Science.gov

Sample records for major components composed

  1. Composing simulations using persistent software components

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, J.V.; Michelsen, R.E.; Powell, D.R.; Upton, S.C.; Thompson, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    The traditional process for developing large-scale simulations is cumbersome, time consuming, costly, and in some cases, inadequate. The topics of software components and component-based software engineering are being explored by software professionals in academic and industrial settings. A component is a well-delineated, relatively independent, and replaceable part of a software system that performs a specific function. Many researchers have addressed the potential to derive a component-based approach to simulations in general, and a few have focused on military simulations in particular. In a component-based approach, functional or logical blocks of the simulation entities are represented as coherent collections of components satisfying explicitly defined interface requirements. A simulation is a top-level aggregate comprised of a collection of components that interact with each other in the context of a simulated environment. A component may represent a simulation artifact, an agent, or any entity that can generated events affecting itself, other simulated entities, or the state of the system. The component-based approach promotes code reuse, contributes to reducing time spent validating or verifying models, and promises to reduce the cost of development while still delivering tailored simulations specific to analysis questions. The Integrated Virtual Environment for Simulation (IVES) is a composition-centered framework to achieve this potential. IVES is a Java implementation of simulation composition concepts developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in several application domains. In this paper, its use in the military domain is demonstrated via the simulation of dismounted infantry in an urban environment.

  2. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  3. Titin: major myofibrillar components of striated muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K; McClure, J; Tu, A

    1979-01-01

    Electrophoretic analyses of protein components of striated muscle myofibril purified from various vertebrate and invertebrate species revealed that proteins much larger than myosin heavy chain are present in significant amounts. To define possible roles of these heretofore unidentified proteins, we purified a combination of two uncommonly large proteins, designated as titin, from chicken breast myofibrils. Chemical and immunological studies indicated that titin is distinct from myosin, actin, and filamin. Specific titin anti body crossreacts with similar protein in both skeletal and cardiac myofibrils of many vertebrate and invertebrate species. Immunofluorescent staining of glycerinated chicken breast myofibrils indicated that titin is present in M lines, Z lines, the junctions of A and I bands, and perhaps throughout the entire A bands. Similar staining studies of myofibrils from other species suggest that titinlike proteins may be organized in all myofibrils according to a common architectural plan. We conclude that titin is a structurally conserved myofibrillar component of vertebrate and invertebrate striated muscles. Images PMID:291034

  4. Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevations, Major Component Isometric, Propellant Flow Schematic, and External Tank Connection to Shuttle Main Engines - Space Transportation System, Space Shuttle Main Engine, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  5. Investigation of data quality in a wireless sensing unit composed of off-the-shelf components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Jin-Song; Kapoor, Chetan; Graves-Abe, Troy L.; Sugeng, Yohanes P.; Ferzli, Nadim; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study on data and system identification results (derived from collected data) in a wireless sensing environment. The goal of this study is to understand how various hardware design choices and operational conditions affect the quality of the data and accuracy of the identified results; the focus of this paper is packet and data loss. A series of experimental investigations are carried out using a laboratory shaking table instrumented with off-the-shelf Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers. A wireless sensing unit is developed to interface with these wired analog accelerometers to enable wireless data transmission. To reduce the overall design variance and aid convenient application in civil infrastructure health monitoring, this wireless unit is built with off-the-shelf microcontroller and radio development boards. The anti-aliasing filter and analog-to-digital convectors (ADC) are the only customized components in the hardware. By varying critical hardware configurations, including using analog accelerometers of different commercial brands, taking various designs for the anti-aliasing filter, and adopting ADCs with different resolutions, shaking table tests are repeated, the collected data are processed, and the results are compared. Operational conditions such as sampling rate and wireless data transmitting range are also altered separately in the repeated testing. In all of the cases tested, data is also collected using a wire-based data acquisition system to serve as a performance baseline for evaluation of the wireless data transmission performance. Based on this study, the challenges in the hardware design of wireless sensing units and data processing are identified.

  6. Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C.; Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D.; Haggag, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

  7. A Recipe Composed of Chinese Herbal Active Components Regulates Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of NAFLD In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Sheng-xi; Liu, Qian; Tang, Ya-jun; Wang, Wen-jing; Zheng, Qing-shan; Tian, Hua-jie; Yao, Dong-sheng; Liu, Lin; Peng, Jing-hua; Zhao, Yu; Hu, Yi-yang; Feng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of the recipe composed of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide (named ACG) on experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). The research was divided into two parts as screening experiment and verification experiment. In the screening experiment, we used high-fat diet (HFD) induced NAFL rat model and uniform design to get the recipe from five Chinese herbal active components. In the verification experiment, HFD induced fatty liver rat and mouse NAFL models and free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cell model were used to verify the effects of ACG. According to the multiple regression equation of the hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents of each group in the screening experiment, the recipe ACG was obtained and the doses of Atractylodes macrocephala polysaccharide, chlorogenic acid, and geniposide for rats were 266.67, 3.33, and 45 mg/kg, respectively. The results of verification experiment verified that ACG could significantly reduce hepatic TG contents of NAFL rats and mice, as well as the cellular TG content of FFA-induced HepG2 cells. ACG could also improve HOMA-IR and hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure of NAFL mice. Our study verified that ACG recipe could regulate lipid metabolism of NAFL in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27069915

  8. Annexin II is a major component of fusogenic endosomal vesicles

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    We have used an in vitro assay to follow the proteins transferred from a donor to an acceptor upon fusion of early endosomes. The acceptor was a purified early endosomal fraction immunoisolated on beads and the donor was a metabolically-labeled early endosomal fraction in suspension. In the assay, both fractions were mixed in the presence of unlabeled cytosol, and then the beads were retrieved and washed. The donor proteins transferred to the acceptor were identified by two- dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Approximately 50 major proteins were transferred and this transfer fulfilled all criteria established for endosome fusion in vitro. However, only a small subset of proteins was efficiently transferred, if donor endosomes were briefly sonicated to generate small (0.1 micron diam) vesicles before the assay. These include two acidic membrane proteins, and three alkaline peripheral proteins exposed on the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. Partial sequencing and Western blotting indicated that one of the latter components is annexin II, a protein known to mediate membrane-membrane interactions. Immunogold labeling of cryosections confirmed that annexin II is present on early endosomes in vivo. These data demonstrate that annexin II, together with the other four proteins we have identified, is a major component of fusogenic endosomal vesicles, suggesting that these proteins are involved in the binding and/or fusion process. PMID:8449982

  9. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana I; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John's wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out.

  10. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Major component analysis of dynamic networks of physiologic organ interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang K. L.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ma, Qianli D. Y.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-09-01

    The human organism is a complex network of interconnected organ systems, where the behavior of one system affects the dynamics of other systems. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse physiologic systems under varied conditions is a challenge due to the complexity in the output dynamics of the individual systems and the transient and nonlinear characteristics of their coupling. We introduce a novel computational method based on the concept of time delay stability and major component analysis to investigate how organ systems interact as a network to coordinate their functions. We analyze a large database of continuously recorded multi-channel physiologic signals from healthy young subjects during night-time sleep. We identify a network of dynamic interactions between key physiologic systems in the human organism. Further, we find that each physiologic state is characterized by a distinct network structure with different relative contribution from individual organ systems to the global network dynamics. Specifically, we observe a gradual decrease in the strength of coupling of heart and respiration to the rest of the network with transition from wake to deep sleep, and in contrast, an increased relative contribution to network dynamics from chin and leg muscle tone and eye movement, demonstrating a robust association between network topology and physiologic function.

  12. Neuroprotective Activity of Hypericum perforatum and Its Major Components

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana I.; Pinho, Cláudia; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C. P.

    2016-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial plant, with worldwide distribution, commonly known as St. John’s wort. It has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the treatment of several disorders, such as minor burns, anxiety, and mild to moderate depression. In the past years, its antidepressant properties have been extensively studied. Despite that, other H. perforatum biological activities, as its neuroprotective properties have also been evaluated. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the main biologically active compounds of H. perforatum, as for its chemistry, pharmacological activities, drug interactions and adverse reactions and gather scattered information about its neuroprotective abilities. As for this, it has been demonstrated that H. perforatum extracts and several of its major molecular components have the ability to protect against toxic insults, either directly, through neuroprotective mechanisms, or indirectly, through is antioxidant properties. H. perforatum has therefore the potential to become an effective neuroprotective therapeutic agent, despite further studies that need to be carried out. PMID:27462333

  13. The major bioactive components of seaweeds and their mosquitocidal potential.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-Xin; Jantan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Rohani; Wong, Ching-Lee

    2014-09-01

    Seaweeds are one of the most widely studied natural resources for their biological activities. Novel seaweed compounds with unique chemical structures have been reported for their pharmacological properties. The urge to search for novel insecticidal compound with a new mode of action for development of botanical insecticides supports the relevant scientific research on discovering the bioactive compounds in seaweeds. The mosquitocidal potential of seaweed extracts and their isolated compounds are documented in this review paper, along with the discussion on bioactivities of the major components of seaweeds such as polysaccharides, phenolics, proteins, terpenes, lipids, and halogenated compounds. The effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward different life stages of mosquito (egg, larva, pupa, and adult), its growth, development, and reproduction are elaborated. The structure-activity relationships of mosquitocidal compounds are discussed to extrapolate the possible chemical characteristics of seaweed compounds responsible for insecticidal properties. Furthermore, the possible target sites and mode of actions of the mosquitocidal seaweed compounds are included in this paper. The potential synergistic effects between seaweeds and commercial insecticides as well as the toxic effects of seaweed extracts and compounds toward other insects and non-target organisms in the same habitat are also described. On top of that, various factors that influence the mosquitocidal potential of seaweeds, such as abiotic and biotic variables, sample preparation, test procedures, and considerations for a precise experimental design are discussed. The potential of active seaweed extracts and compounds in the development of effective bioinsecticide are also discussed.

  14. Alpha amylase is a major allergenic component in occupational asthma patients caused by porcine pancreatic extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Sim; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Suh, You-Jin; Lee, Soo-Jin; Lee, Soo-Keol; Kim, Sun-Sin; Nahm, Dong-Ho

    2002-09-01

    Porcine pancreatic extracts (PPE) are composed of alpha-amylase and lipase, which are common components of digestive enzymes. They have been known to cause occupational asthma in exposed workers in pharmaceutical and baking industries, as well as in a laboratory technician, but there has been no report of PPE-induced occupational asthma in medical personnel and their IgE binding components to each component. Four asthmatic subjects showing positive results on PPE-bronchoprovocation testing were enrolled. All of them were nurses working in a university hospital. Their job included grinding and mixing PPE powder for admitted patients. Serum-specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). To confirm specificity of IgE binding and cross-allergenicity among the three extracts, ELISA inhibition tests were performed. In order to characterize allergenic components within these three extracts, SDS-PAGE and IgE immunoblot analysis were done. Specific IgE antibodies to PPE, alpha-amylase, and lipase were detectable by ELISA in all study subjects. An alpha-amylase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by amylase and PPE, and minimal inhibition by lipase. However, a lipase ELISA inhibition test showed significant inhibitions by alpha-amylase and PPE with a lesser degree of inhibition by lipase. Furthermore, IgE immunoblot analysis showed one IgE binding component (55 kDa) within PPE, six components (55 kDa, 43 kDa, 41 kDa, 32 kDa, 31 kDa, 29 kDa) within alpha-amylase and two components (31 kDa, 29 kDa) within lipase extracts. Thesefindings suggest that inhalation of PPE powder can induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed nurses. Alpha-amylase is a major allergenic component within PPE.

  15. Structure, dynamics, evolution, and function of a major scaffold component in the nuclear pore complex.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Kim, Seung Joong; Upla, Paula; Rice, William J; Phillips, Jeremy; Timney, Benjamin L; Pieper, Ursula; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Hakhverdyan, Zhanna; Ketaren, Natalia E; Matsui, Tsutomu; Weiss, Thomas M; Stokes, David L; Sauder, J Michael; Burley, Stephen K; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P; Almo, Steven C

    2013-04-02

    The nuclear pore complex, composed of proteins termed nucleoporins (Nups), is responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport in eukaryotes. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form an annular structure composed of the nuclear ring, cytoplasmic ring, a membrane ring, and two inner rings. Nup192 is a major component of the NPC's inner ring. We report the crystal structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nup192 residues 2-960 [ScNup192(2-960)], which adopts an α-helical fold with three domains (i.e., D1, D2, and D3). Small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopy (EM) studies reveal that ScNup192(2-960) could undergo long-range transition between "open" and "closed" conformations. We obtained a structural model of full-length ScNup192 based on EM, the structure of ScNup192(2-960), and homology modeling. Evolutionary analyses using the ScNup192(2-960) structure suggest that NPCs and vesicle-coating complexes are descended from a common membrane-coating ancestral complex. We show that suppression of Nup192 expression leads to compromised nuclear transport and hypothesize a role for Nup192 in modulating the permeability of the NPC central channel.

  16. Synthesis of two major toxaphene components and their photostabilities.

    PubMed

    Coelhan, Mehmet; Maurer, Martin

    2005-12-28

    The synthesis of 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1001, Hp-Sed) and 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10-octachlorobornane (B8-1412) is described. Both compounds are components of toxaphene, an insecticide that has been widely used in the past. B7-1001 is an important toxaphene congener, comprising up to 99% of total toxaphene concentrations found in fish and sediment samples from treated lakes. B8-1412 is also a significant component of toxaphene contamination in samples from biota. In synthesizing the compounds, 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,10-hexachlorobornane (B6-913) was obtained by reduction of the well-known toxaphene component P 32 (B7-515, 2,2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane), which was itself isolated from the chlorination products of (+)-camphene. Chlorination of B6-913 provided B7-1001 in 49.5% yield, and P 32 and four other heptachlorobornanes were also detected in the reaction mixture. Structures of two of the heptachlorobornanes were elucidated by MS and NMR as 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1461) and 2-exo,3,3,6-endo,8,9,10-heptachlorobornane (B7-1303). B8-1412 was isolated from the product mixture obtained by chlorination of 2-exo,3-endo,6-endo,8,9,9,10-heptachlorobornane. Photolysis experiments at lambda = 254 nm revealed that B6-913 is photochemicaly the most stable compound of the seven toxaphene compounds studied, with a t(1/2) of 213 h. B7-1001, having a t(1/2) of 82 h, was the second most stable compound. B8-1412 was degraded more rapidly, with a t(1/2) of 28.8 h, than B7-1001, but was still much more stable than P 50 (B9-1679, 2-endo,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,8,9,10,10-nonachlorobornane), which had a t(1/2) of 9.4 h, despite its reputation as a very persistant compound. Under the same experimental conditions hexachlorobenzene (HLB) and octachlorodibenzodioxine (OCDD) were consumed very quickly with t(1/2) = 0.0025 and 0.0015 h, respectively.

  17. Proteins of human milk. I. Identification of major components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, N.G.; Powers, M.T.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1982-04-01

    Traditionally, human milk proteins are identified largely by reference to bovine milk. Hence, to identify the major proteins in human milk, we subjected human and bovine milk, in parallel, to high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis. Isoelectric precipitation at pH 4.6 was our criterion for distinguishing whey proteins from those of the casein complex. The ..cap alpha..- and..beta..-caseins were identified on the basis of relative abundance, relative molecular mass, and relative isoelectric points. No protein disappeared from ISO-DALT patterns of human milk after rennin treatment, and no new protein comparable to bovine para K-casein appeared in the BASO-DALT patterns; this suggests that K-casein is absent from human milk. The proteins identified in human milk patterns include the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. casein families, lactalbumin, albumin, transferrin, IgA, and lactoferrin. Numerous additional proteins seen in patterns for human milk remain to be identified.

  18. Recorder Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The best moments happen when students begin to realize how much power they have and use that power to create. Composing as they master different instrumental stages helps students make composition and performance a natural step in learning. A step-by-step process (rhythm notation, add pitches, copy to a five-line staff, check work, and play) keeps…

  19. Members of the salivary gland surface protein (SGS) family are major immunogenic components of mosquito saliva.

    PubMed

    King, Jonas G; Vernick, Kenneth D; Hillyer, Julián F

    2011-11-25

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies.

  20. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  1. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  2. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  3. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  4. Composing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  5. 77 FR 39521 - Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Nuclear Reactor Major Components and Equipment Pursuant to 10... Reactor internals, Components and For use in Braka nuclear power Company LLC reactor coolant equipment...

  6. Measuring the Success of Acquisition Reform by Major DoD Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Assistant, Defense-Industrial Initiatives Group May 13, 2015 Measuring the Success of Acquisition Reform by Major DoD Components csis.org/diig...in 2010? • How successful have the components been at promoting contracting opportunities for small businesses? • Have the DoD components...Starting Regime 9 csis.org/diig | Military Health Competition by Starting Regime 10 csis.org/diig | Vendor Size How successful have the

  7. Chemical composition and antiprotozoal activities of Colombian Lippia spp essential oils and their major components.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Patricia; Milena Leal, Sandra; Herrera, Laura Viviana; Martinez, Jairo Rene; Stashenko, Elena

    2010-03-01

    The chemical composition and biological activities of 19 essential oils and seven of their major components were tested against free and intracellular forms of Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as well as Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines. The essential oils were obtained from different species of Lippia, a widely distributed genus of Colombian plants. They were extracted by microwave radiation-assisted hydro-distillation and characterised by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components were geranial, neral, limonene, nerol, carvacrol, p-cymene, gamma-terpinene, carvone and thymol. The essential oil of Lippia alba exhibited the highest activity against T. cruzi epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes with an IC50 of 5.5 microg/mL and 12.2 microg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of Lippia origanoides had an IC50 of 4.4 microg/mL in L. chagasi promastigotes and exhibited no toxicity in mammalian cells. Thymol (IC50 3.2 +/- 0.4 microg/mL) and S-carvone (IC50 6.1 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), two of the major components of the active essential oils, were active on intracellular amastigotes of T. cruziinfected Vero cells, with a selective index greater than 10. None of the essential oils or major components tested in this study was active on amastigotes of L. chagasi infected THP-1 cells.

  8. Miscibility/stability considerations in binary solid dispersion systems composed of functional excipients towards the design of multi-component amorphous systems.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-uk; Krill, Steven L; Wang, Zeren; Telang, Chitra

    2009-12-01

    The correlations between amorphous miscibility/physical stability of binary solid dispersions (a highly crystalline additive-an amorphous polymer) and the physicochemical properties of the components were investigated. Crystalline functional excipients including surfactants, organic acids, and organic bases were prepared in binary solid dispersions in amorphous polymers by solvent evaporation method. Amorphous miscibility and physical stability of the systems were characterized using polarized light microscope, differential scanning calorimeter, and powder X-ray diffraction. Physicochemical parameters (solubility parameter (delta), hydrogen bond energy, Log P, pK(a) value as an indicator of acid-base ionic interaction, and T(g) of the dispersion as a surrogate of system's mobility) were selected as thermodynamic and kinetic factors to examine their influences on the systems' amorphous miscibility and physical stability. All systems possessing acid-base ionic interaction formed amorphous state. In the absence of the ionic interaction, solubility parameter and partition coefficient were shown to have major roles on amorphous formation. Upon storage condition at 25 degrees C/60% RH for 50 days, systems having ionic interaction and high T(g) remained in the amorphous state. This binary system study provides an insight and a basis for formation of the amorphous state of multi-component solid dispersions utilizing their physicochemical properties.

  9. Antibacterial properties and major bioactive components of cinnamon stick (Cinnamomum burmannii): activity against foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Brooks, John D; Corke, Harold

    2007-07-11

    Cinnamomum burmannii Blume (cinnamon stick) from Indonesia is a little-investigated spice. In this study, the antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon stick extract were evaluated against five common foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). Cinnamon stick extract exhibited significant antibacterial properties. Major compounds in cinnamon stick were tentatively identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC-MS) as a predominant volatile oil component ((E)-cinnamaldehyde) and several polyphenols (mainly proanthocyanidins and (epi)catechins). Both (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins significantly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of bacteria treated with the crude extract of cinnamon stick and its major components. This study suggests that cinnamon stick and its bioactive components have potential for application as natural food preservatives.

  10. Advances in Components for Active and Passive Airborne Sensors (Progres des Composants pour les Systemes des Detection Active et Passive Aeroportes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    WJ.Ilocchi, Jr SESSION V - OPTIC APPLICATIONS TO AVIONICS Fibres Optiques Sp~ciales et Capteurs pour I’A~onautique 16 (Special Optical Fibers and...D.R.Bates Ai RAPPORT D’EVALUATION TECHNIQUE Lcs Progr~s des Composants pour Capteurs Actifs et Passifs Aroport&s Confidrence de sp~cialistes de ’AGARD, Bath...particuli~rement au niveau en mati~re de r~alisation de composants et de des capteurs , qui constituent souvent le maillon circuits. critique du syst

  11. Physiological responses induced in tomato plants by a two-component nanostructural system composed of carbon nanotubes conjugated with quantum dots and its in vivo multimodal detection.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Xu, Yang; Wang, Daoyuan; Biris, Alexandru S; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

    2011-07-22

    Plant seedlings were exposed to single-walled carbon nanotube-quantum dot conjugates (SWCNT-QD) mixed in the growth medium in order to understand the interactions between these multicomponent nanosystems and plants. A combination of fluorescent and Raman-scattering 2D mapping analysis was used to clearly monitor the presence of the SWCNT-QD conjugates in various parts of the tomato seedlings. We found that the addition of QDs to SWCNTs dramatically changed the biological viability of the tomato plants by significantly accelerating leaf senescence and inhibiting root formation. Although the exposure of SWCNTs only to the plants induced positive effects, the chlorophyll content decreased by 1.5-fold in leaves, and the total weight of the root system decreased four times for the tomato plants exposed to SWCNT-QDs (50 µg ml(-1)) compared to plants grown on regular medium as controls. Our results clearly indicate that the exposure of plants to multicomponent nanomaterials is highly influenced by the presence and bioactivity of each component, individually. Such studies could be the foundation for understanding how complex nanosized systems affect the activity of various biological systems with a major impact on ecotoxicology.

  12. Physiological responses induced in tomato plants by a two-component nanostructural system composed of carbon nanotubes conjugated with quantum dots and its in vivo multimodal detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Xu, Yang; Wang, Daoyuan; Biris, Alexandru S.; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V.

    2011-07-01

    Plant seedlings were exposed to single-walled carbon nanotube-quantum dot conjugates (SWCNT-QD) mixed in the growth medium in order to understand the interactions between these multicomponent nanosystems and plants. A combination of fluorescent and Raman-scattering 2D mapping analysis was used to clearly monitor the presence of the SWCNT-QD conjugates in various parts of the tomato seedlings. We found that the addition of QDs to SWCNTs dramatically changed the biological viability of the tomato plants by significantly accelerating leaf senescence and inhibiting root formation. Although the exposure of SWCNTs only to the plants induced positive effects, the chlorophyll content decreased by 1.5-fold in leaves, and the total weight of the root system decreased four times for the tomato plants exposed to SWCNT-QDs (50 µg ml - 1) compared to plants grown on regular medium as controls. Our results clearly indicate that the exposure of plants to multicomponent nanomaterials is highly influenced by the presence and bioactivity of each component, individually. Such studies could be the foundation for understanding how complex nanosized systems affect the activity of various biological systems with a major impact on ecotoxicology.

  13. Cytotoxicity of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil and its major components to human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Prashar, A; Locke, I C; Evans, C S

    2006-08-01

    The essential oil extracted from clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is used as a topical application to relieve pain and promote healing in herbal medicine and also finds use in the fragrance and flavouring industries. Clove oil has two major components, eugenol and beta-caryophyllene, which constitute 78% and 13% of the oil, respectively. Clove oil and these components are generally recognized as 'safe', but the in-vitro study here demonstrates cytotoxic properties of both the oil and eugenol, towards human fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Clove oil was found to be highly cytotoxic at concentrations as low as 0.03% (v/v) with up to 73% of this effect attributable to eugenol. beta-caryophyllene did not exhibit any cytotoxic activity, indicating that other cytotoxic components may also exist within the parent oil.

  14. My Career: Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganelli, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about his career as a composer and offers some advice for aspiring composers. The author works as a composer in the movie industry, creating music that supports a film's story. Other composers work on television shows, and some do both television and film. The composer uses music to tell the audience what kind of…

  15. Piceatannol, a potent bioactive stilbene, as major phenolic component in Rhodomyrtus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Lai, Thi Ngoc Ha; Herent, Marie-France; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Nguyen, Thi Bich Thuy; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan; André, Christelle M

    2013-06-01

    The sim fruit (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa) has long been used in folk medicine to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, and to boost the immune system. The purpose of this work was to determine its phenolic profile and to evaluate the changes of content during maturation, as well as the variations induced by environmental conditions. Using HPLC-ESI-HR-MS, 19 phenolic compounds (PCs) were tentatively characterised and included stilbenes and ellagitannins as major components, followed by anthocyanins, flavonols, and gallic acid. PCs were then further quantified by HPLC-DAD. Piceatannol, a promising health-promoting stilbene component, was the major PC in the fruit with a concentration of 2.3mg/g dry weight at full maturity stage. This concentration is 1000-2000 times higher than that of red grapes, a major source of stilbene in the human diet. During maturation, the contents in piceatannol and other stilbenes, ellagitannins, and flavonols decreased while the anthocyanin content increased. Shade-grown sim fruits showed significantly higher piceatannol levels than sun-exposed fruits. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential of sim, an under-utilised plant species from South-East Asia, as a source of health-promoting fruits.

  16. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10(-5)). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes-common to five of six disorders-included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20-30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders.

  17. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curated a well-vetted list of genes based on large-scale human genetic studies based on the NHGRI catalog of published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A total of 180 genes were accepted into the analysis on the basis of low but liberal GWAS p-values (<10−5). 22% of genes overlapped two or more disorders. The most widely shared subset of genes—common to five of six disorders–included ANK3, AS3MT, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CNNM2, CSMD1, DPCR1, ITIH3, NT5C2, PPP1R11, SYNE1, TCF4, TENM4, TRIM26, and ZNRD1. Using a suite of neuroinformatic resources, we showed that many of the shared genes are implicated in the postsynaptic density (PSD), expressed in immune tissues and co-expressed in developing human brain. Using a translational cross-species approach, we detected two distinct genetic components that were both shared by each of the six disorders; the 1st component is involved in CNS development, neural projections and synaptic transmission, while the 2nd is implicated in various cytoplasmic organelles and cellular processes. Combined, these genetic components account for 20–30% of the genetic load. The remaining risk is conferred by distinct, disorder-specific variants. Our systematic comparative analysis of shared and unique genetic factors highlights key gene sets and molecular processes that may ultimately translate into improved diagnosis and treatment of these debilitating disorders. PMID:25414627

  18. Identification of H₂O₂ as a major antimicrobial component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulla; Sauer, Tanja; Weigel, Ingrid; Pichner, Rohtraud; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2011-05-01

    Coffee shows distinct antimicrobial activity against several bacterial genera. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms and active ingredients mediating the antimicrobial effect of coffee. Depending on concentration, roasted, but not raw coffee brew inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua. Several coffee ingredients with known antibacterial properties were tested for their contribution to the observed effect. In natural concentration, caffeine, ferulic acid and a mixture of all test compounds showed very weak, but significant activity, whereas trigonelline, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, chlorogenic acid, nicotinic acid, caffeic acid, and methylglyoxal were not active. Antimicrobial activity, however, was completely abolished by addition of catalase indicating that H(2)O(2) is a major antimicrobial coffee component. In accordance with this assumption, bacterial counts during 16 h of incubation were inversely related to the H(2)O(2) concentration in the incubation solution. Pure H(2)O(2) showed slightly weaker activity. The H(2)O(2) dependent antimicrobial activity of coffee could be mimicked by a reaction mixture of d-ribose and l-lysine (30 min 120 °C) indicating that H(2)O(2) is generated in the coffee brew by Maillard reaction products. Identification of H(2)O(2) as major antimicrobial coffee component is important to evaluate the application of coffee or coffee extracts as natural preservatives.

  19. Molecular and immunological characterization of β'-component (Onc k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in chum salmon roe.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Kishimura, Hideki; Kanno, Gaku; Nakamura, Atsushi; Adachi, Reiko; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Hara, Akihiko; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Saeki, Hiroki

    2014-03-01

    Salmon roe has a high allergic potency and often causes anaphylaxis in Japan. The major allergic protein of salmon roe is β'-component, which is a 35kDa vitellogenin fragment consisting of two subunits. To elucidate structural information and immunological characteristics, β'-component and the subunit components were purified from chum salmon (Onchorhincus keta) roe and vitellogenin-encoding mRNA was used to prepare β'-component subunit-encoding cDNA. This was PCR-amplified, cloned and sequenced and the deduced amino acid sequence compared with partial sequences of β'-component obtained by peptide mapping. The recombinant β'-component subunit was produced by bacterial expression in Escherichia coli and its IgE-binding ability was measured by ELISA using the sera of a patient allergic to salmon roe. This was then compared with that of the native β'-component with and without carboxymethylation. Following successful cloning of the cDNA encoding the β'-component subunit, 170 amino acid residues were deduced and matched with the amino acid sequences of 121 and 88 residues in the 16kDa and 18kDa subunits, respectively. The sequences of both β'-component subunits were almost identical, and the predicted secondary structure of the β'-component showed a high content of β-pleated sheets and no α-helices. There was no difference in IgE-binding ability between the native and recombinant β'-component subunits at the same protein concentration, regardless of carboxymethylation. In conclusion, β'-component is a homodimer protein composed of two isoform subunits having the same level of IgE-binding ability and, therefore, allergenic identity.

  20. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae) Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    PubMed

    Urbisz, Anna Z; Chajec, Łukasz; Świątek, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal). In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore) organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female germ-line cysts is

  1. Constraining The Radiocarbon Distribution Within Major Components of Marine Dissolved Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigah, P.; Repeta, D.; McNichol, A. P.; Beaupre, S. R.; Xu, L.; Aluwihare, L.; Hemingway, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is one of the largest active carbon pools on Earth with a carbon inventory similar to that of the atmosphere. The sources and cycling of DOC in the ocean is not well-constrained. However, knowledge of the cycling and annual flux of carbon through DOC is critical to understanding the global carbon cycle and feedback mechanisms in the global climate system. Natural-abundance radiocarbon and stable carbon isotopic values can be used to infer the sources and cycling of DOC in the oceans. Past measurements for the most part have been made on bulk DOC, which represents an average of all DOC components. There is, however, good evidence that the actual range of values within the average is quite large, and recent serial oxidation measurements of the surface and deep ocean total DOC [1, 2, 3] reveal isotopic heterogeneity in the DOC pool with a radiocarbon-enriched modern component and a radiocarbon-depleted older component co-cycling in the surface ocean. Also, modeled data from the serial oxidation of the total DOC suggest the presence of a significant amount of modern DOC in the deep ocean [3]. In this study, we used a detailed size and chemical fractionation approach to examine the isotopic distribution within different size and molecular constituents of DOC. We also used a novel thermal serial oxidation approach to link the isotopic diversity of DOC to its concurrent major structural composition in order to build upon and refine the insights from the total DOC isotopic work. Our data show that, in the deep ocean, a major component of the heteropolysaccharide (HPS)-rich DOC isolated by ultrafiltration has radiocarbon value similar to co-occurring DIC indicating either a chemosynthetic source or conservative transport. In contrast, the fraction of DOC rich in the carboxylic -rich compounds isolated by solid phase extraction was much older than the DIC and also exhibit remarkable isotopic diversity in its constituent organic compounds. Our

  2. Internal scatter, the unavoidable major component of the peripheral dose in photon-beam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Willborn, Kay C.; Poppe, Björn

    2012-03-01

    In clinical photon beams, the dose outside the geometrical field limits is produced by photons originating from (i) head leakage, (ii) scattering at the beam collimators and the flattening filter (head scatter) and (iii) scattering from the directly irradiated region of the patient or phantom (internal scatter). While the first two components can be modified, e.g. by reinforcement of shielding components or by re-modeling the filter system, internal scatter remains an unavoidable contributor to the peripheral dose. Its relative magnitude compared to the other components, its numerical variation with beam energy, field size and off-axis distance as well as its spectral distribution are evaluated in this study. We applied a detailed Monte Carlo (MC) model of our 6/15 MV Siemens Primus linear accelerator beam head, provided with ideal head leakage shielding conditions (multi-leaf collimator without gaps) to assess the head scatter contribution. Experimental values obtained under real shielding conditions were used to evaluate the head leakage contribution. It was found that the MC-computed internal scatter doses agree with the results of our previous measurements, that internal scatter is the major contributor to the peripheral dose in the near periphery while head leakage prevails in the far periphery, and that the lateral decline of the internal scatter dose can be represented by the sum of two exponentials, with an asymptotic tenth value of 18 to 19 cm. Internal scatter peripheral doses from various elementary beams are additive, so that their sum increases approximately in proportion with field size. The ratio between normalized internal scatter doses at 6 and 15 MV is approximately 2:1. The energy fluence spectra of the internal scatter component at all points of interest outside the field have peaks near 500 keV. The fact that the energy-shifted internal scatter constitutes the major contributor to the dose in the near periphery has a general bearing for

  3. Some Analysis of Major Impact of Geothermal Fluid Components in Power Plant Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzăianu, A.; Csaki, I.; Moţoiu, P.; Leósson, K.; Serghiuţă, S.; Arnbjornsson, A.; Moţoiu, V.; Popescu, G.; Guðlaugsson, S.; Guðmundsson, D.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results from a some analysis and major impact of geothermal fluid composition on the equipment in use in geothermal power plant. The structural analysis of material deposition improve the direct influenced of chemical composition of stem and waters included CaO, MgO, Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated in the molten phase and the deposits in the scales formed due to equipment. The steam turbine corrosion damage, particularly of blades, discs and pomps, has long been recognized as a leading causes of reduced availability in the geothermal power plant. The corrosion process depends on temperature, pressure, chemisty and vaporous carryover by diversity of impurity. The experimental analysis procedure involves characterization of the fluid geothermal composition. Detailed information about surfaces morphological modification of the power plant components are obtained by electron microprobe analysis EDX and SEM investigation. References selection are obtaining by X-ray diffractometer patterns of the specimen.

  4. Pharmacological activity of salvinorin A, the major component of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Listos, Joanna; Merska, Alicja; Fidecka, Sylwia

    2011-01-01

    The hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum (i.e., "magic mint") is a member of the Sage family that has been historically used for divination and shamanism by the Mazatecs. Today, S. divinorum has become increasingly popular as a recreational drug for its hallucinogenic effects. The non-nitrogenous diterpene, salvinorin A, the major active component of S. divinorum, is responsible for the hallucinogenic effect of this plant. Here, we described the behavioral effects of salvinorin A in animals including the addictive, antinociception and antidepressant properties of the drug. The present paper also demonstrates the not well recognized (or unclear) mechanisms of action of salvinorin A. The last part of the paper presents information about the legal status of S. divinorum and its derivatives. Taking into account the increasing popularity and consumption of salvinorin A and S. divinorum today, it is important to collect all data on the pharmacological profile of this plant and its products.

  5. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-12-31

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution.

  6. An Organic Dyad Composed of Diathiafulvalene-Functionalized Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fullerene for Single-Component High-Efficiency Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Nagarjuna, P; Bishnoi, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-09-26

    A new low-band gap dyad DPP-Ful, which consists of covalently linked dithiafulvalene-functionalized diketopyrrolopyrrole as donor and fullerene (C60 ) as the acceptor, has been designed and synthesized. Organic solar cells were successfully constructed using the DPP-Ful dyad as an active layer. This system has a record power-conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.2 %, which is the highest value when compared to reported single-component organic solar cells.

  7. Gentamicin B1 is a minor gentamicin component with major nonsense mutation suppression activity

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran-Heravi, Alireza; Niesser, Jürgen; Balgi, Aruna D.; Choi, Kunho; Zimmerman, Carla; South, Andrew P.; Anderson, Hilary J.; Strynadka, Natalie C.; Bally, Marcel B.; Roberge, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Nonsense mutations underlie about 10% of rare genetic disease cases. They introduce a premature termination codon (PTC) and prevent the formation of full-length protein. Pharmaceutical gentamicin, a mixture of several related aminoglycosides, is a frequently used antibiotic in humans that can induce PTC readthrough and suppress nonsense mutations at high concentrations. However, testing of gentamicin in clinical trials has shown that safe doses of this drug produce weak and variable readthrough activity that is insufficient for use as therapy. In this study we show that the major components of pharmaceutical gentamicin lack PTC readthrough activity but the minor component gentamicin B1 (B1) is a potent readthrough inducer. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the importance of ring I of B1 in establishing a ribosome configuration that permits pairing of a near-cognate complex at a PTC. B1 induced readthrough at all three nonsense codons in cultured cancer cells with TP53 (tumor protein p53) mutations, in cells from patients with nonsense mutations in the TPP1 (tripeptidyl peptidase 1), DMD (dystrophin), SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1), and COL7A1 (collagen type VII alpha 1 chain) genes, and in an in vivo tumor xenograft model. The B1 content of pharmaceutical gentamicin is highly variable and major gentamicins suppress the PTC readthrough activity of B1. Purified B1 provides a consistent and effective source of PTC readthrough activity to study the potential of nonsense suppression for treatment of rare genetic disorders. PMID:28289221

  8. HLA is unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial inflammatory bowl disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, C.G.; Naom, I.S.; Hodgson, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the bowel which is confined to the colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) or may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn`s disease (CD). The cause of IBD is unknown, but a genetic component is suggested by a 10-fold increase in risk to first degree relatives, and a higher concordance of disease in MZ versus DZ twins. Distinct associations of HLA DR2 with UC and DR1/DQw5 with CD have been reported. We are searching for susceptibility genes in IBD by linkage analysis in a panel of 43 families with 3 or more living affected members, which includes 12 families with CD, 17 with UC and 14 {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} families with UC and CD. In view of the reported HLA associations in IBD, we have analyzed 5 microsatellite markers from the major histocompatibility complex for linkage to IBD using both parametric and nonparametric methods. LOD scores were calculated for 4 different genetic models, including both dominant and recessive inheritance, and haplotype sharing was analyzed in affected siblings. LOD scores for the MHC locus were negative in the full data set, and in the 3 classes of family (UC,CD,mixed). Haplotype sharing in affected sibs was very close to that expected if no linkage was present. We conclude that genes from the HLA region are unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial IBD. Linkage analysis of genes which cause chronic colitis when disrupted in transgenic mice is in progress.

  9. Determination of major components and fingerprint analysis of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qianqian; Ding, Liping; Wei, Yun; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of six major constituents in Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze: hyperoside, patuletin-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-sulfate, astragalin, 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside and α-terthienyl. The chemical fingerprint of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze leaves was established using raw materials of 12 batches in China. The chromatographic separations were obtained by using an Eclipse XDB-C18 reserved-phase column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) using gradient elution with water (0.0125% trifluoroacetic acid, v/v) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, an operating temperature of 30°C and a detection wavelength of 360 nm. The new method was validated by linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision, reproducibility, stability and recovery, and was also successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of components in Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The results indicate that this multi-component determination method in combination with chromatographic fingerprint analysis is suitable for the quantitative analysis and identification of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze.

  10. Crystal structure of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-09-23

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 A, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An alpha helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  11. Brush-border calmodulin. A major component of the isolated microvillus core

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Calmodulin is present in brush borders isolated from intestinal epithelial cells and is one of the major components of the microvillar filament bundle. Calmodulin was purified from either demembranated brush borders or microvilli by a simple boiling procedure. The boiled supernate derived from the microvillus cores contained one major polypeptide of 20,000 daltons.The supernate from the brush-border preparation contained the 20,000-dalton subunit and a second protein of 30,000 daltons. The 20,000-dalton subunit has been identified as calmodulin by several criteria: (a) heat resistance, (b) comigration with brain calmodulin on alkaline urea gels and SDS gels, both cases in which the 20,000-dalton protein, like calmodulin, exhibits a shift in electrophoretic mobility in the presence of Ca++, and (c) 4--5-fold activation of 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in the presence but not the absence of Ca++. With a cosedimentation assay it was determined that brush-border calmodulin does not bind directly to actin. In the presence of Ca++ (greater than 5 x 10(-7) M) there was a partial release of calmodulin from the microvillus core, along with a substantial conversion of microvillus actin into a nonpelletable from. The dissociation of calmodulin was reversed by removal of Ca++. If microvillus cores were pretreated with phalloidin, the Ca++-induced solubilization of actin was prevented, but the partial dissociation of calmodulin still occurred. The molar ratio of calmodulin:actin is 1:10 in the demembranated brush border and 1:2-3 in the microvillus core. No calmodulin was detected in the detergent-solubilized brush-border membrane fraction. PMID:6893051

  12. Effects of Psoraleae fructus and its major component psoralen on Th2 response in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hualiang; Wang, Limin; Xu, Changqing; Li, Bei; Luo, Qingli; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Wang, Genfa; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of Psoraleae fructus (PF) on Th2 responses in a rat model of asthma in vivo and psoralen, a major constituent in PF, on Th2 responses in vitro. A rat model of asthma was established by sensitization and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Airway hyperresponsiveness was detected by direct airway resistance analysis. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assessed for cytokine levels. In vitro study, Th2 cytokine production was evaluated in the culture supernatant of D10.G4.1 (D10 cells) followed by the determination of cell viability, meanwhile Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 expression in D10 cells was also determined. The oral administration of PF significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to aerosolized methacholine and decreased IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the BALF. Histological studies showed that PF markedly inhibited inflammatory infiltration and mucus secretion in the lung tissues. In vitro study, psoralen significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by ConA-stimulated D10 cells without inhibitory effect on cell viability. Furthermore, GATA-3 protein expression was also markedly reduced by psoralen. This study demonstrated that PF exhibited inhibitory effects on hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a rat model of asthma, which was associated with the suppression of Th2 response. Psoralen, a major constituent of PF, has immunomodulatory properties on Th2 response in vitro, which indicated that psoralen might be a critical component of PF for its therapeutic effects.

  13. Crystal Structure of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Tengchuan; Albillos, Silvia M.; Guo, Feng; Howard, Andrew; Fu, Tong-Jen; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2010-10-28

    Seed storage proteins are accumulated during seed development and act as a reserve of nutrition for seed germination and young sprout growth. Plant seeds play an important role in human nutrition by providing a relatively inexpensive source of protein. However, many plant foods contain allergenic proteins, and the number of people suffering from food allergies has increased rapidly in recent years. The 11S globulins are the most widespread seed storage proteins, present in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds as well as in gymnosperms (conifers) and other spermatophytes. This family of proteins accounts for a number of known major food allergens. They are of interest to both the public and industry due to food safety concerns. Because of the interests in the structural basis of the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to determine the crystal structure of Pru1, the major component of the 11 S storage protein from almonds. The structure was refined to 2.4 {angstrom}, and the R/Rfree for the final refined structure is 17.2/22.9. Pru1 is a hexamer made of two trimers. Most of the back-to-back trimer-trimer association was contributed by monomer-monomer interactions. An {alpha} helix (helix 6) at the C-terminal end of the acidic domain of one of the interacting monomers lies at the cleft of the two protomers. The residues in this helix correspond to a flexible region in the peanut allergen Ara h 3 that encompasses a previously defined linear IgE epitope.

  14. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  15. Tenascin-C Is a Major Component of the Fibrogenic Niche in Kidney Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haiyan; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Dong; Tan, Roderick J; Stolz, Donna B; Liu, Youhua

    2017-03-01

    Kidney fibrosis initiates at certain focal sites in which the fibrogenic niche provides a specialized microenvironment that facilitates fibroblast activation and proliferation. However, the molecular identity of these fibrogenic niches is poorly characterized. Here, we determined whether tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix glycoprotein, is a component of the fibrogenic niche in kidney fibrosis. In vivo, TNC expression increased rapidly in kidneys subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction or ischemia/reperfusion injury and predominantly localized at the foci rich in fibroblasts in renal interstitium. In vitro, TNC selectively promoted renal interstitial fibroblast proliferation, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and the expression of proliferation-related genes. The mitogenic activity of TNC required the integrin/focal adhesion kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. Using decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds, we found that TNC-enriched scaffolds facilitated fibroblast proliferation, whereas TNC-deprived scaffolds inhibited proliferation. Matrix scaffold prepared from fibrotic kidney also promoted greater ex vivo fibroblast proliferation than did scaffolds prepared from healthy kidney. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TNC in vivo repressed injury-induced fibroblast expansion and renal fibrosis. These studies identify TNC as a major constituent of the fibrogenic niche that promotes fibroblast proliferation, and illustrate a pivotal role for the TNC-enriched microenvironment in kidney fibrogenesis.

