Science.gov

Sample records for major dust constituents

  1. Chemical constituents of fugitive dust.

    PubMed

    Van Pelt, R Scott; Zobeck, Ted M

    2007-07-01

    Wind erosion selectively winnows the fine, most chemically concentrated portions of surface soils and results in the inter-regional transport of fugitive dust containing plant nutrients, trace elements and other soil-borne contaminants. We sampled and analyzed surface soils, sediments in transport over eroding fields, and attic dust from a small area of the Southern High Plains of Texas to characterize the physical nature and chemical constituents of these materials and to investigate techniques that would allow relatively rapid, low cost techniques for estimating the chemical constituents of fugitive dust from an eroding field. From chemical analyses of actively eroding sediments, it would appear that Ca is the only chemical species that is enriched more than others during the process of fugitive dust production. We found surface soil sieved to produce a sub-sample with particle diameters in the range of 53-74 microm to be a reasonably good surrogate for fugitive dust very near the source field, that sieved sub-samples with particle diameters <10 microm have a crustal enrichment factor of approximately 6, and that this factor, multiplied by the chemical contents of source soils, may be a reasonable estimator of fugitive PM(10) chemistry from the soils of interest. We also found that dust from tractor air cleaners provided a good surrogate for dust entrained by tillage and harvesting operations if the chemical species resulting from engine wear and exhaust were removed from the data set or scaled back to the average of enrichment factors noted for chemical species with no known anthropogenic sources. Chemical analyses of dust samples collected from attics approximately 4 km from the nearest source fields indicated that anthropogenic sources of several environmentally important nutrient and trace element species are much larger contributors, by up to nearly two orders of magnitude, to atmospheric loading and subsequent deposition than fugitive dust from eroding

  2. Major and Minor Constituents of Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    sample alloys obtained by both techniques. Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy(ICP-AES).... absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy are used for the determination of major magnesium, lithium, copper, zinc...An accurate analysis of aluminum alloys is required for quality control and characterization purposes. The two analytical techniques atomic

  3. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  4. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Cougar, Tamara; Ulrich, BettyLynn

    2017-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies in the LAB MCA are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Finally, the Node 3 MCA is being brought to an operational configuration.

  5. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. Over the past two years, two ORU 02 analyzer assemblies have operated nominally while two others have experienced premature on-orbit failures. These failures as well as nominal performances demonstrate that ORU 02 performance remains a key determinant of MCA performance and logistical support. It can be shown that monitoring several key parameters can maximize the capacity to monitor ORU health and properly anticipate end of life. Improvements to ion pump operation and ion source tuning are expected to improve lifetime performance of the current ORU 02 design.

  6. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. Improvements to ion pump operation and ion source tuning have improved lifetime performance of the current ORU 02 design. The most recent ORU 02 analyzer assemblies, as well as ORU 08, have operated nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance and logistical support. Monitoring several key parameters provides the capacity to monitor ORU health and properly anticipate end of life.

  7. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic changeout, including the analyzer (ORU 02) and the verification gas assembly (ORU 08). The longest lasting ORU 02 was recently replaced after a record service length of 1033 days. The comparatively high performance duration may be attributable to a reduced inlet flow rate into the analyzer, resulting in increased ion pump lifetime; however, there may be other factors as well. A recent schedule slip for delivery of replacement verification gas led to a demonstration that the calibration interval could be extended on a short-term basis. An analysis of ORU 08 performance characteristics indicates that it is possible to temporarily extend the calibration interval from 6 weeks to 12 weeks if necessary.

  8. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). The MCA is the primary tool for management of atmosphere constituents and is therefore critical for ensuring a habitable ISS environment during both nominal ISS operations and campout EVA preparation in the Airlock. The MCA has been in operation in the US Destiny Laboratory Module for over 10 years, and a second MCA has been delivered to the ISS for Node 3 operation. This paper discusses the performance of the MCA over the two past year, with particular attention to lessons learned regarding the operational life of critical components. Recent data have helped drive design upgrades for a new set of orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) currently in production. Several ORU upgrades are expected to increase expected lifetimes and reliability.

  9. Thermal Optical Properties of Lunar Dust Simulants and Their Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Ellis, Shaneise; Hanks, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    The total reflectance spectra of lunar simulant dusts (less than 20 micrometer particles) were measured in order to determine their integrated solar absorptance (alpha) and their thermal emittance (e) for the purpose of analyzing the effect of dust on the performance of thermal control surfaces. All of the simulants except one had a wavelength-dependant reflectivity (p(lambda)) near 0.10 over the wavelength range of 8 to 25 micrometers, and so are highly emitting at room temperature and lower. The 300 K emittance (epsilon) of all the lunar simulants except one ranged from 0.78 to 0.92. The exception was Minnesota Lunar Simulant 1 (MLS-1), which has little or no glassy component. In all cases the epsilon was lower for the less 20 micrometer particles than for larger particles reported earlier. There was considerably more variation in the lunar simulant reflectance in the solar spectral range (250 to 2500 nanometers) than in the thermal infrared. As expected, the lunar highlands simulants were more reflective in this wavelength range than the lunar mare simulants. The integrated solar absorptance (alpha) of the simulants ranged from 0.39 to 0.75. This is lower than values reported earlier for larger particles of the same simulants (0.41 to 0.82), and for representative mare and highlands lunar soils (0.74 to 0.91). Since the alpha of some mare simulants more closely matched that of highlands lunar soils, it is recommended that and values be the criteria for choosing a simulant for assessing the effects of dust on thermal control surfaces, rather than whether a simulant has been formulated as a highlands or a mare simulant.

  10. Thermal Optical Properties of Lunar Dust Simulants and Their Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Ellis, Shaneise; Hanks, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    The total reflectance spectra of lunar simulant dusts (< 20 mm particles) were measured in order to determine their integrated solar absorptance (alpha) and their thermal emittance (epsilon) for the purpose of analyzing the effect of dust on the performance of thermal control surfaces. All of the simulants except one had a wavelength-dependent reflectivity (p (lambda)) near 0.10 over the wavelength range of 8 to 25 microns and so are highly emitting at room temperature and lower. The 300 K emittance (epsilon) of all the lunar simulants except one ranged from 0.78 to 0.92. The exception was Minnesota Lunar Simulant 1 (MLS-1), which has little or no glassy component. In all cases the epsilon was lower for the < 20 micron particles than for larger particles reported earlier. There was considerably more variation in the lunar simulant reflectance in the solar spectral range (250 to 2500 nm) than in the thermal infrared. As expected, the lunar highlands simulants were more reflective in this wavelength range than the lunar mare simulants. The integrated solar absorptance (alpha) of the simulants ranged from 0.39 to 0.75. This is lower than values reported earlier for larger particles of the same simulants (0.41 to 0.82), and for representative mare and highlands lunar soils (0.74 to 0.91). Since the of some mare simulants more closely matched that of highlands lunar soils, it is recommended that and values be the criteria for choosing a simulant for assessing the effects of dust on thermal control surfaces, rather than whether a simulant has been formulated as a highlands or a mare simulant.

  11. Hardware Design Improvements to the Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combs, Scott; Schwietert, Daniel; Anaya, Marcial; DeWolf, Shannon; Merrill, Dave; Gardner, Ben D.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Belcher, Paul; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to monitor the major constituents of the ISS's internal atmosphere. This mass spectrometer based system is an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and is a primary tool for the management of ISS atmosphere composition. As a part of NASA Change Request CR10773A, several alterations to the hardware have been made to accommodate improved MCA logistics. First, the ORU 08 verification gas assembly has been modified to allow the verification gas cylinder to be installed on orbit. The verification gas is an essential MCA consumable that requires periodic replenishment. Designing the cylinder for subassembly transport reduces the size and weight of the maintained item for launch. The redesign of the ORU 08 assembly includes a redesigned housing, cylinder mounting apparatus, and pneumatic connection. The second hardware change is a redesigned wiring harness for the ORU 02 analyzer. The ORU 02 electrical connector interface was damaged in a previous on-orbit installation, and this necessitated the development of a temporary fix while a more permanent solution was developed. The new wiring harness design includes flexible cable as well as indexing fasteners and guide-pins, and provides better accessibility during the on-orbit maintenance operation. This presentation will describe the hardware improvements being implemented for MCA as well as the expected improvement to logistics and maintenance.

  12. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Saad, El-Zemity; Hussien, Rezk; Saher, Farok; Ahmed, Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC 50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC 50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove, matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids, cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus. PMID:17111463

  13. Determinants of exposure to dust and dust constituents in the Norwegian silicon carbide industry.

    PubMed

    Føreland, Solveig; Bakke, Berit; Vermeulen, Roel; Bye, Erik; Eduard, Wijnand

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to identify important determinants of dust exposure in the Norwegian silicon carbide (SiC) industry and to suggest possible control measures. Exposure to total dust, respirable dust, quartz, cristobalite, SiC, and fiber was assessed in three Norwegian SiC plants together with information on potential determinants of exposure. Mixed-effect models were constructed with natural log-transformed exposure as the dependent variable. The exposure assessment resulted in about 700 measurements of each of the sampled agents. Geometric mean (GM) exposure for total dust, respirable dust, fibers, and SiC for all workers was 1.6mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 3.2], 0.30mg m(-3) (GSD = 2.5), 0.033 fibers cm(-3) (GSD = 5.2), and 0.069mg m(-3) (GSD = 3.1), respectively. Due to a large portion of quartz and cristobalite measurements below the limit of detection in the processing and maintenance departments (>58%), GM for all workers was not calculated. Work in the furnace department was associated with the highest exposure to fibers, quartz, and cristobalite, while work in the processing department was associated with the highest total dust, respirable dust, and SiC exposure. Job group was a strong determinant of exposure for all agents, explaining 43-82% of the between-worker variance. Determinants associated with increased exposure in the furnace department were location of the sorting area inside the furnace hall, cleaning tasks, building and filling furnaces, and manual sorting. Filling and changing pallet boxes were important tasks related to increased exposure to total dust, respirable dust, and SiC in the processing department. For maintenance workers, increased exposure to fibers was associated with maintenance work in the furnace department and increased exposure to SiC was related to maintenance work in the processing department. Job group was a strong determinant of exposure for all agents. Several tasks were associated with

  14. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    PubMed Central

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  15. Massive-star supernovae as major dust factories.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, Ben E K; Ercolano, Barbara; Barlow, M J; Tielens, A G G M; Clayton, Geoffrey C; Zijlstra, Albert A; Meixner, Margaret; Speck, Angela; Gledhill, Tim M; Panagia, Nino; Cohen, Martin; Gordon, Karl D; Meyer, Martin; Fabbri, Joanna; Bowey, Janet E; Welch, Douglas L; Regan, Michael W; Kennicutt, Robert C

    2006-07-14

    We present late-time optical and mid-infrared observations of the Type II supernova 2003gd in the galaxy NGC 628. Mid-infrared excesses consistent with cooling dust in the ejecta are observed 499 to 678 days after outburst and are accompanied by increasing optical extinction and growing asymmetries in the emission-line profiles. Radiative-transfer models show that up to 0.02 solar masses of dust has formed within the ejecta, beginning as early as 250 days after outburst. These observations show that dust formation in supernova ejecta can be efficient and that massive-star supernovae could have been major dust producers throughout the history of the universe.

