed trees. Initial increases in heterotrophic respiration caused by a pulse of labile carbon from roots were followed by a slight reduction (from pre-snagfall reduced inputs), then a secondary increase (from inputs due to snagfall). Secondary increases in heterotrophic respiration were largest for simulated windthrow of snags after a prescribed snagfall delay period. Net

  1. Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions

    DOE PAGES

    de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos; Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz; Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida; ...

    2017-08-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong indicator of soil health. Development of efficient soil quality indicators is crucial to better understand the impact of land management strategies on the recovery of degraded ecosystems. We hypothesized that SOC fractions and biological attributes can compose strong soil quality indicators to assess an ecosystem recovery following disturbance. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of soil biological activity and SOC fractions to study the impact of different land use systems and ecological successions in ecosystem recovery. We selected six land use systems: tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivation; pastureland; reforestedmore » land with Eucalyptus sp.; and natural ecological successions with 10, 20 and 35 years of vegetation regeneration, respectively. We collected disturbed and undisturbed soil samples in triplicate at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depth intervals. Several fractionation approaches were used to determine SOC pools: hot water extractable organic carbon, permanganate oxidized organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, mineral associated organic carbon and total SOC. The activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase was used to represent soil biological attributes. We calculated three indices to represent the soil quality: carbon management index, soil resilience index and biological activity index. Our results suggest that the SOC fractions and the enzyme activity followed the increase of vegetation complexity of the ecological succession stages. The labile SOC pool, in addition to enzyme activity, was the most sensitive variable to assess land use changes. The biomass-C input was considered to be the main reason of SOC increase, and the gains of labile SOC fractions were directly related to the increase of SOC stocks. Both, biological and carbon management indices were efficient tools to characterize the impact of studied management systems. Also, we found that assessment of deeper soil

  2. Soil carbon fractions and biological activity based indices can be used to study the impact of land management and ecological successions

    SciTech Connect

    de Moraes Sa, Joao Carlos; Potma Goncalves, Daniel Ruiz; Ferreira, Lucimara Aparecida

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a strong indicator of soil health. Development of efficient soil quality indicators is crucial to better understand the impact of land management strategies on the recovery of degraded ecosystems. We hypothesized that SOC fractions and biological attributes can compose strong soil quality indicators to assess an ecosystem recovery following disturbance. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of soil biological activity and SOC fractions to study the impact of different land use systems and ecological successions in ecosystem recovery. We selected six land use systems: tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivation; pastureland; reforestedmore » land with Eucalyptus sp.; and natural ecological successions with 10, 20 and 35 years of vegetation regeneration, respectively. We collected disturbed and undisturbed soil samples in triplicate at 0–5, 5–10, 10–20 and 20–40 cm depth intervals. Several fractionation approaches were used to determine SOC pools: hot water extractable organic carbon, permanganate oxidized organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, mineral associated organic carbon and total SOC. The activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase was used to represent soil biological attributes. We calculated three indices to represent the soil quality: carbon management index, soil resilience index and biological activity index. Our results suggest that the SOC fractions and the enzyme activity followed the increase of vegetation complexity of the ecological succession stages. The labile SOC pool, in addition to enzyme activity, was the most sensitive variable to assess land use changes. The biomass-C input was considered to be the main reason of SOC increase, and the gains of labile SOC fractions were directly related to the increase of SOC stocks. Both, biological and carbon management indices were efficient tools to characterize the impact of studied management systems. Also, we found that assessment of deeper soil

  3. To Facilitate or Curb? The Role of Financial Development in China’s Carbon Emissions Reduction Process: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Tiancai; Jiang, Qichuan

    2017-01-01

    With the Paris Agreement coming into effect, China, as the largest CO2 emitter in the world, will be facing greater pressure to reduce its carbon emissions. This paper discusses how to solve this issue from the perspective of financial development in China. Although many studies have analyzed its impact on carbon emissions, the conclusions are contradictory. A major criticism of the existing studies is the reasonability of the selection of appropriate indicators and panel estimation techniques. Almost all studies use only one or limited indicators to represent the financial development and ignore the cross-sectional dependence. To fulfil the gaps mentioned above, a financial development index system is built, and with the framework of the STIRPAT (Stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology) model, this paper applies an ARDL approach to investigating the long-run relationship between financial development and carbon emissions and a dynamic panel error-corrected model to capture the short-run impact. The empirical results show that financial development can improve carbon emissions, and such impact not only shows a regional difference but also reflects the features of stage differences. Additionally, based on the discussion on seven specific aspects of financial development, our findings can be helpful for policy makers to enact corresponding policies to realize the goal of reducing carbon emissions in China. PMID:29027983