  16. Hydrogeochemistry of the Fraser River, British Columbia: seasonal variation in major and minor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Eion M.

    1996-07-01

    For several years Environment Canada (EC) has carried out a program of water sampling at four stations along the Fraser River and at one station on each of its two principal tributaries, the Thompson and the Nechako. Samples collected at bi-weekly intervals have been analyzed by EC for major and some trace components. Seasonal variation in water composition mainly relates to changes in discharge, this being low during winter and high during early summer snowmelt. Dissolved constituents, Mg, Si, K, Ca, Sr, HCO 3, SO 4 and (NO 3 + NO 2), show moderate variation, being least concentrated during maximum discharge, reflecting dilution of groundwater by melting snow. Factor analysis shows secondary seasonal variation for SO 4, that is related to the importance of deep groundwater as a source, and for (NO 3 + NO 2), precipitated with snow and released during snowmelt. Large amounts of Na and Cl are added in pulp mill effluent. A uniform flux of this effluent, superimposed on a highly variable river discharge, gives rise to greater seasonal variation for Na and Cl than other dissolved constituents. The trace constituents, Fe, Mn, Al, P and Sr, were analyzed by EC in unfiltered water samples by methods that extract the elements from suspended material. Except for Sr, these elements have a high partition factor in favor of suspended over dissolved phases; their results reflect seasonal changes in quantities of suspended material, which can vary by two orders of magnitude.

  17. Rubber elongation factor (REF), a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  18. Sintered spherical pellets containing clay as a major component useful for gas and oil well proppants

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgibbon, J.J.

    1992-03-24

    This patent describes a method for increasing permeability in a subterranean formation penetrated by a well wherein a fluid is pumped into the well to create a fracture in the subterranean formation. This patent describes improvement in introducing into a fluid composite, spherical, sintered pellets comprised of a combination of clay and a member of the group of bauxite, alumina, or mixtures thereof, the pellets containing on a dry weight basis a major portion of clay, the pellets having an apparent specific gravity of less than 3.40 and having a titanium dioxide content of at least 2.68 weight percent derived from the bauxite and clay and having components other than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in an amount no greater than 2.50 weight percent; introducing the pellet-containing fluid into a fracture, the compaction pressure of which is between about 280 and about 700 Kg/cm{sup 2} (4,000 and about 100,000 psi), to deposit a propping distribution of the pellets, the pellets having an average particle size between 0.1 and 2.5 millimeters.

  19. Class I major histocompatibility proteins are an essential component of the simian virus 40 receptor.

    PubMed

    Breau, W C; Atwood, W J; Norkin, L C

    1992-04-01

    The class I molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) present endogenously synthesized antigenic peptide fragments to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. We show here that these proteins are an essential component of the cell surface receptor for simian virus 40 (SV40). First, SV40 binding to cells can be blocked by two monoclonal antibodies against class I human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) proteins but not by monoclonal antibodies specific for other cell surface proteins. Second, SV40 does not bind to cells of two different human lymphoblastoid cell lines which do not express surface class I MHC proteins because of genetic defects in the beta 2-microglobulin gene in one line and in the HLA complex in the other. Transfection of these cell lines with cloned genes for beta 2-microglobulin and HLA-B8, respectively, restored expression of their surface class I MHC proteins and resulted in concomitant SV40 binding. Finally, SV40 binds to purified HLA proteins in vitro and selectively binds to class I MHC proteins in a cell surface extract.

  20. d-Alanylcardiolipin, a Major Component of the Unique Lipid Pattern of Vagococcus fluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Werner; Arneth-Seifert, Doris

    1998-01-01

    Motile group N streptococci, classified as Vagococcus fluvialis, have been isolated from cows’ udders, human and animal feces, river water, and seawater. They possess an unusual membrane lipid and fatty acid pattern. We isolated and characterized 13 polar lipids, 8 of them also found in other gram-positive bacteria: mono- and dihexosyldiacylglycerol, an acylated and a glycerophosphate-substituted derivative of the latter, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, d-alanylphosphatidylglycerol, and l-lysylphosphatidylglycerol. Besides them, we characterized two rare compounds, bis(acylglycero)phosphate and α-d-glucopyranosylcardiolipin, and two compounds so far not detected in nature, d-alanylbis(acylglycero)phosphate and d-alanylcardiolipin. The concomitant occurrence of four aminoacyl phospholipids in one organism is another unique finding. Substituted cardiolipins represent a novel lipid class: in vagococci, d-alanylcardiolipin is a major membrane lipid component, contributing 11 and 26 mol% of total lipids in the exponential and stationary phases of growth, respectively. The vagococcal lipids contain even-numbered straight-chain saturated and cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, but the cis-monoenic acids belong to the ω-9 series and not the ω-7 series, found in enterococci, lactococci, and streptococci. PMID:9603887

  1. Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Liu, B Y

    2000-11-01

    Changes in major components and microbes in tea fungus broth (or kombucha; teakwass) prepared from nine different sources during a prolonged fermentation of up to 60 days were investigated. Cell concentrations of both yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in broth were generally higher than those in the cellulosic pellicles. The residual sucrose concentration decreased linearly with time, although the rate fell after the first month. Metabolic fates of glucose and fructose produced as a result of the hydrolysis of sucrose were different. Glucose was not produced in parallel with fructose (0.085 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)) but was produced with a lower initial rate (0.041 g 100 ml(-1) d(-1)). Both titratable acidity and gluconic acid increased steadily with time for all samples, although gluconic acid was not generated for 6 days until the fermentation had begun. Acetic acid increased slowly to a maximum value of 1.1 g 100 ml(-1) after 30 days; thereafter, it decreased gradually. Gluconic acid contributed to the titratable acidity and thus, the taste of tea fungus broth, during the final stage of fermentation. It is concluded that the desired quality or composition of kombucha can be obtained through the proper control of fermentation time.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of Compound D, the Major Bioactive Component of Zingiber cassumunar, in Rats.

    PubMed

    Khemawoot, Phisit; Hunsakunachai, Natthaphon; Anukunwithaya, Tosapol; Bangphumi, Kunan; Ongpipattanakul, Boonsri; Jiratchariyakul, Weena; Soawakontha, Ruedee; Inthachart, Thanakorn; Dechatiwongse Na Ayudhya, Thaweephol; Koontongkaew, Sittichai; Poachanukoon, Orapan

    2016-08-01

    Rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar have been used for many years in traditional Thai medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. The major bioactive component of this plant is Compound D [E-4-(3', 4'-dimethoxyphenyl)but-3-en-1-ol], which is a strong smooth muscle relaxant, and has antihistamine and anti-inflammatory actions. There is, however, incomplete information available for the pharmacokinetics of Compound D in mammals. In this study, we examined the pharmacokinetic profiles of Compound D in male Wistar rats. A standardized extract of Z. cassumunar containing 4 % w/w Compound D was administered intravenously at 25 mg/kg or by oral gavage at 25, 75, or 250 mg/kg to Wistar rats. Blood, tissues, urine, and feces were collected from 0 to 48 h after dosing and the level of Compound D was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of Compound D ranged from 10-100 µg/L, reached a maximum approximately 0.15 h after oral dosing. Compound D exhibited an excellent tissue to plasma ratio, ranging from 1- to 1000 in several organs at 1-4 h after oral dosing. Less than 1 % of unchanged Compound D was excreted in the urine and feces. Further studies on tissue uptake and metabolite identification are required to obtain complete pharmacokinetic information and to develop appropriate dosing strategies of Compound D and the standardized extract of Z. cassumunar.

  3. Identification of transcalciferin as a major component of human parotid saliva by crossed immunoelectrophoretic mapping.

    PubMed

    Joneja, J M; Greenstein, P M; Revis, G J; Crowle, A J

    1982-01-01

    Human parotid saliva collected from Stenson's duct during sour candy-stimulated salivation was studied by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (X-IEP). Eleven antigens were identified in a pool of salivas from 10 adult, caucasoid males and females. Four were related to serum antigens, three being previously known: IgG, IgA and albumin. The fourth was identified as Gc globulin, also known by function as transcalciferin. Salivary Gc is electrophoretically different from serum Gc, migrating as an alpha 2-beta component rather than as an alpha 1 globulin. The quantities of 8 of the 11 antigens detected by X-IEP were compared for salivas from 10 subjects. These quantities and their ratios to each other were highly variable, indicating idiosyncratic secretory patterns. Only quantities of amylase were moderately consistent from donor to donor. Quantitatively, Gc is a major antigen in parotid saliva. Large proportions of a salivary antigen, alpha 1c, were found in two of the 10 subjects--adult males who never had developed caries. Among the other 8 subjects, all with caries, proportions of alpha 1c were much lower, and 2 subjects lacked it. None of the other antigens measured showed any correlation with caries resistance. The nature and function of alpha 1c are unknown.

  4. Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), a Major Allergen Component in Hevea brasiliensis Latex Has Amyloid Properties

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

  5. Preparing Students to Compose on a Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadomski, Kenneth E.

    In the proliferation of articles about using computers in the composition classroom published in the last five or ten years, few mention anything about preparing students to compose on a computer while all assert that computers do indeed help the composing process. Preparing students to compose on a computer involves three major processes:…

  6. Recombinant Sox Enzymes from Paracoccus pantotrophus Degrade Hydrogen Sulfide, a Major Component of Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Ramadhani, Atik; Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi; Oho, Takahiko

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emitted from industrial activities, and several chemotrophs possessing Sox enzymes are used for its removal. Oral malodor is a common issue in the dental field and major malodorous components are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), including H2S and methyl mercaptan. Paracoccus pantotrophus is an aerobic, neutrophilic facultatively autotrophic bacterium that possesses sulfur-oxidizing (Sox) enzymes in order to use sulfur compounds as an energy source. In the present study, we cloned the Sox enzymes of P. pantotrophus GB17 and evaluated their VSC-degrading activities for the prevention of oral malodor. Six genes, soxX, soxY, soxZ, soxA, soxB, and soxCD, were amplified from P. pantotrophus GB17. Each fragment was cloned into a vector for the expression of 6×His-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Sox (rSox) proteins were purified from whole-cell extracts of E. coli using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme mixture was investigated for the degradation of VSCs using gas chromatography. Each of the rSox enzymes was purified to apparent homogeneity, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The rSox enzyme mixture degraded H2S in dose- and time-dependent manners. All rSox enzymes were necessary for degrading H2S. The H2S-degrading activities of rSox enzymes were stable at 25–80°C, and the optimum pH was 7.0. The amount of H2S produced by periodontopathic bacteria or oral bacteria collected from human subjects decreased after an incubation with rSox enzymes. These results suggest that the combination of rSox enzymes from P. pantotrophus GB17 is useful for the prevention of oral malodor. PMID:28260736

  7. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  8. Composing in Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The central premise of this project is that researching student communication and composing actions in light of audience will illuminate particular features of student composing processes in 21st century interdisciplinary contexts. Students in this study took part in a six week inquiry unit about their local area. Data generated included student…

  9. Antifungal effects of different plant extracts and their major components of selected aloe species.

    PubMed

    Ali, M I; Shalaby, N M; Elgamal, M H; Mousa, A S

    1999-08-01

    Different extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of Aloe eru A. Berger, A. vera L. Webb & Berth and A. arborescens Mill. were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium moniliforme. The toxicity of the isolated pure components were evaluated on the tested fungi. A comparative chromatographic study was performed to differentiate between natural components existing in various fractions and extracts of Aloe species and specific spray reagents were used for the detection of anthraquinones in the isolated components.

  10. The Components of a Visual Arts Curriculum for Non-Art and Art Majors. Session IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, Harry; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This panel interview from the Indiana University Summer Arts Institute contrasts notions about a traditional Bauhaus foundation with a flexible, organic curriculum model. Directed instruction is also compared to problem-solving approaches. Peer teaching, science for art majors, and art for science majors are also discussed. (Author/PB)

  11. Measuring the Success of Acquisition Reform by Major DoD Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-30

    been at promoting contracting opportunities for small businesses? Have the DoD components implemented the guidance in BBP 2.0 regarding the proper mix of...fixed price and cost plus contracts? By analyzing contracting trends for the Army, Navy, Air Force, Defense Logistics Agency Missile Defense Agency... promoting contracting opportunities for small businesses? Have the DoD components implemented the guidance in BBP 2.0 regarding the proper mix of fixed

  12. Molecular Architecture of the Major Membrane Ring Component of the Nuclear Pore Complex.

    PubMed

    Upla, Paula; Kim, Seung Joong; Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Dutta, Kaushik; Cahill, Sean M; Chemmama, Ilan E; Williams, Rosemary; Bonanno, Jeffrey B; Rice, William J; Stokes, David L; Cowburn, David; Almo, Steven C; Sali, Andrej; Rout, Michael P; Fernandez-Martinez, Javier

    2017-03-07

    The membrane ring that equatorially circumscribes the nuclear pore complex (NPC) in the perinuclear lumen of the nuclear envelope is composed largely of Pom152 in yeast and its ortholog Nup210 (or Gp210) in vertebrates. Here, we have used a combination of negative-stain electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, and small-angle X-ray scattering methods to determine an integrative structure of the ∼120 kDa luminal domain of Pom152. Our structural analysis reveals that the luminal domain is formed by a flexible string-of-pearls arrangement of nine repetitive cadherin-like Ig-like domains, indicating an evolutionary connection between NPCs and the cell adhesion machinery. The 16 copies of Pom152 known to be present in the yeast NPC are long enough to form the observed membrane ring, suggesting how interactions between Pom152 molecules help establish and maintain the NPC architecture.

  13. [Isolation and partial structural characteristics of major toxic components of Latrodectus pallidus venom].

    PubMed

    Charakha, A R; Shevchenko, L V; Molodkin, A K; Pluzhnikov, K A; Volkova, T M; Grishin, E V

    1997-03-01

    Toxic components of the Latrodectus pallidus spider venom were isolated and characterized. The venom was shown to contain a toxin specific for mammals and at least one insectospecific toxin. Partial amino acid sequences of both toxins were determined, and their high structural homology with previously studied alpha-latrotoxin and alpha-latroinsectotoxin from L. mactans tredecimguttatus was found.

  14. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. Purpose: The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present withi...

  15. 40 CFR Table W-1c to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment W Table W-1C to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS...

  16. 40 CFR Table W-1c to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Average Component Counts For Major Crude Oil Production Equipment W Table W-1C to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS...

  17. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC CARBON IN MAJOR COMPONENTS OF FORESTS LOCATED IN FIVE LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the major uncertainties concerning the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle is the lack of adequate data on the carbon content of all their components. The goal of this study was to contribute to filling this data gap by estimating the quantity of carbon in ...

  18. Composability in quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Quade, Jörn; Renner, Renato

    2009-08-01

    If we combine two secure cryptographic systems, is the resulting system still secure? Answering this question is highly nontrivial and has recently sparked a considerable research effort, in particular, in the area of classical cryptography. A central insight was that the answer to the question is yes, but only within a well-specified composability framework and for carefully chosen security definitions. In this article, we review several aspects of composability in the context of quantum cryptography. The first part is devoted to key distribution. We discuss the security criteria that a quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol must fulfill to allow its safe use within a larger security application (e.g. for secure message transmission); and we demonstrate—by an explicit example—what can go wrong if conventional (non-composable) security definitions are used. Finally, to illustrate the practical use of composability, we show how to generate a continuous key stream by sequentially composing rounds of a QKD protocol. In the second part, we take a more general point of view, which is necessary for the study of cryptographic situations involving, for example, mutually distrustful parties. We explain the universal composability (UC) framework and state the composition theorem that guarantees that secure protocols can securely be composed to larger applications. We focus on the secure composition of quantum protocols into unconditionally secure classical protocols. However, the resulting security definition is so strict that some tasks become impossible without additional security assumptions. Quantum bit commitment is impossible in the UC framework even with mere computational security. Similar problems arise in the quantum bounded storage model and we observe a trade-off between the UC and the use of the weakest possible security assumptions.

  19. Composing decoherence functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boës, Paul; Navascués, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Quantum measure theory (QMT) is a generalization of quantum theory where physical predictions are computed from a matrix known as the decoherence functional (DF). Previous works have noted that, in its original formulation, QMT exhibits a problem with composability, since the composition of two decoherence functionals is, in general, not a valid decoherence functional. This does not occur when the DFs in question happen to be positive semidefinite (a condition known as strong positivity). In this paper, we study the concept of composability of DFs and its consequences for QMT. Firstly, we show that the problem of composability is much deeper than originally envisaged, since, for any n , there exists a DF that can coexist with n -1 copies of itself, but not with n . Secondly, we prove that the set of strongly positive DFs cannot be enlarged while remaining closed under composition. Furthermore, any closed set of DFs containing all quantum DFs can only contain strongly positive DFs.

  20. Retrotransposon BARE-1 is a major, dispersed component of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome.

    PubMed

    Suoniemi, A; Anamthawat-Jónsson, K; Arna, T; Schulman, A H

    1996-03-01

    The barley BARE-1 is a transcribed, copia-like retroelement with well-conserved functional domains, an active promoter, and a copy number of at least 3 x 10(4). We examined its chromosomal localization by in situ hybridization. The long terminal repeat (LTR) probe displayed a uniform hybridization pattern over the whole of all chromosomes, excepting paracentromeric regions, telomeres, and nucleolar organizer (NOR) regions. The integrase probe showed a similar pattern. The 5'-untranslated leader (UTL) probe, expected to be the most rapidly evolving component, labeled chromosomes in a dispersed and non-uniform manner, concentrated in the distal regions, possibly indicating a targe site preference.

  1. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-01-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ56Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ56Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 100–103 y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 105–106 y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean. PMID:26109570

  2. Biologically recycled continental iron is a major component in banded iron formations.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L; Johnson, Clark M

    2015-07-07

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) record a time of extensive Fe deposition in the Precambrian oceans, but the sources and pathways for metals in BIFs remain controversial. Here, we present Fe- and Nd-isotope data that indicate two sources of Fe for the large BIF units deposited 2.5 billion y ago. High-εNd and -δ(56)Fe signatures in some BIF samples record a hydrothermal component, but correlated decreases in εNd- and δ(56)Fe values reflect contributions from a continental component. The continental Fe source is best explained by Fe mobilization on the continental margin by microbial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR) and confirms for the first time, to our knowledge, a microbially driven Fe shuttle for the largest BIFs on Earth. Detailed sampling at various scales shows that the proportions of hydrothermal and continental Fe sources were invariant over periods of 10(0)-10(3) y, indicating that there was no seasonal control, although Fe sources varied on longer timescales of 10(5)-10(6) y, suggesting a control by marine basin circulation. These results show that Fe sources and pathways for BIFs reflect the interplay between abiologic (hydrothermal) and biologic processes, where the latter reflects DIR that operated on a basin-wide scale in the Archean.

  3. Decomposing Composing Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Terry

    Recent research has invited critiques of the authoritative descriptions of composing found in many rhetoric textbooks. The concept of "convention" may be especially useful in rethinking the teleological basis of these textbook descriptions. Conventions found in composition textbooks need to be unmasked as arbitrary concepts which serve…

  4. Composing and Comprehending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Julie M., Ed.

    Intended for elementary school teachers of reading and composition, this book assembles several articles on the reading/writing relationship that have appeared in 1982 and 1983 issues of the journal "Language Arts." The three sections of the book define the relationship between composing and comprehending, explore relevant research, and…

  5. Parvalbumins from coelacanth muscle. III. Amino acid sequence of the major component.

    PubMed

    Jauregui-Adell, J; Pechere, J F

    1978-09-26

    The primary structure of the major parvalbumin (pI = 4.52) from coelacanth muscle (Latimeria chalumnae) has been determined. Sequence analysis of the tryptic peptides, in some cases obtained with beta-trypsin, accounts for the total amino acid content of the protein. Chymotryptic peptides provide appropriate sequence overlaps, to complete the localization of the tryptic peptides. Examination of the amino acid sequence of this protein shows the typical structure of a beta-parvalbumin. Its position in the dendrogram of related calcium-binding proteins corresponds to that usually accepted for crossopterygians.

  6. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Major component contributions to PM 10 composition in the UK atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Alan B.; Harrison, Roy M.

    Physical and chemical characteristics of PM 10, including chloride, nitrate, sulphate, and black smoke, have been measured on a seasonal basis at four coastal, rural, and urban sites across the UK. Weekly campaigns with 6 h sample resolution were conducted, and the results related to meteorological conditions and air mass back trajectories. Seasonal and location- specific mean values are reported, along with an indication of diurnal characteristics. Although the urban site reflected generally higher values for the anthropogenic pollutants, long-range transport of primary and secondary particles was significant. The data have been analysed using a four-component multi-linear regression model including black smoke as a surrogate for primary combustion particles, secondary particles (sulphate and nitrate), chloride, and a constant which describes "other", mainly coarse mode particles. Regression coefficients have been calculated on a site and seasonal basis. "Other" particles were higher during the summer and in the urban environment with an overall mean value of 5 μg m -3. Secondary nitrate and sulphate were strongly related to meteorological conditions and less to location. Overall, the four-component model accounts quite well ( r 2=0.76 for all data) for PM 10 mass and for some sites and seasons gives an excellent fit to the data. Addition of dummy variables representing season, urban/rural location and time of sampling gives an improvement in fit, with r 2=0.84 . Application of the coefficients derived from the "all data" model shows secondary particles contributing 28-35% of site-mean PM 10, primary combustion particles from 20 to 57%, sodium chloride, 11-34% and "other", mainly crustal particles, 3-21%. It is felt that this probably underestimates the crustal contribution, but the reasons are unclear.

  8. Erosion of modern terrestrial organic matter as a major component of sediments in fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xingqian; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Savage, Candida

    2017-02-01

    Fjords have recently been recognized as "hot spots" of carbon burial. In this study, we investigated organic carbon (OC) and biomarker radiocarbon values in fjord sediments from New Zealand. Our results showed that OC was mostly modern with the most aged OC in middle reaches of fjords, likely related to hydrodynamic sorting and inputs along adjacent slopes. Radiocarbon ages of sedimentary OC increased from north-to-south, consistent with the Fiordland regional gradients of lower fjord slopes and less rainfall. Our biomarker results suggested that lignin and long-chain fatty acids were preferentially linked with fresh terrestrial debris and degraded soil, respectively, likely due to their chemical and physical properties. Finally, we propose that fjords are a significant sink of modern OC, in contrast to large lowland coastal systems as a major sink of preaged OC. Overall, this study indicated that radiocarbon techniques are critical in investigating carbon dynamics in coastal systems.

  9. Isolation and characterization of ellagitannins as the major polyphenolic components of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sudjaroen, Yuttana; Hull, William E; Erben, Gerhard; Würtele, Gerd; Changbumrung, Supranee; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour, syn. Euphoria longan Lam.) represents an important fruit in Northern Thailand and has significant economic impact. The fruit is either consumed fresh or as commercially prepared dried and canned products. The canning industry in Thailand produces considerable quantities of waste products, in particular Longan seeds. Because these seeds may be an exploitable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, it was of interest to identify, purify and quantitate the major potential antioxidant phenolics contained therein. The polyphenolic fraction from ground Longan seeds was obtained by extraction with methanol after delipidation with hexane. The hexane extract contained predominantly long-chain fatty acids with major contributions from palmitic (35%) and oleic (28%) acids. The polyphenolic fraction (80.90 g/kg dry weight) was dominated by ellagic acid (25.84 g/kg) and the known ellagitannins corilagin (13.31 g/kg), chebulagic acid (13.06 g/kg), ellagic acid 4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (9.93 g/kg), isomallotinic acid (8.56 g/kg) and geraniin (5.79 g/kg). Structure elucidation was performed with mass spectrometry and complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR signals. The methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant capacities with an IC(50) of 154 μg/ml for reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid and 78 μg/ml for inhibition of xanthine oxidase in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The extracts were less effective in the 2-deoxyguanosine assay (IC(50)=2.46 mg/ml), indicating that gallates along with ellagic acid and its congeners exert their potential antioxidant effects predominantly by precipitation of proteins such as xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed for the pure compounds gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid and corilagin.

  10. Free fatty acids as a major component of the chlorosulfolipid membrane of Ochromonas danica

    SciTech Connect

    Winicov, I.

    1985-01-01

    This work is an attempt to determine whether or not free fatty acids are components of the natural membrane of Ochromonas danica. If the FFAs were artifacts, they would most likely have been produced during solvent extraction or during the procedure for flagellar detachment. Attempts to denature putative solvent-activated lipase(s) through exposure to boiling isopropanol or by crosslinking the flagella with glutaraldehyde prior to extraction failed to eliminate the free fatty acid fraction, nor to significantly alter its composition. Exposure of flagella to albumin resulted in the net transfer of FFAs to the supernatant phase, showing their presence is not caused by solvent activated lipolysis. Finally levels of labelled free fatty acids failed to rise as a function of time after deflagellation in cells grown in the presence of (10-/sup 14/C)-oleic acid. Acid hydrolysis of the total labelled lipid at elevated temperature increased the percentage of counts occurring as unesterified fatty acids (from 2.6% to 64.8%). This, taken together with a corresponding loss of the more polar labelled material (66.8% to 8.2%) indicates that some esterified lipids were present, but probably not broken down during the isolation procedure.

  11. Model of Close Packing for Determination of the Major Characteristics of the Liquid Dispersions Components

    PubMed Central

    Kolikov, Kiril Hristov; Hristozov, Dimo Donchev; Koleva, Radka Paskova; Krustev, Georgi Aleksandrov

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a close packing model of the particles from the disperse phase of a liquid dispersion. With this model, we find the sediment volumes, the emergent, and the bound dispersion medium. We formulate a new approach for determining the equivalent radii of the particles from the sediment and the emergent (different from the Stokes method). We also describe an easy manner to apply algebraic method for determining the average volumetric mass densities of the ultimate sediment and emergent, as well as the free dispersion medium (without using any pycnometers or densitometers). The masses of the different components and the density of the dispersion phase in the investigated liquid dispersion are also determined by means of the established densities. We introduce for the first time a dimensionless scale for numeric characterization and therefore an index for predicting the sedimentation stability of liquid dispersions in case of straight and/or reverse sedimentation. We also find the quantity of the pure substance (without pouring out or drying) in the dispersion phase of the liquid dispersions. PMID:25136673

  12. Major advances in testing of dairy products: milk component and dairy product attribute testing.

    PubMed

    Barbano, D M; Lynch, J M

    2006-04-01

    Milk component analysis is relatively unusual in the field of quantitative analytical chemistry because an analytical test result determines the allocation of very large amounts of money between buyers and sellers of milk. Therefore, there is high incentive to develop and refine these methods to achieve a level of analytical performance rarely demanded of most methods or laboratory staff working in analytical chemistry. In the last 25 yr, well-defined statistical methods to characterize and validate analytical method performance combined with significant improvements in both the chemical and instrumental methods have allowed achievement of improved analytical performance for payment testing. A shift from marketing commodity dairy products to the development, manufacture, and marketing of value added dairy foods for specific market segments has created a need for instrumental and sensory approaches and quantitative data to support product development and marketing. Bringing together sensory data from quantitative descriptive analysis and analytical data from gas chromatography olfactometry for identification of odor-active compounds in complex natural dairy foods has enabled the sensory scientist and analytical chemist to work together to improve the consistency and quality of dairy food flavors.

  13. The Apollo 16 drive tube 60009/60010. II - Petrology and major element partitioning among the regolith components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Papike, J. J.; Schweitzer, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper summarizes petrographic and electron microprobe data from 22 polished thin sections that represent the total length of double drive tube 60009/60010 and discusses a new application of the method of modal recombination to estimate bulk chemistry. The modal recombination approach can be used to reliably calculate the chemistry of the greater than 0.02-mm size fraction and, more significantly, to derive the total major element partitioning among the regolith components.

  14. Pipa carvalhoi skin secretion profiling: absence of peptides and identification of kynurenic acid as the major constitutive component.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Douglas Oscar Ceolin; Yamaguchi, Lydia Fumiko; Jared, Carlos; Antoniazzi, Marta Maria; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Kato, Massuo Jorge; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The presence of peptides has been identified in all African pipid genera; nevertheless, little is known about skin secretion of South American frog genus Pipa. Skin secretion from captive and wild Pipa carvalhoi were obtained in the presence or absence of norepinephrine stimulation. The <10 kDa fraction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, searching for peptides. Chromatographic profiles show the presence of a major component in this secretion, regardless of the stimulation method (norepinephrine or mechanical stimulation) and the origin of the animal (captivity or wild), as well as in the absence of any stimulus. The general mass distribution profile in P. carvalhoi skin secretion shows numerous components below 800 Da. Moreover, no peptide could be identified, regardless of the chromatographic approach. The major component was purified and identified as kynurenic acid, an L-tryptophan derivative. P. carvalhoi does not secrete peptides as toxins in its skin. In addition, we here report that kynurenic acid is the main component of P. carvalhoi skin secretion. Although no biological activity was associated with kynurenic acid, we propose that this molecule is a pheromone that signals the presence of a co-specific in the shady environment in which this animal lives. In this study we demonstrate the absence of peptidic toxins in the skin secretion of P. carvalhoi, a break of paradigm in the pipid family.

  15. AN ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR THE CORONAL COMPONENT OF MAJOR SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kocharov, Leon; Valtonen, Eino; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2011-07-01

    We formulate an analytical model of the coronal-phase acceleration observed in the beginning of major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, before the main-phase acceleration associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in solar wind. The model is driven and constrained by the broadband observations of SEPs and CMEs, in particular SEP data from the particle telescope of the Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) experiment on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, solar radio spectrograms, and low-corona observations of CMEs. The model is also verified against observations of solar high-energy neutrons and neutron-decay protons. The model suggests SEP acceleration above {approx} 50 MeV nucleon{sup -1} by coronal shock and the shock-amplified turbulence in closed magnetic structures, and particle release at magnetic reconnection between the closed structure of expanding CME and pre-existing open magnetic flux tubes. The analytical model connects parameters of coronal shocks and structures and the SEP parameters in space, which facilitates analysis of multiwavelength data and will assist in further development of coronal acceleration models.

  16. [Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology focused on cannabidiol, a major component of the fiber-type cannabis].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Shuso

    2013-01-01

    Considerable attention has focused on cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, and it has been reported to possess diverse biological activities. Although CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), several studies have investigated whether CBDA itself is biologically active. In the present report, the author summarizes findings indicating that; 1) CBDA is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and ii) CBDA possesses an anti-migrative potential for highly invasive cancer cells, apparently through a mechanism involving inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, coupled with an activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. Further, the author introduces recent findings on the medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the CBD derivative, CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD), that exhibits inhibitory activity toward 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX), an enzyme responsible for the production of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). These studies establish CBD as both an important experimental tool and as a lead compound for pharmaceutical development. In this review, the author further discusses the potential uses of CBD and its derivatives in future medicines.

  17. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, C.T.; Salter, M.A.; Harborne, A.R.; Crowley, S.F.; Jelks, H.L.; Wilson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly <2 ??m) high Mg-calcite crystallites (i.e., >4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ???6.1 ?? 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 ??m fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ???14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  18. Fish as major carbonate mud producers and missing components of the tropical carbonate factory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Chris T.; Salter, Michael A.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Crowley, Stephen F.; Jelks, Howard L.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate mud is a major constituent of recent marine carbonate sediments and of ancient limestones, which contain unique records of changes in ocean chemistry and climate shifts in the geological past. However, the origin of carbonate mud is controversial and often problematic to resolve. Here we show that tropical marine fish produce and excrete various forms of precipitated (nonskeletal) calcium carbonate from their guts ("low" and "high" Mg-calcite and aragonite), but that very fine-grained (mostly 4 mole % MgCO3) are their dominant excretory product. Crystallites from fish are morphologically diverse and species-specific, but all are unique relative to previously known biogenic and abiotic sources of carbonate within open marine systems. Using site specific fish biomass and carbonate excretion rate data we estimate that fish produce ~6.1 x 106 kg CaCO3/year across the Bahamian archipelago, all as mud-grade (the <63 μm fraction) carbonate and thus as a potential sediment constituent. Estimated contributions from fish to total carbonate mud production average ~14% overall, and exceed 70% in specific habitats. Critically, we also document the widespread presence of these distinctive fish-derived carbonates in the finest sediment fractions from all habitat types in the Bahamas, demonstrating that these carbonates have direct relevance to contemporary carbonate sediment budgets. Fish thus represent a hitherto unrecognized but significant source of fine-grained carbonate sediment, the discovery of which has direct application to the conceptual ideas of how marine carbonate factories function both today and in the past.

  19. (Z)-9-nonacosene-major component of the contact sex pheromone of the beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    PubMed

    Ginzel, Matthew D; Moreira, Jardel A; Ray, Ann M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2006-02-01

    Male Megacyllene caryae (Gahan) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) respond to females only after touching them with their antennae, indicating that mate recognition is mediated by a contact sex pheromone. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of whole-body solvent extracts of male and female M. caryae revealed substantial differences in hydrocarbon profiles, with nearly half of the compounds in the extracts from females being absent from those of males. Biological activities of fractions of crude extracts of females, and reconstructed blends of the most abundant straight-chain (nC(27), nC(28), nC(29)), methyl-branched (2Me-C(26), 9Me-C(29), 11, 13, 15Me-C(29)), and unsaturated (Z9:C(29), Z13:C(29), Z14:C(29), Z13:C(31), Z14:C(31), Z15:C(31)) compounds in extracts of females were tested in arena bioassays, assessing four steps in the mating behavior sequence of males (orientation, arrestment, body alignment, mounting and attempting to couple the genitalia). Males showed limited response to dead females treated with fractions of the crude extract or blends of synthetic straight-chain and methyl-branched alkanes, but responded strongly to the blend of synthetic monoenes. Further trials determined that the complete sequence of mating behaviors, up to and including coupling the genitalia, was elicited by Z9:C(29) alone. Z9:C(29) is a homolog of the contact pheromone (Z9:C(25)) of the congener M. robiniae (Förster). Previous work with M. robiniae suggested that wipe sampling of cuticular hydrocarbons of females by solid phase microextraction yielded a more representative profile of components actually encountered by a male's antennae, and so provided a more readily interpretable profile of potential semiochemicals present in the wax layer than does solvent extraction. We tested this hypothesis by comparing hydrocarbon profiles of female M. caryae by the two sampling methods. Z9:C(29) was the only compound among the dominant hydrocarbons that was present in higher

  20. Pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of major water-soluble components of Danshen preparation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo-bo; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wan-wen; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Wen-liang; Wang, Yan; Chen, Yuan-cheng; Liu, Xiao-quan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the pharmacokinetic interactions induced by content variation of the main water-soluble components of Danshen injection in rats. Methods: Intravenous Danshen injection (control) or Danshen injection with danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), salvianolic acid A (Sal A) or salvianolic acid B (Sal B) were administered to female Sprague Dawley rats . Plasma concentrations of DSS, Sal A, PAL and its oxidative metabolite protocatechuic acid (PA) were analyzed simultaneously with LC-MS/MS; concentrations of Sal B were determined by the LC-MS method. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared for identifying the pharmacokinetic interactions among these components. Results: Compared with the control group, the DSS, Sal A, and Sal B groups had significant increases in AUC0-∞ in response to elevated concentrations of PAL (by 78.1%, 51.0%, and 82.9%, respectively), while the clearances (CL) were markedly reduced (by 42.5%, 32.9%, and 46.8%, respectively). Similarly, Sal A increased the AUC0–∞ of DSS and Sal B (26.7% and 82.4%, respectively) and substantially decreased their clearances (21.4% and 45.6%, respectively). In addition, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were significantly affected by the content variation of the other major components; the AUC0-∞ increased by 45.1% and 52.1%, respectively, the CL dropped by 29.6% and 27.1%, respectively, and the T1/2 was decreased by 22.0% and 19.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Complex, extensive pharmacokinetic interactions were observed among the major water-soluble constituents in the Danshen injection. The content variation of PAL had the most significant effect on the pharmacokinetic behaviors of other major constituents. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of DSS and Sal B were the most susceptible to the content change of other components. PMID:20364158

  1. Host cell-induced components of the sulfate assimilation pathway are major protective antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R; West, Nicholas P; Leyh, Thomas S; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A

    2013-03-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5'-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans.

  2. Host Cell–Induced Components of the Sulfate Assimilation Pathway Are Major Protective Antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rachel; Leotta, Lisa; Shanahan, Erin R.; West, Nicholas P.; Leyh, Thomas S.; Britton, Warwick; Triccas, James A.

    2013-01-01

    New therapies to control tuberculosis are urgently required because of the inability of the only available vaccine, BCG, to adequately protect against tuberculosis. Here we demonstrate that proteins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis sulfate-assimilation pathway (SAP) represent major immunogenic targets of the bacillus, as defined by strong T-cell recognition by both mice and humans infected with M. tuberculosis. SAP proteins displayed increased expression when M. tuberculosis was resident within host cells, which may account in part for their ability to stimulate anti-M. tuberculosis host immunity. Vaccination with the first enzyme in this pathway, adenosine-5′-triphosphate sulfurylase, conferred significant protection against murine tuberculosis and boosted BCG-induced protective immunity in the lung. Therefore, we have identified SAP components as a new family of M. tuberculosis antigens, and we have demonstrated that these components are promising candidate for inclusion in new vaccines to control tuberculosis in humans. PMID:23225904

  3. Localization of polysialoglycoprotein as a major glycoprotein component in cortical alveoli of the unfertilized eggs of Salmo gairdneri.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Kitajima, K; Inoue, Y; Kudo, S

    1987-10-01

    Polysialoglycoprotein (PSGP, 200 kDa), first isolated by S. Inoue and M. Iwasaki in 1978 (Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 83, 1018-1023) from unfertilized eggs of rainbow trout, has been shown to comprise a unique class of glycoproteins associated with the exocytosis of cortical alveoli. In 1986, 200-kDa PSGP was shown to undergo proteolytic depolymerization to 9-kDa PSGP on egg fertilization (activation) and there was an indication that 200-kDa PSGP may possibly be a component of cortical alveoli (J. Biol. Chem. 261, 5256-5261). In this paper we present evidence demonstrating that PSGP is actually a component of cortical alveolus. First, a cortical alveolus-rich fraction (CA fraction) was obtained by low-speed centrifugation of the homogenate of unfertilized eggs of rainbow trout. The 200-kDa PSGP was found to be a major component extractable with buffered saline from the CA fraction by chemical analysis of isolated materials. Treatment of the eggs to induce parthenogenetic activation resulted in all cases in the loss of both cortical alveoli and PSGP in the CA fraction. Second, perivitelline space fluid was isolated from the activated eggs of rainbow trout and analyzed, and 9-kDa PSGP was confirmed to be present as a major proteinaceous component. Third, following incubation of the eggs in water for activation, the time course of the appearance of 9-kDa PSGP and the breakdown of 200-kDa PSGP was observed. The formation of 9-kDa PSGP was detected in the eggs after 1 min of incubation and its level rose rapidly, attaining a maximum at 7 min after incubation. During this period, there was a concomitant fall in the level of 200-kDa PSGP. This formation and rapid increase in 9-kDa PSGP correspond directly to the time course of cortical alveolus exocytosis in activated chum salmon eggs recently studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  4. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  5. PTSD in victims of sexual assault: test of a major component of the Ehlers-Clark theory.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Rachman, S

    2006-06-01

    We investigated a major component of the Ehlers-Clark theory of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 50 female victims of sexual assault. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the victims' appraisals of the trauma and its consequences contribute significantly to the persistence of PTSD symptoms. The results indicated that the victims' appraisals of the sexual assault and its sequelae are strongly and positively related to PTSD symptoms. This finding remained significant after statistically controlling for the perceived severity of the assault. Most of the results are consistent with the Ehlers-Clark theory.

  6. Chemical composition of the major components of PM in different sites at the Metropolitan Region of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, F.; Castillo, M. A.; Rubio, M.; Gramsch, E.; Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.

    2013-05-01

    Santiago, Chile's capital is one of most polluted megacity (5.5 million of people) of the world. Currently, PM2.5 annual concentration is over 2.2 times the Chilean standard (20 μg/m3). Continuous measurements of non-refractory PM1.0 (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and organics aerosols), black carbon, and PM2,5 mass concentration were determined using Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne Research, Inc), absorption coefficient monitor (SIMCA, Santiago University) and dustrack monitor (TSI Inc) in order to know the temporal variability of the major components of PM. The measurements were carried out at kerbside, urban background, industrial and mixed residential/industrial locations during year 2012 and -2013. Meteorological data (Relative Humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction and precipitations) were obtained from the air quality network operated by the environmental authority. The results show strong correlation with the metropolitan region major sources. Multiple regression analysis indicates that precipitations have a strong impact on PM1.0 soluble components; relative humidity has effects only on chloride, sulfate and black carbon. Chloride concentration decrease when temperature is increasing. The perceptual contribution of each component is similar among all sites. All sites shows that OA (Organics Aerosol) as the major constituent of PM1.0 (>50%), followed of nitrates (>13%). Sulfate could be used to differentiate the industrial site; due to there is a strong impact of SO2 emission. Combustion sources direct impact can be seen at BC contribution at industrial and kerbside site. Also, the OA/BC ratio shows slow value at kerbside (3.05) and industrial (3.26) site, and higher at urban background site (4.15). Aged organics aerosols are majority found at all sites (f43/f44 plot), indicating that regional background is strong in all results. These results will be compared with size distribution measurements available from previous

  7. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  8. Major components of orange oil inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth and biofilm formation, and alter its virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Federman, Cassandra; Ma, Christopher; Biswas, Debabrata

    2016-07-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in the dairy industry and does not always respond to antibiotic treatment. The major components of terpeneless, cold-pressed Valencia orange oil - citral, linalool, decanal and valencene - were examined as potential alternative treatments for Staphylococcus aureus-associated mastitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all four components against S. aureus was determined after incubation for 24 h. Growth inhibition assays were performed for all effective components on S. aureus for either a 3 h or 72 h treatment. These components were tested for the ability to disrupt pre-formed S. aureus biofilms after 24 h of treatment by measuring absorbance at 540 nm. Cytotoxicity against immortalized bovine mammary epithelial (MAC-T) cells was measured using an MTT assay following a 1 h exposure. Only concentrations below the 50 % cytostatic concentration (CC50) were used in an adherence and invasion assay of S. aureus on MAC-T cells, and for measurements of virulence and biofilm gene expression via qPCR. The MICs of citral and linalool were 0.02 % and 0.12 %, respectively, but decanal and valencene were ineffective. Citral and linalool were capable of inhibiting growth of S. aureus after 24 h at their MIC values and inhibited pre-formed biofilms of S. aureus . The concentrations below the CC50 were 0.02 % for citral and 0.12 % for linalool. These concentrations inhibited the adhesion and invasion ability of S. aureus and downregulated virulence genes. Only 0.12 % linalool downregulated the expression of S. aureus biofilm-forming genes. These components should be considered for further in vivo study.

  9. Composing Disability: Diagnosis, Interrupted.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, Abby; Fisher, Joseph; Fletcher, Wade

    2016-12-01

    Writing is central both to the medical diagnostic codification of disability and to disabled people's efforts to interrupt, complicate, or disrupt dominant medical narratives. This Symposium, like the George Washington University conference from which it takes its name, creates space for diverse modes and genres of claiming authority regarding diagnosis and its cultural and material effects. "Queer" and "crip" interrogations of diagnosis illuminate its status as a cultural phenomenon, embracing culturally disavowed embodiments and embodied experiences as tools for diagnosing inegalitarian social relations and opportunities for cultural interventions. This Symposium traces the workings of diagnostic normativity manifested in experiences such as "disruptive deafness," unstable bodily materialities, pathologized grief and other forms of affective distress, and "surgical assemblages." It presents a diverse array of compositions, articulated on each writer's own terms, addressing a range of embodied experiences through multiple genres and voices, ranging from conversation transcript to scholarly essay, poetry, graphic memoir, and personal essay. Here, laypersons interrupt monologic medical diagnosis, claiming space to compose themselves. Together, the authors trace instances of corporeal "correction" back to the noxious agents, both environmental and political, that consistently breach the boundaries of corporeality.