  16. Investigation of International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer Anomalous ORU 02 Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Burchfield, David E.; Pargellis, Andrew; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Gentry, Grey; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. In 2011, two MCA ORU 02 analyzer assemblies experienced premature on-orbit failures. These failures were determined to be the result of off-nominal ion source filament performance. Recent product improvements to ORU 02 designed to improve the lifetime of the ion pump also constrained the allowable tuning criteria for the ion source filaments. This presentation describes the filament failures as well as the corrective actions implemented to preclude such failures in the future.

  17. Seasonal contribution of mineral dust and other major components to particulate matter at two remote sites in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller-Schulze, Justin P.; Shafer, Martin; Schauer, James J.; Heo, Jongbae; Solomon, Paul A.; Lantz, Jeffrey; Artamonova, Maria; Chen, Boris; Imashev, Sanjar; Sverdlik, Leonid; Carmichael, Greg; DeMinter, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that are in and generally surround Central Asia (e.g., the Aral Sea region, the Taklimakan desert in Western China). To investigate the relative importance of mineral dust (dust specifically composed of soil related minerals and oxides) in Central Asia, PM10 and PM2.5, and by difference, coarse particles (particles with diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) were measured at two sites, Bishkek and Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (Lidar), in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were collected every other day from July 2008 to July 2009. Daily samples were analyzed for mass and organic and elemental carbon. Samples were also composited on a bi-weekly basis and analyzed for elemental constituents and ionic components. In addition, samples collected on days with relatively high and low PM concentrations were analyzed before, and separately, from the biweekly composites to investigate the chemical differences between the episodic events. Data from the episodic samples were averaged into the composited averages. Using the elemental component data, several observational models were examined to estimate the contribution of mineral dust to ambient PM levels. A mass balance was also conducted. Results indicate that at both sites, mineral dust (as approximated by the ;dust oxide; model) and organic matter (OM) were the dominant contributors to PM10 and PM2.5. Mineral dust was a more significant contributor to the coarse PM (PM10-2.5) during high event samples at both sites, although the relative contribution is greater at the Lidar site (average ± standard deviation = 42 ± 29%) as compared with the Bishkek site (26 ± 16%). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed using data from both sites, and PCA indicated

  18. Analysis of aerosol composition data for western United States wildfires between 2005 and 2015: Dust emissions, chloride depletion, and most enhanced aerosol constituents

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Joseph S.; Braun, Rachel A.; Bradley, Trevor; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B.; Aldhaif, Abdulmonam A.; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Mardi, Ali Hossein; Xian, Peng; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-01-01

    This study examines major wildfires in the western United States between 2005 and 2015 to determine which species exhibit the highest percent change in mass concentration on day of peak fire influence relative to preceding nonfire days. Forty-one fires were examined using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) data set. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) constituents exhibited the highest percent change increase. The sharpest enhancements were for the volatile (OC1) and semivolatile (OC2) OC fractions, suggestive of secondary organic aerosol formation during plume transport. Of the noncarbonaceous constituents, Cl, P, K, NO3−, and Zn levels exhibited the highest percent change. Dust was significantly enhanced in wildfire plumes, based on significant enhancements in fine soil components (i.e., Si, Ca, Al, Fe, and Ti) and PMcoarse (i.e., PM10–PM2.5). A case study emphasized how transport of wildfire plumes significantly impacted downwind states, with higher levels of fine soil and PMcoarse at the downwind state (Arizona) as compared to the source of the fires (California). A global model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS) did not capture the dust influence over California or Arizona during this case event because it is not designed to resolve dust dynamics in fires, which motivates improved treatment of such processes. Significant chloride depletion was observed on the peak EC day for almost a half of the fires examined. Size-resolved measurements during two specific fires at a coastal California site revealed significant chloride reductions for particle aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 10 μm. PMID:28955601

  19. Analysis of aerosol composition data for western United States wildfires between 2005 and 2015: Dust emissions, chloride depletion, and most enhanced aerosol constituents.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Joseph S; Braun, Rachel A; Bradley, Trevor; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B; Aldhaif, Abdulmonam A; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Mardi, Ali Hossein; Xian, Peng; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-27

    This study examines major wildfires in the western United States between 2005 and 2015 to determine which species exhibit the highest percent change in mass concentration on day of peak fire influence relative to preceding nonfire days. Forty-one fires were examined using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) data set. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) constituents exhibited the highest percent change increase. The sharpest enhancements were for the volatile (OC1) and semivolatile (OC2) OC fractions, suggestive of secondary organic aerosol formation during plume transport. Of the noncarbonaceous constituents, Cl, P, K, NO3(-), and Zn levels exhibited the highest percent change. Dust was significantly enhanced in wildfire plumes, based on significant enhancements in fine soil components (i.e., Si, Ca, Al, Fe, and Ti) and PMcoarse (i.e., PM10-PM2.5). A case study emphasized how transport of wildfire plumes significantly impacted downwind states, with higher levels of fine soil and PMcoarse at the downwind state (Arizona) as compared to the source of the fires (California). A global model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS) did not capture the dust influence over California or Arizona during this case event because it is not designed to resolve dust dynamics in fires, which motivates improved treatment of such processes. Significant chloride depletion was observed on the peak EC day for almost a half of the fires examined. Size-resolved measurements during two specific fires at a coastal California site revealed significant chloride reductions for particle aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 10 μm.

  20. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  1. Polyphenolic apple juice extracts and their major constituents reduce oxidative damage in human colon cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Dietrich, Helmut; Will, Frank; Janzowski, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Apple juice containing high amounts of antioxidative polyphenols might protect the intestine against oxidative cell damage. We investigated the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts of different origins (cider and table apples) in comparison to their major constituents in human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29). Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), glutathione level (photometric kinetic assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and antioxidant capacity. The extracts (50-250 microg/mL) modulated DNA damage and redox status in a concentration-dependent manner at 24-h incubation. The pomace extraction technology, applied for juice preparation, and the preferential selection of cider apple varieties influenced the polyphenolic pattern and increased the biological effectiveness of the extracts. The preventive potential of major juice constituents (1-100 microM, 24 h) strongly differed: rutin, epicatechin and caffeic acid clearly reduced (oxidative) DNA damage (Caco-2), chlorogenic acid efficiently decreased cellular reactive oxygen species level (HT29, Caco-2). The aglyca quercetin and phloretin exhibited the highest preventive/antioxidant capacity in all assays. The stability of the compounds inversely correlated with their preventive effectiveness and might contribute to the observed cell specific sensitivities. In conclusion, apple juice extracts distinctly reduce oxidative cell damage in human colon cell lines, an effect, which in part can be accounted for by their major constituents.

  2. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  3. Minor constituents in the solar wind originating from plasma-dust interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripken, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    Atoms, molecules, and atomic and molecular ions generated by solar wind interactions with dust grains of the zodiacal cloud are discussed. The main processes leading to the generation of these particles are described and relevant methods of observation are examined.

  4. Chemical investigation and antimicrobial properties of mastic water and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Paraschos, Sotirios; Magiatis, Prokopios; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Sakkas, Hercules; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2011-12-01

    Mastic water is a commercial flavouring obtained during the steam distillation of mastic resin (the resin of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia) for the production of mastic oil. The mastic water extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were verbenone, α-terpineol, linalool and trans-pinocarveol. Overall the composition was found to be very different from that of mastic oil. Additional GC-MS revealed the enantiomeric ratio of the chiral constituents of mastic water. The antimicrobial activity of mastic water extract, as well as that of its major constituents, was examined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. including ATCC wild clinical and food-borne strains. Linalool and α-terpineol were found to be the most potent antimicrobial constituents. Finally the stability of mastic water at different temperatures was studied, showing no change in the GC-MS profile of the organic extract for a period of 4months at storage temperatures up to 4°C.

  5. Organic constituents in eolian dust and surface sediments from northwest Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepple, F. K.; Brine, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    Samples of eolian dust and comparably sized desert surface sediment samples collected over widely scattered regions of northwest Africa were analyzed for carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen content and total carbohydrate. Infrared analysis and gas chromatographic analysis were also performed on organic components extracted from several of these samples. Although the total carbon content of the eolian dust samples varies from 2.8 to 7.0% by weight, the organic carbon component is relatively uniform at 2.9 + or - 0.5%. By comparison, the average organic carbon content of the African surface sediments is 0.7 + or - 0.5%. Total carbohydrate content averages 0.128% for the dust and 0.022% for the desert sediments. It is shown that these desert regions are not presently the principal sources of eolian material transported over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the Earth's moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, Grant; Vaniman, David; Lehnert, Bruce

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards.

  7. Dust: A major environmental hazard on the earth's moon

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Vaniman, D.; Lehnert, B.

    1990-01-01

    On the Earth's Moon, obvious hazards to humans and machines are created by extreme temperature fluctuations, low gravity, and the virtual absence of any atmosphere. The most important other environmental factor is ionizing radiation. Less obvious environmental hazards that must be considered before establishing a manned presence on the lunar surface are the hazards from micrometeoroid bombardment, the nuisance of electro-statically-charged lunar dust, and an alien visual environment without familiar clues. Before man can establish lunar bases and lunar mining operations, and continue the exploration of that planet, we must develop a means of mitigating these hazards. 4 refs.

  8. Ionization frequencies for major thermospheric constituents as a function of solar cycle 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, M. R.; Torr, D. G.; Ong, R. A.; Hinteregger, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Increases in the solar ultraviolet flux (wavelengths shorter than 1250A) over the past five years of rising solar activity have been larger than anticipated. This increase in UV flux dramatically affects the production of ionization of the various constituents in the thermosphere. Measurements of the solar UV flux by the Atmosphere Explorer satellites are used to determine ionization frequencies for the major thermospheric species for various dates exhibiting notably different levels of solar activity. For the convenience of users of such data, a reduced set of cross-section and flux data is presented for the wavelength range below 1027A, consisting of 37 wavelength intervals

  9. Order of the major constituents in sign languages: implications for all language.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A survey of reports of sign order from 42 sign languages leads to a handful of generalizations. Two accounts emerge, one amodal and the other modal. We argue that universal pressures are at work with respect to some generalizations, but that pressure from the visual modality is at work with respect to others. Together, these pressures conspire to make all sign languages order their major constituents SOV or SVO. This study leads us to the conclusion that the order of S with regard to verb phrase (VP) may be driven by sensorimotor system concerns that feed universal grammar.