  4. Carbon flow analysis and Carbon emission reduction of FCC in Chinese oil refineries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Fengrui; Wei, Na; Ma, Danzhu; Liu, Guangxin; Wu, Ming; Yue, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The major problem of the energy production in oil refineries is the high emission of CO2 in China. The fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCC) is the key source of carbon emission in the oil refineries. According to the statistical data, the carbon emission of FCC unit accounts for more than 31% for the typical oil refineries. The carbon flow of FCC in the typical Chinese oil refineries were evaluated and analysed, which aimed at the solution of CO2 emission reduction. The method of substances flow analysis (SFA) and the mathematical programming were used to evaluate the carbon metabolism and optimize the carbon emission. The results indicated that the combustion emission of the reaction-regeneration subsystem (RRS) was the major source of FCC. The quantity of CO2 emission of RSS was more than 90%. The combustion efficiency and the amount of residual oil affected the carbon emission of RRS most according to the optimized analysis of carbon emission reduction. Moreover, the fractionation subsystem (TFS) had the highest environmental efficiency and the absorption-stabilization subsystem (ASS) had the highest resource efficiency (approximately to 1) of carbon.

  5. The Impact of Increasing Carbon Dioxide on Ozone Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, Joan E.; Douglass, Anne R.; Considine, David B.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have used the GSFC coupled two-dimensional (2D) model to study the impact of increasing carbon dioxide from 1980 to 2050 on the recovery of ozone to its pre-1980 amounts. We find that the changes in temperature and circulation arising from increasing CO2 affect ozone recovery in a manner which varies greatly with latitude, altitude, and time of year. Middle and upper stratospheric ozone recovers faster at all latitudes due to a slowing of the ozone catalytic loss cycles. In the lower stratosphere, the recovery of tropical ozone is delayed due to a decrease in production and a speed up in the overturning circulation. The recovery of high northern latitude lower stratospheric ozone is delayed in spring and summer due to an increase in springtime heterogeneous chemical loss, and is speeded up in fall and winter due to increased downwelling. The net effect on the higher northern latitude column ozone is to slow down the recovery from late March to late July, while making it faster at other times. In the high southern latitudes, the impact of CO2 cooling is negligible. Annual mean column ozone is predicted to recover faster at all latitudes, and globally averaged ozone is predicted to recover approximately ten years faster as a result of increasing CO2.

  6. Changing Urban Carbon Metabolism over Time: Historical Trajectory and Future Pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2017-07-05

    Cities are expected to play a major role in carbon emissions mitigation. A key step in decoupling urban economy from carbon emissions is to understand the full impact of socioeconomic development on urban metabolism over time. Herein, we establish a system-based framework for modeling the variation of urban carbon metabolism through time by integrating a metabolic flow inventory, input-output model, and network analysis. Using Beijing as a case study, we track the historical trajectory of carbon flows embodied in urban final consumption over 1985-2012. We find that while the tendency of increase in direct carbon emission continues within this time frame, consumption-based carbon footprint might have peaked around 2010. Significant transitions in emission intensity and roles sectors play in transferring carbon over the period are important signs of decoupling urban development from carbonization. Our further analysis of driving factors reveals a strong competition between efficiency gains and consumption level rise, showing a cumulative contribution of -584% and 494% to total carbon footprint, respectively. Projection into a future pathway suggests there is still a great potential for carbon mitigation for the city, but a strong mitigation plan is required to achieve such decarbonization before 2030. By bridging temporal metabolic model and socioeconomic planning, this framework fills one of the main gaps between monitoring of urban metabolism and design of a low-carbon economy.