  10. Teaching Composing with an Identity as a Teacher-Composer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    I enjoy composing and feel able to write songs that I like and which feel significant to me. This has not always been the case and the change had nothing to do with my school education or my degree. Composing at secondary school did not move beyond Bach and Handel pastiche. I did not take any composing courses during my degree. What did influence…

  11. The proteins of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm: fractionation and identification of the major components.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Vincenzi, Simone; Gastaldon, Luca; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella; Curioni, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed endosperm proteins were characterized after sequential fractionation, according to a modified Osborne procedure. The salt-soluble fraction (albumins and globulins) comprised the majority (58.4%) of the total extracted protein. The protein fractions analysed by SDS-PAGE showed similar bands, indicating different solubility of the same protein components. SDS-PAGE in non-reducing and reducing conditions revealed the polypeptide composition of the protein bands. The main polypeptides, which were similar in all the grape varieties analysed, were identified by LC-MS/MS as homologous to the 11S globulin-like seed storage proteins of other plant species, while a monomeric 43 kDa protein presented high homology with the 7S globulins of legume seeds. The results provide new insights about the identity, structure and polypeptide composition of the grape seed storage proteins.

  12. Alpha-eleostearic acid and its dihydroxy derivative are major apoptosis-inducing components of bitter gourd.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Masuko; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Akimoto, Yukari; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2008-11-26

    Bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) pericarp, placenta, and seed extracts were previously shown to induce apoptosis in HL60 human leukemia cells. To determine the active component that induces apoptosis in cancer cells, bitter gourd ethanol extract was fractionated by liquid-liquid partition and silica gel column chromatography. Several fractions obtained by silica gel column chromatography inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in HL60 cells. Among them, fraction 7 had the strongest activity in inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis in HL60 cells. A component that induced apoptosis in HL60 cells was then isolated from fraction 7 by another silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column and was identified as (9Z,11E,13E)-15,16-dihydroxy-9,11,13-octadecatrienoic acid (15,16-dihydroxy alpha-eleostearic acid). 15,16-Dihydroxy alpha-eleostearic acid induced apoptosis in HL60 cells within 5 h at a concentration of 160 microM (50 microg/mL). (9Z,11E,13E)-9,11,13-Octadecatrienoic acid (alpha-eleostearic acid) is known to be the major conjugated linolenic acid in bitter gourd seeds. Therefore, the effect of alpha-eleostearic acid on the growth of some cancer and normal cell lines was examined. alpha-Eleostearic acid strongly inhibited the growth of some cancer and fibroblast cell lines, including those of HL60 leukemia and HT29 colon carcinoma. alpha-Eleostearic acid induced apoptosis in HL60 cells after a 24 h incubation at a concentration of 5 microM. Thus, alpha-eleostearic acid and the dihydroxy derivative from bitter gourd were suggested to be the major inducers of apoptosis in HL60 cells.

  13. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  14. Bacterial components are the major contributors to the macrophage stimulating activity exhibited by extracts of common edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Heather L; Haron, Mona H; Pugh, Nirmal D; Zhang, Jin; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-10-12

    Recent studies have indicated that a major contributor to the innate immune enhancing properties of some medicinal plants is derived from the cell wall components of bacteria colonizing these plants. The purpose of the current study was to assess if the bacteria present within edible and medicinal mushrooms substantially contribute to the innate immune stimulating potential of these mushrooms. Whole mushrooms from thirteen types of edible fungi and individual parts from Agaricus bisporus were analyzed for in vitro macrophage activation as well as bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) content, cell load, and community composition. Substantial variation between samples was observed in macrophage activation (over 500-fold), total bacterial load (over 200-fold), and LPS content (over 10 million-fold). Both LPS content (ρ = 0.832, p < 0.0001) and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.701, p < 0.0001) correlated significantly with macrophage activation in the whole mushroom extracts. Extract activity was negated by treatment with NaOH, conditions that inactivate LPS and other bacterial components. Significant correlations between macrophage activation and total bacterial load (ρ = 0.723, p = 0.0001) and LPS content (ρ = 0.951, p < 0.0001) were also observed between different tissues of Agaricus bisporus. Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium were the most prevalent genera identified in the different tissue parts and these taxa were significantly correlated with in vitro macrophage activation (ρ = 0.697, p < 0.0001 and ρ = 0.659, p = 0.0001, respectively). These results indicate that components derived from mushroom associated bacteria contribute substantially to the innate immune enhancing activity exhibited by mushrooms and may result in similar therapeutic actions as reported for ingestion of bacterial preparations such as probiotics.

  15. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  16. 40 CFR Table W-1b to Subpart W of... - Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment W Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1B Table W-1B to Subpart W of Part 98—Default Average Component Counts for Major Onshore Natural Gas Production Equipment Major equipment...

  17. ISWI Remodeling Complexes in Xenopus Egg Extracts: Identification as Major Chromosomal Components that Are Regulated by INCENP-aurora B

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, David E.; Losada, Ana; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Hirano, Tatsuya

    2002-01-01

    We previously characterized major components of mitotic chromosomes assembled in Xenopus laevis egg extracts and collectively referred to them as Xenopus chromosome–associated polypeptides (XCAPs). They included five subunits of the condensin complex essential for chromosome condensation. In an effort to identify novel proteins involved in this process, we have isolated XCAP-F and found it to be the Xenopus ortholog of ISWI, a chromatin remodeling ATPase. ISWI exists in two major complexes in Xenopus egg extracts. The first complex contains ACF1 and two low-molecular-weight subunits, most likely corresponding to Xenopus CHRAC. The second complex is a novel one that contains the Xenopus ortholog of the human Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF). In the absence of the ISWI complexes, the deposition of histones onto DNA is apparently normal, but the spacing of nucleosomes is greatly disturbed. Despite the poor spacing of nucleosomes, ISWI depletion has little effect on DNA replication, chromosome condensation or sister chromatid cohesion in the cell-free extracts. The association of ISWI with chromatin is cell cycle regulated and is under the control of the INCENP-aurora B kinase complex that phosphorylates histone H3 during mitosis. Apparently contradictory to the generally accepted model, we find that neither chromosome condensation nor chromosomal targeting of condensin is compromised when H3 phosphorylation is drastically reduced by depletion of INCENP-aurora B. PMID:11809820

  18. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Kosma, Dylan K.; Joubès, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:27231100

  19. Primary Fatty Alcohols Are Major Components of Suberized Root Tissues of Arabidopsis in the Form of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates.

    PubMed

    Delude, Camille; Fouillen, Laetitia; Bhar, Palash; Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Pascal, Stephanie; Santos, Patricia; Kosma, Dylan K; Joubès, Jérôme; Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Suberin is a complex hydrophobic polymer that acts as a barrier controlling water and solute fluxes and restricting pathogen infections. Suberin is deposited immediately outside of the plasmalemma in the cell wall of certain tissues such as endodermis of roots, aerial and underground periderms, and seed coats. Suberin consists of a variety of fatty acid derivatives polymerized with glycerol and phenolics. In this study, we show using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques that most of the fatty alcohols not covalently linked to the suberin polymer are in the form of alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs), with alkyl caffeates predominating. Such compounds are not restricted to the periderm of mature roots but also are present in the endodermis of younger roots, where they are not extracted by rapid dipping in chloroform. Analysis of several mutants affected in key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and export of suberin monomers suggests that the formation of the suberin polymer and associated waxes involves common pathways and occurs concomitantly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Although fatty alcohols represent only minor components of the suberin polymer in Arabidopsis roots, this study demonstrates that they constitute the major aliphatics of suberin-associated waxes in the form of AHCs. Therefore, our results indicate that esterified fatty alcohols, both soluble and polymerized forms, represent major constituents of Arabidopsis root suberized barriers, being as abundant as α,ω-dicarboxylic and unsubstituted fatty acids. In addition, our results show that suberized layers represent a major sink for acyl-lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis roots.

  20. Composing the Curriculum: Teacher Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    What is composing and how is it valued? What does a good education in composing look like; what constraints hinder it and is it possible to overcome such constraints? Can composing be a personal, creative and valuable activity for the school student? What role does the teacher play in all of this? These are questions that I discuss in this…

  1. Biosynthesis, targeting and processing of oleosin-like proteins, which are major pollen coat components in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D J; Ross, J H

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterise the biosynthesis, targeting and processing of some of the major protein components of the pollen coat, or tryphine, of Brassica napus. The authors have N-terminally sequenced 11 of the most abundant pollen coat polypeptides, and nine of these sequences correspond to proteolytically cleaved products of seven oleosin-like genes, i.e. Oln B;1 to Oln B;6 and Oln B;11. The Oln B;11 gene product is co- or post-translationally targeted in vitro to canine microsomal membranes. This implies that the oleosin-like protein is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum in tapetal cells in vivo. Affinity-purified antibodies raised against a 20-residue domain of Oln B;3 and B;4 gene products cross-reacted with full-length proteins of 45-48 kDa in early developing (< 2 mm to 5 mm) buds and anthers, but recognised truncated proteins of 32-38 kDa at later (4 mm to 7 mm) stages of development. The 45-48 kDa immunoreactive proteins were associated with a floating lipid body fraction obtained from a tapetal/locular fluid extract from maturing anthers and a major 48 kDa polypeptide from this fraction was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing to be a full length product of the Oln B;3 gene. Quantitative immunocytochemical studies showed that the full length 45-48 kDa oleosin-like proteins were specifically localised in the interior of tapetal cytoplasmic lipid bodies where they were associated with a regular hexagonal-like fibrous reticulum. No significant labelling of elaioplasts was observed. The same antibodies specifically labelled 32-38 kDa oleosin-like proteins on the extracellular pollen coat of maturing pollen grains. These results demonstrate for the first time that many of the major pollen coat proteins are derived from an endoproteolytic cleavage of precursor oleosin-like proteins that originally accumulate within the large cytoplasmic lipid bodies of tapetal cells.

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald4p, is a major component of mitochondrial fluorescent inclusion bodies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Kikuchi, Maiko; Sato, Hiroshi; Inai, Tomomi; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi; Tanaka, Kenji; Miyakawa, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT When Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 3626 was cultured to the stationary phase in a medium that contained glucose, needle-like structures that emitted autofluorescence were observed in almost all cells by fluorescence microscopy under UV excitation. The needle-like structures completely overlapped with the profile of straight elongated mitochondria. Therefore, these structures were designated as mitochondrial fluorescent inclusion bodies (MFIBs). The MFIB-enriched mitochondrial fractions were successfully isolated and 2D-gel electrophoresis revealed that a protein of 54 kDa was only highly concentrated in the fractions. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 54-kDa protein identified it as a mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, Ald4p. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that anti-Ald4p antibody specifically stained MFIBs. Freeze-substitution electron microscopy demonstrated that cells that retained MFIBs had electron-dense filamentous structures with a diameter of 10 nm in straight elongated mitochondria. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that Ald4p was localized to the electron-dense filamentous structures in mitochondria. These results together showed that a major component of MFIBs is Ald4p. In addition, we demonstrate that MFIBs are common features that appear in mitochondria of many species of yeast. PMID:24771619

  3. Potential Effects of Silymarin and Its Flavonolignan Components in Patients with β-Thalassemia Major: A Comprehensive Review in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Salehifar, Ebrahim; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Aliasgharian, Aily; Jalali, Hossein; Hadian Amree, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Major β-thalassemia (β-TM) is one of the most common inherited hemolytic types of anemia which is caused as a result of absent or reduced synthesis of β-globin chains of hemoglobin. This defect results in red blood cells lysis and chronic anemia that can be treated by multiple blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy. Without iron chelation therapy, iron overload will cause lots of complications in patients. Antioxidant components play an important role in the treatment of the disease. Silymarin is an antioxidant flavonoid isolated from Silybum marianum plant. In the present study, we reviewed clinical and experimental studies investigating the use of silymarin prior to September 1, 2015, using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, Scopus, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases and we evaluated the potential effects of silymarin on controlling the complications induced by iron overload in patients with β-TM. Based on the results of the present study, we can conclude that silymarin may be useful as an adjuvant for improving multiple organ dysfunctions. PMID:26997953

  4. Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of a Epimedium koreanum extract and its major components: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Choi, Yun-Ho; Kwon, Hyosuk; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-08-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of Epimedii Herba, which is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China were investigated in this study. The in vitro estrogen receptor (ER) mediated estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of an Epimedii Herba extract (Epi ext) and its major components were determined using an estrogen responsive element driven reporter gene assay in MCF-7/ERE and HEK293T cells. The Epi ext exhibited ERα- and ERβ-mediated estrogenic activity with an EC(50) of 5.0 and 17.8 μM in HEK293T cells, respectively. Prenylflavonoid glycosides such as icariin (ICA), epimedin A, B, and C did not show any in vitro estrogenic or antiestrogenic activities. Icaritin (ICT) and quercetin exhibited in vitro ER mediated estrogenic activity with a more potent interaction with ERβ. In vivo estrogenic activities of the Epi ext, ICA and ICT were compared using an uterotrophic assay. Although the potency of in vitro estrogenic activity was in the order of ICT>Epi ext>ICA, ICA had the strongest estrogenic activity and next ICT in ovariectomized rats. These results collectively suggest that phytoestrogens possess both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, and that the differential expression of these two compounds with opposing activities is dependent on the physiological environment in terms of estrogen level, which may be the case in humans.

  5. myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate is a major component of an extracellular structure in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed Central

    Irigoín, Florencia; Ferreira, Fernando; Fernández, Cecilia; Sim, Robert B; Díaz, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) is an abundant intracellular component of animal cells. In this study we describe the presence of extracellular IP(6) in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The HCW comprises an inner cellular layer and an outer, acellular (laminated) layer up to 2 mm in thickness that protects the parasite from host immune cells. A compound, subsequently identified as IP(6), was detected in and purified from an HCW extract on the basis of its capacity to inhibit complement activation. The identification of the isolated compound was carried out by a combination of NMR, MS and TLC. The majority of IP(6) in the HCW was found in the acellular layer, with only a small fraction of the compound being extracted from cells. In the laminated layer, IP(6) was present in association with calcium, and accounted for up to 15% of the total dry mass of the HCW. IP(6) was not detected in any other structures or stages of the parasite. Our results imply that IP(6) is secreted by the larval stage of the parasite in a polarized fashion towards the interface with the host. This is the first report of the secretion of IP(6), and the possible implications beyond the biology of E. granulosus are discussed. PMID:11853537

  6. A new family of satellite DNA sequences as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin in owls (Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazuhiko; Nishida-Umehara, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2004-03-01

    We isolated a new family of satellite DNA sequences from HaeIII- and EcoRI-digested genomic DNA of the Blakiston's fish owl ( Ketupa blakistoni). The repetitive sequences were organized in tandem arrays of the 174 bp element, and localized to the centromeric regions of all macrochromosomes, including the Z and W chromosomes, and microchromosomes. This hybridization pattern was consistent with the distribution of C-band-positive centromeric heterochromatin, and the satellite DNA sequences occupied 10% of the total genome as a major component of centromeric heterochromatin. The sequences were homogenized between macro- and microchromosomes in this species, and therefore intraspecific divergence of the nucleotide sequences was low. The 174 bp element cross-hybridized to the genomic DNA of six other Strigidae species, but not to that of the Tytonidae, suggesting that the satellite DNA sequences are conserved in the same family but fairly divergent between the different families in the Strigiformes. Secondly, the centromeric satellite DNAs were cloned from eight Strigidae species, and the nucleotide sequences of 41 monomer fragments were compared within and between species. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of the nucleotide sequences were highly correlated with both the taxonomy based on morphological traits and the phylogenetic tree constructed by DNA-DNA hybridization. These results suggest that the satellite DNA sequence has evolved by concerted evolution in the Strigidae and that it is a good taxonomic and phylogenetic marker to examine genetic diversity between Strigiformes species.

  7. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Yorita, Mika; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Jippo, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of geranium essential oil (GEO) on anaphylaxis. GEO can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but its roles in allergic reactions are incompletely understood. Here, we used mouse cells to show that GEO inhibited the degranulation of cultured mast cells (CMCs). Citronellol is the major component of GEO and inhibited CMC degranulation. The l-enantiomer of citronellol more effectively suppressed CMC degranulation than did d-citronellol. We also examined whether citronellol could inhibit the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment with various concentrations of citronellol before CMC activation with IgE significantly inhibited the induction of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, citronellol suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK), which is critical for ERK activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. These findings suggest that citronellol may represent a candidate compound for the effective treatment of allergic diseases.

  8. Use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for predicting major components in bee pollen.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, I; Hernández-Hierro, J M; Barros-Ferreiro, N; Cordón Marcos, C; García-Villanova, R J

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for determination of the major components in bee pollen. The method allows immediate control of the bee pollen without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe to the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using 45 samples of bee pollen allowed the measurement of protein, moisture, ash, reducing sugars, and pH with multiple correlation coefficients (RSQ) and prediction corrected standard errors (SEPC) of 0.91, 0.56% for protein, of 0.78 and 0.49% for moisture; 0.92 and 0.049% for ash; 0.81 and 1.32g of glucose/100g of bee pollen; 0.84 and 0.15 for pH, respectively. The prediction capacity of the pattern was checked by applying it to samples of unknown pollen in external validation.

  9. Beta-lipotropin is the major component of the plasma opioid response to surgical stress in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.A.; Facchinetti, F.; Bertellini, E.; Petraglia, F.; Stacca, R.; Barbieri, G.C.; Genazzani, A.R.

    1987-12-07

    There is growing experimental evidence that beta-endorphin immunoreactivity is raised by surgical stress in patients undergoing general anesthesia. As the assay methods employed to date did not allow to fully discriminate between beta-endorphin and its immediate precursor, beta-lipotropin, the authors have investigated in the present study plasma levels of these two peptides by separating them by chromatography on plasma extracts prior to radioimmunoassay. Beta-lipotropin, but not beta-endorphin, plasma levels were found to be significantly elevated during surgery in the general anesthesia group, while no change was found in either peptide concentration in the spinal one. Cortisol plasma levels also increased significantly 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. Although the sampling time they adopted may have prevented them from detecting an early peak of beta-endorphin during the first 30 minutes of surgery, the major component of the pituitary opioid response to surgical stress appears to be related to beta-lipotropin. This is in agreement with results of experimental work on various kinds of stress in animals and humans and seems to rule out a role for plasma beta-endorphin in post-operative analgesia. 38 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  10. Association of occurrence of major earthquakes throughout the globe with variable component of the green line Fe XIV 530.3 nm during 1950-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midya, S. K.; Das, A.; Karmakar, N.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents the variation of variable component of coronal index for two period 1950-1962 and 1963-2014 and its association with major earthquakes (magnitude ≥6.0 Richter scale) for the same two periods is also offered. Analysis shows that frequency of major earthquake increases with the decrease in variable component of coronal index and vice versa. Possible explanation is also presented.

  11. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Inoue, Ryo; Harada, Yuri; Watanabe, Takumi; Makioka, Yuko; Ushida, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA) of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells. PMID:26083838

  12. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aller, Glenn S.; Carson, Jeff D.; Tang, Wei; Peng, Hao; Zhao, Lin; Copeland, Robert A.; Tummino, Peter J.; Luo, Lusong

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR with Ki values around 300 nM. {yields} EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231and A549 cells. {yields} Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site. {yields} These results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG. -- Abstract: The PI3K signaling pathway is activated in a broad spectrum of human cancers, either directly by genetic mutation or indirectly via activation of receptor tyrosine kinases or inactivation of the PTEN tumor suppressor. The key nodes of this pathway have emerged as important therapeutic targets for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we show that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of both phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with K{sub i} values of 380 and 320 nM respectively. The potency of EGCG against PI3K and mTOR is within physiologically relevant concentrations. In addition, EGCG inhibits cell proliferation and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 in MDA-MB-231 and A549 cells. Molecular docking studies show that EGCG binds well to the PI3K kinase domain active site, agreeing with the finding that EGCG competes for ATP binding. Our results suggest another important molecular mechanism for the anticancer activities of EGCG.

  14. Chemoprevention of esophageal cancer with black raspberries, their component anthocyanins, and a major anthocyanin metabolite, protocatechuic acid.

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Daniel S; Zimmerman, Noah P; Wang, Li-Shu; Ransom, Benjamin W S; Carmella, Steven G; Kuo, Chieh-Ti; Siddiqui, Jibran; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Oshima, Kiyoko; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hecht, Stephen S; Stoner, Gary D

    2014-06-01

    Diets containing either freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) or their polyphenolic anthocyanins (ACs) have been shown to inhibit the development of N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced esophageal cancer in rats. The present study was conducted to determine whether PCA, a major microbial metabolite of black raspberry (BRB) ACs, also prevents NMBA-induced esophageal cancer in rats. F344 rats were injected with NMBA three times a week for 5 weeks and then fed control or experimental diets containing 6.1% BRBs, an anthocyanin (AC)-enriched fraction derived from BRBs, or protocatechuic acid (PCA). Animals were exsanguinated at weeks 15, 25, and 35 to quantify the development of preneoplastic lesions and tumors in the esophagus, and to relate this to the expression of inflammatory biomarkers. At weeks 15 and 25, all experimental diets were equally effective in reducing NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, as well as in reducing the expression of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), a cytokine produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to interleukin (IL)-1β and TNF-α. All experimental diets were also active at reducing tumorigenesis at week 35; however, the BRB diet was significantly more effective than the AC and PCA diets. Furthermore, all experimental diets inhibited inflammation in the esophagus via reducing biomarker (COX-2, iNOS, p-NF-κB, and sEH) and cytokine (PTX3) expression. Overall, our data suggest that BRBs, their component ACs, and PCA inhibit NMBA-induced esophageal tumorigenesis, at least in part, by their inhibitory effects on genes associated with inflammation.

  15. Syllabus for a Women Studies Course on Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Deborah

    An upper division college-level course dealing with women composers for both music majors and nonmusic majors is outlined. The course provides an historical and analytical survey of western music through works composed by women, with emphasis on the 19th and 20th centuries. Students listen to music, participate in class discussions, and listen to…

  16. In-depth investigation of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass wastes based on three major components: Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lili; Yan, Rong; Liu, Yongqiang; Jiang, Wenju

    2010-11-01

    The artificial biomass based on three biomass components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) were developed on the basis of a simplex-lattice approach. Together with a natural biomass sample, they were employed in enzymatic hydrolysis researches. Different enzyme combines of two commercial enzymes (ACCELLERASE 1500 and OPTIMASH BG) showed a potential to hydrolyze hemicellulose completely. Negligible interactions among the three components were observed, and the used enzyme ACCELLERASE 1500 was proven to be weak lignin-binding. On this basis, a multiple linear-regression equation was established for predicting the reducing sugar yield based on the component proportions in a biomass. The hemicellulose and cellulose in a biomass sample were found to have different contributions in staged hydrolysis at different time periods. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of rice straw was conducted to validate the computation approach through considerations of alkaline solution pretreatment and combined enzymes function, so as to understand better the nature of biomass hydrolysis, from the aspect of three biomass components.

  17. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 23 on Guide to the Measurement of the Transient Performance of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Guide pour la mesure des performances en transitoire des turbomachines Aeronautiques et de leurs composants)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    measurement of pressures, temperatures, flows , component geometry including rotational speed and clearances, thnist, torque, and the use of the...Definitions of Measurcincnl Systems 4-1 4.2 Pressure 4-14 4.3 Temperature 4-6« 4.4 Flow 4-108 4.5 Geometry 4-170 4.6 Thrust and Torque 4-214 4.7...information on pressure, temper*- ture. fuel and air flow , geometry , fore« and lonpie, and control system panmeten. Generally a uniform format has

  18. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  19. Effect of nonfat dry milk and major whey components on interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 production in human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ustunol, Z; Wong, C

    2010-06-01

    Bovine nonfat dry milk (NDM) and major whey components (lactose, alpha-lactalbumin, and beta-lactoglobulin) were evaluated for their effects on IL-6 and IL-8 production in human intestinal-like Caco-2 cells unstimulated or stimulated with IL-1beta. All the whey components investigated and NDM induced IL-6 production by Caco-2 cells; the most significant increase was observed with beta-lactoglobulin. In the case of IL-1beta-stimulated cells, neither NDM nor the major whey components investigated contributed to the induction of IL-6 production after they were stimulated. Induction of IL-8 production by both alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin was higher than that by lactose and NDM; alpha-lactalbumin was a more potent inducer of IL-8 than beta-lactoglobulin and IL-1beta alone in both unstimulated and stimulated cells. In Caco-2 cells that were stimulated with IL1-beta, NDM and all the major whey components investigated had a synergistic effect on induction of IL-8 production, indicating that IL-8 induction was amplified by prior stimulation of cells by IL-1beta. This synergistic effect was not observed with IL-6. Our results suggest that immunomodulatory properties of milk components may be affected by other complex events in the gut.

  20. Multiple leafminer species attracted to the major pheromone components of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, is a major pest of citrus throughout the world due to leafmining damage that reduces photosynthetic capacity of leaves and increases the incidence and severity of citrus canker disease. A lure comprised of two aldehyde compounds isolated from ph...

  1. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  2. Chemical profiling of the major components in natural waxes to elucidate their role in liquid oil structuring.

    PubMed

    Doan, Chi Diem; To, Chak Ming; De Vrieze, Mike; Lynen, Frederic; Danthine, Sabine; Brown, Allison; Dewettinck, Koen; Patel, Ashok R

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating the composition of waxes is of utmost importance to explain their behavior in liquid oil structuring. The chemical components (hydrocarbons - HCs, free fatty acids - FFAs, free fatty alcohols - FALs and wax esters - WEs) of natural waxes were analyzed using HPLC-ELSD and GC-MS followed by evaluation of their oil structuring properties. The gel strength, including the average storage modulus and oscillation yield stress, displayed a negative correlation with FALs and a positive correlation with HCs, FFAs and WEs. The components dictating the gel strength are HCs, FFAs and WEs in a descending order of importance. The consistency of the oleogels increased with the increasing amount of FFAs and HCs and the decreasing amount of WEs and FALs. The presence of more WEs results in a strong but brittle gel with a high initial flow yield stress. We believe these results might be useful in selecting the right waxes to combine in certain fat-based food products.

  3. Benzyl isothiocyanate, a major component from the roots of Salvadora persica is highly active against Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sofrata, Abier; Santangelo, Ellen M; Azeem, Muhammad; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Anders; Pütsep, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate.

  4. Benzyl Isothiocyanate, a Major Component from the Roots of Salvadora Persica Is Highly Active against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sofrata, Abier; Santangelo, Ellen M.; Azeem, Muhammad; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Gustafsson, Anders; Pütsep, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Plants produce a number of antimicrobial substances and the roots of the shrub Salvadora persica have been demonstrated to possess antimicrobial activity. Sticks from the roots of S. persica, Miswak sticks, have been used for centuries as a traditional method of cleaning teeth. Diverging reports on the chemical nature and antimicrobial repertoire of the chewing sticks from S. persica led us to explore its antibacterial properties against a panel of pathogenic or commensal bacteria and to identify the antibacterial component/s by methodical chemical characterization. S. persica root essential oil was prepared by steam distillation and solid-phase microextraction was used to sample volatiles released from fresh root. The active compound was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and antibacterial assays. The antibacterial compound was isolated using medium-pressure liquid chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy was used to visualize the effect on bacterial cells. The main antibacterial component of both S. persica root extracts and volatiles was benzyl isothiocyanate. Root extracts as well as commercial synthetic benzyl isothiocyanate exhibited rapid and strong bactericidal effect against oral pathogens involved in periodontal disease as well as against other Gram-negative bacteria, while Gram-positive bacteria mainly displayed growth inhibition or remained unaffected. The short exposure needed to obtain bactericidal effect implies that the chewing sticks and the essential oil may have a specific role in treatment of periodontal disease in reducing Gram-negative periodontal pathogens. Our results indicate the need for further investigation into the mechanism of the specific killing of Gram-negative bacteria by S. persica root stick extracts and its active component benzyl isothiocyanate. PMID:21829688

  5. Guidelines for Coaching Student Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dana

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching students how to compose music. Addresses issues, such as how to get the students started and types of questions to ask students about their compositions. Discusses the musical elements involved in composition, such as melody, harmony, rhythm and meter, timbre, texture, and formal design. (CMK)

  6. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  7. Molecular evidence that deep-branching fungi are major fungal components in deep-sea methane cold-seep sediments.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Takahiko; Takahashi, Eriko; Nagano, Yuriko; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed A; Miyazaki, Masayuki

    2011-08-01

    The motile cells of chytrids were once believed to be relics from the time before the colonization of land by fungi. However, the majority of chytrids had not been found in marine but freshwater environments. We investigated fungal diversity by a fungal-specific PCR-based analysis of environmental DNA in deep-sea methane cold-seep sediments, identifying a total of 35 phylotypes, 12 of which were early diverging fungi (basal fungi, ex 'lower fungi'). The basal fungi occupied a major portion of fungal clones. These were phylogenetically placed into a deep-branching clade of fungi and the LKM11 clade that was a divergent group comprised of only environmental clones from aquatic environments. As suggested by Lara and colleagues, species of the endoparasitic genus Rozella, being recently considered of the earliest branching taxa of fungi, were nested within the LKM11 clade. In the remaining 23 phylotypes identified as the Dikarya, the majority of which were similar to those which appeared in previously deep-sea studies, but also highly novel lineages associated with Soil Clone Group I (SCGI), Entorrhiza sp. and the agaricomycetous fungi were recorded. The fungi of the Dikarya may play a role in the biodegradation of lignin and lignin-derived materials in deep-sea, because the characterized fungal species related to the frequent phylotypes within the Dikarya have been reported to possess an ability to degrade lignin.

  8. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models.

    PubMed

    Santin, José Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Klein-Júnior, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Costa, Philipe; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Tilia, Crislaine; de Souza, Juliana Paula; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2011-02-01

    Syzygium aromaticum, a medicinal plant commonly known as clove, is used to treat toothache, respiratory disorders, inflammation, and gastrointestinal disorders. From the flower buds of S. aromaticum, it is possible to obtain an essential oil comprised of a mixture of aliphatic and cyclic volatile terpenes and phenylpropanoids, being eugenol as the main component. The aims of this study were: (1) to extract the essential oil of the flower buds of S. aromaticum, (2) to identify and quantify the main component of the essential oil, and (3) to evaluate its antiulcer activity using different animal models. Assays were performed using the following protocols in rats: indomethacin-induced and ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer model. Both essential oils from S. aromaticum and eugenol displayed antiulcer activities in the rat models of indomethacin- and ethanol-induced ulcer. Studies focusing on the possible mechanisms of gastroprotection were also undertaken using the following experiments: evaluation of gastric secretion by the pylorus-ligated model, determination of mucus in gastric content, participation of nitric oxide (NO) and endogenous sulfhydryl in gastric protection. The results show that there was no significant effect on the volume of gastric juice and total acidity. However, the quantification of free gastric mucus showed that the clove oil and eugenol were capable of significantly enhancing mucus production. With regard to the NO and endogenous sulfhydryls, the results demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by clove oil and eugenol are not related to the activities of the nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls. No sign of toxicity was observed in the acute toxicity study. In conclusion, the results of this study show that essential oil of S. aromaticum, as well as its main component (eugenol), possesses antiulcer activity. The data suggest that the effectiveness of the essential oil and eugenol is based on its ability to stimulate the synthesis of mucus, an

  9. The N-reductive system composed of mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component (mARC), cytochrome b5 (CYB5B) and cytochrome b5 reductase (CYB5R) is regulated by fasting and high fat diet in mice.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Heyka H; Mikula, Michal; Havemeyer, Antje; Strzalkowska, Adriana; Borowa-Chmielak, Monika; Dzwonek, Artur; Gajewska, Marta; Hennig, Ewa E; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Clement, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component mARC is the fourth mammalian molybdenum enzyme. The protein is capable of reducing N-oxygenated structures, but requires cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase for electron transfer to catalyze such reactions. It is well accepted that the enzyme is involved in N-reductive drug metabolism such as the activation of amidoxime prodrugs. However, the endogenous function of the protein is not fully understood. Among other functions, an involvement in lipogenesis is discussed. To study the potential involvement of the protein in energy metabolism, we tested whether the mARC protein and its partners are regulated due to fasting and high fat diet in mice. We used qRT-PCR for expression studies, Western Blot analysis to study protein levels and an N-reductive biotransformation assay to gain activity data. Indeed all proteins of the N-reductive system are regulated by fasting and its activity decreases. To study the potential impact of these changes on prodrug activation in vivo, another mice experiment was conducted. Model compound benzamidoxime was injected to mice that underwent fasting and the resulting metabolite of the N-reductive reaction, benzamidine, was determined. Albeit altered in vitro activity, no changes in the metabolite concentration in vivo were detectable and we can dispel concerns that fasting alters prodrug activation in animal models. With respect to high fat diet, changes in the mARC proteins occur that result in increased N-reductive activity. With this study we provide further evidence that the endogenous function of the mARC protein is linked with lipid metabolism.

  10. Rapidly evolving zona pellucida domain proteins are a major component of the vitelline envelope of abalone eggs.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Jan E; Yi, Xianhua; MacCoss, Michael J; Swanson, Willie J

    2006-11-14

    Proteins harboring a zona pellucida (ZP) domain are prominent components of vertebrate egg coats. Although less well characterized, the egg coat of the non-vertebrate marine gastropod abalone (Haliotis spp.) is also known to contain a ZP domain protein, raising the possibility of a common molecular basis of metazoan egg coat structures. Egg coat proteins from vertebrate as well as non-vertebrate taxa have been shown to evolve under positive selection. Studied most extensively in the abalone system, coevolution between adaptively diverging egg coat and sperm proteins may contribute to the rapid development of reproductive isolation. Thus, identifying the pattern of evolution among egg coat proteins is important in understanding the role these genes may play in the speciation process. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the constituent proteins of the egg coat [vitelline envelope (VE)] of abalone eggs and to provide preliminary evidence regarding how selection has acted on VE proteins during abalone evolution. A proteomic approach is used to match tandem mass spectra of peptides from purified VE proteins with abalone ovary EST sequences, identifying 9 of 10 ZP domain proteins as components of the VE. Maximum likelihood models of codon evolution suggest positive selection has acted among a subset of amino acids for 6 of these genes. This work provides further evidence of the prominence of ZP proteins as constituents of the egg coat, as well as the prominent role of positive selection in diversification of these reproductive proteins.

  11. A Taxonomy for Composing Effective Naval Teams. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driskell, James E.; And Others

    Since teams perform a majority of mission-critical Navy tasks, a significant applied research problem is how to compose maximally effective task teams. Two problems have traditionally hindered the attainment of this goal: how to compose teams on bases other than ability or technical skill and how to classify team tasks, so that predictions can be…

  12. Effect of homogenizer performance on accuracy and repeatability of mid-infrared predicted values for major milk components.

    PubMed

    Di Marzo, Larissa; Barbano, David M

    2016-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of mid-infrared (MIR) homogenizer efficiency on accuracy and repeatability of Fourier transform MIR predicted fat, true protein, and anhydrous lactose determination given by traditional filter and partial least squares (PLS) prediction models. Five homogenizers with different homogenization performance based on laser light-scattering particle size analysis were used. Repeatability and accuracy were determined by conducting 17 sequential readings on milk homogenized externally to the instrument (i.e., control) and unhomogenized milk. Milk component predictions on externally homogenized milks were affected by variation in homogenizer performance, but the magnitude of effect were small (i.e., <0.025%) when milks were pumped through both efficient and inefficient homogenizers within a MIR milk analyzer. Variation in the in-line MIR homogenizer performance on unhomogenized milks had a much larger effect on accuracy of component testing than on repeatability. The increase of particle size distribution [d(0.9)] from 1.35 to 3.03μm (i.e., fat globule diameter above which 10% of the volume of fat is contained) due to poor homogenization affected fat tests the most; traditional filter based fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch; -0.165%), traditional filter-based fat A (carbonyl stretch; -0.074%), and fat PLS (-0.078%) at a d(0.9) of 3.03μm. Variation in homogenization efficiency also affected traditional filter-based true protein test (+0.012%), true protein PLS prediction (-0.107%), and traditional filter-based anhydrous lactose test (+0.027%) at a d(0.9) of 3.03μm. Effects of variation in homogenization on anhydrous lactose PLS predictions were small. The accuracy of both traditional filter models and PLS models were influenced by poor homogenization. The value of 1.7µm for a d(0.9) used by the USDA Federal Milk Market laboratories as a criterion to make the decision to replace the homogenizer in a MIR milk analyzer appears to be a

  13. The amino-acid sequence of alpha A- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component of American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber).

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Braunitzer, G

    1984-04-01

    The complete amino-acid sequence of alpha A- and beta-chains from the major hemoglobin component (HbA) of American Flamingo ( Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) is presented. The minor component (HbD) with alpha D-chains was detected in similar amounts (25%) as in chicken and pheasant hemoglobins. The comparison of American Flamingo and Greylag Goose (Anser anser) hemoglobins shows that alpha A-chains differ by 22 exchanges and beta-chains by only 4 exchanges. Two substitutions modify alpha 1 beta 1-contacts. Amino-acid replacements between American Flamingo and other bird hemoglobins are discussed.

  14. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zi-Heng; Hou, Bei-Wei; Shi, Bao-Jun; Shu, Cheng-Jie; Chen, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds. PMID:28326124

  15. Major involvement of bacterial components in rheumatoid arthritis and its accompanying oxidative stress, systemic inflammation and hypercoagulability

    PubMed Central

    Akeredolu, Oore-Ofe; Soma, Prashilla; Kell, Douglas B

    2016-01-01

    We review the evidence that infectious agents, including those that become dormant within the host, have a major role to play in much of the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and the inflammation that is its hallmark. This occurs in particular because they can produce cross-reactive (auto-)antigens, as well as potent inflammagens such as lipopolysaccharide that can themselves catalyze further inflammagenesis, including via β-amyloid formation. A series of observables coexist in many chronic, inflammatory diseases as well as rheumatoid arthritis. They include iron dysregulation, hypercoagulability, anomalous morphologies of host erythrocytes, and microparticle formation. Iron dysregulation may be responsible for the periodic regrowth and resuscitation of the dormant bacteria, with concomitant inflammagen production. The present systems biology analysis benefits from the philosophical idea of “coherence,” that reflects the principle that if a series of ostensibly unrelated findings are brought together into a self-consistent narrative, that narrative is thereby strengthened. As such, we provide a coherent and testable narrative for the major involvement of (often dormant) bacteria in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27889698

  16. The sensitivity of fast muscle contractile function to the major components of the sarcomere Ca(2+)-cycling system.

    PubMed

    Golding, C; Kelly, K; Kinsey, S T; Locke, B R

    2016-04-01

    A reaction-diffusion model of a muscle sarcomere was developed to evaluate the sensitivity of force characteristics to diffusion and Ca(2+)-cycling components. The model compared well to experimental force measurements. Diffusion led to Ca(2+) gradients that enhanced maximal force and accelerated relaxation compared to when diffusion was infinitely fast. However, a modest increase in sarcomere length or radius led to a decrease in maximal force. Lowering the Ca(2+) release rate caused a lower maximal force, but increasing the rate led to only modest gains in maximal force while incurring much greater ATP costs associated with reuptake. Greater parvalbumin binding rates decreased maximal force but enhanced relaxation, and this effect was magnified when Ca(2+) uptake rates were lowered as may occur during fatigue. These results show a physiological set of parameters that lead to a functional sarcomere of known dimensions and contractile function, and the effects of parameter variation on muscle function.

  17. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Major Active Ingredients and Toxic Components in GinkgoBiloba Leaves Extract (EGb 761) by a Validated UPLC-MS-MS Method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Qi; Yao, Xin; Cheng, Zongqi

    2017-01-08

    An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method. The results indicated that the quantification analysis could be readily utilized as a quality control method for EGb 761 and its other related products using flavonoids, terpene lactones and ginkgolic acids as markers.

  18. Antihypertensive effect of passion fruit peel extract and its major bioactive components following acute supplementation in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Brandon J; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Craig, Teresa A; Mehring-Franklin, Cynthia E; Defreitas, Zoraida; Hinojosa-Laborde, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans.

  19. Effect of essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum and their major components on biofilm production in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from milk of cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Budri, P E; Silva, N C C; Bonsaglia, E C R; Fernandes Júnior, A; Araújo Júnior, J P; Doyama, J T; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Rall, V L M

    2015-09-01

    Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary glands of cows and causes significant economic losses in dairy cattle. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the microorganisms most commonly isolated. Novel agents are required in agricultural industries to prevent the development of mastitis. The production of biofilm by Staph. aureus facilitates the adhesion of bacteria to solid surfaces and contributes to the transmission and maintenance of these bacteria. The effect of the essential oils of Syzygium aromaticum (clove; EOSA) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon; EOCZ) and their major components, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde, on Staph. aureus biofilm formation on different surfaces was investigated. The results showed a significant inhibition of biofilm production by EOSA on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces (69.4 and 63.6%, respectively). However, its major component, eugenol, was less effective on polystyrene and stainless steel (52.8 and 19.6%, respectively). Both EOCZ and its major component, cinnamaldehyde, significantly reduced biofilm formation on polystyrene (74.7 and 69.6%, respectively) and on stainless steel surfaces (45.3 and 44.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that EOSA, EOCZ, and cinnamaldehyde may be considered for applications such as sanitization in the food industry.

  20. CD34+ mesenchymal cells are a major component of the intestinal stem cells niche at homeostasis and after injury

    PubMed Central

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Nigro, Giulia; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Dulauroy, Sophie; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34+ Gp38+ αSMA– mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5+ IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34+ Gp38+ cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5+ IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1. CD34+ Gp38+ cells develop after birth in the intestinal submucosa and expand around the crypts during the third week of life in mice, independently of the microbiota. We further show that pericryptal CD34+gp38+ cells are rapidly activated by intestinal injury, up-regulating niche factors Gremlin1 and R-spondin1 as well as chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, and growth factors with key roles in gut immunity and tissue repair, including IL-7, Ccl2, Ptgs2, and Amphiregulin. Our results indicate that CD34+ Gp38+ mesenchymal cells are programmed to develop in the intestine after birth to constitute a specialized microenvironment that maintains IESCs at homeostasis and contribute to intestinal inflammation and repair after injury. PMID:28074039

  1. The Transcript Profile of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Atractylodes lancea, Revealing Its Sesquiterpenoid Biosynthesis of the Major Active Components

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Zhan, Chuansong; Yang, Yanyan; Wang, Xuekui; Yang, Tewu; Zhao, Zeying; Zhang, Qiyun; Li, Xiaohua; Hu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., named “Cangzhu” in China, which belongs to the Asteraceae family. In some countries of Southeast Asia (China, Thailand, Korea, Japan etc.) its rhizome, commonly called rhizoma atractylodis, is used to treat many diseases as it contains a variety of sesquiterpenoids and other components of medicinal importance. Despite its medicinal value, the information of the sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome analysis of different tissues of non-model plant A. lancea by using short read sequencing technology (Illumina). We found 62,352 high quality unigenes with an average sequence length of 913 bp in the transcripts of A. Lancea. Among these, 43,049 (69.04%), 30,264 (48.53%), 26,233 (42.07%), 17,881 (28.67%) and 29,057(46.60%) unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value<1e-5) to known proteins in Nr, KEGG, SWISS-PROT, GO, and COG databases, respectively. Of the total 62,352 unigenes, 43,049 (Nr Database) open reading frames were predicted. On the basis of different bioinformatics tools we identify all the enzymes that take part in the terpenoid biosynthesis as well as five different known sesquiterpenoids via cytosolic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway and plastidal methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways. In our study, 6, 864 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) were also found as great potential markers in A. lancea. This transcriptomic resource of A. lancea provides a great contribution in advancement of research for this specific medicinal plant and more specifically for the gene mining of different classes of terpenoids and other chemical compounds that have medicinal as well as economic importance. PMID:26990438

  2. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  3. Metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of triptolide, a major active component of the herbal medicine Tripterygium wilfordii.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuying; Liu, Zhaohua; Li, Xinxiu; Xing, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Triptolide (TP) shows promising anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity but with severe toxicity. TP is a natural reactive electrophile containing three epoxide groups, which are usually linked to hepatotoxicity via their ability to covalently bind to cellular macromolecules. In this study, metabolic pathways leading to detoxification of TP were evaluated in glutathione (GSH)-depleted (treated with L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoxinine, BSO) and aminobenzotriazole (ABT; a non-specific inhibitor for P450s)-treated mice. The toxicity of TP in mice was evaluated in terms of mortality and levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT). In incubates with NADPH- and GSH-supplemented liver microsomes, seven GSH conjugates derived from TP were detected. In mice, these hydrolytically unstable GSH conjugates underwent γ-glutamyltranspeptidase/dipeptidases-mediated hydrolysis leading to two major cysteinylglycine conjugates, which underwent further hydrolysis by dipeptidases to form two cysteine conjugates of TP. In ABT-treated mice, the hydroxylated metabolites of TP were found at a lower level than normal mice, and their subsequent conjugated metabolites were not found. The level of cysteinylglycine and cysteine conjugates derived from NADPH-independent metabolism increased in mice treated with both TP and BSO (or ABT), which could be the stress response to toxicity of TP. Compared with normal mice, mortality and ALT levels were significantly higher in TP-treated mice, indicating the toxicity of TP. Pretreatment of ABT increased the toxicity caused by TP, whereas the mortality decreased in GSH-depleted mice. Metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes to less reactive metabolites implied a high potential for detoxification of TP. The GSH conjugation pathway also contributed to TP's detoxification in mice.

