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Sample records for major components composed

  1. Components of the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Sharon

    Information derived from an informal study of the processes through which students go as they complete papers assigned for class shows that most freshman students spend little time preparing for their writing and use a simple drafting technique in composition. This paper offers a model of the student composing process which is generalized from the…

  2. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  3. Spectral absorption characteristics of the major components of dust clouds.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, D F; Delong, H P

    1971-01-01

    It is well known that dust clouds selectively absorb radiation in the 700-1300 cm(-1) atmospheric window region. Studies have shown that dust clouds are composed of the same minerals as surface soils, although in different proportion. We have examined seventy soil samples from a number of locations around the world to determine their compositions and spectral characteristics. The results indicate that there are five major components which selectively absorb radiation in the 700-1300 cm(-1) region. These are three clay minerals, silica, and calcium carbonate. Absorptivity coefficient spectra of representative soil samples are given.

  4. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  5. On overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of high-loss and lossless components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figotin, Alexander; Welters, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Using a Lagrangian framework, we study overdamping phenomena in gyroscopic systems composed of two components, one of which is highly lossy and the other is lossless. The losses are accounted by a Rayleigh dissipation function. As we have shown previously, for such a composite system, the modes split into two distinct classes, high-loss and low-loss, according to their dissipative behavior. A principal result of this paper is that for any such system, a rather universal phenomenon of selective overdamping occurs. Namely, first of all, the high-loss modes are all overdamped, i.e., non-oscillatory, as are an equal number of low-loss modes. Second of all, the rest of the low-loss modes remain oscillatory (i.e., the underdamped modes), each with an extremely high quality factor (Q-factor) that actually increases as the loss of the lossy component increases. We prove that selective overdamping is a generic phenomenon in Lagrangian systems with gyroscopic forces and gives an analysis of the overdamping phenomena in such systems. Moreover, using perturbation theory, we derive explicit formulas for upper bound estimates on the amount of loss required in the lossy component of the composite system for the selective overdamping to occur in the generic case and give Q-factor estimates for the underdamped modes. Central to the analysis is the introduction of the notion of a "dual" Lagrangian system and this yields significant improvements on some results on modal dichotomy and overdamping. The effectiveness of the theory developed here is demonstrated by applying it to an electric circuit with a gyrator element and a high-loss resistor.

  6. Titin: major myofibrillar components of striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K; McClure, J; Tu, A

    1979-01-01

    Electrophoretic analyses of protein components of striated muscle myofibril purified from various vertebrate and invertebrate species revealed that proteins much larger than myosin heavy chain are present in significant amounts. To define possible roles of these heretofore unidentified proteins, we purified a combination of two uncommonly large proteins, designated as titin, from chicken breast myofibrils. Chemical and immunological studies indicated that titin is distinct from myosin, actin, and filamin. Specific titin anti body crossreacts with similar protein in both skeletal and cardiac myofibrils of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. Immunofluorescent staining of glycerinated chicken breast myofibrils indicated that titin is present in M lines, Z lines, the junctions of A and I bands, and perhaps throughout the entire A bands. Similar staining studies of myofibrils from other species suggest that titinlike proteins may be organized in all myofibrils according to a common architectural plan. We conclude that titin is a structurally conserved myofibrillar component of vertebrate and invertebrate striated muscles. Images PMID:291034

  7. SCCRV, a major component of highlands rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasson, J. T.; Warren, P. H.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Mcewing, C. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Boynton, W. V.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the composition of lunar highlands samples rich in mafics. Most of the samples were Apollo 16 rocks. The compositional data for 13 lunar rocks are listed in a table. The nonpristine rocks 64815 and 77545 having essentially identical KREEP contents of about 32% have very similar, high contents of the mafic component SCCRV. The same amounts of rather similar ingredients were mixed at locations 1000 km apart. The composition of SCCRV is discussed. According to the three most plausible hypotheses for the origin of SCCRV which are proposed the SCCRV is primordial material, SCCRV consists entirely or mainly of a single type of lunar rock, or SCCRV resulted from the mixing of two or more lunar materials.

  8. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  9. Potential errors in the volume of distribution estimation of therapeutic proteins composed of differently cleared components.

    PubMed

    Richter, Wolfgang F; Grimm, Hans Peter; Theil, Frank-Peter

    2011-10-01

    The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of therapeutic proteins is usually assessed by non-compartmental or compartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis wherein errors may arise due to the elimination of therapeutic proteins from peripheral tissues that are not in rapid equilibrium with the sampling compartment (usually blood). Here we explored another potential source of error in the estimation of Vss that is linked to the heterogeneity of therapeutic proteins which may consist of components (e.g. glycosylation variants) with different elimination rates. PK simulations were performed with such hypothetical binary protein mixtures where elimination was assumed to be exclusively from the central compartment. The simulations demonstrated that binary mixtures containing a rapid-elimination component can give rise to pronounced bi-phasic concentration-time profiles. Apparent Vss observed with both non-compartmental and 2-compartmental PK analysis, increased with increasing fraction as well as with increasing elimination rate k ( 10 ) of the rapid-elimination component. Simulation results were complemented by PK analysis of an in vivo study in cynomolgus monkeys with different lots of lenercept, a tumor necrosis factor receptor-immunoglobulin G1 fusion protein, with different heterogeneities. The comparative Vss data for the three lenercept lots with different amounts of rapidly cleared components were consistent with the outcome of our simulations. Both lots with a higher fraction of rapidly cleared components had a statistically significant higher Vss as compared to the reference lot. Overall our study demonstrates that Vss of a therapeutic protein may be overestimated in proteins with differently eliminated components.

  10. Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank Connection to Shuttle Main Engines - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. A Recipe Composed of Chinese Herbal Active Components Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of NAFLD In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng-xi; Liu, Qian; Tang, Ya-jun; Wang, Wen-jing; Zheng, Qing-shan; Tian, Hua-jie; Yao, Dong-sheng; Liu, Lin; Peng, Jing-hua; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yi-yang; Feng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of the recipe composed of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide (named ACG) on experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). The research was divided into two parts as screening experiment and verification experiment. In the screening experiment, we used high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFL rat model and uniform design to get the recipe from five Chinese herbal active components. In the verification experiment, HFD induced fatty liver rat and mouse NAFL models and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cell model were used to verify the effects of ACG. According to the multiple regression equation of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents of each group in the screening experiment, the recipe ACG was obtained and the doses of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide for rats were 266.67, 3.33, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. The results of verification experiment verified that ACG could significantly reduce hepatic TG contents of NAFL rats and mice, as well as the cellular TG content of FFA-induced HepG2 cells. ACG could also improve HOMA-IR and hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure of NAFL mice. Our study verified that ACG recipe could regulate lipid metabolism of NAFL in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27069915

  12. Human α2-macroglobulin is composed of multiple domains, as predicted by homology with complement component C3

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Ninh; Gettins, Peter G. W.

    2007-01-01

    Human α2M (α2-macroglobulin) and the complement components C3 and C4 are thiol ester-containing proteins that evolved from the same ancestral gene. The recent structure determination of human C3 has allowed a detailed prediction of the location of domains within human α2M to be made. We describe here the expression and characterization of three α2M domains predicted to be involved in the stabilization of the thiol ester in native α2M and in its activation upon bait region proteolysis. The three newly expressed domains are MG2 (macroglobulin domain 2), TED (thiol ester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain. Together with the previously characterized RBD (receptor-binding domain), they represent approx. 42% of the α2M polypeptide. Their expression as folded domains strongly supports the predicted domain organization of α2M. An X-ray crystal structure of MG2 shows it to have a fibronectin type-3 fold analogous to MG1–MG8 of C3. TED is, as predicted, an α-helical domain. CUB is a spliced domain composed of two stretches of polypeptide that flank TED in the primary structure. In intact C3 TED interacts with RBD, where it is in direct contact with the thiol ester, and with MG2 and CUB on opposite, flanking sides. In contrast, these α2M domains, as isolated species, show negligible interaction with one another, suggesting that the native conformation of α2M, and the consequent thiol ester-stabilizing domain–domain interactions, result from additional restraints imposed by the physical linkage of these domains or by additional domains in the protein. PMID:17608619

  13. Major Components of the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D. C.; Bennington, B.; Sharif, F.

    2002-01-01

    The National Transuranic (TRU) Program (NTP) is being optimized to allow for disposing of the legacy TRU waste at least 10 years earlier than originally planned. This acceleration will save the nation an estimated $713. The Department of Energy's (DOE'S) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) has initiated the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project to propose, and upon approvaI, implement activities that produce significant cost saving by improving efficiency, thereby accelerating the rate of TRU waste disposal without compromising safety. In its role as NTP agent of change, the National TRU Waste System Optimization Project (the Project) (1) interacts closely with all NTP activities. Three of the major components of the Project are the Central Characterization Project (CCP), the Central Confirmation Facility (CCF), and the MobiIe/Modular Deployment Program.

  14. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27479153

  15. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-07-17

    Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

  17. Molecular biology of major components of chloride cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Shigehisa; Kaneko, Toyoji; Naito, Nobuko; Takei, Yoshio

    2003-12-01

    Current understanding of chloride cells (CCs) is briefly reviewed with emphasis on molecular aspects of their channels, transporters and regulators. Seawater-type and freshwater-type CCs have been identified based on their shape, location and response to different ionic conditions. Among the freshwater-type CCs, subpopulations are emerging that are implicated in the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+), respectively, and can be distinguished by their shape of apical crypt and affinity for lectins. The major function of the seawater CC is transcellular secretion of Cl(-), which is accomplished by four major channels and transporters: (1). CFTR Cl(-) channel, (2). Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, (3). Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter and (4). a K(+) channel. The first three components have been cloned and characterized, but concerning the K(+) channel that is essential for the continued generation of the driving force by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, only one candidate is identified. Although controversial, freshwater CCs seem to perform the uptake of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+) in a manner analogous to but slightly different from that seen in the absorptive epithelia of mammalian kidney and intestine since freshwater CCs face larger concentration gradients than ordinary epithelial cells. The components involved in these processes are beginning to be cloned, but their CC localization remains to be established definitively. The most important yet controversial issue is the mechanism of Na(+) uptake. Two models have been postulated: (i). the original one involves amiloride-sensitive electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) with the driving force generated by Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA) and (ii). the current model suggests that Na(+) uptake occurs through an amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) electrogenically coupled to H(+)-ATPase. While fish ENaC remains to be identified by molecular cloning and database mining, fish NHE has been cloned and shown to be highly

  18. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-09-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function.

  19. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana I.; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John’s wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  20. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana I; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John's wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  1. Optimization of a synthetic mixture composed of major Trichoderma reesei enzymes for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates to soluble sugars for biofuel production necessitates the interplay and synergistic interaction of multiple enzymes. An optimized enzyme mixture is crucial for reduced cost of the enzymatic hydrolysis step in a bioethanol production process and its composition will depend on the substrate and type of pretreatment used. In the present study, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal composition of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme mixture, comprising the main cellulase and hemicellulase activities, for the hydrolysis of steam-exploded wheat straw. Methods Six enzymes, CBH1 (Cel7a), CBH2 (Cel6a), EG1 (Cel7b), EG2 (Cel5a), as well as the xyloglucanase Cel74a and the xylanase XYN1 (Xyl11a) were purified from a T. reesei culture under lactose/xylose-induced conditions. Sugar release was followed in milliliter-scale hydrolysis assays for 48 hours and the influence of the mixture on initial conversion rates and final yields is assessed. Results The developed model could show that both responses were strongly correlated. Model predictions suggest that optimal hydrolysis yields can be obtained over a wide range of CBH1 to CBH2 ratios, but necessitates a high proportion of EG1 (13% to 25%) which cannot be replaced by EG2. Whereas 5% to 10% of the latter enzyme and a xylanase content above 6% are required for highest yields, these enzymes are predicted to be less important in the initial stage of hydrolysis. Conclusions The developed model could reliably predict hydrolysis yields of enzyme mixtures in the studied domain and highlighted the importance of the respective enzyme components in both the initial and the final hydrolysis phase of steam-exploded wheat straw. PMID:22373423

  2. Calmodulin is a major component of extruded trichocysts from Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Extruded trichocysts are composed of a family of proteins with molecular weights between 15,000 and 20,000. We have used heat treatment and affinity chromatography on fluphenazine-Sepharose to purify calmodulinlike proteins from whole cells and from extruded trichocysts. The purified protein from trichocysts is indistinguishable from that of whole cells; it is heat-stable, activates brain phosphodiesterase in a Ca++-dependent fashion, changes mobility on SDS polyacrylamide gels in the presence of Ca++, contains 1 mol of trimethyllysine/17 kdaltons, and has the amino acid composition characteristic of calmodulins. Calmodulin is a major component of purified, extruded trichocysts, of which it represents between 1 and 10% by mass. The other proteins of the trichocyst also resemble calmodulin in several properties. Possible roles for calmodulin in the Ca++-activated extrusion of trichocysts is discussed. PMID:6276412

  3. Intelligent Video Disc as a Major Component of Individualized Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingalls, Richard E.

    Due to the importance of visual stimuli for learning, the videodisc is expected to have a major impact on education. When combined with the computer, it will greatly expand the capabilities of computer assisted instruction. There are two major types of videodisc equipment: the optical type with a laser beam to read the information from the disc,…

  4. Structure, Dynamics, Evolution, and Function of a Major Scaffold Component in the Nuclear Pore Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Kim, Seung Joong; Upla, Paula; Rice, William J.; Phillips, Jeremy; Timney, Benjamin L.; Pieper, Ursula; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Ketaren, Natalia E.; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M.; Stokes, David L.; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P.; Almo, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The nuclear pore complex, composed of proteins termed nucleoporins (Nups), is responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotes. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form an annular structure composed of the nuclear ring, cytoplasmic ring, a membrane ring, and two inner rings. Nup192 is a major component of the NPC’s inner ring. We report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup192 residues 2–960 [ScNup192(2–960)], which adopts an α-helical fold with three domains (i.e., D1, D2, and D3). Small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) studies reveal that ScNup192(2–960) could undergo long-range transition between “open” and “closed” conformations. We obtained a structural model of full-length ScNup192 based on EM, the structure of ScNup192(2–960), and homology modeling. Evolutionary analyses using the ScNup192(2–960) structure suggest that NPCs and vesicle-coating complexes are descended from a common membrane-coating ancestral complex. We show that suppression of Nup192 expression leads to compromised nuclear transport and hypothesize a role for Nup192 in modulating the permeability of the NPC central channel. PMID:23499021

  5. Structure, dynamics, evolution, and function of a major scaffold component in the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Kim, Seung Joong; Upla, Paula; Rice, William J; Phillips, Jeremy; Timney, Benjamin L; Pieper, Ursula; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Ketaren, Natalia E; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Stokes, David L; Sauder, J Michael; Burley, Stephen K; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P; Almo, Steven C

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear pore complex, composed of proteins termed nucleoporins (Nups), is responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotes. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form an annular structure composed of the nuclear ring, cytoplasmic ring, a membrane ring, and two inner rings. Nup192 is a major component of the NPC's inner ring. We report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup192 residues 2-960 [ScNup192(2-960)], which adopts an α-helical fold with three domains (i.e., D1, D2, and D3). Small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) studies reveal that ScNup192(2-960) could undergo long-range transition between "open" and "closed" conformations. We obtained a structural model of full-length ScNup192 based on EM, the structure of ScNup192(2-960), and homology modeling. Evolutionary analyses using the ScNup192(2-960) structure suggest that NPCs and vesicle-coating complexes are descended from a common membrane-coating ancestral complex. We show that suppression of Nup192 expression leads to compromised nuclear transport and hypothesize a role for Nup192 in modulating the permeability of the NPC central channel. PMID:23499021

  6. [Comparison of major bioactive components from leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shen, Xue-gen; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhou, Jian-song; Mao, Peng-fei; Shen, Zhen-guo

    2015-05-01

    Leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium were potential medicinal resource. The present study aims to estimate the main bioactive components: total flavonoids (TF), galuteolin (GA), quercitrin (QU), chlorogenic acid (CA) and 3 ,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( CQ), which were considered to be the main effective components, in leaves of C. morfolium cultivars in China. The TF content was estimated hy UV-VIS spectrophotometry, while GA, QU, CA, and CQ were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The highest TF content (7. 13% w/w) was found in cultivar Wan Cong (Shexian county). Cultivar Da Bo ( Bozhou county) had the highest GA content (33. 45 mg - g-1); Cultivar Hong Xin (Sheyang county) contained the highest QU content (29.25 mg · g(-1)); Cultivar Chang Ban (Sheyang county) had the highest CA content (13.14 mg ·(-1)). The maximum CQ content (7.35 mg · g(-1)) was observed in culti- r Da Yang ( Tongxiang county). Different cultivars of C. morfolium had significant difference in components, but the leaf and capitulum of C. morifolium. were found to possess similar chemical compositions. The high content of bioactive components in several cultivars suggested the potential utilization of C. morifolium leaves. PMID:26323127

  7. The CO2-concentrating mechanism of Synechococcus WH5701 is composed of native and horizontally-acquired components.

    PubMed

    Rae, Benjamin D; Förster, Britta; Badger, Murray R; Price, G Dean

    2011-09-01

    The cyanobacterial CO(2)-concentrating mechanism (CCM) is an effective adaptation that increases the carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration around the primary photosynthetic enzyme Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (RuBisCO). α-Cyanobacteria (those containing Form1-A RuBisCO within cso-type α-carboxysomes) have a limited CCM composed of a small number of Ci-transporters whereas β-cyanobacteria (those species containing Form-1B RuBisCO within ccm-type β-carboxysomes) exhibit a more diverse CCM with a greater variety in Ci-transporter complement and regulation. In the coastal species Synechococcus sp. WH5701 (α-cyanobacteria), the minimal α-cyanobacterial CCM has been supplemented with β-cyanobacterial Ci transporters through the process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These transporters are transcriptionally regulated in response to external Ci-depletion however this change in transcript abundance is not correlated with a physiological induction. WH5701 exhibits identical physiological responses grown at 4% CO(2) (K (1/2) ≈ 31 μM Ci) and after induction with 0.04% CO(2) (K (1/2) ≈ 29 μM Ci). Insensitivity to external Ci concentration is an unusual characteristic of the WH5701 CCM which is a result of evolution by HGT. Our bioinformatic and physiological data support the hypothesis that WH5701 represents a clade of α-cyanobacterial species in transition from the marine/oligotrophic environment to a coastal/freshwater environment. PMID:21384181

  8. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  9. Proteins of human milk. I. Identification of major components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.G.; Powers, M.T.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    Traditionally, human milk proteins are identified largely by reference to bovine milk. Hence, to identify the major proteins in human milk, we subjected human and bovine milk, in parallel, to high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.6 was our criterion for distinguishing whey proteins from those of the casein complex. The ..cap alpha..- and..beta..-caseins were identified on the basis of relative abundance, relative molecular mass, and relative isoelectric points. No protein disappeared from ISO-DALT patterns of human milk after rennin treatment, and no new protein comparable to bovine para K-casein appeared in the BASO-DALT patterns; this suggests that K-casein is absent from human milk. The proteins identified in human milk patterns include the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. casein families, lactalbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgA, and lactoferrin. Numerous additional proteins seen in patterns for human milk remain to be identified.

  10. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the buccal region is composed of salivary duct carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma components.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, K; Ohuchi, T; Hasegawa, T; Hiratsuka, H

    2009-10-01

    A 73-year-old female presented with an asymptomatic mass in the left buccal region that she had first noticed 4 years earlier. The tumor, which was located in the buccal space, was clinically diagnosed as a salivary gland tumor and treated by excision. Histopathological examination revealed a capsule of connective tissue consisting of three different histopathological neoplastic areas in a large, fibrous, hyalinizing stromal background. The neoplastic lesion contained two malignant and one benign element, with histological characteristics consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). The SCC nests showed no continuity with the buccal mucosa. Both the SCC and SDC nests were surrounded by non-atypical myoepithelial cells, suggesting that both components may have developed from transformation of metaplastic luminal epithelial cells of PA. The tumor was diagnosed as a non-invasive carcinoma (SCC and SDC) ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA). There was no evidence of recurrence 16 months after operation.

  11. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  12. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-01-01

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase. PMID:26091076

  13. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  14. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  15. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  16. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  17. 21 CFR 1020.30 - Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major... PRODUCTS § 1020.30 Diagnostic x-ray systems and their major components. (a) Applicability. (1) The provisions of this section are applicable to: (i) The following components of diagnostic x-ray systems:...

  18. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  19. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  20. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  1. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the palate composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components: an unusual case with immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno T; da Silva Lascane, Nelise A; Tobouti, Priscila L; Pigatti, Fernanda M; Franco, Maria I F; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

    2014-12-01

    Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CXPA) is an unusual epithelial malignancy that develops from a primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma (PA), the most common tumor of salivary glands, and constitutes about 11.5% of all carcinomas that affect these glands. Intraoral minor salivary glands and seromucous glands of the oropharynx are uncommon locations of CXPA. On histopathological examination, the tumor comprises a wide morphological spectrum with a variable proportion between the benign and malignant components with the latter often predominating and overlapping the PA, which may cause misdiagnosis. Here, we report a case of palatal minor salivary gland CXPA composed of invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma components with multiple nodal metastases in a 74-year-old woman. Neoplastic cells showed heterogeneous immunohistochemical profile with both luminal and myoepithelial differentiation. The invasive micropapillary salivary duct carcinoma component demonstrated overexpression of the oncoprotein human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This feature should be considered and evaluated as a possible target for adjuvant therapy in case of metastatic disease.

  2. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  3. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  4. Development of a functional wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid spongy sheet containing bioactive components: evaluation of wound healing potential in animal tests.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nahoko; Ishida, Daiki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kuroyanagi, Misato; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a novel wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) spongy sheet containing bioactive components. The wound dressing prepared by the freeze-drying method has a two-layered structure: an upper layer composed of cross-linked high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA) and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA (LMW-HA) containing arginine (Arg), magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (vitamin C derivative: VC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) (referred to as EGF-dressing). A wound dressing containing only Arg and VC was prepared in a similar manner (referred to as EGF-free-dressing). The potential of each wound dressing was evaluated in animal tests using Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and diabetic mice. In the first experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the abdominal region of SD rats. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available non-woven alginate wound dressing (Alg-dressing) was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing promoted re-epithelialization. In the second experiment, each wound dressing was applied to a full-thickness skin defect in the dorsal region of diabetic mice. Wound conditions after 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment were evaluated based on macroscopic and histological appearance. A commercially available Alg-dressing was used in a control group. Both EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing decreased wound size and promoted granulation tissue formation associated with angiogenesis more effectively when compared with Alg-dressing. These findings indicate that EGF-free-dressing and EGF-dressing have the potential for more effective wound healing when compared with Alg-dressing. In particular, EGF-dressing has

  5. 77 FR 39521 - Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment Pursuant to 10... Reactor internals, Components and For use in Braka nuclear power Company LLC reactor coolant equipment...

  6. How Composing Aloud and Computer Composing Influence Composing Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler-Nalin, Kay

    To investigate how writing might be affected by composing aloud and computer composing--two factors that are increasingly being used either to study composing processes or to alter the typical context in which students write--a study described the composing process of five junior high school students. The students wrote four compositons, one in…

  7. 32 CFR 203.4 - Major components of the TAPP process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RESTORATION ACTIVITIES § 203.4 Major components of the TAPP process. (a) The Department of Defense will issue... of the installation's total projected environmental restoration cost-to-complete. Note that these... will provide a description of the services requested (TAPP Project Description) and, if desired,...

  8. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  9. [Fluorescence properties of municipal wastewater with industrial wastewater as major components].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chun-Yan; Wu, Jing; Xiang, Xi; Xie, Chao-Bo; Yin, Dan-Dan; Cao, Zhi-Ping; Lü, Qing

    2013-02-01

    The present paper studied fluorescence fingerprint properties of the municipal wastewater with industrial wastewater as major components. There existed three typical fluorescence peaks in the excitation-emission matrix of the municipal wastewater, locating at about lambda(ex)/lambda(em) of 275/310, 230/340 and 220/310 nm respectively. The wastewater didn't display typical protein-like fluorescence as the municipal wastewater with domestic sewage as major component. The fluorescence intensity of the wastewater was quite high with remarkable difference between workday and weekend. These might relate to the high content of industrial wastewater. The advantages of the fluorescence fingerprint such as easy and fast measurement and rich information about the components of wastewater make it a novel tool in water quality monitoring and early-warning.

  10. Composing and Arranging Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott; And Others

    1977-01-01

    With the inspiration, the originality, the skill and craftsmanship, the business acumen, the patience, and the luck, it's possible to become a classical composer, pop/rock/country composer, jingle composer, or educational composer. Describes these careers. (Editor/RK)

  11. Physiological responses induced in tomato plants by a two-component nanostructural system composed of carbon nanotubes conjugated with quantum dots and its in vivo multimodal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Xu, Yang; Wang, Daoyuan; Biris, Alexandru S.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2011-07-01

    Plant seedlings were exposed to single-walled carbon nanotube-quantum dot conjugates (SWCNT-QD) mixed in the growth medium in order to understand the interactions between these multicomponent nanosystems and plants. A combination of fluorescent and Raman-scattering 2D mapping analysis was used to clearly monitor the presence of the SWCNT-QD conjugates in various parts of the tomato seedlings. We found that the addition of QDs to SWCNTs dramatically changed the biological viability of the tomato plants by significantly accelerating leaf senescence and inhibiting root formation. Although the exposure of SWCNTs only to the plants induced positive effects, the chlorophyll content decreased by 1.5-fold in leaves, and the total weight of the root system decreased four times for the tomato plants exposed to SWCNT-QDs (50 µg ml - 1) compared to plants grown on regular medium as controls. Our results clearly indicate that the exposure of plants to multicomponent nanomaterials is highly influenced by the presence and bioactivity of each component, individually. Such studies could be the foundation for understanding how complex nanosized systems affect the activity of various biological systems with a major impact on ecotoxicology.

  12. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Prashar, A; Locke, I C; Evans, C S

    2006-08-01

    The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil. PMID:16872360

  13. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Prashar, A; Locke, I C; Evans, C S

    2006-08-01

    The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil.

  14. My Career: Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  15. Wallerian degeneration: a major component of early axonal pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Tomasz; Metz, Imke; Dallenga, Tobias; König, Fatima Barbara; Müller, Sven; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Axonal loss is a major component of the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the morphological basis of permanent clinical disability. It occurs in demyelinating plaques but also in the so-called normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). However, the contribution of Wallerian degeneration to axonal pathology is not known. Here, we analyzed the extent of Wallerian degeneration and axonal pathology in periplaque white matter (PPWM) and lesions in early multiple sclerosis biopsy tissue from 63 MS patients. Wallerian degeneration was visualized using an antibody against the neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 (NPY-Y1R). The number of SMI-32-positive axons with non-phosphorylated neurofilaments was significantly higher in both PPWM and plaques compared to control white matter. APP-positive, acutely damaged axons were found in significantly higher numbers in plaques compared to PPWM. Strikingly, the number of NPY-Y1R-positive axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration was significantly higher in PPWM and plaques than in control WM. NPY-Y1R-positive axons in PPWM were strongly correlated to those in the lesions. Our results show that Wallerian degeneration is a major component of axonal pathology in the periplaque white matter in early MS. It may contribute to radiological changes observed in early MS and most likely plays a major role in the development of disability.

  16. Analysis and functionality of major polyphenolic components of Polygonum cuspidatum (itadori).

    PubMed

    Kirino, Akiko; Takasuka, Yuka; Nishi, Asami; Kawabe, Satoko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Kimoto, Masumi; Ito, Hideyuki; Tsuji, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum has been broadly utilized as a herbal medicine in Asia, but the outline of the polyphenol compounds in the plant has not been characterized well. In the present study, the major polyphenolic components were isolated from the roots of P. cuspidatum, and identified as resveratrol and its glucosides, resveratroloside and polydatin. On the other hand, chlorogenic acid was found to be one of the polyphenolic components in the leaves and stems of the plant. Next, we elucidated that resveratrol derivatives and chlorogenic acid exhibit α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and resveratroloside exhibits the same inhibitory activity as quercetin does. Furthermore, DPPH radical scavenging activities of antioxidants including resveratrol derivatives and chlorogenic acid derivatives were examined by initial rate analyses of their reactions. Subsequently, it was revealed that resveratrol derivatives have slow-acting effects on the radical scavenging activity and that chlorogenic acid derivatives exhibit very fast-acting effects. PMID:23132312

  17. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10−5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

  18. Temporal variations of PM1 major components in an urban street canyon.

    PubMed

    Yubero, E; Galindo, N; Nicolás, J F; Crespo, J; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F

    2015-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the levels of PM1 and its main components (organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-) and NH4 (+)) were studied in an urban street canyon in southeastern Spain. Although PM1 levels did not show an evident seasonal cycle, strong variations in the concentrations of its major components were observed. Ammonium sulfate, the main secondary inorganic compound, was found to be of regional origin. Its formation was favored during summer due to increased photochemical activity. In contrast, the concentrations of particulate ammonium nitrate, which is thermally unstable, were highest in winter. Although traffic emissions are the dominant source of EC in the city, variations in traffic intensity could not explain the seasonal cycle of this component. The higher EC concentrations during the cold months were attributed to the lower dispersion conditions and the increase in EC emissions. Special attention has been given to variations in organic carbon levels since it accounted for about one third of the total PM1 mass. The concentrations of both total OC and secondary OC (SOC) were maxima in winter. The observed seasonal variation in SOC levels is similar to that found in other southern European cities where the frequency of sunny days in winter is high enough to promote photochemical processes. PMID:25940489

  19. Structural studies on the major component of Gladiolus style mucilage, an arabinogalactan-protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, P A; Clarke, A E

    1979-01-01

    The major component of the Gladiolus style mucilage was shown to be an arabinogalactan-protein. The arabinogalactan-protein was isolated from the style extract by affinity chromatography with tridacnin (the galactose-binding lectin from the clam Tridacna maxima) coupled to Sepharose 4B. The isolated arabinogalactan-protein represents 40% of the soluble style extract; it contains 90% (w/w) carbohydrate and 3% protein. The major monosaccharides of the carbohydrate component are galactose and arabinose, in the proportions 6:1. A component with a similar composition was also isolated from the crude extract by precipitation with the beta-glucosyl artifical carbohydrate antigen. The protein moiety of the arabinogalactan-protein remained associated with the carbohydrate after chromatography in urea, and has high contents of serine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine and alanine. The arabinogalactan-protein is apparently chemically homogeneous; it eluted as a single symmetrical peak from Sepharose 4B, and three fractions collected across the peak were structurally similar. Ultracentrifugal studies showed it to be polydisperse in the mol.wt. range 150 000--400 000. The information obtained from methylation analyses, oxalic acid and enzymic hydrolyses is consistent with a model having a beta 1 leads to 3 galactan backbone, branched through C(O)6 to beta 1 leads to 6 galactan side chains. The arabinose is exclusively present as terminal alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues. Enzymic removal of the arabinose residues resulted in a marked decrease in solubility of the molecule. The localization of the arabinogalactan-protein in the mucilage of the style canal was demonstrated cytochemically. The possible roles of the arabinogalactan-protein in relation to recognition of compatible pollen and pollen-tube growth are discussed. Images PLATE 1 PMID:518543

  20. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components

    PubMed Central

    Urbisz, Anna Z.; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells - ring canals - cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts

  1. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells.