  10. Order of the major constituents in sign languages: implications for all language

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Donna Jo; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A survey of reports of sign order from 42 sign languages leads to a handful of generalizations. Two accounts emerge, one amodal and the other modal. We argue that universal pressures are at work with respect to some generalizations, but that pressure from the visual modality is at work with respect to others. Together, these pressures conspire to make all sign languages order their major constituents SOV or SVO. This study leads us to the conclusion that the order of S with regard to verb phrase (VP) may be driven by sensorimotor system concerns that feed universal grammar. PMID:24860523

  11. Hepatoxicity of major constituents and extractions of Radix Polygoni Multiflori and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Xie, Jie; Mao, Xiao-jian; Wang, Min-jiang; Li, Na; Wang, Jing; Zhaori, Ge-tu; Zhao, Rong-hua

    2011-10-11

    Radix Polygoni Multiflori (RPM) and Radix Polygoni Multiflori Praeparata (RPMP) were traditionally widely used as Chinese herbal medicine. However, liver adverse reactions caused by RPM or RPMP were frequently reported all around the world recent years. The aim of this study was to study the cytotoxicities of RPM, RPMP and their major constituents on human liver cell L-02 simultaneously. Multi-assays, including MTT assay, neutral red uptake (NRU) assay, LDH leakage percentage and liver enzyme secretion (AST, ALT and ALP) were used. Cytotoxicities of major chemical constituents of RPM, 2, 3, 5, 4'-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), physcion and emodin, were tested. The cytotoxicities of water, 50% ethanol and 95% ethanol extractions of RPM and RPMP were tested. HPLC-DAD analysis was carried to reveal the content change of TSG, physcion and emodin after the processing procedure. The TD(50) of TSG, physcion and emodin in MTT assay were >10,000 μM, 2853.61 μM and 520.37 μM. In the NRU assay, the TD(50) of TSG, physcion and emodin were much smaller (1401.53 μM, 1140.00 μM, and 3.80 μM). Emodin induced much severe liver enzyme secretion than TSG and physcion. Cell proliferation and LDH leakage rate showed no difference between RPM and RPMP extractions, but ALP, AST and ALT secretions in RPMP extractions were significant lower than that of PMR groups. Water extractions of RPM and RPMP were less toxic than any other solvent in most of the assays. Positive correlation was found between the TSG/emodin ratio and MTT survival rate. The emodin/physcion ratio also showed positive correlation with the LDH leakage percentage. In conclusion, Radix Polygonum multiflorum and Radix Polygonum multiflorum Praeparata were not liver injure inducing in our in vitro assays. However, the processing produce of RPM could reduce its effect on both cell proliferation and enzyme secretion of liver cell. Judging from cell proliferation, integrity of cell membrane and enzyme

  12. Mineral dust and major ion concentrations in snowpit samples from the NEEM site, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jung-Ho; Hwang, Heejin; Hong, Sang Bum; Hur, Soon Do; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Lee, Jeonghoon; Hong, Sungmin

    2015-11-01

    Polar ice sheets conserve atmospheric aerosols at the time of snowfall, which can be used to reconstruct past climate and environmental conditions. We investigated mineral dust and major ion records in snowpit samples obtained from the northwestern Greenland ice sheet near the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) camp in June 2009. We analyzed the samples for mineral dust concentrations as well as stable water isotopes (δ18O, δD, and deuterium excess) and major ions (Cl-, SO42-, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), Na+, and Ca2+). Seasonal δ18O and δD cycles indicate that the snowpit samples covered a six-year period from spring 2003 to early summer 2009. Concentrations of mineral dust, nss-Ca2+, and nss-SO42- showed seasonal deposition events with maxima in the winter-spring layers. On the other hand, the Cl-/Na+ ratio and the concentrations of MSA exhibited maxima in the summer layers, making them useful indicators for the summer season. Moreover, an anomalous atmospheric mineral dust event was recorded at a depth of 165-170 cm corresponding to late winter 2005 to spring 2006. A back trajectory analysis suggests that a major contributor to the Greenland aerosol was an air mass passing over the Canadian Arctic and North America. Several trajectories point to Asian regions as a dust source. The mineral dust deposited at NEEM was strongly influenced by long-range atmospheric transport and dust input from arid source areas in northern China and Mongolia.

  13. Investigation of International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer Anomalous ORU 02 Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Burchfield, David E.; Pargellis, Andrew; Tissandier, Amber; Erwin, Phillip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Gentry, Greg; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. It is an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA system is comprised of seven orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) that provide flexibility in maintaining the MCA. Of these, ORU 02, the analyzer assembly requires replacement every 1 to 2 years due to the consumption of limited life components including the ion pump and ion source filaments. Typically, ORU 02s that reach end of life are swapped out of the MCA on orbit and replaced with the on-orbit spare. The replaced ORU 02 is then cycled through the OEM for refurbishment and returned to service. Recently, two refurbished ORU 02s, serial numbers F0001 and F0003, failed on orbit shortly after being installed into the MCA. Both ORU 02s were returned to ground for TT&E and a failure investigation. The failure signatures were reproduced on the ground and the investigation determined that both ORU 02 failures involve either the ion source or the ion source control electronics. This paper discusses the results of the failure investigation, the steps required to refurbish the ORU 02s, and the corrective actions that are being incorporated into the build and refurbishment process to preclude the reoccurrence of these failures in the future.

  14. Chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects of cultured Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major against cancerous cell lines.

    PubMed

    Erenler, Ramazan; Pabuccu, Koksal; Yaglioglu, Ayse Sahin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Gul, Fatih

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of Mougeotia nummuloides and Spirulina major on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney), C6 cells (rat brain tumor cells) and HeLa cells (human uterus carcinoma) was investigated in vitro. The antiproliferative effect of the methanol extract of M. nummuloides and S. major compared with 5-fluorourasil (5-FU) and cisplatin was tested at various concentrations using the BrdU Cell Proliferation ELISA. Both M. nummuloides and S. major extracts significantly inhibited the proliferation of Vero, HeLa and C6 cancer cell lines with IC50 and IC75 values. The M. nummuloides extract exhibited higher activity than 5-FU and cisplatin on Vero and C6 cells at high concentrations. The S. major extract revealed better antifproliferative activity than standards against Vero cells at 500 μg/mL. The compounds of methanol extracts were determined by GC-MS after the silylation process. Trehalose, monostearin and 1-monopalmitin were detected as major products in the M. nummuloides extract where as in the S. major extract; monostearin, 1-monopalmitin and hexyl alcohol were the main constituents.

  15. Dust-mediated loading of trace and major elements to Wasatch Mountain snowpack.

    PubMed

    Carling, Gregory T; Fernandez, Diego P; Johnson, William P

    2012-08-15

    Depth-integrated snow columns were collected at 12 sites across the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah, during March and April 2010 to determine concentrations of trace elements, major anions and cations, and pH. Sample collection was conducted at or near maximum snow accumulation prior to the onset of melt, and included spring dust events driven by southerly pre-frontal winds. Snow samples were melted in the laboratory and subsampled for analyses on filtered (0.45 μm) and unfiltered fractions. All measured elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) and major anions (Cl, NO(3), and SO(4)) displayed significant increases in concentration (for example, factor of 2 to 5 increases for As, Cr, Hg, and Pb) between the six sites sampled in March (prior to dust events) and the six sites sampled in April (after dust events). Acid neutralizing capacity and pH were also elevated in April relative to March snowpack. Comparison of elemental concentration in the particulate (>0.45 μm; difference between unfiltered and filtered concentration) and soluble (<0.45 μm; filtered concentration) fractions shows that the concentration increase between March and April snowpack for the trace elements is primarily a result of association with dust particles >0.45 μm. The results suggest that the majority of trace element loading to the Wasatch snowpack occurs via dust deposition. The major elements were primarily loaded in the <0.45 μm fraction, suggesting deposition of soluble dust particles. The overall findings of this paper are similar to other studies regarding the role of dust on nutrient and trace element accumulation in soils and lake sediments, but to our knowledge this is the first study that compares trace element chemistry of seasonal snowpack before and after dust deposition events.

  16. Investigation of International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer Anomalous ORU 02 Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Burchfield, David E.; Trubey, Richard; Denson, Steve; Tissandier, Amber; Gentry, Greg; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. It is an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA system is comprised of seven orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) that provide flexibility in maintaining the MCA. Of these, ORU 02, the analyzer assembly requires replacement every 1 to 2 years due to the consumption of limited life components including the ion pump and ion source filaments. Typically, ORU 02s that reach end of life are swapped out of the MCA on orbit and replaced with the on-orbit spare. The replaced ORU 02 is then returned to the OEM for refurbishment and is then return to service. Recently, 2 refurbished ORU 02s, serial numbers F0001 and F0003, failed on orbit shortly after being installed into the MCA. Both ORU 02s have been returned to ground for TT&E, and a failure investigation is underway. The failure signatures have been reproduced on the ground and an initial investigation has determined that both ORU 02 failures involve either the ion source or the ion source control electronics. This paper discusses the results of the failure investigation, the steps required to refurbish the ORU 02s, and the risk mitigation steps that are being incorporated into the refurbishment process to preclude the reoccurrence of these failures in the future

  17. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  18. Characterization and modeling of major constituent equilibrium chemistry of a blended cement mortar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, J.; Kosson, D. S.; Brown, K. G.; Garrabrants, A. C.; Meeussen, J. C. L.; van der Sloot, H. A.

    2013-07-01

    Cementitious materials containing ground granulated iron blast furnace slag and coal combustion fly ash as admixtures are being used extensively for nuclear waste containment applications. Whereas the solid phases of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) have been studied in great detail, the chemistry of cement, fly ash and slag blends has received relatively less study. Given that OPC is generally more reactive than slag and fly ash, the mineralogy of OPC provides a logical starting point for describing the major constituent chemistry of blended cement mortars. To this end, a blended cement mortar containing Portland cement, granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and quartz sand was modeled using a set of solid phases known to form in hydrated OPC with the geochemical speciation solver LeachXS/ORCHESTRA. Comparison of modeling results to the experimentally determined pH-dependent batch leaching concentrations (USEPA Method 1313) indicates that major constituent concentrations are described reasonably well with the Portland cement mineral set; however, modeled and measured aluminum concentrations differ greatly. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of the mortar reveals the presence of Al-rich phyllosilicate minerals heretofore unreported in similar cementitious blends: kaolinite and potassic phyllosilicates similar in composition to illite and muscovite. Whereas the potassic phyllosilicates are present in the quartz sand aggregate, the formation of kaolinite appears to be authigenic. The inclusion of kaolinite in speciation modeling provides a substantially improved description of the release of Al and therefore, suggests that the behavior of phyllosilicate phases may be important for predicting long-term physico-chemical behavior of such systems.