  4. Acaricidal activity of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae) essential oil and its major component, carvacrol against adults Rhipicephalus turanicus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2013-03-31

    The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus.

  5. The single and synergistic effects of the major tea components caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and L-theanine on rat sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-03-01

    Caffeine, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and L-theanine are the major components of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and the main representatives of the classes of methylxanthines, catechins and free amino acids present in this beverage. There are many studies reporting tea's health benefits, however it is not clear if those effects are mediated by a single component or a synergistic action. This study aimed to evaluate the individual and synergistic effects of tea's major components on rat epididymal spermatozoa survival and oxidative profile during 3-day storage at room temperature (RT). For that, spermatozoa were incubated with caffeine (71 μg mL(-1)), EGCG (82 μg mL(-1)), or L-theanine (19 μg mL(-1)), alone or in combination. Spermatozoa viability was assessed by the eosin-nigrosin staining technique. The oxidative profile was established by evaluating the levels of carbonyl groups, protein nitration and lipid peroxidation. Supplementation of sperm storage medium with the three compounds together improved sperm viability, after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation, relative to the control and the groups incubated with each component individually. However, at the end of the 72 h of incubation, there was an increase in protein oxidation in the group exposed to the three compounds, illustrating that the combined treatment triggers different alterations in sperm proteins during their maturational process in the epididymis. This study highlights the importance of the synergism between tea components for the beneficial effects usually attributed to this beverage, particularly in sperm storage at RT.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of the Major Lipopeptide Components of Polymyxin B and Colistin: Last-line Antibiotics against Multidrug-Resistant Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kade D.; Azad, Mohammad A. K.; Wang, Jiping; Horne, Andrew S; Thompson, Philip E.; Nation, Roger L.; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Polymyxin B and colistin are currently used as a ‘last-line’ treatment for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However very little is known about the pharmacological differences between polymyxin B1, polymyxin B2, colistin A, colistin B, the major cyclic lipopeptides components present in polymyxin B and colistin products. Here, we report on the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity and toxicity of these major lipopeptide components. All four lipopeptides had comparable MICs (<0.125–4 mg/L) against a panel of clinical Gram-negative isolates. They also had comparable in vivo antimicrobial activity (Δlog10 CFU/mL >-3) and nephrotoxicity (mild to moderate histological damage) in mouse models. However, polymyxin B1 and colistin A showed significantly higher (> 3-fold) in vitro apoptotic effect on human kidney proximal tubular HK-2 cells than polymyxin B2 and colistin B, respectively. Compared to the commercial polymyxin and colistin products, the individual lipopeptide components had slightly more in vivo antimicrobial activity. Our results highlight the need to re-assess pharmacopoeial standards for polymyxins B and colistin and to standardize the composition of the different commercial products of polymyxin antibiotics. PMID:27525307

  7. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils.

  8. Rapid simultaneous determination of twelve major components in Pien Tze Huang by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Zhao, Haiyu; Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2013-12-01

    An efficient method using ultra-performance LC coupled with triple quadrupole MS was developed for the rapid determination of 12 major active components in Pien Tze Huang (PZH), a well-known traditional Chinese formula. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge BEH RP18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm id, 1.7 μm) with a gradient mobile phase (A: 0.1% aqueous formic acid and B: acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The chromatographic peaks of 12 components were identified by comparing their retention time and MS data with the related reference compounds. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis. Ten batches of PZH were analyzed with a good linear regression relationship (r, 0.9987–0.9995), intraday precisions (RSD, 2.05–4.80%), interday precisions (RSD, 1.99–4.98%), repeatability (RSD, 2.21–4.20%), stability (RSD, 3.52–4.81%), and recovery (95.63–104.80%). By using this established method, the present study offered highly sensitive, specific, and speedy determination of 12 major components, which promoted the quality control investigation of PZH greatly.

  9. Organists and organ music composers.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    Clinical case reports of patients with exceptional musical talent and education provide clues as to how the brain processes musical ability and aptitude. In this chapter, selected examples from famous and unknown organ players/composers are presented to demonstrate the complexity of modified musical performances as well as the capacities of the brain to preserve artistic abilities: both authors are active organists and academic neurologists with strong clinical experience, practice, and knowledge about the challenges to play such an outstanding instrument and share their interest to explore potentially instrument-related phenomena of brain modulation in specific transient or permanent impairments. We concentrate on the sites of lesions, suggested pathophysiology, separate positive (e.g., seizures, visual or auditory hallucinations, or synesthesia [an involuntary perception produced by stimulation of another sense]) and negative phenomena (e.g., amusia, aphasia, neglect, or sensory-motor deficits) and particularly address aspects of recent concepts of temporary and permanent network disorders.

  10. Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyoko; Inoue, Naohiko; Ito, Yuriko; Kubota, Kikue; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effects of the odor of jasmine tea on autonomic nerve activity and mood states in a total of 24 healthy volunteers. We used the odor of jasmine tea at the lowest concentration that could be detected by each subject but that did not elicit any psychological effects. R-R intervals and the POMS test were measured before and after inhalation of the odors for 5 min. Both jasmine tea and lavender odors at perceived similar intensity caused significant decreases in heart rate and significant increases in spectral integrated values at high-frequency component in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). In the POMS tests, these odors produced calm and vigorous mood states. We also examined the effects of (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, at the same concentration as in the tea, and (S)-(+)-linalool. Only (R)-(-)-linalool elicited a significant decrease in heart rate (P < 0.05) and an increase in high-frequency component in comparison with the controls, and produced calm and vigorous mood states. Thus, the low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.

  11. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Sedassari, Bruno Tavares; Dos Santos, Harim Tavares; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; da Silva Lascane, Nelise Alexandre; Altemani, Albina; Sousa, Suzana

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, 3 cases of very rare intraoral carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenomas showing a striking differentiation of the malignant component towards epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma were described. The tumors occurred in 2 men and 1 woman with median age of 56 years. Involved sites included palate and buccal mucosa. Two patients experienced local recurrences, of which one died of disease complications. In all cases, residual pleomorphic adenoma was present. The malignant component in all cases shared morphological aspects with epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma. Those areas were characterized by eosinophilic duct-forming cells surrounded by layers of clear cells. The studied immunohistochemical markers highlighted a biphasic cell population. Duct-forming cells expressed pan-cytokeratin, cytokeratin 7, and focally cytokeratin 14, whereas the clear cell component strongly stained to cytokeratin 14, vimentin, and p63 but weakly stained to pan-cytokeratin and focally to α-smooth muscle actin, an immunophenotype compatible with both epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The Ki-67 proliferation index was up to 40% in malignant areas. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas of minor salivary glands with major epithelial-myoepithelial component are rare, locally aggressive, and potentially lethal tumors. The peculiar morphological and immunohistochemical aspects described may raise problems in diagnosis and classification of such cases, particularly in incisional biopsies.

  12. Glomerular Activity Patterns Evoked by Natural Odor Objects in the Rat Olfactory Bulb Are Related to Patterns Evoked by Major Odorant Components

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To determine how responses evoked by natural odorant mixtures compare to responses evoked by individual odorant chemicals, we mapped 2-deoxyglucose uptake during exposures to vapors arising from a variety of odor objects that may be important to rodents in the wild. We studied 21 distinct natural odor stimuli ranging from possible food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and meats to environmental odor objects such as grass, herbs, and tree leaves. The natural odor objects evoked robust and surprisingly focal patterns of 2-deoxyglucose uptake involving clusters of neighboring glomeruli, thereby resembling patterns evoked by pure chemicals. Overall, the patterns were significantly related to patterns evoked by monomolecular odorant components that had been studied previously. Object patterns also were significantly related to the molecular features present in the mixture components. Despite these overall relationships, there were individual examples of object patterns that were simpler than might have been predicted given the multiplicity of components present in the vapors. In these cases, the object patterns lacked certain responses evoked by their major odorant mixture components. These data suggest the possibility of mixture response interactions and provide a foundation for understanding the neural coding of natural odor stimuli. PMID:20187145

  13. Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 is a major component in the antigenicity of brucellin INRA for delayed-type hypersensitivity in brucella-sensitized guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, G; Banai, M; Bardenstein, S; Hoida, G; Genizi, A; Bercovier, H

    1994-01-01

    A delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in the course of brucellosis in humans and animals can be revealed by the brucellin INRA (Brucellergen) skin test. Brucellergen is composed of more than 20 proteins of different molecular weights. A 12-kDa protein eliciting DTH in Brucella melitensis Rev1-sensitized guinea pigs was found to be a significant component for the allergenic properties of Brucellergen. Sequencing of the gene encoding this protein identified it as the L7/L12 ribosomal protein. The L7/L12 gene of B. melitensis was amplified by PCR and subcloned in the Escherichia coli pQE30 plasmid. The resulting recombinant protein did not produce a DTH reaction in sensitized animals. It was used to raise specific antibodies in a rabbit. Affinity chromatography with these antibodies was used to isolate a single protein from Brucellergen and from B. melitensis cytosol preparations which produced a DTH reaction in guinea pigs sensitized with B. melitensis Rev1. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the protein confirmed that it was the L7/L12 ribosomal protein. This is the first complete report on the involvement of a defined bacterial ribosomal protein in the DTH response of animals infected with intracellularly multiplying bacteria. Images PMID:7960115

  14. Folk medicine Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, P S; Li, J H; Liu, T Y; Lin, T C

    2000-05-01

    Terminalia catappa L. is a popular folk medicine for preventing hepatoma and treating hepatitis in Taiwan. In this paper, we examined the protective effects of T. catappa leaf water extract (TCE) and its major tannin component, punicalagin, on bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. Pre-treatment with TCE or punicalagin prevented bleomycin-induced hgprt gene mutations and DNA strand breaks. TCE and punicalagin suppressed the generation of bleomycin-induced intracellular free radicals, identified as superoxides and hydrogen peroxides. The effectiveness of TCE and punicalagin against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity could be, at least in part, due to their antioxidative potentials.

  15. Characterisation of major component leaching and buffering capacity of RDF incineration and gasification bottom ash in relation to reuse or disposal scenarios.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Stefania; van Zomeren, André; Costa, Giulia; Dijkstra, Joris J; Comans, Rob N J; Lombardi, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    Thermal treatment of refuse derived fuel (RDF) in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is considered a promising solution to reduce waste volumes for disposal, while improving material and energy recovery from waste. Incineration is commonly applied for the energetic valorisation of RDF, although RDF gasification has also gained acceptance in recent years. In this study we focused on the environmental properties of bottom ash (BA) from an RDF incineration (RDF-I, operating temperature 850-1000°C) and a RDF gasification plant (RDF-G, operating temperature 1200-1400°C), by evaluating the total composition, mineralogy, buffering capacity, leaching behaviour (both at the material's own pH and as a function of pH) of both types of slag. In addition, buffering capacity results and pH-dependence leaching concentrations of major components obtained for both types of BA were analysed by geochemical modelling. Experimental results showed that the total content of major components for the two types of BA was fairly similar and possibly related to the characteristics of the RDF feedstock. However, significant differences in the contents of trace metals and salts were observed for the two BA samples as a result of the different operating conditions (i.e. temperature) adopted by the two RDF thermal treatment plants. Mineralogy analysis showed in fact that the RDF-I slag consisted of an assemblage of several crystalline phases while the RDF-G slag was mainly made up by amorphous glassy phases. The leached concentrations of major components (e.g. Ca, Si) at the natural pH of each type of slag did not reflect their total contents as a result of the partial solubility of the minerals in which these components were chemically bound. In addition, comparison of total contents with leached concentrations of minor elements (e.g. Pb, Cu) showed no obvious relationship for the two types of BA. According to the compliance leaching test results, the RDF-G BA would meet the limits of the Italian

  16. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice.

  17. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Nathalia N. R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Blank, Arie F.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Fonseca, Beatriz B.; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents. PMID:27274752

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of major bioactive components in rats after oral administration of extract of Ilex hainanensis by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lv, Fang; Chen, Xiao-qing; Cui, Wei-xi; Chen, Li-hong; Wen, Xiao-dong; Wang, Qiang

    2013-04-15

    Ilex hainanensis Merr. is commonly used as a folk remedy for treating hypertension, dyslipidemia and inflammation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCMs) and it also has great potential to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Chlorogenic acid, kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucoside, and ilexgenin A are three major bioactive components in I. hainanensis extract. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and convenient LC-MS method was developed for their simultaneous determination in the plasma of normal and NAFLD rats. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity and sensitivity, and shows advantages in monitoring the pharmacokinetic behaviors of these three compounds. Results revealed the pharmacokinetic behaviors of chlorogenic acid, kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucoside, and ilexgenin A could be significantly changed in NAFLD rats after oral administration of I. hainanensis extract compared with normal rats. The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of the three analytes were greatly decreased and the plasma clearance (CL) for kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucoside, Ilexgenin A were greatly increased in NAFLD rats. Meanwhile, the mean residence time (MRT) of kaempferol-7-O-β-d-glucoside and Ilexgenin A were increased in the NAFLD rats. This is the first report on the determination of the major bioactive components in rat plasma after oral administration of I. hainanensis extract. These results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the clinical application of this medicine.

  19. Synergism Effect of the Essential Oil from Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita and Its Major Components with Fluconazole and Its Influence on Ergosterol Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Nathalia N R; Alviano, Celuta S; Blank, Arie F; Romanos, Maria Teresa V; Fonseca, Beatriz B; Rozental, Sonia; Rodrigues, Igor A; Alviano, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of the EO and its major components of Ocimum basilicum var. Maria Bonita, a genetically improved cultivar, against the fluconazole sensitive and resistant strains of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Geraniol presented better results than the EO, with a low MIC (76 μg/mL against C. neoformans and 152 μg/mL against both Candida strains). The combination of EO, linalool, or geraniol with fluconazole enhanced their antifungal activity, especially against the resistant strain (MIC reduced to 156, 197, and 38 μg/mL, resp.). The ergosterol assay showed that subinhibitory concentrations of the substances were able to reduce the amount of sterol extracted. The substances tested were able to reduce the capsule size which suggests they have an important mechanism of action. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated cell wall destruction of C. neoformans after treatment with subinhibitory concentrations. In C. albicans ultrastructure alterations such as irregularities in the membrane, presence of vesicles, and cell wall thickening were observed. The biofilm formation was inhibited in both C. albicans strains at MIC and twice MIC. These results provide further support for the use of O. basilicum EO and its major components as a potential source of antifungal agents.

  20. [The hemoglobin of adult Andean condors (Vultur gryphus, Cathartiformes). The amino acid sequence of the major (HbA) and minor component (HbD)].

    PubMed

    Bauer, H; Braunitzer, G; Oberthür, W; Kösters, J; Grimm, F

    1985-12-01

    The complete amino-acid sequence of the alpha A- and the beta-chains of the major component (HbA) and the alpha D- and the beta-chains of the minor component (HbD) of Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) is presented. The minor component with the alpha D-chains is present in smaller amounts (17%) than in other birds (25%). The comparison with the corresponding chains of Greylag Goose (Anser anser) shows 17 different amino acids (17 nucleotides, only one-point mutations) in the alpha A-chains and 8 (8 nucleotides) in the beta-chains. The alpha D-chains differ from those of the pheasant (Phasanius cholchicus cholchicus) in 24 amino acids (27 nucl., 3 two-point mutations). Seven alpha 1 beta 1-, one alpha 1 beta 2-, three alpha 1 alpha 1-contacts and one beta 1 beta 1-contact are exchanged. The systematy of Cathartiformes, Ciconiiformes and Phoenicopteriformes is discussed, based on the amino-acid exchanges of all known adult hemoglobins of birds.

  1. Insecticidal activity of the leaf essential oil of Peperomia borbonensis Miq. (Piperaceae) and its major components against the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Dorla, Emmanuelle; Bialecki, Anne; Deuscher, Zoé; Allibert, Agathe; Grondin, Isabelle; Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Laurent, Philippe

    2017-03-08

    The essential oil from leaves of Peperomia borbonensis from Réunion Island was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized using GC-FID, GC-MS and NMR. The main components were myristicin (39.5%) and elemicin (26.6%). The essential oil (EO) of Peperomia borbonensis and its major compounds (myristicin and elemicin), pure or in a mixture, were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a filter paper impregnated bioassay. The concentrations necessary to kill 50% (LC50 ) and 90% (LC90 ) of the flies in three hours were determined. The LC50 was 0.23 ± 0.009 mg/cm² and the LC90 was 0.34 ± 0.015 mg/cm² for the EO. The median lethal time (LT50 ) was determined to compare the toxicity of EO and the major constituents. The EO was the most potent insecticide (LT50 = 98 ± 2 min), followed by the mixture of myristicin and elemicin (1.4:1) (LT50 = 127± 2 min) indicating that the efficiency of the EO is potentiated by minor compounds and emphasizing one of the major assets of EOs against pure molecules. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk of metabolic syndrome and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Mitchell, Alex J; De Hert, Marc; Wampers, Martien; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in people with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, comparing subjects with different disorders and taking into account demographic variables and psychotropic medication use. The secondary aim was to compare the MetS prevalence in persons with any of the selected disorders versus matched general population controls. The pooled MetS prevalence in people with severe mental illness was 32.6% (95% CI: 30.8%-34.4%; N = 198; n = 52,678). Relative risk meta-analyses established that there was no significant difference in MetS prevalence in studies directly comparing schizophrenia versus bipolar disorder, and in those directly comparing bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder. Only two studies directly compared people with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, precluding meta-analytic calculations. Older age and a higher body mass index were significant moderators in the final demographic regression model (z = -3.6, p = 0.0003, r(2)  = 0.19). People treated with all individual antipsychotic medications had a significantly (p<0.001) higher MetS risk compared to antipsychotic-naïve participants. MetS risk was significantly higher with clozapine and olanzapine (except vs. clozapine) than other antipsychotics, and significantly lower with aripiprazole than other antipsychotics (except vs. amisulpride). Compared with matched general population controls, people with severe mental illness had a significantly increased risk for MetS (RR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.35-1.86; p<0.001) and all its components, except for hypertension (p = 0.07). These data suggest that the risk for MetS is similarly elevated in the diagnostic subgroups of severe mental illness. Routine screening and

  3. Chemosensory Responses to the Repellent Nepeta Essential Oil and Its Major Component Nepetalactone by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), a Vector of Zika Virus.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jackson T; Bohbot, Jonathan D; Ristic, Mihailo; Mišic, Danijela; Skoric, Marijana; Mattoo, Autar; Dickens, Joseph C

    2017-04-12

    Nepeta essential oil (Neo; catnip) and its major component, nepetalactone, have long been known to repel insects including mosquitoes. However, the neural mechanisms through which these repellents are detected by mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), an important vector of Zika virus, were poorly understood. Here we show that Neo volatiles activate olfactory receptor neurons within the basiconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of female Ae. aegypti. A gustatory receptor neuron sensitive to the feeding deterrent quinine and housed within sensilla on the labella of females was activated by both Neo and nepetalactone. Activity of a second gustatory receptor neuron sensitive to the feeding stimulant sucrose was suppressed by both repellents. Our results provide neural pathways for the reported spatial repellency and feeding deterrence of these repellents. A better understanding of the neural input through which female mosquitoes make decisions to feed will facilitate design of new repellents and management strategies involving their use.

  4. Nurturing the Careers of Australia's Future Composers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amanda; Forrest, David

    2008-01-01

    In 1994, the Australian Society for Music Education (ASME) initiated two related projects supporting and acknowledging composition in schools and offering the opportunity for secondary school-aged students to work with prominent Australian composers. These were the Young Composers' Project and the Composer-in-Residence Project. Both projects were…

  5. Sing the Songs of Women Composers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Sue Fay; Keenan-Takagi, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated listing of choral works by women composers. Suggests sources of information about women composers and their music. Discusses some contemporary women whose compositions are particularly appropriate for student voices. Concludes that the listed works will help place women composers in perspective for student choral groups. (SG)

  6. Identifying Differences in the P600 Component of ERP-Signals between OCD Patients and Controls Employing a PNN-based Majority Vote Classification Scheme.

    PubMed

    Kalatzis, I; Piliouras, N; Glotsos, D; Ventouras, E; Papageorgiou, C; Rabavilas, A; Soldatos, C; Cavouras, D

    2005-01-01

    In the present study an attempt was made to focus in the differences between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients and healthy controls, as reflected by the P600 component of event-related potential (ERP) signals, to locate brain areas that may be related to Working Memory (WM) deficits. Neuropsychological research has yielded contradicting results regarding WM in OCD. Eighteen patients with OCD symptomatology and 20 normal controls (age and sex matched) were subjected to a computerized version of the digit span Wechsler test. EEG activity was recorded from 15 scalp electrodes (leads). A dedicated computer software was developed to read the ERP signals and to calculate features related to the ERP P600 component (500-800 ms). Nineteen features were generated, from each ERP-signal and each lead, and were employed in the design of the Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier. Highest single-lead precision (86.8%) was found at the Fp2 and C6 leads. When the output from all single-lead PNN classifiers fed a Majority Vote Engine (MVE), the system classified correctly all subjects, providing a powerful classification scheme. Findings indicated that OCD patients differed from normal controls at the prefrontal and temporo-central brain regions.

  7. Synergistic Effect of Ferulic Acid and Z-Ligustilide, Major Components of A. sinensis, on Regulating Cold-Sensing Protein TRPM8 and TPRA1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuwei; Zhao, Guoping; Cai, Zejian; Chen, Fengguo; Xu, Dandan; Huang, Si; Lan, Hai; Tong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Angelica sinensis has been used to attenuate cold-induced cutaneous vasospasm syndrome, such as Raynaud's disease and frostbite, in China for many years. Ferulic acid (PubChem CID: 445858) and Z-ligustilide (PubChem CID: 529865), two major components extracted from Angelica sinensis, had been reported to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by vasoconstrictors. In this study, the pharmacological interaction in regulating cold-induced vascular smooth muscle cell contraction via cold-sensing protein TRPM8 and TRPA1 was analyzed between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. Pharmacological interaction on inhibiting [Ca2+]i influx evoked by TRPM8 agonist WS-12 or TRPA1 agonist ASP 7663 as well as cold-induced upregulation of TRPM8 was determined using isobolographic analysis. The isobolograms demonstrated that the combinations investigated in this study produced a synergistic interaction. Combination effect of two components in inhibiting RhoA activation and phosphorylation of MLC20 induced by WS-12 or ASP 7663 was also being quantified. These findings suggest that the therapeutic effect of Angelica sinensis on cold-induced vasospasm may be partially attributed to combinational effect, via TRPM8 and TPRA1 way, between ferulic acid and Z-ligustilide. PMID:27413384

  8. Band 3 and ankyrin homologues are present in eye lens: evidence for all major erythrocyte membrane components in same non-erythroid cell.

    PubMed

    Allen, D P; Low, P S; Dola, A; Maisel, H

    1987-11-30

    Although immunological homologues of erythrocyte membrane proteins have been individually discovered in a wide variety of tissues and cultured cells, the major structural components of the membrane have not yet been demonstrated simultaneously in the same cell type. Thus, considerable uncertainty continues to exist concerning whether the red cell homologues form elements of a structure which is similar to or unique from the framework which supports the erythrocyte membrane. Because the red cell cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin, actin and band 4.1, have been previously found in the superficial cortex of the lens, we decided to determine whether the corresponding membrane anchoring components of band 3 and ankyrin also occur in this cell type. Using antiserum specific for band 3 and ankyrin, we report the existence of immunologically cross-reactive proteins of similar molecular weight. Because these anchoring proteins appear and disappear coordinately with the aforementioned cytoskeletal proteins during the intermediate stages of lens cell maturation, it is conceivable that an erythrocyte-like membrane structural organization may occur transiently in the eye lens.

  9. [Effect of β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex on transport of major components of Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil in Caco-2 cell monolayer model].

    PubMed

    Xi, Jun-zuan; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Zhu, Yue; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Zhang, Li

    2015-08-01

    Although the essential oil of Xiangfu Siwu decoction (XFSWD) has strong pharmacological activity, its special physical and chemical properties restrict the clinical application and curative effect. In this paper, Xiangfu Siwu decoction essential oil (XFS-WO) was prepared by forming inclusion complex with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The present study is to investigate the effect of β-CD inclusion complex on the transport of major components of XFSWO using Caco-2 cell monolayer model, thus to research the effect of this formation on the absorption of drugs with low solubility and high permeability, which belong to class 2 in biopharmaceutics classification system. A sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of senkyunolide A, 3-n-butylphthalide, Z-ligustilide, dehydrocostus lactone and α-cyperone, which are active compounds in XFSWO. The transport parameters were analyzed and compared in free oil and its β-CD inclusion complex. The result revealed that the formation of XFSWO/β-CD inclusion complex has significantly increased the transportation and absorption of major active ingredients than free oil. Accordingly, it can be speculated that cyclodextrin inclusion complex can improve bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Above all these mentioned researches, it provided foundation and basis for physiological disposition and pharmaceutical study of XFSWD.

  10. Collision Tumor Composed of Meningioma and Cavernoma

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Jens; Neher, Markus; Schrey, Michael; Wünsch, Peter H.; Steiner, Hans-Herbert

    2017-01-01

    A true collision tumor is a rare entity composed of two histologically distinct neoplasms coinciding in the same organ. This paper reports a unique case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. On the first hand, meningioma which is usually a benign lesion arising from the meningothelial cell in the arachnoidal membrane. On the other, cerebral cavernoma which is a well-circumscribed, benign vascular hamartoma within the brain. To our knowledge, there is no previously documented case of cerebral collision tumor consisting of two benign components. A 56-year-old Caucasian male suffered in 2002 from an atypical meningioma WHO II° located in the left lateral ventricle. Three years after the tumor extirpation, the patient suffered from a hematoma in the fourth ventricle due to a recurrently haemorrhaged cavernoma. In 2008, a recurrence of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle was discovered. Additionally, another tumor located in the quadrigeminal lamina was detected. After surgical resection of the tumor in the left lateral ventricle, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a collision tumor consisting of components of a meningioma WHO II° and a cavernoma. Postoperatively, no adjuvant treatment was needed and no tumor recurrence is discovered up to the present. A possible explanation for the collision of those two different tumors may be migration of tumor cells mediated by the cerebrospinal fluid. After 5-years of follow-up, there is no sign of any tumor recurrence; therefore, surgical tumor removal without adjuvant therapy seems to be the treatment of choice. PMID:28061500

  11. Real-time rendering method and performance evaluation of composable 3D lenses for interactive VR.

    PubMed

    Borst, Christoph W; Tiesel, Jan-Phillip; Best, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    We present and evaluate a new approach for real-time rendering of composable 3D lenses for polygonal scenes. Such lenses, usually called "volumetric lenses," are an extension of 2D Magic Lenses to 3D volumes in which effects are applied to scene elements. Although the composition of 2D lenses is well known, 3D composition was long considered infeasible due to both geometric and semantic complexity. Nonetheless, for a scene with multiple interactive 3D lenses, the problem of intersecting lenses must be considered. Intersecting 3D lenses in meaningful ways supports new interfaces such as hierarchical 3D windows, 3D lenses for managing and composing visualization options, or interactive shader development by direct manipulation of lenses providing component effects. Our 3D volumetric lens approach differs from other approaches and is one of the first to address efficient composition of multiple lenses. It is well-suited to head-tracked VR environments because it requires no view-dependent generation of major data structures, allowing caching and reuse of full or partial results. A Composite Shader Factory module composes shader programs for rendering composite visual styles and geometry of intersection regions. Geometry is handled by Boolean combinations of region tests in fragment shaders, which allows both convex and nonconvex CSG volumes for lens shape. Efficiency is further addressed by a Region Analyzer module and by broad-phase culling. Finally, we consider the handling of order effects for composed 3D lenses.

  12. [Mental disease in two classical music composers].

    PubMed

    Rempelakos, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Ploumpidis, D

    2012-01-01

    A study οn two neglected classical music composers suffering a not syphilitic mental disease, is attempted here, syphilis of the central nervous system being frequent in that time. A brief overview on the psychiatric ailments of many great composers reveals suicide attempts and more or less severe depression following external events. The issue of a possible relationship between mental disease and (musical) creativity can be discussed, as mood swings and a certain tendency to melancholia are frequent features of a talented brain (a fact that can also be detected in their works). The first case presented here is Hans Rott from Austria, the beloved student of Anton Bruckner, who was considered to be at least equal to his famous classmate Gustav Mahler. The great expectations of his teacher and his friends suddenly came to an end, when he suffered a crisis of schizophrenia and was hospitalized in an insane asylum in Lower Austria. The tragic psychiatric adventure of the young musician lasted almost four years. He was diagnosed as a case of "hallucinatory insanity" and "persecution mania" by the medical staff, before dying of tuberculosis, aged only 26, and having completed only one symphony and several smaller works. His name came again on surface only a century after his death, when in 1989 his Symphony in E Major was discovered and premiered with great success, permitting to its creator a posthumous recognition, among Bruckner and Mahler. The second case of mental illness is that of the Armenian Komitas Vardapet. He was an orphan who grew up in theological schools and became a monk and later a priest, though he spent some years in Berlin in order to develop his musical skills. He is considered to be an authority of Armenian ecclesiastic music, introducing polyphony in the Armenian Church's music and collecting numerous traditional songs from all parts of Armenia. In 1915, during the Armenian genocide he was deported, tortured but finally saved, due to interventions

  13. Major repeat components covering one-third of the ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) genome and evidence for allotetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong-Il; Waminal, Nomar E; Park, Hye Mi; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Choi, Beom Soon; Park, Minkyu; Choi, Doil; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kwon, Soo-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok; Kim, Hyun Hee; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-03-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a famous medicinal herb, but the composition and structure of its genome are largely unknown. Here we characterized the major repeat components and inspected their distribution in the ginseng genome. By analyzing three repeat-rich bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) sequences from ginseng, we identified complex insertion patterns of 34 long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) and 11 LTR-RT derivatives accounting for more than 80% of the BAC sequences. The LTR-RTs were classified into three Ty3/gypsy (PgDel, PgTat and PgAthila) and two Ty1/Copia (PgTork and PgOryco) families. Mapping of 30-Gbp Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads to the BAC sequences revealed that these five LTR-RT families occupy at least 34% of the ginseng genome. The Ty3/Gypsy families were predominant, comprising 74 and 33% of the BAC sequences and the genome, respectively. In particular, the PgDel family accounted for 29% of the genome and presumably played major roles in enlargement of the size of the ginseng genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the PgDel1 elements are distributed throughout the chromosomes along dispersed heterochromatic regions except for ribosomal DNA blocks. The intensity of the PgDel2 FISH signals was biased toward 24 out of 48 chromosomes. Unique gene probes showed two pairs of signals with different locations, one pair in subtelomeric regions on PgDel2-rich chromosomes and the other in interstitial regions on PgDel2-poor chromosomes, demonstrating allotetraploidy in ginseng. Our findings promote understanding of the evolution of the ginseng genome and of that of related species in the Araliaceae.

  14. The composing process in technical communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masse, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The theory and application of the composing process in technical communications is addressed. The composing process of engineers, some implications for composing research for the teaching and research of technical communication, and an interpretation of the processes as creative experience are also discussed. Two areas of technical communications summarized concern: the rhetorical features of technical communications, and the theoretical background for a process-based view, a problem-solving approach to technical writing.

  15. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY.

  16. Quantitative relationship between functionally active telomerase and major telomerase components (hTERT and hTR) in acute leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ohyashiki, J H; Hisatomi, H; Nagao, K; Honda, S; Takaku, T; Zhang, Y; Sashida, G; Ohyashiki, K

    2005-05-23

    Functionally active telomerase is affected at various steps including transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels of major telomerase components (hTR and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)). We therefore developed a rapid and sensitive method to quantify hTERT and its splicing variants as well as the hTR by a Taqman real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to determine whether their altered expression may contribute to telomere attrition in vivo or not. Fresh leukaemia cells obtained from 38 consecutive patients were used in this study. The enzymatic level of telomerase activity measured by TRAP assay was generally associated with the copy numbers of full-length hTERT+alpha+beta mRNA (P=0.0024), but did not correlate with hTR expression (P=0.6753). In spite of high copy numbers of full-length hTERT mRNA, telomerase activity was low in some cases correlating with low copy numbers of hTR, raising the possibility that alteration of the hTR : hTERT ratio may affect functionally active telomerase activity in vivo. The spliced nonactive hTERT mRNA tends to be lower in patients with high telomerase activity, suggesting that this epiphenomenon may play some role in telomerase regulation. An understanding of the complexities of telomerase gene regulation in biologically heterogeneous leukaemia cells may offer new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of acute leukaemia.

  17. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Regina de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima; de Almeida Rodrigues, Igor; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Valoni, Erika; Sebastián, Gina V; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-08-10

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.

  18. Antimicrobial action and anti-corrosion effect against sulfate reducing bacteria by lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil and its major component, the citral

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries. PMID:23938023

  19. Three-dimensional components of selfhood in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A resting-state qEEG imaging study.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A

    2017-02-28

    Based on previous studies implicating increased functional connectivity within the self-referential brain network in major depressive disorder (MDD), and considering the functional roles of three distinct modules of such brain net (responsible for three-dimensional components of Selfhood) together with the documented abnormalities of self-related processing in MDD, we tested the hypothesis that patients with depression would exhibit increased connectivity within each module of the self-referential brain network and that the strength of these connections would correlate positively with depression severity. Applying the electroencephalogram (EEG) operational synchrony analysis to extract three modules of the self-referential brain network in 12 medication-free depressive outpatients and 10 control subjects we have found an increase in the strength of EEG synchrony within all three modules in depressive patients (though non-significant for the right module). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis that used 3 factors (values of synchrony strength for all three modules) as input indicated that combined increase in the strength of synchrony in all three modules was positively associated with severity of depression. Taken together the findings of this study suggest that depression is primarily associated with hypersynchrony in all three modules of the brain self-referential network (the anterior module been responsible for "witnessing observation and first-person perspective", the left posterior module been responsible for "reflective agency and narration" and the right posterior module been responsible for "bodily representational-emotional agency"), thus contributing to excessive self-focus, rumination, and body tension.

  20. A conserved genetic module that encodes the major virion components in both the coliphage T4 and the marine cyanophage S-PM2

    PubMed Central

    Hambly, Emma; Tétart, Francoise; Desplats, Carine; Wilson, William H.; Krisch, Henry M.; Mann, Nicholas H.

    2001-01-01

    Sequence analysis of a 10-kb region of the genome of the marine cyanomyovirus S-PM2 reveals a homology to coliphage T4 that extends as a contiguous block from gene (g)18 to g23. The order of the S-PM2 genes in this region is similar to that of T4, but there are insertions and deletions of small ORFs of unknown function. In T4, g18 codes for the tail sheath, g19, the tail tube, g20, the head portal protein, g21, the prohead core protein, g22, a scaffolding protein, and g23, the major capsid protein. Thus, the entire module that determines the structural components of the phage head and contractile tail is conserved between T4 and this cyanophage. The significant differences in the morphology of these phages must reflect the considerable divergence of the amino acid sequence of their homologous virion proteins, which uniformly exceeds 50%. We suggest that their enormous diversity in the sea could be a result of genetic shuffling between disparate phages mediated by such commonly shared modules. These conserved sequences could facilitate genetic exchange by providing partially homologous substrates for recombination between otherwise divergent phage genomes. Such a mechanism would thus expand the pool of phage genes accessible by recombination to all those phages that share common modules. PMID:11553768

  1. Partial Activation and Inhibition of TRPV1 Channels by Evodiamine and Rutaecarpine, Two Major Components of the Fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenglan; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Kogure, Yoko; Zhang, Wensheng; Noguchi, Koichi; Dai, Yi

    2016-05-27

    Evodiamine (1) and rutaecarpine (2) are the two major components of Evodia rutaecarpa, which has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. Using transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-expressing HEK293 cells and patch-clamp recording, the inhibitory actions of 1 and 2 against TRPV1 channels were investigated. The effects of these compounds against capsaicin- or proton-activated TRPV1 activities were evaluated. The results showed that, although 1 and 2 can activate TRPV1, the maximum response was 3.5- or 9-fold lower than that of capsaicin, respectively, suggesting partial agonism. In comparison to capsaicin, coadministration of 1 and capsaicin increased the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of capsaicin-activated TRPV1 currents as shown by a right shift in the dose-response curve, whereas coadministration of 1 with protons failed to inhibit the proton-induced current. Moreover, preadministration of 1, but not 2, inhibited both capsaicin- and proton-induced TRPV1 currents, which might involve channel desensitization. Taken together, 1 and 2 may share the same binding site with capsaicin and act as partial agonists (antagonists) of TRPV1. Evodiamine (1), but not rutaecarpine (2), can desensitize or competitively inhibit the activity of TRPV1.

  2. America's Women Composers: Up from the Footnotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Jeannie G.

    1979-01-01

    This article presents an overview on women composers in the United States from the eighteenth century to the present. It also lists women's musical organizations, selected references on women in music, and available recordings of works by American women composers. (SJL)

  3. Adolescents' Dialogic Composing with Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This 14-month study examined the phone-based composing practice of three adolescents. Given the centrality of mobile phones to youth culture, the researcher sought to create a description of the participants' composing practices with these devices. Focal participants were users of Twitter and Instagram, two social media platforms that are usually…

  4. A Virtual Composer in Every Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.; Carter, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous generations applauded grant-funded programs that brought living composers into the lives of K-12 music students. The current economic climate, however, limits opportunities similar to those enjoyed in the past. We designed a virtual composer-in-residence experience that uses technology to overcome the barriers of funding limitations and…

  5. Children Composing and the Tonal Idiom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies have demonstrated how children compose, experiment and use their imagination within the conventions of the tonal idiom with functional harmony. However, one area of research that has hardly been explored is how tonality emerges in the compositions of children who compose by transforming their own non-musical ideas, such as their…

  6. Research on BOM based composable modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingxin; He, Qiang; Gong, Jianxing

    2013-03-01

    Composable modeling method has been a research hotpot in the area of Modeling and Simulation for a long time. In order to increase the reuse and interoperability of BOM based model, this paper put forward a composable modeling method based on BOM, studied on the basic theory of composable modeling method based on BOM, designed a general structure of the coupled model based on BOM, and traversed the structure of atomic and coupled model based on BOM. At last, the paper introduced the process of BOM based composable modeling and made a conclusion on composable modeling method based on BOM. From the prototype we developed and accumulative model stocks, we found this method could increase the reuse and interoperability of models.

  7. Identification of candidates for interacting partners of the tail domain of DcNMCP1, a major component of the Daucus carota nuclear lamina-like structure.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Ryota; Tsugama, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Michihiro; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-01

    NMCP/CRWN (NUCLEAR MATRIX CONSTITUENT PROTEIN/CROWDED NUCLEI) is a major component of a protein fibrous meshwork (lamina-like structure) on the plant inner nuclear membrane. NMCP/CRWN contributes to regulating nuclear shape and nuclear functions. An NMCP/CRWN protein in Daucus carota (DcNMCP1) is localized to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells, and surrounds chromosomes in cells in metaphase and anaphase. The N-terminal region and the C-terminal region of DcNMCP1 are both necessary for localizing DcNMCP1 to the nuclear periphery. Here candidate interacting partners of the amino acid position 975-1053 of DcNMCP1 (T975-1053), which is present in the C-terminal region and contains a conserved sequence that plays a role in localizing DcNMCP1 to the nuclear periphery, are screened for. Arabidopsis thaliana nuclear proteins were subjected to far-Western blotting with GST-fused T975-1053 as a probe, and signals were detected at the positions corresponding to ∼70, ∼40, and ∼18 kDa. These ∼70, ∼40, and ∼18 kDa nuclear proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and subjected to a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) analysis with T975-1053 as bait. In this analysis, the ∼40 kDa protein ARP7, which is a nuclear actin-related protein possibly involved in regulating chromatin structures, was confirmed to interact with T975-1053. Independently of the far-Western blotting, a Y2H screen was performed using T975-1053 as bait. Targeted Y2H assays confirmed that 3 proteins identified in the screen, MYB3, SINAT1, and BIM1, interact with T975-1053. These proteins might have roles in NMCP/CRWN protein-mediated biologic processes.

  8. Insecticidal activity of essential oils from eleven Eucalyptus spp. and two hybrids: lethal and sublethal effects of their major components on Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Alzogaray, Raul A; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the fumigant activity of the essential oils from 11 species of the genus Eucalyptus and two of their hybrids on first instar of Blattella germanica L. The fumigant activity and repellence of the four major monoterpene components of these essential oils also were tested. Fumigant activity was evaluated by exposing nymphs to the vapors emitted by 50 microl of essential oil or monoterpene in a closed container. The lowest knockdown time 50% (KT50) values, expressed in minutes, were elicited by the essential oils of the Eucalyptus grandis X Eucalyptus tereticornis (57.9) hybrid, Eucalyptus sideroxylon A. Cunn (62.0), E. grandis X Eucalyptus camaldulensis (63.8) hybrid, Eucalyptus viminalis Labill (64.1), Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden (64.5), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill) ex Maiden (68.7). The KT50 values for the remaining essential oils ranged between 74.5 (E. saligna Smith) and 161.4 min (E. tereticornis Smith). The essential oil from the hybrid E. grandis X E. tereticornis was 3.7 times less toxic than dichlorvos (positive control). The KT50 values of monoterpenes were 38.8 for alpha-pinene, 55.3 for 1,8-cineole, 175.6 for p-cymene, and 178.3 for gamma-terpinene. Alpha-pinene was 2.5 times less toxic than dichlorvos. There was a strong positive correlation between the fumigant activity of essential oils and their corresponding 1,8-cineole and alpha-pinene concentration. Repellency was quantified using a video tracking system. Two concentrations of monoterpenes were studied (7 and 70 microg/cm2). All compounds produced a light repellent effect but only when applied at 70 microg/cm2. In all cases, the repellent effect was less than that produced by the broad-spectrum insect repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (positive control).