  2. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells. PMID:27573022

  3. Constraining The Radiocarbon Distribution Within Major Components of Marine Dissolved Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigah, P.; Repeta, D.; McNichol, A. P.; Beaupre, S. R.; Xu, L.; Aluwihare, L.; Hemingway, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active carbon pools on Earth with a carbon inventory similar to that of the atmosphere. The sources and cycling of DOC in the ocean is not well-constrained. However, knowledge of the cycling and annual flux of carbon through DOC is critical to understanding the global carbon cycle and feedback mechanisms in the global climate system. Natural-abundance radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopic values can be used to infer the sources and cycling of DOC in the oceans. Past measurements for the most part have been made on bulk DOC, which represents an average of all DOC components. There is, however, good evidence that the actual range of values within the average is quite large, and recent serial oxidation measurements of the surface and deep ocean total DOC [1, 2, 3] reveal isotopic heterogeneity in the DOC pool with a radiocarbon-enriched modern component and a radiocarbon-depleted older component co-cycling in the surface ocean. Also, modeled data from the serial oxidation of the total DOC suggest the presence of a significant amount of modern DOC in the deep ocean [3]. In this study, we used a detailed size and chemical fractionation approach to examine the isotopic distribution within different size and molecular constituents of DOC. We also used a novel thermal serial oxidation approach to link the isotopic diversity of DOC to its concurrent major structural composition in order to build upon and refine the insights from the total DOC isotopic work. Our data show that, in the deep ocean, a major component of the heteropolysaccharide (HPS)-rich DOC isolated by ultrafiltration has radiocarbon value similar to co-occurring DIC indicating either a chemosynthetic source or conservative transport. In contrast, the fraction of DOC rich in the carboxylic -rich compounds isolated by solid phase extraction was much older than the DIC and also exhibit remarkable isotopic diversity in its constituent organic compounds. Our

  4. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  5. Inhibition of tumour invasion and angiogenesis by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, YOUNG D; ELLIS, LEE M

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that consumption of green tea may decrease cancer risk. In addition, abundant pre-clinical data from several laboratories have provided convincing evidence that polyphenols present in green tea afford protection against cancer in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Recently, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a putative chemopreventive agent and a major component of green tea, was reported to inhibit tumour invasion and angiogenesis, processes that are essential for tumour growth and metastasis. Understanding the basic principles by which EGCG inhibits tumour invasion and angiogenesis may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies, in addition to supporting the role of green tea as a cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:11846837

  6. Abundant porewater Mn(III) is a major component of the sedimentary redox system.

    PubMed

    Madison, Andrew S; Tebo, Bradley M; Mucci, Alfonso; Sundby, Bjørn; Luther, George W

    2013-08-23

    Soluble manganese(III) [Mn(III)] can potentially serve as both oxidant and reductant in one-electron-transfer reactions with other redox species. In near-surface sediment porewater, it is often overlooked as a major component of Mn cycling. Applying a spectrophotometric kinetic method to hemipelagic sediments from the Laurentian Trough (Quebec, Canada), we found that soluble Mn(III), likely stabilized by organic or inorganic ligands, accounts for up to 90% of the total dissolved Mn pool. Vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen and dissolved and solid Mn suggest that soluble Mn(III) is primarily produced via oxidation of Mn(II) diffusing upwards from anoxic sediments with lesser contributions from biotic and abiotic reductive dissolution of MnO2. The conceptual model of the sedimentary redox cycle should therefore explicitly include dissolved Mn(III).

  7. HLA is unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial inflammatory bowl disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, C.G.; Naom, I.S.; Hodgson, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the bowel which is confined to the colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) or may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn`s disease (CD). The cause of IBD is unknown, but a genetic component is suggested by a 10-fold increase in risk to first degree relatives, and a higher concordance of disease in MZ versus DZ twins. Distinct associations of HLA DR2 with UC and DR1/DQw5 with CD have been reported. We are searching for susceptibility genes in IBD by linkage analysis in a panel of 43 families with 3 or more living affected members, which includes 12 families with CD, 17 with UC and 14 {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} families with UC and CD. In view of the reported HLA associations in IBD, we have analyzed 5 microsatellite markers from the major histocompatibility complex for linkage to IBD using both parametric and nonparametric methods. LOD scores were calculated for 4 different genetic models, including both dominant and recessive inheritance, and haplotype sharing was analyzed in affected siblings. LOD scores for the MHC locus were negative in the full data set, and in the 3 classes of family (UC,CD,mixed). Haplotype sharing in affected sibs was very close to that expected if no linkage was present. We conclude that genes from the HLA region are unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial IBD. Linkage analysis of genes which cause chronic colitis when disrupted in transgenic mice is in progress.

  8. Metabolic syndrome definitions and components in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Silver, Samuel A; Al-Lawati, Ali I; Rapi, Lindita; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) associates with cardiovascular risk post-kidney transplantation, but its ambiguity impairs understanding of its diagnostic utility relative to components. We compared five MetS definitions and the predictive value of constituent components of significant definitions for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in a cohort of 1182 kidney transplant recipients. MetS definitions were adjusted for noncomponent traditional Framingham risk factors and relevant transplant-related variables. Kaplan-Meier, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazards analysis were utilized. There were 143 MACE over 7447 patient-years of follow-up. Only the World Health Organization (WHO) 1998 definition predicted MACE (25.3 vs 15.5 events/1000 patient-years, P = 0.019). Time-to-MACE was 5.5 ± 3.5 years with MetS and 6.8 ± 3.9 years without MetS (P < 0.0001). MetS was independent of pertinent MACE risk factors except age and previous cardiac disease. Among MetS components, dysglycemia provided greatest hazard ratio (HR) for MACE (1.814 [95% confidence interval 1.26-2.60]), increased successively by microalbuminuria (HR 1.946 [1.37-2.75]), dyslipidemia (3.284 [1.72-6.26]), hypertension (4.127 [2.16-7.86]), and central obesity (4.282 [2.09-8.76]). MetS did not affect graft survival. In summary, although the WHO 1998 definition provides greatest predictive value for post-transplant MACE, most of this is conferred by dysglycemia and is overshadowed by age and previous cardiac disease. PMID:25207680

  9. A ubiquitous plant housekeeping gene, PAP, encodes a major protein component of bell pepper chromoplasts.

    PubMed

    Pozueta-Romero, J; Rafia, F; Houlné, G; Cheniclet, C; Carde, J P; Schantz, M L; Schantz, R

    1997-11-01

    We have isolated a cDNA (PAP) corresponding to a single nuclear gene that encodes an approximately 30-kD major protein of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit chromoplasts. RNA and protein analyses revealed that, although at a low level, this gene is also expressed in every organ of the plant, the amount of the corresponding transcript and protein dramatically increasing in the latter stages of fruit development. Western-blot and immunocytochemical analyses of purified chloroplasts from leaves and fruits and of chromoplasts from red fruits showed that the encoded protein is the major component of plastoglobules and fibrils and is localized on the outer surface of these lipid structures. Analyses of PAP in plants belonging to different taxa revealed that it is expressed and highly conserved in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. The presence of the protein in plastids not differentiating into chromoplasts indicates that PAP is expressed irrespective of the ontogeny of various plastid lines. In light of our results and since the encoded protein, identical to that previously named ChrB or fibrillin, is present in plastoglobules from several species and accumulates in the fibrils of bell pepper chromoplast, we propose to designate it as a plastid-lipid-associated protein.

  10. Analysis of the Activity and Regulon of the Two-Component Regulatory System Composed by Cjj81176_1484 and Cjj81176_1483 of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Luethy, Paul M.; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrheal disease and a frequent commensal of the intestinal tract in poultry and other animals. For optimal growth and colonization of hosts, C. jejuni employs two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) to monitor environmental conditions and promote proper expression of specific genes. We analyzed the potential of C. jejuni Cjj81176_1484 (Cjj1484) and Cjj81176_1483 (Cjj1483) to encode proteins of a cognate TCS that influences expression of genes possibly important for C. jejuni growth and colonization. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the regulons of the Cjj81176_1484 (Cjj1484) histidine kinase and the Cjj81176_1483 (Cjj1483) response regulator contain many common genes, suggesting that these proteins likely form a cognate TCS. We found that this TCS generally functions to repress expression of specific proteins with roles in metabolism, iron/heme acquisition, and respiration. Furthermore, the TCS repressed expression of Cjj81176_0438 and Cjj81176_0439, which had previously been found to encode a gluconate dehydrogenase complex required for commensal colonization of the chick intestinal tract. However, the TCS and other specific genes whose expression is repressed by the TCS were not required for colonization of chicks. We observed that the Cjj1483 response regulator binds target promoters in both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms and influences expression of some specific genes independently of the Cjj1484 histidine kinase. This work further expands the signaling mechanisms of C. jejuni and provides additional insights regarding the complex and multifactorial regulation of many genes involved in basic metabolism, respiration, and nutrient acquisition that the bacterium requires for optimal growth in different environments. IMPORTANCE Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) link environmental cues to expression of specific genes that enable optimal bacterial growth or colonization of

  11. A novel ionic liquid-in-oil microemulsion composed of biologically acceptable components: an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer study.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2013-03-21

    In this work we have reported the formulation of a novel ionic liquid-in-oil (IL/O) microemulsion where the polar core of the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium n-butylsulfate ([C2mim][C4SO4]), is stabilized by a mixture of two nontoxic nonionic surfactants, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and sorbitan laurate (Span-20), in a biological oil phase of isopropyl myristate (IPM). The formation of the microemulsion droplets has been confirmed from the dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase behavior study. To assess the dynamic heterogeneity of this tween-based IL/O microemulsion, we have performed an excitation wavelength dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from coumarin 480 (C480) to rhodamine 6G (R6G). The multiple donor-acceptor (D-A) distances, ∼15, 30, and 45 Å, obtained from the rise times of the acceptor emission in the presence of a donor can be rationalized from the varying distribution of the donor, C480, in the different regions of the microemulsion system. With increasing the excitation wavelength from 375 to 408 nm, the contribution of the rise component of ∼240 ps which results the D-A distance of ∼30 Å increases significantly due to the enhanced contribution of the C480 probe molecules closer to the acceptor in the ionic liquid pool of the microemulsion. PMID:23445434

  12. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  13. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  14. Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), a Major Allergen Component in Hevea brasiliensis Latex Has Amyloid Properties

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

  15. Class I major histocompatibility proteins are an essential component of the simian virus 40 receptor.

    PubMed

    Breau, W C; Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C

    1992-04-01

    The class I molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present endogenously synthesized antigenic peptide fragments to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We show here that these proteins are an essential component of the cell surface receptor for simian virus 40 (SV40). First, SV40 binding to cells can be blocked by two monoclonal antibodies against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins but not by monoclonal antibodies specific for other cell surface proteins. Second, SV40 does not bind to cells of two different human lymphoblastoid cell lines which do not express surface class I MHC proteins because of genetic defects in the beta 2-microglobulin gene in one line and in the HLA complex in the other. Transfection of these cell lines with cloned genes for beta 2-microglobulin and HLA-B8, respectively, restored expression of their surface class I MHC proteins and resulted in concomitant SV40 binding. Finally, SV40 binds to purified HLA proteins in vitro and selectively binds to class I MHC proteins in a cell surface extract.

  16. Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  17. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  18. Catechins are not major components responsible for anti-genotoxic effects of tea extracts against nitroarenes.

    PubMed

    Ohe, T; Marutani, K; Nakase, S

    2001-09-20

    The anti-genotoxic properties of tea leaf extracts were examined in a Salmonella umu-test. Seven non-fermented teas (green tea), one semi-fermented tea (oolong tea), two fermented teas (black tea and Chinese pu er tea) and two other teas were examined for their anti-genotoxic abilities and for their catechins contents. This was to study the relationship between catechins contents and anti-genotoxic activity of various tea leaf extracts. All types of tea extracts showed more potent suppressive effects against umu gene expression of the SOS response in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK 1002 induced by four nitroarenes (1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and a mixture of 1,6- and 1,8-dinitropyrene) rather than 4-NQO, AF-2 and MNNG. The anti-genotoxic effect of 12 tea leaf extracts on 1-NP, 2-NF, 3-NF and DNP decreased in the order: oolong tea (semi-fermented tea)>black tea (fermented tea)>sencha (non-fermented tea, an ordinary grade green tea)>tocyucya (other tea)>Chinese pu er tea (fermented tea). The amount of catechins (EGC, C, EGCG, EC and ECG) in various teas in decreasing order was non-fermented tea>semi-fermented tea>fermented tea>other tea. A remarkable feature was the effectiveness of black tea and Chinese pu er tea in suppressing the genotoxicity induced by nitroarenes, in spite of the fact that these fermented teas do not have high catechins contents. Statistical analysis showed that no significant (P<0.01) correlation was found between the anti-genotoxicity of tea extracts against nitroarenes and the catechins contents in tea leaf extracts. In further experiment, fractionation of sencha extract by HPLC revealed that anti-genotoxicity of the peak fraction corresponding to catechins accounted for <10% of the total anti-genotoxic activity of sencha extract against for 1-nitropyrene. These results suggest that catechins are not major components responsible for the anti-genotoxic effects of tea leaf extracts against direct-acting nitroarenes

  19. Larvicidal effect of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and turpentine and their major components on Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Gonzalez Audino, Paola; Seccacini, Emilia; Licastro, Susana; Zerba, Eduardo; Masuh, Hector

    2007-09-01

    In the search for new alternatives for the control of Aedes aegypti the larvicidal activity of Eucalyptus grandis essential oil and pine resin essential oil (turpentine) and their major components (alpha- and beta-pinene and 1,8-cineole) was determined. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of E. grandis essential oil revealed that its major components are alpha-pinene and 1,8-cineole. Similar analysis of turpentine obtained by distillation of the resin pitch of conifers showed that alpha- and beta-pinene are the only major components. Third and early 4th instars of the CIPEIN-susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti were exposed to acetonic solutions of E. grandis essential oil, turpentine, and their major components for 24 h. Turpentine, with an LC50 of 14.7 ppm, was more active than the essential oil of E. grandis (LC50: 32.4 ppm). Larvicidal activity of the essential oil components showed that alpha- and beta-pinene present low LC50 values (15.4 and 12.1 ppm, respectively), whereas pure 1,8-cineole showed an LC50 of 57.2 ppm. These results suggest that alpha-pinene in E. grandis and alpha- and beta-pinene in turpentine serve as the principal larvicidal components of both oils. Results obtained on larvicidal effects of essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis and turpentine could be considered a contribution to the search for new biodegradable larvicides of natural origin. PMID:17939510

  20. Potassium influx in human neonatal red blood cells. Partition into its major components.

    PubMed

    Serrani, R E; Venera, G; Gioia, I A; Corchs, J L

    1990-03-01

    The potassium influx in human neonatal red blood cells (nRBC) shows an approximately 25% lower value compared to the total potassium influx in adult red blood cells (aRBC). The ouabain-sensitive potassium influx component represents approximately 70-75% of the total potassium influx for both types of cells but with an absolute value significantly lower in nRBC. In nRBC, the half maximum inhibitory effect for ouabain was obtained at a 10(-9) M concentration. The ouabain-insensitive nRBC potassium influx fractions showed two components: (i) a bumetanide-sensitive component, significantly lower than that of aRBC, (ii) a ouabain-bumetanide-insensitive (leak) component with a similar value in both cell types. The sum of the ouabain-sensitive and furosemide-sensitive components amounted in nRBC to a greater value than the total potassium influx. This behaviour could be interpreted as a superposition of the action of the inhibitors on the components affected.

  1. [Content determination of twelve major components in Tibetan medicine Zuozhu Daxi by UPLC].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Li, Jin-hua; Zhang, Chen; Li, Chun-xue; Dong, Hong-jiao; Wang, Chang-sheng; Zeng, Rui; Chen, Xiao-hu

    2015-05-01

    A quantitative analytical method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was developed for simultaneously determining twelve components in Tibetan medicine Zuozhu Daxi. SIMPCA 12.0 software was used a principal component analysis PCA) and partial small squares analysis (PLSD-DA) on the twelve components in 10 batches from four pharmaceutical factories. Acquity UPLC BEH C15 column (2.1 mm x 100 mm, 1.7 µm) was adopted at the column temperature of 35 °C and eluted with acetonitrile (A) -0.05% phosphate acid solution (B) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 0. 3 mL · min(-1). The injection volume was 1 µL. The detection wavelengths were set at 210 nm for alantolactone, isoalantolactone and oleanolic; 260 nm for trychnine and brucine; 288 nm for protopine; 306 nm for protopine, resveratrol and piperine; 370 nm for quercetin and isorhamnetin. The results showed a good separation among index components, with a good linearity relationship (R2 = 0.999 6) within the selected concentration range. The average sample recovery rates ranged between 99.44%-101.8%, with RSD between 0.37%-1.7%, indicating the method is rapid and accurate with a good repeatability and stability. The PCA and PLSD-DA analysis on the sample determination results revealed a great difference among samples from different pharmaceutical factories. The twelve components included in this study contributed significantly to the quantitative determination of intrinsic quality of Zuozhu Daxi. The UPLC established for to the quantitative determination of the twelve components can provide scientific basis for the comprehensive quality evaluation of Zuozhu Daxi. PMID:26323157

  2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  3. Semi-continuous mass closure of the major components of fine particulate matter in Riverside, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Brett D.; Eatough, Norman L.; Woolwine, Woods R.; Cannon, Justin P.; Eatough, Delbert J.; Long, Russell W.

    The application of newly developed semi-continuous aerosol monitors allows for the measurement of all the major species of PM 2.5 on a 1-h time basis. Temporal resolution of both non-volatile and semi-volatile species is possible. A suite of instruments to measure the major chemical species of PM 2.5 allows for semi-continuous mass closure. A newly developed dual-oven Sunset carbon monitor is used to measure non-volatile organic carbon, semi-volatile organic carbon and elemental carbon. Inorganic species, including sulfate and nitrate, can be measured with an ion chromatograph based sampler. Comparison of the sum of the major chemical species in an urban aerosol with mass measured by an FDMS resulted in excellent agreement. Linear regression analysis resulted in a zero-intercept slope of 0.98±0.01 with an R2=0.86. One-hour temporal resolution of the major species of PM 2.5 may reduce the uncertainty in receptor based source apportionment modeling, will allow for better forecasting of PM 2.5 episodes, and may lead to increased understanding of related health effects.

  4. A novel ATPase complex selectively accumulated upon heat shock is a major cellular component of thermophilic archaebacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, B M; Hoffmann, A; Stetter, K O; Baumeister, W

    1991-01-01

    We have discovered a large cylindrical protein complex which is an abundant component of the cytoplasm of extremely thermophilic archaebacteria. Structural analysis by image processing of electron micrographs suggests that the complex is composed of two stacked rings of eight subunits each; the rings enclose a central channel. The complex purified from the hyperthermophile Pyrodictium occultum is composed of equal quantities of two polypeptides of Mr 56,000 and 59,000. It exhibits an extremely thermostable ATPase activity with a temperature optimum of 100 degrees C. The basal level of the ATPase complex in the cell is high, and it becomes highly enriched as a result of heat shock (shift from 102 degrees C to 108 degrees C) or balanced growth at temperatures near the physiological upper limit. Immunoblotting results indicate that a related protein is present in most thermophilic archaebacteria and in Escherichia coli. This protein complex may play an important role in the adaptation of thermophilic archaebacteria to life at high temperature. Images PMID:1828761

  5. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean.

  6. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ56Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ56Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 100–103 y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 105–106 y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean. PMID:26109570

  7. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean. PMID:26109570

  8. Parvalbumins from coelacanth muscle. III. Amino acid sequence of the major component.

    PubMed

    Jauregui-Adell, J; Pechere, J F

    1978-09-26

    The primary structure of the major parvalbumin (pI = 4.52) from coelacanth muscle (Latimeria chalumnae) has been determined. Sequence analysis of the tryptic peptides, in some cases obtained with beta-trypsin, accounts for the total amino acid content of the protein. Chymotryptic peptides provide appropriate sequence overlaps, to complete the localization of the tryptic peptides. Examination of the amino acid sequence of this protein shows the typical structure of a beta-parvalbumin. Its position in the dendrogram of related calcium-binding proteins corresponds to that usually accepted for crossopterygians.

  9. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26492192

  10. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems.

  11. Spectroscopic determination of intermolecular potentials of gas laser components and of major atmospheric constituents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klemperer, W.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure of weakly bound complexes of hydrogen fluoride has been accomplished. This research provides a broad account of the interaction of hydrogen fluoride with a variety of laser components and atmospheric constituents. Precision structures are now available for the species ArHF, CO/sub 2/HF, N/sub 2/OHF and SCOHF as a result of the present research program. In addition, precision structures have been obtained for ArCO2 and ArN/sub 2/0. This research provides the basic information necessary for reliable modelling of intermolecular forces between HF and Ar, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/0 and OCS as well as between Ar and CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/0.

  12. Proteomics reveals major components of oogenesis in the reproductive tract of sugar-fed Anopheles aquasalis.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Borges-Veloso, Andre; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Padrón, Gabriel; de Faria Castro, Cássia Luana; Guimarães, Ana Carolina Ramos; Britto, Constança; Cuervo, Patricia; De Jesus, Jose Batista

    2016-05-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis is a malaria vector mainly distributed along the coastal regions of South and Central America. In the absence of an effective vaccine against malaria, strategies for controlling the vector are the main tool for interrupting parasite transmission. Mechanisms of oogenesis and embryogenesis in anautogenous mosquitoes are mainly modulated by blood feeding. However, the expression, at the protein level, of genes involved in such mechanisms in sugar-fed females is unknown. In this work, total protein extracts of the reproductive tract of female An. aquasalis that were fed sugar were analyzed using liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification and bioinformatic tools for data mining. We identified 922 proteins expressed in the organ, and using several databases, we attributed biological meaning for several of them. Remarkably, nine proteins involved in oogenesis were identified in females fed sugar. Putative vitellogenins, vitellogenin receptor, lipid storage droplet, transferrin, ferritin, and apolipoprotein, identified here, are proteins involved in egg development. Proteins involved in embryonic development, such as paxillin, exuperantia, several growth factors, and dorsal switch protein, were identified. Interestingly, in this study, we identified 15 peptidases of various classes such as aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases, serine protease, cathepsin, and metalloprotease that could potentially interact with male seminal components. Here, we demonstrated that the reproductive tract of female An. aquasalis fed on sugar expresses proteins involved in oogenesis and embryonic development. These findings reveal unknown aspects of the physiology of this organ under the given nutritional conditions.

  13. Free fatty acids as a major component of the chlorosulfolipid membrane of Ochromonas danica

    SciTech Connect

    Winicov, I.

    1985-01-01

    This work is an attempt to determine whether or not free fatty acids are components of the natural membrane of Ochromonas danica. If the FFAs were artifacts, they would most likely have been produced during solvent extraction or during the procedure for flagellar detachment. Attempts to denature putative solvent-activated lipase(s) through exposure to boiling isopropanol or by crosslinking the flagella with glutaraldehyde prior to extraction failed to eliminate the free fatty acid fraction, nor to significantly alter its composition. Exposure of flagella to albumin resulted in the net transfer of FFAs to the supernatant phase, showing their presence is not caused by solvent activated lipolysis. Finally levels of labelled free fatty acids failed to rise as a function of time after deflagellation in cells grown in the presence of (10-/sup 14/C)-oleic acid. Acid hydrolysis of the total labelled lipid at elevated temperature increased the percentage of counts occurring as unesterified fatty acids (from 2.6% to 64.8%). This, taken together with a corresponding loss of the more polar labelled material (66.8% to 8.2%) indicates that some esterified lipids were present, but probably not broken down during the isolation procedure.

  14. Model of Close Packing for Determination of the Major Characteristics of the Liquid Dispersions Components

    PubMed Central

    Kolikov, Kiril Hristov; Hristozov, Dimo Donchev; Koleva, Radka Paskova; Krustev, Georgi Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a close packing model of the particles from the disperse phase of a liquid dispersion. With this model, we find the sediment volumes, the emergent, and the bound dispersion medium. We formulate a new approach for determining the equivalent radii of the particles from the sediment and the emergent (different from the Stokes method). We also describe an easy manner to apply algebraic method for determining the average volumetric mass densities of the ultimate sediment and emergent, as well as the free dispersion medium (without using any pycnometers or densitometers). The masses of the different components and the density of the dispersion phase in the investigated liquid dispersion are also determined by means of the established densities. We introduce for the first time a dimensionless scale for numeric characterization and therefore an index for predicting the sedimentation stability of liquid dispersions in case of straight and/or reverse sedimentation. We also find the quantity of the pure substance (without pouring out or drying) in the dispersion phase of the liquid dispersions. PMID:25136673

  15. NIR rapid assessments of Chinese material medica: simultaneous determination of three major active components of licorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhisheng; Zhou, Xiangzhen; Yu, Fulai; Shi, Xinyuan; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2014-11-01

    Objective: A rapid and nondestructive method was used to quantitatively predict the content of three main active components (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin) in licorice by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of licorice powder were obtained, the contents of glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin were analyzed simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The partial least squares (PLS) regression algorithm was used to establish the quantitative models. Several pretreatments such as multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), first derivative, second derivative and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing were utilized to correct the scattering effect and eliminate the baseline shift in all spectra. The calibration equations produced the highest determination of coefficient values (R2), the lowest root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the lowest root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were used for the determination of glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin. Results: The R2 of glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin were 0.999, 0.996 and 0.999, respectively. The RMSEC of glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin were 1.14 mg/g, 0.77 mg/g and 0.068 mg/g respectively. The RMSEP of glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin were 4.92 mg/g, 2.06 mg/g and 0.35 mg/g respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that the NIRS method could be used for the rapid assessment of licorice.

  16. The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Tampieri, Maria Paola; Galuppi, Roberta; Macchioni, Fabio; Carelle, Maria Stella; Falcioni, Laura; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-04-01

    Many volatile oils are known to possess antifungal properties and are potentially applicable as antimycotic agents. By studying the efficacy of essential oils against different pathogenic mycetes, we have evaluated the in-vitro inhibiting activity of some essential oils and their main constituents against a strain of Candida albicans. Sixteen commercial essential oils and forty-two pure constituents (alcohols, aldehydes, ketons, phenols and hydrocarbons), were tested by using a semisolid agar antifungal susceptibility (SAAS) method. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analyses of the oils tested were performed. The essential oils of Origanum vulgare, Satureja montana, Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon flexuosus showed maximum inhibitory activity (MIC = 500 ppm) after 7 days. According to the results of the examination of pure constituents, beta-phellandrene proved to be the most interesting component among cyclic monoterpenic hydrocarbons as it showed a strong activity (MIC = 50 ppm). The most active of phenols was carvacrol (MIC 100 ppm). The open-chain alcohol 1-decanol was the most active of alcohols at 50 ppm. Finally, among aldehydes, a strong activity was shown by trans-cynnamaldehyde (MIC 50 ppm).

  17. Synthesis of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the major O-antigen component from Pseudomonas syringae pv. ribicola NVPPB 1010.

    PubMed

    Bedini, Emiliano; Barone, Gaspare; Unverzagt, Carlo; Parrilli, Michelangelo

    2004-01-22

    The synthesis of the repeating unit of the major O-antigen component from Pseudomonas syringae pv. ribicola NVPPB 1010 is reported. The strategy used was based on the successive coupling of a trisaccharide rhamnosyl trichloroacetimidate with a rhamnosyl acceptor with a free hydroxyl group on C-2. The pentasaccharide was then obtained by coupling with a N-Troc-tri-O-acetyl-glucosamine trichloroacetimidate. The synthesis allowed the oligomerisation of the repeating unit.

  18. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.

  19. Effect of piperine, a major component of black pepper, on the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in rats.

    PubMed

    Alhumayyd, M S; Bukhari, I A; Almotrefi, A A

    2014-12-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of piperine, a major active ingredient of black pepper, on the pharmacokinetics of domperidone in rats. Animals were given oral (p.o.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) domperidone (20 mg/kg) alone or together with piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.). Plasma samples were collected at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 12 hours after drug administration. The concentration of domperidone in the plasma was measured using a HPLC method. The concomitant administration of piperine with oral or intraperitoneal domperidone resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and the elimination half-life (t1/2) of domperidone as compared to those obtained for domperidone alone. These results suggest that an important pharmacokinetic interaction may occur if piperine is administered concurrently with domperidone. PMID:25554982

  20. Pipa carvalhoi skin secretion profiling: absence of peptides and identification of kynurenic acid as the major constitutive component.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Jared, Carlos; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The presence of peptides has been identified in all African pipid genera; nevertheless, little is known about skin secretion of South American frog genus Pipa. Skin secretion from captive and wild Pipa carvalhoi were obtained in the presence or absence of norepinephrine stimulation. The <10 kDa fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, searching for peptides. Chromatographic profiles show the presence of a major component in this secretion, regardless of the stimulation method (norepinephrine or mechanical stimulation) and the origin of the animal (captivity or wild), as well as in the absence of any stimulus. The general mass distribution profile in P. carvalhoi skin secretion shows numerous components below 800 Da. Moreover, no peptide could be identified, regardless of the chromatographic approach. The major component was purified and identified as kynurenic acid, an L-tryptophan derivative. P. carvalhoi does not secrete peptides as toxins in its skin. In addition, we here report that kynurenic acid is the main component of P. carvalhoi skin secretion. Although no biological activity was associated with kynurenic acid, we propose that this molecule is a pheromone that signals the presence of a co-specific in the shady environment in which this animal lives. In this study we demonstrate the absence of peptidic toxins in the skin secretion of P. carvalhoi, a break of paradigm in the pipid family.