  19. A Next Generation Air Monitor: Combining Orion and ISS Requirements for a Common Major Constituent Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burchfield, David E.; Tissandier, Michael; Niu, William Hsein-Chi; Lewis, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor on-board the International Space Station. The analyzer has been an integral part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) since the station went on-line. The Orion Air Monitor (OAM) was derived from the MCA and heavily optimized for reduced mass, lower power, faster water vapor response, and maintenance-free operation. The resulting OAM is approximately the size of the analyzer portion of the MCA, orbital-replacement unit 02 (ORU 02), while incorporating the functions of three other modules: Data Processing and Communication (ORU 01), Verification Gas Assembly (ORU 08), and Low Voltage Power Supply (ORU 04). The overlap in MCA and OAM requirements makes it possible to derive a common Air Monitor design that spans both applications while minimally impacting the weight and power limits imposed by the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Benefits to ISS include the retirement of ORUs 01, 04, and 08, reducing up-mass and eliminating EEE parts obsolescence issues through the extended ISS mission phases. Benefits to MPCV and future deployed habitats under the Constellation program include greater interchangeability across ECLSS subsystems. This paper discusses the results of the requirements development study, where a superset of ISS and Orion air monitoring requirements were distilled; evaluated against increases in OAM functionality, mass, and power; and traded-off where possible using simple operating mode modifications. A system architecture and preliminary design addressing the common requirements will be presented.

  20. Acaricidal activities against house dust mites of spearmint oil and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Sung-Eun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activities of spearmint oil and carvone derivatives against house dust mites using contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays to replace benzyl benzoate as a synthetic acaricide. Based on the LD50 values, the contact toxicity bioassay revealed that dihydrocarvone (0.95 and 0.88 µg/cm2) was 7.7 and 6.8 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (7.33 and 6.01 µg/cm2) against Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively, followed by carvone (3.78 and 3.23 µg/cm2), spearmint oil (5.16 and 4.64 µg/cm2), carveol (6.00 and 5.80 µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (8.23 and 7.10 µg/cm2). Results of the fumigant toxicity bioassay showed that dihydrocarvone (2.73 and 2.16 µg/cm2) was approximately 4.0 and 4.8 times more effective than benzyl benzoate (11.00 and 10.27 µg/cm2), followed by carvone (6.63 and 5.78 µg/cm2), carveol (7.58 and 7.24 µg/cm2), spearmint oil (9.55 and 8.10 µg/cm2), and dihydrocarveol (9.79 and 8.14 µg/cm2). Taken together, spearmint oil and carvone derivatives are a likely viable alternative to synthetic acaricides for managing house dust mites. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Isotopic evolution of the major constituents of Titan's atmosphere based on Cassini data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandt, Kathleen E.; Waite, J. Hunter; Lewis, William; Magee, Brian; Bell, Jared; Lunine, Jonathan; Mousis, Olivier; Cordier, Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Using Cassini ion neutral mass spectrometer stable isotope observations, we have developed a comprehensive method for modeling the time-evolution of the stable isotopic ratios in Titan's major constituents, N 2, CH 4 and H 2. Our model provides constraints on the initial 14N/ 15N ratio in N 2, the time scale for the outgassing of methane from the interior, and the initial D/H ratio in methane. Over geologic time scales, the isotopes are fractionated by diffusion, atmospheric escape and photochemistry. Diffusion and escape preferentially remove the lighter isotopes for all constituents. Photolysis of methane also removes the lighter isotopes, while photolysis of nitrogen preferentially removes the heavier isotopes. We have found the following: (1) even taking past hydrodynamic escape into consideration, the initial 14N/ 15N ratio in N 2 cannot have changed much from its current value as the result of atmospheric processes. This is due to the large amount of N 2 that must be fractionated. High-rate loss processes, such as hydrodynamic escape, are inefficient fractionators and take a very long time to change the isotopic ratio. On the other hand, low-rate loss processes are efficient fractionators, but also take a very long time to influence a large inventory. (2) The current inventory of methane represents the remnant of methane that, constrained by the 12C/ 13C ratio, began outgassing from the interior more than 60 million years ago, resulting in a total inventory of 3-4 times the current inventory cycling through the system during this time period. Methane production is likely to be ongoing. (3) The initial D/H in methane was found to be 6.96-11.3×10 -5.

  2. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  3. Major Chemical Constituents of Bamboo Shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens): Qualitative and Quantitative Research.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia; Ding, Zhao-Qing; Gao, Quan; Xun, Hang; Tang, Feng; Xia, Er-Dong

    2016-03-30

    Bamboo shoots are a delicacy in Asia. Two novel compounds, adenine-(1'R,2'R,3'R)-cyclic butanetetraol carbonate (16) and (-)-(7R,8S)-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycerol 9-O-β-D-[6-O-4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl])-glucopyranoside (20), together with 12 known nucleosides (1-12), 3 amino acids (13-15), β-carboline (17), and 2 megastigmane glycosides (18, 19) were isolated from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys pubescens). Their structures and absolute configurations were rigorously determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and the composition of carbohydrates in bamboo shoots was qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed with ion chromatography. A simple, rapid, sensitive, and accurate HPLC-UV analysis was built for routine edible quality control of bamboo shoots, and 12 major components of bamboo shoots were quantitatively analyzed. The major chemical constituents of bamboo shoots were determined to be carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides. These findings are correctives to the usual view of bamboo shoots chemical composition, and the previous research reports about the chemical composition of bamboo shoots may have taken the aromatic amino acids and nucleotides for flavonoids and phenolic acids.

  4. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Acorus tatarinowii Schott by HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Qi, Peng; Xue, Rui; Li, Zhixiong; Zhu, Kaicheng; Wan, Ping; Huang, Chenggang

    2015-06-01

    Acorus tatarinowii Schott (ATS) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of epilepsy, amnesia and insomnia. In this study, a methodology utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) was established for the separation and structural identification of the major chemical constituents in ATS for the first time. Overall, 46 major constituents including flavonoid glycosides, phenylpropane derivatives, amides and lignans were identified or tentatively characterized. Seven major constituents, including four phenylpropane derivatives and three lignans, were further quantified as marker substances, which showed good linearity within the test ranges. These results indicated that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for quality control of ATS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Major-Merger Galaxy Pairs at Z = 0: Dust Properties and Companion Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingue, Donovan L.; Cao, Chen; Xu, C. Kevin; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Ronca, Joseph; Hill, Emily; Jacques, Allison

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of dust properties of a sample of close major-merger galaxy pairs selected by K s magnitude and redshift. The pairs represent the two populations of spiral-spiral (S+S) and mixed morphology spiral-elliptical (S+E). The Code Investigating GALaxy Emission software is used to fit dust models to the Two Micron All Sky Survey, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel flux density measurements, and to derive the parameters describing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contribution, interstellar radiation field, and photodissociation regions. Model fits verify our previous Spitzer Space Telescope analysis that S+S and S+E pairs do not have the same level of enhancement of star formation and differ in dust composition. The spirals of mixed-morphology galaxy pairs do not exhibit the enhancements in interstellar radiation field and therefore dust temperature for spirals in S+S pairs in contrast to what would be expected according to standard models of gas redistribution due to encounter torques. This suggests the importance of the companion environment/morphology in determining the dust properties of a spiral galaxy in a close major-merger pair.

  6. Comparative toxicity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and blends of its major constituents against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two different host plants.

    PubMed

    Miresmailli, Saber; Bradbury, Rod; Isman, Murray B

    2006-04-01

    Bioassays of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and blends of its major constituents were conducted using host-specific strains of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, on bean and tomato plants. Two constituents tested individually against a bean host strain and five constituents tested individually against a tomato host strain accounted for most of the toxicity of the natural oil. Other constituents were relatively inactive when tested individually. Toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated a synergistic effect among the active and inactive constituents, with the presence of all constituents necessary to equal the toxicity of the natural oil. Copyright (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reysa, Richard; Granahan, John; Seiner, George; Ransom, Elizabeth; Williams, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an essential part of the International Space Station (ISS) environmental control and life support system. The analyzer provides continuous readout of the partial pressures of six gases, nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) in the various ISS US. on-orbit modules. Continuous readout of the partial pressures of these gases is critical to verifying safe operation of the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system, Atmosphere Control System (ACS), and crew safety for Airlock Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The MCA encountered some operational interruptions since being launched to orbit on Flight 5A in February 2001. Electronic, software, and hardware modifications and on-orbit crew maintenance of the MCA were necessary to restore its capability. This paper describes the modifications and the on-orbit maintenance performed to return the MCA to operational status, including brief explanations of the MCA failures and the associated hardware and electronic modifications. Operational procedures that were required to return the MCA to operational status, and the more recent successes of supporting both Russian and U.S. ISS EVA preparations, are also discussed

  8. Methodology for determining major constituents of ayahuasca and their metabolites in blood.

    PubMed

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2012-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in potential medical applications of ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea with a long cultural history of indigenous medical and religious use. Clinical research into ayahuasca will require specific, sensitive and comprehensive methods for the characterization and quantitation of these compounds and their metabolites in blood. A combination of two analytical techniques (high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and/or fluorescence detection and gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection) has been used for the analysis of some of the constituents of ayahuasca in blood following its oral consumption. We report here a single methodology for the direct analysis of 14 of the major alkaloid components of ayahuasca, including several known and potential metabolites of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids in blood. The method uses 96-well plate/protein precipitation/filtration for plasma samples, and analysis by HPLC-ion trap-ion trap-mass spectrometry using heated electrospray ionization to reduce matrix effects. The method expands the list of compounds capable of being monitored in blood following ayahuasca administration while providing a simplified approach to their analysis. The method has adequate sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility to make it useful for clinical research with ayahuasca. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. In vitro and in vivo activity of major constituents from Pluchea carolinensis against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Montrieux, Elly; Perera, Wilmer H; García, Marley; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet

    2014-08-01

    The search for new therapeutic agents from natural sources has been a constant for the treatment of diseases such as leishmaniasis. Herein, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities of pure major phenolic constituents (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and rosmarinic acid) from Pluchea carolinensis against Leishmania amazonensis are presented. Pure compounds showed inhibitory activity against promastigotes (IC50 = 0.2-0.9 μg/mL) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 = 1.3-2.9 μg/mL). Four of them were selected after testing against macrophages of BALB/c mice: caffeic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and rosmarinic acid, with selective indices of 11, 17, 10, and 20, respectively. Ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid controlled lesion size development and parasite burden in footpads from BALB/c experimentally infected mice, after five injections of compounds by intralesional route at 30 mg/kg every 4 days. Pure compounds from P. carolinensis demonstrated antileishmanial properties.