  9. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa CreBC Two-Component System Plays a Major Role in the Response to β-Lactams, Fitness, Biofilm Growth, and Global Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Zamorano, Laura; Juan, Carlos; Mulet, Xavier; Blázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous versatile environmental microorganism with a remarkable ability to grow under diverse environmental conditions. Moreover, P. aeruginosa is responsible for life-threatening infections in immunocompromised and cystic fibrosis patients, as the extraordinary capacity of this pathogen to develop antimicrobial resistance dramatically limits our therapeutic arsenal. Its large genome carries an outstanding number of genes belonging to regulatory systems, including multiple two-component sensor-regulator systems that modulate the response to the different environmental stimuli. Here, we show that one of two systems, designated CreBC (carbon source responsive) and BlrAB (β-lactam resistance), might be of particular relevance. We first identified the stimuli triggering the activation of the CreBC system, which specifically responds to penicillin-binding protein 4 (PBP4) inhibition by certain β-lactam antibiotics. Second, through an analysis of a large comprehensive collection of mutants, we demonstrate an intricate interconnection between the CreBC system, the peptidoglycan recycling pathway, and the expression of the concerning chromosomal β-lactamase AmpC. Third, we show that the CreBC system, and particularly its effector inner membrane protein CreD, plays a major role in bacterial fitness and biofilm development, especially in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactams. Finally, global transcriptomics reveals broad regulatory functions of CreBC in basic physiological aspects, particularly anaerobic respiration, in both the presence and absence of antibiotics. Therefore, the CreBC system is envisaged as a potentially interesting target for improving the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:24936599

  10. Tiliroside, the major component of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb ethanol extract, inhibits MAPK/JNK/p38-mediated inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    JIN, XIN; SONG, SHIQING; WANG, JING; ZHANG, QINGZHEN; QIU, FENG; ZHAO, FENG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (AP) ethanol extract was confirmed in experimental animal models, including xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside, the major component of AP extract, was isolated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of tiliroside was then examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. An MTT assay was used to determine cytotoxicity and a Griess assay was used to determine nitric oxide (NO) production. Concentration levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated (p)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p-p38 and inhibitor of κB-α were detected by western blot analysis. AP ethanol extract was revealed to inhibit xylene-induced ear edema in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Tiliroside significantly suppressed the overproduction of NO (P<0.01), but revealed no notable inhibition of the release of TNF-α and IL-6. In addition, tiliroside significantly downregulated the elevated expression levels of iNOS and COX-2 induced by LPS (P<0.01). The phosphorylation of JNK and p38 proteins were also significantly inhibited (P<0.01), however, tiliroside exhibited no obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and the degradation of IκB-α protein. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanism of tiliroside may involve the downregulation of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression levels, and the inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/JNK, in addition to the MAPK/p38 signaling pathway. PMID:27347085

  11. Acaricidal activity of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaofei; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xuzheng; Guo, Xiao; Dong, Shuwei; Wang, Dongsheng; Zhang, Jiyu; Pan, Hu; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Xiaolou

    2016-08-15

    Oregano oil possesses marked antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and is widely applied in animal husbandry. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the acaricidal activities of oregano oil and its major component, carvacrol, thymol and p-cymene against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo. The results revealed that oregano oil exhibited significant acaricidal effects against P. cuniculi that were dose- and time-dependent response. In in vitro test, concentrations of 0.05% and 0.02% (v/v) killed all of the mites within 1h and 6h, respectively. Moreover, 0.1mg/ml (w/v) carvacrol, 0.2mg/ml (w/v) thymol and 1% p-cymene (v/v) also possessed marked acaricidal activities, and compared with the control group, elicited mean mortalities of 84.00%, 96.00% and 66% at 24h, respectively. The median lethal times (LT50) against P. cuniculi of the concentrations of 0.02%, 0.01% and 0.005% (v/v) of oregano oil, thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene were 2.171h, 11.396h, 26.102h, and 4.424h, 8.957h and 15.201h, respectively. Meanwhile, twenty naturaly infested rabbits were used to four homogeneity groups: negative control (without treatment), positive control (treated with ivermectin), group treated with 1% of oregano oil and other group with 5% of oregano oil. All the treatments were topically. After the treatment of 1% and 5% oregano oil, the P. cuniculi were completely eliminated in the rabbits, and at the end of the test (day 20), the rabbits of all treatment groups exhibited favorable mental and physical statuses. These results indicated that oregano oil could be widely applied as a potential acaricidal agent in the treatment of animal acariasis in the future.

  12. Single-cell analysis of thymocyte differentiation: identification of transcription factor interactions and a major stochastic component in αβ-lineage commitment.

    PubMed

    Boudil, Amine; Skhiri, Lamia; Candéias, Serge; Pasqualetto, Valérie; Legrand, Agnès; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Gautreau-Rolland, Laetitia; Rocha, Benedita; Ezine, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    T cell commitment and αβ/γδ lineage specification in the thymus involves interactions between many different genes. Characterization of these interactions thus requires a multiparameter analysis of individual thymocytes. We developed two efficient single-cell methods: (i) the quantitative evaluation of the co-expression levels of nine different genes, with a plating efficiency of 99-100% and a detection limit of 2 mRNA molecules/cell; and (ii) single-cell differentiation cultures, in the presence of OP9 cells transfected with the thymus Notch1 ligand DeltaL4. We show that during T cell commitment, Gata3 has a fundamental, dose-dependent role in maintaining Notch1 expression, with thymocytes becoming T-cell-committed when they co-express Notch1, Gata3 and Bc11b. Of the transcription factor expression patterns studied here, only that of Bcl11b was suggestive of a role in Pu1 down-regulation. Individual thymocytes became αβ/γδ lineage-committed at very different stages (from the TN2a stage onwards). However, 20% of TN3 cells are not αβ/γδ-lineage committed and TN4 cells comprise two main subpopulations with different degrees of maturity. The existence of a correlation between differentiation potential and expression of the pre-TCR showed that 83% of αβ-committed cells do not express the pre-TCR and revealed a major stochastic component in αβ-lineage specification.

  13. Single-Cell Analysis of Thymocyte Differentiation: Identification of Transcription Factor Interactions and a Major Stochastic Component in αβ-Lineage Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Boudil, Amine; Skhiri, Lamia; Candéias, Serge; Pasqualetto, Valérie; Legrand, Agnès; Bedora-Faure, Marie; Gautreau-Rolland, Laetitia; Rocha, Benedita; Ezine, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    T cell commitment and αβ/γδ lineage specification in the thymus involves interactions between many different genes. Characterization of these interactions thus requires a multiparameter analysis of individual thymocytes. We developed two efficient single-cell methods: (i) the quantitative evaluation of the co-expression levels of nine different genes, with a plating efficiency of 99–100% and a detection limit of 2 mRNA molecules/cell; and (ii) single-cell differentiation cultures, in the presence of OP9 cells transfected with the thymus Notch1 ligand DeltaL4. We show that during T cell commitment, Gata3 has a fundamental, dose-dependent role in maintaining Notch1 expression, with thymocytes becoming T-cell-committed when they co-express Notch1, Gata3 and Bc11b. Of the transcription factor expression patterns studied here, only that of Bcl11b was suggestive of a role in Pu1 down-regulation. Individual thymocytes became αβ/γδ lineage-committed at very different stages (from the TN2a stage onwards). However, 20% of TN3 cells are not αβ/γδ-lineage committed and TN4 cells comprise two main subpopulations with different degrees of maturity. The existence of a correlation between differentiation potential and expression of the pre-TCR showed that 83% of αβ-committed cells do not express the pre-TCR and revealed a major stochastic component in αβ-lineage specification. PMID:24098325

  14. Carnosic acid as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract ameliorates high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yantao; Sedighi, Rashin; Wang, Pei; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sang, Shengmin

    2015-05-20

    In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of carnosic acid (CA) as a major bioactive component in rosemary extract (RE) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice. The mice were given a low-fat diet, a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with either 0.14% or 0.28% (w/w) CA-enriched RE (containing 80% CA, RE#1L and RE#1H), or 0.5% (w/w) RE (containing 45% CA, RE#2), for a period of 16 weeks. There was the same CA content in the RE#1H and RE#2 diets and half of this amount in the RE#1L diet. The dietary RE supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, percent of fat, plasma ALT, AST, glucose, insulin levels, liver weight, liver triglyceride, and free fatty acid levels in comparison with the mice fed with a HF diet without RE treatment. RE administration also decreased the levels of plasma and liver malondialdehyde, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and the liver expression of receptor for AGE (RAGE) in comparison with those for mice of the HF group. Histological analyses of liver samples showed decreased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes in mice administrated with RE in comparison with that of HF-diet-fed mice. Meanwhile, RE administration enhanced fecal lipid excretion to inhibit lipid absorption and increased the liver GSH/GSSG ratio to perform antioxidant activity compared with HF group. Our results demonstrate that rosemary is a promising dietary agent to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  15. Inhibition of H+,K+ -ATPase by hinesol, a major component of So-jutsu, by interaction with enzyme in the E1 state.

    PubMed

    Satoh, K; Nagai, F; Kano, I

    2000-04-01

    Hinesol, a major component of the crude drug "So-jutsu" (Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma), strongly inhibited H+,K+-ATPase activity with a IC50 value of 5.8x10(-5) M. It also inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase, Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and H+-ATPase activities, although the inhibition rate was lower. No effects on alkaline or acid phosphatase activities were observed. The mechanism by which hinesol inhibited H+,K+-ATPase activity was studied in detail. The inhibition was uncompetitive with respect to ATP, and it increased as the Mg2+ concentration was raised, whereas it was not affected by the K+ concentration. The activity of K+-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase (K+-pNPPase), a partial reaction of H+,K+-ATPase, was inhibited by hinesol noncompetitively with respect to pNPP (IC50 value of 1.6x10(-4) M), and competitively with respect to K+, whereas it was not affected by the Mg2+ concentration. These results suggest that hinesol is a relatively specific inhibitor of H+,K+-ATPase. It appears that hinesol reacts with enzyme in the E1 state in the presence of ATP and Mg2+ and forms the complex hinesol-H+ E1-ATP or hinesol x E1-P, blocking the conformational change to the E2 state. Furthermore, hinesol enhanced the inhibitory effect of omeprazole on H+,K+-ATPase, and the inhibitory site of hinesol was different from that of omeprazole. The effect of So-jutsu as an anti-gastric ulcer agent may be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of hinesol on H+,K+-ATPase activity.

  16. Joint Composable Object Model and LVC Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinsmith, Richard; Wallace, Jeffrey; Bizub, Warren; Ceranowicz, Andy; Cutts, Dannie; Powell, Edward T.; Gustavson, Paul; Lutz, Robert; McCloud, Terrell

    2010-01-01

    Within the Department of Defense, multiple architectures are created to serve and fulfill one or several specific service or mission related LVC training goals. Multiple Object Models exist across and within those architectures and it is there that those disparate object models are a major source of interoperability problems when developing and constructing the training scenarios. The two most commonly used architectures are; HLA and TENA, with DIS and CTIA following close behind in terms of the number of users. Although these multiple architectures can share and exchange data the underlying meta-models for runtime data exchange are quite different, requiring gateways/translators to bridge between the different object model representations; while the Department of Defense's use of gateways are generally effective in performing these functions, as the LVC environment increases so too does the cost and complexity of these gateways. Coupled with the wide range of different object models across the various user communities we increase the propensity for run time errors, increased programmer stop gap measures during coordinated exercises, or failure of the system as a whole due to unknown or unforeseen incompatibilities. The Joint Composable Object Model (JCOM) project was established under an M&S Steering Committee (MSSC)-sponsored effort with oversight and control placed under the Joint Forces Command J7 Advanced Concepts Program Directorate. The purpose of this paper is to address the initial and the current progress that has been made in the following areas; the Conceptual Model Development Format, the Common Object Model, the Architecture Neutral Data Exchange Model (ANDEM), and the association methodology to allow the re-use of multiple architecture object models and the development of the prototype persistent reusable library.

  17. Intestinal transport of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose, a major active component of Polygala tenuifolia, using Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Xinmin; Pan, Ruile; Zhu, Xiaoxin; Steinmetz, André; Liao, Yonghong; Wang, Ning; Peng, Bo; Chang, Qi

    2013-10-01

    3,6'-Disinapoylsucrose is a major active component of the herb Polygala tenuifolia which has long been used for relieving tranquilization, uneasiness of the mind, and improving learning and memory. Our previous study found that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had a very low oral bioavailability. Its mechanisms of absorption in the small intestine have so far been unclear. In the present study, the absorption mechanisms of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose were investigated by using the Caco-2 cell monolayer and in situ rat intestinal perfusion models. The 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose concentration was determined by an LC/MS/MS method. In a Caco-2 cell transport study, the results showed that 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose had very limited intestinal permeability with average apparent permeability coefficient values around (1.11-1.34) × 10(-7) cm/s from the apical (A) to the basolateral (B) side and (1.37-1.42) × 10(-7) cm/s from B to A, at concentrations of 5, 20, and 33 µM. No concentration dependence in the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport was observed. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose (5 µM) from A to B greatly increased to 4.49 × 10(-7) and 1.81 × 10(-7) cm/s, respectively, when the cells were preincubated with EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM). No significant effect on the 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose transport by the inhibitors including verapamil, cyclosporine A, and sodium azide was observed. Similar results were found in the small intestinal perfusion study. The apparent permeability coefficient value of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose greatly increased from 3.97 × 10(-6) to 23.4 × 10(-6) and 20.0 × 10(-6) cm/s in the presence of EDTA (17 mM) and sodium caprate (5.14 mM), respectively, in perfusion buffer. An in vitro stability evaluation of 3,6'-disinapoylsucrose in the gastrointestinal tract showed that it was relatively stable both in the stomach and small intestine contents, while it was found to be more instable in the colon contents. All of the

  18. The rainbow effect on composing chaotic algorithmic music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    The effect of rainbow color sequence on composing chaotic algorithmic music is examined. The mathematical range of the chaotic algorithm is mapped onto musical notes whose sequence follows the sequence of the seven main rainbow colors and their in-between five auxiliary colors. Each musical note is identified with the frequency of a color by a frequency shift. As a result, for a single rainbow, the scale of the chaotic music comprises an ascending chromatic F major scale without the thirteenth note, followed by its corresponding descending chromatic scale, for a total of twenty four notes. For aesthetic purposes, a note can be placed in any octave at the composer's will. The effect of a double rainbow on composing chaotic music is also studied. It is known from nature that the outer bow has its color sequence reversed. Thus, in this case, the double rainbow musical scale comprises forty eight notes on a repeated reversed full chromatic F major scale without the thirteenth note in the ascent or the first note in the descent, resembling in shape the letter w. Colorless regions in the rainbow or dark (Alexander's bands) regions in a supernumerary rainbow are included in the musical range as rests. With the musical scale based on the described rainbow mapping, chaotic music is composed from an algorithm defined by a semi-elliptical first order iterative map. The minor axis of the ellipse is defined by the range of the mathematical pitch from 0 to 1 while the semi-major axis by that of the succeeding pitch from 0 to r/2; r is a free parameter that varies from 1 to 2 to be chosen by the composer. The lower limiting value of the free parameter r corresponds to a circle of radius 1/2 yielding steady state music whereas all the other values of r correspond to ellipses. Chaotic compositions result from r values between 1.95 and 2, the latter value yielding full chaos from an ellipse with its major axis double its minor axis. Fixed notes are obtained for all r's, i.e., notes

  19. Music and emotion—a composer's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Douek, Joel

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an experiential and anecdotal look at the daily lives and work of film composers as creators of music. It endeavors to work backwards from what practitioners of the art and craft of music do instinctively or unconsciously, and try to shine a light on it as a conscious process. It examines the role of the film composer in his task to convey an often complex set of emotions, and communicate with an immediacy and universality that often sit outside of common language. Through the experiences of the author, as well as interviews with composer colleagues, this explores both concrete and abstract ways in which music can bring meaning and magic to words and images, and as an underscore to our daily lives. PMID:24348344

  20. The Composer's World from Sketch to Score. LinkUp! 1998-99 Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Randy L., Ed.

    This guide helps teachers and students examine the questions "Who are composers?" and "How do they compose?" In addition to the musical component of the inquiry, the guide also explores the world of writers and how they write and visual artists and how they create. Materials in the guide encourage students to express their…

  1. Human skin penetration of the major components of Australian tea tree oil applied in its pure form and as a 20% solution in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sheree E; Russell, Michael; Southwell, Ian; Roberts, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    The safety of topical application of Australian tea tree Oil (TTO) is confounded by a lack of transdermal penetration data, which adequately informs opinions and recommendations. In this study we applied TTO in its pure form and as a 20% solution in ethanol in vitro to human epidermal membranes from three different donors, mounted in horizontal Franz-type diffusion cells, using normal 'in use' dosing conditions (10 mg/cm2). In addition, we examined the effect of partially occluding the application site on the penetration of TTO components. Our data showed that only a small quantity of TTO components, 1.1-1.9% and 2-4% of the applied amount following application of a 20% TTO solution and pure TTO, respectively, penetrated into or through human epidermis. The largest TTO component penetrating the skin was terpinen-4-ol. Following partial occlusion of the application site, the penetration of terpinen-4-ol increased to approximately 7% of the applied TTO. Measurement of the rate of evaporation of tea tree oil from filter paper (7.4 mg/cm2) showed that 98% of the oil evaporated in 4 hours. Overall, it is apparent that the penetration of TTO components through human skin is limited.

  2. A Design for Composing and Extending Vehicle Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, Michael M.; Neuhaus, Jason R.

    2003-01-01

    The Systems Development Branch (SDB) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) creates simulation software products for research. Each product consists of an aircraft model with experiment extensions. SDB treats its aircraft models as reusable components, upon which experiments can be built. SDB has evolved aircraft model design with the following goals: 1. Avoid polluting the aircraft model with experiment code. 2. Discourage the copy and tailor method of reuse. The current evolution of that architecture accomplishes these goals by reducing experiment creation to extend and compose. The architecture mechanizes the operational concerns of the model's subsystems and encapsulates them in an interface inherited by all subsystems. Generic operational code exercises the subsystems through the shared interface. An experiment is thus defined by the collection of subsystems that it creates ("compose"). Teams can modify the aircraft subsystems for the experiment using inheritance and polymorphism to create variants ("extend").

  3. Research on Composing: Points of Departure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Charles R., Ed.; Odell, Lee, Ed.

    While the chapters of this book present a variety of perspectives, they share the common goal of redirecting and revitalizing research on written composition. The authors review research on written discourse and the composing process and raise questions regarding information and skills that teachers and researchers need to consider. The chapters…

  4. The Composing Processes of Mature Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crabbe, Katharyn

    The study examined 41 students (24 male, 17 female) in a beginning writing course for adults. Data were collected by (1) taping four workshop sessions in which all students participated in small groups, (2) interviewing all the students, and (3) observing four students writing in the classroom. The adult writers composed in two models: the…

  5. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  6. Composing Networks: Writing Practices on Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article is an investigation of composing practices through which people create networks with mobile phones. By looking through the lens of actor-network theory, the author portrays the networking activity of mobile phone users as translation, what Latour describes as an infralanguage to which different disciplinary perspectives can be…

  7. Composing Zen Haiku: Training to Make Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stewart W.

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that composing "haiku" requires a discipline in a person's thinking and emoting patterns similar to that of a general semantics system for training people to make sense. Describes how such haiku are written and gives some guidelines to help individuals create their own. (PA)

  8. The Composer's Blueprint: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzcinski, Louis C.; Nelhybel, Vaclav

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany two 15-minute color television programs dealing with the creative process involved in conceiving a composition. The programs are appropriate for junior high school string students and instrumental students in string methods courses at teacher training institutions. In the program, the composer explains…

  9. Enhancing Memory in Your Students: COMPOSE Yourself!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotter, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    The essence of teaching is, in fact, creating new memories for your students. The teacher's role is to help students store the correct information (memories) in ways that make recall and future access and use likely. Therefore, choosing techniques to enhance memory is possibly the most critical aspect of instructional design. COMPOSE is an acronym…

  10. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  11. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons and methods for making such materials. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  12. Structural materials and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, John (Inventor); Lee, Raymond (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    High density structural (blocking) materials composed of a polyimide filled with glass microballoons. Structural components such as panels which have integral edgings and/or other parts made of the high density materials.

  13. Asymmetric wetting of patterned surfaces composed of intrinsically hysteretic materials.

    PubMed

    Anantharaju, Neeharika; Panchagnula, Mahesh V; Vedantam, Srikanth

    2009-07-07

    Wetting of chemically heterogeneous surfaces is modeled using a phase field theory. We focus on a chemically heterogeneous surface composed of squares of one component material embedded in another. Unlike previous studies where the component materials were characterized only by an equilibrium contact angle, in this paper each of the component materials is constitutively allowed to exhibit hysteresis. Using this approach, we investigate the effect of heterogeneity length scale on observed macroscopic behavior. Cassie theory is found to be applicable only in the limit of vanishing length scale. For surfaces with a finite heterogeneity length scale, the advancing and receding contact angles deviate from Cassie theory. We find that this deviation and its length scale dependence are asymmetric and depend on the wetting properties of the embedded material relative to the contiguous substrate.

  14. Understanding low-lipid algae hydrothermal liquefaction characteristics and pathways through hydrothermal liquefaction of algal major components: crude polysaccharides, crude proteins and their binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenchao; Li, Xianguo; Li, Zihui; Tong, Chenhong; Feng, Lijuan

    2015-11-01

    Crude polysaccharides and proteins extracted from algae were chosen as model materials to investigate the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) characteristics and pathways of low-lipid algae. Liquefaction behavior of the two individuals and their binary mixtures with different mass ratios were evaluated under different temperatures. Formation pathways of bio-oil from crude polysaccharides/proteins were proposed. Results showed that polysaccharides had a small contribution to bio-oil (<5%) and approximately 60% distributed in aqueous phase, while proteins played a crucial role on bio-oil formation (maximum 16.29%). Bio-oil from polysaccharides mainly contained cyclic ketones and phenols and from proteins composed of pyrazines, pyrroles and amines. Interaction between polysaccharides and proteins forming polycyclic nitrogenous compounds had a negative effect on bio-oil yield at 220 and 260°C. However, their further decomposition caused increase of bio-oil yield at 300°C. Mixture liquefaction obtained the highest higher heating value (HHV) of bio-oil and energy recovery than polysaccharides/proteins liquefaction at 300°C.

  15. A genetic pathway composed of Sox14 and Mical governs severing of dendrites during pruning

    PubMed Central

    Kirilly, Daniel; Gu, Ying; Huang, Yafen; Wu, Zhuhao; Bashirullah, Arash; Low, Boon Chuan; Kolodkin, Alex L; Wang, Hongyan; Yu, Fengwei

    2011-01-01

    Pruning that selectively eliminates neuronal processes is crucial for the refinement of neural circuits during development. In Drosophila, the class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) undergoes pruning to remove its larval dendrites during metamorphosis. We identified Sox14 as a transcription factor that was necessary and sufficient to mediate dendrite severing during pruning in response to ecdysone signaling. We found that Sox14 mediated dendrite pruning by directly regulating the expression of the target gene mical. mical encodes a large cytosolic protein with multiple domains that are known to associate with cytoskeletal components. mical mutants had marked severing defects during dendrite pruning that were similar to those of sox14 mutants. Overexpression of Mical could significantly rescue pruning defects in sox14 mutants, suggesting that Mical is a major downstream target of Sox14 during pruning. Thus, our findings indicate that a previously unknown pathway composed of Sox14 and its cytoskeletal target Mical governs dendrite severing. PMID:19881505

  16. Epithermal neutron activation, radiometric, correlation and principal component analysis applied to the distribution of major and trace elements in some igneous and metamorphic rocks from Romania.

    PubMed

    Cristache, C I; Duliu, O G; Culicov, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Ricman, C; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    Six major (Na, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 28 trace (Sc, Cr, V, Mn, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Br, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U) elements were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) in nine Meridional Carpathian and Macin Mountains samples of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Correlation and principal factor analysis were used to interpret data while natural radionuclides radiometry shows a good correlation with ENAA results.

  17. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion.

  18. Leukodepleted blood components do not remove the potential for long-term transfusion-associated microchimerism in Australian major trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Rena; Balogh, Zsolt J; Lott, Natalie J; Hsu, Jeremy M; Irving, David O

    2014-01-01

    Despite the introduction of leukodepleted blood components, it has been shown that donor leukocyte engraftment (microchimerism) remains a long-term consequence of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. The incidence of microchimerism may be affected by international disparities in blood processing methods or variations in transfusion practices. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of microchimerism in Australian trauma patients. A secondary aim was to examine whether any patient complications correlated to the incidence of microchimerism. Australian trauma patients (n = 86) who had been transfused with red blood cell (RBC) units between 2000 and 2012 with an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15 were recruited. The prevalence of microchimerism was determined using genetic screening with a panel of insertion/deletion biallelic polymorphisms. The mean storage age of the transfused RBC units was 20 ± 8 days and the mean length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 40 ± 39 days. There were no significant associations in this study sample to bias for patient age, gender, number of transfused RBC units or ISS. Nine of the 55 (16.3%) patients transfused with non-leukodepleted blood components displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Of the 31 patients transfused with leukodepleted RBC units, 3 (9.6%) displayed an incidence of microchimerism. Therefore, despite the universal introduction of leukodepleted blood components in Australia, the prevalence of transfusion-associated microchimerism was found to be unchanged. Furthermore, half of the patients exhibiting microchimerism were recorded to have had splenic injury or required splenectomy at the time of transfusion. PMID:26252809

  19. [Deletion of spiramycin 3-O-acyltransferase gene from Streptomyces spiramyceticus F21 resulting in the production of spiramycin I as major component].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin-Zhuan; Ma, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yi-Guang; Dai, Jian-Lu; Li, Jing-Yan; Xia, Huan-Zhang

    2007-07-01

    Spiramycin (SP) belongs to the 16-member macrolide antibiotics. It contains three components,namely SP I, SP II and SP III, which differ structurally in the acylation moieties on the C3 of the lactone. The SP I component contains a hydroxyl group at C3. SP II, and SP III are formed by further acetylation or propionylation of the C3 of SP I, by the same 3-O-acyltransferase (3-O-AT) . The study focused on simplifying spiramycin components. Theoretically, disruption/deletion of the 3-O-AT gene will reduce/stop the acylation of SP I to SP II and SP III. In this study, degenerated primers were designed according to the conserved regions of 3-O-acyltransferase, MdmB and AcyA in the medicamycin and carbomycin producers of S. mycarofaciens and S. thermotolerans, respectively, and an 878bp DNA fragment was amplified from the spiramycin-producer of S. spiramyceticus F21. Blast analysis of the 878bp DNA fragment suggested that it encoded the 3-O-acyltransferase (3-0-AT, sspA) gene for spiramycin biosynthesis. The flanking regions of this 878bp DNA fragment were then amplified by single-oligonucleotide-nested PCR, and a total of 4.3 kb DNA was obtained (3457nt among the 4.3kb fragment was sequenced, and deposited in GenBank DQ642742),covering the whole putative 3-O-acyltransferase gene, sspA. The sspA was then deleted from the S. spiramyceticus F21 genome by double cross-over homologous recombination, mediated by temperature-sensitive plasmid pKC1139. A comparison was done of the components of spiramycins produced by the sspA-deleted mutant strain with that of the parent strain by HPLC analysis, which showed that sspA-deleted mutant produced SP I (72%), SP II (18%), and SP III (9.6%), whereas parent strain produced SP I (7.8%), SP II (67%), and SP III (25%), respectively, demonstrating the role of ssp A in the acylation of SP I into SP II and SP III. The ssp A-deleted mutant strain obtained in this study may be used for the production of SP I, or may serve as a good starter

  20. System Composer: Technology for rapid system integration and remote collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.R.; Palmquist, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an approach to the design, evaluation, deployment and operation of intelligent systems which is called System Composer. This toolkit provides an infrastructure and architecture for robot and automation system users to readily integrate system components and share mechatronic, sensor, and information resources over networks. The technology described in this paper provides a framework for real-time collaboration between researchers, manufacturing entities, design entities, and others without regard to relative location. An overview of the toolkit including its elements and architecture is provided along with examples of its use.

  1. Concepts and Applications of Composable FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    2080 WSEAS TRANS. on INFORMATION SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS Issue 12. Volume 2. December 2005 ISSN: 1790-0832 Concepts and Applications of Composable...STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited 20060926075 WSEAS TRANS. on INFORMATION SCIENCE & APPLICATIONS Issue 12. Volume 2, December...information from one system or network to an- automatic insertion of content. The project team connects these data sources, views, and agents 2082 WSEAS

  2. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    DOE PAGES

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  3. Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.

    2015-11-09

    We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.

  4. Green tea and its major components ameliorate immune dysfunction in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma and treated with the carcinogen NNK.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Gong, Y; Yang, Z; Ge, G; Han, C; Chen, J

    1999-01-01

    The protective effects of tea and/or its components on dysfunction of immune functions during tumor growth and carcinogenesis in mice were studied using two experimental models: C57/BL6J mice transplanted with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and Kunming mice treated with a single dose of 4-(methylnitrosamino-)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In C57/BL6J mice bearing LLC, the weight of the thymus decreased, the proportion of CD4(+)-positive T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ decreased, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of white blood cells in peripheral blood stimulated by zymosan increased, and plaque-forming cells (PFC) decreased. However, in LLC-bearing mice given green tea as drinking water, all immune functions were improved, along with inhibition of tumor growth. In Kunming mice treated with NNK, during the four weeks of observation, their immunologic indicators, such as phagocytosis of macrophages in the abdominal cavity, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of white blood cells, plaque-forming cells, and delayed-type hypersensitivity, increased or decreased to various extents compared with normal controls. However, these changes were significantly prevented in the mice given green tea, mixed tea, or tea polyphenol as drinking water. In conclusion, tea and its components ameliorated immune dysfunction in mice bearing LLC or treated with the carcinogen NNK.

  5. Evaluation of embryotoxicity for major components of herbal extracts using the chick embryonic heart micromass and mouse D3 embryonic stem cell systems.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Omar J; Latif, Muhammad Liaque; Pratten, Margaret K

    2016-01-01

    Herbal remedies are often used during the early stages of pregnancy, being considered 'harmless' and 'natural'. There are insufficient data regarding their potential embryotoxicity. The main components of selected herbs, including 6-gingerol from ginger, Ginkgolide A and Ginkgolide B from gingko biloba and Ginsenoside Rg1 from ginseng, have been investigated using chick embryonic heart micromass and Mouse D3 embryonic stem cells. The potential effects were evaluated via alteration in contractility, cell viability, and cell protein content. The myocytes in both systems were also demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using a specific cardiomyocyte marker (α-actinin). For 6-gingerol, Ginkgolide A, Ginkgolide B and Ginsenoside Rg1 in both methods, at moderate to high concentrations, there were alterations in the values for the endpoints. These data indicate that herbal remedies used in the first trimester of pregnancy might not be safe for fetal development.

  6. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    PubMed

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate.

  7. Contact toxicity, feeding reduction, and repellency of essential oils from three plants from the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) and their major components against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Suthisut, Duangsamorn; Fields, Paul G; Chandrapatya, Angsumarn

    2011-08-01

    The essential oils from rhizomes of Alpinia conchigera Griff, Zingiber zerumbet Smitt, Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe; their major compounds (camphene, camphor, 1,8-cineole, alpha-humulene, isoborneol, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and terpinen-4-ol); and synthetic essential oils comprised of mixtures of major pure compounds in the same ratios as the extracted essential oils were tested for contact, feeding reduction, and repellency against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) adults. Via topical applications, the three extracted oils had similar toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 fiducial limits: 18-24 microg oil/mg insect). T. castaneum had similar sensitivity to all three oils (35-58 microg/mg), and it was less sensitive than S. zeamais. The LD50 values of synthetic A. conchigera and synthetic Z. zerumbet oils were similar to those of their corresponding extracted essential oils. The synthetic C. zedoaria oils showed lower contact toxicity than the extracted C. zedoaria oils to both insects. Sitophilus zeamais and T. castaneum were sensitive to terpinen-4-ol and isoborneol in contact toxicity tests. In antifeedant tests, the three extracted oils were able to decrease the consumption of flour disks, especially Z. zerumbet oils, whereas both insect species could feed on the flour disks treated with three synthetic essential oils. Only terpinen-4-ol deterred feeding in both insects. In repellency tests, A. conchigera oils at highest concentration repelled S. zeamais and T. castaneum. None of the synthetic essential oils repelled S. zeamais (315 microl/cm2) and T. castaneum (31 microl/cm2) Only terpinen-4-ol showed repellent activity against both insects.

  8. Reassessment of the Listeria monocytogenes pan-genome reveals dynamic integration hotspots and mobile genetic elements as major components of the accessory genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is an important food-borne pathogen and model organism for host-pathogen interaction, thus representing an invaluable target considering research on the forces governing the evolution of such microbes. The diversity of this species has not been exhaustively explored yet, as previous efforts have focused on analyses of serotypes primarily implicated in human listeriosis. We conducted complete genome sequencing of 11 strains employing 454 GS FLX technology, thereby achieving full coverage of all serotypes including the first complete strains of serotypes 1/2b, 3c, 3b, 4c, 4d, and 4e. These were comparatively analyzed in conjunction with publicly available data and assessed for pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella insect model. Results The species pan-genome of L. monocytogenes is highly stable but open, suggesting an ability to adapt to new niches by generating or including new genetic information. The majority of gene-scale differences represented by the accessory genome resulted from nine hyper variable hotspots, a similar number of different prophages, three transposons (Tn916, Tn554, IS3-like), and two mobilizable islands. Only a subset of strains showed CRISPR/Cas bacteriophage resistance systems of different subtypes, suggesting a supplementary function in maintenance of chromosomal stability. Multiple phylogenetic branches of the genus Listeria imply long common histories of strains of each lineage as revealed by a SNP-based core genome tree highlighting the impact of small mutations for the evolution of species L. monocytogenes. Frequent loss or truncation of genes described to be vital for virulence or pathogenicity was confirmed as a recurring pattern, especially for strains belonging to lineages III and II. New candidate genes implicated in virulence function were predicted based on functional domains and phylogenetic distribution. A comparative analysis of small regulatory RNA candidates supports observations of a

  9. Evidence of idiotypic modulation in the immune response to gp43, the major antigenic component of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in both mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A R; Gesztesi, J -L; Moraes, J Z; Cruz, C R B; Sato, J; Mariano, M; Lopes, J D

    1998-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America, with a high prevalence in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. The aetiologic agent of disease is a thermal dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A glycoprotein of 43 000 D (gp43) is the major antigen of P. brasiliensis. Antibodies directed to this antigen are detected in the sera of all patients with PCM. Gp43 binds to laminin, thus participating in adhesion, invasion and pathogenesis of the fungus. As the role of antibodies in PCM is not fully understood, we decided to investigate the outcome of mice immunization with three distinct anti-gp43 MoAbs (17c, 8a and 24a) coupled with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Results show not only the expected presence of anti-Id (AB2) antibodies in the sera of these animals but also a spontaneous and increasing amount of anti-anti-Id (AB3) antibodies after the third course of immunization. Hybridomas producing both AB2 and AB3 MoAbs were obtained using spleen cells from mice immunized with MoAb 17c. AB3 MoAbs were also obtained with spleen cells of mice immunized with MoAbs 8a and 24a. It was also shown that human PCM patients' sera with high titres of anti-gp43 antibodies generate anti-Id antibodies. These data suggest that the immune response to P. brasiliensis can be spontaneously modulated by the idiotypic network. PMID:9764601

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of prunin-1, a major component of the almond (Prunus dulcis) allergen amandin.

    PubMed

    Albillos, Silvia M; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-07-09

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond ( Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 A and belong to the tetragonal space group P4(1)22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 A, c = 165.248 A. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  11. Purification, Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Characterization of Prunin-1, a Major Component of the Almond (Prunus dulcis) Allergen Amandin

    SciTech Connect

    Albillos, Silvia M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Howard, Andrew; Zhang, Yuzhu; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Fu, Tong-Jen

    2008-08-04

    The 11S globulins from plant seeds account for a number of major food allergens. Because of the interest in the structural basis underlying the allergenicity of food allergens, we sought to crystallize the main 11S seed storage protein from almond (Prunus dulcis). Prunin-1 (Pru1) was purified from defatted almond flour by water extraction, cryoprecipitation, followed by sequential anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size exclusion chromatography. Single crystals of Pru1 were obtained in a screening with a crystal screen kit, using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. Diffraction quality crystals were grown after optimization. The Pru1 crystals diffracted to at least 3.0 {angstrom} and belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1}22, with unit cell parameters of a = b = 150.912 {angstrom}, c = 165.248 {angstrom}. Self-rotation functions and molecular replacement calculations showed that there are three molecules in the asymmetry unit with water content of 51.41%. The three Pru1 protomers are related by a noncrystallographic 3-fold axis and they form a doughnut-shaped trimer. Two prunin trimers form a homohexamer. Elucidation of prunin structure will allow further characterization of the allergenic features of the 11S protein allergens at the molecular level.

  12. The chromosomal order of genes controlling the major histocompatibility complex, properdin factor B, and deficiency of the second component of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Raum, D; Glass, D; Carpenter, C B; Alper, C A; Schur, P H

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of the genes coding for HLA to those coding for properdin Factor B allotypes and for deficiency of the second component of complement (C2) was studied in families of patients with connective tissue disorders. Patients were selected because they were heterozygous or homozygous for C2 deficiency. 12 families with 15 matings informative for C2 deficiency were found. Of 57 informative meioses, two crossovers were noted between the C2 deficiency gene and the HLA-B gene, with a recombinant fraction of 0.035. A lod score of 13 was calculated for linkage between C2 deficiency and HLA-B at a maximum likelihood value of the recombinant fraction of 0.04. 18 families with 21 informative matings for both properdin Factor B allotype and HLA-B were found. Of 72 informative meioses, three recombinants were found, giving a recombinant fraction of 0.042. A lod score of 16 between HLA-B and Factor B allotypes was calculated at a maximum likelihood value of the recombinant fraction of 0.04. A crossover was shown to have occurred between genes for Factor B and HLA-D, in which HLA-D segregared with HLA-A and B. These studies suggest that the genes for Factor B and C2 deficiency are located outside those for HLA, that the order of genese is HLA-A, -B, -D, Factor B allotype, C2 deficiency, that the genes coding for C2 deficiency and Factor B allotypes are approximately 3--5 centimorgans from the HLA-A and HLA-B loci, and that the apparent lack of recombinants between the Factor B gene and C2 deficiency gene suggests that these two genes lie in close proximity to one another. PMID:993342

  13. Mono-Substituted Isopropylated Triaryl Phosphate, a Major Component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR Agonist that Exhibits AHR-Independent Cardiotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Cory V.; Das, Siba R.; Volz, David C.; Bisson, William H.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A-and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191. PMID:24865613

  14. Mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate, a major component of Firemaster 550, is an AHR agonist that exhibits AHR-independent cardiotoxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Cory V; Das, Siba R; Volz, David C; Bisson, William H; Kolluri, Siva K; Tanguay, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Firemaster 550 (FM550) is an additive flame retardant mixture used within polyurethane foam and is increasingly found in house dust and the environment due to leaching. Despite the widespread use of FM550, very few studies have investigated the potential toxicity of its ingredients during early vertebrate development. In the current study, we sought to specifically investigate mono-substituted isopropylated triaryl phosphate (mITP), a component comprising approximately 32% of FM550, which has been shown to cause cardiotoxicity during zebrafish embryogenesis. Previous research showed that developmental defects are rescued using an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist (CH223191), suggesting that mITP-induced toxicity was AHR-dependent. As zebrafish have three known AHR isoforms, we used a functional AHR2 knockout line along with AHR1A- and AHR1B-specific morpholinos to determine which AHR isoform, if any, mediates mITP-induced cardiotoxicity. As in silico structural homology modeling predicted that mITP may bind favorably to both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms, we evaluated AHR involvement in vivo by measuring CYP1A mRNA and protein expression following exposure to mITP in the presence or absence of CH223191 or AHR-specific morpholinos. Based on these studies, we found that mITP interacts with both AHR2 and AHR1B isoforms to induce CYP1A expression. However, while CH223191 blocked mITP-induced CYP1A induction and cardiotoxicity, knockdown of all three AHR isoforms failed to block mITP-induced cardiotoxicity in the absence of detectable CYP1A induction. Overall, these results suggest that, while mITP is an AHR agonist, mITP causes AHR-independent cardiotoxicity through a pathway that is also antagonized by CH223191.

  15. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (<5% each). The inorganic elements were dominated by phosphorus and followed by crustal elements and metal elements Pb, Zn, Sn, and lesser Cu, Sb, Mn, Ni, Ba and Cd. The recycling of printed circuit boards was demonstrated as an important contributor of heavy metal contamination, particularly Cd, Pb and Ni, to the local environment. These findings suggest that this recycling method represents a strong source of PM associated with pollutants to the ambient atmosphere of an e-waste recycling locale.

  16. Diurnal variations of carbonaceous components, major ions, and stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in suburban aerosols from northern vicinity of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Nannan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-12-01

    We report diurnal variations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and major ions as well as stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in ambient aerosols at a suburban site (Mangshan), 40 km north of Beijing, China. We found that aerosol chemical compositions were largely controlled by the air mass transport from Beijing in daytime with southerly winds and by relatively fresh air mass in nighttime from the northern forest areas with northerly winds. Higher concentrations of aerosol mass and total carbon were obtained in daytime. Further, higher OC/EC ratios were recorded in daytime (4.0 ± 1.7) than nighttime (3.2 ± 0.7), suggesting that OC is formed by photochemical oxidation of gaseous precursors in daytime. Contributions of WSOC to OC were slightly higher in daytime (38%) than nighttime (34%), possibly due to secondary formation of WSOC in daytime. We also found higher concentrations of Ca2+ in daytime, which was originated from the construction dust in Beijing area and transported to the sampling site. δ13C ranged from -25.3 to -21.2‰ (ave. -23.5 ± 0.9‰) in daytime and -29.0 to -21.4‰ (-24.0 ± 1.5‰) in nighttime, suggesting that Mangshan aerosols were more influenced by fossil fuel combustion products in daytime and by terrestrial C3 plants in nighttime. This study suggests that daytime air mass delivery from megacity Beijing largely influence the air quality at the receptor site in the north together with photochemical processing of organic aerosols during the atmospheric transport, whereas the Mangshan site is covered with relatively clean air masses at night.

  17. Tissue distribution of six major bio-active components after oral administration of Zhenqi Fuzheng capsules to rats using ultra-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-hua; Zhu, Rui-juan; Hu, Fang; Guo, Long; Yang, Ying-lai; Feng, Shi-lan

    2015-04-01

    Radix Astragali (Huangqi in Chinese) and Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (Nvzhenzi in Chinese) (2:1, w/w) are combined in an herbal formulation called Zhenqi Fuzheng capsules (ZFCs) for use in China to improve immunity, promote the recovery of normal functions after surgical operations, and as the most important adjuvant therapy in cancer. In this study, the tissue distribution profiles of the six major bio-active constituents (calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, formononetin, astragaloside IV and astragaloside II) were examined after oral administration of ZFCs to rats. All six constituents in each tissue were detected simultaneously using UPLC-ESI-MS, and the concentration of each constituent per gram of each tissue was determined. Quantification was performed using low-energy collision tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan mode for the following precursor ion→product ion transitions at m/z 447.21→285.30 for calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, m/z 285.29→270.38 for calycosin, m/z 431→269 for ononin, m/z 269→237 for formononetin, m/z 807.40→627.50 for astragaloside IV, m/z 849.60→669.65 for astragaloside II and m/z 633.18→331.18 for the internal standard (hesperidin). The results showed that in general the tissue concentrations for all six constituents were in the following order: spleen>stomach>thymus>lung>liver>kidney>heart>testicle. The high levels in the spleen and thymus indicated that all six compounds accumulated in organs involved in the immune response, consistent with the immunity effects of ZFC. The high levels in the stomach were consistent with the oral administration of ZFC. This study was the first to compare the tissue distribution of calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside with that of calycosin or of ononin with that of formononetin in rats. It was also the first study to examine the tissue distribution of astragaloside II, calycosin and formononetin following oral administration of ZFC to rats.

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of an enterolith composed of deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Masaya; Miyashima, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Takahiro; Murata, Toshihiro; Miyabe, Yoshio; Kawai, Yoshinari; Urata, Haruo; Shiraha, Hidenori; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2014-12-01

    A 67-year-old Japanese man underwent enterotomy because of enterolith ileus. Component analysis by infrared spectroscopy revealed that the enterolith was composed of a high concentration of deoxycholic acid. We further analyzed and compared the ultrastructure of the enterolith and a commercially available powdered form of deoxycholic acid by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that the ratios of carbon and oxygen in the enterolith were equal to those in the deoxycholic acid powder. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed rectangular prism-shaped particles on the surface of the enterolith. This structure was similar to that of the deoxycholic acid powder. The surgically removed enterolith had a twisted and coiled appearance. Possible mechanisms underlying the formation of this unique form are discussed.

  19. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud

  20. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  1. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  2. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  3. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  4. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  5. 16 CFR 301.20 - Fur products composed of pieces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fur products composed of pieces. 301.20... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.20 Fur products composed of pieces. (a) Where fur products, or fur mats and plates, are composed in whole or in substantial part...