  1. Major components of metabolic syndrome and adiponectin levels: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is a major regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis by its insulin sensitizer properties. Since decreased insulin sensitivity is linked to metabolic syndrome (MS), decreased adiponectin levels may be related to its development. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between adiponectin levels and MS. Methods Firstly, we cross-sectionally examined subjects with or without MS submitted to an oral glucose tolerance test at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (n = 172). A replication analysis was performed in subjects (n = 422) undergoing cardiac angiography at Hospital São Paulo. Subchronic inflammation (US-CRP), coagulation marker (fibrinogen), insulin sensitivity and resistance (Matsuda ISI and HOMA-IR) were estimated. Plasma total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured. Results Total and HMW adiponectin levels were lower in MS subjects (P < 0.05). Total adiponectin levels were lower in the presence of high waist circumference, low HDL-cholesterol and elevated triglyceride criteria in both samples and by elevated blood pressure and glucose criteria in Porto Alegre. HMW adiponectin levels were lower in the presence of low HDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and glucose criteria. Total adiponectin levels were positively related with HDL-cholesterol and ISI Matsuda, negatively related with waist circumference, glucose, triglycerides, HOMA-IR, and US-CRP and not related with blood pressure. While adjusting for sex and age, increased adiponectin levels remained associated with a reduced prevalence ratio for MS in both cohorts (P = 0.001). Conclusions Adiponectin levels decreased with increasing number of MS criteria, and it is in part determined by its relationship with HDL, triglycerides and abdominal adiposity. PMID:24568287

  2. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ~14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  3. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.T.; Salter, M.A.; Harborne, A.R.; Crowley, S.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Wilson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly <2 ??m) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., >4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ???6.1 ?? 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 ??m fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ???14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  4. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chris T; Salter, Michael A; Harborne, Alastair R; Crowley, Stephen F; Jelks, Howard L; Wilson, Rod W

    2011-03-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly < 2 μm) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., > 4 mole % MgCO(3)) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ∼6.1 × 10(6) kg CaCO(3)/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the < 63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ∼14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  5. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  6. [Application of on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) for studying major components in fine particulate matter].

    PubMed

    Fu, Huai-yu; Yan, Cai-qing; Zheng, Mei; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhou Zhen; Fu, Zhong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Based on preliminary studies by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), typical methods for identifying the number of particles (or particle count) for five major components including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in China and abroad were summarized. In this study, combined with the characteristics of single particle mass spectrum by SPAMS, an optimized method is proposed. With field measurement using SPAMS during January 2013 in Beijing, particle counts of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, and EC determined by different methods were compared. The comparison with results of off-line filter analyses for these five components proved that the method proposed in this study is comparable and optimized. We also suggest factors needed to be considered in future application of SPAMS and other areas that require in-depth research. PMID:25639078

  7. Host cell-induced components of the sulfate assimilation pathway are major protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R; West, Nicholas P; Leyh, Thomas S; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A

    2013-03-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans. PMID:23225904

  8. Host Cell–Induced Components of the Sulfate Assimilation Pathway Are Major Protective Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R.; West, Nicholas P.; Leyh, Thomas S.; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A.

    2013-01-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5′-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans. PMID:23225904

  9. [Application of on-line single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) for studying major components in fine particulate matter].

    PubMed

    Fu, Huai-yu; Yan, Cai-qing; Zheng, Mei; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Yan-jun; Zhou Zhen; Fu, Zhong; Li, Mei; Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuan-Hang

    2014-11-01

    Based on preliminary studies by aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) and single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), typical methods for identifying the number of particles (or particle count) for five major components including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) in China and abroad were summarized. In this study, combined with the characteristics of single particle mass spectrum by SPAMS, an optimized method is proposed. With field measurement using SPAMS during January 2013 in Beijing, particle counts of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, and EC determined by different methods were compared. The comparison with results of off-line filter analyses for these five components proved that the method proposed in this study is comparable and optimized. We also suggest factors needed to be considered in future application of SPAMS and other areas that require in-depth research.

  10. Major components of orange oil inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilm formation, and alter its virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Federman, Cassandra; Ma, Christopher; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-07-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in the dairy industry and does not always respond to antibiotic treatment. The major components of terpeneless, cold-pressed Valencia orange oil - citral, linalool, decanal and valencene - were examined as potential alternative treatments for Staphylococcus aureus-associated mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all four components against S. aureus was determined after incubation for 24 h. Growth inhibition assays were performed for all effective components on S. aureus for either a 3 h or 72 h treatment. These components were tested for the ability to disrupt pre-formed S. aureus biofilms after 24 h of treatment by measuring absorbance at 540 nm. Cytotoxicity against immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells was measured using an MTT assay following a 1 h exposure. Only concentrations below the 50 % cytostatic concentration (CC50) were used in an adherence and invasion assay of S. aureus on MAC-T cells, and for measurements of virulence and biofilm gene expression via qPCR. The MICs of citral and linalool were 0.02 % and 0.12 %, respectively, but decanal and valencene were ineffective. Citral and linalool were capable of inhibiting growth of S. aureus after 24 h at their MIC values and inhibited pre-formed biofilms of S. aureus . The concentrations below the CC50 were 0.02 % for citral and 0.12 % for linalool. These concentrations inhibited the adhesion and invasion ability of S. aureus and downregulated virulence genes. Only 0.12 % linalool downregulated the expression of S. aureus biofilm-forming genes. These components should be considered for further in vivo study. PMID:27259704

  11. Structure elucidation of Sch 20562, a glucosidic cyclic dehydropeptide lactone--the major component of W-10 antifungal antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Afonso, A; Hon, F; Brambilla, R

    1999-04-01

    A novel bacterium designated as Aeromonas sp. W-10 produces the antibiotic W-10 complex which comprises of two major and several minor components. The two major components from this complex, Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (1a), are of biological interest in view of their potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies utilized for the assignment of structure 1 for Sch 20562 are described here. Some of the noteworthy diversity of structural features in this glucosidic cyclic dehydrononapeptide lactone 1 are: an N-terminal (D)-beta-hydroxymyristyl unit, three D-amino acid units, two (E)-alpha-aminocrotonyl units, and an O-alpha-D-glucosyl-N-methyl-L-allo-threonine unit. The structure determination of 1 utilized the selective cleavage of the dehydropeptide units by ozonolysis to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The stereochemistry of the amino acid units were assigned by isolation of the free amino acids from the hydrolysates of the fragments. The stereochemistry of the alpha-aminocrotonyl units and the glucosidic linkage were assigned by nmr spectroscopy and molecular rotation data.

  12. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  13. Antioxidant activities of Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract and its major component dihydromyricetin in soybean oil and cooked ground beef.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liyun; Wang, Hengjian; Duncan, Susan E; Eigel, William N; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-04-01

    Antioxidant activities of Ampelopsis grossedentata extract (EXT) and its major component dihydromyricetin (DHM) were analysed and compared with BHA in two model systems, soybean oil and cooked ground beef. Oxidation of soybean oil samples was measured using peroxide value, anisidine value, headspace volatiles and headspace oxygen content. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) test was used to measure the oxidation of cooked beef. DHM was more potent than BHA in preventing soybean oil oxidation. EXT was not as effective as BHA or DHM in soybean oil. In cooked beef, all three antioxidants significantly lowered oxidation compared to control, but there were no differences between the three. Mechanisms and potentials of EXT and DHM as natural food antioxidants need to be studied on a case-by-case basis.

  14. Structure elucidation of Sch 20561, a cyclic dehydropeptide lactone--a major component of W-10 antifungal antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Afonso, A; Hon, F; Brambilla, R; Puar, M S

    1999-04-01

    Antibiotic W-10 is a fermentation complex produced by the bacterium Aeromonas sp. W-10. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactones Sch 20562 (1) and Sch 20561 (2) are the major components of this fermentation complex and are of biological interest in view of their unique structural features and potent antifungal activity. The chemical degradation studies that were utilized in the assignment of structure 2 for Sch 20561 are described here. The structure determination of 2 made use of the ozonolytic cleavage of the dehydropeptide units to form fragments that were sequenced by mass spectrometry. The cyclic dehydropeptide lactone Sch 20561 (2) was found to be the aglycone of Sch 20562 (1) and these two natural products were correlated by a chemical transformation involving the deglucosidation of 1 to form 2.

  15. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  16. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  17. Identification of (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan as the major carbohydrate component of the Malassezia sympodialis cell wall.

    PubMed

    Kruppa, Michael D; Lowman, Douglas W; Chen, Yu-Han; Selander, Christine; Scheynius, Annika; Monteiro, Mario A; Williams, David L

    2009-12-14

    Members of the genus Malassezia are commensal fungi found on the skin of both human and domestic animals and are associated with skin diseases including dandruff/seborrheic dermatitis, pityriasis versicolor, and atopic eczema (AE) in humans. In this study we have characterized the cell-wall carbohydrates of Malassezia sympodialis, one of the species most frequently isolated from both AE patients and healthy individuals. Cells were grown in liquid Dixon media at 32 degrees C, harvested, and processed using a standard Fehling's precipitation methodology for the isolation of mannan and a standard base/acid extraction for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Using these classic extraction methods we were unable to isolate precipitable mannan or insoluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan. However, acidification and addition of methanol to the remaining Fehling's-treated sample resulted in a very clean precipitate. This material was characterized by GPC-MALLS, 1D and 2D NMR, and GC-MS for monomer-type and linkage-type composition. We determined that trace amounts of both mannan and branched (1-->3, 1-->6)-beta-D-glucan were present in the recovered precipitate, but not linear (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan. Surprisingly, NMR analysis indicated that (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan was the major carbohydrate component isolated from M. sympodialis cell wall. GC-MS linkage analysis confirmed the (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan structure. Based on these studies we have determined that the M. sympodialis cell wall contains (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan as the major carbohydrate component along with trace amounts of mannan and (1-->3, 1-->6)-beta-d-glucan. In addition, these data indicate that modification of the classic mannan isolation methodology may be useful in the simultaneous isolation of both mannan and (1-->6)-beta-D-glucan from other fungi. PMID:19853245

  18. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  19. Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on incretin hormones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that this is mediated by incretin hormones by measuring the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and coffee components on GLP-1 and GIP concentrations. A randomized cross-over trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo on total and intact GLP-1 and GIP concentrations during an oral glucose tolerance test took place in fifteen overweight men. No treatment significantly affected the overall GLP-1 or GIP secretion pattern following an OGTT relative to placebo. Decaffeinated coffee slightly increased total GLP-1 concentration 30 minutes after ingestion (before the OGTT) relative to placebo (2.7 pmol/L, p = 0.03), but this change did not correspond with changes in glucose or insulin secretion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that coffee acutely improves glucose tolerance through effects on the secretion of incretin hormones. Chronic effects of coffee and its major components still need to be investigated. PMID:21299855

  20. Structural/functional properties of a mammalian multi-component structure containing all major spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles.

    PubMed Central

    Moraitou, M; Patrinou-Georgoula, M; Guialis, A

    1998-01-01

    An approx. 40 S multi-component structure, consisting of all major spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNP) (U1, U2, U4/U6 and U5) in stable association with a large number of polypeptides, mainly in the range 50-210 kDa, has been reported to exist within rat liver nuclear extracts [Guialis, Moraitou, Patrinou-Georgoula and Dangli (1991) Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 287-296]. Using a new polyclonal antibody recognizing a 63 kDa protein component of the complex, this multi-snRNP assembly was detected within rat liver nuclear extracts as efficiently as with the antibody for the U2 snRNP-specific B' polypeptide. The 63 kDa protein was found to correspond to the 66 kDa subunit of the splicing factor SF3a, a known integral component of the HeLa 17 S U2 snRNP. Anti-2,2,7-trimethylguanosine affinity chromatography was an easy and efficient way of purifying the multi-snRNP complex from rat liver 40 S heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (hnRNP)-containing sucrose gradient fractions. By subsequent glycerol-gradient sedimentation, all known snRNP forms active in RNA splicing were identified among its constituents. A complex structurally similar to the rat multi-snRNP was also identified in HeLa nuclear extracts. Preservation of hnRNP-snRNP interactions was observed within HeLa 40 S fractions. Moreover, these fractions were capable of restoring splicing activity when applied in reconstitution studies to supplement a micrococcal nuclease-treated splicing extract. PMID:9576861

  1. Plastoglobules in algae: A comprehensive comparative study of the presence of major structural and functional components in complex plastids.

    PubMed

    Lohscheider, Jens N; Río Bártulos, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Plastoglobules (PG) are lipophilic droplets attached to thylakoid membranes in higher plants and green algae and are implicated in prenyl lipid biosynthesis. They might also represent a central hub for integration of plastid signals under stress and therefore the adaptation of the thylakoid membrane under such conditions. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PG contain around 30 specific proteins of which Fibrillins (FBN) and Activity of bc1 complex kinases (ABC1K) represent the majority with respect to both number and protein mass. However, nothing is known about the presence of PG in most algal species, which are responsible for about 50% of global primary production. Therefore, we searched the genomes of publicly available algal genomes for components of PG and the associated functional network in order to predict their presence and potential evolutionary conservation of physiological functions. We could identify homologous sequences for core components of PG, like FBN and ABC1K, in most investigated algal species. Furthermore, proteins at central and interesting positions within the PG functional coexpression network were identified. Phylogenetic sequence analysis revealed diversity within FBN and ABC1K sequences among algal species with complex plastids of the red lineage and large differences compared with green lineage species. Two types of FBN were detected that differ in their isoelectric point which seems to correlate with subcellular localization. Subgroups of FBN were shared between many investigated species and modeling of their 3D-structure implied a conserved structure. FBN and ABC1K are essential structural and functional components of PG. Their occurrence in investigated algal species suggests presence of PG therein and functions in prenyl lipid metabolism and adaptation of the thylakoid membrane that are conserved during evolution. PMID:27373732

  2. One-Step Detection of Major Lipid Components in Submicroliter Volumes of Unpurified Liposome and Cell Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2016-07-19

    Liposomes and cells have high lipid contents, which are the main components of the external and internal membranes. Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used in the analysis of the lipids present in the biological matrixes. However, MS analysis of liposome and cell suspensions is challenging due to the presence of other high-abundance matrix components (e.g., salts, buffers, and growth media) that cause ion suppression. These interfering species would normally be removed by dialysis or centrifugation. Here we propose a simple and fast method to detect major lipid components in cells and cell suspensions by MS while circumventing dialysis and centrifugation. Capillary hydrodynamic chromatography (HDC) has been coupled online with the aid of an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. Complex samples containing bioparticles and a large amount of potential interferences (buffer, inorganic salts, amino acids) were separated hydrodynamically, detected optically (by light absorption/scattering), and immediately transferred to the MS interface. Liposomes and animal cells are disintegrated during electrospray, and the constituent lipids are ionized. The signal-to-noise ratios are ∼10× higher in HDC-ESI-MS than in direct infusion ESI-MS experiments (with or without dilution). This method has been tested on liposomes (containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol) and four types of animal/human cells, i.e., mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7), human breast cancer cells (T47D and Hs578T), and mouse preadipocyte cells (3T3-L1). We suggest that HDC-ESI-MS can be used in quality control analyses of bioparticle suspensions in the fields of biotechnology, molecular biology, drug discovery, and cosmetics. PMID:27337108

  3. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components. PMID:24427941

  4. In vitro inhibitory effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its major components on chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Vongsak, Boonyadist; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves and its major constituents, crypto-chlorogenic acid, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, were investigated on the respiratory burst of human whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. The chemotactic migration of PMNs was also investigated using the Boyden chamber technique. The ethanol extract demonstrated inhibitory activities on the oxidative burst and the chemotactic migration of PMNs. Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, crypto-chlorogenic acid, and kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, isolated from the extract, expressed relatively strong inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of PMNs with IC50 values of 4.1, 6.7 and 7.0 microM, respectively, comparable with that of aspirin. They also demonstrated strong inhibition of chemotatic migration of PMNs with IC50 values of 9.5, 15.9 and 18.2 microM, respectively. The results suggest that M. oleifera leaves could modulate the immune response of human phagocytes, linking to its ethnopharmacological use as an anti-inflammatory agent. The immunomodulating activity of the plant was mainly due to its major components.

  5. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of the precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.

  6. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  7. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  8. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  9. Microtubule-associated protein tau (tau) is a major antigenic component of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kosik, K S; Joachim, C L; Selkoe, D J

    1986-01-01

    The detailed protein composition of the paired helical filaments (PHF) that accumulate in human neurons in aging and Alzheimer disease is unknown. However, the identity of certain components has been surmised by using immunocytochemical techniques. Whereas PHF share epitopes with neurofilament proteins and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) 2, we report evidence that the MAP tau (tau) appears to be their major antigenic component. Immunization of rabbits with NaDodSO4-extracted, partially purified PHF (free of normal cytoskeletal elements, including tau) consistently produces antibodies to tau but not, for example, to neurofilaments. Such PHF antibodies label all of the heterogeneous fetal and mature forms of tau from rat and human brain. Absorption of PHF antisera with heat-stable MAPs (rich in tau) results in almost complete loss of staining of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in human brain sections. An affinity-purified antibody to tau specifically labels NFT and the neurites of senile plaques in human brain sections as well as NaDodSO4-extracted NFT. tau-Immunoreactive NFT frequently extend into the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons, suggesting an aberrant intracellular locus for this axonal protein. tau and PHF antibodies label tau proteins identically on electrophoretic transfer blots and stain the gel-excluded protein representing NaDodSO4-insoluble PHF in homogenates of human brain. The progressive accumulation of altered tau protein in neurons in Alzheimer disease may result in instability of microtubules, consequent loss of effective transport of molecules and organelles, and, ultimately, neuronal death. Images PMID:2424016

  10. How Composers Compose: In Search of the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Bernard W.

    2004-01-01

    The Genesis Project is a multi-phase research project designed for the purpose of developing an in-depth understanding of the nature of musical creativity by investigating how composers compose. In this first phase of the project, an understanding of the four dimensions of musical creativity: (1) the "person", (2) the compositional "process", (3)…

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Applications of Melittin, a Major Component of Bee Venom: Detailed Mechanism of Action and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon triggered by the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. The phenomenon normally leads to recovery from infection and healing, but when not properly phased, inflammation may cause immune disorders. Bee venom is a toxin that bees use for their protection from enemies. However, for centuries it has been used in the Orient as an anti-inflammatory medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Bee venom and its major component, melittin, are potential means of reducing excessive immune responses and provide new alternatives for the control of inflammatory diseases. Recent experimental studies show that the biological functions of melittin could be applied for therapeutic use in vitro and in vivo. Reports verifying the therapeutic effects of melittin are accumulating in the literature, but the cellular mechanism(s) of the anti-inflammatory effects of melittin are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we review the current knowledge on the therapeutic effects of melittin and its detailed mechanisms of action against several inflammatory diseases including skin inflammation, neuroinflammation, atherosclerosis, arthritis and liver inflammation, its adverse effects as well as future prospects regarding the use of melittin. PMID:27187328

  12. Structural and spectroscopic characterization and Hirshfeld surface analysis of major component of antibiotic mupirocin - pseudomonic acid A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarska, J.; Maniukiewicz, W.; Fruziński, A.; Jędrzejczyk, M.; Wojciechowski, J.; Krawczyk, H.

    2014-11-01

    The crystal structure of pseudomonic acid A, the major component of antibiotic mupirocin, was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data at low temperature (100 K). The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21, with unit cell dimensions a = 12.4844(5), b = 5.0313(2), c = 21.5251(9) Å and β = 101.730(2)°, Z = 2. The molecules associate in dimers in head-to-tail motif through strong Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds packed in the parallel arrangement along crystallographic axis b. Additionally, relatively weak Csbnd H⋯O and Csbnd H⋯π interactions form 3-D hydrogen bond framework. From the Hirshfeld surfaces and 2-D fingerprint analysis it was found that the subtle interactions, such as H⋯H, associating two-thirds of the all intercontacts, provide extra stabilization in addition to the presence of the mentioned above strong hydrogen bonds. The electrostatic potential mapped over the Hirshfeld surface visualizes electrostatic complementarities in the crystal packing. Results of X-ray diffraction and Monte Carlo methods reveal two conformations of n-alkyl chain of pseudomonic acid A, extended in the single-crystal and folded in the liquid state. A detailed interpretation of the FT-IR and NMR spectra were also reported. The TG and DTG results indicated that pseudomonic acid A is stable up to 210 °C.

  13. Potential Effects of Silymarin and Its Flavonolignan Components in Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: A Comprehensive Review in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Aliasgharian, Aily; Jalali, Hossein; Hadian Amree, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Major β-thalassemia (β-TM) is one of the most common inherited hemolytic types of anemia which is caused as a result of absent or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of hemoglobin. This defect results in red blood cells lysis and chronic anemia that can be treated by multiple blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. Without iron chelation therapy, iron overload will cause lots of complications in patients. Antioxidant components play an important role in the treatment of the disease. Silymarin is an antioxidant flavonoid isolated from Silybum marianum plant. In the present study, we reviewed clinical and experimental studies investigating the use of silymarin prior to September 1, 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Scopus, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases and we evaluated the potential effects of silymarin on controlling the complications induced by iron overload in patients with β-TM. Based on the results of the present study, we can conclude that silymarin may be useful as an adjuvant for improving multiple organ dysfunctions. PMID:26997953

  14. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. Cupulin Is a Zona Pellucida-Like Domain Protein and Major Component of the Cupula from the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Dernedde, Jens; Weise, Christoph; Müller, Eva-Christina; Hagiwara, Akira; Bachmann, Sebastian; Suzuki, Mamoru; Reutter, Werner; Tauber, Rudolf; Scherer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular membranes of the inner ear are essential constituents to maintain sensory functions, the cupula for sensing torsional movements of the head, the otoconial membrane for sensing linear movements and accelerations like gravity, and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea for hearing. So far a number of structural proteins have been described, but for the gelatinous cupula precise data are missing. Here, we describe for the first time a major proteinogenic component of the cupula structure with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa from salmon. Analyses of respective peptides revealed highly conserved amino-acid sequences with identity to zona pellucida-like domain proteins. Immunohistochemistry studies localized the protein in the ampulla of the inner ear from salmon and according to its anatomical appearance we identified this glycoprotein as Cupulin. Future research on structure and function of zona pellucida-like domain proteins will enhance our knowledge of inner ear diseases, like sudden loss of vestibular function and other disturbances. PMID:25369234

  16. Cupulin is a zona pellucida-like domain protein and major component of the cupula from the inner ear.

    PubMed

    Dernedde, Jens; Weise, Christoph; Müller, Eva-Christina; Hagiwara, Akira; Bachmann, Sebastian; Suzuki, Mamoru; Reutter, Werner; Tauber, Rudolf; Scherer, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular membranes of the inner ear are essential constituents to maintain sensory functions, the cupula for sensing torsional movements of the head, the otoconial membrane for sensing linear movements and accelerations like gravity, and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea for hearing. So far a number of structural proteins have been described, but for the gelatinous cupula precise data are missing. Here, we describe for the first time a major proteinogenic component of the cupula structure with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa from salmon. Analyses of respective peptides revealed highly conserved amino-acid sequences with identity to zona pellucida-like domain proteins. Immunohistochemistry studies localized the protein in the ampulla of the inner ear from salmon and according to its anatomical appearance we identified this glycoprotein as Cupulin. Future research on structure and function of zona pellucida-like domain proteins will enhance our knowledge of inner ear diseases, like sudden loss of vestibular function and other disturbances.

  17. Acute Effects of Decaffeinated Coffee and the Major Coffee Components Chlorogenic Acid and Trigonelline on Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Aimée E.; Olthof, Margreet R.; Meeuse, Joke C.; Seebus, Elin; Heine, Rob J.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Coffee consumption has been associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a randomized crossover trial of the effects of 12 g decaffeinated coffee, 1 g chlorogenic acid, 500 mg trigonelline, and placebo (1 g mannitol) on glucose and insulin concentrations during a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 15 overweight men. RESULTS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline ingestion significantly reduced glucose (−0.7 mmol/l, P = 0.007, and −0.5 mmol/l, P = 0.024, respectively) and insulin (−73 pmol/l, P = 0.038, and −117 pmol/l, P = 0.007) concentrations 15 min following an OGTT compared with placebo. None of the treatments affected insulin or glucose area under the curve values during the OGTT compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline reduced early glucose and insulin responses during an OGTT. PMID:19324944

  18. Complete amino acid sequence of the major component myoglobin from the goose-beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris.

    PubMed

    Lehman, L D; Jones, B N; Dwulet, F E; Bogardt, R A; Gurd, F R

    1980-10-21

    The complete primary structure of the major component myoglobin from the goose-beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris, was determined by specific cleavage of the protein to obtain large peptides which are readily degraded by the automatic sequencer. Over 80% of the amino acid sequence was established from the three peptides resulting from the cleavage of the apomyoglobin at its two methionine residues with cyanogen bromide along with the four peptides resulting from the cleavage with trypsin of the citraconylated apomyoglobin at its three arginine residues. Further digestion of the central cyanogen bromide peptide with S. aureus strain V8 protease and the 1,2-cyclohexanedione-treated central cyanogen bromide peptide with trypsin enabled the determination of the remainder of the covalent structure. This myoglobin differs from the cetacean myoglobins determined to date at 12 to 17 positions. These large sequence differences reflect the distant taxonomic relationships between the goose-beaked whale and the other species of Cetacea the myoglobin sequences of which have previously been determined.

  19. Lemnitoxin, the major component of Micrurus lemniscatus coral snake venom, is a myotoxic and pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Casais-E-Silva, Luciana L; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Lebrun, Ivo; Lomonte, Bruno; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María

    2016-08-22

    The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin. This PLA2 is antigenically related to M. nigrocinctus nigroxin, Notechis scutatus notexin, Pseudechis australis mulgotoxin, and Pseudonaja textilis textilotoxin, as demonstrated with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Lemnitoxin is highly selective in its targeting of cells, being cytotoxic for differentiated myotubes in vitro and muscle fibers in vivo, but not for undifferentiated myoblasts or endothelial cells. Lemnitoxin is not lethal after intravenous injection at doses up to 2μg/g in mice, evidencing its lack of significant neurotoxicity. Lemnitoxin displays anticoagulant effect on human plasma and proinflammatory activity also, as it induces paw edema and mast cell degranulation. Thus, the results of this work demonstrate that Lemnitoxin is a potent myotoxic and proinflammatory class I PLA2. PMID:27282409

  20. myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate is a major component of an extracellular structure in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed Central

    Irigoín, Florencia; Ferreira, Fernando; Fernández, Cecilia; Sim, Robert B; Díaz, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) is an abundant intracellular component of animal cells. In this study we describe the presence of extracellular IP(6) in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The HCW comprises an inner cellular layer and an outer, acellular (laminated) layer up to 2 mm in thickness that protects the parasite from host immune cells. A compound, subsequently identified as IP(6), was detected in and purified from an HCW extract on the basis of its capacity to inhibit complement activation. The identification of the isolated compound was carried out by a combination of NMR, MS and TLC. The majority of IP(6) in the HCW was found in the acellular layer, with only a small fraction of the compound being extracted from cells. In the laminated layer, IP(6) was present in association with calcium, and accounted for up to 15% of the total dry mass of the HCW. IP(6) was not detected in any other structures or stages of the parasite. Our results imply that IP(6) is secreted by the larval stage of the parasite in a polarized fashion towards the interface with the host. This is the first report of the secretion of IP(6), and the possible implications beyond the biology of E. granulosus are discussed. PMID:11853537

  1. Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer with black raspberries, their component anthocyanins, and a major anthocyanin metabolite, protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Daniel S; Zimmerman, Noah P; Wang, Li-Shu; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Carmella, Steven G; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Siddiqui, Jibran; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hecht, Stephen S; Stoner, Gary D

    2014-06-01

    Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (ACs) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats. The present study was conducted to determine whether PCA, a major microbial metabolite of black raspberry (BRB) ACs, also prevents NMBA-induced esophageal cancer in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for 5 weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRBs, an anthocyanin (AC)-enriched fraction derived from BRBs, or protocatechuic acid (PCA). Animals were exsanguinated at weeks 15, 25, and 35 to quantify the development of preneoplastic lesions and tumors in the esophagus, and to relate this to the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. At weeks 15 and 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC and PCA diets. Furthermore, all experimental diets inhibited inflammation in the esophagus via reducing biomarker (COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB, and sEH) and cytokine (PTX3) expression. Overall, our data suggest that BRBs, their component ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, at least in part, by their inhibitory effects on genes associated with inflammation.

  2. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  3. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  4. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam. PMID:26911626

  5. A Novel Karyoskeletal Protein: Characterization of Protein NO145, the Major Component of Nucleolar Cortical Skeleton in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kneissel, Sandra; Franke, Werner W.; Gall, Joseph G.; Heid, Hans; Reidenbach, Sonja; Schnölzer, Martina; Spring, Herbert; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Schmidt-Zachmann, Marion S.

    2001-01-01

    The nucleolus is a ubiquitous, mostly spheroidal nuclear structure of all protein-synthesizing cells, with a well-defined functional compartmentalization. Although a number of nonribosomal proteins involved in ribosome formation have been identified, the elements responsible for the shape and internal architecture of nucleoli are still largely unknown. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel protein, NO145, which is a major and specific component of a nucleolar cortical skeleton resistant to high salt buffers. The amino acid sequence of this polypeptide with a SDS-PAGE mobility corresponding to Mr 145,000 has been deduced from a cDNA clone isolated from a Xenopus laevis ovary expression library and defines a polypeptide of 977 amino acids with a calculated mass of 111 kDa, with partial sequence homology to a synaptonemal complex protein, SCP2. Antibodies specific for this protein have allowed its recognition in immunoblots of karyoskeleton-containing fractions of oocytes from different Xenopus species and have revealed its presence in all stages of oogenesis, followed by a specific and rapid degradation during egg formation. Immunolocalization studies at the light and electron microscopic level have shown that protein NO145 is exclusively located in a cage-like cortical structure around the entire nucleolus, consisting of a meshwork of patches and filaments that dissociates upon reduction of divalent cations. We propose that protein NO145 contributes to the assembly of a karyoskeletal structure specific for the nucleolar cortex of the extrachromosomal nucleoli of Xenopus oocytes, and we discuss the possibility that a similar structure is present in other cells and species. PMID:11739789

  6. Syllabus for a Women Studies Course on Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah

    An upper division college-level course dealing with women composers for both music majors and nonmusic majors is outlined. The course provides an historical and analytical survey of western music through works composed by women, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Students listen to music, participate in class discussions, and listen to…

  7. Variability of major organic components in aircraft fuels. Volume 2. Illustrations. Interim report December 1982-November 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, B.M.; Hess, G.G.; Simon, K.; Mazer, S.; Ross, W.D.

    1984-06-27

    This report summarizes qualitative and quantitative data on the chemical variability of approximately 300 features (chemical components or mixtures of components) with concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/ml in Air Force distillate fuels obtained from over 50 sources. These data wer

  8. Associations of major and trace components in time-series settling particle samples from Cuenca Alfonso, SW Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, A. P.; Shumilin, E.; Silverberg, N.; Morton-Bermea, O.; Hernandez-Alvarez, E.; Aguirre-Bahena, F.