  10. Hepatoprotective effects of fermented field water-dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) extract and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seun-Ah; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Chun; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Eun-Ju; Byun, Hae-Jung; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2014-05-01

    Dropwort (Oenanthe javanica) has been used for many years for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, including hepatitis. We investigated the protective effects of fermented field water-dropwort extract (FDE) on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Pretreatment with FDE prior to the t-BHP treatment of HepG2 cells inhibited cell death and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in a dose-dependent manner. In addition FDE significantly prevented the increase of hepatic enzyme markers (ALT, AST) in vivo. Moreover, FDE administration for 7 days significantly affected CYP2E1, CYP4A2, and PPARγ gene expressions. CYP2E1 and CYP4A2 gene expression in the liver, increased 2 and 22-fold by CCl4 administration, respectively, was attenuated to normal levels by pretreatment with FDE. PPARγ gene expression, completely blocked by CCl4 treatment, was increased by FDE pretreatment compared to normal control group. Histopathological examination of the livers also revealed that FDE reduced the incidence of liver lesions. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were identified as major constituents of FDE. These results demonstrate the protective effects of FDE against hepatocytotoxicity induced by CCl4 and t-BHP in rats and HepG2 cells, thus indicating the potential of FDE as a therapeutic for acute liver diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemopreventive effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN and its major constituents on SGC7901 gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Taigang; Yue, Wenyan; Li, Qingshan

    2010-11-09

    In this study, the effects of Peucedanum praeruptorum DUNN methanolic extract (PPME) and its major constituents on SGC7901 human gastric cancer cells were evaluated. Two pyranocoumarins, namely, (±) praeruptorin A (PA) and (±) praeruptorin B (PB), were isolated from PPME. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine the contents of PA and PB in PPME. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic actions of PPME were observed using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. At 300 μg/mL, PPME inhibited cell growth by 51.2% (P < 0.01), probably linked to the high concentration of PA and PB. Both PA and PB exhibited antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities on the SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, the active principle compound, PA, also enhanced the actions of doxorubincin (DOX) on SGC7901 cells. Cell growth decreased higher with the combined treatment of PA and DOX than that with the chemotherapy agent applied alone, suggesting that PA could reduce the dose of DOX for the desired effects.

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miq.) seed oil and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Lin, Qiyang; Li, Kang; Yuan, Benyao; Song, Hongbo; Yi, Lunzhao; Wei, Ming-Chi; Yang, Yu-Chiao; Battino, Maurizio; Cespedes Acuña, Carlos L; Chen, Lei; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-09-09

    Raspberry seed is a massive byproduct of raspberry juice and wine but usually discarded. The present study employed a microwave-assisted method for extraction of raspberry seed oil (RSO). The results revealed that omega-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid) were the major constituents in RSO. Cellular antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were investigated in HepG2 cells treated with RSO. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in H2O2-exposed HepG2 cells was found. RSO increased the enzyme activity of SOD, CAT, and GPx in H2O2-exposed HepG2. Furthermore, RSO inhibited the phosphorylation of upstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (c-JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, the possible mechanisms to increase antioxidant enzyme activities in HepG2 may through the suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation. Raspberry seed oil exhibited good effects on the activities of the intracellular antioxidant enzymes and seems to protect the liver from oxidative stress through the inhibition of MAPKs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Major Dust Events on the Aerosols Characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Hariri, Mustafa M.

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust storms blow up and significantly affect human activities, airports and citizens' health. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics are influenced by major dust storms outbreaks. In this, paper, ground based AERONET measurements are integrated with space-borne sensors, namely MODIS and CALIPSO to analyze aerosols' characteristics during March - May of 2009 where a massive dust storm blew up and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric dust load over Saudi Arabia and the same period during 2010, where less dust activities were reported. The MODIS Deep Blue AOD analysis showed similar aerosols pattern over the land, however a substantial variance in aerosol loading during March - May 2009 compared with the same period in 2010 was observed. The angstrom exponent analysis showed that the majority of aerosol measurements in 2009 and 2010 are dominated by coarse-mode particles with angstrom exponent < 0.5. Detailed analysis of aerosol optical properties shows significant influence of coarse mode particles in the enhanced aerosol loading in 2009. The volume depolarization rations (VDR) derived from CALIPSO backscattering measurements is used to find latitudinal profile of mean aerosol optical depth to indicate the type of particles and to discriminate spherical aerosols with non-spherical particles. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-32-76). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Observations of the impact of a major Saharan dust storm on the atmospheric radiation balance

    SciTech Connect

    Slingo, A.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Allan, R. P.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Robinson, G. J.; Barnard, James C.; Miller, Mark; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. E.; Dewitte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Saharan dust storms transport large quantities of material across the African continent and beyond, causing widespread disruption and hazards to health. The dust may be deposited into the Atlantic Ocean, where it provides an important source of nutrients1, and may be carried as far as the West Indies. Such events may also influence the growth of Atlantic tropical cyclones. Satellite observations have enabled estimates to be made of the effect of the dust on the radiation budget seen from space, but only limited in situ observations have hitherto been made at the surface. Here we present the first simultaneous and continuous observations of the effect of a major dust storm in March 2006 on the radiation budget both at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface. We combine data from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) broadband radiometer and the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on the Meteosat-8 weather satellite with remote sensing and in situ measurements from a new Mobile Facility located in Niamey, Niger (13{sup o} 29'N, 2{sup o} 10'E), operated by the US Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. We show that the dust produced major perturbations to the radiation budget seen from space and from the surface. By combining the two datasets, we estimate the impact on the radiation budget of the atmosphere itself. Using independent data from the Mobile Facility, we derive the optical properties of the dust and input these and other information into radiation codes to simulate the radiative fluxes. Comparisons with the observed fluxes provides a stringent test of the ability of the codes to represent the radiative properties of this important component of the global aerosol burden.

  15. Analyses of arbutin and chlorogenic acid, the major phenolic constituents in Oriental pear.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tong; Nakamura, Kozo; Ma, Liang; Li, Jian-Zhong; Kayahara, Hiroshi

    2005-05-18

    The HPLC retention time, photodiode array UV spectrum analysis, and LC/MS results indicated that arbutin and chlorogenic acid are the main phenolic constituents in Oriental pear. The two compounds exist in different organs of the Yali pear, which is one of the major cultivars of Pyrus bretschnrideri. The contents of arbutin in the leaf bud, floral bud, flower, and young fruit were 11.9, 12.4, 8.29, and 9.92 mg/g fresh weight (FW), respectively. Chlorogenic acid amounts in the same organs were 2.26, 3.22, 5.32, and 3.72 mg/g FW, respectively. During development, the concentration of the two compounds in Yali pears was the greatest in young fruit (9.92 mg/g FW of arbutin and 3.72 mg/g FW of chlorogenic acid), and then declined swiftly with fruit growth to less than 0.400 and 0.226 mg/g FW, respectively, in mature fruit. Large differences existed in the distribution of the two compounds in parts of the mature fruit of 14 Oriental pear cultivars. The greatest concentration of arbutin was found in the peel (1.20 mg/g FW), which was 3-5 times greater than that found in the core and 10-45 times greater than the level in the pulp. The concentration of chlorogenic acid in the core was greater than that in the peel. The compounds in 17 cultivars of Oriental pear, including P. bretschnrideri, Pyrus pyrifolia, Pyrus ussuriensis, and Pyrus sinkiangensis, were compared with those in 5 cultivars of Occidental pear (Pyrus communis). The mean concentration of arbutin in the Oriental pear cultivars was 0.164 mg/g FW, greater than the 0.083 mg/g FW found in the Occidental pear cultivars. The greatest arbutin content was 0.400 mg/g FW, found in the Yali pear. However, the mean concentration of chlorogenic acid in the Oriental pear was 0.163 mg/g FW, less than that found in the Occidental pear (0.309 mg/g FW).

  16. In vivo disposition and metabolism of madecassoside, a major bioactive constituent in Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

    PubMed

    Leng, Dan-dan; Han, Wen-jing; Rui, Yao; Dai, Yue; Xia, Yu-feng

    2013-11-25

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. herb is frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine for many indications, such as traumatic injuries, keloid and scar. Madecassoside is the main active ingredient of this herb drug with higher content than other triterpenoid constituents. Understandings of pharmacokinetic profiles of madecassoside should be beneficial for its development as a therapeutic agent. Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously and orally administered madecassoside (100 mg/kg), respectively. Plasma, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, bile, urine and feces were collected at the designed time points. Madecassoside concentrations in biological samples were determined by a sensitive and well-validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) method. A liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) method was established to identify its major metabolites in feces. To further pursue the disposition characteristics of madecassoside in rats, the involvement of the hepatobiliary efflux transporters in biliary elimination were studied by combination with digoxin (P-glycoprotein inhibitor) or probenecid (multidrug resistance-associated protein inhibitor). A linked-rat model was also used to assess the role of enterohepatic circulation in the pharmacokinetics of madecassoside. After a single oral dosing, madecassoside was widely distributed in heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney of rats, and the levels of madecassoside in liver and kidney were relatively higher than other organs. The excretions of madecassoside in bile, urine and feces were 7.16% (0-12 h), 0.25% (0-72 h) and 24.68% (0-72 h), respectively. The findings suggested that madecassoside might excrete mainly by metabolites. The combination with either digoxin or probenecid significantly attenuated the excretion of madecassoside as parent from bile, indicating that P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein might contribute

  17. Characterisation of the major dust storm that traversed over eastern Australia in September 2009; a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Munday, Chris I.; Brocks, Jochen; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Allison, Gwen E.; Hope, Janet; Norman, Marc; Stuut, Jan-Berend W.; Tapper, Nigel J.; van der Kaars, Sander

    2014-12-01

    In September 2009, a major dust storm passed over the southeast coast of Australia and covered the large city of Sydney that is located on the eastern coast of Australia. It was referred to as the 'Red Dawn' event. Along its course across the state of New South Wales, the dust plume passed over Canberra, the capital of Australia located some 300 km from Sydney. In this study we identified the sources of the dust and tracked the progression of the dust storm using satellite imagery. We also examined the meteorological conditions that led to the formation of the dust plume. We also investigated the microbial and lipid composition, grain-size distribution, pollen content and geochemical composition of several samples of the dust that fell in Canberra (called 'Canberra dust'), with particular attention paid to the ratio of some rare earth elements as well as strontium and neodymium isotopes. This was done to identify a geochemical and palynological 'fingerprint' of this dust to determine the source of the material. Collectively, the meteorological and fingerprinting analyses identified the principal location of dust entrainment as between the large playa Lakes Gairdner and Torrens in arid South Australia, some 1600 km away from Canberra. We also determined through Sr isotope analyses and other elements measured in the dust that fell in Canberra and the township of Eden, located south of Sydney, that the dust changed composition slightly over a few hours, being the consequence of local dust entrainment along the path of the dust plume across South Australia and New South Wales. In addition, we present a scenario which explains dust transport away from the direction of the major dust plume. Those investigations carried out on the Canberra dust are compared with a previously documented event when dust was also sampled in Canberra in 2002. The origin and composition of the 2002 dust plume was clearly different from that which occurred in 2009, as demonstrated by the

  18. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  19. Seasonal Contribution of Mineral Dust and Otlher Major Components to Particulate Matter at Two Remote Sites in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms are significant contributors to ambient levels of particulate matter (PM) in many areas of the world. Central Asia, an area that is relatively understudied in this regard, is anticipated to be affected by dust storms due to its proximity to several major deserts that ...