  7. Comparison of Novel Carboneous Structures to Treat Nitroaromatic Impacted Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    MS-15-D-047 Abstract Carboneous materials such as carbon nanotube (CNT), granular activated carbon (GAC), and biochar are promising materials...TECHNOLOGIES ...................................................49 A.3 GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON (GAC) ............................................50 A.4...GENERAL ISSUE In this study, we compared the adsorptive capacity of bituminous-coal based granular activated carbon (GAC) versus pristine novel

  8. A unique research partnership investigating the fundamental principles of subsurface carbon dioxide behaviour and carbonate reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, I.; Blunt, M. J.; Maitland, G. C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs hold the majority of CO2 sequestration potential, however, they are also more complicated than sandstone reservoirs in terms of heterogeneity and potential reactivity impact on operations. There are both significant carbonate reservoir CO2 sinks and CO2 point sources around Qatar making carbon capture and storage a potential decarbonisation pathway. The Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre (QCCSRC) was formed in 2009 to address the gaps in our current knowledge of both local carbonate reservoir platforms and how CO2 would behave post sequestration. Our work spans 35 graduated PhD students, 10 still studying, 29 post-doctoral researchers, 18 faculty members all aided by 5 support staff and more than 100 MSc and summer students from 30 different countries, the centre has published over 150 papers in over 40 different journals. Our research is based within the Department of Chemical Engineering and the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. Our team annually attends over 20 conferences world-wide to disseminate our findings and activity engage in outreach events (UNFCCC, science festivals, social media, science bars, school visits, etc.). QCCSRC is a research framework agreement over 10 years and valued at $70 million between Qatar Petroleum, Shell, the Qatar Science and Technology Park and Imperial College London bringing together each organisation's unique capabilities. This novel quadruple helix management structure is responsible for the largest single industrially funded research programme conducted at Imperial College London. Our research has focused on data to create and/or improve predictive models for CO2 storage in carbonate reservoirs. Our three broad thematic areas include: Rocks : Rock-fluid interactions : Fluid-fluid interactions and are supported by 5 laboratories. Overall this unique programme is an example of how to approach grand challenges in the energy-carbon dilemma through long-term and multidisciplinary

  9. Effects of biotic disturbances on forest carbon cycling in the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.; Allen, Craig D.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Desai, Ankur R.; Dietze, Michael C.; Hall, Ronald J.; ,

    2012-01-01

    Forest insects and pathogens are major disturbance agents that have affected millions of hectares in North America in recent decades, implying significant impacts to the carbon (C) cycle. Here, we review and synthesize published studies of the effects of biotic disturbances on forest C cycling in the United States and Canada. Primary productivity in stands was reduced, sometimes considerably, immediately following insect or pathogen attack. After repeated growth reductions caused by some insects or pathogens or a single infestation by some bark beetle species, tree mortality occurred, altering productivity and decomposition. In the years following disturbance, primary productivity in some cases increased rapidly as a result of enhanced growth by surviving vegetation, and in other cases increased slowly because of lower forest regrowth. In the decades following tree mortality, decomposition increased as a result of the large amount of dead organic matter. Net ecosystem productivity decreased immediately following attack, with some studies reporting a switch to a C source to the atmosphere, and increased afterward as the forest regrew and dead organic matter decomposed. Large variability in C cycle responses arose from several factors, including type of insect or pathogen, time since disturbance, number of trees affected, and capacity of remaining vegetation to increase growth rates following outbreak. We identified significant knowledge gaps, including limited understanding of carbon cycle impacts among different biotic disturbance types (particularly pathogens), their impacts at landscape and regional scales, and limited capacity to predict disturbance events and their consequences for carbon cycling. We conclude that biotic disturbances can have major impacts on forest C stocks and fluxes and can be large enough to affect regional C cycling. However, additional research is needed to reduce the uncertainties associated with quantifying biotic disturbance effects on

  10. Woody debris along an upland chronosequence in boreal Manitoba and its impact on long-term carbon storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; O'Neill, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the role of fire-killed woody debris as a source of soil carbon in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) stands in Manitoba, Canada. We measured the amount of standing dead and downed woody debris along an upland chronosequence, including wood partially and completely covered by moss growth. Such woody debris is rarely included in measurement protocols and composed up to 26% of the total amount of woody debris in older stands, suggesting that it is important to measure all types of woody debris in ecosystems where burial by organic matter is possible. Based on these data and existing net primary production (NPP) values, we used a mass-balance model to assess the potential impact of fire-killed wood on long-term carbon storage at this site. The amount of carbon stored in deeper soil organic layers, which persists over millennia, was used to represent this long-term carbon. We estimate that between 10% and 60% of the deep-soil carbon is derived from wood biomass. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this estimate is most affected by the fire return interval, decay rate of wood, amount of NPP, and decay rate of the char (postfire) carbon pool. Landscape variations in these terms could account for large differences in deep-soil carbon. The model was less sensitive to fire consumption rates and to rates at which standing dead becomes woody debris. All model runs, however, suggest that woody debris plays an important role in long-term carbon storage for this area. ?? 2005 NRC Canada.