    2007-12-01

    Cuenca Alfonso is a natural sedimentation basin in Bahía de La Paz, southern Baja California Peninsula, an arid subtropical region characterized by limited land runoff with a productive surface layer overlying a well-developed Oxygen Minimum Zone. A time-series sediment trap program was initiated in 2002 to help understand the processes controlling variations in the biogeochemistry of this environment. INAA, ICP-MS and ICP-OES analyses, as well as flame AAS were made for major and trace elements in 105 subsamples of material collected at 350 m depth during 2002-2005. Principal component analysis, including data for organic and inorganic carbon, biogenic silica and the lithogenic fraction, yielded four factors. Factor 1 (25% of the total variance) showed high eigenvalues for the classical terrigenous aluminosilicate elements: Al, Fe, Mn Sc. High loadings also occurred for the group of light to medium REEs (except for Eu). The latter are frequently associated with acid source rocks, such the granites and rhyolitic volcanics exposed on the margin of the bay. Factor 2 (18%) grouped mainly REEs, with high loading on the heavier members of the series that are more typical of basic rocks (thick sequences of andesitic volcanics occur to the NW), as well as Ni and Rb. Factor 3 (12%) appears to represent carbonate organism production, with high loadings for Cinorg, Ca and moderate levels for Corg and Cu, while %litho is moderately negative, as is biogenic silica. The fourth factor (9%) is characterized by high negative loadings for Cd, Co, Se and moderately negative values for Corg. Moderate positive loadings occur only for Sr and, at lower levels, for U, Sb and %lithogenic. This suggests that this grouping is related to particles that have been partially transformed within the Oxygen Minimum Zone. The results will be examined for distinctive periods within the time-series, such as the hurricane-influenced months of August-September 2003, the generally very low fluxes

  9. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  10. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  11. Guidelines for Coaching Student Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching students how to compose music. Addresses issues, such as how to get the students started and types of questions to ask students about their compositions. Discusses the musical elements involved in composition, such as melody, harmony, rhythm and meter, timbre, texture, and formal design. (CMK)

  12. Biochemical and genetic characterization of ChiA, the major enzyme component for the solubilization of chitin by Cellulomonas uda.

    PubMed

    Reguera, Gemma; Leschine, Susan B

    2003-12-01

    Cellulomonas uda efficiently solubilized chitinous substrates with a simple chitinase system composed of an endochitinase, designated ChiA, which hydrolyzed insoluble substrates into long-chain chitooligosaccharides, and an as yet uncharacterized exochitinase activity. ChiA, isolated from culture supernatant fluids, was found to be a glycosylated endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 70 kDa and pI of 8.5. The gene encoding ChiA was cloned in Escherichia coli and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 1,716 bp encoding a 571-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 59.2 kDa. The region upstream of chiA included a conserved -35 hexamer flanked by two direct repeats analogous to those found in many Streptomyces chitinase promoters, and thought to function as binding sequences for regulatory proteins. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence showed a modular protein consisting of a signal peptide at its N terminus, a family 2 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM2) that was closely related to the substrate-binding domains of glycosyl hydrolases from distantly related bacteria, and a family 18 glycosyl hydrolase catalytic module related to Streptomyces chitinases. In contrast to the fibronectin type III domains of Streptomyces chitinases, the linker region between modules in ChiA consisted of a long proline- and threonine-rich module, thought to contribute to the glycosylation and flexibility of the mature protein.

  13. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  14. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  15. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products. PMID:27507530

  16. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products.

  17. Reciprocal relationship between the major EEG rhythms and latencies of evoked potential intermediate components. A tentative explanation.

    PubMed

    Liberson, W T

    1989-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that there is a reciprocal relationship between the known brain wave rhythms (delta, 3.3 c/sec, 5 c/sec, theta, alpha, spindle, and beta) on the one hand, and the averaged evoked potential mid component latencies, on the other. In other words, the latter are closely related to the periods of the known brain wave frequencies. In this paper we offer a hypothetical explanation of this puzzling relationship, by assuming the following: 1) Whenever the fastest component of a sensory signal reaches the cortex it depresses EEG except for those waves of different frequencies which at that very instant exhibit a high amplitude peak of a preferential polarity. One half period later, different in real time for each brain wave frequency, high amplitude peaks will emerge from the record with opposite polarity to that which was preferential at the time of the signals' arrival. These segmental peaks are the same as those that express evoked potential components of mid latencies. For the somatosensory evoked potentials the time of occurrence of these peaks are defined by the following expression: (Formula; see text) where N is equal to successive numbers between 1 and 12, as well as to the fractions of 1; 20 msec is the moment of arrival of the fastest signal to the cortex. Some of the latencies correspond to the arrival of the delayed components of the somatosensory signals. Some correspond to the time of arrival of the auditory and visual signals, in an apparent expectation of multi-sensory signals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2606068

  18. Comparative Fluorescence Resonance Energy-Transfer Study in Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelle and Niosome Composed of Biological Component Cholesterol: An Investigation of Effect of Cholesterol and Sucrose on the FRET Parameters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-01-14

    The formation of pluronic triblock copolymer (F127)-cholesterol-based niosome and its interaction with sugar (sucrose) molecules have been investigated. The morphology of F127-cholesterol -based niosome in the presence of sucrose has been successfully demonstrated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The DLS profiles and TEM images clearly suggest that the size of the niosome aggregates increases significantly in the presence of sucrose. In addition to structural characterization, a detailed comparative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study has been carried out in these F127-containing aggregates, involving coumarin 153 (C153) as donor (D) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as an acceptor (A) to monitor the dynamic heterogeneity of the systems. Besides, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to monitor the rotational and lateral diffusion motion in these F127-cholesterol-based aggregates using C153 and R6G, respectively. During the course of FRET study, we have observed multiple time constants of FRET inside the F127-cholesterol-based niosomes in contrast with the F127 micelle. This corresponds to the presence of more than one preferential donor-acceptor (D-A) distance in niosomes than in F127 micelle. FRET has also been successfully used to probe the effect of sucrose on the morphology of F127-cholesterol-based niosome. In the presence of sucrose, the time constant of FRET further increases as the D-A distances increase in sucrose-decorated niosome. Finally, the excitation-wavelength-dependent FRET studies have indicated that as the excitation of donor molecules varies from 408 to 440 nm the contribution of the faster rise component of the acceptor enhances considerably, which clearly establishes the dynamics heterogeneity of both systems. Our findings also indicate that FRET is completely intravesicular in nature in these block copolymer

  19. Comparative Fluorescence Resonance Energy-Transfer Study in Pluronic Triblock Copolymer Micelle and Niosome Composed of Biological Component Cholesterol: An Investigation of Effect of Cholesterol and Sucrose on the FRET Parameters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-01-14

    The formation of pluronic triblock copolymer (F127)-cholesterol-based niosome and its interaction with sugar (sucrose) molecules have been investigated. The morphology of F127-cholesterol -based niosome in the presence of sucrose has been successfully demonstrated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. The DLS profiles and TEM images clearly suggest that the size of the niosome aggregates increases significantly in the presence of sucrose. In addition to structural characterization, a detailed comparative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study has been carried out in these F127-containing aggregates, involving coumarin 153 (C153) as donor (D) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) as an acceptor (A) to monitor the dynamic heterogeneity of the systems. Besides, time-resolved anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy measurements have been carried out to monitor the rotational and lateral diffusion motion in these F127-cholesterol-based aggregates using C153 and R6G, respectively. During the course of FRET study, we have observed multiple time constants of FRET inside the F127-cholesterol-based niosomes in contrast with the F127 micelle. This corresponds to the presence of more than one preferential donor-acceptor (D-A) distance in niosomes than in F127 micelle. FRET has also been successfully used to probe the effect of sucrose on the morphology of F127-cholesterol-based niosome. In the presence of sucrose, the time constant of FRET further increases as the D-A distances increase in sucrose-decorated niosome. Finally, the excitation-wavelength-dependent FRET studies have indicated that as the excitation of donor molecules varies from 408 to 440 nm the contribution of the faster rise component of the acceptor enhances considerably, which clearly establishes the dynamics heterogeneity of both systems. Our findings also indicate that FRET is completely intravesicular in nature in these block copolymer

  20. The N-Reductive System Composed of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Component (mARC), Cytochrome b5 (CYB5B) and Cytochrome b5 Reductase (CYB5R) Is Regulated by Fasting and High Fat Diet in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jakobs, Heyka H.; Mikula, Michal; Havemeyer, Antje; Strzalkowska, Adriana; Borowa-Chmielak, Monika; Dzwonek, Artur; Gajewska, Marta; Hennig, Ewa E.; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Clement, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is the fourth mammalian molybdenum enzyme. The protein is capable of reducing N-oxygenated structures, but requires cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase for electron transfer to catalyze such reactions. It is well accepted that the enzyme is involved in N-reductive drug metabolism such as the activation of amidoxime prodrugs. However, the endogenous function of the protein is not fully understood. Among other functions, an involvement in lipogenesis is discussed. To study the potential involvement of the protein in energy metabolism, we tested whether the mARC protein and its partners are regulated due to fasting and high fat diet in mice. We used qRT-PCR for expression studies, Western Blot analysis to study protein levels and an N-reductive biotransformation assay to gain activity data. Indeed all proteins of the N-reductive system are regulated by fasting and its activity decreases. To study the potential impact of these changes on prodrug activation in vivo, another mice experiment was conducted. Model compound benzamidoxime was injected to mice that underwent fasting and the resulting metabolite of the N-reductive reaction, benzamidine, was determined. Albeit altered in vitro activity, no changes in the metabolite concentration in vivo were detectable and we can dispel concerns that fasting alters prodrug activation in animal models. With respect to high fat diet, changes in the mARC proteins occur that result in increased N-reductive activity. With this study we provide further evidence that the endogenous function of the mARC protein is linked with lipid metabolism. PMID:25144769

  1. Clinical symptoms of major depression are associated with the intensity dependence of auditory event-related potential components.

    PubMed

    Linka, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun; Gastpar, Markus; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller, Bernhard W

    2009-09-30

    The intensity (loudness) dependent amplitude change (IDAP) of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) has been shown to be associated with the outcome of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in major depression. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate associations between clinical symptoms of major depression and the IDAP as an indirect indicator of cortical serotonergic function. We assessed 40 in-patients suffering from a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) prior to antidepressant treatment. Psychometric characteristics of depression were assessed by means of psychiatric rating scales (CGI, HDRS, HAMA, STAI and BDI) and evaluated for associations with auditory evoked P1, N1, P2 as well as P1/N1 and N1/P2 peak to peak amplitude slopes. Our data revealed a positive correlation of the intensity dependent N1 amplitude slope with the degree of certain somatic symptoms of depression: loss of appetite and weight, insomnia, and sexual dysfunction. The results of our study might contribute to a more specific clinical basis in the differential indication of serotonergic versus noradrenergic antidepressants.

  2. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    PubMed

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  3. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of major polyphenol components in rat plasma after oral administration of total flavonoid tablet from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Xiu-Ming; Wang, Si-Huan; Wang, Yi-Ming; Tian, Hui-Fang; Yuan, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong-Yan; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Luo, Guo-An

    2016-07-15

    Total flavonoid tablet from Anemarrhenae Rhizoma (Zhimu tablet), which was made of total polyphenol components extracted from the dried rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. (Zhimu in Chinese), is a novel traditional Chinese medicine prescribed for the treatment of diabetes. Mangiferin (MF) and neomangiferin (NMF) are the two main components detected and determined in Zhimu tablet, accounting for 8.9% of the total weight of each tablet. In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with time-of-flight (TOF) tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to characterize the metabolites of MF and NMF in rat plasmas collected at different time points after oral administration of Zhimu tablet at a dose of 3.63g/kg (corresponding to 270mg/kg MF). Accurate mass measurement was used to determine the elemental composition of metabolites and thus to confirm the proposed structures of identified metabolites. Time points of appearance of some metabolites, such as isomers, were also taken into account during the structure confirmation. A total of 21 potential metabolites were found in rat plasma at different time points, and the metabolic pathways in vivo were involved in hydrolysis, methylation, glucuronide conjugation, glycoside conjugation, sulphation, dehydration and isomerisation. Furthermore, a selective and accurate LC-MS assay method was developed and validated for the quantification of MF in plasma. Semi-quantification of main conjugated metabolites was also performed in order to describe the dynamic metabolism profiles of polyphenol components in Zhimu tablet. MF concentration in plasma reached 1.36±0.47μgmL(-1) about 5.0h after oral administration of Zhimu tablet, which showed a 3.24- and 4.91-fold increase in plasma maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24h of MF compared with those for rats administered with free MF, respectively. The results indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes and

  4. Origanum species native to the island of Crete: in vitro antioxidant characteristics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identification of major polyphenolic components.

    PubMed

    Tair, Asma; Weiss, Erika-Krisztina; Palade, Laurentiu Mihai; Loupassaki, Sofia; Makris, Dimitris P; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Kefalas, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from three Origanum species, including Origanum microphyllum, Origanum dictamnus and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum, native to the island of Crete (southern Greece), were partly fractionated through successive partition with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the fractions obtained were profiled with regard to their major polyphenolic constituents, using liquid chromatography-diode array-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, the antioxidant potency of each fraction was assessed by estimating the antiradical activity (A(AR)) and the hydroxyl free radical scavenging activity (SA(HFR)). The chromatographic analyses revealed a rich profile mainly for the ethyl acetate fractions, composed principally by flavones, which were accompanied by a limited number of phenylpropanoids, flavanones and dihydroflavonols. The highest values of antioxidant activity were displayed by the ethyl acetate extract of O. dictamnus, which also possessed the richest polyphenolic composition.

  5. Biocontrol evaluation of extracts and a major component, clusianone, from Clusia fluminensis Planch. & Triana against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Anholeti, Maria C; Duprat, Rodrigo C; Figueiredo, Maria R; Kaplan, Maria AC; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Ratcliffe, Norman A; Feder, Denise; Paiva, Selma R; Mello, Cicero B

    2015-01-01

    Studies evaluated the effects of hexanic extracts from the fruits and flowers ofClusia fluminensis and the main component of the flower extract, a purified benzophenone (clusianone), against Aedes aegypti. The treatment of larvae with the crude fruit or flower extracts from C. fluminensis did not affect the survival ofAe. aegypti (50 mg/L), however, the flower extracts significantly delayed development of Ae. aegypti. In contrast, the clusianone (50 mg/L) isolate from the flower extract, representing 54.85% of this sample composition, showed a highly significant inhibition of survival, killing 93.3% of the larvae and completely blocking development of Ae. aegypti. The results showed, for the first time, high activity of clusianone against Ae. aegypti that both killed and inhibited mosquito development. Therefore, clusianone has potential for development as a biopesticide for controlling insect vectors of tropical diseases. Future work will elucidate the mode of action of clusianone isolated from C. fluminensis. PMID:26200711

  6. Commentary to the article "Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro".

    PubMed

    Cal, Krzysztof

    2008-03-01

    This note summarises recent studies on skin penetration of terpinen-4-ol, which is the main component of tea tree oil [S.E. Cross, M. Russell, I. Southwell, M.S. Roberts, Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpb.2007.10.002 (in press)]. The influence of different experimental models on obtained skin penetration results is discussed.

  7. Production of pinoresinol diglucoside, pinoresinol monoglucoside, and pinoresinol by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 using mung bean and its major components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Yangwu, Ruiming; Jiang, Huanshi; Che, Jinxin; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-06-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus that has the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application for the biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. When cultivated in mung bean medium, PDG production was significantly improved and pinoresinol monoglucoside (PMG) and pinoresinol (Pin) were also found in the culture medium. In this experiment, starch, protein, and polysaccharides were isolated from mung beans and separately used as the sole substrate in order to explore the mechanism of fermentation and identify the major substrates that attributed to the biotransformation of PDG, PMG, and Pin. The production of PDG, PMG, and Pin was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed using HPLC-MS. Activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) were analyzed and tracked during the cultivation. The reaction system contained the compounds isolated from mung bean in the designed amount. Accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, PDG, PMG, and Pin and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were measured during the bioconversion. PMG was found only when mung bean polysaccharide was analyzed, while production of PDG and Pin were found when both polysaccharide and starch were analyzed. After examining the monosaccharide composition of the mung bean polysaccharide and the effect of the different monosaccharides had on the production of PMG, PDG, and Pin, galactose in mung bean polysaccharide proved to be the major factor that stimulates the production of PMG.

  8. Production of pinoresinol diglucoside, pinoresinol monoglucoside, and pinoresinol by Phomopsis sp. XP-8 using mung bean and its major components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Yangwu, Ruiming; Jiang, Huanshi; Che, Jinxin; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-06-01

    Phomopsis sp. XP-8 is an endophytic fungus that has the ability to produce pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG) in vitro and thus has potential application for the biosynthesis of PDG independent of plants. When cultivated in mung bean medium, PDG production was significantly improved and pinoresinol monoglucoside (PMG) and pinoresinol (Pin) were also found in the culture medium. In this experiment, starch, protein, and polysaccharides were isolated from mung beans and separately used as the sole substrate in order to explore the mechanism of fermentation and identify the major substrates that attributed to the biotransformation of PDG, PMG, and Pin. The production of PDG, PMG, and Pin was monitored using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and confirmed using HPLC-MS. Activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL) were analyzed and tracked during the cultivation. The reaction system contained the compounds isolated from mung bean in the designed amount. Accumulation of phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, PDG, PMG, and Pin and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were measured during the bioconversion. PMG was found only when mung bean polysaccharide was analyzed, while production of PDG and Pin were found when both polysaccharide and starch were analyzed. After examining the monosaccharide composition of the mung bean polysaccharide and the effect of the different monosaccharides had on the production of PMG, PDG, and Pin, galactose in mung bean polysaccharide proved to be the major factor that stimulates the production of PMG. PMID:25805340

  9. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by an ethyl acetate subfraction separated from Polygonum cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Che-Jung; Yeh, Dong-Bor; Chen, Yi-Jie; Lin, Tsuey-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug. PMID:24448066

  10. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus lytic cycle by an ethyl acetate subfraction separated from Polygonum cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Shih-Ying; Yang, Tsai-Hsiu; Chang, Che-Jung; Yeh, Dong-Bor; Chen, Yi-Jie; Lin, Tsuey-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Polygonum cuspidatum is widely used as a medicinal herb in Asia. In this study, we examined the ethyl acetate subfraction F3 obtained from P. cuspidatum root and its major component, emodin, for their capacity to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic cycle. The cell viability was determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method. The expression of EBV lytic proteins was analyzed by immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to assess the EBV DNA replication and the transcription of lytic genes, including BRLF1 and BZLF1. Results showed that the F3 and its major component emodin inhibit the transcription of EBV immediate early genes, the expression of EBV lytic proteins, including Rta, Zta, and EA-D and reduces EBV DNA replication, showing that F3 and emodin are potentially useful as an anti-EBV drug.

  11. Treatment effects of serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants on the intensity dependence of auditory ERP components in major depression.

    PubMed

    Linka, Thomas; Sartory, Gudrun; Wiltfang, Jens; Müller, Bernhard W

    2009-09-29

    The intensity dependent amplitude change of auditory evoked potentials (IDAP), an assumed indicator of the level of central nervous serotonergic neurotransmission, was measured in major depressive disorder (MDD, DSM-IV: 296.2, 296.3; APA 1994) before and after treatment with either a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor antidepressant and compared with the results of a healthy control group. Auditory evoked P1, N1, P2, P1/N1 and N1/P2 peak-to-peak amplitudes were evaluated in 26 in-patients with MDD prior to and after antidepressant treatment with citalopram (24 days, n=14) or reboxetine (25 days, n=12), and in 43 healthy control subjects. Clinical symptoms of MDD were assessed by means of standardized psychiatric rating scales (CGI, HDRS, HAMA and BDI). The IDAP within the control group remained stable over 24 days (N1 amplitude slope retest ANOVA p=.79). Neither applied antidepressants nor decrease of HDRS total score during treatment had a significant effect on the IDAP in the patients' sample. The conclusion that the IDAP does not reflect the temporary depressive state in MDD is discussed.

  12. Anti-sickling potential of a Nigerian herbal formula (ajawaron HF) and the major plant component (Cissus populnea L. CPK).

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Ojo, O O; Omotade, O O; Adeyemo, A A; Olumese, P E; Ogundipe, O O

    2003-12-01

    The anti-sickling activities of the extracts of the roots of a plant Cissus populnea L. (CPK) (a major constituent of a herbal formula Ajawaron HF used in the management of sickle cell disease in south-west Nigeria) has been examined. Phytochemical examination of the extract showed the presence of anthraquinone derivatives, steroidal glycosides and cardiac glycosides. Alkaloids and tannins were completely absent in the CPK extracts. Evaluation of the anti-sickling activity involved the use of both positive (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 5 microg/mL) and negative control (normal saline) for each set of experiments aimed at the inhibition of sodium metabisulphite-induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed non-crisis state sickle-cell patients. The chloroform and water partitioned fractions of the cold methanol extracts of CPK exhibited a 62.2% and 52.9% inhibition of sickling, respectively, at 180 min. The herbal formula (HF) aqueous extract showed the highest anti-sickling activity on a weight by weight basis of all the extracts and fractions tested, giving a 71.4% inhibition of sickling at the end of 180 min incubation when compared with the normal saline control. The maximum percentage inhibition of sickling exhibited by the p-hydroxybenzoic acid control was 46.0% at 90 min incubation.

  13. The Transcript Profile of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Atractylodes lancea, Revealing Its Sesquiterpenoid Biosynthesis of the Major Active Components

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Zhan, Chuansong; Yang, Yanyan; Wang, Xuekui; Yang, Tewu; Zhao, Zeying; Zhang, Qiyun; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., named “Cangzhu” in China, which belongs to the Asteraceae family. In some countries of Southeast Asia (China, Thailand, Korea, Japan etc.) its rhizome, commonly called rhizoma atractylodis, is used to treat many diseases as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. Despite its medicinal value, the information of the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome analysis of different tissues of non-model plant A. lancea by using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). We found 62,352 high quality unigenes with an average sequence length of 913 bp in the transcripts of A. Lancea. Among these, 43,049 (69.04%), 30,264 (48.53%), 26,233 (42.07%), 17,881 (28.67%) and 29,057(46.60%) unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value<1e-5) to known proteins in Nr, KEGG, SWISS-PROT, GO, and COG databases, respectively. Of the total 62,352 unigenes, 43,049 (Nr Database) open reading frames were predicted. On the basis of different bioinformatics tools we identify all the enzymes that take part in the terpenoid biosynthesis as well as five different known sesquiterpenoids via cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and plastidal methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. In our study, 6, 864 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were also found as great potential markers in A. lancea. This transcriptomic resource of A. lancea provides a great contribution in advancement of research for this specific medicinal plant and more specifically for the gene mining of different classes of terpenoids and other chemical compounds that have medicinal as well as economic importance. PMID:26990438

  14. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry.

  15. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ben Chung Lap; Li, Long Fei; Hu, Shui Qing; Wat, Elaine; Wong, Eric Chun Wai; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Lau, Clara Bik San; Wong, Chun Kwok; Hon, Kam Lun Ellis; Hui, Patrick Chi Leung; Leung, Ping Chung

    2015-09-10

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF) is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC) were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s) of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD) surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  16. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry. PMID:26142866

  17. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders.

  18. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders. PMID:25684298

  19. Composing Music with Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaofan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    In this paper we study the network structure in music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurrences. We analyze sample compositions from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music including Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. Power-law exponents of degree distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be created by using a biased random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. The newly created music from complex networks will be played in the presentation.

  20. The single and synergistic effects of the major tea components caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and L-theanine on rat sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and L-theanine are the major components of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and the main representatives of the classes of methylxanthines, catechins and free amino acids present in this beverage. There are many studies reporting tea's health benefits, however it is not clear if those effects are mediated by a single component or a synergistic action. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and synergistic effects of tea's major components on rat epididymal spermatozoa survival and oxidative profile during 3-day storage at room temperature (RT). For that, spermatozoa were incubated with caffeine (71 μg mL(-1)), EGCG (82 μg mL(-1)), or L-theanine (19 μg mL(-1)), alone or in combination. Spermatozoa viability was assessed by the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The oxidative profile was established by evaluating the levels of carbonyl groups, protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of sperm storage medium with the three compounds together improved sperm viability, after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, relative to the control and the groups incubated with each component individually. However, at the end of the 72 h of incubation, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the group exposed to the three compounds, illustrating that the combined treatment triggers different alterations in sperm proteins during their maturational process in the epididymis. This study highlights the importance of the synergism between tea components for the beneficial effects usually attributed to this beverage, particularly in sperm storage at RT. PMID:26902467

  1. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  2. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils.

  3. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. PMID:19544589

  4. A proteomic characterization of water buffalo milk fractions describing PTM of major species and the identification of minor components involved in nutrient delivery and defense against pathogens.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Arena, Simona; Salzano, Anna Maria; Renzone, Giovanni; Ledda, Luigi; Scaloni, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    Water buffalo has been studied in relation to the exclusive use of its milk for the manufacture of high-quality dairy products. Buffalo milk presents physicochemical features different from that of other ruminant species, such as a higher content of fatty acids and proteins. We report here a detailed proteomic analysis of buffalo skim milk, whey and milk fat globule membrane fractions. Notwithstanding the poor information available on buffalo genome, identification of protein isoforms corresponding to 72 genes was achieved by a combined approach based on 2-DE/MALDI-TOF PMF and 1-DE/muLC-ESI-IT-MS-MS. Major protein components, i.e. alpha(Sl)-, alpha(S2)-, beta-, kappa-caseins, alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin, were characterized for PTM, providing a scientific basis to coagulation/cheese making processes used in dairy productions. Minor proteins detected emphasized the multiple functions of milk, which besides affording nutrition to the newborn through its major components, also promotes development and digestive tract protection in the neonate, and ensures optimal mammary gland function in the mother. Defense against pathogens is guaranteed by an arsenal of antimicrobial/immunomodulatory proteins, which are directly released in milk or occur on the surface of secreted milk-lipid droplets. Proteins associated with cell signaling or membrane/protein trafficking functions were also identified, providing putative insights into major secretory pathways in mammary epithelial cells.

  5. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  6. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice.

  7. Development of Double Eastern Blotting for Major Licorice Components, Glycyrrhizin and Liquiritin for Chemical Quality Control of Licorice Using anti-Glycyrrhizin and anti-Liquiritin Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Shunsuke; Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Nomura, Shuichi; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2016-02-10

    Licorice is utilized in various food industries around the world for seasoning agents, confectioneries, drinks, and functional foods. Glycyrrhizin (GL) and liquiritin (Liq) are major quality control chemical markers of licorice that have multifunctional bioactivities. Chemical quality control of licorice is important because its component profiles change depending environmental factors (climate, soil condition, and water deficit) and differences between species. Double eastern blotting using anti-GL and anti-Liq monoclonal antibodies was developed for more convenient, rapid, and specific quality control analysis of GL and Liq, respectively. Moreover, double eastern blotting was applied to investigate the immunohistochemical distributions of GL and Liq in the root of fresh licorice; the localization of both components was then clarified visually. This double eastern blotting technique for GL and Liq may serve as a powerful approach for visually determining the chemical quality of licorice. PMID:26765784

  8. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Fonseca, Beatriz B; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A; Alviano, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  9. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  10. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Fonseca, Beatriz B; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A; Alviano, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  11. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  12. Simultaneous determination of nineteen major components in Qi She Pill by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongliang; Li, Qiang; Li, Qiufen; Du, Simiao; Zhou, Yongquan; Lv, Chunming; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yongjun; Zhang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Qi She Pill (QSP) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription that has been used in treating cervical spondylosis radiculopathy for many years. In this study, a simple and sensitive method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) on a reverse-phase C18 column was developed for the simultaneous determination of the 19 major components in QSP. We found that the optimum mobile phase for gradient elution was 0.1% formic acid and methanol. The correlation coefficients of all calibration curves were greater than 0.99. Recoveries measured at three concentration levels varied from 95.43% to 102.35%. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 4.45%. After successfully validating our method, we then applied it to the quantification of 19 components in QSP products to show that this method provides a new standard in quality assessment of TCM prescriptions containing multiple bioactive components. PMID:26579408

  13. LHCBM1 and LHCBM2/7 Polypeptides, Components of Major LHCII Complex, Have Distinct Functional Roles in Photosynthetic Antenna System of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, Paola; Ballottari, Matteo; Bonente, Giulia; Giuliano, Giovanni; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The photosystem II antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is composed of monomeric and trimeric complexes, the latter encoded by LHCBM genes. We employed artificial microRNA technology to specifically silence the LHCBM2 and LHCBM7 genes, encoding identical mature polypeptides, and the LHCBM1 gene. As a control, we studied the npq5 mutant, deficient in the LHCBM1 protein. The organization of LHCII complexes, functional antenna size, capacity for photoprotection, thermal energy dissipation and state transitions, and resistance to reactive oxygen species was studied in the various genotypes. Silencing of the LHCBM2/7 genes resulted in a decrease of an LHCII protein with an apparent molecular mass of 22 kDa, whereas silencing/lack of LHCBM1 caused the decrease/disappearance of a 23-kDa protein. A decrease in the abundance of trimeric LHCII complexes and in functional antenna size was observed in both LHCBM2/7 and LHCBM1 knockouts. In agreement with previous data, depletion of LHCBM1 decreased the capacity for excess energy dissipation but not the ability to perform state transitions. The opposite was true for LHCBM2/7, implying that this polypeptide has a different functional role from LHCBM1. The abundance of LHCBM1 and LHCBM2/7 is in both cases correlated with resistance to superoxide anion, whereas only LHCBM1 is also involved in singlet oxygen scavenging. These results suggest that different LHCBM components have well defined, non-redundant functions despite their high homology, implying that engineering of LHCBM proteins can be an effective strategy for manipulating the light harvesting system of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. PMID:22431727

  14. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and

  15. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and

  16. The intensity dependence of the auditory evoked N1 component as a predictor of response to Citalopram treatment in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Linka, Thomas; Müller, Bernhard W; Bender, Stefan; Sartory, Gudrun

    2004-09-01

    The intensity dependence of the auditory evoked N1 ERP component (IDAP) has been suggested as an indicator of central serotonergic neurotransmission with relevance to pharmacological treatment. We report the results of a study evaluating the IDAP in 16 in-patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode in the course of treatment with the SSRI Citalopram. Our data revealed a significant correlation between the intensity slopes of the N1 amplitude prior to Citalopram treatment and treatment response: patients with higher intensity slopes of N1 amplitude showed a significantly stronger decrease of HDRS-Score after Citalopram treatment than patients within the lower intensity slope ranges. Our results indicate an association of N1 amplitude intensity dependence with response to antidepressant treatment with Citalopram.

  17. Isolation of the major component in white snakeroot that is toxic after microsomal activation: possible explanation of sporadic toxicity of white snakeroot plants and extracts.

    PubMed

    Beier, R C; Norman, J O; Reagor, J C; Rees, M S; Mundy, B P

    1993-01-01

    Tremetone, the major toxic component in white snakeroot (Eupatorium rugosum Houtt) extracts, was isolated following an in vitro bioactivity assay. Microsomal activation was required to produce a product toxic to murine melanoma (B16F1) cells as well as five other mammalian cell cultures. The metabolic activation product(s) of tremetone is suspected to be responsible for the toxic activity of the plant. Tremetone is also smoothly converted to dehydrotremetone in the plant and cell free homogenates, and readily decomposes to dehydrotremetone in extracts. Dehydrotremetone is not toxic even after microsomal activation. The efficient conversion of tremetone to dehydrotremetone may explain why white snakeroot plant material and extracts have varied activities, and why a previous claim that tremetone was responsible for the toxic activity of white snakeroot was withdrawn. Rayless goldenrod extracts show the same toxic activity as white snakeroot and the toxic activity of rayless goldenrod is most likely due to tremetone. PMID:8167948

  18. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  19. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  20. A single-component multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily is part of a network that protects Escherichia coli from bile salt stress.