  20. Syntheses of carnosic acid and carnosol, anti-oxidants in Rosemary, from pisiferic acid, the major constituent of Sawara.

    PubMed

    Tada, Masahiro; Ohkanda, Tomoyuki; Kurabe, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Carnosic acid (2), a major anti-oxidant in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), was synthesized from pisiferic acid (1), the major constituent of Sawara (Chamaecyparis pisifera), via ortho-oxidation of the phenol using meta-chlorobenzoyl peroxide (mCBPO), chloroacetyl meta-chlorobenzoyl peroxide (CAMCBPO) or 2-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX). Carnosol (3), another anti-oxidant in rosemary, was synthesized from carnosic acid by oxidation with silver oxide. Potent antibacterial activities against Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919) (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) mug/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant (ATCC 33592) (MIC mug/ml) of carnosic acid and carnosol were reported.

  1. Major constituents of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the Caatinga and Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A F; Salatino, A

    2000-01-01

    The epicuticular waxes of leaves of four species (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro) from the Caatinga, (a semi-arid ecosystem of Northeast Brazil) and four species (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa) from the Cerrado, (a savanna ecosystem covering one third of the Brazilian territory), were analyzed. Six species contained a high content (above 60 microg x cm(-2)) of wax, four of them from the Caatinga. Triterpenoids and n-alkanes were the most frequent and abundant constituents found in the species from both habitats. The distribution of n-alkanes predominated by homologues with 27, 29, 31 and 33 carbon atoms, displayed no consistent differences between species from the two habitats. Lupeol, beta-amyrin, epifriedelinol and ursolic acid were the triterpenoids found. Triterpenoids clearly predominate over alkanes in the waxes from the Cerrado species. The waxes of two evergreen species from the Caatinga yielded n-alkanes as predominant constituents. A comparison of foliar epicuticular waxes of native plants from ecosystems with different hydric constraints is discussed.

  2. Repellency of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and their major constituents to Leptotrombidium pallidum (Acari: Trombiculidae).

    PubMed

    Shin, E-Hyun; Song, Bong Gu; Lee, Il Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Chang, Kyu-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Leptotrombidium pallidum (Nagoya, Miyagawa, Mitamura & Tamiya) is a primary vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi (Hyashi), the causative agent of scrub typhus. An assessment is made of the repellency to L. pallidum larvae (chiggers) of cassia bark, eucalyptus, and star anise oils and major constituents (E)-cinnamaldehyde, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-anethole of the corresponding oils. Results were compared with those of conventional repellents DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 [(ethyl 3-[acetyl(butyl)amino]propanoate)], and permethrin. Based on the median repellent concentration (RC50) values, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassia bark oil, and star anise oil (RC50, 0.95-1.52 mg/cm2) exhibited significantly more potent repellency than DEET (3.85 mg/cm2). (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-anethole, cassiabark oil, 1,8-cineole, and star anise oil were approximately 43, 16, 11, 8, and 4 times more effective than IR3535 (CC5, 6.51%) as judged by the median climbing distance-disturbing concentration (CC50) values. The median residual duration time of repellency (RT50) was significantly more pronounced in DEET (RT50, 323 min) than in all essential oils and constituents (108-167 min). In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic repellents, the three essential oils and their major constituents described merit further study as potential biorepellents for the control of L. pallidum populations.

  3. [Effect of sand dust weather on major water-soluble ions in PM10 in Lanzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Yu; Guo, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Lian-Biao

    2014-07-01

    The major water-soluble ions (Ca(2+), NH(4+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-) and Cl-(-) in PM10 at 1-h interval were measured by an online analyzer for monitoring of Aerosols and Gases (MARGA) at the campus of Lanzhou University, from April 1 to June 30, 2011. There were 15 days of dust weather during the monitoring period. The main water-soluble ions in PM10 were Ca(2+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-). The concentration of NO3(-) and NH4(+) decreased during blowing sand weather comparing with non-dust, this phenomenon showed that the dust weather had the function of eliminating the local anthropogenic emissions. As the soil pollution marker, the concentration of Mg(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) increased during dust weather comparing with non-dust. The correlation coefficients between Na(+) and Mg(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) during dust weather were 0.520, 0.659 and 0.671, respectively. The similar correlation coefficients indicated that some fraction of these species was derived from the same sources, such as soil dust. The correlation coefficients between Na(+) and Mg(2+), Na(+) and Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) during non-dust weather were not strong, only 0.065, 0.131 and 0.163, respectively. The low correlation coefficients indicated that these species were derived from different sources. The mass concentration of Cl(-) in the dust weather was significantly higher than that of floating dust and non dust, indicating that soil dust was the main source of Cl(-).

  4. Spectroscopic determination of intermolecular potentials of gas laser components and of major atmospheric constituents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klemperer, W.

    1982-01-01

    A systematic study of the structure of weakly bound complexes of hydrogen fluoride has been accomplished. This research provides a broad account of the interaction of hydrogen fluoride with a variety of laser components and atmospheric constituents. Precision structures are now available for the species ArHF, CO/sub 2/HF, N/sub 2/OHF and SCOHF as a result of the present research program. In addition, precision structures have been obtained for ArCO2 and ArN/sub 2/0. This research provides the basic information necessary for reliable modelling of intermolecular forces between HF and Ar, CO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/0 and OCS as well as between Ar and CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/0.

  5. Aerosol radiative forcing over the Indo-Gangetic plains during major dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Anup K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Chauhan, S. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Singh, Ramesh P.; Singh, Risal

    Indo-Gangetic (IG) alluvial plains, one of the largest river basins in the world, suffers from the long range transport of mineral dust from the western arid and desert regions of Africa, Arabia and Rajasthan during the summer (pre-monsoon season, April-June). These dust storms influence the aerosol optical depth (AOD) across the IG plains. The Kanpur AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) station and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) data show pronounced effect on the aerosol optical properties and aerosol size distribution during major dust storm events over the IG plains that have significant effect on the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF). The multi-band AOD, from AERONET and MODIS, show contrasting changes in wavelength dependency over dust affected regions. A time collocated (±30 min) validation of AERONET AOD with MODIS Terra (level 2 swath product) over Kanpur, at a common wavelength of 550 nm for the period 2001-2005 show moderate correlation ( R2˜0.6) during the summer season. The average surface forcing is found to change by -23 W m -2 during dust events and the top of the atmosphere (TOA) forcing change by -11 W m -2 as compared to the non-dusty clear-sky days. A strong correlation is found between AOD at 500 nm and the ARF. At surface, the correlation coefficient between AOD and ARF is found to be high ( R2=0.925) and is found to be moderate ( R2=0.628) at the TOA. The slope of the regression line gives the aerosol forcing efficiency at 500 nm of about -46±2.6 W m -2 and -17±2.5 W m -2 at the surface and the TOA, respectively. The ARF is found to increase with the advance of the dry season in conjunction with the gradual rise in AOD (at 500 nm) from April (0.4-0.5) to June (0.6-0.7) over the IG plains.

  6. A Sm-Nd isotopic study of atmospheric dusts and particulates from major river systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Onions, R. K.; Hamilton, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios, together with Sm and Nd abundances, are given for particulates from major and minor rivers as well as continental sediments and aeolian dusts collected over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In combination with data from the literature, the present results have implications for the age, history, and composition of the sedimentary mass and the continental crust. It is noted that the average ratio of Sm/Nd is about 0.19 in the upper continental crust, and has remained so since the early Archean, thereby precluding the likelihood of major mafic-to-felsic or felsic-to-mafic trends in the overall composition of the upper continental crust through earth history. The average 'crustal residence age' of the entire sedimentary mass is about 1.9 Ga.

  7. Cytotoxic Effects of Salvinorin A, A Major Constituent of Salvia divinorum.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Ana; Silva, Sara M; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    S. divinorum is a psychoactive plant that has been consumed as a recreational drug of abuse in the last years. Salvinorin A is its main constituent, and is responsible for the observed psychoactive effects. Both S. divinorum and salvinorin A have become controlled drugs in several countries, but they are not listed in the Schedules of the United Nations Drug Conventions. Regarding the effects of S. divinorum consumption, almost all studies are based on in vivo or on surveys, and there are no studies in vitro on its toxicity. Furthermore, all studies are focused on the acute toxicological effects of the plant. So, it is of utmost importance to further investigate the effects of S. divinorum and salvinorin A, particularly using in vitro models, after prolonged exposures. In this context, the present work evaluated the in vitro toxicity induced by S. divinorum or salvinorin A in six cell lines, through MTT assays and LC50 determination. Overall, results showed that both S. divinorum and salvinorin A are cytotoxic, dose- and time-dependent. Also, Hep G2 and Caco 2 (to a lesser extent) cells showed lower sensitivity to S. divinorum and salvinorin A when compared to the other studied cell lines. To our knowledge, this is the first work focused on the in vitro toxicity of S. divinorum and salvinorin A using a variety of cell lines, which are extensively described in literature and have been widely used in several in vitro studies.

  8. Orange/lemon-scented beetles: opposite enantiomers of limonene as major constituents in the defensive secretion of related carabids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attygalle, Athula B.; Wu, Xiaogang; Maddison, David R.; Will, Kipling W.

    2009-12-01

    The major constituent in the pygidial gland defensive fluid of the carabid beetle Ardistomis schaumii is ( R)-(+)-limonene, whereas that of Semiardistomis puncticollis is ( S)-(-)-limonene. This was an unanticipated result, since it is not very common to find the opposite enantiomers of the same compound among the secondary metabolites of related species. Moreover, the glandular liquid of A. schaumii contains 1,8-cineole, and that of S. puncticollis has β-pinene, β-phellandrene, sabinene, and p-cymene. Of about 500 carabid species that have been chemically investigated, this is the first report of the presence of such complex mixtures of monoterpenes in their defensive secretions.