  11. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    EPA Science Inventory

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  12. Tracing organic carbon processes in a shallow coastal sandy aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, K.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; O'Carrol, D. M.; Bryan, E.; Zainuddin, N. S.; Rutlidge, H.; McDonough, L.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal groundwater resources are likely to be impacted by climate change due to changes in recharge patterns, surface water flow and sea-level rise, which all have the potential to change how carbon is transported and stored within a catchment. Large quantities of carbon are currently stored within coastal wetland systems, so understanding carbon dynamics is important for climate change predictions into the future. Furthermore, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can play a major role in weathering processes and deterioration of water quality, therefore understanding the sources, degradation pathways and its reactivity is important. Groundwater samples were collected from five nested sites (15 wells) from a shallow (0-20m) coastal sandy aquifer system located at Anna Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Surface water samples were also collected from the adjacent wetland. Waters were measured for major ion chemistry, carbon isotopes (δ13CDIC, δ13CDOC and 14CDIC) and tritium (3H). The dissolved organic matter (DOM) character was determined using optical spectroscopy and liquid chromatography. DOC was found to be elevated in the wetland (18 ppm) and had the lowest δ13CDOC value (-30.3 ‰). The shallow (3.5 m) groundwater located closest to but downgradient of the wetland (5 m) had similar characteristics to the wetland sample but contained significantly lower DOC concentrations (5 ppm) and were 1 ‰ more enriched in δ13CDOC values. This suggests that the aquifer is a sink for organic matter and the process fractionates the carbon isotopes. Higher resolution studies are underway to characterise and constrain timescales for the DOC transformation processes.

  13. Climatic and ecological impacts of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-04-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSA) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parametrisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSA) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parametrisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on the global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  14. The impact of local government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in China.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year's carbon emissions impact the following year's carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories-strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak-based on the degree of local governments' regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of China but not in the

  15. The impact of local government investment on the carbon emissions reduction effect: An empirical analysis of panel data from 30 provinces and municipalities in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Lingyun; Yin, Fang; Zhong, Zhangqi; Ding, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    Among studies of the factors that influence carbon emissions and related regulations, economic aggregates, industrial structures, energy structures, population levels, and energy prices have been extensively explored, whereas studies from the perspective of fiscal leverage, particularly of local government investment (LGI), are rare. Of the limited number of studies on the effect of LGI on carbon emissions, most focus on its direct effect. Few studies consider regulatory effects, and there is a lack of emphasis on local areas. Using a cointegration test, a panel data model and clustering analysis based on Chinese data between 2000 and 2013, this study measures the direct role of LGI in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction. First, overall, within the sample time period, a 1% increase in LGI inhibits carbon emissions by 0.8906% and 0.5851% through its influence on the industrial structure and energy efficiency, respectively, with the industrial structure path playing a greater role than the efficiency path. Second, carbon emissions to some extent exhibit inertia. The previous year’s carbon emissions impact the following year’s carbon emissions by 0.5375%. Thus, if a reduction in carbon emissions in the previous year has a positive effect, then the carbon emissions reduction effect generated by LGI in the following year will be magnified. Third, LGI can effectively reduce carbon emissions, but there are significant regional differences in its impact. For example, in some provinces, such as Sichuan and Anhui, economic growth has not been decoupled from carbon emissions. Fourth, the carbon emissions reduction effect in the 30 provinces and municipalities sampled in this study can be classified into five categories—strong, relatively strong, medium, relatively weak and weak—based on the degree of local governments’ regulation of carbon emissions. The carbon emissions reduction effect of LGI is significant in the western and central regions of China but not