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephanie; Alegre, Kamela O; Holdsworth, Scarlett R; Rice, Matthew; Brown, James A; McVeigh, Paul; Kelly, Sharon M; Law, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to high concentrations of bile salts in the human intestinal tract is vital for the survival of enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Although the tripartite AcrAB-TolC efflux system plays a significant role in this resistance, it is purported that other efflux pumps must also be involved. We provide evidence from a comprehensive suite of experiments performed at two different pH values (7.2 and 6.0) that reflect pH conditions that E. coli may encounter in human gut that MdtM, a single-component multidrug resistance transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, functions in bile salt resistance in E. coli by catalysing secondary active transport of bile salts out of the cell cytoplasm. Furthermore, assays performed on a chromosomal ΔacrB mutant transformed with multicopy plasmid encoding MdtM suggested a functional synergism between the single-component MdtM transporter and the tripartite AcrAB-TolC system that results in a multiplicative effect on resistance. Substrate binding experiments performed on purified MdtM demonstrated that the transporter binds to cholate and deoxycholate with micromolar affinity, and transport assays performed on inverted vesicles confirmed the capacity of MdtM to catalyse electrogenic bile salt/H(+) antiport.

  1. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  2. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Ferulic Acid and Z-Ligustilide, Major Components of A. sinensis, on Regulating Cold-Sensing Protein TRPM8 and TPRA1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuwei; Zhao, Guoping; Cai, Zejian; Chen, Fengguo; Xu, Dandan; Huang, Si; Lan, Hai; Tong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has been used to attenuate cold-induced cutaneous vasospasm syndrome, such as Raynaud's disease and frostbite, in China for many years. Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858) and Z-ligustilide (PubChem CID: 529865), two major components extracted from Angelica sinensis, had been reported to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by vasoconstrictors. In this study, the pharmacological interaction in regulating cold-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction via cold-sensing protein TRPM8 and TRPA1 was analyzed between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. Pharmacological interaction on inhibiting [Ca2+]i influx evoked by TRPM8 agonist WS-12 or TRPA1 agonist ASP 7663 as well as cold-induced upregulation of TRPM8 was determined using isobolographic analysis. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. Combination effect of two components in inhibiting RhoA activation and phosphorylation of MLC20 induced by WS-12 or ASP 7663 was also being quantified. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of Angelica sinensis on cold-induced vasospasm may be partially attributed to combinational effect, via TRPM8 and TPRA1 way, between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. PMID:27413384

  4. Behavioral and electrophysiological activity of (Z,E)-7,9,11-dodecatrienyl formate, a mimic of the major sex pheromone component of carob moth,Ectomyelois ceratoniae.

    PubMed

    Todd, J L; Millar, J G; Vetter, R S; Baker, T C

    1992-12-01

    The behavioral and electrophysiological activity of a mimic [(Z,E)7,9,11-dodecatrienyl formate] of the major sex pheromone component [(Z,E) 9,11,13-tetradecatrienal] of carob moth was assessed. Wind-tunnel bioassays demonstrated that the formate was as effective as natural gland extracts, and significantly more effective than the trienal alone or than the trienal blended with two minor pheromone components, in evoking source contact. Dispensers containing the formate were as effective as trienal-containing blend lures in attracting males when placed at the same dosage in traps in date gardens. Single-cell recordings showed that at least two olfactory neurons, differentiated by spike amplitude, are located in the long trichoid hairs on male carob moth antennae. Dose-response relationships indicated that puffs from cartridges loaded with at least 0.1 μg of the formate or of the trienal were necessary to elicit spiking by either the small or the large-spiking cell within a sensillum. Cross-adaptation studies demonstrated that both compounds stimulated the same large-spiking cell. The frequencies of spikes evoked from the large cell when stimulated by emissions from 0.1-μg, 1-μg, or 10-μg cartridges of either the formate or the trienal were not significantly different, suggesting that the formate is an effective mimic of the trienal at the antennal receptor cell level.

  5. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD. PMID:26677694

  6. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  7. Mipartoxin-I, a novel three-finger toxin, is the major neurotoxic component in the venom of the redtail coral snake Micrurus mipartitus (Elapidae).

    PubMed

    Rey-Suárez, Paola; Floriano, Rafael Stuani; Rostelato-Ferreira, Sandro; Saldarriaga-Córdoba, Mónica; Núñez, Vitelbina; Rodrigues-Simioni, Léa; Lomonte, Bruno

    2012-10-01

    The major venom component of Micrurus mipartitus, a coral snake distributed from Nicaragua to northern South America, was characterized biochemically and functionally. This protein, named mipartoxin-I, is a novel member of the three-finger toxin superfamily, presenting the characteristic cysteine signature and amino acid sequence length of the short-chain, type-I, α-neurotoxins. Nevertheless, it varies considerably from related toxins, with a sequence identity not higher than 70% in a multiple alignment of 67 proteins within this family. Its observed molecular mass (7030.0) matches the value predicted by its amino acid sequence, indicating lack of post-translational modifications. Mipartoxin-I showed a potent lethal effect in mice (intraperitoneal median lethal dose: 0.06 μg/g body weight), and caused a clear neuromuscular blockade on both avian and mouse nerve-muscle preparations, presenting a post-synaptic action through the cholinergic nicotinic receptor. Since mipartoxin-I is the most abundant (28%) protein in M. mipartitus venom, it should play a major role in its toxicity, and therefore represents an important target for developing a therapeutic antivenom, which is very scarce or even unavailable in the regions where this snake inhabits. The structural information here provided might help in the preparation of a synthetic or recombinant immunogen to overcome the limited venom availability.

  8. The composing process in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  9. Conversations with American Composers: Ev Grimes Interviews Otto Luening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ev

    1986-01-01

    Otto Luening, one of the pioneers in the development of tape composition, talks about a variety of topics, including the education of musicians, the relationship between composer and teacher, his class for non-music majors, the musical training a teacher should have, and changes needed in music education. (RM)

  10. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (< 5%). Seasonal enhancement of PM2.5 was observed in autumn 2012, especially with high-PM2.5 events (more than 100 μg/m3) in October. The backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and the cluster analysis of the back-trajectories indicate that the northern area is an important source region of long-range transport. An enhancement of PM2.5 as well as sulfate, OC, and EC was observed in the samples with the influence of northern air masses. However, the footprint retroplume of the samples shows that the sources in the Pearl River Delta Region should also be considered, especially secondary aerosol formation and biomass/biofuel burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  11. A membrane page composer - Further developments. [for holographic memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Stewart, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Membrane page composers were made and were evaluated in a simulated holographic optical memory system. Calculated and experimentally determined electromechanical and optical characteristics of the circular membrane light valves used on the arrays are shown to be in close agreement. Several operating prototypes of 8 x 8 and 16 x 16 elements were produced. Measurements were made of switching time, optical contrast, and dynamic storage time of many cells on the devices. Digital patterns were stored in the arrays. The performance required of the page composer as a component of an optical memory system is considered. The fabrication techniques used can be easily extended to larger arrays.

  12. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents.

  13. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae. PMID:24456463

  14. Bioactivity of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum essential oils and their major components against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Kimbaris, Athanasios C; Koliopoulos, George; Michaelakis, Antonios; Konstantopoulou, Maria A

    2012-12-01

    Mosquitoes constitute a severe health problem in many areas all over the world. There are many regions of the tropics and subtropics where mosquitoes are one of the main reasons for inhibiting the economic upgrade. Except nuisance, their medical importance is another matter of attention since mosquitoes are vectors for a wide variety of vector-borne diseases. Due to disadvantages of currently used chemical control methods, it is unavoidable to search for eco-friendly new molecules. We report herein the evaluation of the larvicidal effect exhibited by essential oils of Dianthus caryophyllus, Lepidium sativum, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum against late third to early fourth instar mosquito larvae of Culex pipiens. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of plant samples revealed their major compounds to be β-caryophyllene, eugenol, eucalyptol, α-terpinyl acetate, and (E)-anethole which were also tested for their potential larvicidal activity. For D. caryophyllus and L. sativum, this was the first report on the chemical composition of their essential oils. The essential oils of I. verum and P. anisum demonstrated high larvicidal activity with a LC(50) <18 mg L(-1). The other two essential oils of D. caryophyllus and L. sativum revealed moderate larvicidal activity, displaying a LC(50) value above 50 mg L(-1). Among the pure components, the most toxic were eugenol, (E)-anethole, and α-terpinyl acetate, with LC(50) values 18.28, 16.56, and 23.03 mg L(-1), respectively. Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) and β-caryophyllene were inactive at concentrations even as high as 100 mg L(-1), showing the least significant activity against mosquito larvae. Results allow some rationalization on the relative importance of the major compounds regarding the larvicidal activity of selected essential oils and their potential use as vector control agents. PMID:22955447

  15. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae.

  16. Involvement of major components from Sporothrix schenckii cell wall in the caspase-1 activation, nitric oxide and cytokines production during experimental sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Monnazzi, Luis Gustavo Silva; Alegranci, Pâmela; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, involving all layers of skin and the subcutaneous tissue. The role of innate immune toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the defense against this fungus has been reported, but so far, there were no studies on the effect of cell wall major components over the cytosolic oligo-merization domain (NOD)-like receptors, important regulators of inflammation and responsible for the maturation of IL-1β and IL-18, whose functions are dependents of the caspase-1 activation, that can participate of inflammasome. It was evaluated the percentage of activation of caspase-1, the production of IL-1β, IL-18, IL-17, IFN-γ and nitric oxide in a Balb/c model of S. schenckii infection. It was observed a decreased activity of caspase-1 during the fourth and sixth weeks of infection accompanied by reduced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-17 and high production of nitric oxide. IFN-γ levels were elevated during the entire time course of infection. This temporal reduction in caspase-1 activity coincides exactly with the reported period of fungal burden associated with a transitory immunosuppression induced by this fungus and detected in similar infection models. These results indicate the importance of interaction between caspase-1, cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the host defense against S. schenckii infection, suggesting a participation the inflammasome in this response.

  17. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY. PMID:26048667

  18. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  19. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  20. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  1. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  2. Sources of humic-like substances in the Pearl River Delta, China: positive matrix factorization analysis of PM2.5 major components and source markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, B. Y.; Lin, P.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2015-02-01

    Humic-like substances (HULIS), the hydrophobic part of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), account for a significant fraction of PM2.5 mass. Their source studies are so far largely qualitative. In this study, HULIS and WSOC were determined in 100 PM2.5 samples collected in 2009 at an urban site (Guangzhou) and a suburban site (Nansha) in the Pearl River Delta in South China. The annual average concentration of HULIS was 4.83 and 4.71 μg m-3, constituting 8.5 and 10.2% of the PM2.5 mass, while HULIS-C (the carbon component of HULIS) contributed 48 and 57% of WSOC at the two sites, respectively. HULIS were found to correlate with biomass burning (BB) tracers (i.e., levoglucosan and K) and secondary species (e.g., SO42- and NH4+), suggesting its association with BB emissions and secondary formation processes. Sources of HULIS were investigated using positive matrix factorization analysis of PM2.5 chemical composition data, including major components and source markers. In addition to secondary formation process and BB emissions, residual oil combustion related to shipping was identified for the first time as a significant source of HULIS. Secondary formation process contributed the most, accounting for 49-82% of ambient HULIS at the two sites in different seasons. BB emissions contributed a seasonal average of 8-28%, with more contributions observed in the winter months (November-February) due to crop residue burning during harvest season. Residual oil combustion was revealed to be an important source at the suburban site in summer (44% of HULIS-C) due to its proximity to one of the ports and the shipping lane in the region. Vehicle emissions were found to contribute little to HULIS, but had contributions to the hydrophilic WSOC fraction. The contrast in contributions from different combustion sources to HULIS and hydrophilic WSOC suggests that primary sources of HULIS are linked to inefficient combustion. This source analysis suggests further study of HULIS be

  3. Murine cell surface glycoproteins. Characterization of a major component of 80,000 daltons as a polymorphic differentiation antigen of mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Hughes, E N; Mengod, G; August, J T

    1981-07-10

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with NIH/3T3 cell surface antigens were obtained from hybridomas of murine myeloma cells fused to spleen cells of rats immunized with NIH/3T3 cell plasma membranes. Four of the antibodies, of forty that have been studied, appeared to react with allospecific antigenic determinants: they bound to NIH/3T3 cells but not to BALB/ 3T3 cells. Each of these four antibodies immunoprecipitated a glycoprotein of about 80,000 daltons that migrated to an isoelectric point of about pH 5.0. Polypeptides of identical molecular weight and isoelectric points, and yielding the same proteolytic cleavage fragments, were present in BALB/3T3 cells, but were not antigenically reactive. The 80,000-dalton glycoprotein was a major constituent of the plasma membrane. It was a predominant lactoperoxidase iodinated component of intact NIH/3T3 cells, and saturation binding of 125I-labeled antibody indicated that there were about 10(6) antigenic sites/cell. Studies of the distribution of the immunoreactive glycoprotein among different strains of mice confirmed the polymorphic expression of the determinant: Spleen cells of BALB/c, DBA/1, DBA/2, and CBA mice did not bind anti-80,000-dalton glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies, whereas spleen cells of a large number of other strains of mice were positive for antibody-binding. The antigenic reactivity varied markedly among different cell lines and was greatest with the NIH/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast, G8-1 Swiss Webster myoblast, and IC-21 SV40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophage. The properties of the 80,000-dalton glycoprotein characterized this molecule as a new cell surface differentiation alloantigen of murine mesenchymal cells. PMID:6787057

  4. Major Components of Energy Drinks (Caffeine, Taurine, and Guarana) Exert Cytotoxic Effects on Human Neuronal SH-SY5Y Cells by Decreasing Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Ambrosi, Priscilla; Resende Terra, Silvia; Pires, André Simões; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Antônio Behr, Guilherme; Fonseca Moreira, José Cláudio

    2013-01-01

    Scope. To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs). Methods and Results. On human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, caffeine (0.125–2 mg/mL), taurine (1–16 mg/mL), and guarana (3.125–50 mg/mL) showed concentration-dependent nonenzymatic antioxidant potential, decreased the basal levels of free radical generation, and reduced both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, especially when combined together. However, guarana-treated cells developed signs of neurite degeneration in the form of swellings at various segments in a beaded or pearl chain-like appearance and fragmentation of such neurites at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. Swellings, but not neuritic fragmentation, were detected when cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL (or higher doses) of caffeine, concentrations that are present in EDs. Cells treated with guarana also showed qualitative signs of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and cleaved caspase-3 positivity. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cells treated with 12.5–50 mg/mL of guarana and its combinations with caffeine and/or taurine underwent apoptosis. Conclusion. Excessive removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species, to nonphysiological levels (or “antioxidative stress”), could be a cause of in vitro toxicity induced by these drugs. PMID:23766861

  5. Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xuzheng; Guo, Xiao; Dong, Shuwei; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiyu; Pan, Hu; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Xiaolou

    2016-08-15

    Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively. Moreover, 0.1mg/ml (w/v) carvacrol, 0.2mg/ml (w/v) thymol and 1% p-cymene (v/v) also possessed marked acaricidal activities, and compared with the control group, elicited mean mortalities of 84.00%, 96.00% and 66% at 24h, respectively. The median lethal times (LT50) against P. cuniculi of the concentrations of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.005% (v/v) of oregano oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene were 2.171h, 11.396h, 26.102h, and 4.424h, 8.957h and 15.201h, respectively. Meanwhile, twenty naturaly infested rabbits were used to four homogeneity groups: negative control (without treatment), positive control (treated with ivermectin), group treated with 1% of oregano oil and other group with 5% of oregano oil. All the treatments were topically. After the treatment of 1% and 5% oregano oil, the P. cuniculi were completely eliminated in the rabbits, and at the end of the test (day 20), the rabbits of all treatment groups exhibited favorable mental and physical statuses. These results indicated that oregano oil could be widely applied as a potential acaricidal agent in the treatment of animal acariasis in the future. PMID:27514892

  6. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control). PMID:21510210

  7. Tiliroside, the major component of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb ethanol extract, inhibits MAPK/JNK/p38-mediated inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; SONG, SHIQING; WANG, JING; ZHANG, QINGZHEN; QIU, FENG; ZHAO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) ethanol extract was confirmed in experimental animal models, including xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside, the major component of AP extract, was isolated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of tiliroside was then examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. An MTT assay was used to determine cytotoxicity and a Griess assay was used to determine nitric oxide (NO) production. Concentration levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p-p38 and inhibitor of κB-α were detected by western blot analysis. AP ethanol extract was revealed to inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside significantly suppressed the overproduction of NO (P<0.01), but revealed no notable inhibition of the release of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, tiliroside significantly downregulated the elevated expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS (P<0.01). The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 proteins were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01), however, tiliroside exhibited no obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and the degradation of IκB-α protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of tiliroside may involve the downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression levels, and the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/JNK, in addition to the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:27347085

  8. Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xuzheng; Guo, Xiao; Dong, Shuwei; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiyu; Pan, Hu; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Xiaolou

    2016-08-15

    Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively. Moreover, 0.1mg/ml (w/v) carvacrol, 0.2mg/ml (w/v) thymol and 1% p-cymene (v/v) also possessed marked acaricidal activities, and compared with the control group, elicited mean mortalities of 84.00%, 96.00% and 66% at 24h, respectively. The median lethal times (LT50) against P. cuniculi of the concentrations of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.005% (v/v) of oregano oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene were 2.171h, 11.396h, 26.102h, and 4.424h, 8.957h and 15.201h, respectively. Meanwhile, twenty naturaly infested rabbits were used to four homogeneity groups: negative control (without treatment), positive control (treated with ivermectin), group treated with 1% of oregano oil and other group with 5% of oregano oil. All the treatments were topically. After the treatment of 1% and 5% oregano oil, the P. cuniculi were completely eliminated in the rabbits, and at the end of the test (day 20), the rabbits of all treatment groups exhibited favorable mental and physical statuses. These results indicated that oregano oil could be widely applied as a potential acaricidal agent in the treatment of animal acariasis in the future.

  9. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  11. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  12. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  13. Rectenna composed of a circular microstrip antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Ohgane, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    One of the big problems in the SPS system is reradiation of the harmonic waves generated by the rectifying diode. The authors proposed the use of a circular microstrip antenna (CMSA), since the CMSA has no higher resonance-harmonic of integer multiple of the dominant resonance frequency. However, characteristics of a large rectenna array of CMSA's have not been clarified. This paper is concerned with the absorption efficiency of the rectenna composed of the CMSA. The efficiency is estimated explicitly using an infinite array model. The results show that the absorption efficiency of the infinite rectenna array composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the composed of the CMSA is 100%. Also, this paper considers the effect of the losses of the CMSA. 4 references, 4 figures.

  14. Music and emotion—a composer's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives. PMID:24348344

  15. Brain components

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into left and right hemispheres, each ... gray matter) is the outside portion of the cerebrum and provides us with functions associated with conscious ...

  16. Take a Change with Aleatory Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambaugh, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can incorporate musical composition into their classrooms by teaching students about aleatory, or chance, music. Provides a definition of aleatory music and provides various composing techniques, focusing on aleatory music. Includes lesson plans using aleatory music, such as the "Mozart Model" for grades 4-12. (CMK)

  17. Composing for Digital Publication: Rhetoric, Design, Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyman, Douglas; Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the state of digital publication with the claim that, at this historical moment, nearly all composition is digital composition. But, as a field, composition studies has not yet made that shift completely explicit in the discussions of composing processes and writing pedagogies. A deeper engagement with this very rapid shift in…

  18. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  19. A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").

  20. Understanding low-lipid algae hydrothermal liquefaction characteristics and pathways through hydrothermal liquefaction of algal major components: crude polysaccharides, crude proteins and their binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Li, Zihui; Tong, Chenhong; Feng, Lijuan

    2015-11-01

    Crude polysaccharides and proteins extracted from algae were chosen as model materials to investigate the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) characteristics and pathways of low-lipid algae. Liquefaction behavior of the two individuals and their binary mixtures with different mass ratios were evaluated under different temperatures. Formation pathways of bio-oil from crude polysaccharides/proteins were proposed. Results showed that polysaccharides had a small contribution to bio-oil (<5%) and approximately 60% distributed in aqueous phase, while proteins played a crucial role on bio-oil formation (maximum 16.29%). Bio-oil from polysaccharides mainly contained cyclic ketones and phenols and from proteins composed of pyrazines, pyrroles and amines. Interaction between polysaccharides and proteins forming polycyclic nitrogenous compounds had a negative effect on bio-oil yield at 220 and 260°C. However, their further decomposition caused increase of bio-oil yield at 300°C. Mixture liquefaction obtained the highest higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil and energy recovery than polysaccharides/proteins liquefaction at 300°C.

  1. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  2. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  3. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  4. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  5. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  6. Universally Composable Privacy Amplification from Causality Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masanes, Lluís

    2009-04-01

    We consider schemes for secret key distribution which use as a resource correlations that violate Bell inequalities. We provide the first security proof for such schemes, according to the strongest notion of security, the so-called universally composable security. Our security proof does not rely on the validity of quantum mechanics, it solely relies on the impossibility of arbitrarily fast signaling between separate physical systems. This allows for secret communication in situations where the participants distrust their quantum devices.

  7. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  8. Copy number variation at the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment is a major component of frost resistance in barley.

    PubMed

    Francia, Enrico; Morcia, Caterina; Pasquariello, Marianna; Mazzamurro, Valentina; Milc, Justyna Anna; Rizza, Fulvia; Terzi, Valeria; Pecchioni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    A family of CBF transcription factors plays a major role in reconfiguring the plant transcriptome in response to low-freezing temperature in temperate cereals. In barley, more than 13 HvCBF genes map coincident with the major QTL FR-H2 suggesting them as candidates to explain the function of the locus. Variation in copy number (CNV) of specific HvCBFs was assayed in a panel of 41 barley genotypes using RT-qPCR. Taking advantage of an accurate phenotyping that combined Fv/Fm and field survival, resistance-associated variants within FR-H2 were identified. Genotypes with an increased copy number of HvCBF4 and HvCBF2 (at least ten and eight copies, respectively) showed greater frost resistance. A CAPS marker able to distinguish the CBF2A, CBF2B and CBF2A/B forms was developed and showed that all the higher-ranking genotypes in term of resistance harbour only CBF2A, while other resistant winter genotypes harbour also CBF2B, although at a lower CNV. In addition to the major involvement of the HvCBF4-HvCBF2 genomic segment in the proximal cluster of CBF elements, a negative role of HvCBF3 in the distal cluster was identified. Multiple linear regression models taking into account allelic variation at FR-H1/VRN-H1 explained 0.434 and 0.550 (both at p < 0.001) of the phenotypic variation for Fv/Fm and field survival respectively, while no interaction effect between CNV at the HvCBFs and FR-H1/VRN-H1 was found. Altogether our data suggest a major involvement of the CBF genes located in the proximal cluster, with no apparent involvement of the central cluster contrary to what was reported for wheat.

  9. Epithermal neutron activation, radiometric, correlation and principal component analysis applied to the distribution of major and trace elements in some igneous and metamorphic rocks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Cristache, C I; Duliu, O G; Culicov, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Ricman, C; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    Six major (Na, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 28 trace (Sc, Cr, V, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U) elements were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in nine Meridional Carpathian and Macin Mountains samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Correlation and principal factor analysis were used to interpret data while natural radionuclides radiometry shows a good correlation with ENAA results.

  10. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion. PMID:26252809

  11. Epithermal neutron activation, radiometric, correlation and principal component analysis applied to the distribution of major and trace elements in some igneous and metamorphic rocks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Cristache, C I; Duliu, O G; Culicov, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Ricman, C; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    Six major (Na, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 28 trace (Sc, Cr, V, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U) elements were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in nine Meridional Carpathian and Macin Mountains samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Correlation and principal factor analysis were used to interpret data while natural radionuclides radiometry shows a good correlation with ENAA results. PMID:19231213

  12. Placental expression of eNOS, iNOS and the major protein components of caveolae in women with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Jackson, K; Hentschke, M R; Poli-de-Figueiredo, C E; Pinheiro da Costa, B E; Kurlak, L O; Broughton Pipkin, F; Czajka, A; Mistry, H D

    2015-05-01

    Caveolae regulate many cardiovascular functions and thus could be of interest in relation to pre-eclampsia, a pregnancy specific disorder characterised by hypertension and proteinuria. We examined placental mRNA and protein expression/localisation of the caveolae components Caveolin 1-3, Cavin 1-4 as well as eNOS/iNOS in normotensive control (n = 24) and pre-eclamptic pregnancies (n = 19). Placental mRNA expression of caveolin-1, cavin 1-3, was lower and eNOS expression was increased in pre-eclampsia (P < 0.05 for all). Additionally Caveolin-1 protein expression was also reduced in pre-eclampsia (P = 0.007); this could be an adaptive response in pre-eclampsia, possibly to attenuate the oxidative stress/inflammation. PMID:25707739

  13. Geochemistry of the Phlegraean Fields (Italy) proximal sources for major Mediterranean tephras: Implications for the dispersal of Plinian and co-ignimbritic components of explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Emma L.; Arienzo, Ilenia; Civetta, Lucia; Wulf, Sabine; Smith, Victoria C.; Hardiman, Mark; Lane, Christine S.; Carandente, Antonio; Orsi, Giovanni; Rosi, Mauro; Müller, Wolfgang; Menzies, Martin A.

    2012-09-01

    Volcanic activity at Phlegraean Fields, Italy, produced several major marker tephras over a 50 ka period. The caldera forming eruptions of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (NYT) are of particular importance for tephrostratigraphy in Europe. Other key eruptions from this source include the Pomici Principali (PP) and the Tufi Biancastri eruptions. We combine analyses of fresh glasses from proximal locations (i.e., juvenile clasts in proximal flow and fall deposits) with data for key tephra layers from Lago Grande di Monticchio, 120 km to the east. The micron-beam major (EMPA) and trace (LA-ICP-MS) element glass dataset allows us to: (a) distinguish between tephra units produced from the Phlegraean Fields before and during the CI eruption (CI-series), and before and during the NYT and PP eruptions (NYT-series/PP); (b) discriminate between the CI and the geochemically similar Pre-CI pyroclastic deposits; (c) separate the NYT from Pre-NYT tephra units, although both major and trace elements do show significant overlap. The complex compositional overlap between Pre-NYT tephras may present a problem for tephra correlations in the 14-39 ka time window and may have resulted in incorrect proximal-distal and distal-distal correlations. The diagnostic chemical criteria detailed herein permits more accurate matching of distal tephras with their proximal equivalents and hence will improve chronostratigraphy of distal settings and give insight into tephra dispersal. We show that the dispersal of PP tephra was more limited than previously thought. The surge/fall (Lower Member) and subsequent pyroclastic density current (Upper Member) phases of the NYT eruption can be recognised in distal settings. Both the NYT Lower and Upper Members are found in distal localities to the east of the Phlegraean Fields, however the Lower Member is found in the absence of the Upper Member in locations to the far north of Phlegraean Fields. Chemical compositions of the Plinian

  14. Alexia without agraphia in a composer.

    PubMed

    Judd, T; Gardner, H; Geschwind, N

    1983-06-01

    A 77-year-old composer had a left occipital lobe haemorrhagic infarct giving a severe reading disturbance with well-preserved writing and without appreciable aphasia. He continued to read music and to compose. His text- and music-reading performance under different conditions suggests that this unusual dissociation was primarily due to four factors. (1) He was unusually talented musically and inferred a great deal about the music he was reading. (2) The symbols of staff music notation are more visually distinctive than the symbols of phonetic language writing systems. (3) In staff music notation, pitch is represented ordinally, and other symbols are also distinguishable by their relative positions and sizes. (4) Music notation can be usefully read by interpreting it acoustically, kinaesthetically or in terms of formal musical concepts; in contrast to written language, it need not be interpreted referentially or in terms of auditory-verbal images. His disorder fits the classic visual-verbal disconnection account of alexia without agraphia and the contemporary view that music involves a family of related but distinct skills probably involving many brain areas in both hemispheres, although different cortical areas make characteristic contributions to different musical behaviours. PMID:6850277

  15. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis of Vietnamese krait venoms: Neurotoxins are the major components in Bungarus multicinctus and phospholipases A2 in Bungarus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Rustam H; Kovalchuk, Sergey I; Arapidi, Georgij P; Starkov, Vladislav G; Hoang, Anh Ngoc; Thi Nguyen, Thao Thanh; Nguyen, Khoa Cuu; Shoibonov, Batozhab B; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-12-01

    Kraits are venomous snakes of genus Bungarus from family Elapidae. Krait venoms are generally neurotoxic, but toxicity strongly depends on the particular species and regional origin of snakes. We analyzed the proteomes of Vietnamese Bungarus multicinctus and Bungarus fasciatus venoms both qualitatively and quantitatively. It should be noted that no proteomic data for B. multicinctus venom existed so far. We have found that in this venom, almost half (45%) of the proteins by weight was represented by β-bungarotoxins, followed by three finger toxins (28%) and phospholipases A2 (16%), other proteins being present at the level of 1-3%. In B. fasciatus venom, phospholipase A2 was the main component (71%), followed by oxidase of l-amino acids (8%), acetylcholinesterase (5%) and metalloproteinases (4%). Unexpectedly, extremely low amount of three finger toxins (1%) was found in this venom. Interestingly, the presence of complement depleting factor was observed in both venoms. Although our data showed the presence of the same toxin families in Vietnamese krait venoms as those found earlier in the venoms of kraits from other geographic regions, their relative ratio is completely different. This concerns especially B. fasciatus venom with predominant content of phospholipases A2 and very low amount of three finger toxins.