  6. Sequoias, Mavericks, Open Doors...Composing Joan Tower

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    This essay interview with Joan Tower is a meditation on the importance of composing, understood as a process larger than the making of new sound combinations or musical scores, suggesting that the compositional act is self-educative and self-forming. Tower's musical life, one of teaching and learning, one of composing and self-composing, is an…

  7. Composing, Analyzing and Validating Software Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Frederick T.

    1998-01-01

    This research has been conducted at the Computational Sciences Division of the Information Sciences Directorate at Ames Research Center (Automated Software Engineering Grp). The principle work this summer has been to review and refine the agenda that were carried forward from last summer. Formal specifications provide good support for designing a functionally correct system, however they are weak at incorporating non-functional performance requirements (like reliability). Techniques which utilize stochastic Petri nets (SPNs) are good for evaluating the performance and reliability for a system, but they may be too abstract and cumbersome from the stand point of specifying and evaluating functional behavior. Therefore, one major objective of this research is to provide an integrated approach to assist the user in specifying both functionality (qualitative: mutual exclusion and synchronization) and performance requirements (quantitative: reliability and execution deadlines). In this way, the merits of a powerful modeling technique for performability analysis (using SPNs) can be combined with a well-defined formal specification language. In doing so, we can come closer to providing a formal approach to designing a functionally correct system that meets reliability and performance goals.

  8. Activation of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus by cis-acting elements in the promoter-regulatory sequence and by virus-specific trans-acting components.

    PubMed Central

    Stinski, M F; Roehr, T J

    1985-01-01

    Upstream of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus (Towne) is a strong promoter-regulatory region that promotes the synthesis of 1.95-kilobase mRNA (D. R. Thomsen, R. M. Stenberg, W. F. Goins, and M. F. Stinski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:659-663, 1984; M. F. Stinski, D. R. Thomsen, R. M. Stenberg, and L. C. Goldstein, J. Virol. 46:1-14, 1983). The wild-type promoter-regulatory region as well as deletions within this region were ligated upstream of the thymidine kinase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, or ovalbumin genes. These gene chimeras were constructed to investigate the role of the regulatory sequences in enhancing downstream expression. The regulatory region extends to approximately 465 nucleotides upstream of the cap site for the initiation of transcription. The extent and type of regulatory sequences upstream of the promoter influences the level of in vitro transcription as well as the amount of in vivo expression of the downstream gene. The regulatory elements for cis-activation appear to be repeated several times within the regulatory region. A direct correlation was established between the distribution of the 19 (5' CCCCAGTTGACGTCAATGGG 3')- and 18 (5' CACTAACGGGACTTTCCAA 3')-nucleotide repeats and the level of downstream expression. In contrast, the 16 (5' CTTGGCAGTACATCAA 3')-nucleotide repeat is not necessary for the enhancement of downstream expression. In a domain associated with the 19- or 18-nucleotide repeats are elements that can be activated in trans by a human cytomegalovirus-specified component but not a herpes simplex virus-specified component. Therefore, the regulatory sequences of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus have an important role in interacting with cellular and virus-specific factors of the transcription complex to enhance downstream expression of this critical viral gene. Images PMID:2991567

  9. Effect of a Vietnamese Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major component trans-cinnamaldehyde on the cell viability, membrane integrity, membrane fluidity, and proton motive force of Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Nga-Thi-Thanh; Dumas, Emilie; Thanh, Mai Le; Degraeve, Pascal; Ben Amara, Chedia; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The antibacterial mechanism of a Cinnamomum cassia essential oil from Vietnam and of its main component (trans-cinnamaldehyde, 90% (m/m) of C. cassia essential oil) against a Listeria innocua strain was investigated to estimate their potential for food preservation. In the presence of C. cassia essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde at their minimal bactericidal concentration (2700 μg·mL(-1)), L. innocua cells fluoresced green after staining with Syto9® and propidium iodide, as observed by epifluorescence microscopy, suggesting that the perturbation of membrane did not cause large pore formation and cell lysis but may have introduced the presence of viable but nonculturable bacteria. Moreover, the fluidity, potential, and intracellular pH of the cytoplasmic membrane were perturbed in the presence of the essential oil or trans-cinnamaldehyde. However, these membrane perturbations were less severe in the presence of trans-cinnamaldehyde than in the presence of multicomponent C. cassia essential oil. This indicates that in addition to trans-cinnamaldehyde, other minor C. cassia essential oil components play a major role in its antibacterial activity against L. innocua cells.

  10. Rapid and sensitive determination of major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds using matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and UHPLC with hybrid linear ion trap triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Atul S; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Deshpande, Shreekant; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive method for the extraction and determination of four major polyphenolic components in Euphoria longana Lam. seeds is presented for the first time based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Matrix solid-phase dispersion method was designed for the extraction of Euphoria longana seed constituents and compared with microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction methods. An Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometry method was developed for quantitative analysis in multiple-reaction monitoring mode in negative electrospray ionization. The chromatographic separation was accomplished using an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column with gradient elution of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. The developed method was validated with acceptable linearity (r(2) > 0.999), precision (RSD ≤ 2.22%) and recovery (RSD ≤ 2.35%). The results indicated that matrix solid-phase dispersion produced comparable extraction efficiency compared with other methods nevertheless was more convenient and time-saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent volumes. The proposed method is rapid and sensitive in providing a promising alternative for extraction and comprehensive determination of active components for quality control of Euphoria longana products.

  11. Spatial Stories with Nomadic Narrators: Affect, Snapchat, and Feeling Embodiment in Youth Mobile Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wargo, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    While the vast majority of scholarship on mobile media, social semiotics, and multimodality highlights work done "behind" the screen, few studies have considered the embodied processes of youth composing "with" and "through" mobile technology. This study, drawn from a larger critical qualitative connective…

  12. On architecting and composing engineering information services to enable smart manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm Serm; Ivezic, Nenad; Srinivasan, Vijay

    2016-09-01

    Engineering information systems play an important role in the current era of digitization of manufacturing, which is a key component to enable smart manufacturing. Traditionally, these engineering information systems spanned the lifecycle of a product by providing interoperability of software subsystems through a combination of open and proprietary exchange of data. But research and development efforts are underway to replace this paradigm with engineering information services that can be composed dynamically to meet changing needs in the operation of smart manufacturing systems. This paper describes the opportunities and challenges in architecting such engineering information services and composing them to enable smarter manufacturing.

  13. Coaxial nanocable composed by imogolite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, M.; González, R. I.; Munoz, F.; Valdivia, J. A.; Rogan, J.; Kiwi, M.

    2015-12-31

    The discovery and development of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) at the beginning of the 1990s has driven a major part of solid state research. The electronic properties of the CNTs have generated a large number of ideas, as building coaxial nanocables. In this work we propose a possible type of such nanocables, which is formed by three nanostructures: two conducting CNTs, where one of them is covered by an insulator (an inorganic oxide nanotube: the imogolite aluminosilicate). The theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional tight-binding formalism, by means of the DFTB+ code. This formalism allows to calculate the band structure, which compares favorably with DFT calculations, but with a significantly lower computational cost. As a first step, we reproduce the calculations of already published results, where the formation of a nanocable composed by one CNT and the imogolite as an insulator. Afterwards, we simulate the band structure for the proposed structure to study the feasibility of the coaxial nanocable. Finally, using classical MD simulations, we study the possible mechanisms of formation of these nanocables.

  14. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  15. Collaborative Composing in High School String Chamber Music Ensembles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative composing in high school string chamber music ensembles. Research questions included the following: (a) How do high school string instrumentalists in chamber music ensembles use verbal and musical forms of communication to collaboratively compose a piece of music? (b) How do selected variables…

  16. How Composers Approach Teaching Composition: Strategies for Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randles, Clint; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Composition pedagogy is explored from the perspective of a composer and a music teacher educator in this article. The primary goal is to help practicing music teachers develop strategies that will encourage students to create original music. The authors provide reflection about the process of helping students compose on the basis of personal…

  17. Composing in Public: The Ambient Audiences of a Writing Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although scholars have investigated the ways youths individually enact composing practices and the impact of audience on these practices, this study examines the impact of an audience physically present while composing in a shared, public space--an ambient audience. Blurring the line between traditional notions of audience and collaborator through…

  18. The Links between Handwriting and Composing for Y6 Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medwell, Jane; Strand, Steve; Wray, David

    2009-01-01

    Although handwriting is often considered a matter of presentation, a substantial body of international research suggests that the role of handwriting in children's composing has been neglected. Automaticity in handwriting is now seen as of key importance in composing but this proposition is relatively untested in the UK and the assumption has been…

  19. A strategy for the generation of specific human antibodies by directed evolution and phage display. An example of a single-chain antibody fragment that neutralizes a major component of scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Riaño-Umbarila, Lidia; Juárez-González, Victor Rivelino; Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Ortíz-León, Mauricio; Possani, Lourival Domingos; Becerril, Baltazar

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the construction of a library of single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) from a single human donor by individual amplification of all heavy and light variable domains (1.1 x 10(8) recombinants). The library was panned using the phage display technique, which allowed selection of specific scFvs (3F and C1) capable of recognizing Cn2, the major toxic component of Centruroides noxius scorpion venom. The scFv 3F was matured in vitro by three cycles of directed evolution. The use of stringent conditions in the third cycle allowed the selection of several improved clones. The best scFv obtained (6009F) was improved in terms of its affinity by 446-fold, from 183 nm (3F) to 410 pm. This scFv 6009F was able to neutralize 2 LD(50) of Cn2 toxin when a 1 : 10 molar ratio of toxin-to-antibody fragment was used. It was also able to neutralize 2 LD(50) of the whole venom. These results pave the way for the future generation of recombinant human antivenoms.

  20. The composing process of technical writers: A preliminary study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mair, D.; Roundy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The assumption that technical writers compose as do other writers is tested. The literature on the composing process, not limited to the pure or applied sciences, was reviewed, yielding three areas of general agreement. The composing process (1) consists of several stages, (2) is reflexive, and (3) may be mastered by means of strategies. Data on the ways technical writers compose were collected, and findings were related to the three areas of agreement. Questionnaires and interviews surveying 70 writers were used. The disciplines represented by these writers included civil, chemical, agricultural, geological, mechanical, electrical, and petroleum engineering, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and biology. Those providing consulting services, or performing research. No technical editors or professional writers were surveyed, only technicians, engineers, and researchers whose jobs involved composing reports. Three pedagogical implications are included.

  1. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  2. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  3. The major acute-phase protein, serum amyloid P component, in mice is not involved in endogenous resistance against tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced lethal hepatitis, shock, and skin necrosis.

    PubMed

    Van Molle, W; Hochepied, T; Brouckaert, P; Libert, C

    2000-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) induces lethal hepatitis when injected into D-(+)-galactosamine-sensitized mice on the one hand or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in normal mice on the other hand. We studied whether serum amyloid P component (SAP), the major acute-phase protein in mice, plays a protective role in both lethal models. For this purpose, we used SAP(0/0) mice generated by gene targeting. We studied the lethal response of SAP(0/0) or SAP(+/+) mice to both lethal triggers but found no differences in the sensitivity of both types of mice. We also investigated whether SAP is involved in establishing two types of endogenous protection: one using a single injection of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) for desensitization and clearly involving a liver protein, the other by tolerizing mice for 5 days using small doses of human TNF-alpha. Although after IL-1beta or after tolerization the SAP levels in the serum had risen fourfold in the control mice and not in the SAP(0/0) mice, the same extents of desensitization and tolerization were achieved. Finally, we observed that the induction of hemorrhagic necrosis in the skin of mice by two consecutive local injections with TNF-alpha was not altered in SAP(0/0) mice. We conclude that the presence or absence of SAP has no influence on the sensitivity of mice to TNF-alpha-induced hepatitis, SIRS, and hemorrhagic necrosis or on the endogenous protective mechanisms of desensitization or tolerization.

  4. Comparative tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue Decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuqin; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Huaxu; Li, Weixia; Li, Zhenhao; Li, Wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2014-01-01

    Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) were frequently combined and used in China as herbal pair called as Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD) for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome, such as women's ailments. This study is to investigate the tissue distribution profiles of five major bio-active constituents (ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV) in DBD after oral administration of DBD in blood deficiency rats, and to compare the difference between normal and blood deficiency rats. The blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mLkg(-1) every day, and the experimental period was 12 days. At the finally day of experimental period, both normal and blood deficiency rats were orally administrated with DBD, and then the tissues samples were collected at different time points. Ferulic acid, caffeic acid, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin and astragaloside IV in different tissues were detected simultaneously by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the histograms were drawn. The results showed that the overall trend was CLiver>CKidney>CHeart>CSpleen>CLung, CC-30min>CM-30min>CM-60min>CC-5min>CM-5min>CC-60min>CM-240min>CC-240min. The contents of the detected compounds in liver were more than that in other tissues no matter in normal or blood deficiency rats. Compared to normal rats, partial contents of the compounds in blood deficiency rats' tissues at different time points had significant difference (P<0.05). This study was the first report about tissue distribution investigation in blood deficiency animals which is conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the five DBD components in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some organs and time points, suggesting that the blood flow and perfusion rate of the organ were altered in blood deficiency animals.

  5. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  6. Component for thermoelectric generator

    DOEpatents

    Purdy, David L.

    1977-01-01

    In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

  7. Stroke, music, and creative output: Alfred Schnittke and other composers.

    PubMed

    Zagvazdin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998), a celebrated Russian composer of the twentieth century, suffered from several strokes which affected his left cerebral hemisphere. The disease, however, did not diminish his musical talent. Moreover, he stated that his illness in a way facilitated his work. The composer showed amazingly high productivity after his first and second injuries of the central nervous system. The main topic of this chapter is the effect of strokes on Schnittke's output, creativity, and style of music. A brief biography of the composer with the chronology of his brain hemorrhages is included. In addition, the influence of cerebrovascular lesions on creative potential of other prominent composers such as Benjamin Britten, Jean Langlais, Vissarion Shebalin, Igor Stravinsky, and Ira Randall Thompson is discussed.

  8. Optimization of global model composed of radial basis functions using the term-ranking approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Peng; Tao, Chao Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2014-03-15

    A term-ranking method is put forward to optimize the global model composed of radial basis functions to improve the predictability of the model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined by numerical simulation and experimental data. Numerical simulations indicate that this method can significantly lengthen the prediction time and decrease the Bayesian information criterion of the model. The application to real voice signal shows that the optimized global model can capture more predictable component in chaos-like voice data and simultaneously reduce the predictable component (periodic pitch) in the residual signal.

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  10. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  11. Layout modification for library cell Alt-PSM composability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ke; Hu, Jiang; Cheng, Mosong

    2004-05-01

    In sub-wavelength lithography, light field Alt-PSM (Alternating Phase Shifting Mask) is an essential technology for poly layer printability. In a standard cell based design, the problem of obtaining Alt-PSM compliance for an individual cell layout has been solved well [3]. However, placing Alt-PSM compliant cells together can not guarantee Alt-PSM compliance of the entire chip/block layout due to phase interactions among adjacent cells. A simple solution to this Alt-PSM composability problem is to wrap blank area around each cell, which is very inefficient on chip area usage. In this paper, we formulate the composability problem as a graph model and propose a polynomial time optimal algorithm to achieve Alt-PSM composability with the least impact on cell layout.

  12. Fundamental Characteristics of Inflatable Structure Composed of Sealed Multi-Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Kosei; Higuchi, Ken

    Inflatable structure is an attractive candidate as ultra-light space structures with high packaging efficiency. They consist of flexible membrane and some components for the deployment. For such pneumatic structure with membrane, the damage of the membrane caused by space debris is one of serious problems for the utilization in space. To solve the problem, multi-cellular inflatable structures are proposed. Inflatable structures composed of multi-cells are robust against the damage of membrane. In this paper, a new type of inflatable cylinder which is composed of sealed multi-cells was investigated. Because deployment of the structure can be driven by the gas pressure of the sealed multi-cells, no complex components such as gas tanks and electric valves are required for the deployment. The fundamental characteristics of the deployment are investigated experimentally. As a result, it is shown that the inflatable cylinder composed of sealed multi-cells can achieve the deployment with simple hold-release mechanism even though some cells are damaged. Furthermore, by applying with inner bellows and outside constraint wires, the deployment sequence can be controlled and almost straight deployment can be realized.

  13. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment Designed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion of liquid fuels is a major source of energy in the world today, and the majority of these fuels are burned in the form of a spray. The research at the NASA Glenn Research Center in droplet combustion has the overall goal of providing a better understanding of spray combustion by studying the smallest element in a spray, the single droplet. The Bi-Component Droplet Combustion Experiment (BCDCE) extends the work at Glenn from pure, or single-component, fuels to an idealized liquid fuel composed of two completely miscible components. The project is a collaborative effort between Glenn and Prof. B.D. Shaw of the University of California, Davis. The BCDCE project is planned to fly onboard the International Space Station in the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus. The unique feature of this experiment is that it will be the first droplet combustion experiment to perform a detailed characterization of the flow inside a liquid fuel droplet. The experiment will use a relatively new technique called Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) to characterize the liquid flow. In this technique, very small (approx. 5-mm diameter) particles are dispersed throughout a liquid droplet. These particles are illuminated by a thin laser sheet. Images of the particle motion are recorded on a computer, which then tracks the motion of the particles to determine the flow characteristics.

  15. PSPTO_3380 and PSPTO_3381: A two-component system that influences the virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major factor in pathogenesis is the ability of the pathogen to respond and react to the host environment during the infection cycle. For bacteria, external stimuli are mainly sensed by two-component systems (TCS) composed of histidine kinases with external recognition domains and cytoplasmic respo...

  16. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  17. 3D-Membrane Stacks on Supported Membranes Composed of Diatom Lipids Induced by Long-Chain Polyamines.

    PubMed

    Gräb, Oliver; Abacilar, Maryna; Daus, Fabian; Geyer, Armin; Steinem, Claudia

    2016-10-04

    Long-chain polyamines (LCPAs) are intimately involved in the biomineralization process of diatoms taking place in silica deposition vesicles being acidic compartments surrounded by a lipid bilayer. Here, we addressed the question whether and how LCPAs interact with lipid membranes composed of glycerophospholipids and glyceroglycolipids mimicking the membranes of diatoms and higher plants. Solid supported lipid bilayers and monolayers containing the three major components that are unique in diatoms and higher plants, i.e., monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), were prepared by spreading small unilamellar vesicles. The integrity of the membranes was investigated by fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy showing continuous flat bilayers and monolayers with small protrusions on top of the membrane. The addition of a synthetic polyamine composed of 13 amine groups separated by a propyl spacer (C3N13) results in flat but three-dimensional membrane stacks within minutes. The membrane stacks are connected with the underlying membrane as verified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Membrane stack formation was found to be independent of the lipid composition; i.e., neither glyceroglycolipids nor negatively charged lipids were required. However, the formation process was strongly dependent on the chain length of the polyamine. Whereas short polyamines such as the naturally occurring spermidine, spermine, and the synthetic polyamines C3N4 and C3N5 do not induce stack formation, those containing seven and more amine groups (C3N7, C3N13, and C3N18) do form membrane stacks. The observed stack formation might have implications for the stability and expansion of the silica deposition vesicle during valve and girdle band formation in diatoms.

  18. "Convince Me!" Valuing Multimodal Literacies and Composing Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Richard J.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2008-01-01

    For some teachers, the increasing attention to digital and multimodal composing in English and Language Arts classrooms has brought into sharp relief the profession's investment in print as the primary means of expression. Although new forms of communication that combine words, still and moving images, and animation have begun to dominate digital…

  19. "Composing Visual History: Using Powerpoint Slideshows to Explore Historical Narrative"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehn, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This article explores PowerPoint slideshow's capacities for introducing history teachers and students to the pictorial and digital turns for representing and narrating the past. Based upon this research, the author argues that image-dominated PowerPoint slideshow provides teachers and students with a unique and powerful tool for composing and…

  20. Beyond the Enthymeme: Sorites, Critical Thinking, and the Composing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Carolyn

    A teacher presents a writing exercise designed to facilitate audience-directed, critical thinking during the process of composing, that starts students thinking in terms of sorites and enthymemes. Students first read a CIA manual, "Psychological Operations in Guerrilla Warfare," that instructs the Contra guerrillas in illegal acts and…

  1. Composing Cinquain Poems with Basic Parts of Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    The writing program described in this lesson plan guides students in grades 3 through 8 in composing cinquain poems, a five-line form that uses the syllable count of two-four-six-eight-two. During the two 50-minute lessons, students will: describe the basic conventions of cinquain; interpret examples of cinquain; characterize the relationship…

  2. Composing the Career Portfolio and the Classed Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I consider how subjectivities are composed and assessed within the boundaries of a career-focused portfolio program. First, by examining how portfolio composition is taught in senior English courses, I identify the qualities of the subject position students are called to occupy. Next, I present discourse analyses of portfolio…

  3. Preparing Performers and Composers for Effective Educational Work with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Music education programs stand to gain important benefits from the collaborative work of performing musicians with specialist music teachers and classroom teachers. To be effective, performers and composers must have their knowledge and skills for education cultivated within the context of their essential identities as musicians. Given…

  4. When Did Classic Composers Make Their Best Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franses, Philip Hans

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note shows that classic composers created their best works when they were at a similar age when creators in other domains did their best work, namely when they were at an age that represented around 60% of their life span. This finding is very similar to earlier results for painters and authors.

  5. Composing Songs for Teaching Science to College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee Pinn Tsin, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that songs may enhance learning as they function as mnemonic devices to increase memorability. In this research, songs based on the more difficult subtopics in Chemistry were composed, encompassing many formulas, equations and facts to be remembered. This technique of song composition can be used in any subject, any point…

  6. Teaching Effective Communication Skills with ACE: Analyzing, Composing, & Evaluating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa Gueldenzoph; Shwom, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Most business communication classes teach students to use a writing process to compose effective documents. Students practice the process by applying it to various types of writing with various purposes-reports, presentations, bad news letters, persuasive memos, etc. However, unless students practice that process in other contexts outside of the…

  7. Bactericidal Compounds Controlling Growth of the Plant Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Which Forms Biofilms Composed of a Novel Exopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ghods, Shirin; Sims, Ian M.; Moradali, M. Fata

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the major cause of bacterial canker and is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of the disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae, such as the pathogenicity-relevant formation of a biofilm composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs), are still unknown. Here, a highly virulent strain of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, NZ V-13, was studied with respect to biofilm formation and architecture using a flow cell system combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The biofilm formed by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 was heterogeneous, consisting of a thin cellular base layer 5 μm thick and microcolonies with irregular structures. The major component of the EPSs produced by P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 bacteria was isolated and identified to be an exopolysaccharide. Extensive compositional and structural analysis showed that rhamnose, fucose, and glucose were the major constituents, present at a ratio of 5:1.5:2. Experimental evidence that P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 produces two polysaccharides, a branched α-d-rhamnan with side chains of terminal α-d-Fucf and an α-d-1,4-linked glucan, was obtained. The susceptibility of the cells in biofilms to kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide was assessed. About 64 and 73% of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 cells in biofilms were killed when kasugamycin and chlorine dioxide were used at 5 and 10 ppm, respectively. Kasugamycin inhibited the attachment of P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 to solid surfaces at concentrations of 80 and 100 ppm. Kasugamycin was bacteriostatic against P. syringae pv. actinidiae NZ V-13 growth in the planktonic mode, with the MIC being 40 to 60 ppm and a bactericidal effect being found at 100 ppm. Here we studied the formation, architecture, and composition of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biofilms as well as used the biofilm as a model to assess the efficacies of bactericidal compounds. PMID:25841017

  8. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  9. Lipid flip-flop in binary membranes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Brown, Krystal L; Conboy, John C

    2013-12-05

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of lipid flip-flop in bilayers composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (DPPS) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) were studied using sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy. The kinetics of DSPC and DPPS flip-flop were examined as a function of temperature and bilayer composition. The rate of DSPC flip-flop did not exhibit any significant dependence on bilayer composition while the rate of DPPS flip-flop was inversely dependent on the mole fraction of DPPS. The transition-state thermodynamics for DSPC and DPPS lipids in these mixed bilayers were determined in order to identify the energetic impact of the phosphatidylserine headgroup on lipid flip-flop. The thermodynamics for the DSPC component remained statistically identical to bilayers composed entirely of DSPC. The activation energy for the DPPS component showed a linear correlation with the mole fraction of DPPS for all bilayer compositions. The enthalpy and entropy for DPPS flip-flop did not increase linearly with the fraction of DPPS but did directly correlate with the molecular area. The DPPS component also exhibited enthalpy-entropy compensation which suggests that lipid hydration may play a significant role in membrane dynamics.

  10. Modeling and Composing Scenario-Based Requirements with Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araujo, Joao; Whittle, Jon; Ki, Dae-Kyoo

    2004-01-01

    There has been significant recent interest, within the Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD) community, in representing crosscutting concerns at various stages of the software lifecycle. However, most of these efforts have concentrated on the design and implementation phases. We focus in this paper on representing aspects during use case modeling. In particular, we focus on scenario-based requirements and show how to compose aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios so that they can be simulated as a whole. Non-aspectual scenarios are modeled as UML sequence diagram. Aspectual scenarios are modeled as Interaction Pattern Specifications (IPS). In order to simulate them, the scenarios are transformed into a set of executable state machines using an existing state machine synthesis algorithm. Previous work composed aspectual and non-aspectual scenarios at the sequence diagram level. In this paper, the composition is done at the state machine level.

  11. 1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view, outbuildings. The seed house composed of the greenhouse, a storeroom (shed), a classroom (over a former ice pit), and a kitchen (over a cellar)-stands on the right. The barn roof is visible at center and the gift shop (former stable) stands on the left (Note the carved stone posts framing the gateway). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. PLZT block data composers operated in differential phase mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. D.; Klingler, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The use of a PLTZ block data composer as a matrix type phase modulator to record and process digital data by the differential phase mode in a holographic recording/processing system was investigated. The system has readout contrast ratios of between 10 and 15 to 1. The differential phase mode has the advantage that strain bias is not required and thickness and strain variations in the PLZT are cancelled out.

  13. Component Based Electronic Voting Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, David

    An electronic voting system may be said to be composed of a number of components, each of which has a number of properties. One of the most attractive effects of this way of thinking is that each component may have an attached in-depth threat analysis and verification strategy. Furthermore, the need to include the full system when making changes to a component is minimised and a model at this level can be turned into a lower-level implementation model where changes can cascade to as few parts of the implementation as possible.

  14. Photonic quantum well composed of photonic crystal and quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaohui; Zhu, Yiping; Wang, Lianwei; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-02-01

    A photonic quantum well structure composed of photonic crystal and Fibonacci quasicrystal is investigated by analyzing the transmission spectra and electric field distributions. The defect band in the photonic well can form confined quantized photonic states that can change in the band-gap of the photonic barriers by varying the thickness ratio of the two stacking layers. The number of confined states can be tuned by adjusting the period of the photonic well. The photons traverse the photonic quantum well by resonance tunneling and the coupling effect leads to the high transmission intensity of the confined photonic states.

  15. The clinician's guide to composing effective business plans.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Alan B; Blondell, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In today's challenging healthcare environment, clinicians need to understand the fundamentals of financial analysis, which are the underpinnings of their clinical programs, especially when seeking administrative support for new initiatives. The business plan for new clinical program initiatives is composed of diverse elements such as the mission statement, market and competitive analyses, operations plan, and financial analysis. Armed with a basic knowledge of financial analysis of clinical programs, as well as forward-looking analysis of an initiative's added value, the healthcare provider can work much more effectively with administration in developing or creating new healthcare program initiatives.

  16. Competitive inhibition of human organic anion transporters 1 (SLC22A6), 3 (SLC22A8) and 4 (SLC22A11) by major components of the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sweet, Douglas H

    2013-01-01

    When herbal products are used in combination therapy with drugs, alterations in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity can result. Many active components of herbal products are organic anions, and human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1, SLC22A6), hOAT3 (SLC22A8), and hOAT4 (SLC22A11) have been identified as potential sites of drug-drug interactions. Therefore, we assessed the effects of lithospermic acid (LSA), rosmarinic acid (RMA), salvianolic acid A (SAA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and tanshinol (TSL), components of the herbal medicine Danshen, on the function of these transporters. Kinetic analysis demonstrated a competitive mechanism of inhibition for all five. K(i) values (µM) were estimated as 20.8 ± 2.1 (LSA), 0.35 ± 0.06 (RMA), 5.6 ± 0.3 (SAA), 22.2 ± 1.9 (SAB), and 40.4 ± 12.9 (TSL) on hOAT1 and as 0.59 ± 0.26 (LSA), 0.55 ± 0.25 (RMA), 0.16 ± 0.03 (SAA), 19.8 ± 8.4 (SAB), and 8.6 ± 3.3 (TSL) on hOAT3. No significant inhibition of hOAT4 activity by TSL was observed. Using published human pharmacokinetic values, unbound C(max)/K(i) ratios were calculated as an indicator of in vivo drug-drug interaction potential. Analysis indicated a strong interaction potential for RMA and TSL on both hOAT1 and hOAT3 and for LSA on hOAT3. Thus, herb-drug interactions may occur in vivo in situations of co-administration of Danshen and clinical therapeutics known to be hOAT1/hOAT3 substrates.

  17. Efficient Non-interactive Universally Composable String-Commitment Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimaki, Ryo; Fujisaki, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Keisuke

    The universal composability (UC) for commitment is a very strong security notion. It guarantees that commitment schemes remain secure even if they are composed with arbitrary protocols and polynomially many copies of the schemes are run concurrently. Several UC commitment schemes in the common reference string (CRS) model have been proposed, but, they are either interactive commitment or bit-commitment (not string-commitment) schemes. We propose new non-interactive string-commitment schemes that achieve UC security in the CRS model assuming the difficulty of the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem or the decisional composite residuosity problem, but our schemes are not reusable. The main building blocks of our constructions are all-but-one trapdoor functions (ABO-TDFs) introduced by Peikert and Waters in STOC 2008 to construct secure public-key encryption schemes. Our main idea is to use the homomorphic properties of the function indices of the all-but-one trapdoor functions and to extend the functions to probabilistic ones by using re-randomization of ciphertexts. This is a new application of ABO-TDFs.

  18. Evaluation of the major female Eurytoma amygdali sex pheromone components, (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene for male attraction in field tests.

    PubMed

    Mazomenos, Basilis E; Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas; Milonas, Panagiotis

    2004-06-01

    We evaluated the attraction of male almond seed wasp Eurytoma amygdali to the synthetic alkadienes (Z,Z)-6,9-tricosadiene and (Z,Z)-6,9-pentacosadiene and their blend in almond orchards using baited rubber septa attached to cardboard rectangular adhesive traps. The two alkadienes were recently isolated from virgin female whole body extracts and SPME collected volatiles. The alkenes (Z)-9-tricosene, (Z)-9-pentacosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene, present in female extracts, were also added to the blend of the alkadienes and tested. The alkadienes tested individually attracted males when the traps were baited with doses ranging from 10 to 30 mg/trap. The maximum number of males was attracted to traps baited with 10 mg of a (Z,Z)-6,9-C(23:2):(Z,Z)-6,9-C(25:2) blend at a ratio of 7:3. Results with the three alkenes added to the blend were inconclusive because of low populations. The present study on E. amygdali is the first one reporting attraction of males to synthetic sex pheromone components in field trials for a Eurytomidae species. The synthetic alkadienes blend offers the potential to develop an effective system for monitoring populations of the almond seed wasp in almond orchards.

  19. Music and the Nature: Input of the Czech Composers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Vaclav; Nemcova, Lidmila

    2014-05-01

    Extraordinary occasions for art of any kind - music, creative graphic and plastic arts, literature (classic, modern incl. science fiction), theatre, cinema, etc. - exist to harmonise individual personal interests with those of the humanity well-being and of the Nature and also to cultivate individual spirituality and the appropriate values. Arts can be applied as irreplaceable means for making any human being better, for improving his sense for solidarity and for increasing his ethical sensibility. An interest for the art should be cultivated already since the childhood. - How much of inspiration for numerous composers all over the world has been given by the Nature, how much of inspiration for people who by listening to such a music are increasing nobility of their behaviour as well as their friendly approach to the Nature. - Many classical music works have been written with a strong inspiration by the Nature itself from the past until today. The actual Year of the Czech Music gives the possibility to present the most famous Czech composers inspired by the Nature (selected examples only): Bedřich Smetana (1824 - 1884): At the sea shore - a concert etude for piano inspired by his stay in Göteborg (Sweden); Vltava (Moldau) - a symphonic poem from the cycle "My country" inspired by the river crossing Bohemia from the South to Prague; From the Bohemian woods and meadows - another symphonic poem from the same cycle. Antonín Dvořák (1841 - 1904): V přírodě (In the Nature) - a work for orchestra Leoš Janáček (1854 - 1928): Příhody li\\vsky Bystrou\\vsky (The Cunning Little Vixen) - an opera situated mostly in a forest. Josef Bohuslav Foerster (1859-1951): Velké širé rodné lány (Big large native fields) - a choir for men singers inspired by the nature in the region where the composer as a boy from Prague was visiting his grand-father. Vítězslav Novák (1870 - 1949): In Tatra mountains - a symphonic poem expressing the author's passion for the famous

  20. Genes encoding two Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T-cells exhibit sequence diversity in South Sudanese cattle populations but the majority of alleles are similar to the Muguga component of the live vaccine cocktail

    PubMed Central

    Pelle, Roger; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Njahira, Moses N.; Marcellino, Wani L.; Kiara, Henry; Malak, Agol K.; EL Hussein, Abdel Rahim M.; Bishop, Richard; Skilton, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    East Coast fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva infection, is a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa, and an emerging disease in South Sudan. Immunization using the infection and treatment method (ITM) is increasingly being used for control in countries affected by ECF, but not yet in South Sudan. It has been reported that CD8+ T-cell lymphocytes specific for parasitized cells play a central role in the immunity induced by ITM and a number of T. parva antigens recognized by parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells have been identified. In this study we determined the sequence diversity among two of these antigens, Tp1 and Tp2, which are under evaluation as candidates for inclusion in a sub-unit vaccine. T. parva samples (n = 81) obtained from cattle in four geographical regions of South Sudan were studied for sequence polymorphism in partial sequences of the Tp1 and Tp2 genes. Eight positions (1.97%) in Tp1 and 78 positions (15.48%) in Tp2 were shown to be polymorphic, giving rise to four and 14 antigen variants in Tp1 and Tp2, respectively. The overall nucleotide diversity in the Tp1 and Tp2 genes was π = 1.65% and π = 4.76%, respectively. The parasites were sampled from regions approximately 300 km apart, but there was limited evidence for genetic differentiation between populations. Analyses of the sequences revealed limited numbers of amino acid polymorphisms both overall and in residues within the mapped CD8+ T-cell epitopes. Although novel epitopes were identified in the samples from South Sudan, a large number of the samples harboured several epitopes in both antigens that were similar to those in the T. parva Muguga reference stock, which is a key component in the widely used live vaccine cocktail. PMID:28231338

  1. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  2. Safer Design - Composable EHRs and Mechanisms for Safety.

    PubMed

    Senathirajah, Yalini

    2015-01-01

    As the deployment of health information technology progresses, issues of usability and safety, including the possibility of technology-induced errors have come to the fore. Increased complexity of care delivery models and emergent conditions such as the Ebola scare in the US point to the difficulty of design that allows for human cognitive limits while meeting complex needs. We previously described a modular composable approach to health information systems, which gives the end-user some control of design and allows for creation of systems meeting myriad and varied needs. Here we discuss how the different drag/drop interaction paradigm has implications for health IT safety via several mechanisms. These include display fragmentation and the need to changeably prioritize information elements, interruptions, fit to tasks and contexts, and rapid changeability allowing low-cost readjustments when lack of fit is found.

  3. Lyapunov instability of fluids composed of rigid diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzsák, István; Posch, H. A.; Baranyai, András

    1996-04-01

    We study the Lyapunov instability of a two-dimensional fluid composed of rigid diatomic molecules, with two interaction sites each, and interacting with a Weeks-Chandler-Anderson site-site potential. We compute full spectra of Lyapunov exponents for such a molecular system. These exponents characterize the rate at which neighboring trajectories diverge or converge exponentially in phase space. Qualitative different degrees of freedom, such as rotation and translation, affect the Lyapunov spectrum differently. We study this phenomenon by systematically varying the molecular shape and the density. We define and evaluate ``rotation numbers'' measuring the time averaged modulus of the angular velocities for vectors connecting perturbed satellite trajectories with an unperturbed reference trajectory in phase space. For reasons of comparison, various time correlation functions for translation and rotation are computed. The relative dynamics of perturbed trajectories is also studied in certain subspaces of the phase space associated with center-of-mass and orientational molecular motion.

  4. Second-order planar gradiometer composed of concentric superconductive loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kuriki, S.; Isobe, Y.; Mizutani, Y.

    1987-01-15

    A planar gradiometer composed of three concentric superconductive loops is analyzed. The gradiometer performs the second derivative with a rotational symmetry in a form of partial/sup 2/B/sub z//partialr/sup 2/, where r/sup 2/ = x/sup 2/+y/sup 2/. In response to the biomagnetic field generated by a current dipole, an isoflux line distribution which resembles well the magnetic field distribution is obtained. The location and the strength of the current-dipole source can readily be estimated from the isoflux pattern. Reduction of the magnetic field noise from distant sources with respect to the signal of a near source is calculated to be comparable with that of conventional axial gradiometers.

  5. Holographic material composed by dichromated gelatin with vanilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Perez, Arturo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Mauricio; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Ibarra, Juan C.; Fuentes-Tapia, Israel

    2003-05-01

    Dichromate gelatins are well known as good holographic materials. Now by doping this material with synthetic vanilla, a change in the spectral amplitude response is obtained. Due that the maximum absorption spectra from the dichromate ammonium is localized in UV region at λ = 390. With vanilla, the maximum spectral response is similar, exception for its optical density, reducing the exposure factor the order of 2 times. An important property with this mixture is the high resistance to humidity of the ambient. We have recorded some diffraciotn gratings, using the argon laser λ = 488 nm, which show good diffraction (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simply, only using solution composed of water and isopropyl alcohol, this process takes approximately one hour.

  6. COMPOSE-HPC: A Transformational Approach to Exascale

    SciTech Connect

    Bernholdt, David E; Allan, Benjamin A.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Chavarria-Miranda, Daniel; Dahlgren, Tamara L.; Elwasif, Wael R; Epperly, Tom; Foley, Samantha S; Hulette, Geoffrey C.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Prantl, Adrian; Panyala, Ajay; Sottile, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the COMPOSE-HPC project is to 'democratize' tools for automatic transformation of program source code so that it becomes tractable for the developers of scientific applications to create and use their own transformations reliably and safely. This paper describes our approach to this challenge, the creation of the KNOT tool chain, which includes tools for the creation of annotation languages to control the transformations (PAUL), to perform the transformations (ROTE), and optimization and code generation (BRAID), which can be used individually and in combination. We also provide examples of current and future uses of the KNOT tools, which include transforming code to use different programming models and environments, providing tests that can be used to detect errors in software or its execution, as well as composition of software written in different programming languages, or with different threading patterns.

  7. Exocytotic fusion pores are composed of both lipids and proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Huan; Goldschen-Ohm, Marcel; Jeggle, Pia; Chanda, Baron; Edwardson, J Michael; Chapman, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    During exocytosis, fusion pores form the first aqueous connection that allows escape of neurotransmitters and hormones from secretory vesicles. Although it is well established that SNARE proteins catalyze fusion, the structure and composition of fusion pores remain unknown. Here, we exploited the rigid framework and defined size of nanodiscs to interrogate the properties of reconstituted fusion pores, using the neurotransmitter glutamate as a content-mixing marker. Efficient Ca2+-stimulated bilayer fusion, and glutamate release, occurred with approximately two molecules of mouse synaptobrevin 2 reconstituted into ~6-nm nanodiscs. The transmembrane domains of SNARE proteins assumed distinct roles in lipid mixing versus content release and were exposed to polar solvent during fusion. Additionally, tryptophan substitutions at specific positions in these transmembrane domains decreased glutamate flux. Together, these findings indicate that the fusion pore is a hybrid structure composed of both lipids and proteins. PMID:26656855

  8. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  9. Separation and identification of major plant sphingolipid classes from leaves.

    PubMed

    Markham, Jonathan E; Li, Jia; Cahoon, Edgar B; Jaworski, Jan G

    2006-08-11

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane, tonoplast, and other endomembranes of plant cells. Previous compositional analyses have focused only on individual sphingolipid classes because of the widely differing polarities of plant sphingolipids. Consequently, the total content of sphingolipid classes in plants has yet to be quantified. In addition, the major polar sphingolipid class in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana has not been previously determined. In this report, we describe the separation and quantification of sphingolipid classes from A. thaliana leaves using hydrolysis of sphingolipids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of o-phthaldialdehyde derivatives of the released long-chain bases to monitor the separation steps. An extraction solvent that contained substantial proportions of water was used to solubilized >95% of the sphingolipids from leaves. Neutral and charged sphingolipids were then partitioned by anion exchange solid phase extraction. HPLC analysis of the charged lipid fraction from A. thaliana revealed only one major anionic sphingolipid class, which was identified by mass spectrometry as hexose-hexuronic-inositolphosphoceramide. The neutral sphingolipids were predominantly composed of monohexosylceramide with lesser amounts of ceramides. Extraction and separation of sphingolipids from soybean and tomato showed that, like A. thaliana, the neutral sphingolipids consisted of ceramide and monohexosylceramides; however, the major polar sphingolipid was found to be N-acetyl-hexosamine-hexuronic-inositolphosphoceramide. In extracts from A. thaliana leaves, hexosehexuronic-inositolphosphoceramides, monohexosylceramides, and ceramides accounted for approximately 64, 34, and 2% of the total sphingolipids, respectively, suggesting an important role for the anionic sphingolipids in plant membranes.

  10. Production of Metal-Free Composites Composed of Graphite Oxide and Oxidized Carbon Nitride Nanodots and Their Enhanced Photocatalytic Performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Yeon; Oh, Junghoon; Park, Sunghee; Shim, Yeonjun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-04

    A novel metal-free composite (GN) composed of two types of carbon-based nanomaterials, graphite oxide (GO) and 2D oxidized carbon nitride (OCN) nanodots was produced. Chemical and morphological characterizations reveal that GN contains a main component of GO with well-dispersed 2D OCN nanodots. GN shows enhanced photocatalytic performance for degrading an organic pollutant, Rhodamine B, under visible light.

  11. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  12. Adult cutaneous hemangiomas are composed of nonreplicating endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tuder, R M; Young, R; Karasek, M; Bensch, K

    1987-12-01

    Thirty-four human "cherry" dermal hemangiomas were studied by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and cell culture to assess the neoplastic nature of these lesions. Electron microscopy of nine hemangiomas revealed a pronounced thickening of the basement membrane (0.6 to 14 micron) in 93% of the total 158 vascular structures examined within the lesions. This increase was caused mainly by multiple layers of basal lamina, which were irregular in outline and frequently associated with pericytes. Basement membrane changes were present both in the periphery of the hemangiomas, as well as in the center of the lesions. Immature vessels could not be identified and mitoses were absent in all endothelial cells. Using an immunohistochemical marker (Ki67) specific for proliferating cells in G2 and S phases, positive staining was not found in the endothelial cells lining the hemangiomatous vessels, whereas basal epidermal keratinocytes in the same preparations and cultured microvascular endothelial cells expressed the antigen. Endothelial cells of nine hemangiomas did not stain with an activation-related antibody (E12) specific for endothelial cells. When endothelial cells from 14 hemangiomas were isolated and cultured under conditions that support the growth of normal human skin microvascular endothelial cells, the cells of hemangiomatous origin failed to grow. We conclude that the adult hemangiomas may not be true neoplasms, but a tissue overgrowth composed of mature vessels resembling dermal venules, lined by endothelial cells with virtually no turnover.

  13. Composable Analytic Systems for next-generation intelligence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBona, Phil; Llinas, James; Barry, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is collaborating with Professor James Llinas, Ph.D., of the Center for Multisource Information Fusion at the University at Buffalo (State of NY), researching concepts for a mixed-initiative associate system for intelligence analysts to facilitate reduced analysis and decision times while proactively discovering and presenting relevant information based on the analyst's needs, current tasks and cognitive state. Today's exploitation and analysis systems have largely been designed for a specific sensor, data type, and operational context, leading to difficulty in directly supporting the analyst's evolving tasking and work product development preferences across complex Operational Environments. Our interactions with analysts illuminate the need to impact the information fusion, exploitation, and analysis capabilities in a variety of ways, including understanding data options, algorithm composition, hypothesis validation, and work product development. Composable Analytic Systems, an analyst-driven system that increases flexibility and capability to effectively utilize Multi-INT fusion and analytics tailored to the analyst's mission needs, holds promise to addresses the current and future intelligence analysis needs, as US forces engage threats in contested and denied environments.

  14. FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George

    The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.