  16. Impacts of Human Induced Nitrogen Deposition on Ecosystem Carbon Sequestration and Water Balance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, M.; Yang, D.; Tang, J.; Lei, H.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced plant biomass accumulation in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration could dampen the future rate of increase in CO2 levels and associated climate warming. However, many experiments around the world reported that nitrogen availability could limit the sustainability of the ecosystems' response to elevated CO2. In the recent 20 years, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, primarily from fossil fuel combustion, has increased sharply about 25% in China and meanwhile, China has the highest carbon emission in the world, implying a large opportunity to increase vegetation greenness and ecosystem carbon sequestration. Moreover, the water balance of the ecosystem will also change. However, in the future, the trajectory of increasing nitrogen deposition from fossil fuel use is to be controlled by the government policy that shapes the energy and industrial structure. Therefore, the historical and future trajectories of nitrogen deposition are likely very different, and it is imperative to understand how changes in nitrogen deposition will impact the ecosystem carbon sequestration and water balance in China. We here use the Community Land Model (CLM 4.5) to analyze how the change of nitrogen deposition has influenced and will influence the ecosystem carbon and water cycle in China at a high spatial resolution (0.1 degree). We address the following questions: 1) what is the contribution of the nitrogen deposition on historical vegetation greenness? 2) How does the change of nitrogen deposition affect the carbon sequestration? 3) What is its influence to water balance? And 4) how different will be the influence of the nitrogen deposition on ecosystem carbon and water cycling in the future?

  17. Modeling the resilience of Amazonian carbon pools under changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, L. H.; Friend, A. D.; Dolman, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    The rainfall in the Amazon basin is derived from a mixture of moisture convergence from the Atlantic Ocean and local recycling. Changes in the moisture convergence especially during El Nino episodes, strongly influence the interannual climate variability of the basin, potentially having a strong impact on the carbon pools in vegetation and soil, leading to a changes in the ecosystem of the Amazon basin. We used a 0-dimensional model of atmospheric convection (after D'Andrea et al. 2006) to generate realistic timeseries of temperature and precipitation by changing the moisture convergence from the Atlantic Ocean with implications for the stability of Amazonian rainfall. We chose this model because it relies on very few parameters, allowing us to perform numerous sensitivity tests in relatively short time. In this model total rainfall depends on the parameter expressing the external moisture flux and the intensity of convection. Here, two values of moisture convergence were used, one representative of a wet climate (1.4 mm day-1) and one representative of a dry climate (0.54 mm day-1). We also increased the variability of the rainfall in order to investigate its impact on the carbon pools. We used these scenarios for changing precipitation, along with SRES emission scenarios for increasing atmospheric CO2 to force the Land Surface Model Hybrid8. The effects of a changing climate on the simulated soil and vegetation carbon pools have been investigated. Preliminary results show that in our model configuration and under a wet climate, the change in seasonal variability of precipitation does not seem to have a major impact on the carbon pools, which might suggest that the Amazon rainforest is relatively resilient to changes in seasonal precipitation. However, under a dry climate it may decline into a lower carbon system. The coupling of the two models is in progress with promising results for atmosphere-vegetation feedbacks. We will report on any changes in the threshold

  18. Cumulative carbon as a policy framework for achieving climate stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H. Damon; Solomon, Susan; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at a level that will avoid dangerous climate impacts. However, greenhouse gas concentration stabilization is an awkward framework within which to assess dangerous climate change on account of the significant lag between a given concentration level and the eventual equilibrium temperature change. By contrast, recent research has shown that global temperature change can be well described by a given cumulative carbon emissions budget. Here, we propose that cumulative carbon emissions represent an alternative framework that is applicable both as a tool for climate mitigation as well as for the assessment of potential climate impacts. We show first that both atmospheric CO2 concentration at a given year and the associated temperature change are generally associated with a unique cumulative carbon emissions budget that is largely independent of the emissions scenario. The rate of global temperature change can therefore be related to first order to the rate of increase of cumulative carbon emissions. However, transient warming over the next century will also be strongly affected by emissions of shorter lived forcing agents such as aerosols and methane. Non-CO2 emissions therefore contribute to uncertainty in the cumulative carbon budget associated with near-term temperature targets, and may suggest the need for a mitigation approach that considers separately short- and long-lived gas emissions. By contrast, long-term temperature change remains primarily associated with total cumulative carbon emissions owing to the much longer atmospheric residence time of CO2 relative to other major climate forcing agents. PMID:22869803

  19. The impact of lianas on the carbon cycle of tropical forests: a modeling study using the Ecosystem Demography model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Porcia e Brugnera, M.; Longo, M.; Verbeek, H.