  17. A one-year record of carbonaceous components and major ions in aerosols from an urban kerbside location in Oporto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Danilo; Cerqueira, Mário; Alves, Célia; Nunes, Teresa; Pio, Casimiro; Esteves, Valdemar; Frosini, Daniele; Lucarelli, Franco; Querol, Xavier

    2016-08-15

    PM2.5 aerosol samples were collected from January 2013 to January 2014 on the kerbside of a major arterial route in the city of Oporto, Portugal, and later analyzed for carbonaceous fractions and water soluble ions. The average concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the aerosol were 6.2μg/m(3), 5.0μg/m(3) and 3.8μg/m(3), respectively, and fit within the range of values that have been observed close to major roads in Europe, Asia and North America. On average, carbonaceous matter accounted for 56% of the gravimetrically measured PM2.5 mass. The three carbon fractions exhibited a similar seasonal variation, with high concentrations in late autumn and in winter, and low concentrations in spring. SO4(2-) was the dominant water soluble ion, followed by NO3(-), NH4(+), Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), oxalate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), formate, methanesulfonate and acetate. Some of these ions exhibited a clear seasonal trend during the study period. The average OC/EC ratio for the entire set of samples was 1.28±0.61, which was consistent with a significant influence of vehicle exhaust emissions on aerosol composition. On the other hand, the average WSOC/OC ratio was 0.67±0.23, reflecting the influence of other emitting sources. WSOC was highly correlated with nssK(+), a tracer of biomass combustion, and was not correlated with nssSO4(2-), a species associated with secondary processes, suggesting that the main source of WSOC was biomass burning. Most of the SO4(2-) was anthropogenic in origin and was closely associated with NH4(+), pointing to the formation of secondary aerosols. Na(+), Cl(-) and methanesulfonate were clearly associated with marine sources while NO3(-) was related with combustion of both fossil and non-fossil fuels. Mixed sources explained the occurrence of the other water soluble ions. PMID:27110993

  18. Creative Composing in Language: Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Geraldine

    1978-01-01

    Considers creative writing a vital component of an effective language arts program for children in grades four, five, and six. Discusses the content, activities, and evaluation of a creative writing curriculum. (RL)

  19. Evidence of idiotypic modulation in the immune response to gp43, the major antigenic component of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in both mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A R; Gesztesi, J -L; Moraes, J Z; Cruz, C R B; Sato, J; Mariano, M; Lopes, J D

    1998-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America, with a high prevalence in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. The aetiologic agent of disease is a thermal dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A glycoprotein of 43 000 D (gp43) is the major antigen of P. brasiliensis. Antibodies directed to this antigen are detected in the sera of all patients with PCM. Gp43 binds to laminin, thus participating in adhesion, invasion and pathogenesis of the fungus. As the role of antibodies in PCM is not fully understood, we decided to investigate the outcome of mice immunization with three distinct anti-gp43 MoAbs (17c, 8a and 24a) coupled with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Results show not only the expected presence of anti-Id (AB2) antibodies in the sera of these animals but also a spontaneous and increasing amount of anti-anti-Id (AB3) antibodies after the third course of immunization. Hybridomas producing both AB2 and AB3 MoAbs were obtained using spleen cells from mice immunized with MoAb 17c. AB3 MoAbs were also obtained with spleen cells of mice immunized with MoAbs 8a and 24a. It was also shown that human PCM patients' sera with high titres of anti-gp43 antibodies generate anti-Id antibodies. These data suggest that the immune response to P. brasiliensis can be spontaneously modulated by the idiotypic network. PMID:9764601

  20. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-01

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  2. Conserved glycine at position 45 of major cochlear connexins constitutes a vital component of the Ca²⁺ sensor for gating of gap junction hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Hao, Hongxia

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in gap junction (GJ) family of proteins, especially in the connexin (Cx) 26, are responsible for causing severe congenital hearing loss in a significant portion of patients (30-50% in various ethnic groups). Substitution of glycine at the position 45 of Cx26 to glutamic acid (p.G45E mutation) causes the Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that this point mutation caused a gain-of-function defect. However, the molecular mechanism of KID syndrome remains unclear. Since glycine at this position is conserved in many Cxs expressed in the cochlea, we tested the hypothesis that glycine at position 45 is an important component of the sensor regulating the Ca(2+) gating of GJ hemichannels. Using reconstituted Cx30, 32 and 43 expressed in the HEK 293 cells, we compared the functions of wild type and p.G45E mutant Cxs. We found that G45E in Cx30 resulted in similar deleterious cellular effects as Cx26 did. Cell death occurred within 24h of transfection, which was rescued by increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]o). Dye loading assay showed that Cx30 G45E, similar to Cx26 G45E, had leaky hemichannels at physiological [Ca(2+)]o (1.2 mM). Higher [Ca(2+)]o reduced the dye loading in a dose-dependent manner. Whole cell membrane current recordings also indicated that G45E caused increased hemichannel activities. p.G45E mutations of Cx32 and 43 also resulted in leaky hemichannels compared to their respective wild types in lower [Ca(2+)]o. Our data in this study provided further support for the hypothesis that glycine at position 45 is a conserved Ca(2+) sensor for the gating of GJ hemichannels among multiple Cx subtypes expressed in the cochlea.

  3. Mono-Substituted Isopropylated Triaryl Phosphate, a Major Component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR Agonist that Exhibits AHR-Independent Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Cory V.; Das, Siba R.; Volz, David C.; Bisson, William H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A-and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191. PMID:24865613

  4. A Shift to Melted Sea Ice From Runoff as the Major Component of Chukchi Shelf Open Water Freshwater Fractions, 1993-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Logvinova, C. L.; Biasatti, D. M.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The freshwater fraction of water that is derived from melted sea ice has increased significantly on the Chukchi shelf relative to runoff within the past decade, based upon analysis of salinity and δ18O mixing lines from a number of research cruises from 1993-2013. The shift to summertime dominance of melted sea ice (freshwater end-member δ18O >-10 per mil) relative to runoff occurred within the past ten years with a transition primarily observed from runoff dominance to sea ice melt after 2004. This shift is localized to the Chukchi shelf and does not reflect large amounts of melted sea ice flowing north through Bering Strait, which still largely transports a freshwater component with runoff origins (freshwater end-member δ18O ~-20 per mil). These observations have implications for understanding high latitude shelf biogeochemical cycling as melted sea ice carries much lower fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than runoff, allowing for greater light penetration, including through melt ponds in sea ice, and potential changes in productivity. Lower alkalinity and buffering capacity in melted sea ice compared to runoff will also increase the vulnerability of shelf organisms to water column acidification. Melted sea ice, with low DOC relative to runoff can dominate the freshwater budget in Chukchi shelf waters even under apparently continuous ice coverage. The higher transmission of light through melted sea ice with low DOC may be in part responsible for recent reported under-ice blooms on the Chukchi shelf. Since these blooms occur in waters with the freshwater budget dominated by melted sea ice, they can reasonably interpreted as being part of a continuum with other ice melt-associated blooms and not independent of sea ice retreat and dissolution.

  5. Diurnal variations of carbonaceous components, major ions, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in suburban aerosols from northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Nannan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    We report diurnal variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and major ions as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in ambient aerosols at a suburban site (Mangshan), 40 km north of Beijing, China. We found that aerosol chemical compositions were largely controlled by the air mass transport from Beijing in daytime with southerly winds and by relatively fresh air mass in nighttime from the northern forest areas with northerly winds. Higher concentrations of aerosol mass and total carbon were obtained in daytime. Further, higher OC/EC ratios were recorded in daytime (4.0 ± 1.7) than nighttime (3.2 ± 0.7), suggesting that OC is formed by photochemical oxidation of gaseous precursors in daytime. Contributions of WSOC to OC were slightly higher in daytime (38%) than nighttime (34%), possibly due to secondary formation of WSOC in daytime. We also found higher concentrations of Ca2+ in daytime, which was originated from the construction dust in Beijing area and transported to the sampling site. δ13C ranged from -25.3 to -21.2‰ (ave. -23.5 ± 0.9‰) in daytime and -29.0 to -21.4‰ (-24.0 ± 1.5‰) in nighttime, suggesting that Mangshan aerosols were more influenced by fossil fuel combustion products in daytime and by terrestrial C3 plants in nighttime. This study suggests that daytime air mass delivery from megacity Beijing largely influence the air quality at the receptor site in the north together with photochemical processing of organic aerosols during the atmospheric transport, whereas the Mangshan site is covered with relatively clean air masses at night.

  6. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (<5% each). The inorganic elements were dominated by phosphorus and followed by crustal elements and metal elements Pb, Zn, Sn, and lesser Cu, Sb, Mn, Ni, Ba and Cd. The recycling of printed circuit boards was demonstrated as an important contributor of heavy metal contamination, particularly Cd, Pb and Ni, to the local environment. These findings suggest that this recycling method represents a strong source of PM associated with pollutants to the ambient atmosphere of an e-waste recycling locale.

  7. A 37-kilodalton glycoprotein of Babesia divergens is a major component of a protective fraction containing low-molecular-mass culture-derived exoantigens.

    PubMed

    Carcy, B; Precigout, E; Valentin, A; Gorenflot, A; Schrevel, J

    1995-03-01

    The supernatants of in vitro cultures of Babesia divergens Rouen 1987 in human erythrocytes, obtained by using a semidefined medium based on human high-density lipoproteins, were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography into four fractions, F1 to F4. The crude supernatant as well as each fraction adjuvanted with Quil-A protected gerbils from mortality due to a homologous infectious challenge. Analysis of the humoral response of the 10 protected gerbils with fraction F4, containing major proteins with molecular masses lower than 50 kDa, showed that a few antigens (from 50 to 17 kDa) could be important candidates for an improved vaccine against B. divergens babesiosis. As an immunodominant response was directed against the 37-kDa antigen (Bd37) in two different B. divergens strains tested, a polyclonal antibody directed against Bd37 was produced in a rabbit. In an immunofluorescence assay, the anti-Bd37 antiserum strongly labelled small internal vesicles of the merozoites and the cell surface was diffusely labelled after fixation, whereas on live merozoites, this labelling was not observed. [3H]glucosamine-radiolabelling experiments demonstrate that Bd37 is a glycoprotein. The Bd37 protein can also be labelled with [14C]palmitate but not with [3H]myristic acid. In Triton X-114 temperature phase partitioning of B. divergens-infected erythrocyte extracts, Bd37 was exclusively found into the detergent phase, indicating that the palmitoylated Bd37 protein was in the membrane fraction. In the in vitro supernatant, the glycoprotein Bd37 was found in a nonpalmitoylated form, indicating excretion and/or release of the glycoprotein from the merozoite.

  8. Interstrain Variation of the Major Internal Structural Component (p30gag) of Two Murine Oncornaviruses: Comparative Immunochemical, Biochemical, and Biophysical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burnette, W. Neal; Mitchell, William M.

    1978-01-01

    The major internal structural protein (p30gag) of the Moloney leukemia virus and the endogenous Y-1 murine oncornavirus was examined for biochemical and biophysical manifestations of interstrain antigenic variation. Although the two viral proteins share murine group-specific antigenic determinants, the Y-1 virus p30 appeared to have both a lower relative number of such determinants and a decreased affinity at the cross-reactive sites for Moloney virus p30 monospecific antibodies. Further, immunological analysis indicated the presence of unique antigenic sites on the Moloney virus p30 not shared by the analogous Y-1 virus molecule. The two polypeptides copurified and had similar isoelectric points (pH 6.2 to 6.3) and sedimentation coefficients (2.47S). However, equilibrium sedimentation yielded a significant mass difference between the two proteins, 28,300 ± 600 and 31,000 ± 300 daltons for the Moloney and Y-1 virus molecules, respectively. Amino acid analysis indicated a concomitant increase in total residues for the Y-1 virus p30, although a number of residues appeared to have been conserved between the two viral proteins. Conformational studies and hydrodynamic calculations demonstrated marked secondary and tertiary structural differences; with the Y-1 virus p30 being an asymmetric prolate ellipsoid containing 27 to 28% α-helix and Moloney virus p30 being somewhat more spherical and possessing an α-helical content of 50 to 55%. Two-dimensional mapping of 125I-labeled tryptic peptides of each p30 suggested that considerable sequence heterogeneity is responsible for many of the biophysical, biochemical, and immunochemical differences in these two analogous structural proteins. Images PMID:77912

  9. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2010-04-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  10. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud

  11. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  12. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  13. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  14. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  15. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  16. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  17. Security and composability of randomness expansion from Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehr, Serge; Gelles, Ran; Schaffner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The nonlocal behavior of quantum mechanics can be used to generate guaranteed fresh randomness from an untrusted device that consists of two nonsignalling components; since the generation process requires some initial fresh randomness to act as a catalyst, one also speaks of randomness expansion. R. Colbeck and A. Kent [J. Phys. A1751-811310.1088/1751-8113/44/9/095305 44, 095305 (2011)] proposed the first method for generating randomness from untrusted devices, but without providing a rigorous analysis. This was addressed subsequently by S. Pironio [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature09008 464, 1021 (2010)], who aimed at deriving a lower bound on the min-entropy of the data extracted from an untrusted device based only on the observed nonlocal behavior of the device. Although that article succeeded in developing important tools for reaching the stated goal, the proof itself contained a bug, and the given formal claim on the guaranteed amount of min-entropy needs to be revisited. In this paper we build on the tools provided by Pironio and obtain a meaningful lower bound on the min-entropy of the data produced by an untrusted device based on the observed nonlocal behavior of the device. Our main result confirms the essence of the (improperly formulated) claims of Pironio and puts them on solid ground. We also address the question of composability and show that different untrusted devices can be composed in an alternating manner under the assumption that they are not entangled. This enables superpolynomial randomness expansion based on two untrusted yet unentangled devices.

  18. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells.

  19. A bicomponent Plasmodium falciparum investigational vaccine composed of protein-peptide conjugates.

    PubMed

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Majadly, Fathy; Biesova, Zuzana; Mocca, Christopher P; Guo, Chunyan; Nussenzweig, Ruth; Nussenzweig, Victor; Mishra, Satish; Wu, Yimin; Miller, Louis H; Keith, Jerry M; Liu, Teh-Yung; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel

    2010-01-19

    There is yet no licensed vaccine against malaria, a serious human disease affecting mostly children, with an annual death rate of about one million. Plasmodia, the malaria-causing parasites, have two obligatory hosts: mammals or birds, in which they multiply asexually, and mosquitoes with sexual multiplication. The most common and serious type of malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum. The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major surface antigen of sporozoites, is a protective antigen. A unique feature of P. falciparum CSP is its large central domain composed of over 30 tetrapeptide repeats of Asn-Ala-Asn-Pro (NANP). Several NANP peptide-protein conjugates were tested clinically but elicited a low level of CSP antibodies for a short duration. To provide a CSP-based candidate vaccine, we investigated recombinant CSP and NANP conjugates of various peptide lengths, with different N-terminal amino acids, bound at different ratios to various carrier proteins. Injected into mice, CSP alone and CSP or NANP conjugates induced antibodies with booster responses and were positive by the sporozoite immunofluorescent assay. The use of the mosquito stage P. falciparum ookinete surface protein, Pfs25, cross-linked onto itself as a carrier for NANP, induced in mice high levels of uniquely long-lasting antibodies to both vaccine components with secondary biological activities, that will provide immunity to liver infection by sporozoites and block transmission by mosquitoes.

  20. Major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope signatures of lavas from the Central Lau Basin: Implications for the nature and influence of subduction components in the back-arc mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Liyan; Castillo, Paterno R.; Hawkins, James W.; Hilton, David R.; Hanan, Barry B.; Pietruszka, Aaron J.

    2008-12-01

    New major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data are presented for basaltic glasses from active spreading centers (Central Lau Spreading Center (CLSC), Relay Zone (RZ) and Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC)) in the Central Lau Basin, SW Pacific. Basaltic lavas from the Central Lau Basin are mainly tholeiitic and are broadly similar in composition to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Their generally high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, combined with relatively low 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios are more akin to MORB from the Indian rather than Pacific Ocean. In detail, the CLSC, RZ and ELSC lavas are generally more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, Sr, and K) than average normal-MORB, which suggests that the mantle beneath the Central Lau Basin was modified by subducted slab-derived components. Fluid mobile/immobile trace element and Sr - Nd isotope ratios suggest that the subduction components were essentially transferred into the mantle via hydrous fluids derived from the subducted oceanic crust; contributions coming from the subducted sediments are minor. Compared to CLSC lavas, ELSC and RZ lavas show greater enrichment in fluid mobile elements and depletion in high field strength elements, especially Nb. Thus, with increasing distance away from the arc, the influence of subduction components in the mantle source of Lau Basin lavas diminishes. The amount of hydrous fluids also influences the degree of partial melting of the mantle beneath the Central Lau Basin, and hence the degree of melting also decreases with increasing distance from the arc.

  1. Percolation in networks composed of connectivity and dependency links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Parshani, Roni; Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-05-01

    Networks composed from both connectivity and dependency links were found to be more vulnerable compared to classical networks with only connectivity links. Their percolation transition is usually of a first order compared to the second-order transition found in classical networks. We analytically analyze the effect of different distributions of dependencies links on the robustness of networks. For a random Erdös-Rényi (ER) network with average degree k that is divided into dependency clusters of size s, the fraction of nodes that belong to the giant component P∞ is given by P∞=ps-1[1-exp(-kpP∞)]s, where 1-p is the initial fraction of removed nodes. Our general result coincides with the known Erdös-Rényi equation for random networks for s=1. For networks with Poissonian distribution of dependency links we find that P∞ is given by P∞=fk,p(P∞)e(-1)[pfk,p(P∞)-1], where fk,p(P∞)≡1-exp(-kpP∞) and is the mean value of the size of dependency clusters. For networks with Gaussian distribution of dependency links we show how the average and width of the distribution affect the robustness of the networks.

  2. Hyperfrequency components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-09-01

    The document has a collection of 19 papers (11 on technologies, 8 on applications) by 26 authors and coauthors. Technological topics include: evolution from conventional HEMT's double heterojunction and planar types of pseudomorphic HEMT's; MMIC R&D and production aspects for very-low-noise, low-power, and very-low-noise, high-power applications; hyperfrequency CAD tools; parametric measurements of hyperfrequency components on plug-in cards for design and in-process testing uses; design of Class B power amplifiers and millimetric-wave, bigrid-transistor mixers, exemplifying combined use of three major types of physical simulation in electrical modeling of microwave components; FET's for power amplification at up to 110 GHz; production, characterization, and nonlinear applications of resonant tunnel diodes. Applications topics include: development of active modules for major European programs; tubes versus solid-state components in hyperfrequency applications; status and potentialities of national and international cooperative R&D on MMIC's and CAD of hyperfrequency circuitry; attainable performance levels in multifunction MMIC applications; state of the art relative of MESFET power amplifiers (Bands S, C, X, Ku); creating a hyperfrequency functions library, of parametrizable reference cells or macrocells; and design of a single-stage, low-noise, band-W amplifier toward development of a three-stage amplifier.

  3. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  4. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  5. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  6. Major Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatwin, Marshall

    This paper describes a computer program, Major Advisor (MA), which helps students identify college majors. Used in conjunction with career counseling and advising, MA provides information to students who are developing their educational plans. The program matches students' personal preferences and the requirements/characteristics of 130 common…

  7. Activation of protein tyrosine kinase p72syk by Fc epsilon RI aggregation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. p72syk is a minor component but the major protein tyrosine kinase of pp72.

    PubMed

    Minoguchi, K; Benhamou, M; Swaim, W D; Kawakami, Y; Kawakami, T; Siraganian, R P

    1994-06-17

    Aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells results in protein tyrosine phosphorylations. Previously we reported that there is prominent tyrosine phosphorylation of approximately 72-kDa proteins (pp72) and that the tyrosine kinase p72syk is one component of pp72. Here we studied further the relationship of p72syk to pp72. The aggregation of Fc epsilon RI induced the activation of p72syk which was parallel to its tyrosine phosphorylation. By in vitro kinase assay of immune complexes purified with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was the major pp72 tyrosine kinase. However, by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, p72syk was a minor component of pp72. The heterogeneous nature of pp72 was indicated by different studies. Under optimum conditions of one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pp72 consisted of a heterogeneous group of 69-, 71-, and 72-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. There were differences in the tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins in cells activated in the absence of extracellular calcium or when stimulation was with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with phorbol myristate acetate. One of the proteins migrating at 69 kDa was p72syk. By two-dimensional gel electrophoresis pp72 was found to consist of multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated protens including 71-80-kDa proteins that associate with p53/56lyn. A 75-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, different from pp72, was identified as p75HS1 (SPY75). These results demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the pp72 and that p72syk is activated after Fc epsilon RI aggregation. PMID:7515887

  8. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  9. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  10. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  11. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  12. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  13. The composing process of technical writers: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, D.; Roundy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that technical writers compose as do other writers is tested. The literature on the composing process, not limited to the pure or applied sciences, was reviewed, yielding three areas of general agreement. The composing process (1) consists of several stages, (2) is reflexive, and (3) may be mastered by means of strategies. Data on the ways technical writers compose were collected, and findings were related to the three areas of agreement. Questionnaires and interviews surveying 70 writers were used. The disciplines represented by these writers included civil, chemical, agricultural, geological, mechanical, electrical, and petroleum engineering, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and biology. Those providing consulting services, or performing research. No technical editors or professional writers were surveyed, only technicians, engineers, and researchers whose jobs involved composing reports. Three pedagogical implications are included.

  14. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  15. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  16. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  17. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed. PMID:25684289

  18. Composable IO: A Novel Resource Sharing Platform in Personal Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Wang, Wei; Lin, Ben; Miao, Kai

    A fundamental goal for Cloud computing is to group resources to accomplish tasks that may require strong computing or communication capability. In this paper we design specific resource sharing technology under which IO peripherals can be shared among Cloud members. In particular, in a personal Cloud that is built up by a number of personal devices, IO peripherals at any device can be applied to support application running at another device. We call this IO sharing composable IO because it is equivalent to composing IOs from different devices for an application. We design composable USB and achieve pro-migration USB access, namely a migrated application running at the targeted host can still access the USB IO peripherals at the source host. This is supplementary to traditional VM migration under which application can only use resources from the device where the application runs. Experimental results show that through composable IO applications in personal Cloud can achieve much better user experience.

  19. Family constellation and creativity: firstborn predominance among classical music composers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S; Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J

    1977-01-01

    Biographies of classical musci composers were examined for family constellation information. Usable data were found for 80 composers. Firstborns, especially only children, were found significantly more frequently than in a sample of creative writers studied by Bliss. Increased frequency of firstborns was also suggested in a study of musical performers by Raychaudhuri. Classical musci composition was seen as an ability more similar to usual academic pursuits than creative writing.

  20. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals. PMID:24076576

  1. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  2. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  3. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  4. Development of low cost pulmonary surfactants composed of a mixture of lipids or lipids-peptides using higher aliphatic alcohol or soy lecithin.

    PubMed

    Yukitake, Ko; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kawahara, Masato; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Shibata, Osamu; Lee, Sannamu

    2008-10-15

    The artificial pulmonary surfactant composition in the present study is characterized by a lipid mixture system composed of higher aliphatic alcohol, egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (egg PC), soy lecithin and higher aliphatic acid as the major components or a peptide-lipid mixture system composed of a combination of the lipid mixture system to which a peptide is added. Three peptides with amphiphilic surface-staying, membrane spanning, and both properties were designed and synthesized. The evaluation of pulmonary surfactant assay was performed by a hysteresis curve drawn upon the measurement for the surface tension-area curve with the Wilhelmy surface tensometer in vitro and the recovery of lung compliance for the pulmonary surfactant-deficient rat models in vivo. Lipid-mixture systems composed of octadecanol or soy lecithins containing no peptide were favorable hysteresis curves as compared with commercially available Surfacten, but were not prominent. The peptide-lipid mixture systems composed of a combination of the lipid mixture of alkyl alcohol or soy lecithin to which peptides designed were added were desirable hysteresis curves similar to Surfacten and amphiphilic Hel 13-5 peptide-lipids mixture systems were much more effective than the lipid mixture system. Particularly, the recovery of lung compliance treated with hydrogenated soy lecithin-fractionated soy lecithin PC70-palmitic acid-peptide Hel 13-5 (40:40:17.5:2.5, w/w) was comparable to that with Surfacten. Because the artificial pulmonary surfactant compositions of this study can be prepared at lower costs, they are useful for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as for inflammatory pulmonary diseases, dyspnea caused by asthma, etc.

  5. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  6. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  7. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  8. How One Class with One Computer Composed Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Music composition is a rewarding activity for students. Through composition, teachers not only address National Standard 4 (composing and arranging music within specified guidelines), but also cover other areas of the music curriculum such as singing, notation, improvisation, form, style, tempo, dynamics, music vocabulary, and assessment. During…

  9. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  10. Non-Logical Discourse: Key to the Composing Process?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulsen, Richard C.

    One niche in which scholars have not looked for keys to the composing process is the sometimes illusory but vital area of nonlogical discourse, which includes fantasy, hallucination, dream, reverie, vision, trance, and meditation. Abundant evidence exists about the genesis, importance, and use of nonlogical discourse, but this evidence comes…

  11. Composing with New Technology: Teacher Reflections on Learning Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, David L.; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reflections on their learning to compose with new technologies in the context of teacher education and/or teacher professional development. English language arts (ELA) teachers (n = 240) in 15 courses learned to use digital video (DV), completed at least one DV group project, and responded to open-ended survey…

  12. Readers as Writers Composing from Sources. Technical Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivey, Nancy Nelson; King, James R.

    A study of discourse synthesis (readers/writers composing new texts by selecting, organizing, and connecting content from source texts) examined the performance of accomplished and less accomplished readers in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades on a report-writing task. Over a 3-day period 60 English/language arts students wrote informational reports…

  13. Quiet Grove in a Savage Garden: A Composer's Bicameral Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlen, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This author, a composer, states that music has been the primal generator of his existence and the definition of living creatively; and that understanding the bicameral reality of creativity through a study of the nature of consciousness involves a symbiotic host of disciplines. In the study of the occurrence of "creativity," consciousness as well…

  14. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  15. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  16. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and then free…

  17. Component Publications and Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naijun; Kang, Eun Young; Liu, Zhiming

    One of the major issues in component-based design is how to use a component correctly in different applications according to the given interface specification, called the publication, of the component. In this paper we formulate this as the problem of component publication composition and refinement. We define the notion of publications of components that describes how a component can be used by a third party in building their own components or in writing their applications without access to the design or the code of the component. It is desirable that different users of the components can be given different publications according to their need. The first contribution of this paper is to provide a procedure, which calculates a weakest contract of the required interface of a component from the contract of its provided interface and its code. The other contribution, that is more significant from a component-based designer's point of view, is to define composition on publications so that the publication of a composite component can be calculated from those of its subcomponents. For this we define a set of primitive composition operators over components, including renaming, hiding, internalizing, plugging and feedback. This theory is presented based on the sematic model of rCOS, a refinement calculus of component and object systems.

  18. PSPTO_3380 and PSPTO_3381: A two-component system that influences the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major factor in pathogenesis is the ability of the pathogen to respond and react to the host environment during the infection cycle. For bacteria, external stimuli are mainly sensed by two-component systems (TCS) composed of histidine kinases with external recognition domains and cytoplasmic respo...

  19. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ) on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS) to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS) was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs. PMID:25978042

  20. Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Rhizoma Zingiberis on the Level of Aconitine in Rat Gut Sacs and Qualitative Analysis of the Major Influencing Components of Rhizoma Zingiberis on Aconitine Using UPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yang; Liu, Shuying

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to clarify the material basis for the detoxification of Rhizoma Zingiberis (RZ) on aconitine, an analgesic drug, by quantitatively assessing the influence of RZ on the in vitro intestinal concentration of aconitine using an everted gut sac model and by qualitatively identifying the components in the RZ extract. To quantify aconitine in rat everted gut sacs, both an accurate processing method and a sensitive detection method were required. We developed a three-step sample processing method to protect the components from decomposition and applied ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC/TQMS) to quantify aconitine, glucose and digoxin. In addition, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/ITMS) was applied to detect the potential antidotal components in the RZ extract. Finally, the RZ extract reduced the level of aconitine in everted gut sacs, and eleven gingerols were successfully identified, which could be considered potential antidotal components for aconitine. This study demonstrated the application of two UPLC/MS methods for analyzing the material basis for the reciprocity between Chinese medicine components in everted gut sacs.

  1. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M; Moradali, M Fata; Rehm, Bernd H A

    2015-06-15

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  2. Complex simulation system infrastructure supporting composability and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsch, Matthew; Hannibal, Barbara; Skowronski, Victor; Wallace, Jeffrey

    2004-08-01

    The increased emphasis on the need for composability in simulations has led to architectures with server simulations that provide a service to several other simulations. One such architecture was the Joint Synthetic Battlespace (JSB) Spring Experiment 2002 architecture, which included a Common Synthetic Environment (CSE) server for atmospheric effects. The intent of using a CSE was to provide a standard model for all atmospheric effects. The common model would assist in the evaluation of sensor systems by removing any bias due to different environmental effects models. When the CSE server was proposed, it became apparent that the number of requests for environmental effect calculations might overwhelm the server, or cause excessive network activity. This paper examines the ability of the current architecture to scale operational levels. The paper also proposes modifications to the current architecture that can enhance the scalability of the architecture without impairing its composability.

  3. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  4. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Communication patterns for interconnecting and composing medical systems.

    PubMed

    Ranganath, Venkatesh-Prasad; Kim, Yu Jin; Hatcliff, John; Robby

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a set of communication patterns to enable the construction of medical systems by composing devices and apps in Integrated Clinical Environments (ICE). These patterns abstract away the details of communication tasks, reduce engineering overhead, and ease compositional reasoning of the system. The proposed patterns have been successfully implemented on top of two distinct platforms (i.e., RTI Connext and Vert.x) to allow for experimentation. PMID:26736607

  6. A ferroelectric liquid crystal conglomerate composed of racemic molecules

    PubMed

    Walba; Korblova; Shao; Maclennan; Link; Glaser; Clark

    2000-06-23

    We describe the design and synthesis of a ferroelectric liquid crystal composed of racemic molecules. The ferroelectric polarization results from spontaneous polar symmetry breaking in a fluid smectic. The ferroelectric phase is also chiral, resulting in the formation of a mixture of macroscopic domains of either handedness at the isotropic-to-liquid crystal phase transition. This smectic liquid crystal is thus a fluid conglomerate. Detailed investigation of the electrooptic and polarization current behavior within individual domains in liquid crystal cells shows the thermodynamically stable structure to be a uniformly tilted smectic bow-phase (banana phase), with all layer pairs homochiral and ferroelectric (SmC(S)P(F)).

  7. Domain-Specific Languages for Composing Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Gray, Jeff; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Baker, Nathan A.

    2012-10-23

    Domain-agnostic signature discovery entails investigation across multiple scientific disciplines. The breadth and cross-disciplinary nature of this work requires that existing executables be integrated with new capabilities into workflows, representing a wide range of user tasks. An algorithm may be written in multiple programming languages for various hardware platforms, and so workflow composition requires integrating executables from any number of remote hosts. This raises an engineering issue on how to generate web service wrappers for these heterogeneous executables and to compose them into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we introduce two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery service and automatically generates its implementation code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our approach with a real-world workflow composed of services wrapping remote executables.

  8. Surgical operation using lighting goggle composed of white LED arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Junichi; Kawakami, Yoichi; Fujita, Shigeo

    2001-12-01

    Everywhere in the world, the highest quality and quantity of lighting is required during the surgical operations. However, the surgical approach has had many types and various angles, common ceiling surgical halogen lighting system cannot provide an adequate amount of beams because the surgeons' heads hinder the illuminations from reaching the operation field. Here, we newly design surgical lighting system composed of white LEDs equipped on both sides of goggles, which controls the lighting beams to the gazing point. With this system, it is just needed for surgeons to wear light plastic goggles with high quality LEDs made by Nichia. In fact, we have succeeded in the first internal shunt operation in the left forearm using the surgical LED lighting system on 11th Sept 2000. The electrical power for the system was supplied from lithium-ion battery for 2 hours. Since the white LEDs used were composed of InGaN-blue-emitters and YAG-yellow-phosphors, the color rendering property was not sufficient in the reddish colors. Therefore, in the next approach, it is very important to develop the spectral distribution of white LED to render inherent color of raw flesh such as skin, blood, fat tissue and internal organs. To improve the color rendering in red colors, some adjustments should be given in the fluorescents layers. Design of goggle is also very important for cutting into the real practical market of white LEDs.