  15. [Alexander Borodin--physician, chemist, scientist, teacher and composer].

    PubMed

    Vik, T

    1998-12-10

    Concert programmes and CD covers suggest that the Russian composer Alexander Borodin (1833-87) was also a great scientist. In this article we examine this proposition. Borodin was born in St. Petersburg as the illegitimate son of a Russian nobleman. As a boy his talents ranged from music to chemistry and languages. Borodin studied medicine at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg from 1850 to 1855 and defended his doctoral thesis on the similarity between arsenic and phosphoric acid in 1858. He did not, however, feel comfortable in his role as a doctor, and soon started to work as a chemist. In 1864 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Medico-Surgical Academy. In 1861, Borodin attended the first international congress of chemistry in Karlsruhe, and he was among the founders of the Russian Chemical Society in 1868. He published 42 articles and was a friend of Dmitri Mendeleev, the scientist who described the periodic system. In 1872, Borodin started the first medical courses for women in Russia. It seems warranted to conclude that Alexander Borodin was indeed a great scientist and university teacher, though his immortality was earned by his leisure time activities.

  16. Implementation of Kane's Method for a Spacecraft Composed of Multiple Rigid Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoneking, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Equations of motion are derived for a general spacecraft composed of rigid bodies connected via rotary (spherical or gimballed) joints in a tree topology. Several supporting concepts are developed in depth. Basis dyads aid in the transition from basis-free vector equations to component-wise equations. Joint partials allow abstraction of 1-DOF, 2-DOF, 3-DOF gimballed and spherical rotational joints to a common notation. The basic building block consisting of an "inner" body and an "outer" body connected by a joint enables efficient organization of arbitrary tree structures. Kane's equation is recast in a form which facilitates systematic assembly of large systems of equations, and exposes a relationship of Kane's equation to Newton and Euler's equations which is obscured by the usual presentation. The resulting system of dynamic equations is of minimum dimension, and is suitable for numerical solution by computer. Implementation is ·discussed, and illustrative simulation results are presented.

  17. The seminal symphony: how to compose an ejaculate

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Jennifer C.; Sirot, Laura; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Ejaculates are fundamental to fitness in sexually-reproducing animals: males gain all their direct fitness via the ejaculate and females require ejaculates to reproduce. Both sperm and non-sperm components of the ejaculate (including parasperm, seminal proteins, water and macromolecules) play vital roles in post-copulatory sexual selection and conflict, processes that can potentially drive rapid evolutionary change and reproductive isolation. Here, we assess the increasing evidence that considering ejaculate composition as a whole – and potential trade-offs among ejaculate components – has important consequences for predictions about male reproductive investment and female responses to ejaculates. We review current theory and empirical work, and detail how social and environmental effects on ejaculate composition have potentially far-reaching fitness consequences for both sexes. PMID:23582755

  18. Component Technology for Laser Plasma Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Bosl, W J; Smith, S G; Dahlgren, T; Epperley, T; Kohn, S; Kumfert, G

    2002-06-17

    This paper will discuss the application of high performance component software technology developed for a complex physics simulation development effort. The primary tool used to build software components is called Babel and is used to create language-independent libraries for high performance computers. Components were constructed from legacy code and wrapped with a thin Python layer to enable run-time scripting. Low-level components in Fortran, C++, and Python were composed directly as Babel components and invoked interactively from a parallel Python script.

  19. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment.

    PubMed

    Simi, Manuele; Campagne, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  20. Composable languages for bioinformatics: the NYoSh experiment

    PubMed Central

    Simi, Manuele

    2014-01-01

    Language WorkBenches (LWBs) are software engineering tools that help domain experts develop solutions to various classes of problems. Some of these tools focus on non-technical users and provide languages to help organize knowledge while other workbenches provide means to create new programming languages. A key advantage of language workbenches is that they support the seamless composition of independently developed languages. This capability is useful when developing programs that can benefit from different levels of abstraction. We reasoned that language workbenches could be useful to develop bioinformatics software solutions. In order to evaluate the potential of language workbenches in bioinformatics, we tested a prominent workbench by developing an alternative to shell scripting. To illustrate what LWBs and Language Composition can bring to bioinformatics, we report on our design and development of NYoSh (Not Your ordinary Shell). NYoSh was implemented as a collection of languages that can be composed to write programs as expressive and concise as shell scripts. This manuscript offers a concrete illustration of the advantages and current minor drawbacks of using the MPS LWB. For instance, we found that we could implement an environment-aware editor for NYoSh that can assist the programmers when developing scripts for specific execution environments. This editor further provides semantic error detection and can be compiled interactively with an automatic build and deployment system. In contrast to shell scripts, NYoSh scripts can be written in a modern development environment, supporting context dependent intentions and can be extended seamlessly by end-users with new abstractions and language constructs. We further illustrate language extension and composition with LWBs by presenting a tight integration of NYoSh scripts with the GobyWeb system. The NYoSh Workbench prototype, which implements a fully featured integrated development environment for NYoSh is

  1. Blood Component Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kelton, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Human blood has been transfused for about 60-70 years. Over this time, the practice of blood transfusion has changed dramatically. One major change is the separation of blood into its various components. As a result, the patient can receive only the blood component in which he is deficient. In this way, the risk of side effects—particularly hepatitis—is lessened. This article briefly reviews the various blood products, the indications for their use, and some associated risks. These products include oxygen-carrying products, plasma products, blood products used to correct hemostatic defects, and immune globulin. PMID:21279096

  2. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  3. Rapid peptide metabolism: A major component of soil nitrogen cycling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Mark; Hill, Paul W.; Wanniarachchi, Sudas D.; Farrar, John; Bardgett, Richard D.; Jones, Davey L.

    2011-09-01

    Proteinaceous and peptidic nitrogen is a potential direct nutrient source for both plants and microbes in the soil, without prior degradation to amino acids and mineralization. We used a series of five sites along an elevation gradient from 15 m a.s.l. to 710 m a.s.l. along which primary productivity decreases to investigate peptide utilization rates by soil microbes. Using 14C-labeled L-alanine, L-dialanine, and L-trialanine in a series of incubation experiments, we show that peptides are directly and rapidly assimilated by soil microbes, and that they are utilized for both biomass production and respiration. Alanine, dialanine, and trialanine were mineralized rapidly by soil microbes from the five sites along the gradient. Across all five sites, dialanine and trialanine were mineralized faster than alanine. In competition experiments, a 100-fold excess of alanine had no effect on the rate of trialanine mineralization in four of the five sites, and the same excess of trialanine had no effect on alanine mineralization. This is indicative of uptake of the intact peptide by the soil microbial community. Our findings have implications for understanding terrestrial nitrogen cycling because they point to a short-circuit whereby large peptides and proteins need only be extracellularly cleaved to short chain length peptides before direct assimilation by microbes.

  4. The Distribution of Major Carbonaceous Components in Chondritic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Farley, C.; Cheung, J. C. H.

    2017-02-01

    With the use of Raman spectroscopy we present a study of the structure of the organic matter in the matrix and carbonate phases in five CM chondrites: Jbilet Winselwan, Murchison, Nogoya, Santa Cruz, and Wisconsin Range 91600.

  5. Microsatellite amplification in plants: optimization procedure of major PCR components.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Sana; Hasnaoui, Nejib

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites (SSRs) are the most informative and popular class of molecular markers used for diverse purposes, particularly in plants: genetic diversity study, marker assisted selection, breeding, mapping, phylogenetics and phylogeography, systematics, etc. They have become a routine technique practically in each laboratory for studying molecular plant genetics. Despite their wide utilization, however, setup and optimization of various conditions involved in PCR amplification is a prerequisite for reliable inference of results. In this chapter, we describe optimization of SSR-PCR conditions and give ranges of concentrations for different parameters. The protocol provided here is inspired from bench work on the use of microsatellite to study diversity of Vitis vinifera germplasm.

  6. Principles of moment distribution applied to stability of structures composed of bars or plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z; Schuette, Evan H

    1943-01-01

    Principles of the cross method of moment distribution, which have previously been applied to the stability of structures composed of bars under axial load, are applied to the stability of structures composed of long plates under longitudinal load.

  7. Designing a Composable Geometric Toolkit for Versatility in Applications to Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Gregory S.; Campbell, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Conceived and implemented through the development of probabilistic risk assessment simulations for Project Constellation, the Geometric Toolkit allows users to create, analyze, and visualize relationships between geometric shapes in three-space using the MATLAB computing environment. The key output of the toolkit is an analysis of how emanations from one "source" geometry (e.g., a leak in a pipe) will affect another "target" geometry (e.g., another heat-sensitive component). It can import computer-aided design (CAD) depictions of a system to be analyzed, allowing the user to reliably and easily represent components within the design and determine the relationships between them, ultimately supporting more technical or physics-based simulations that use the toolkit. We opted to develop a variety of modular, interconnecting software tools to extend the scope of the toolkit, providing the capability to support a range of applications. This concept of simulation composability allows specially-developed tools to be reused by assembling them in various combinations. As a result, the concepts described here and implemented in this toolkit have a wide range of applications outside the domain of risk assessment. To that end, the Geometric Toolkit has been evaluated for use in other unrelated applications due to the advantages provided by its underlying design.

  8. Optical Properties of Internally Mixed Aerosol Particles Composed of Dicarboxylic Acids and Ammonium Sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Miriam A.; Hasenkopf, Christa A.; Beaver, Melinda R.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of internally mixed aerosol particles composed of dicarboxylic acids and ammonium sulfate using cavity ring-down aerosol extinction spectroscopy at a wavelength of 532 nm. The real refractive indices of these nonabsorbing species were retrieved from the extinction and concentration of the particles using Mie scattering theory. We obtain refractive indices for pure ammonium sulfate and pure dicarboxylic acids that are consistent with literature values, where they exist, to within experimental error. For mixed particles, however, our data deviates significantly from a volume-weighted average of the pure components. Surprisingly, the real refractive indices of internal mixtures of succinic acid and ammonium sulfate are higher than either of the pure components at the highest organic weight fractions. For binary internal mixtures of oxalic or adipic acid with ammonium sulfate, the real refractive indices of the mixtures are approximately the same as ammonium sulfate for all organic weight fractions. Various optical mixing rules for homogeneous and slightly heterogeneous systems fail to explain the experimental real refractive indices. It is likely that complex particle morphologies are responsible for the observed behavior of the mixed particles. Implications of our results for atmospheric modeling and aerosol structure are discussed.

  9. Characterization of planar biomimetic lipid films composed of phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylglycerols from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Konarzewska, Dorota; Juhaniewicz, Joanna; Güzeloğlu, Alişan; Sęk, Sławomir

    2017-03-01

    We have characterized planar lipid films composed of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and phosphatidylglycerols (PG) from E. coli bacteria. The nature of the interactions and miscibility of PE and PG components within mixed lipid films was evaluated based on surface pressure measurements and Brewster angle microscopy imaging at the air-water interface. We have found that PE and PG components show tendency to form separated domains at surface pressures relevant for biological membranes. Further, we have directly compared mechanisms of formation of supported lipid bilayers either on mica or Au(111) by spreading of small unilamellar vesicles. The bilayer formation was monitored by in situ atomic force microscopy imaging. The pathways of the vesicles spreading on each substrate are substantially different and the buildup of the bilayer on Au(111) occurs through complex multistep mechanism. The morphology and nanomechanical properties of the resulting PE/PG bilayers were thoroughly compared. We have found that the interactions between lipids and supporting substrate significantly affect molecular organization within the films since the bilayer on Au(111) is uniform in terms of the topography, while the same lipid composition on mica results in formation of distinct gel and liquid disordered domains. Different molecular organization affects also nanomechanical properties of lipid films. The latter were expressed in terms of Young's moduli and bending stiffness.

  10. Rethinking Joseph Janangelo's "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Composition and Communication, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents several excerpts from an article written by Joseph Janangelo titled "Joseph Cornell and the Artistry of Composing Persuasive Hypertexts." In his article, Janangelo suggested that Cornell's work and ideas about composing model intelligent ways to composing persuasive nonsequential text. Janangelo also wondered if the use of…

  11. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  12. Trends, Vibes, and Energies: Building on Students' Strengths in Visual Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtyka, Faith

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the composing practices of two members of a social sorority who use visual images on the media of Tumblr and YouTube to teach potential new members about the kind of sorority experience they will have. From interviews with these composers and analyses of the artifacts they create, I distill three composing principles used to…

  13. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  14. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 303.24 Section 303.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  15. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  16. Novel electronic structures of superlattice composed of graphene and silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Li, X.D.; Wu, S.Q.; Wen, Y.H.; Zhou, S.; Zhu, Z.Z.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Graphene/silicene superlattices exhibit metallic electronic properties. • Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point in the superlattice system. • Significant changes in the transport properties of the graphene layers are expected. • Small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers is found. - Abstract: Superlattice is a major force in providing man-made materials with unique properties. Here we report a study of the structural and electronic properties of a superlattice made with alternate stacking of graphene and hexagonal silicene. Three possible stacking models, i.e., the top-, bridge- and hollow-stacking, are considered. The top-stacking is found to be the most stable pattern. Although both the free-standing graphene and silicene are semi-metals, our results suggest that the graphene and silicene layers in the superlattice both exhibit metallic electronic properties due to a small amount of charge transfer from the graphene to the silicene layers. More importantly, the Dirac point of graphene is folded to the Γ-point of the superlattice, instead of the K-point in the isolated graphene. Such a change in the Dirac point of graphene could lead to significant change in the transportation property of the graphene layer. Moreover, the band structure and the charge transfer indicate that the interaction between the stacking sheets in the graphene/silicene superlattice is more than just the van der Waals interaction.

  17. Paraxial analysis of zoom lens composed of three tunable-focus elements with fixed position of image-space focal point and object-image distance.

    PubMed

    Miks, Antonin; Novak, Jiri

    2014-11-03

    This work performs a paraxial analysis of three-component zoom lens with a fixed position of image-space focal point and a distance between object and image points, which is composed of three tunable-focus elements. Formulas for the calculation of paraxial parameters of such optical systems are derived and the calculation is presented on examples.

  18. Freshman Biology Majors' Misconceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, A. Louis; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The data for this study were obtained from a sample of 117 biology majors enrolled in an introductory biology course. The Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test, composed of 12 two-tier items, was administered to the students. Among the major findings are: (1) there was no significant difference in scores of male and female students; (2) math…

  19. All-optical flip-flop composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrampour, A. R.; Mohammad Ali Mirzaee, S.; Farman, F.; Zakeri, S. S.

    2009-02-01

    Microrings can have different hysteresis characteristics at their different resonance frequencies. They can be used as a multi-hysteresis optical component. In this paper an optical D-flip-flop circuit composed of a single nonlinear passive microring coupled to two straight waveguide based on the Kerr effect is proposed. The proposed circuit can operate as an optical digital circuit which synchronizes input DATA with the CLOCK of the circuit. A simple analytical model for hysteresis design and the transient analysis of the proposed D-flip-flop are presented. According to our model, the switching time of the flip-flop is in the order of 10 ps.

  20. Discovering endophenotypes for major depression.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Gregor; Drevets, Wayne C; Manji, Husseini K; Charney, Dennis S

    2004-10-01

    The limited success of genetic studies of major depression has raised questions concerning the definition of genetically relevant phenotypes. This paper presents strategies to improve the phenotypic definition of major depression by proposing endophenotypes at two levels: First, dissecting the depressive phenotype into key components results in narrow definitions of putative psychopathological endophenotypes: mood bias toward negative emotions, impaired reward function, impaired learning and memory, neurovegetative signs, impaired diurnal variation, impaired executive cognitive function, psychomotor change, and increased stress sensitivity. A review of the recent literature on neurobiological and genetic findings associated with these components is given. Second, the most consistent heritable biological markers of major depression are proposed as biological endophenotypes for genetic studies: REM sleep abnormalities, functional and structural brain abnormalities, dysfunctions in serotonergic, catecholaminergic, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and CRH systems, and intracellular signal transduction endophenotypes. The associations among the psychopathological and biological endophenotypes are discussed with respect to specificity, temporal stability, heritability, familiality, and clinical and biological plausibility. Finally, the case is made for the development of a new classification system in order to reduce the heterogeneity of depression representing a major impediment to elucidating the genetic and neurobiological basis of this common, severe, and often life-threatening illness.

  1. Novel coprocessed excipients composed of lactose, HPMC, and PVPP for tableting and its application.

    PubMed

    Wang, SongTao; Li, JinZhi; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi; Kou, Xiang; Babu, Sreehari; Panicucci, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    New coprocessed excipients composed of α-lactose monohydrate (a filler), HPMC E3 (a binder), and PVPP (a superdisintegrant) were developed by spray drying in this study to improve the tableting properties of lactose. Factors affecting the properties of the coprocessed excipients were investigated by a 3 × 3 × 2 factorial design. These factors include lactose grade (90 M, 200 M, and 450 M), percentage of HPMC (3.5%, 7.0%, and 10.5%), and percentage of PVPP (0% and 3.5%). The results show that the compactability of the excipients could be significantly improved by increasing either the percentage of HPMC or the primary particle size of lactose. The addition of 3.5% PVPP had little effect on the compactability, but significantly improved the disintegration ability. The developed coprocessed excipients have much lower yield pressures and much higher working efficiency during tableting compared to the main raw material (α-lactose monohydrate). These improvements are mainly attributed to the addition of HPMC and the proximately 30% amorphous lactose formed during process. Both HPMC and amorphous lactose were homogeneously distributed on the surface of the secondary particles, maximizing their effect. Furthermore, the low hygroscopicity and high glass transition temperature of HPMC led to a high yield. The drug loading capacity of the newly coprocessed excipients is also excellent. In summary, the tri-component coprocessed excipients investigated are promising and worthy of further development.

  2. The Brain Functional State of Music Creation: an fMRI Study of Composers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Xingxing; He, Hui; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-07-23

    In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the functional networks in professional composers during the creation of music. We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. However, significantly stronger functional connectivity appeared between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the right angular gyrus and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus during composition. These findings indicate that a specific brain state of musical creation is formed when professional composers are composing, in which the integration of the primary visual and motor areas is not necessary. Instead, the neurons of these areas are recruited to enhance the functional connectivity between the ACC and the default mode network (DMN) to plan the integration of musical notes with emotion.

  3. Composable Flexible Real-time Packet Scheduling for Networks on-Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    should not affect the behaviors of existing applications. In this paper , we propose a composable and flexible work-conserving packet scheduling...to be composable in the sense that new incoming applications should not affect the behaviors of existing applications. In this paper , we propose a...words, real-time flows need to be composable. We set this as the design goal for our packet scheduling discipline developed in this paper . B. Motivating

  4. A genetic method for generating Drosophila eyes composed exclusively of mitotic clones of a single genotype.

    PubMed Central

    Stowers, R S; Schwarz, T L

    1999-01-01

    The genetic analysis of a gene at a late developmental stage can be impeded if the gene is required at an earlier developmental stage. The construction of mosaic animals, particularly in Drosophila, has been a means to overcome this obstacle. However, the phenotypic analysis of mitotic clones is often complicated because standard methods for generating mitotic clones render mosaic tissues that are a composite of both mutant and phenotypically normal cells. We describe here a genetic method (called EGUF/hid) that uses both the GAL4/UAS and FLP/FRT systems to overcome this limitation for the Drosophila eye by producing genetically mosaic flies that are otherwise heterozygous but in which the eye is composed exclusively of cells homozygous for one of the five major chromosome arms. These eyes are nearly wild type in size, morphology, and physiology. Applications of this genetic method include phenotypic analysis of existing mutations and F(1) genetic screens to identify as yet unknown genes involved in the biology of the fly eye. We illustrate the utility of the method by applying it to lethal mutations in the synaptic transmission genes synaptotagmin and syntaxin. PMID:10430588

  5. Blending materials composed of boron, nitrogen and carbon to transform approaches to liquid hydrogen stores

    SciTech Connect

    Whittemore, Sean M.; Bowden, Mark; Karkamkar, Abhijeet; Parab, Kshitij; Neiner, Doinita; Autrey, Tom; Ishibashi, Jacob S. A.; Chen, Gang; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Dixon, David A.

    2015-12-02

    Energy storage remains a key challenge for the advancement of fuel cell applications. Because of this, hydrogen has garnered much research attention for its potential as an energy carrier. This can be attributed to its abundance from non-petroleum sources, and its energy conversion efficiency. Our group, among others, has been studying the use of ammonia borane as a chemical hydrogen storage material for the past several years. Ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3), a solid state complex composed of the light weight main group elements of nitrogen and boron, is isoelectronic with ethane and as such is an attractive hydrogen storage material with a high gravimetric capacity of H2 (19.6 wt%). However, the widespread use of AB as a chemical hydrogen storage material has been stalled by some undesirable properties and reactivity. Most notably, AB is a solid and this presents compatibility issues with the existing liquid fuel infrastructure. The thermal release of H2 from AB also results in the formation of volatile impurities (borazine and ammonia) that are detrimental to operation of the fuel cell. Additionally, the major products in the spent fuel are polyborazylene and amine borane oligomers that present challenges in regenerating AB. This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. Treatment of ingrown nail with a special device composed of shape-memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Won; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hee; Lee, Dong-Youn; Lee, Joo-Heung; Yang, Jun-Mo

    2014-04-01

    Ingrown nail is a common nail problem resulting in pain and disability in daily life. Recently, a new treatment modality for an ingrown nail was reported that used a device composed of shape-memory alloy, K-D. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficacy, recurrence rate and complications of K-D. Between June 2010 and September 2012, 24 patients (31 nails) underwent treatment of symptomatic incurved nails with a K-D. Patients were evaluated at pretreatment and during every visit. The mean age of the patients involved was 43.4 years. The mean period of follow up was 161 days. The mean maintenance period was 41 days. The right first toenail was the most common site. Almost ingrown nails healed and the nail deformity was corrected after the procedure. Among the 31 nails, seven of the ingrown nails recurred during follow up (22.6% recurrence rate). The recurrence rate of the patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 ingrown nails was 22.2%, 33.3% and 14.2%, respectively. The majority of patients were very satisfied. There were no side-effects in most patients except loss of nail in one patient. K-D has some advantages such as simple application steps, no deformity after the procedure, high patient satisfaction and obvious effect compared to other non-invasive and invasive methods.

  7. Structural characterization of the enzymes composing the arginine deiminase pathway in Mycoplasma penetrans.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Pablo; Planell, Raquel; Benach, Jordi; Querol, Enrique; Perez-Pons, Josep A; Reverter, David

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arginine towards ATP synthesis has been considered a major source of energy for microorganisms such as Mycoplasma penetrans in anaerobic conditions. Additionally, this pathway has also been implicated in pathogenic and virulence mechanism of certain microorganisms, i.e. protection from acidic stress during infection. In this work we present the crystal structures of the three enzymes composing the gene cluster of the arginine deiminase pathway from M. penetrans: arginine deiminase (ADI), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) and carbamate kinase (CK). The arginine deiminase (ADI) structure has been refined to 2.3 Å resolution in its apo-form, displaying an "open" conformation of the active site of the enzyme in comparison to previous complex structures with substrate intermediates. The active site pocket of ADI is empty, with some of the catalytic and binding residues far from their active positions, suggesting major conformational changes upon substrate binding. Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) has been refined in two crystal forms at 2.5 Å and 2.6 Å resolution, respectively, both displaying an identical dodecameric structure with a 23-point symmetry. The dodecameric structure of OTC represents the highest level of organization in this protein family and in M.penetrans it is constituted by a novel interface between the four catalytic homotrimers. Carbamate kinase (CK) has been refined to 2.5 Å resolution and its structure is characterized by the presence of two ion sulfates in the active site, one in the carbamoyl phosphate binding site and the other in the β-phosphate ADP binding pocket of the enzyme. The CK structure also shows variations in some of the elements that regulate the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The relatively low number of metabolic pathways and the relevance in human pathogenesis of Mycoplasma penetrans places the arginine deiminase pathway enzymes as potential targets to design specific inhibitors against this human

  8. Cognitive Components of Developmental Writing Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Roberts, Kristin L.; Stafford, Allison L.; Eckert, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant number of studies have examined the cognitive components of basic academic skills, which has led to major changes in both teaching and early identification assessment practices. However, the majority of previous research has focused solely on reading. This study examines the cognitive components of academic writing skills across…

  9. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For...

  10. Multi-Draft Composing: An Iterative Model for Academic Argument Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Grant; Chariton, Jessica; McCollum, Robb Mark

    2011-01-01

    Post-secondary writing teachers in composition and English as a second language (ESL) writing programs are likely familiar with multi-draft composing. Both composition and ESL writing programs share nearly identical multi-draft models despite the very unique and different cultures of each group. We argue that multi-draft composing as it is…

  11. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  12. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  13. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  14. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (2) Where the product contains chiefly rayon as well as woolen fibers in the minimum percentage designated for recycled wool: Made of Miscellaneous Cloth Scraps Composed Chiefly of Rayon With Minimum of __% Recycled Wool. (3) Where the product is composed chiefly of a mixture of cotton and rayon as well as...

  15. Rethinking Composing in a Digital Age: Authoring Literate Identities through Multimodal Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasudevan, Lalitha; Schultz, Katherine; Bateman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors engage the theoretical lens of multimodality in rethinking the practices and processes of composing in classrooms. Specifically, they focus on how learning new composing practices led some fifth-grade students to author new literate identities--what they call authorial stances--in their classroom community. Their…

  16. Multimodal Composing in Classrooms: Learning and Teaching for the Digital World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M., Ed.; McVee, Mary B., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Taking a close look at multimodal composing as an essential new literacy in schools, this volume draws from contextualized case studies across educational contexts to provide detailed portraits of teachers and students at work in classrooms. Authors elaborate key issues in transforming classrooms with student multimodal composing, including…

  17. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 300.26 Section 300.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF... and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  18. Making Judgements: Investigating the Process of Composing and Receiving Peer Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConlogue, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have argued that tutor feedback is failing to support students' progression. The potential for peer feedback, i.e. feedback composed by peer assessors, to support learning has been under researched. The aim of this paper was to explore a case study of a peer assessor composing and receiving peer feedback. The paper reports a case…

  19. Major appliance management report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.; O`Donnell, K.F.

    1990-07-15

    Major appliances (also called `white goods`) have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly apparent that major appliances are not easily or best managed along with MSW. Indiscriminate disposal of major appliances can cause environmental problems and unnecessary use of scarce landfill space as well as wasting valuable recyclable materials. In recognition of these factors, the 1989 Minnesota Legislature took a number of steps to shift the management of major appliances towards separate handling and recycling.

  20. Histological and genetic evidence for a variant of superficial spreading melanoma composed predominantly of large nests.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Heinz; Metzler, Gisela; Argenyi, Zsolt; Requena, Luis; Palmedo, Gabriele; Mentzel, Thomas; Rütten, Arno; Hantschke, Markus; Paredes, Bruno E; Schärer, Leo; Hesse, Benedikt; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Shabrawi-Caelen, Leila El; Fried, Isabella; Kerl, Helmut; Lorenzo, Cerroni; Murali, Rajmohan; Wiesner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are characterized by a range of histological appearances, and several morphological variants have been described. In this study, we report a variant of superficial spreading melanoma that is characterized by large, irregular junctional melanocytic nests. The junctional nests varied in shape and size, showed focal tendency to confluence, and were often surrounded by a cuff of epidermal keratinocytes. The melanocytes comprising the nests showed variable cytological atypia. In most of the cases, scant intraepidermal or junctional single melanocytes were seen, and other well-documented diagnostic criteria for melanoma were lacking, and as a result, histological recognition of these tumors as melanoma was difficult. Some cases were associated with an invasive dermal component or showed evidence of sun damage. To provide supporting evidence for malignancy, we analyzed these tumors for genomic aberrations. Using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), we identified multiple genomic aberrations in all analyzed cases. A similar pattern of genomic aberrations was seen in a control group of bona fide superficial spreading melanomas, suggesting that these 'melanomas composed exclusively or predominantly of large nests' are indeed variants of superficial spreading melanoma. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) was positive in 40% of the cases. However, using aCGH, the FISH-negative cases showed multiple genomic aberrations in regions that are not covered by FISH. The low sensitivity of the FISH test can be explained by the fact that FISH only evaluates four genomic loci for aberrations, whereas aCGH surveys the entire genome. In summary, we present histological and molecular genetic evidence for a morphological variant of superficial spreading melanoma. Awareness of the histological features will aid in their correct diagnosis as melanoma, and in difficult cases, judicious application of ancillary tests such as aCGH (rather than FISH) will

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of spectral albedo for artificial snowpacks composed of spherical and nonspherical particles.

    PubMed

    Tanikawa, Tomonori; Aoki, Teruo; Hori, Masahiro; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Abe, Osamu; Aniya, Masamu

    2006-07-20

    The optical properties of snowpacks composed of spherical and nonspherical particles artificially prepared in a cold laboratory are investigated by measuring spectral albedos. The measured spectral albedo in the spectral region lambda=0.35-2.5 microm is compared with the theoretically calculated albedo, for which a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model is employed for multiple scattering combined with the Mie theory and the ray-tracing technique for single scattering by snow particles. Since the spherical particles are a little aggregate, the effects of a cluster of the spheres on snow albedo are examined using a generalized multiparticle Mie-solution model [Appl. Opt. 34, 4573 (1995); J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 79-80, 1121 (2003)]. The snow albedo of a cluster of the spheres can be represented with that of the singe sphere slightly larger than its component of the cluster in case of small grains. The observed albedos for the spherical snow particles agree with the theoretically calculated ones for the snow grain size measured in the snow pit work. The snow albedos for the nonspherical particles, which were dendrites, are influenced by the branch width and the branch length, based on a comparison of the theoretically calculated albedo by using circular cylindrical snow particles and the observed albedo. The snow albedo in the near-infrared region depends on the branch width only when the branch length is sufficiently greater than the branch width. The comparison between the spherical and nonspherical snow particles indicates that the spectral albedo of the nonspherical particles can be represented by using an equal volume-area ratio sphere.

  2. Unmasking the effect of a precipitation pulse on the biological processes composing Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Sanchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Serrano-Ortiz, Penelope; Oyonarte, Cecilio; Kowalski, Andrew S.; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Domingo, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Drylands occupy 47.2% of the global terrestrial area and are key ecosystems that significantly determine the inter-annual variability of the global carbon balance. However, it is still necessary to delve into the functional behavior of arid and semiarid ecosystems due to the complexity of drivers and interactions between underpinning processes (whether biological or abiotic) that modulate net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE). In this context, water inputs are crucial to biological organisms survival in arid ecosystems and frequently arrive via rain events that are commonly stochastic and unpredictable (i.e. precipitation pulses) and strongly control arid land ecosystem structure and function. The eddy covariance technique can be used to investigate the effect of precipitation pulses on NEE, but provide limited understanding of what exactly happens after a rain event. The chief reasons are that, firstly, we cannot measure separately autotrophic and heterotrophic components, and secondly, the partitioning techniques widely utilized to separate Gross Primary Production and Total Ecosystem Respiration, do not work properly in these water-limited ecosystems, resulting in biased estimations of plant and soil processes. Consequently, it is essential to combine eddy covariance measurements with other techniques to disentangle the different biological processes composing NEE that are activated by a precipitation pulse. Accordingly, the main objectives of this work were: (i) to quantify the contribution of precipitation pulse events to annual NEE using the eddy covariance technique in a semiarid steppe located in Almería (Spain), and (ii) to simulate a realistic precipitation pulse in order to understand its effect on the ecosystem, soil and plant CO2 exchanges by using a transitory-state closed canopy chamber, soil respiration chambers and continuous monitoring CO2 sensors inserted in the subsoil. Preliminary results showed, as expected, a delay between soil and plant

  3. Neisseria meningitidis Type IV Pili Composed of Sequence Invariable Pilins Are Masked by Multisite Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Joseph; Ferber, Mathias; Machata, Silke; Imhaus, Anne-Flore; Malosse, Christian; Charles-Orszag, Arthur; Millien, Corinne; Bouvier, Guillaume; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Klinge, Kelly; Podglajen, Isabelle; Ploy, Marie Cécile; Seifert, H. Steven; Nilges, Michael; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Duménil, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    The ability of pathogens to cause disease depends on their aptitude to escape the immune system. Type IV pili are extracellular filamentous virulence factors composed of pilin monomers and frequently expressed by bacterial pathogens. As such they are major targets for the host immune system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis, strains expressing class I pilins contain a genetic recombination system that promotes variation of the pilin sequence and is thought to aid immune escape. However, numerous hypervirulent clinical isolates express class II pilins that lack this property. This raises the question of how they evade immunity targeting type IV pili. As glycosylation is a possible source of antigenic variation it was investigated using top-down mass spectrometry to provide the highest molecular precision on the modified proteins. Unlike class I pilins that carry a single glycan, we found that class II pilins display up to 5 glycosylation sites per monomer on the pilus surface. Swapping of pilin class and genetic background shows that the pilin primary structure determines multisite glycosylation while the genetic background determines the nature of the glycans. Absence of glycosylation in class II pilins affects pilus biogenesis or enhances pilus-dependent aggregation in a strain specific fashion highlighting the extensive functional impact of multisite glycosylation. Finally, molecular modeling shows that glycans cover the surface of class II pilins and strongly decrease antibody access to the polypeptide chain. This strongly supports a model where strains expressing class II pilins evade the immune system by changing their sugar structure rather than pilin primary structure. Overall these results show that sequence invariable class II pilins are cloaked in glycans with extensive functional and immunological consequences. PMID:26367394

  4. Evaluation of the Legibility for Characters Composed of Multiple Point Sources in Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukada, Yuki; Toyofuku, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiro

    The luminance conditions were investigated, at that the characters composed of multiple point sources were as legible as a character having a uniformly luminous surface in fog, in order to make the use of variable-message signs practical at airports. As the results, it was found that the thicker the fog or the higher the illuminance, the better the legibility of the point source characters become compared with the uniformly luminous surface characters. It is supposed that the ease of extracting each individual point source makes the characters composed of multiple point sources more legible even if their luminance is low. So the results show that if the conventional luminance standard is applied to the average luminance of a character composed of multiple point sources, a character composed of multiple point sources could be recognized without any degradation in legibility.

  5. The Composer's Program Note for Newly Written Classical Music: Content and Intentions.

    PubMed

    Blom, Diana M; Bennett, Dawn; Stevenson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    In concerts of western classical music the provision of a program note is a widespread practice dating back to the 18th century and still commonly in use. Program notes tend to inform listeners and performers about historical context, composer biographical details, and compositional thinking. However, the scant program note research conducted to date reveals that program notes may not foster understanding or enhance listener enjoyment as previously assumed. In the case of canonic works, performers and listeners may already be familiar with much of the program note information. This is not so in the case of newly composed works, which formed the basis of the exploratory study reported here. This article reports the views of 17 living contemporary composers on their writing of program notes for their own works. In particular, the study sought to understand the intended recipient, role and the content of composer-written program notes. Participating composers identified three main roles for their program notes: to shape a performer's interpretation of the work; to guide, engage or direct the listener and/or performer; and as collaborative mode of communication between the composer, performer, and listener. For some composers, this collaboration was intended to result in "performative listening" in which listeners were actively engaged in bringing each composition to life. This was also described as a form of empathy that results in the co-construction of the musical experience. Overall, composers avoided giving too much personal information and they provided performers with more structural information. However, composers did not agree on whether the same information should be provided to both performers and listeners. Composers' responses problematize the view of a program note as a simple statement from writer to recipient, indicating instead a more complex set of relations at play between composer, performer, listener, and the work itself. These relations are

  6. Syphilis in composers and musicians--Mozart, Beethoven, Paganini, Schubert, Schumann, Smetana.

    PubMed

    Franzen, C

    2008-12-01

    In the pre-antibiotics era, syphilis was an extremely common disease. The first well-recorded European outbreak of what is now known as syphilis occurred in 1494, when it appeared among French troops besieging Naples. Thereafter, the disease spread all over Europe and, in the 18th and 19th centuries, many artists became victims of syphilis, among them poets, painters, philosophers, and musicians and composers. This review presents biographies of several musicians and composers that probably suffered from syphilis.

  7. Composability of partial-entanglement-breaking channels via entanglement-assisted local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, Ryo

    2013-12-01

    We consider the composability of quantum channels from a limited amount of entanglement via local oper-ations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that any k-partial-entanglement-breaking channel can be composed from an entangled state with a Schmidt number of k via one-way LOCC. From the entanglement-assisted construction we can reach an alternative definition of partial-entanglement-breaking channels.

  8. Advanced Power Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  9. Major upper limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Chew, W Y; Tsai, T M

    2001-08-01

    Major amputations remain a challenge to the replantation surgeon. Proper patient selection, good surgical skills, and cooperation among the patient, surgeon, and rehabilitation team help achieve a better outcome.

  10. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... on NIMH’s depression page . NEXT Statistical Methods and Measurement Caveats Diagnostic Assessment: Modules related to major depressive ... apartments, condominiums; civilians living in housing on military bases, etc.) and persons in non-institutional group quarters ( ...

  11. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  12. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    MedlinePlus

    ... unrelated to the reason for your appointment Key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life ... accompanied by delusions or hallucinations, which may involve personal inadequacy or other negative themes Catatonia — depression that ...

  13. In fatal pursuit of immortal fame: Peer competition and early mortality of music composers.

    PubMed

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Kavetsos, Georgios

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the impact of peer competition on longevity using a unique historical data set of 144 prominent music composers born in the 19th century. We approximate for peer competition measuring (a) the number or (b) the share of composers located in the same area and time, (c) the time spent in one of the main cities for classical music, and (d) the quality of fellow composers. These measures suggest that composers' longevity is reduced, if they located in agglomerations with a larger group of peers or of a higher quality. The point estimates imply that, all else equal, a one percent increase in the number of composers reduces composer longevity by ∼ 7.2 weeks. Our analysis showed that the utilized concentration measures are stronger than the personal factors in determining longevity, indicating that individuals' backgrounds have minimal impact on mitigating the effect of experienced peer pressure. The negative externality of peer competition is experienced in all cities, fairly independent of their population size. Our results are reaffirmed using an instrumental variable approach and are consistent throughout a range of robustness tests. In addition to the widely known economic benefits associated with competition, these findings suggest that significant negative welfare externalities exist as well.

  14. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed particles composed of NaCl and water-soluble organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water-soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray elemental microanalysis. Hygroscopic properties of internally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of sodium malonate and sodium glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  15. Hygroscopic Properties of Internally Mixed Particles Composed of NaCl and Water-Soluble Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Suman; Wang, Bingbing; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric aging of naturally emitted marine aerosol often leads to formation of internally mixed particles composed of sea salts and water soluble organic compounds of anthropogenic origin. Mixing of sea salt and organic components has profound effects on the evolving chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of the resulted particles, which are poorly understood. Here, we have studied chemical composition and hygroscopic properties of laboratory generated NaCl particles mixed with malonic acid (MA) and glutaric acid (GA) at different molar ratios using micro-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray elemental microanalysis.Hygroscopic properties of inte rnally mixed NaCl and organic acid particles were distinctly different from pure components and varied significantly with the type and amount of organic compound present. Experimental results were in a good agreement with the AIM modeling calculations of gas/liquid/solid partitioning in studied systems. X-ray elemental microanalysis of particles showed that Cl/Na ratio decreased with increasing organic acid component in the particles with MA yielding lower ratios relative to GA. We attribute the depletion of chloride to the formation of Na-malonate and Na-glutarate salts resulted by HCl evaporation from dehydrating particles.

  16. Inelastic behavior of structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussain, N.; Khozeimeh, K.; Toridis, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    A more accurate procedure was developed for the determination of the inelastic behavior of structural components. The actual stress-strain curve for the mathematical of the structure was utilized to generate the force-deformation relationships for the structural elements, rather than using simplified models such as elastic-plastic, bilinear and trilinear approximations. relationships were generated for beam elements with various types of cross sections. In the generational of these curves, stress or load reversals, kinematic hardening and hysteretic behavior were taken into account. Intersections between loading and unloading branches were determined through an iterative process. Using the inelastic properties obtained, the plastic static response of some simple structural systems composed of beam elements was computed. Results were compared with known solutions, indicating a considerable improvement over response predictions obtained by means of simplified approximations used in previous investigations.

  17. Antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed of malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid from Cornus officinalis fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Chun; Zhao, Yue; Bian, Hui-Min

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the antiplatelet activity of a novel formula composed by malic acid, succinic acid and citric acid with a ratio of 3:2:2. The IC50 and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by various agonists as well as platelet adhesion were evaluated in vitro. Of note, the IC50 for the formula inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was 0.185 mg/mL. Meanwhile, the formula showed more potent inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin than the single component at same concentration (0.37 mg/mL). Moreover, the formula could prevent platelet adhesion significantly without influence on platelet viability.

  18. Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves.

    PubMed

    Kress, Markus; Löffler, Torsten; Eden, Susanne; Thomson, Mark; Roskos, Hartmut G

    2004-05-15

    Intense radiation in the terahertz (THz) frequency range can be generated by focusing of an ultrashort laser pulse composed of both a fundamental wave and its second-harmonic field into air, as reported previously by Cook et al. [Opt. Lett. 25, 1210 (2000)]. We identify a threshold for THz generation that proves that generation of a plasma is required and that the nonlinearity of air is insufficient to explain our measurements. An additional THz field component generated in the type I beta-barium borate crystal used for second-harmonic generation has to be considered if one is to avoid misinterpretation of this kind of experiment. We conclude with a comparison that shows that the plasma emitter is competitive with other state-of-the-art THz emitters.

  19. The dual effects of lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis using film composed of cellulose and lignin as a structure model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Tian; Wu, Yuying; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The degree of delignification during pretreatment is a critical question for economic conversion of biomass to sugar platform. Many models have been used to study the optimum lignin content in biomass, but few of them are able to study without disturbances, such as the complex component and structure of biomass. A novel film model composed of only cellulose and lignin was used to investigate the effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis. High lignin-cellulose proportion (10.00-31.25%) hindered enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas low lignin-cellulose proportion (2.00-8.00%) showed a notable potential to promote enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate of lignin-cellulose (6.00%) film was 11.5% higher than that of pure cellulose films. Further study indicated that the promotion was due to the enhancement of film porosity and roughness by residual lignin. Thus, based on the biomimetic model, excessive delignification is not recommended in view of efficient conversion and economy.

  20. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  1. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  2. Bocca : A development environment for HPC components.

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, W.; Norris, B.; Allan, B.; Armstrong, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science; ORNL; SNL

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with component glue code to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error prone. Component-based software meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the common HPC workstation languages: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  3. Bocca: A Development Environment for HPC Components

    SciTech Connect

    Elwasif, Wael R; Norris, Boyana; Benjamin, Allan A.; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    In high-performance scientific software development, the emphasis is often on short time to first solution. Even when the development of new components mostly reuses existing components or libraries and only small amounts of new code must be created, dealing with the component glue code and software build processes to obtain complete applications is still tedious and error-prone. Component-based soft ware meant to reduce complexity at the application level increases complexity with the attendant glue code. To address these needs, we introduce Bocca, the first tool to enable application developers to perform rapid component prototyping while maintaining robust software-engineering practices suitable to HPC environments. Bocca provides project management and a comprehensive build environment for creating and managing applications composed of Common Component Architecture components. Of critical importance for HPC applications, Bocca is designed to operate in a language-agnostic way, simultaneously handling components written in any of the languages commonly used in scientific applications: C, C++, Fortran, Fortran77, Python, and Java. Bocca automates the tasks related to the component glue code, freeing the user to focus on the scientific aspects of the application. Bocca embraces the philosophy pioneered by Ruby Rails for web applications: Start with something that works and evolve it to the user's purpose.

  4. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape.

  5. Combined protein construct and synthetic gene engineering for heterologous protein expression and crystallization using Gene Composer

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Amy; Lovell, Scott; Lorimer, Don; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Wallace, Ellen; Thompkins, Kaitlin; Archer, Kimberly; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-12-01

    With the goal of improving yield and success rates of heterologous protein production for structural studies we have developed the database and algorithm software package Gene Composer. This freely available electronic tool facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their engineered synthetic gene sequences, as detailed in the accompanying manuscript. In this report, we compare heterologous protein expression levels from native sequences to that of codon engineered synthetic gene constructs designed by Gene Composer. A test set of proteins including a human kinase (P38{alpha}), viral polymerase (HCV NS5B), and bacterial structural protein (FtsZ) were expressed in both E. coli and a cell-free wheat germ translation system. We also compare the protein expression levels in E. coli for a set of 11 different proteins with greatly varied G:C content and codon bias. The results consistently demonstrate that protein yields from codon engineered Gene Composer designs are as good as or better than those achieved from the synonymous native genes. Moreover, structure guided N- and C-terminal deletion constructs designed with the aid of Gene Composer can lead to greater success in gene to structure work as exemplified by the X-ray crystallographic structure determination of FtsZ from Bacillus subtilis. These results validate the Gene Composer algorithms, and suggest that using a combination of synthetic gene and protein construct engineering tools can improve the economics of gene to structure research.