  9. Carbon abundances, major element chemistry, and mineralogy of hydrated interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrated interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) comprise a major fraction of the interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. While much is known about the mineralogy and chemistry of hydrated IDP's, little is known about the C abundance in this class of IDP's, the nature of the C-bearing phases, and how the C abundance is related to other physical properties of hydrated IDP's. Bulk compositional data (including C and O) for 11 hydrated IDP's that were subsequently examined by the transition electron microscopy (TEM) to determine their mineralogy and mineral chemistry are reported. Our analysis indicates that these hydrated IDP's are strongly enriched in C relative to the most C-rich meteorites. The average abundance of C in these hydrated IDP's is 4X CI chondrite values. The bulk compositions (including C and O) of 11 hydrated IDP's were determined by thin-window, energy-dispersive x ray (EDX) spectroscopy of the uncoated IDP's on Be substrates in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a check on our C measurements, one of the IDP's (L2006H5) was embedded in glassy S, and microtome thin sections were prepared and placed onto Be substrates. Thin-film EDX analyses of multiple thin sections of L2006H5 show good agreement with the bulk value determined in the SEM. Following EDX analysis, the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of each IDP was determined by analyzing ultramicrotome thin sections in a TEM equipped with an EDX spectrometer.

  10. Photochemical processes induced by a major warming of the upper atmosphere - Variations in mesospheric trace constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, J. E.

    1981-04-01

    The temperature rise and enhanced winds during an upper atmospheric warming cause substantial changes in the high level ozone profile of the sunlit winter hemisphere. Calculations based on a photochemical model, using temperatures measured at Fort Churchill during a major warming, predict a factor of 2 variation in the ozone number density near 60 km over a time period of approximately 3 weeks. This temporal variability at a fixed location results from the planetary wave structure of the temperature field and reflects a similar longitudinal behavior at a given time. The ozone number density at fixed altitude is a maximum when the temperature is greatest at and below this level. This is due primarily to thermal expansion of the atmosphere which results in a large increase in pressure at constant altitude. However, chemical activity during a warming decreases the mesospheric ozone mixing ratio at fixed pressure. The ozone mixing ratio at constant pressure during the peak of the event studied is near 75% of its unperturbed value. The predicted variability of ozone in longitude and time demonstrates the need for hemispheric scale information on trace gas abundances, temperature, and winds in order to delineate adequately the response of upper atmospheric composition to a major perturbation.

  11. Peroxidase as the major protein constituent in areca nut and identification of its natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lee, Miau-Rong; Li, Mi; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chung, Jing-Gung; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Numerous reports illustrate the diverse effects of chewing the areca nut, most of which are harmful and have been shown to be associated with oral cancer. Nearly all of the studies are focused on the extract and/or low molecular weight ingredients in the areca nut. The purpose of this report is to identify the major protein component in the areca nut. After ammonium sulfate fractionation, the concentrated areca nut extract is subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography. A colored protein is eluted at low NaCl concentration and the apparently homogeneous eluent represents the major protein component compared to the areca nut extract. The colored protein shares partial sequence identity with the royal palm tree peroxidase and its peroxidase activity is confirmed using an established assay. In the study, the natural substrates of areca nut peroxidase are identified as catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1. The two former substrates are similarly oxidized to form a 576 Da product with concomitant removal of four hydrogen atoms. Interestingly, oxidation of procyanidin B1 occurs only in the presence of catechin or epicatechin and an additional product with an 864 Da molecular mass. In addition, procyanidin B1 is identified as a peroxidase substrate for the first time.

  12. Cardiometabolic effects of two coffee blends differing in content for major constituents in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Kerstin; Kolb, Hubert; Gärtner, Babette; Bytof, Gerhard; Stiebitz, Herbert; Lantz, Ingo; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Martin, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis was tested that coffee types differing in content of major constituents also differ with regard to cardiometabolic effects. Overweight persons (n = 118) were randomized to consume a dark roast [rich in N-methylpyridinium (NMP)] or medium roast (rich in caffeoylquinic acids, trigonelline) coffee blend for 3 months, after a washout period of 4 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, body weight and 15 further general and biochemical parameters were determined. Participants consumed an average of 4-5 cups per day. Mean body weight, body mass index and waist circumference did not change during the coffee consumption phase in either of the study groups. Systolic blood pressure decreased in the dark roast coffee group only (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased in the medium roast coffee group only, and triglyceride levels increased in the dark roast coffee group only. Glucoregulation and insulin levels were not affected, although there was a small increase of hemoglobin A1c values in both groups. An increase of adiponectin levels occurred in the medium roast coffee group only and was negatively associated with NMP concentrations. Differences did not remain statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. Medium and dark roast coffee blends exert small but possibly relevant different cardiometabolic effects. Further studies of health outcomes in relation to coffee constituents seem warranted.

  13. Tracking Chemical Characteristics of Aerosols during major Dust Storm events in the North-West region of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms mark a major natural event in north India which loads the atmosphere with enormousamount of aerosols. Thus, this study aimed at tracking the key features of aerosol composition,particularly on the days of major dust storms, along the trajectory of dust storms in the Indianregion. Dustfall was monitored at five sites, with important geological locations, in the northwesternregion from April to June, 2015. The dustfall flux was the highest at western most sites of Jaipur(JP) (1206 mg/m2/day) and Bikaner (BK) (516.3 mg/m2/day). These sites not only mark the entrypoint of dust storms from middle east and African regions but also are surrounded by the IndianThar desert, as seen in the NOAA HYSPLIT model trajectories during dust storm period.Interestingly, Ca fluxes varied in accordance with the dustfall fluxes which were also found to bethe highest at JP (87.9 mg/m2/day) followed by BK (59.1 mg/m2/day). The variation of Ca fluxfurther matched well with the pattern of SO42- flux, where again JP (11.9mg/m2/day) recorded thehighest value followed by BK (9.5mg/m2/day). This is indicative of the scavenging of the SO42- byCa present in the resuspended dust.The following eastward sites of Hisar (HS), the capital city ofDelhi (DL) and Agra (AG) represent a shift of geology and also the source of aerosols as are urbancentres. These urban centres, on the other hand recorded the fluxes of NO3- ( DL - 0.9 mg/m2/day)and F- (HS - .1 mg/ m2/day). These findings shed light on the nature of chemical composition ofaerosols from dust, along the trajectory of dust storms in the northwestern region of Indian.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  15. Characterization of major pollution events (dust, haze, and two festival events) at Agra, India.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Tripti; Singla, Vyoma; Satsangi, Aparna; Lakhani, Anita; Kumari, K Maharaj

    2013-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected during dust, haze, and two festival events (Holi and Diwali) from February 2009 to June 2010. Pollutant gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) along with the meteorological parameters were also measured during the four pollution events at Agra. The concentration of pollutant gases decreases during dust events (DEs), but the levels of the gases increase during other pollution events indicating the impact of anthropogenic emissions. The mass concentrations were about two times higher during pollution events than normal days (NDs). High TSP concentrations during Holi and Diwali events may be attributed to anthropogenic activities while increased combustion sources in addition to stagnant meteorological conditions contributed to high TSP mass during haze events. On the other hand, long-range transport of atmospheric particles plays a major role during DEs. In the dust samples, Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO3 (-), and SO4 (2-) were the most abundant ions and Ca(2+) alone accounted for 22 % of the total ionic mass, while during haze event, the concentrations of secondary aerosols species, viz., NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), and NH4 (+), were 3.6, 3.3, and 5.1 times higher than the normal days. During Diwali, SO4 (2-) concentration (17.8 μg m(-3)) was highest followed by NO3 (-), K(+), and Cl(-) while the Holi samples were strongly enriched with Cl(-) and K(+) which together made up 32.7 % of the total water-soluble ions. The ion balances indicate that the haze samples were acidic. On the other hand, Holi, Diwali, and DE samples were enriched with cations. The carbonaceous aerosol shows strong variation with the highest concentration during Holi followed by haze, Diwali, DEs, and NDs. However, the secondary organic carbon concentration follows the order haze > DEs > Diwali > Holi > NDs. The scanning electron microscope/EDX results indicate that KCl and carbon-rich particles were more dominant during Holi and haze events while DE samples were enriched

  16. Some major and trace constituents of Phanerozoic Egyptian mudrocks and marls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindy, Amin R.; Tamish, Mohamed M. O.

    One hundred shale, mudstone and marl samples from diverse important Phanerozoic depositional basins in Egypt were analysed for their Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Ti, carbonate, acid-insoluble residue and total organic matter contents. The following 13 trace elemenys were also spectrographically determined: Ag, B, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Sr, V and Zr. The chemical data are statistically treated and discussed in conjunction with the regional geologic setting. For most aerated shelf basins, Si, Al, Ti, Zr and Sc and the insoluble residue all increase together. They represent the resistate detrital fraction of the sediments which appreciablyy increases in the shallower nearshore facies of these stable shelves. Ca, Mg and Sr generally tally with the carbonate content. In the black shales, Co and to a mucch lesser extent Ni, V and Cr crudely increase with increase in total organic matter content. For all marine samples boron contents are generally below that of the 'average shale' of Turekian and Wedepohl (1961) and this may be related in part to the dominance of montmorillonite, mixed-layer clays and kaolinite rather than true illite in the clay mineralogy of the majority of Egyptian mudrocks and marls. The Cretaceous black shales associated with the phosphorite beds are not particularly enriched in trace metals and their content fluctuetes in response to their much varied and changing depositional environments. The Carboniferous black shales of west central Sinai are, on the other hand, distinctly enrichedn Cu, Pb, Co, Cr and V. They most probably reflect true anoxic conditions od sedimentation. The absence of true orogenies throughout the Phanerozoic in Egypt and the gradual upliftin of the stable craton of southern Egypt caused reworking of older shelf sediments and depositio of reworked sediments in youngerasins. This may explain the observed progressive decrease in 'total trace element enrichment index' in progressively younger aerated shelf basins of Egypt.

  17. Historic activity of mt. Vesuvius: major elements and volatile constituents of primary melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchetti, A.; Marianelli, P.; Metrich, N.; Sbrana, A.