  9. Ecological interaction and phylogeny, studying functionality on composed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Claudia P. T.; Fonseca, Carlos Roberto; Corso, Gilberto

    2012-02-01

    We study a class of composed networks that are formed by two tree networks, TP and TA, whose end points touch each other through a bipartite network BPA. We explore this network using a functional approach. We are interested in how much the topology, or the structure, of TX (X=A or P) determines the links of BPA. This composed structure is a useful model in evolutionary biology, where TP and TA are the phylogenetic trees of plants and animals that interact in an ecological community. We make use of ecological networks of dispersion of fruits, which are formed by frugivorous animals and plants with fruits; the animals, usually birds, eat fruits and disperse their seeds. We analyse how the phylogeny of TX determines or is correlated with BPA using a Monte Carlo approach. We use the phylogenetic distance among elements that interact with a given species to construct an index κ that quantifies the influence of TX over BPA. The algorithm is based on the assumption that interaction matrices that follows a phylogeny of TX have a total phylogenetic distance smaller than the average distance of an ensemble of Monte Carlo realisations. We find that the effect of phylogeny of animal species is more pronounced in the ecological matrix than plant phylogeny.

  10. Gymnaster koraiensis and its major components, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and gymnasterkoreayne B, reduce oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or acetaminophen in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jho, Eun Hye; Kang, Kyungsu; Oidovsambuu, Sarangerel; Lee, Eun Ha; Jung, Sang Hoon; Shin, Il-Shik; Nho, Chu Won

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the protective effects of Gymnaster koraiensis against oxidative stress-induced hepatic cell damage. We used two different cytotoxicity models, i.e., the administration of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) and acetaminophen, in HepG2 cells to evaluate the protective effects of G. koraiensis. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), exerted protective effects in the t-BHP-induced liver cytotoxicity model. The EA fraction and DCQA ameliorated t-BHP-induced reductions in GSH levels and exhibited free radical scavenging activity. The EA fraction and DCQA also significantly reduced t-BHP-induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the hexane fraction of G. koraiensis and its major compound, gymnasterkoreayne B (GKB), exerted strong hepatoprotection in the acetaminophen-induced cytotoxicity model. CYP 3A4 enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by the extract, hexane fraction, and GKB. The hexane fraction and GKB ameliorated acetaminophen-induced reductions in GSH levels and protected against cell death.

  11. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  12. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  13. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  14. Suicides and suicide attempts among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2012; methods of self-harm vary by major geographic region of assignment.

    PubMed

    Corr, William P

    2014-10-01

    This report analyzed data from the Department of Defense Suicide Event Report program about suicide events (suicide attempts and suicides) among active component service members during 2010-2012. Most attempts (85.2%) and suicides (83.5%) occurred among service members stationed in the U.S. Drugs were identified as the method of self-harm in 54.8% of attempts but in only 3.6% of suicides. Firearms were the leading method of suicide in both the U.S. and combat zones (61.1% and 97.2%, respectively) but accounted for only 5.4% of suicides in those stationed in Europe/Asia. Hanging/asphyxiation (22.9% overall) was the second most common method in suicides. For suicides using firearms, the rates of suicide and the types of firearm used varied according to service members' geographically related access to firearms. Challenges to reducing the frequency of service member suicides by firearms are discussed. PMID:25357138

  15. The Development of an Annotated Guide to Music by Distinguished Composers for Children's Voices. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Carl N.

    Since earlier research revealed a general scarcity of song materials, this annotated bibliography of vocal music composed for elementary children's voices by a number of distinguished 19th and 20th century composers was compiled. Correspondence with contemporary composers served as a main source of data but composers' biographies, music…

  16. Source heterogeneity for the major components of ˜ 3.7 Ga Banded Iron Formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland): Tracing the nature of interacting water masses in BIF formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Robert; Polat, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We report trace element, samarium (Sm)-neodymium (Nd) and lead (Pb) isotopic data for individual micro-and mesobands of the Earth's oldest Banded Iron Formation (BIF) from the ˜ 3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB, West Greenland) in an attempt to contribute to the characterization of the depositional environment and to the understanding of depositional mechanisms of these earliest chemical sediments. Rare earth element (REE)-yttrium (Y) patterns of the individual mesobands show features of modern seawater with diagnostic cerium (Ce/Ce *), presodymium (Pr/Pr *) and Y/holmium (Ho) anomalies. Very low high field strength elements (HFSE) concentrations indicate essentially detritus-free precipitation. Uranogenic Pb isotope data define a correlation line with a slope of 3691 ± 41 Ma, indicating that the uranium (U)-lead (Pb) system remained closed after the formation of this BIF. High 207Pb/ 204Pb relative to 206Pb/ 204Pb ratios compared to average mantle growth evolution models are a feature shared by BIF, penecontemporaneous basalts and clastic volcanogenic metasediments and are indicative of the ultimate high-μ ( 238U/ 204Pb) character of the source region, an essentially mafic Hadean protocrust. Sm-Nd isotopic relations on a layer-by-layer basis point to two REE sources controlling the back-arc basin depositional environment of the BIF, one being seafloor-vented hydrothermal fluids ( ɛNd (3.7 Ga) ˜ + 3.1), the other being ambient surface seawater which reached its composition by erosion of parts of the protocrustal landmass ( ɛNd(3.7 Ga) ˜ + 1.6). The validity of two different and periodically interacting water masses (an essentially two-component mixing system) in the deposition of alternating iron- and silica-rich layers is also reflected by systematic trends in germanium (Ge)/silicon (Si) ratios. These suggest that significant amounts of silica were derived from unexposed and/or destroyed mafic Hadean landmass, unlike iron which probably originated from

  17. Source Heterogeneity for the Major Components of ~3.7 Ga Banded Iron Formations (Isua Greenstone Belt, Western Greenland): Tracing the Nature of Interacting Water Masses in BIF formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, R.; Polat, A.

    2006-12-01

    We report trace element, Sm-Nd and Pb isotopic data for individual micro- and mesobands of the Earth's oldest Banded Iron Formation (BIF) from the ~3.7-3.8 Ga Isua Greenstone Belt (IGB, West Greenland) in an attempt to contribute to the characterization of the depositional environment and to the understanding of depositional mechanisms of these earliest chemical sediments. REE-Y patterns of the individual mesobands show features of modern seawater with diagnostic Ce/Ce*, Pr/Pr* and Y/Ho anomalies. Very low HFSE concentrations indicate essentially detritus-free precipitation. Uranogenic Pb isotope data define a correlation line with a slope of 3691 ± 41 Ma, indicating that the U-Pb system remained closed after the formation of this BIF. High 207Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/204Pb ratios compared to average continental growth evolution models are a feature shared by BIF, penecontemporaneous basalts and clastic volcanogenic metasediments and are indicative of the ultimate high-μ (238U/204Pb) character of the source region, an essentially mafic Hadean protocrust. Sm-Nd isotopic relations on a layer-by-layer basis point to two REE sources controlling the back-arc basin depositional environment of the BIF, one being seafloor-vented hydrothermal fluids (ɛ Nd (3.7 Ga) ~+3.1), the other being ambient surface seawater which reached its composition by erosion of parts of the protocrustal landmass (ɛ Nd(3.7 Ga) ~+1.6). The validity of two different and periodically interacting water masses (an essentially two-component mixing system) in the deposition of alternating iron- and silica-rich layers is also reflected by systematic trends in Ge/Si ratios. These imply that significant amounts of silica were derived from unexposed and/or destroyed mafic Hadean landmass, unlike iron which probably originated from oceanic crust following hydrothermal alteration by deep percolating seawater. Ge/Si distributional patterns in the early Archean Isua BIF are similar to those reported from

  18. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  19. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  20. Production of Metal-Free Composites Composed of Graphite Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nitride Nanodots and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Yeon; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sunghee; Shim, Yeonjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-01

    A novel metal-free composite (GN) composed of two types of carbon-based nanomaterials, graphite oxide (GO) and 2D oxidized carbon nitride (OCN) nanodots was produced. Chemical and morphological characterizations reveal that GN contains a main component of GO with well-dispersed 2D OCN nanodots. GN shows enhanced photocatalytic performance for degrading an organic pollutant, Rhodamine B, under visible light.

  1. Major nonhistone proteins of rat liver chromatin: preliminary identification of myosin, actin, tubulin, and tropomyosin.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A S; Harrington, C A; Bonner, J

    1975-01-01

    Two major nonhistone polypeptides from rat liver chromatin have been identified as myosin and actin. Preliminary observations indicate that three other chromatin polypeptides of molecular weights 50,000, 34,000, and 32,000 are tubulin and heavy and light tropomyosin, respectively. A sixth component of molecular weight 65,000 which has been purified and electrophoreses as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels may be composed in part of protease-digested myosin. These six polypeptides together account for as much as 38% of the nonhistone protein mass of chromatin in this tissue. Images PMID:1060072

  2. Hierarchical spatial heterogeneity in liquid crystals composed of graphene oxides.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Matsumoto, Yuji; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Tanaka, Keiji

    2016-08-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a class of two-dimensional materials with a thickness of about 1 nm and a broad distribution of lateral dimension commonly approaching several micrometers. A dispersion of GOs in water often forms a liquid crystal, which is expected to be a promising precursor for the fabrication of carbon-based materials with well-ordered structures. To accelerate the application of GO-based liquid crystals, their structures and physical properties at various sizes must be well understood. To that end, we examined the local rheological properties of GO-based liquid crystals in the nematic phase using a particle tracking technique, where local properties can be accessed by observing the thermal motion of embedded probe particles. Particle diffusion was spatially heterogeneous, and depended on the size of the particles. Such a size-dependent heterogeneity can be associated with a hierarchical local environment, which is time-dependent for this system. The anisotropic particle diffusion originated from particles trapped in between the GO layers and in isotropic-like regions. The aggregation states of the GO dispersion composed of nematic and isotropic-like regions were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  3. Hierarchical spatial heterogeneity in liquid crystals composed of graphene oxides.

    PubMed

    Shundo, Atsuomi; Hori, Koichiro; Penaloza, David P; Matsumoto, Yuji; Okumura, Yasushi; Kikuchi, Hirotsugu; Lee, Kyung Eun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Tanaka, Keiji

    2016-08-10

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a class of two-dimensional materials with a thickness of about 1 nm and a broad distribution of lateral dimension commonly approaching several micrometers. A dispersion of GOs in water often forms a liquid crystal, which is expected to be a promising precursor for the fabrication of carbon-based materials with well-ordered structures. To accelerate the application of GO-based liquid crystals, their structures and physical properties at various sizes must be well understood. To that end, we examined the local rheological properties of GO-based liquid crystals in the nematic phase using a particle tracking technique, where local properties can be accessed by observing the thermal motion of embedded probe particles. Particle diffusion was spatially heterogeneous, and depended on the size of the particles. Such a size-dependent heterogeneity can be associated with a hierarchical local environment, which is time-dependent for this system. The anisotropic particle diffusion originated from particles trapped in between the GO layers and in isotropic-like regions. The aggregation states of the GO dispersion composed of nematic and isotropic-like regions were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. PMID:27464002

  4. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities. PMID:9914755

  5. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  6. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  7. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  8. Implementation of Kane's Method for a Spacecraft Composed of Multiple Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for a general spacecraft composed of rigid bodies connected via rotary (spherical or gimballed) joints in a tree topology. Several supporting concepts are developed in depth. Basis dyads aid in the transition from basis-free vector equations to component-wise equations. Joint partials allow abstraction of 1-DOF, 2-DOF, 3-DOF gimballed and spherical rotational joints to a common notation. The basic building block consisting of an "inner" body and an "outer" body connected by a joint enables efficient organization of arbitrary tree structures. Kane's equation is recast in a form which facilitates systematic assembly of large systems of equations, and exposes a relationship of Kane's equation to Newton and Euler's equations which is obscured by the usual presentation. The resulting system of dynamic equations is of minimum dimension, and is suitable for numerical solution by computer. Implementation is ·discussed, and illustrative simulation results are presented.

  9. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually-reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water and macromolecules) play vital roles in post-copulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole – and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components – has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

  10. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer C; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water, and macromolecules) play vital roles in postcopulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole (and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components) has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes.

  11. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment

    PubMed Central

    Simi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  12. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  13. Electrochemical machining analysis on grid cathode composed of square cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yonghua; Liu, Kai; Zhao, Dongbiao

    2013-07-01

    During the electrochemical machining (ECM), the cathodes designed by the existing methods are mainly unitary cathodes, which can be only used to produce the workpieces with the same shapes. However, there are few researches on designing cathodes for machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces. This paper presents the grid cathode composed of the square cells to produce the workpieces with different shapes. Three types of the square cells, 2.5 mm×2.5 mm, 3 mm×3 mm, and 4 mm×4 mm, are utilized to construct the plane, the slant, and the blade cathode. The material of the cathode and the anode is CrNi18Ti9, and the ingredient of electrolyte is 15% NaCl and 15% NaNO3. The machining equilibrium machining current and time are acquired and analyzed, the machining process and the workpiece quality are compared between using the grid cathode and the unitary cathode. Moreover, the machining errors on the workpiece surface are measured and analyzed, and the error reasons are traced and discussed to obtain the better surface quality of the workpiece. The experiment and analysis results show that the grid cathode can be used to manufacture the workpieces with complex shapes in certain range of the error. The workpiece quality improves with the size of the square cell being reduced, and if the square element is small enough, the workpiece quality is almost equal to the one machined by the unitary cathode. The proposed research realizes a single cathode machining the different workpieces with the different surfaces.

  14. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  15. Chondrites and Their Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Krot, A. N.

    Chondrites are extraordinary mixtures of materials with diverse origins that formed around other stars, in the solar nebula, and in their parent asteroids. Most chondrites were so severely altered by aqueous fluids, thermal metamorphism, and impacts that the original characteristics of their components have been largely erased. But a few pristine chondrites have preserved an exquisite mineralogical, chemical, isotopic, and chronological record of the first few million years of solar system history. The properties of diverse types of carbonaceous, ordinary, and enstatite chondrites focusing on the most pristine samples are reviewed to establish the chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical properties and origins of their components and to elucidate the asteroidal processes that modified them. Refractory inclusions - amoeboid olivine aggregates and Ca-Al-rich inclusions - were the first solids to form in the solar nebula near to the protosun. Chondrules and associated metallic Fe-Ni grains were still forming several million years later when the earliest planetesimals, which melted due to heat from 26Al decay, were colliding. In the least-altered chondrites, matrix material, which coats chondrules and other components, is largely composed of micrometer-sized silicates and amorphous materials, which formed at high temperatures, plus small amounts (up to 200 ppm) of presolar oxides and silicates.

  16. Procedure for shifting a transmission composed of several gear units

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.; Stuhrmann, H.; Nobis, D.

    1989-02-07

    A process is described for shifting a transmission having: a first gear unit drivably connectible to an engine; a last gear unit having at least one synchronizer to drivingly connect the last gear unit to at least one driven component; and at least one intermediate gear unit releasably connecting the first and last gear units. The process consists of releasing at least one synchronizer and at least one intermediate gear unit; connecting at least one synchronizer; and connecting at least one intermediate gear unit.

  17. Component separations.

    PubMed

    Heller, Lior; McNichols, Colton H; Ramirez, Oscar M

    2012-02-01

    Component separation is a technique used to provide adequate coverage for midline abdominal wall defects such as a large ventral hernia. This surgical technique is based on subcutaneous lateral dissection, fasciotomy lateral to the rectus abdominis muscle, and dissection on the plane between external and internal oblique muscles with medial advancement of the block that includes the rectus muscle and its fascia. This release allows for medial advancement of the fascia and closure of up to 20-cm wide defects in the midline area. Since its original description, components separation technique underwent multiple modifications with the ultimate goal to decrease the morbidity associated with the traditional procedure. The extensive subcutaneous lateral dissection had been associated with ischemia of the midline skin edges, wound dehiscence, infection, and seroma. Although the current trend is to proceed with minimally invasive component separation and to reinforce the fascia with mesh, the basic principles of the techniques as described by Ramirez et al in 1990 have not changed over the years. Surgeons who deal with the management of abdominal wall defects are highly encouraged to include this technique in their collection of treatment options.

  18. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  19. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  20. Effective Student Learning: By Implementing Three Major Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo B.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, the California educational system made the headlines in the newspapers, magazines, and radio stations describing the constant decline of our students' test scores, and the increasing number of Hispanic and African American students leaving California high schools. The public is asking why this is happening, and with the…

  1. Isolation of a major protein component of Rosenthal fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, J. E.; Corbin, E.

    1988-01-01

    Rosenthal fibers (RFs) are inclusions within astrocytes, characteristic of Alexander's disease, but also seen in astrocytic tumors and occasionally in glial scar tissue. They are granular deposits, intimately associated with intermediate filaments. Their composition has been unknown. The authors have isolated a protein of about 19 kd from partially purified RFs from Alexander's disease central nervous system tissue. Antibodies were raised to this protein and shown to react with it on nitrocellulose blots and to bind to RFs in tissue sections. Small amounts of this protein were detected in normal brain and in cultured rat astrocytes. Charge heterogeneity was inferred because several species were separated by isoelectric focusing. Images Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:3348359

  2. Evaluating Major Components of Two-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Richard I., Ed.

    This collection of essays by community college administrators and faculty was developed to help administrators initiate better policies and procedures for evaluating students, full- and part-time faculty, administrators, programs, student services, external relations, and the institutions themselves. The volume contains: (1) "The Role of…

  3. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  4. Designing a Composable Geometric Toolkit for Versatility in Applications to Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Gregory S.; Campbell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Conceived and implemented through the development of probabilistic risk assessment simulations for Project Constellation, the Geometric Toolkit allows users to create, analyze, and visualize relationships between geometric shapes in three-space using the MATLAB computing environment. The key output of the toolkit is an analysis of how emanations from one "source" geometry (e.g., a leak in a pipe) will affect another "target" geometry (e.g., another heat-sensitive component). It can import computer-aided design (CAD) depictions of a system to be analyzed, allowing the user to reliably and easily represent components within the design and determine the relationships between them, ultimately supporting more technical or physics-based simulations that use the toolkit. We opted to develop a variety of modular, interconnecting software tools to extend the scope of the toolkit, providing the capability to support a range of applications. This concept of simulation composability allows specially-developed tools to be reused by assembling them in various combinations. As a result, the concepts described here and implemented in this toolkit have a wide range of applications outside the domain of risk assessment. To that end, the Geometric Toolkit has been evaluated for use in other unrelated applications due to the advantages provided by its underlying design.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a proteinaceous subnuclear fraction composed of nuclear matrix, peripheral lamina, and nuclear pore complexes from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fisher, P A; Berrios, M; Blobel, G

    1982-03-01

    Morphologically intact nuclei have been prepared from embryos of Drosophila melanogaster by a simple and rapid procedure. These nuclei have been further treated with high concentrations of DNase I and RNase A followed by sequential extraction with 2% Triton X-100 and 1 M NaCl to produce a structurally and biochemically distinct preparation designated Drosophila subnuclear fraction I (DSNF-I). As seen by phase-contrast microscopy, DSNF-I is composed of material which closely resembles unfractionated nuclei; residual internal nuclear structures including nucleolar remnants are clearly visible. By transmission electron microscopy, nuclear lamina, pore complexes, and a nuclear matrix are similarly identified. Biochemically, DSNF-I is composed almost entirely of protein (greater than 93%). SDS PAGE analysis reveals several major polypeptides; species at 174,000, 74,000, and 42,000 predominate. A polypeptide coincident with the Coomassie Blue-stainable 174-kdalton band has been shown by a novel technique of lectin affinity labeling to be a glycoprotein; a glycoprotein of similar or identical molecular weight has been found to be a component of nuclear envelope fractions isolated from the livers of rats, guinea pigs, opossums, and chickens. Antisera against several of the polypeptides in DSNF-I have been obtained from rabbits, and all of them show only little or no cross-reactivity with Drosophila cytoplasmic fractions. Initial results of immunocytochemical studies, while failing to positively localize either the 174- or 16-kdalton polypeptides, demonstrate a nuclear localization of the 74-kdalton antigen in all of several interphase cell types obtained from both Drosophila embryos and third-instar larvae. PMID:6177701

  6. The Movement of Air, the Breath of Meaning: Aurality and Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoric and composition's increasing attention to multimodal composing involves challenges that go beyond issues of access to digital technologies and electronic composing environments. As a specific case study, this article explores the history of aural composing modalities (speech, music, sound) and examines how they have been understood and…

  7. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  8. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  9. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  10. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  11. Group Music Composing Strategies: A Case Study within a Rock Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasutti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the compositional processes of an Italian rock band whilst composing a new piece over seven group composing sessions. The band members were videotaped during the group composing sessions in their rehearsal room. A qualitative analysis of the video recordings was performed using the Constant Comparative Method. In the…

  12. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  13. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  14. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  15. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  16. Novel electronic structures of superlattice composed of graphene and silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Li, X.D.; Wu, S.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, Z.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Graphene/silicene superlattices exhibit metallic electronic properties. • Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point in the superlattice system. • Significant changes in the transport properties of the graphene layers are expected. • Small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers is found. - Abstract: Superlattice is a major force in providing man-made materials with unique properties. Here we report a study of the structural and electronic properties of a superlattice made with alternate stacking of graphene and hexagonal silicene. Three possible stacking models, i.e., the top-, bridge- and hollow-stacking, are considered. The top-stacking is found to be the most stable pattern. Although both the free-standing graphene and silicene are semi-metals, our results suggest that the graphene and silicene layers in the superlattice both exhibit metallic electronic properties due to a small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers. More importantly, the Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point of the superlattice, instead of the K-point in the isolated graphene. Such a change in the Dirac point of graphene could lead to significant change in the transportation property of the graphene layer. Moreover, the band structure and the charge transfer indicate that the interaction between the stacking sheets in the graphene/silicene superlattice is more than just the van der Waals interaction.

  17. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  18. Sheet music by mind: Towards a brain-computer interface for composing.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Muller-Putz, Gernot R

    2015-08-01

    Providing brain-computer interface (BCI) users engaging applications should be one of the main targets in BCI research. A painting application, a web browser and other applications can already be controlled via BCI. Another engaging application would be a music composer for self-expression. In this work, we describe Brain Composing: A BCI controlled music composing software. We tested and evaluated the implemented brain composing system with five volunteers. Using a tap water-based electrode biosignal amplifier further improved the usability of the system. Three participants reached accuracies above 77% and were able to copy-compose a given melody. Results of questionnaires support that our brain composing system is an attractive and easy way to compose music via a BCI. PMID:26736446

  19. Separation of components in lipid membranes induced by shape transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góźdź, W. T.; Bobrovska, N.; Ciach, A.

    2012-07-01

    Vesicles composed of a two component membrane with each component characterized by different spontaneous curvature are investigated by minimization of the free energy consisting of Helfrich elastic energy and entropy of mixing. The results show that mixing and demixing of membrane components can be induced by elongating a vesicle or changing its volume, if one of the components forms a complex with macromolecules on the outer monolayer. The influence of elastic coefficients on the separation of components is also examined.

  20. Optimal read/write memory system components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozma, A.; Vander Lugt, A.; Klinger, D.

    1972-01-01

    Two holographic data storage and display systems, voltage gradient ionization system, and linear strain manipulation system are discussed in terms of creating fast, high bit density, storage device. Components described include: novel mounting fixture for photoplastic arrays; corona discharge device; and block data composer.

  1. All-optical flip-flop composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrampour, A. R.; Mohammad Ali Mirzaee, S.; Farman, F.; Zakeri, S. S.

    2009-02-01

    Microrings can have different hysteresis characteristics at their different resonance frequencies. They can be used as a multi-hysteresis optical component. In this paper an optical D-flip-flop circuit composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguide based on the Kerr effect is proposed. The proposed circuit can operate as an optical digital circuit which synchronizes input DATA with the CLOCK of the circuit. A simple analytical model for hysteresis design and the transient analysis of the proposed D-flip-flop are presented. According to our model, the switching time of the flip-flop is in the order of 10 ps.

  2. The mechanism of signal transduction by two-component systems.

    PubMed

    Casino, Patricia; Rubio, Vicente; Marina, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Two-component systems, composed of a homodimeric histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are major signal transduction devices in bacteria. Typically the signal triggers HK autophosphorylation at one His residue, followed by phosphoryl transfer from the phospho-His to an Asp residue in the RR. Signal extinction frequently involves phospho-RR dephosphorylation by a phosphatase activity of the HK. Our understanding of these reactions and of the determinants of partner specificity among HK-RR couples has been greatly increased by recent crystal structures and biochemical experiments on HK-RR complexes. Cis-autophosphorylation (one subunit phosphorylates itself) occurs in some HKs while trans-autophosphorylation takes place in others. We review and integrate this new information, discuss the mechanism of the three reactions and propose a model for transmembrane signaling by these systems.

  3. Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

  4. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  5. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  6. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion. PMID:26203921

  7. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development. PMID:25841572

  8. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development.

  9. Conventional Kinesin Holoenzymes Are Composed of Heavy and Light Chain Homodimers†

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Scott R.; You, YiMei; Szodorai, Anita; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Pigino, Gustavo; Nwabuisi, Evelyn; Wang, Bin; Estrada-Hernandez, Tatiana; Kins, Stefan; Brady, Scott T.; Morfini, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Conventional kinesin is a major microtubule-based motor protein responsible for anterograde transport of various membrane-bounded organelles (MBO) along axons. Structurally, this molecular motor protein is a tetrameric complex composed of two heavy (kinesin-1) chains and two light chain (KLC) subunits. The products of three kinesin-1 (kinesin-1A, -1B, and -1C, formerly KIF5A, -B, and -C) and two KLC (KLC1, KLC2) genes are expressed in mammalian nervous tissue, but the functional significance of this subunit heterogeneity remains unknown. In this work, we examine all possible combinations among conventional kinesin subunits in brain tissue. In sharp contrast with previous reports, immunoprecipitation experiments here demonstrate that conventional kinesin holoenzymes are formed of kinesin-1 homodimers. Similar experiments confirmed previous findings of KLC homodimerization. Additionally, no specificity was found in the interaction between kinesin-1s and KLCs, suggesting the existence of six variant forms of conventional kinesin, as defined by their gene product composition. Subcellular fractionation studies indicate that such variants associate with biochemically different MBOs and further suggest a role of kinesin-1s in the targeting of conventional kinesin holoenzymes to specific MBO cargoes. Taken together, our data address the combination of subunits that characterize endogenous conventional kinesin. Findings on the composition and subunit organization of conventional kinesin as described here provide a molecular basis for the regulation of axonal transport and delivery of selected MBOs to discrete subcellular locations. PMID:18361505

  10. An experimental vaccine composed of two adjuvants gives protection against Mycoplasma bovis in calves.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Katarzyna; Bednarek, Dariusz; Ayling, Roger D; Kycko, Anna; Szacawa, Ewelina; Karpińska, Teresa A

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is a major pathogen affecting cattle causing bronchopneumonia, mastitis, and other disorders. Only autogenous vaccines made specifically for individual farms are available in parts of Europe and the United States. A novel experimental vaccine composed of a field M. bovis isolate combined with saponin and Emulsigen(®) adjuvants was evaluated. Eighteen 3-4 week old calves were placed in three equal groups: vaccinated (Vac), positive control (PC) and negative control (NC). The Vac calves were subcutaneously injected with 8ml of the vaccine; the PC and NC calves received phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Three weeks later the Vac and PC calves were challenged with a virulent M. bovis strain, the NC group received PBS. Throughout the study clinical observations, microbiology and immunological tests were carried out. Three weeks post challenge two calves from each group were euthanased for necropsy and histopathological examination. The vaccine effectively stimulated the humoral immune response, with high titres of anti-M. bovis specific antibodies and total Ig concentration. This vaccine also intensified the IgA response. A clinically protective effect of the vaccine was demonstrated as it also reduced the gross pathological lung lesions and nasal shedding of M. bovis. PMID:27156637

  11. Composing life

    PubMed Central

    Segré, Daniel; Lancet, Doron

    2000-01-01

    Textbooks often assert that life began with specialized complex molecules, such as RNA, that are capable of making their own copies. This scenario has serious difficulties, but an alternative has remained elusive. Recent research and computer simulations have suggested that the first steps toward life may not have involved biopolymers. Rather, non-covalent protocellular assemblies, generated by catalyzed recruitment of diverse amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds, could have constituted the first systems capable of information storage, inheritance and selection. A complex chain of evolutionary events, yet to be deciphered, could then have led to the common ancestors of today’s free-living cells, and to the appearance of DNA, RNA and protein enzymes. PMID:11256602

  12. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  13. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  14. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  15. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  16. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  17. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  18. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  19. Eminence of American Composers: University Faculty Attitudes and Symphony Orchestra Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compares 174 music theory and composition professors' opinions about eminence among contemporary U.S. composers to frequency of works performed by 29 U.S. symphony orchestras. Finds faculty-perceived eminence and programing practices moderately related. Suggests some consensus among faculty and orchestra surveys regarding composer eminence. (CH)

  20. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  1. Transforming Experience: Negotiations of Sexual Identity in the Composing Processes of Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiating meaning, knowledge, and identity is fundamental to composing processes. These negotiations occur both individually and socially for writers. Sexual identity is an intrinsic part of these negotiations, but is often overlooked by researchers. This study explored the phenomenon of negotiating sexual identity in the composing processes of…

  2. Composing with an Eye to the Unexpected: An Interview with John Heiss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Helen Bohn

    1984-01-01

    John Heiss, a teacher and composer, describes how he came to write "Songs of Nature," a song cycle with text by nineteenth-century American poets. Heiss believes that, though a composer must know his craft, there should be room for intuition and the emotions in the creative process. (CS)

  3. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  4. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  5. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  6. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  7. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  8. Cognitive Components of Developmental Writing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…

  9. Development of Safeguards System Simulator Composed of Multi-Functional Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Ihara, Hitoshi

    Due to the large plutonium (Pu) throughput and high burn-up fuel in an advanced reprocessing facility, we are faced with the inevitable increasing burden of nuclear material accountancy (NMA) to meet the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards criteria. A large volume of sampling analysis and inspectors' activities result in a great cost for facility operation. Therefore, it is increasingly important to evaluate a cost-effective performance for the safeguards system. In order to design an advanced safeguards system, we have initiated the development of a safeguards system simulator. The simulator is composed of several interrelated cores and a separate core is planned to develop. The NMA core is a near-real-time accounting (NRTA) code that had been originally developed more than ten years ago and has been improved on an objective-driven pre- and post-processor. A multivariate and multi-scale core based on a principle component analysis with a wavelet technique has been developed to provide an algorithm of process monitoring. The time and frequency decomposition was verified to be an effective technique to detect an abnormal event. In addition, a multiple optimization core has been developed with a fuzzy-linear-programming technique to investigate the cost-effective performance of the conceptual safeguards system. It is shown that a combination of flow-meter and non-destructive assay can be applied to the system in a cost-effective manner. In the future, a virtual design core will be developed to support a walk-through and three dimensional visible plant model.