  6. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  7. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  8. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter surveys the analytical techniques used to determine the concentrations of aerosol mass and its chemical components. The techniques surveyed include mass, major ions (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium), organic carbon, elemental carbon, and trace elements. As reported in...

  9. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  10. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  11. Logic realization of simple majority voting connectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.; Golomb, S. W.; Lushbaugh, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Redundant circuitry is added to computer network to eliminate incorrect output obtained due to a component failure, noise, or some other disturbance. This circuitry provides majority operation. Only NAND gates are employed, and the modules used are among the most popular microelectronic or integrated circuits presently in use.

  12. The Temporary Threshold Shift of Vibratory Sensation Induced by Hand-Arm Vibration Composed of Four One-Third Octave Band Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Yamashita, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1997-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the multiple effect hand-arm vibration composed of four equally effective one-third octave band vibrations (63 Hz, 125 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz) on the temporary threshold shift in vibratory sensation.Seven healthy subjects were exposed to vibration by grasping a vibrated handle in a soundproof thermo-regulated room. The vibratory sensation threshold at 125 Hz was measured before and after vibration exposure at an exposed fingertip. At first we determined each acceleration of the component one-third octave band vibrations for each subject. These should induce the same magnitude of temporary threshold shift in vibratory sensation immediately after the vibration exposure (TTSv.0as induced by the reference one-third octave band vibration (250 Hz, 4g). We measured TTSv.tfor the exposures of the composed vibrations and the four component vibrations. TTSv.0was determined for each exposure according to the exponential recovery model stated in the previous study.The TTSv.0induced by the composite vibration was not longer than that which might have been induced by each component vibration. This result confirms our previous speculation that the component of the vibration inducing the largest TTSv.0determines TTSv.0by broadband random vibration.

  13. Musical tradition, insurrection, and resurrection: the life and legacy of composer/bassist Charles Mingus.

    PubMed

    St Louis, E K

    1999-01-01

    Charles Mingus was perhaps the foremost straight-ahead jazz upright bassist and composer of his generation, blending the inspirational influences of gospel, jazz improvisation, and art music leanings into a unique style all his own. His demise from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in his fifth decade robbed the world of one of the great creative voices of American music. Aspects of Mingus' life, his career as a bassist, bandleader, and composer, and his neuromuscular illness are discussed, emphasizing his legacy for the disparate fields of jazz and neurology.

  14. Quantum teleportation through an entangled state composed of displaced vacuum and single-photon states

    SciTech Connect

    Podoshvedov, S. A.

    2008-03-15

    We study a teleportation protocol of an unknown macroscopic qubit by means of a quantum channel composed of the displaced vacuum and single-photon states. The scheme is based on linear optical devices such as a beam splitter and photon number resolving detectors. A method based on conditional measurement is used to generate both the macroscopic qubit and entangled state composed from displaced vacuum and single-photon states. We show that such a qubit has both macroscopic and microscopic properties. In particular, we investigate a quantum teleportation protocol from a macroscopic object to a microscopic state.

  15. MO-A-BRD-05: Evaluation of Composed Lung Ventilation with 4DCT and Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Du, K; Bayouth, J; Reinhardt, J; Christensen, G; Zhao, B; Ding, K

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Regional pulmonary function can be derived using fourdimensional computed tomography (4DCT) combined with deformable image registration. However, only peak inhale and exhale phases have been used thus far while the lung ventilation during intermediate phases is not considered. In our previous work, we have investigated the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of lung ventilation and its dependence on respiration effort. In this study, composed ventilation is introduced using all inspiration phases and compared to direct ventilation. Both methods are evaluated against Xe-CT derived ventilation. Methods: Using an in-house tissue volume preserving deformable image registration, unlike the direct ventilation method, which computes from end expiration to end inspiration, Jacobian ventilation maps were computed from one inhale phase to the next and then composed from all inspiration steps. The two methods were compared in both patients prior to RT and mechanically ventilated sheep subjects. In addition, they wereassessed for the correlation with Xe-CT derived ventilation in sheep subjects. Annotated lung landmarks were used to evaluate the accuracy of original and composed deformation field. Results: After registration, the landmark distance for composed deformation field was always higher than that for direct deformation field (0IN to 100IN average in human: 1.03 vs 1.53, p=0.001, and in sheep: 0.80 vs0.94, p=0.009), and both increased with longer phase interval. Direct and composed ventilation maps were similar in both sheep (gamma pass rate 87.6) and human subjects (gamma pass rate 71.9),and showed consistent pattern from ventral to dorsal when compared to Xe-CT derived ventilation. Correlation coefficient between Xe-CT and composed ventilation was slightly better than the direct method but not significant (average 0.89 vs 0.85, p=0.135). Conclusion: More strict breathing control in sheep subjects may explain higher similarity between direct and composed ventilation

  16. Rethinking the Astronomy Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, S.

    2001-12-01

    The Five College Astronomy Department has designed several curricular offerings that use the discipline of Astronomy to provide project-based classes that enhance critical thinking and quantitative reasoning and emphasize development of both oral and written communication skills. We incorporate these classes with more traditional lecture-format astrophysics courses to offer a science major that will provide a firm foundation in a quantitative discipline that could lead to many career paths.

  17. Etude theorique des fluctuations structurales dans les composes organiques a dimensionnalite reduite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumoulin, Benoit

    Les systemes a dimensionnalite reduite constituent maintenant une branche entiere de la physique de la matiere condensee. Cette derniere s'est developpee rapidement au cours des dernieres annees, avec la decouverte des materiaux organiques qui presentent, justement, des proprietes physiques fortement anisotropes. Cette these presente une etude en trois parties de plusieurs composes organiques qui, bien que tres differents du point de vue de leurs compositions chimiques et de leurs proprietes physiques a haute temperature, subissent tous une instabilite structurale a tres basse temperature. De plus, dans chacun des cas, l'instabilite structurale est precedee d'un important regime fluctuatif a partir duquel les proprietes physiques changent de maniere significative. Notre etude suit un ordre chronologique inverse puisque nous nous attardons en premier lieu au cas de composes recemment decouverts: les composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X (X = PF6 , AsF6). Ces derniers sont des isolants magnetiques a la temperature ambiante et subissent une instabilite structurale de type spin-Peierls a une temperature appelee TSP. En particulier, nous nous interessons a l'etude des proprietes physiques de ces systemes dans le regime fluctuatif, qui precede cette instabilite. Notre etude theorique nous permet de comprendre en detail comment ces systemes s'approchent de l'instabilite struturale. Dans la seconde partie de cette these, nous etudions le regime fluctuatif (pre-transitionnel) observe experimentalement dans le compose de (TMTTF)2PF6. Ce compose organique, dont la structure s'apparente aux sels de Bechgaard, subit une instabilite de type spin-Peierls a une temperature T SP = 19K. Bien que ce compose possede la particularite d'etre un bon conducteur a la temperature ambiante, il subit une transition de type Mott-Hubbard a une temperature Trho ≈ 220K et devient alors un isolant magnetique, analogue aux composes de la famille des (BCPTTF)2X. Le regime fluctuatif precedant l

  18. Components of dynamic digital maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condit, Christopher D.

    1999-05-01

    The core of a dynamic digital map (DDM) is a program created to display a digital geologic map and its associated data set as a single integrated package. This DDM program core is authored using a high-level object oriented graphical programming environment, SuperCard, a Macintosh `xTalk' language. Some of the major philosophical underpinnings relevant to the job of creating DDMs in this programming environment include taking advantage of specific object's attributes, how to organize data structure effectively for this job and keeping applicable code as transportable (generalized) as possible between objects. The core components of DDMs are parts of a SuperCard `template' or map display `container' into which the various externally created digital pieces (e.g. CAD produced geologic maps, spread sheet data, digital images, text files, movies) can be inserted for integrated display and digital publication. Components of DDMs consist of windows, cards within these windows, card fields (text and data containers) and a menu structure. The paper discusses each of these major components and how they fit into a DDM and gives examples of each topic in programs whose components demonstrate the concept. These programs are available from Web (see Appendix A); readers can refer to them as they examine these examples.

  19. The Nature of Children's Interactions while Composing Together on Computers. CIERA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomangino, Adrienne Gelpi; Nicholson, Julie; Sulzby, Elizabeth

    Patterns of interaction, including power relations and social goals, were investigated by observing first-grade children over a 5-month period as they worked in small groups to compose stories on the computer. Three groups selected for in-depth analysis represent the wide range of observed interaction patterns. Differences in interaction patterns…

  20. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. 300.26 Section 300.26 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile...

  1. Improving Students' Memory for Musical Compositions and Their Composers: Mneme that Tune!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    Students enrolled in music appreciation and music history courses may find it difficult to remember composers' names and the titles of their compositions--particularly when retrieval is prompted by corresponding classical music themes. We sought to develop and validate a mnemonic approach in which musical themes were first recoded as more concrete…

  2. Chinese Readers Can Perceive a Word Even When It's Composed of Noncontiguous Characters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Guojie; Pollatsek, Alexander; Li, Yugang; Li, Xingshan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether readers could recognize a word composed of noncontiguous characters (a "cross-character word") in Chinese reading. All 3 experiments employed Chinese 4-character strings ABCD, where both AB and CD were 2-character words. In the cross-character word condition, AC was a word but in the control condition, AC was…

  3. The Organisation and Assessment of Composing at Key Stage 4 in English Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan; Fautley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores secondary school music teachers' current practice with regard to the organisation and assessment of composing at Key Stage 4. It draws on research undertaken on a nation-wide basis in England, via the use of two online surveys and face-to-face interviews. In terms of the organisation of classroom composition, the study found…

  4. Beyond Clara Schumann: Integrating Women Composers and Performers into General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artesani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive and balanced curriculum, the accomplishments of women composers and performers must be included in general music classes. This article addresses obstacles that have challenged women musicians and provides an outline for a unit that highlights seven American women who have achieved significant "firsts" in the world of…

  5. The Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Composer-in-the-Schools Project: Teaching Artistry in the Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Elda

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Composer-in-the-Schools Project, which successfully launched the Charlotte Civic Orchestra's Education and Outreach Program in a meaningful way by providing a unique opportunity for many young middle school orchestra students. Students who participated in the project, their parents, school administrators, and Charlotte…

  6. Creative Thinking for 21st Century Composing Practices: Creativity Pedagogies across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sohui; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the corpus of literature on creative thinking and applied creativity in higher education to help composition teacher-scholars and writing center practitioners improve the application of creativity in written, visual, and multimodal composing practices. From studies of creative thinking investigated across…

  7. A Particle Swarm Optimization Approach to Composing Serial Test Sheets for Multiple Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chang, Kuang-Cheng; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Chan, Ying

    2006-01-01

    To accurately analyze the problems of students in learning, the composed test sheets must meet multiple assessment criteria, such as the ratio of relevant concepts to be evaluated, the average discrimination degree, difficulty degree and estimated testing time. Furthermore, to precisely evaluate the improvement of student's learning performance…

  8. The Composing Process: What We Know/What We Tell Our Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ede, Lisa S.

    Empirical and theoretical research and a teacher's own writing experience provide equally valuable resources in the composition classroom. Current research on the composing process suggests a conceptual change from that of a rigid sequence of clearly demarcated stages to a more recursive, hierarchically structured model. Until recently, the role…

  9. How to Compose, Write and Publish a Scientific or Professional Communication.

    PubMed

    Boranic, Milivoj

    2016-12-01

    There is an ample number of recommendations, guides and monographs addressing the art of composing and publishing written, oral or visual communications in science and various professions. In order to write an article, autors have to follow certain rules. Presentation of the article (oral or poster presentation) also requires skill, meaning that you have to fulfill certain guidelines and regulations.

  10. What Must Be Taught about Writing: Five Kinds of Knowledge and Five Kinds of Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Students need to develop five kinds of knowledge to be successful in any kind of specific reading or writing task. These kinds of knowledge can be developed through five different kinds of composing that lead to deep understanding of how texts are constructed with specific content to create particular effects and meaning. Following this process…

  11. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  12. Transdisciplinary Dimensions in the Composing Activities of Children: Transfer of Strategies and Transformation of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Existing studies show the value of using visual expression as a means of teaching children to understand and create music. This study aspires to point out an additional valuable aspect, namely, the influence composing via visual expression--whereby children transform their own drawings--may have on children's subsequent compositional processes.…

  13. Children Composing and Their Visual-Spatial Approach to the Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roels, Johanna Maria; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the already existing findings of children's compositional strategies and products. Despite the abundance of research provided regarding the manner in which children approach composing, little has been found about how children deal, specifically, with the structure of the keyboard. Therefore, from a context in which…

  14. Flipping the Composing Process: Collaborative Drafting and Résumé Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Abram

    2016-01-01

    This article argues for a flipped learning approach to business and professional communication composing processes. Flipped learning sequences can scaffold more robust engagement with prewriting activities and support opportunities for in-class collaborative and facilitated drafting exercises. These types of learning experiences offer numerous…

  15. Redesigning and Transforming: A Case Study of the Role of Semiotic Import in Early Composing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I explore the role of semiotic import (Van Leeuwen, 2005) in the composing processes of three bilingual students (six to seven years old) emerging as writers of English. Using social semiotic (Van Leeuwen, 2005) and design (New London Group, 2000) frameworks, I trace a qualitative "micro-history" of how the students imported…

  16. Facility Composer Design Wizards: A Method for Extensible Codified Design Logic Based on Explicit Facility Criteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    36 22 Submittal worksheet for criterion 1.C7_1-1...Criteria Wizard Criteria Wizards are wizards that assist a user primarily in Planning Composer by providing one or more worksheets consisting of...for these criteria based on user input. Other Cri - teria Wizards currently under development include the Plumbing Fixture Calcu- lation Wizard and

  17. Multimodality: An Illuminating Approach to Unravelling the Complexities of Composing with ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeze, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Having previously been employed to investigate science and English classrooms and listening in the music classroom, theories of multimodality would appear to have much to contribute to an examination of group composing using Information and Communications Technology (ICT), owing to the multimodal nature of music software and group discourse. This…

  18. Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Tao, Jian; Chang, Hua-Hua; Shi, Ning-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    For mixed-type tests composed of dichotomous and polytomous items, polytomous items often yield more information than dichotomous items. To reflect the difference between the two types of items and to improve the precision of ability estimation, an adaptive weighted maximum-a-posteriori (WMAP) estimation is proposed. To evaluate the performance of…

  19. Audience Awareness in L1 and L2 Composing of Bilingual Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin, Hanizah; Moore, Rashid A.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates how four bilingual writers from one culture attend to audience in persuasive writing in Malay and English, and the relationship between audience awareness, culture, and quality of their written products. Findings suggests individual differences between bilingual writer's use of audience strategies when composing were intertwined with…

  20. Let Cinderella and Luke Skywalker Help You Teach the Passe Compose and Imperfect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M.

    Instructional materials for the passe compose and imperfect tenses in French use the technique of presenting familiar stories in the foreign language, written in the present tense, which students must place in the past by changing verb forms. The objective is to avoid the disadvantages of simply translating verb tenses and to allow the student to…

  1. Effects of high-fat diets composed of different oils on adipokine production in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated (n3) fatty acids in fish oil are shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines. In this study, we compared high-fat diets composed of different dietary oils with various le...

  2. Research as a Recursive Process: Reconsidering "The Composing Processes of Unskilled College Writers" 35 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Sondra Perl's retrospective review of the composing processes of unskilled college writers and whether her assumptions and values in the designing of research projects have changed over her long teaching career. She uses her college dissertation "Five Writers Writing" as the basis to reflect on the authors and…

  3. Reading as Mediated and Mediating Action: Composing Meaning for Literature through Multimedia Interpretive Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smagorinsky, Peter; O'Donnell-Allen, Cindy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the effort of a small group of high school seniors to interpret the character of Laertes in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" through a "body biography," a life-sized human outline they filled with images and words representing their understanding of the character. Examines their discussion as they composed their text. (PA)

  4. "Whistle for Willie," Lost Puppies, and Cartoon Dogs: The Sociocultural Dimensions of Young Children's Composing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, even for young children, composing of both oral and written texts is sociocultural process. Highlights variation in kind of oral and written genres child uses, in kinds of discourse traditions child draws upon, and kind of relationships child author enacts with others. Discusses implications of sociocultural perspective on young…

  5. Author in the Arts: Composing and Collaborating in Text, Music, and the Visual Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerben, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Many disciplines share similar terminology for making: creating, composing, writing, and authoring. The last term authoring, however, is problematic in how it privileges an end goal of individual authority and reward. To interrogate this term, and argue for its importance in future collaborative, interdisciplinary work, this article examines a…

  6. How to Compose, Write and Publish a Scientific or Professional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Boranic, Milivoj

    2016-01-01

    There is an ample number of recommendations, guides and monographs addressing the art of composing and publishing written, oral or visual communications in science and various professions. In order to write an article, autors have to follow certain rules. Presentation of the article (oral or poster presentation) also requires skill, meaning that you have to fulfill certain guidelines and regulations. PMID:28077907

  7. Bending Elasticity Modulus of Giant Vesicles Composed of Aeropyrum Pernix K1 Archaeal Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Julia; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-01-01

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10−19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10−19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) × 10−19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems. PMID:25821933

  8. Donkey Kong in Little Bear Country: A First Grader's Composing Development in the Media Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Anne Haas

    2001-01-01

    Draws on data collected in an ethnographic project in an urban first grade to examine how media use informs child composing. Focuses on the influence of visual media involving animation. Concludes with a consideration of the teaching challenges posed, and opportunities offered, by the children's media use. (Author)

  9. Composing across Multiple Media: A Case Study of Digital Video Production in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranker, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This is a qualitative case study of two students' composing processes as they developed a documentary video about the Dominican Republic in an urban, public middle school classroom. While using a digital video editing program, the students moved across multiple media (the Web, digital video, books, and writing), drawing semiotic resources from…

  10. Writing as Embodied, College Football Plays as Embodied: Extracurricular Multimodal Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifenburg, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent explorations position multimodality as a largely curricular practice wherein the body typically is not figured as a potential mode of meaning making. Such a projection not only fails to acknowledge extracurricular uses of such a rhetoric but also fails to acknowledge the role of the body in and especially for composing. In hopes of…

  11. Reading during Sentence Composing and Error Correction: A Multilevel Analysis of the Influences of Task Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Waes, Luuk; Leijten, Marielle; Quinlan, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the role of reading, how writers coordinate editing with other writing processes. In particular, the experiment examines how the cognitive demands of sentence composing and the type of error influence the reading and writing performance. We devised an experimental writing task in which participants corrected an…

  12. Open-shell characters and second hyperpolarizabilities of one-dimensional graphene nanoflakes composed of trigonal graphene units.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Kyohei; Nakano, Masayoshi; Fukui, Hitoshi; Minami, Takuya; Shigeta, Yasuteru; Kubo, Takashi; Botek, Edith; Champagne, Benoît

    2011-06-20

    The impact of topology on the open-shell characters and the second hyperpolarizabilities (γ) has been addressed for one-dimensional graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) composed of the smallest trigonal graphene (phenalenyl) units. The main results are: 1) These GNFs show not only diradical but also multiradical characters when increasing the number of linked units. 2) GNFs composed of an equivalent number of units can exhibit a wide range of open-shell characters-from nearly closed-shell to pure multiradical characters-depending on the linking pattern of the trigonal units. 3) This wide variation in open-shell characters is explained by their resonance structures and/or by their (HOMO-i)-(LUMO+i) gaps deduced from the orbital correlations. 4) The change in the linking structure of the units can effectively control their open-shell characters as well as their γ values, of which the longitudinal components are significantly enhanced for the singlet GNFs having intermediate open-shell characters. 5) Singlet alternately linked (AL) systems present intermediate multiradical characters even in the case of a large number of units, which creates a significant enhancement of γ with increasing the size, whereas nonalternately linked (NAL) systems, which present pure multiradical characters, possess much smaller γ values. Finally 6) by switching from the singlet to the highest spin states, the γ values of NAL systems hardly change, whereas those of AL systems exhibit large reductions. These fascinating structure-property relationships between the topology of the GNFs, their open-shell characters, and their γ values not only deepen the understanding of open-shell characters of GNFs but aim also at stimulating further design studies to achieve giant NLO responses based on open-shell graphene-like materials.

  13. Robotic component preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dokos, J.R.

    1986-04-01

    This report provides information on the preparation of robotic components. Component preparation includes pretinning or solder dipping, preforming, and pretrimming of component leads. Since about 70% of all components are axial-leaded resistor-type components, it was decided to begin with them and then later develop capabilities to handle other types. The first workcell is the first phase of an overall system to pretin, preform, and pretrim all components and to feed them to an automatic insertion system. Before use of the robot, a Unimation PUMA Modal 260, pretinning and preforming was done by first hand with a shield and vented booth.

  14. The preattentive processing of major vs. minor chords in the human brain: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Virtala, Paula; Berg, Venla; Kivioja, Maari; Purhonen, Juha; Salmenkivi, Marko; Paavilainen, Petri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-10

    Western music has two classifications that are highly familiar to all Western listeners: the dichotomy between the major and minor modalities and consonance vs. dissonance. We aimed at determining whether these classifications already take place at the level of the elicitation of the change-related mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the event-related potential (ERP). To this end, we constructed an oddball-paradigm with root minor, dissonant and inverted major chords in a context of root major chords. These stimuli were composed so that the standard and deviant chords did not include a physically deviant frequency which could cause the MMN. The standard chords were transposed into 12 different keys (=pitch levels) and delivered to the participants while they were watching a silent movie (ignore condition) or detecting softer target sounds (detection condition). In the ignore condition, the MMN was significant for all but inverted major chords. In the detection condition, the MMN was significant for dissonant chords and soft target chords. Our results indicate that the processes underlying MMN are able to make discriminations which are qualitative by nature. Whether the classifications between major and minor modalities and consonance vs. dissonance are innate or based on implicit learning remains a question for the future.

  15. Innovative Technologies to Manufacture Hybrid Metal Foam/Composite Components

    SciTech Connect

    Carrino, L.; Durante, M.; Franchitti, S.; Sorrentino, L.; Tersigni, L.

    2011-01-17

    The aim of this paper is to verify the technological feasibility to realize hybrid metal-foam/composite component and the mechanical performances of the final structure. The hybrid component is composed by a cylindrical core in aluminum foam, the most used between those commercially available, and an outer layer in epoxy/S2-glass, manufactured by filament winding technology.A set of experimental tests have been carried out, to the aim to estimate the improvement of the hybrid component characteristics, compared to the sum of the single components (metal foam cylinder and epoxy/S2-glass tube).

  16. [Osteodystrophy in thalassemia major].

    PubMed

    Bisbocci, D; Livorno, P; Modina, P; Gambino, M; Damiano, P; Cantoni, R; Villata, E; Chiandussi, L

    1993-01-01

    Subjects with thalassemia major frequently have bone disorders of debatable pathogenesis. We attempt here to analyze the relationships between siderosis and thalassemic osteodystrophy by assessing calcium-phosphorus balance, hormone-vitamin homeostasis, osteoblastic-osteoclastic activity parameters, and bone mineral density (BMD) in 30 patients with thalassemia major (16 males, 14 females, age range 17-30 years). We found a significant increase in ferritin (p < 0.001) and significant decreases in serum i-PTH, 25OHD3, 1.25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin, estradiol, testosterone and FT4 (p < 0.001) in both sexes. In all patients a net decrease of bone mineral density was documented (p < 0.001). These results were then submitted to linear regression analysis: positive correlations between BMD and FT3, testosterone, estradiol (p < 0.01), were documented, and an inverse correlation between osteocalcin and ferritin was confirmed. Our findings suggest that thalassemic osteodystrophy is the result of several inhibitory influences on osteoblastic activity and bone apposition (related to hormone deficits and siderosis) which are aggravated further by anemia, chronic hypoxia and red marrow expansion.

  17. Software component quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  18. [Component analysis on polysaccharides in exocarp of Ginkgo biloba].

    PubMed

    Song, G; Xu, A; Chen, H; Wang, X

    1997-09-01

    This paper reports the content and component analysis on polysaccharides in exocarp of Ginkgo biloba. The results show that the content of total saccharides is 89.7%; content of polysaccharides is 84.6%; content of reductic saccharides is 5.1%; the polysaccharides are composed of glucose, fructose, galactose and rhamnose.

  19. Reactor component automatic grapple

    DOEpatents

    Greenaway, Paul R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment.

  20. The SaeRS Two-Component System of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Yeo, Won-Sik; Bae, Taeok

    2016-01-01

    In the Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system (TCS) plays a major role in controlling the production of over 20 virulence factors including hemolysins, leukocidins, superantigens, surface proteins, and proteases. The SaeRS TCS is composed of the sensor histidine kinase SaeS, response regulator SaeR, and two auxiliary proteins SaeP and SaeQ. Since its discovery in 1994, the sae locus has been studied extensively, and its contributions to staphylococcal virulence and pathogenesis have been well documented and understood; however, the molecular mechanism by which the SaeRS TCS receives and processes cognate signals is not. In this article, therefore, we review the literature focusing on the signaling mechanism and its interaction with other global regulators. PMID:27706107

  1. Component-Based Visualization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    A software system has been developed that gives engineers and operations personnel with no "formal" programming expertise, but who are familiar with the Microsoft Windows operating system, the ability to create visualization displays to monitor the health and performance of aircraft/spacecraft. This software system is currently supporting the X38 V201 spacecraft component/system testing and is intended to give users the ability to create, test, deploy, and certify their subsystem displays in a fraction of the time that it would take to do so using previous software and programming methods. Within the visualization system there are three major components: the developer, the deployer, and the widget set. The developer is a blank canvas with widget menu items that give users the ability to easily create displays. The deployer is an application that allows for the deployment of the displays created using the developer application. The deployer has additional functionality that the developer does not have, such as printing of displays, screen captures to files, windowing of displays, and also serves as the interface into the documentation archive and help system. The third major component is the widget set. The widgets are the visual representation of the items that will make up the display (i.e., meters, dials, buttons, numerical indicators, string indicators, and the like). This software was developed using Visual C++ and uses COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) software where possible.

  2. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation.

  3. Particle alignment and clustering in sheared granular materials composed of platy particles.

    PubMed

    Boton, Mauricio; Estrada, Nicolas; Azéma, Emilien; Radjaï, Farhang

    2014-11-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the texture and local ordering in sheared packings composed of cohesionless platy particles. The morphology of large packings of platy particles in quasistatic equilibrium is complex due to the combined effects of local nematic ordering of the particles and anisotropic orientations of contacts between particles. We find that particle alignment is strongly enhanced by the degree of platyness and leads to the formation of face-connected clusters of exponentially decaying size. Interestingly, due to dynamics in continuous shearing, this ordering phenomenon emerges even in systems composed of particles of very low platyness differing only slightly from spherical shape. The number of clusters is an increasing function of platyness. However, at high platyness the proportion of face-face interactions is too low to allow for their percolation throughout the system.

  4. Transparency windows of the plasmonic nanostructure composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xin; Ouyang, Min; Tang, Bin; Wang, Zhibing; He, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We in this study investigated numerically the plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) effect on the plasmonic nanostructures composed of C-shaped and U-shaped resonators by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The PIT effect in the nanosystem stemmed from the near field coupling between the bright and dark modes. The nanostructure composed of three resonators exhibited double PIT effect. And the PIT spectral response of the proposed nanostructures was demonstrated having a dependence on the parameters of the compound plasmonic system such as the widths of C-shaped resonator and U-shaped resonator, the resonators spatial arrangement and the edge-to-edge distance between the adjacent resonators. The electric and magnetic field distributions of certain resonance wavelengths were also given to discuss the underlying physics. The resonator design strategy opens up a rich pathway to develop the building block of systems for all optical switching, plasmonic sensing applications.

  5. Optical memory development. Volume 3: The membrane light value page composer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosentino, L. S.; Nagle, E. M.; Stewart, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a page composer for optical memory systems using thin, deformable, membrane-mirror elements as light valves was investigated. The electromechanical and optical performances of such elements were determined both analytically and experimentally. It was found that fast switching (approximately 10 microseconds), high-contrast (10 or greater), fatigue-free operation over missions of cycles, and efficient utilization of input light could be obtained with membrane light valves. Several arrays of 64 elements were made on substrates with feedthroughs, allowing access to individual elements from the backside of the substrate. Single light valves on such arrays were successfully operated with the transistors designed and produced for selection and storage at each bit location. This simulated the operation of a prototype page composer with semiconductor chips beam-lead bonded to the back of the substrate.

  6. PepComposer: computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface

    PubMed Central

    Obarska-Kosinska, Agnieszka; Iacoangeli, Alfredo; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    There is a wide interest in designing peptides able to bind to a specific region of a protein with the aim of interfering with a known interaction or as starting point for the design of inhibitors. Here we describe PepComposer, a new pipeline for the computational design of peptides binding to a given protein surface. PepComposer only requires the target protein structure and an approximate definition of the binding site as input. We first retrieve a set of peptide backbone scaffolds from monomeric proteins that harbor the same backbone arrangement as the binding site of the protein of interest. Next, we design optimal sequences for the identified peptide scaffolds. The method is fully automatic and available as a web server at http://biocomputing.it/pepcomposer/webserver. PMID:27131789

  7. Towards Composing Data Aware Systems Biology Workflows on Cloud Platforms: A MeDICi-based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Yin, Jian; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Wynne, Adam S.

    2011-09-08

    Cloud computing is being increasingly adopted for deploying systems biology scientific workflows. Scientists developing these workflows use a wide variety of fragmented and competing data sets and computational tools of all scales to support their research. To this end, the synergy of client side workflow tools with cloud platforms is a promising approach to share and reuse data and workflows. In such systems, the location of data and computation is essential consideration in terms of quality of service for composing a scientific workflow across remote cloud platforms. In this paper, we describe a cloud-based workflow for genome annotation processing that is underpinned by MeDICi - a middleware designed for data intensive scientific applications. The workflow implementation incorporates an execution layer for exploiting data locality that routes the workflow requests to the processing steps that are colocated with the data. We demonstrate our approach by composing two workflowswith the MeDICi pipelines.

  8. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  9. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  10. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  11. Photonic band structure of one-dimensional aperiodic superlattices composed of negative refraction metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyc, Michał H.; Salejda, Włodzimierz; Klauzer-Kruszyna, Agnieszka; Tarnowski, Karol

    2007-05-01

    The dispersion relation for polarized light transmitting through a one-dimensional superlattice composed of aperiodically arranged layers made of ordinary dielectric and negative refraction metamaterials is calculated with finite element method. Generalized Fibonacci, generalized Thue-Morse, double-periodic and Rudin-Shapiro superlattices are investigated, using their periodic approximants. Strong dispersion of metamaterials is taken into account. Group velocities and effective refraction indices in the structures are calculated. The self-similar structure of the transmission spectra is observed.

  12. The music of war: Seven World War 1 composers and their experience of combat.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Jonathan Rt

    2016-09-28

    The effect of World War 1 military service on composers has been neglected in comparison with poets and artists. This article describes the wartime service of Arthur Bliss, Ralph Vaughan Williams, Ivor Gurney, EJ Moeran, Gordon Jacob, Patrick Hadley, and Maurice Ravel. The relationship between experiences of combat and the psychological health of these men is examined, with consideration being given to predisposition and possible causative influences of military service on their later careers, examined from individual and societal perspectives.

  13. Gene Composer: database software for protein construct design, codon engineering, and gene synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lorimer, Don; Raymond, Amy; Walchli, John; Mixon, Mark; Barrow, Adrienne; Wallace, Ellen; Grice, Rena; Burgin, Alex; Stewart, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Background To improve efficiency in high throughput protein structure determination, we have developed a database software package, Gene Composer, which facilitates the information-rich design of protein constructs and their codon engineered synthetic gene sequences. With its modular workflow design and numerous graphical user interfaces, Gene Composer enables researchers to perform all common bio-informatics steps used in modern structure guided protein engineering and synthetic gene engineering. Results An interactive Alignment Viewer allows the researcher to simultaneously visualize sequence conservation in the context of known protein secondary structure, ligand contacts, water contacts, crystal contacts, B-factors, solvent accessible area, residue property type and several other useful property views. The Construct Design Module enables the facile design of novel protein constructs with altered N- and C-termini, internal insertions or deletions, point mutations, and desired affinity tags. The modifications can be combined and permuted into multiple protein constructs, and then virtually cloned in silico into defined expression vectors. The Gene Design Module uses a protein-to-gene algorithm that automates the back-translation of a protein amino acid sequence into a codon engineered nucleic acid gene sequence according to a selected codon usage table with minimal codon usage threshold, defined G:C% content, and desired sequence features achieved through synonymous codon selection that is optimized for the intended expression system. The gene-to-oligo algorithm of the Gene Design Module plans out all of the required overlapping oligonucleotides and mutagenic primers needed to synthesize the desired gene constructs by PCR, and for physically cloning them into selected vectors by the most popular subcloning strategies. Conclusion We present a complete description of Gene Composer functionality, and an efficient PCR-based synthetic gene assembly procedure with mis

  14. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Zhao, Yazhao; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-04-05

    Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C-A-S-H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH)2 with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl2Si2O8·4H2O and Na2Al2Si2O8·H2O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C-A-S-H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  15. Constructing three-dimensional detachable and composable computer models of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Dai, Peishan; Zheng, Buhong; Li, Xinchun

    2015-06-01

    The head and neck region has a complex spatial and topological structure, three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the region can be used in anatomical education, radiotherapy planning and surgical training. However, most of the current models only consist of a few parts of the head and neck, and the 3D models are not detachable and composable. In this study, a high-resolution 3D detachable and composable model of the head and neck was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) serial images. First, fine CT serial images of the head and neck were obtained. Then, a color lookup table was created for 58 structures, which was used to create anatomical atlases of the head and neck. Then, surface and volume rendering methods were used to reconstruct 3D models of the head and neck. Smoothing and polygon reduction steps were added to improve 3D rendering effects. 3D computer models of the head and neck, including the sinus, pharynx, vasculature, nervous system, endocrine system and glands, muscles, bones and skin, were reconstructed. The models consisted of 58 anatomical detachable and composable structures and each structure can be displayed individually or together with other structures.

  16. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  17. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  18. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  19. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  20. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components. PMID:26514280

  1. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  2. 35. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. 6 POWDER MAGAZINE AND MELT LOADING), GENERAL VIEW, SHOWING SOUTHWEST ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 36. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. 6 POWDER MAGAZINE AND MELT LOADING), GENERAL VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST WALL. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. 34. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. BUILDING NO. 276, MAJOR CALIBER PROJECTILE LOADING (ORIGINALLY NO. 6 POWDER MAGAZINE AND MELT LOADING), LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST SIDE OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 200 Area, Shell Component Loading, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  5. Characterization of a Gene Coding for the Complement System Component FB from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Glands

    PubMed Central

    Myamoto, Daniela Tiemi; Pidde-Queiroz, Giselle; Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Pedroso, Aurélio; van den Berg, Carmen W.; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2016-01-01

    The human complement system is composed of more than 30 proteins and many of these have conserved domains that allow tracing the phylogenetic evolution. The complement system seems to be initiated with the appearance of C3 and factor B (FB), the only components found in some protostomes and cnidarians, suggesting that the alternative pathway is the most ancient. Here, we present the characterization of an arachnid homologue of the human complement component FB from the spider Loxosceles laeta. This homologue, named Lox-FB, was identified from a total RNA L. laeta spider venom gland library and was amplified using RACE-PCR techniques and specific primers. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence and the domain structure showed significant similarity to the vertebrate and invertebrate FB/C2 family proteins. Lox-FB has a classical domain organization composed of a control complement protein domain (CCP), a von Willebrand Factor domain (vWFA), and a serine protease domain (SP). The amino acids involved in Mg2+ metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) found in the vWFA domain in the vertebrate C2/FB proteins are well conserved; however, the classic catalytic triad present in the serine protease domain is not conserved in Lox-FB. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses indicated that Lox-FB shares a major identity (43%) and has a close evolutionary relationship with the third isoform of FB-like protein (FB-3) from the jumping spider Hasarius adansoni belonging to the Family Salcitidae. PMID:26771533

  6. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    PubMed

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  7. A novel chimeric protein composed of recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae antigens as a vaccine candidate evaluated in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Natasha Rodrigues; Jorge, Sérgio; Gomes, Charles Klazer; Rizzi, Caroline; Pacce, Violetta Dias; Collares, Thais Farias; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio

    2017-03-01

    Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) is caused by the Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic bacteria, and it represents a significant respiratory disease that is responsible for major economic losses within the pig industry throughout the world. The bacterins that are currently commercially available have been proven to offer only partial protection against M. hyopneumoniae, and the development of more efficient vaccines is required. Several recombinant antigens have been evaluated via different immunization strategies and have been found to be highly immunogenic. This work describes the construction and immunological characterization of a multi-antigen chimera composed of four M. hyopneumoniae antigens: P97R1, P46, P95, and P42. Immunogenic regions of each antigen were selected and combined to encode a single polypeptide. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the chimeric protein was recognized by specific antibodies against each subunit, as well as by convalescent pig sera. The immunogenic properties of the chimera were then evaluated in a mice model through two recombinant vaccines that were formulated as follows: (1) purified chimeric protein plus adjuvant or (2) recombinant Escherichia coli bacterin. The immune response induced in BALB/c mice immunized with each formulation was characterized in terms of total IgG levels, IgG1, and IgG2a isotypes against each antigen present in the chimera. The results of the study indicated that novel chimeric protein is a potential candidate for the future development of a more effective vaccine against EP.

  8. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time ta, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature Ta and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with ta. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above Ta is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with ta. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  9. Hα line profiles for a sample of supergiant HII regions. I. The main spectral component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas, M.; Richer, M. G.; López, J. A.; Relaño, M.; Beckman, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present an analysis of the Hα emission line profiles of a sample of giant extragalactic HII regions, selected from among the brightest and most isolated in a group of spiral galaxies for which we have photometric and spectroscopic data: NGC 157, NGC 3631, NGC 6764, NGC 3344, NGC 4321, NGC 5364, NGC 5055, NGC 5985, NGC 7479. Our study confirms that the majority of the line profiles are composed of a bright, main component and two fainter, high velocity components that we denominate wings. Here, we analyze the kinematics of the principal components, finding a relation between the Hα luminosity, L_Hα, and the turbulent velocity dispersion, σ_nt. A linear fit to the relation between these quantities yields log L_Hα = (35.6 ± 0.4) + (2.87 ± 0.2)log σ_nt, in agreement with previous studies. We compute the mass of each HII region using both the virial theorem and the Hα luminosity, confirming that, though these estimates do not coincide exactly, they are comparable within the uncertainties and consequently that the HII regions in our sample are approximately virialized.

  10. Generalized Structured Component Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2004-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to partial least squares for path analysis with components, called generalized structured component analysis. The proposed method replaces factors by exact linear combinations of observed variables. It employs a well-defined least squares criterion to estimate model parameters. As a result, the proposed method…

  11. The elusive third component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, J. F.

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  12. The Elusive Third Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The historical development of techniques for measuring three velocity components using laser velocimetry is presented. The techniques are described and their relative merits presented. Many of the approaches currently in use based on the fringe laser velocimeter have yielded inaccurate measurements of turbulence intensity in the on-axis component. A possible explanation for these inaccuracies is presented along with simulation results.

  13. Design of Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  14. A novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu

    2012-04-30

    In this paper, a systematic study was conducted to investigate a novel silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash. The coal refuse and fly ash had different properties under various thermal activation temperatures (20 °C, 150 °C, 350 °C, 550 °C, 750 °C and 950 °C). It is known that a thermal activation temperature ranging from 20 °C to 950 °C significantly increases the flowability and pozzolanic properties of the coal refuse; however, the flowability of fly ash decreases when the activation temperature is higher than 550 °C because of a severe agglomeration phenomenon on its surface. An optimal design for this backfill material was determined to include an activated portion composed of 5% coal refuse at 750 °C and 15% fly ash at 20 °C. This combination yields the best performance with excellent flowability, a high compressive strength and a low bleeding rate. The microanalysis results corresponded well with the performance tests at different activation conditions. In the coal refuse, kaolinite peaks began to decrease because of their transformation into metakaolin at 550 °C. Chlorite peaks disappeared at 750 °C. Muscovite peaks decreased at 750 °C and disappeared at 950 °C. During this process, muscovite 2M(1) gradually dehydroxylated to muscovite HT. Furthermore, this paper examined the environmental acceptance and economic feasibility of this technology and found that this silica alumina-based backfill material composed of coal refuse and fly ash not only meets EPA requirements but also has several advantages in industry feasibility when compared with hydraulic backfill, rock backfill and paste backfill.

  15. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  16. PRIME: Phase Retrieval via Majorization-Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tianyu; Babu, Prabhu; Palomar, Daniel P.

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers the phase retrieval problem in which measurements consist of only the magnitude of several linear measurements of the unknown, e.g., spectral components of a time sequence. We develop low-complexity algorithms with superior performance based on the majorization-minimization (MM) framework. The proposed algorithms are referred to as PRIME: Phase Retrieval vIa the Majorization-minimization techniquE. They are preferred to existing benchmark methods since at each iteration a simple surrogate problem is solved with a closed-form solution that monotonically decreases the original objective function. In total, four algorithms are proposed using different majorization-minimization techniques. Experimental results validate that our algorithms outperform existing methods in terms of successful recovery and mean square error under various settings.

  17. Giant molecules composed of polar molecules and atoms in mixed dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ran; Tan, Shina

    2014-05-01

    Two or three polar molecules, confined to one or two dimensions, can form stable bound states with a single atom living in three dimensions, if the molecule and the atom can interact resonantly such that their mixed dimensional scattering length is large. We call these bound states ``giant molecules'' since it's a molecule composed of smaller molecules and atoms. We study their properties using techniques including exact numerical solution, exact qunatum diffusion Monte Carlo (QMC), Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), and semiclassical approximation. These bound states have a hierarchical structure reminiscent of the celestial systems.

  18. First Description of Discrete Stars Composing the Milky Way in Thomas Watson's Hekatompathia (1582)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, E. L.; Jansen, W.

    2003-12-01

    We note the first description of the Milky Way as being composed of a large number of discrete stars in Sonnet 31 of Thomas Watson's (d 1592) Hekatompathia (1582). After prefatory material invoking classical sources and making clear he is discussing the Milky Way, Watson's poem then starts: Who can recount the vertues of my deare, Or say how farre her fame hath taken flight, That can not tell how many starres appeare In part of heav'n, which Galaxia hight, Or number all the moates in Phebus rayes, Or golden sandes, wheron Pactolus playes? We discuss the scientific, literary and historical significance of this finding.

  19. Magnetically tunable double-negative material composed of ferrite-dielectric and metallic mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guanghua; Wu, Rui-xin; Poo, Yin; Chen, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We designed and studied a magnetic tunable metamaterial composed of ferrite-dielectric and metallic mesh. The retrieved electromagnetic parameters and the transmission characteristic showed the composite has a double-negative regime in magnetized state. Moreover, this regime is tunable in external magnetic fields. The composite has a lower loss with minimum about -0.3 dB/mm. The simulations of the wave propagation on the interface of the composite clearly display a negative refraction. The negative indexes calculated from Snell's law are in good agreement with the indexes retrieved from S parameters, quantitatively confirms the negative index of the composite.

  20. Efficacy of a self-etching dentin primer composed of TEGMA and phenyl-P.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Shinichiro; Itoh, Kazuo; Manabe, Atsufumi; Inoue, Mitsuko; Hisamitsu, Hisashi; Sasa, Ryuuji

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental self-etching dentin primer composed of TEGMA and phenyl-P using primary and young permanent teeth. The efficacy of the self-etching dentin primer was evaluated by measuring the wall-to-wall polymerization contraction gap width and the shear bond strength to the flat dentin surface. The contraction gap formation was prevented completely in the specimens primed with the 35 vol% TEGMA and 20% phenyl-P for 30 sec.