    2017-12-01

    Lianas are an important component of tropical forests, constituting up to 40% of the woody stems and about 35% of the woody species. Tropical forests have been experiencing large-scale structural changes, including an increase in liana abundance and biomass. This may eventually reduce the projected carbon sink of tropical forests. Despite their crucial role no single terrestrial ecosystem model has included lianas so far. Here, we present the very first implementation of lianas in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). ED2 is able to represent the competition for water and light between different vegetation types at the regional level. Our new implementation of ED2 is hence suitable to address important questions such as the impact of lianas on the tropical forest carbon balance. We validated the model against forest inventory and eddy covariance flux data at a dry seasonal site (Barro Colorado Island, Panama), and at a wet rainforest site (Paracou, French Guiana). The model was able to represent size structure and carbon accumulation rates. We also evaluated the impact of the unique allocation strategy of lianas on their competitive ability. Lianas invest only a small fraction of their carbon for structural tissues when compared to trees. As a result, lianas benefit from an extra amount of available carbon, however the trade-offs of low allocation on structural tissues are not yet well understood. We are currently investigating a number of hypotheses, including the possibility for lianas to have high turnover rates for leaves and fine roots, or to have high mortality rates due to the loss of structural support when trees die. As such our model allows us to get a better understanding of the role of lianas in the tropical forest carbon cycle.

  20. Determination of microbial carbon sources and cycling during remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon impacted soil using natural abundance (14)C analysis of PLFA.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Benjamin R; Greenberg, Bruce M; Slater, Gregory F

    2010-04-01

    In a petroleum impacted land-farm soil in Sarnia, Ontario, compound-specific natural abundance radiocarbon analysis identified biodegradation by the soil microbial community as a major pathway for hydrocarbon removal in a novel remediation system. During remediation of contaminated soils by a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced phytoremediation system (PEPS), the measured Delta(14)C of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers ranged from -793 per thousand to -897 per thousand, directly demonstrating microbial uptake and utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons (Delta(14)C(PHC) = -1000 per thousand). Isotopic mass balance indicated that more than 80% of microbial PLFA carbon was derived from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and a maximum of 20% was obtained from metabolism of more modern carbon sources. These PLFA from the contaminated soils were the most (14)C-depleted biomarkers ever measured for an in situ environmental system, and this study demonstrated that the microbial community in this soil was subsisting primarily on petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, the microbial community in a nearby uncontaminated control soil maintained a more modern Delta(14)C signature than total organic carbon (Delta(14)C(PLFA) = +36 per thousand to -147 per thousand, Delta(14)C(TOC) = -148 per thousand), indicating preferential consumption of the most modern plant-derived fraction of soil organic carbon. Measurements of delta(13)C and Delta(14)C of soil CO(2) additionally demonstrated that mineralization of PHC contributed to soil CO(2) at the contaminated site. The CO(2) in the uncontaminated control soil exhibited substantially more modern Delta(14)C values, and lower soil CO(2) concentrations than the contaminated soils, suggesting increased rates of soil respiration in the contaminated soils. In combination, these results demonstrated that biodegradation in the soil microbial community was a primary pathway of petroleum hydrocarbon removal in the PEPS system. This study

  1. Comparison of quasistatic to impact mechanical properties of multiwall carbon nanotube/polycarbonate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brühwiler, Paul A.; Barbezat, Michel; Necola, Adly

    2010-10-22

    We report the quasistatic tensile and impact penetration properties (falling dart test) of injection-molded polycarbonate samples, as a function of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) concentration (0.0-2.5%). The MWNT were incorporated by dilution of a commercial MWNT/polycarbonate masterbatch. The stiffness and quasistatic yield strength of the composites increased approximately linearly with MWNT concentration in all measurements. The energy absorbed in fracture was, however, a negative function of the MWNT concentration, and exhibited different dependencies in quasistatic and impact tests. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) showed that the dispersion of the MWNT was similar at all concentrations. The negative effects on energy absorptionmore » are attributed to agglomerates remaining in the samples, which were observed in optical microscopy and SAXS. Overall, there was a good correspondence between static and dynamic energy absorption.« less