  10. Histological and genetic evidence for a variant of superficial spreading melanoma composed predominantly of large nests.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Heinz; Metzler, Gisela; Argenyi, Zsolt; Requena, Luis; Palmedo, Gabriele; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Hantschke, Markus; Paredes, Bruno E; Schärer, Leo; Hesse, Benedikt; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Shabrawi-Caelen, Leila El; Fried, Isabella; Kerl, Helmut; Lorenzo, Cerroni; Murali, Rajmohan; Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are characterized by a range of histological appearances, and several morphological variants have been described. In this study, we report a variant of superficial spreading melanoma that is characterized by large, irregular junctional melanocytic nests. The junctional nests varied in shape and size, showed focal tendency to confluence, and were often surrounded by a cuff of epidermal keratinocytes. The melanocytes comprising the nests showed variable cytological atypia. In most of the cases, scant intraepidermal or junctional single melanocytes were seen, and other well-documented diagnostic criteria for melanoma were lacking, and as a result, histological recognition of these tumors as melanoma was difficult. Some cases were associated with an invasive dermal component or showed evidence of sun damage. To provide supporting evidence for malignancy, we analyzed these tumors for genomic aberrations. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified multiple genomic aberrations in all analyzed cases. A similar pattern of genomic aberrations was seen in a control group of bona fide superficial spreading melanomas, suggesting that these 'melanomas composed exclusively or predominantly of large nests' are indeed variants of superficial spreading melanoma. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was positive in 40% of the cases. However, using aCGH, the FISH-negative cases showed multiple genomic aberrations in regions that are not covered by FISH. The low sensitivity of the FISH test can be explained by the fact that FISH only evaluates four genomic loci for aberrations, whereas aCGH surveys the entire genome. In summary, we present histological and molecular genetic evidence for a morphological variant of superficial spreading melanoma. Awareness of the histological features will aid in their correct diagnosis as melanoma, and in difficult cases, judicious application of ancillary tests such as aCGH (rather than FISH) will

  11. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  12. Microstructural musical linguistics: composers' pulses are liked most by the best musicians.

    PubMed

    Clynes, M

    1995-06-01

    Western music is a combination of notated structure plus microstructure. Composers' pulses, as precise microstructural functions, were tested with five groups of subjects of graded musical proficiency: (1) 10 famous artists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Paul Badura-Skoda and others; (2) 14 Julliard School of Music graduate students; (3) 19 Manhattan School of Music graduate students; (4) 51 Australian conservatory students; and (5) 41 non-music students (total, 135 subjects). Composers' pulses consist of combined amplitude and timing warps specific to each composer--the composer's pulse matrix. Each subject listened to and scored 40 versions of 10 short music examples (not selected by the author) of eight bars each, composed by Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and Schubert, performed by computer, in which composers' pulses, as developed by Clynes (1983, 1985a,b, 1986, 1987), were incorporated in a two-level hierarchic pulse configuration, and interchanged. Each example was heard with the pulses of those four composers in turn, in quasi-random sequence, one performance thus incorporating the "right" pulse and three the "wrong" ones. Results show dramatically that the greater the musical proficiency, the more marked the preference for the "right" pulse (p < .0001). Non-musicians as a group showed a similar tendency of preference, but typically to a considerably less pronounced degree. Further studies suggest that longer excerpts (32 bars) and repeated hearing would help non-musicians also to better understand composers' pulses. A theory of music as a double stream is introduced. The results suggest that the composers' pulse matrices posited by Clynes as a first approximation are in fact appropriately meaningful. Brain function aspects of the meaningful discrimination of such tiny time differences are discussed. PMID:7634761

  13. Microstructural musical linguistics: composers' pulses are liked most by the best musicians.

    PubMed

    Clynes, M

    1995-06-01

    Western music is a combination of notated structure plus microstructure. Composers' pulses, as precise microstructural functions, were tested with five groups of subjects of graded musical proficiency: (1) 10 famous artists including Vladimir Ashkenazy, Yehudi Menuhin, Paul Badura-Skoda and others; (2) 14 Julliard School of Music graduate students; (3) 19 Manhattan School of Music graduate students; (4) 51 Australian conservatory students; and (5) 41 non-music students (total, 135 subjects). Composers' pulses consist of combined amplitude and timing warps specific to each composer--the composer's pulse matrix. Each subject listened to and scored 40 versions of 10 short music examples (not selected by the author) of eight bars each, composed by Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and Schubert, performed by computer, in which composers' pulses, as developed by Clynes (1983, 1985a,b, 1986, 1987), were incorporated in a two-level hierarchic pulse configuration, and interchanged. Each example was heard with the pulses of those four composers in turn, in quasi-random sequence, one performance thus incorporating the "right" pulse and three the "wrong" ones. Results show dramatically that the greater the musical proficiency, the more marked the preference for the "right" pulse (p < .0001). Non-musicians as a group showed a similar tendency of preference, but typically to a considerably less pronounced degree. Further studies suggest that longer excerpts (32 bars) and repeated hearing would help non-musicians also to better understand composers' pulses. A theory of music as a double stream is introduced. The results suggest that the composers' pulse matrices posited by Clynes as a first approximation are in fact appropriately meaningful. Brain function aspects of the meaningful discrimination of such tiny time differences are discussed.

  14. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H. Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  15. The Emerging Minority Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baccus, R. Eileen

    The United States is experiencing a major demographic transformation. Some studies have projected that by the year 2020, whites will be in the minority as their number is surpassed by those of Indian, Asian, African, and Spanish descent, to name a few. Educators must make a major commitment to see that all students have the opportunity to perform…

  16. Twenty-Five Years of Scholarship on Second Language Composing Processes: 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Tony; Kapper, Jessie; Brice, Colleen; Matsuda, Paul Kei; Reichelt, Melinda

    2001-01-01

    This bibliography includes both an annotated and unannotated section on research conducted on second language composing processes in the last 25 years. It includes both published and unpublished material. (Author/VWL)

  17. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  18. Syphilis in composers and musicians--Mozart, Beethoven, Paganini, Schubert, Schumann, Smetana.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C

    2008-12-01

    In the pre-antibiotics era, syphilis was an extremely common disease. The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494, when it appeared among French troops besieging Naples. Thereafter, the disease spread all over Europe and, in the 18th and 19th centuries, many artists became victims of syphilis, among them poets, painters, philosophers, and musicians and composers. This review presents biographies of several musicians and composers that probably suffered from syphilis.

  19. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    PubMed

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well.

  20. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles. PMID:24437520

  1. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  2. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  3. CrusDe: A plug-in based simulation framework for composable CRUStal DEformation simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapenthin, R.

    2008-12-01

    Within geoscience, Green's method is an established mathematical tool to analyze the dynamics of the Earth's crust in response to the application of a mass force, e.g. a surface load. Different abstractions from the Earth's interior as well as the particular effects caused by such a force are expressed by means of a Green's function, G, which is a particular solution to an inhomogeneous differential equation with boundary conditions. Surface loads, L, are defined by real data or as analytical expressions. The response of the crust to a surface load is gained by a 2D-convolution (**) of the Green's function with this load. The crustal response can be thought of as an instantaneous displacement which is followed by a gradual transition towards the final relaxed state of displacement. A relaxation function, R, describing such a transition depends on the rheological model for the ductile layer of the crust. The 1D-convolution (*) of the relaxation function with a load history, H, allows to include the temporal evolution of the surface load into a model. The product of the two convolution results expresses the displacement (rate) of the crust, U, at a certain time t: Ut = (R * H)t · (G ** L) Rather than implementing a variety of specific models, approaching crustal deformation problems from the general formulation in equation~1 opens the opportunity to consider reuse of model building blocks within a more flexible simulation framework. Model elements (Green's function, load function, etc.), operators, pre- and postprocessing, and even input and output routines could be part of a framework that enables a user to freely compose software components to resemble equation~1. The simulation framework CrusDe implements equation~1 in the proposed way. CrusDe's architecture defines interfaces for generic communication between the simulation core and the model elements. Thus, exchangeability of the particular model element implementations is possible. In the presented plug

  4. Antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid from Cornus officinalis fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed by malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The IC50 and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by various agonists as well as platelet adhesion were evaluated in vitro. Of note, the IC50 for the formula inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 0.185 mg/mL. Meanwhile, the formula showed more potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin than the single component at same concentration (0.37 mg/mL). Moreover, the formula could prevent platelet adhesion significantly without influence on platelet viability.

  5. Bioavailability of two organic forms of zinc in comparison to zinc sulphate for weaning pigs fed a diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Paulicks, Brigitte R; Ingenkamp, Hanna; Eder, Klaus

    2011-08-01

    This study was performed to compare the bioavailability of two organic zinc compounds, a zinc glycinate complex and a zinc amino acid chelate with that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a basal diet composed mainly of wheat, barley and soybean meal. The experiment included 96 pigs with an average body weight of 8 kg, allotted to ten groups of nine to ten pigs each. The first group received the basal diet, containing 42 mg of native zinc per kg, without zinc supplementation over a period of five weeks. The other nine groups received the basal diet supplemented with 15, 30 or 50 mg of zinc/kg as zinc sulphate, zinc glycinate or the zinc amino acid chelate. Pigs fed the unsupplemented diet had a lower growth performance (body weight gain, feed conversion ratio) than the other nine groups. Supplementation of 15 mg zinc/kg diet (irrespective of zinc form) was sufficient to yield optimum growth performance. Plasma zinc concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase were rising with increasing zinc supplementation levels up to a maximum reached at a supplementary level of 30 or 50 mg/kg diet for activity of alkaline phosphatase and plasma zinc concentration, respectively. The response of those parameters to zinc supplementation did, however, not differ between the three zinc compounds considered. The apparent digestibility of zinc from the diet was also not different for the three zinc compounds. In conclusion, these findings show that the bioavailability of the two organic zinc compounds did not differ from that of zinc sulphate in growing pigs fed a diet with wheat, barley and soybean meal as major components.

  6. APS beamline standard components handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that most Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) members would like to concentrate on designing specialized equipment related to their scientific programs rather than on routine or standard beamline components. Thus, an effort is in progress at the APS to identify standard and modular components of APS beamlines. Identifying standard components is a nontrivial task because these components should support diverse beamline objectives. To assist with this effort, the APS has obtained advice and help from a Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee consisting of experts in beamline design, construction, and operation. The staff of the Experimental Facilities Division identified various components thought to be standard items for beamlines, regardless of the specific scientific objective of a particular beamline. A generic beamline layout formed the basis for this identification. This layout is based on a double-crystal monochromator as the first optical element, with the possibility of other elements to follow. Pre-engineering designs were then made of the identified standard components. The Beamline Standardization and Modularization Committee has reviewed these designs and provided very useful input regarding the specifications of these components. We realize that there will be other configurations that may require special or modified components. This Handbook in its current version (1.1) contains descriptions, specifications, and pre-engineering design drawings of these standard components. In the future, the APS plans to add engineering drawings of identified standard beamline components. Use of standard components should result in major cost reductions for CATs in the areas of beamline design and construction.

  7. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25973865

  8. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  9. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  10. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  11. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  12. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  13. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  14. Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  15. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  16. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  17. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  18. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  19. MAJOR REPOSITORY DESIGN ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, James A.; Bailey, Jack N.; Chesnut, Dwayne; Compton, James; Snell, Richard D.

    1997-11-10

    The Yucca Mountain Project is focused on producing a four-part viability assessment in late FY98. Its four components (design, performance assessment, cost estimate, and licensing development plan) must be consistent. As a tool to compare design and performance assessment options, a series of repository pictures were developed for the sequential time phases of a repository. The boundaries of the time phases correspond to evolution in the engineered barrier system (EBS).

  20. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  1. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology. PMID:10718524

  2. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, K; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B; Ding, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  3. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  4. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  5. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  6. The major evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Szathmáry, E; Smith, J M

    1995-03-16

    There is no theoretical reason to expect evolutionary lineages to increase in complexity with time, and no empirical evidence that they do so. Nevertheless, eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic ones, animals and plants are more complex than protists, and so on. This increase in complexity may have been achieved as a result of a series of major evolutionary transitions. These involved changes in the way information is stored and transmitted.

  7. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile...

  8. Local Knowledge and Digital Movie Composing in an After-School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brass, Jory J.

    2008-01-01

    A Latino teenager participated in an after school digital movie composing program called the Technology and Literacy Project. As a student of color previously identified as at risk for school failure, Horatio's case speaks to a common discrepancy highlighted in sociocultural literacy scholarship. He was competent and engaged with numerous…

  9. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  10. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  11. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  12. The Heart of the Matter: Composing Music with an Adolescent with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2008-01-01

    As a support worker for adolescents with special needs, I have found that they have few opportunities to play music. While previous research emphasizes that students with special needs can enjoy music in multiple capacities, little has been written about their ability to play, improvise, or compose. I employed a qualitative approach for this case…

  13. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  14. Let Cinderella and Luke Skywalker Help You Teach the Passe Compose and Imperfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    Instructional materials for the passe compose and imperfect tenses in French use the technique of presenting familiar stories in the foreign language, written in the present tense, which students must place in the past by changing verb forms. The objective is to avoid the disadvantages of simply translating verb tenses and to allow the student to…

  15. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  16. Residential Interior Design as Complex Composition: A Case Study of a High School Senior's Composing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; Zoss, Michelle; Reed, Patty M.

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed the composing processes of one high school student as she designed the interiors of homes for a course in interior design. Data included field notes, an interview with the teacher, artifacts from the class, and the focal student's concurrent and retrospective protocols in relation to her design of home interiors. The…

  17. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  18. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  19. Composing: The Art of Letting Your Right Brain Recognize What Your Left Brain is Recalling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Thomas

    The purpose of this paper is to show teachers that composing is the conveying of "knowing" and that students' growth in writing is frequently stunted by teachers' stress on correct spelling, word choice, and syntax in student writing. Topics discussed in the paper include the following: the presence of "memories and experiences, cinemas, radio…

  20. It Looks Like a Goose: Composing for the Informational Needs of Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliway, David R.

    This study addressed whether "reading-as-the-reader" can improve fifth- and ninth-grade students' abilities to compose descriptive writing consistent with their readers' informational needs. There were 206 participants: 154 writers (78 fifth graders and 76 ninth graders) and 52 ninth-grade readers. The study adapted the referential communication…

  1. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  2. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    PubMed

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  3. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  4. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  5. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  6. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  7. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  8. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  9. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  10. Reframing Multimodal Composing for Student Learning: Lessons on Purpose from the Buffalo DV Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    In a study of urban secondary teachers moving out of professional development and into their classrooms, the research team documented the learning processes of teachers and student groups during their digital video composing to make sense of the curriculum. Taken together, these ethnographic case studies provide evidence that digital video…

  11. Author in the Arts: Composing and Collaborating in Text, Music, and the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerben, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many disciplines share similar terminology for making: creating, composing, writing, and authoring. The last term authoring, however, is problematic in how it privileges an end goal of individual authority and reward. To interrogate this term, and argue for its importance in future collaborative, interdisciplinary work, this article examines a…

  12. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  13. p53 is not related to Ki-67 immunostaining in the epithelial and mesenchymal components of female genital tract carcinosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Bałon, Beata; Kaznowska, Ewa; Ignatov, Atanas; Steć, Anna; Semczuk-Sikora, Anna; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Jóźwik, Maciej; Sulkowski, Stanisław; Cybulski, Marek; Szumiło, Justyna; Semczuk, Andrzej

    2013-10-01

    Carcinosarcomas (CSs) are composed of two separate histological components and are rare neoplasms of the female genital tract. Therefore, CS pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the role of p53 and Ki-67 overexpression in female genital tract CSs. The study group was comprised of 36 patients with CSs originating from the uterus (n=31), cervix (n=3) and ovary (n=2), as well as 3 metastatic tissues. p53 was overexpressed in the epithelial component of 23 out of 36 (64%) tumors, and in the mesenchymal component of 20 out of 36 (56%) tumors. In both CS components, there was a significant correlation between p53 overexpression and patient age and ovarian metastases. Ki-67 overexpression was detected in the epithelial component in 15 out of 36 (42%) cases, and in the mesenchymal component in 13 out of 36 (36%) neoplasms. There was a significant correlation of p53 overexpression between the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components (R=0.884, P<0.001). A significant correlation was also found in Ki-67 immunoreactivity between the two CS components (R=0.676, P<0.001). However, p53 overexpression was not correlated with Ki-67 immunostaining in both tumor components. In conclusion, based on immunohistochemical results, p53 was overexpressed in more than half of the female genital tract CSs included in the present study, either at the epithelial or mesenchymal component. The correlation between p53 or Ki-67 overexpression in both tumor components supports the combination theory of histogenesis in the majority of these tumors.

  14. Streptococcus salivarius Fimbriae Are Composed of a Glycoprotein Containing a Repeated Motif Assembled into a Filamentous Nondissociable Structure

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Céline; Vadeboncoeur, Christian; Chandad, Fatiha; Frenette, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius, a gram-positive bacterium found in the human oral cavity, expresses flexible peritrichous fimbriae. In this paper, we report purification and partial characterization of S. salivarius fimbriae. Fimbriae were extracted by shearing the cell surface of hyperfimbriated mutant A37 (a spontaneous mutant of S. salivarius ATCC 25975) with glass beads. Preliminary experiments showed that S. salivarius fimbriae did not dissociate when they were incubated at 100°C in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. This characteristic was used to separate them from other cell surface components by successive gel filtration chromatography procedures. Fimbriae with molecular masses ranging from 20 × 106 to 40 × 106 Da were purified. Examination of purified fimbriae by electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous structures up to 1 μm long and 3 to 4 nm in diameter. Biochemical studies of purified fimbriae and an amino acid sequence analysis of a fimbrial internal peptide revealed that S. salivarius fimbriae were composed of a glycoprotein assembled into a filamentous structure resistant to dissociation. The internal amino acid sequence was composed of a repeated motif of two amino acids alternating with two modified residues: A/X/T-E-Q-M/φ, where X represents a modified amino acid residue and φ represents a blank cycle. Immunolocalization experiments also revealed that the fimbriae were associated with a wheat germ agglutinin-reactive carbohydrate. Immunolabeling experiments with antifimbria polyclonal antibodies showed that antigenically related fimbria-like structures were expressed in two other human oral streptococcal species, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus constellatus. PMID:11292790

  15. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  16. Ia-antigen-T-cell interactions for a thymus-independent antigen composed of D amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, E; Dayan, M; Sela, M; Mozes, E

    1993-01-01

    Synthetic polypeptide antigens of L amino acids, although bearing repeating sequences, are thymus-dependent (L-TD), whereas the same polymers composed of D amino acids are thymus-independent (D-TI), probably due to a slower rate of metabolism. Yet we found that lymph-node cells of BALB/c mice immunized with D-TI proliferate in response to it in vitro. To follow T-cell activation by D-TI, we established T-cell hybridomas to D-TI and to its analog composed of L isomers, L-TD, for comparison. The T-cell hybridomas express membrane alpha/beta T-cell receptors and secrete interleukin 2 upon stimulation with the respective antigen. In addition, D-TI-specific hybridomas are stimulated, to a lesser extent, by the L-TD antigen, whereas only some L-TD-specific hybridomas recognize D-TI. Moreover, biotinylated analogs of D-TI and L-TD bind to splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from BALB/c mice. Binding is inhibited by an excess of nonbiotinylated L-TD, and by an excess of a peptide comprising residues 259-271 of the human acetylcholine receptor alpha subunit, which binds to I-Ad and I-Ed molecules without prior processing. Analysis of APC lysates following incubation of the APCs with biotinylated D-TI and L-TD reveals that the biotinylated antigen moiety is associated with Ia molecules. D-TI and L-TD bind to Ia molecules on intact APCs with similar KD values, 5 x 10(-8) M and 3 x 10(-8) M, respectively. However, D-TI has faster kinetics of binding than L-TD, probably due to different processing requirements. Hence, we have demonstrated a major histocompatibility complex class II-mediated T-cell response to a thymus-independent antigen. Images PMID:8381541

  17. Abell 3560, a galaxy cluster at the edge of a major merging event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardelli, S.; Venturi, T.; Zucca, E.; De Grandi, S.; Ettori, S.; Molendi, S.

    2002-12-01

    In this paper we study A3560, a rich cluster at the southern periphery of the A3558 complex, a chain of interacting clusters in the central part of the Shapley Concentration supercluster. From a ROSAT-PSPC map we find that the X-ray surface brightness distribution of A3560 is well described by two components, an elliptical King law and a more peaked and fainter structure, which has been modeled with a Gaussian. The main component, corresponding to the cluster, is elongated with the major axis pointing toward the A3558 complex. The second component, centered on the Dumb-bell galaxy which dominates the cluster, appears significantly offset (by ~ 0.15 h-1 Mpc) from the cluster X-ray centroid. From a Beppo-SAX observation we derive the radial temperature profile, finding that the temperature is constant (at kT ~ 3.7 keV) up to 8 arcmin, corresponding to 0.3 h-1 Mpc: for larger distances, the temperature significantly drops to kT ~ 1.7 keV. We analyze also temperature maps, dividing the cluster into 4 sectors and deriving the temperature profiles in each sector: we find that the temperature drop is more sudden in the sectors which point towards the A3558 complex. From VLA radio data, at 20 and 6 cm, we find a peculiar bright extended radio source (J1332-3308), composed of a core (centered on the northern component of the Dumb-bell galaxy), two lobes, a ``filament" and a diffuse component. The morphology of the source could be interpreted either by a strong interaction of the radio source with the intracluster medium or by the model of intermittency of the central engine.

  18. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  19. Innovative Technologies to Manufacture Hybrid Metal Foam/Composite Components

    SciTech Connect

    Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Franchitti, S.; Sorrentino, L.; Tersigni, L.

    2011-01-17

    The aim of this paper is to verify the technological feasibility to realize hybrid metal-foam/composite component and the mechanical performances of the final structure. The hybrid component is composed by a cylindrical core in aluminum foam, the most used between those commercially available, and an outer layer in epoxy/S2-glass, manufactured by filament winding technology.A set of experimental tests have been carried out, to the aim to estimate the improvement of the hybrid component characteristics, compared to the sum of the single components (metal foam cylinder and epoxy/S2-glass tube).

  20. Majorization entropic uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchała, Zbigniew; Rudnicki, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-07-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space are investigated. Making use of the majorization technique we derive explicit lower bounds for the sum of Rényi entropies describing probability distributions associated with a given pure state expanded in eigenbases of two observables. Obtained bounds are expressed in terms of the largest singular values of submatrices of the unitary rotation matrix. Numerical simulations show that for a generic unitary matrix of size N = 5, our bound is stronger than the well-known result of Maassen and Uffink (MU) with a probability larger than 98%. We also show that the bounds investigated are invariant under the dephasing and permutation operations. Finally, we derive a classical analogue of the MU uncertainty relation, which is formulated for stochastic transition matrices. Dedicated to Iwo Białynicki-Birula on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  1. Absence of amusia and preserved naming of musical instruments in an aphasic composer.

    PubMed

    Tzortzis, C; Goldblum, M C; Dang, M; Forette, F; Boller, F

    2000-04-01

    M.M., a right-handed, 74 year old professional musician and composer, presented with a progressive aphasia with a severe anomia. His musical competence was apparently totally preserved, and he continued his activity as a composer. There was a striking discrepancy between his impaired naming of nonmusical stimuli and his normal naming of musical instruments' sounds. We suggest that the preservation of skills in the musical domain results from an expanded cortical representation of this function in the left hemisphere, secondary to his lifelong formal training, and to the high level of his professional competence. As for his preserved naming of musical instruments, we argue that the early age-of-acquisition and higher than "normal" frequency/familiarity for names of musical instruments facilitate the access to their lexical representation and/or their retrieval within the lexicon.

  2. Towards Composing Data Aware Systems Biology Workflows on Cloud Platforms: A MeDICi-based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Wynne, Adam S.

    2011-09-08

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted for deploying systems biology scientific workflows. Scientists developing these workflows use a wide variety of fragmented and competing data sets and computational tools of all scales to support their research. To this end, the synergy of client side workflow tools with cloud platforms is a promising approach to share and reuse data and workflows. In such systems, the location of data and computation is essential consideration in terms of quality of service for composing a scientific workflow across remote cloud platforms. In this paper, we describe a cloud-based workflow for genome annotation processing that is underpinned by MeDICi - a middleware designed for data intensive scientific applications. The workflow implementation incorporates an execution layer for exploiting data locality that routes the workflow requests to the processing steps that are colocated with the data. We demonstrate our approach by composing two workflowswith the MeDICi pipelines.

  3. Optical memory development. Volume 3: The membrane light value page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a page composer for optical memory systems using thin, deformable, membrane-mirror elements as light valves was investigated. The electromechanical and optical performances of such elements were determined both analytically and experimentally. It was found that fast switching (approximately 10 microseconds), high-contrast (10 or greater), fatigue-free operation over missions of cycles, and efficient utilization of input light could be obtained with membrane light valves. Several arrays of 64 elements were made on substrates with feedthroughs, allowing access to individual elements from the backside of the substrate. Single light valves on such arrays were successfully operated with the transistors designed and produced for selection and storage at each bit location. This simulated the operation of a prototype page composer with semiconductor chips beam-lead bonded to the back of the substrate.

  4. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface.

    PubMed

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-07-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  5. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  6. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system.

  7. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  8. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system. PMID:25412821

  9. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  10. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  11. Temperature distribution in internally heated walls of heat exchangers composed of nonnuclear flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Low, George M

    1951-01-01

    In the walls of heat exchangers composed of noncircular passages, the temperature varies in the circumferential direction because of local variations of the heat-transfer coefficients. A prediction of the magnitude of this variation is necessary in order to determine the region of highest temperature and in order to determine the admissible operating temperatures. A method for the determination of these temperature distributions and of the heat-transfer characteristics of a special type of heat exchanger is developed. The heat exchanger is composed of polygonal flow passages and the passage walls are uniformly heated by internal heat sources. The coolant flow within the passages is assumed to be turbulent. The circumferential variation of the local heat-transfer coefficients is estimated from flow measurements made by Nikuradse, postulating similarity between velocity and temperature fields. Calculations of temperature distributions based on these heat-transfer coefficients are carried out and results for heat exchangers with triangular and rectangular passages are presented.

  12. "Composing in the Style of Mozart: An Exploration of the "Struggling Boy Writer" Comparing the Composing Processes and Strategies of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The under-achievement of boys in the language components of standardised tests, together with a perception of boys as having negative attitudes towards the English curriculum, has led to boys being positioned as struggling writers. This article reflects critically on this construction, drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council…

  13. Geometry of Prismatic Tensegrity Constructions Composed of Three and Four-strut Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejníková, Tatiana

    2014-11-01

    In the paper there is described geometry of double layer tensegrity constructions composed of prismatic cells with rhombic configuration of three or four strut bases so-called prismatic Tensegrity constructions. There are described bi-dimensional assemblies creating double layer grids of three or four-strut cells with a node-on-node junction. The grids can be planar, of one or two curvature constructions.

  14. Emil Votocek (1872-1950): A Tribute to the Chemist-Composer-Lexicographer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman*, George B.; Jursík**, Frantisek; Rae***, Ian D.

    1999-04-01

    Emil Votocek (1872-1950), Professor of Experimental Inorganic and Organic Chemistry at the Czech Technical University at Prague (1905-1939) and cofounder and coeditor of the journal Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, was an authority on the chemistry of carbohydrates, especially sugars. Although primarily known for his research on organic, analytical, inorganic, and plant chemistry, this polyglot scholar and lexicographer was also a composer who wrote nearly 60 musical compositions during the relatively short period of 15 years.

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-12-07

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  16. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GASOLINE BLENDING COMPONENTS THROUGH THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contributions of three major gasoline blending components (reformate, alkylate and cracked gasoline) to potential environmental impacts are assessed. This study estimates losses of the gasoline blending components due to evaporation and leaks through their life cycle, from pe...

  18. Recreating the real, realizing the imaginary--a composer's preoccupation with acoustic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godman, Rob

    2002-11-01

    For centuries composers have been concerned with spatialization of sound and with the use of acoustic spaces to create feeling, atmosphere, and musical structure. This paper will explore Rob Godman's own use of sound in space, including (1) his treatment of ancient Vitruvian principles and how they are combined with new technologies; (2) an exploration of virtual journeys through real and imaginary acoustic spaces; (3) how sounds might be perceived in air, liquid, and solids; and (4) how technology has allowed composers to realize ideas that previously had only existed in the imagination. While focusing on artistic concerns, the paper will provide information on research carried out by the composer into acoustic spaces that are able to transform in real time with the aid of digital technology (Max/MSP software with sensor technology) and how these have been used in installation and pre-recorded work. It will also explore digital reconstructions of Vitruvian theatres and how we perceive resonance and ambience in the real and virtual world.

  19. Rotational viscosity of fluids composed of linear molecules: An equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. J. D.; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the rotational viscosity for a chlorine fluid and for a fluid composed of small linear molecules by using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The rotational viscosity is calculated over a large range of state points. It is found that the rotational viscosity is almost independent of temperature in the range studied here but exhibits a power-law dependency on density. The rotational viscosity also shows a power-law relationship with the molecular length, and the ratio between the shear and rotational viscosities approaches 0.5 for the longest molecule studied here. By changing the number of atoms or united atomic units per molecule and by keeping the molecule length fixed, we show that fluids composed of molecules which have a rodlike shape have a lower rotational viscosity. We argue that this phenomenon is due to the reduction in intermolecular connectivity, which leads to larger fluctuations around the values possessed by the fluid on average. The conclusions here can be extended to fluids composed of uniaxial molecules of arbitrary length.

  20. Constructing three-dimensional detachable and composable computer models of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Dai, Peishan; Zheng, Buhong; Li, Xinchun

    2015-06-01

    The head and neck region has a complex spatial and topological structure, three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the region can be used in anatomical education, radiotherapy planning and surgical training. However, most of the current models only consist of a few parts of the head and neck, and the 3D models are not detachable and composable. In this study, a high-resolution 3D detachable and composable model of the head and neck was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) serial images. First, fine CT serial images of the head and neck were obtained. Then, a color lookup table was created for 58 structures, which was used to create anatomical atlases of the head and neck. Then, surface and volume rendering methods were used to reconstruct 3D models of the head and neck. Smoothing and polygon reduction steps were added to improve 3D rendering effects. 3D computer models of the head and neck, including the sinus, pharynx, vasculature, nervous system, endocrine system and glands, muscles, bones and skin, were reconstructed. The models consisted of 58 anatomical detachable and composable structures and each structure can be displayed individually or together with other structures.