  2. Piecing together the fragments: Elucidating edge effects on forest carbon dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutyra, L.; Smith, I. A.; Reinmann, A.; Marrs, J.; Thompson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forest fragmentation is pervasive throughout the world's forests, impacting growing conditions and carbon dynamics through edge effects that produce gradients in microclimate, biogeochemistry, and stand structure. Despite the majority of the world's forests being <1km from an edge, our understanding of forest carbon dynamics is largely derived from intact forest systems. In the northeastern USA, we find that over 23% of the current forest area is just 30m from an agricultural or developed edge. Edge effects on the carbon cycle vary in their magnitude by biome, but current forest carbon accounting methods and ecosystem models largely do not include edge effects, highlighting an important gap in our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Characterizing the role of forest fragmentation in regional and global biogeochemical cycles necessitates advancing our understanding of how shifts in microenvironment at the forest edge interact with local prevailing drivers of global change and limitations to microbial activity and forest growth. This study synthesizes the literature related to edge effects and the carbon cycle, considering how fragmentation affects the growing conditions of the world's remaining forests based on risks and opportunities for forests near the edge.

  3. Impact of organic carbon and nutrients mobilized during chemical oxidation on subsequent bioremediation of a diesel-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Nora B; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2014-02-01

    Remediation with in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) impacts soil organic matter (SOM) and the microbial community, with deleterious effects on the latter being a major hurdle to coupling ISCO with in situ bioremediation (ISB). We investigate treatment of a diesel-contaminated soil with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent coupled with a subsequent bioremediation phase of 187d, both with and without nutrient amendment. Chemical oxidation mobilized SOM into the liquid phase, producing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations 8-16 times higher than the untreated field sample. Higher aqueous concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous species were also observed following oxidation; NH4(+) increased 14-172 times. During the bioremediation phase, dissolved carbon and nutrient species were utilized for microbial growth-yielding DOC concentrations similar to field sample levels within 56d of incubation. In the absence of nutrient amendment, the highest microbial respiration rates were correlated with higher availability of nitrogen and phosphorus species mobilized by oxidation. Significant diesel degradation was only observed following nutrient amendment, implying that nutrients mobilized by chemical oxidation can increase microbial activity but are insufficient for bioremediation. While all bioremediation occurred in the first 28d of incubation in the biotic control microcosm with nutrient amendment, biodegradation continued throughout 187d of incubation following chemical oxidation, suggesting that chemical treatment also affects the desorption of organic contaminants from SOM. Overall, results indicate that biodegradation of DOC, as an alternative substrate to diesel, and biological utilization of mobilized nutrients have implications for the success of coupled ISCO and ISB treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Not all droughts are created equal: the impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling.

    PubMed

    Hoover, David L; Rogers, Brendan M

    2016-05-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, may have immediate and potentially prolonged effects on carbon cycling. Grasslands store approximately one-third of all terrestrial carbon and may become carbon sources during droughts. However, the magnitude and duration of drought-induced disruptions to the carbon cycle, as well as the mechanisms responsible, remain poorly understood. Over the next century, global climate models predict an increase in two types of drought: chronic but subtle 'press-droughts', and shorter term but extreme 'pulse-droughts'. Much of our current understanding of the ecological impacts of drought comes from experimental rainfall manipulations. These studies have been highly valuable, but are often short term and rarely quantify carbon feedbacks. To address this knowledge gap, we used the Community Land Model 4.0 to examine the individual and interactive effects of pulse- and press-droughts on carbon cycling in a mesic grassland of the US Great Plains. A series of modeling experiments were imposed by varying drought magnitude (precipitation amount) and interannual pattern (press- vs. pulse-droughts) to examine the effects on carbon storage and cycling at annual to century timescales. We present three main findings. First, a single-year pulse-drought had immediate and prolonged effects on carbon storage due to differential sensitivities of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production. Second, short-term pulse-droughts caused greater carbon loss than chronic press-droughts when total precipitation reductions over a 20-year period were equivalent. Third, combining pulse- and press-droughts had intermediate effects on carbon loss compared to the independent drought types, except at high drought levels. Overall, these results suggest that interannual drought pattern may be as important for carbon dynamics as drought magnitude and that extreme droughts may have long-lasting carbon feedbacks in grassland ecosystems. Published 2015. This article is a U

  5. Not all droughts are created equal: The impacts of interannual drought pattern and magnitude on grassland carbon cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, David L.; Rogers, Brendan M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate extremes, such as drought, may have immediate and potentially prolonged effects on carbon cycling. Grasslands store approximately one-third of all terrestrial carbon and may become carbon sources during droughts. However, the magnitude and duration of drought-induced disruptions to the carbon cycl