    2003-04-01

    Mt. Vesuvius experienced a three-century long period of semi-persistent activity, after the 1631 eruption and is presently in a phase of rest. During this period, several eruptions displayed composite style since they started with lava effusions and evolved towards explosive activity (lava fountains, phreatomagmatic explosions and occasionally steady columns). The tephrostratigraphic sequence of post-1631 activity is well reconstructed [1] on the basis of historical chronicles and field investigations, whereas information about the feeding system is still weak. We have selected samples related to energetic lava fountain activity that occurred during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 composite-style eruptions for investigating the deep feeding systems of Mt. Vesuvius, during the 1631--1944 period. We present data on melt inclusions and their host olivines. Major elements, S, Cl and F were obtained using the electron microprobe (SX50, Camparis), CO_2 and H_2O by Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. Carbon was also analysed by nuclear reaction 12C(d,p)13C. The magma batches emitted during the 1794, 1822 and 1872 eruptions brought to the surface primitive olivines (Fo90.4-88.5) containing spinel (Cr/(Cr+Al) = 0.77--0.75). Their inclusions attest of crystallization at high pressure from K-rich (HK) parental magmas with K_2O varying from 4.3 to 6.0, high K_2O/H_2O (up to 2.4), Cl/H_2O (up to 0.25), Cl/F (up to 3) ratios, and H_2O content systematically high and variable from 2.3 to 4.9 wt.%. The most primitive compositions are recorded in melt inclusions from the oldest samples (1794 and 1822 eruptions). We propose a rather rapid transfer of HK-melts carrying olivine crystals from depth. This process is only detectable by the means of melt inclusions in Fo-rich olivines phenocrysts occurring only in the deposits related to the most powerful episodes of lava fountains while the whole rocks are cumulative with respect to clinopyroxene (± leucite). These new data, in addition to

  18. Microbeam analysis of four chondritic interplanetary dust particles for major elements, carbon and oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, G. E.; Thomas, K. L.; Mckay, D. S.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical compositions determined using electron excited X-rays are reported for four interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. These analyses include measurements of carbon and oxygen abundances which are important elements in these primitive materials. Spot analyses show very heterogeneous compositions on a micrometer scale although average composition approaches that of C1 carbonaceous chondrites. While the spot analyses show intermediate compositions between cometary dust and carbonaceous chondrites, the heterogeneity more closely resembles that of comet Halley dust particles.

  19. Correlation of archaeological ceramics and clays using an external-beam PIXE analysis of the major elemental constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. R.; Fischbeck, H. J.; Chesnut, K.

    1985-05-01

    Time-consuming trace-element analysis is often used to determine the origin of archaeological artifacts. In an effort to locate the source of clay used to manufacture archaeological ceramics from eastern Oklahoma, we find that a determination of major elemental constituents using external-beam PIXE analysis is a useful technique for determining the probability of common origin. Using a 7 nA, 1.5 MeV external proton beam, it takes less than one minute to determine the concentration of the major elements to an accuracy of better than 5%. This rapid analysis makes it possible to quickly select pottery sherds of similar composition and eliminate clay samples which are not strongly correlated with the sherds. Trace-element analysis of these strongly correlated samples can then in principle be used to make an absolute identification. Major elemental analysis is thus useful for survey work where many samples must be examined. The effects of sample inhomogeneity and the firing process, as well as the probability of false correlations, are discussed.

  20. Methodology for and the determination of the major constituents and metabolites of the Amazonian botanical medicine ayahuasca in human urine.

    PubMed

    McIlhenny, Ethan H; Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J; Strassman, Rick; Barker, Steven A

    2011-09-01

    Ayahuasca, also known as caapi or yage among various South American groups, holds a highly esteemed and millennia-old position in these cultures' medical and religious pharmacopeia. There is now an increasing interest in the potential for modern medical applications of ayahuasca, as well as concerns regarding its increasing potential for abuse. Toxicological and clinical research to address these issues will require information regarding its metabolism and clearance. Thus, a rapid, sensitive and specific method for characterization and quantitation of the major constituents and of the metabolites of ayahuasca in urine is needed. The present research provides a protocol for conducting such analyses. The characteristics of the method, conducted by sample dilution and using HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-tandem mass spectrometry, are presented. The application of the analytical protocol to urine samples collected from three individuals that were administered ayahuasca has also been demonstrated. The data show that the major metabolite of the hallucinogenic component of ayahuasca, N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is the corresponding N-oxide, the first time this metabolite has been described in in vivo studies in humans. Further, very little DMT was detected in urine, despite the inhibition of monoamine oxidase afforded by the presence of the harmala alkaloids in ayahuasca. The major harmala alkaloid excreted was tetrahydroharmine. Other excretion products and metabolites were also identified and quantified. The method described would be suitable for use in further toxicological and clinical research on ayahuasca.

  1. MISR perspective on dust spatial and temporal variability in major desert sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Garay, M. J.; Kassabian, S.; Chodas, M.; Goetz, M. B.; Sokolik, I. N.

    2012-12-01

    Despite its well-recognized importance, the impact of mineral aerosol (dust) on the environment and its relation to global climate factors and mesoscale systems remains difficult to quantify. The 12+ years of data from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on the polar-orbiting Terra satellite provide a unique, independent source of data for studying dust emissions. MISR's multiple view angles allow the simultaneous retrieval of dust plume top height and dust motion during the seven minutes a scene is in view. In addition, MISR retrieves aerosol properties over bright surfaces, and such retrievals have been shown to be sensitive to the non-sphericity of dust aerosols. We perform joint analysis of MISR plume stereo products and MISR aerosol optical depth (AOD) products in and downwind of the Bodélé depression in northern Chad, and the Taklimakan desert in East Asia. We evaluate the realism of the MISR characterization of dust source-specific emissions against AERONET and meteorological data. Utilizing the strengths and accounting for biases in MISR aerosol and stereo products over the desert areas, we investigate multi-year spatial and temporal behavior of dust in terms of frequency of plume occurrence, plume heights, dust moving winds, and AOD. In particular, we examine the multi-annual mean pattern, seasonal cycle, inter-annual variability, and trends in dust emissions. MISR does not show statistically significant long-term trends; natural aerosol loadings in the sources and downwind seem to be predominantly affected by large-scale climatological factors and mesoscale weather systems. The reasons for the dust spatial and temporal patterns are analyzed in terms of temperature, precipitation, and wind fields.

  2. In vivo cytokine modulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde, the major constituent of leaf essential oil from Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Shen Chou; Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chao, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ya-Yun; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Shih; Lee, Yi-Pang; Chen, Shu-Chen; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the major compound in the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. and to examine its in vivo toxicity and cytokine-modulatory effects. The HS-GC/MS and quantitative HPLC analyses showed the concentrations of the major compounds, cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde and 3-phenylpropionaldehyde, in the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum to be 16.88, 1.28 and 1.70 mg/mL, respectively. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests identified no significant changes in body weight, liver and kidney function indices, and pathology for the mice treated with up to 1 mL/kg body weight of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil or up to 4 mg/kg body weight of cinnamaldehyde. A murine model was established using ovalbumin (OVA)-primed Balb/C mice treated with various concentrations of Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil or cinnamaldehyde daily for 4 weeks. The results of tests with commercial ELISA kits indicated no significant cytokine-modulatory effects in mice treated with Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaf essential oil; however, the serum concentrations of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10, but not IFN-γ, significantly increased in animals treated with 1 mg/kg body weight of cinnamaldehyde during the 4-week period. The possibility that the other constituents act as antagonists of cinnamaldehyde cannot be excluded. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Relationship of the Major Constituents of the Neurospora crassa Cell Wall to Wild-Type and Colonial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevan, P. R.; Tatum, E. L.

    1965-01-01

    Mahadevan, P. R. (The Rockefeller Institute, New York, N.Y.), and E. L. Tatum. Relationship of the major constituents of the Neurospora crassa cell wall to wild-type and colonial morphology. J. Bacteriol. 90:1073–1081. 1965.—The relationship of cell wall to morphology in Neurospora crassa was studied by correlating the levels of structural polymers of the cell wall with wild-type and colonial morphology. The cell wall of N. crassa contains at least four major complexes: a peptide-polysaccharide complex; two glucose polymers, one of which was found to be a laminarinlike β-1,3-glucan; and, lastly, chitin. The levels of one or more of these structural polymers are consistently altered in single-gene mutants with colonial growth, and in sorbose-induced colonial growth. The proportions of these polymers, particularly of the peptide-polysaccharide complex and the β-1,3-glucan, appear to be important to morphology. Images PMID:5847797

  4. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution.

  5. A comparison of simultaneous plasma, atomic absorption, and iron colorimetric determinations of major and trace constituents in acid mine waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, J.W.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three water samples collected during June to October 1982 from the Leviathan/Bryant Creek drainage basin were originally analyzed by simultaneous multielement direct-current plasma (DCP) atomic-emission spectrometry, flame atomic-absorption spectrometry, graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) (thallium only), ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry.Determinations were made for the following metallic and semi-metallic constituents: AI, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe(11), Fe(total), Li, Pb, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, K, Sb, Se, Si, Na, Sr, TI, V, and Zn. These samples were re-analyzed later by simultaneous multielement inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic-emission spectrometry and Zeeman-corrected GFAAS to determine the concentrations of many of the same constituents with improved accuracy, precision, and sensitivity. The result of this analysis has been the generation of comparative concentration values for a significant subset of the solute constituents. Many of the more recently determined values replace less-than-detection values for the trace metals; others constitute duplicate analyses for the major constituents. The multiple determinations have yielded a more complete, accurate, and precise set of analytical data. They also have resulted in an opportunity to compare the performance of the plasma-emission instruments operated in their respective simultaneous multielement modes. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for Na and K and hydride-generation atomic-absorption spectrometry was judged best for As because of their lower detection limit and relative freedom from interelement spectral effects. Colorimetric determination using ferrozine as the color agent was judged most accurate, precise, and sensitive for Fe. Cadmium, lead, and vanadium concentrations were too low in this set of samples to enable a determination of whether ICP or DCP is a more suitable technique. Of

  6. [Road dust loading and chemical composition at major cities in Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Zheng, An; Yang, Bing-yu; Wu, Shui-ping; Wang, Xin-hong; Chen, Xiao-qiu

    2013-05-01

    A total of 57 road dust and 16 urban soil samples were collected from four cities, Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Quanzhou and Putian in Fujian Province, China. Twenty-six elements, eight water soluble ions, organic carbon and elemental carbon in the fraction of particulate diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) derived through a suspension chamber were analyzed. The average loading of road dust with diameter less than 100 microm in the four cities ranged from 6.99 g x m(-2) to 10.11 g x m(-2), while the loading of PM2.5 ranged from 4.0 mg x m(-2) to 12.5 mg x m(-2). Both the soil and road dust samples were characterized with much higher concentrations of Si, Ca, Al, Fe and K. But for the anthropogenic elements such as Cu, Pb, Zn,Cr and Ti, much lower levels were found in the soil PM2.5, than those in the road dust PM2.5. Significantly higher levels of NH4+, NO3- and SO4(2-) were found in the road dust PM2.5 from Zhangzhou in comparison with those from other cities in this study. The calcium ion (Ca2+) content was significantly positively correlated with the Mg2+ content in the road dust PM2.5 from Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Quanzhou. The levels of organic carbon (OC) in the road dust PM2.5 in these four cities were higher than those reported in Ji'nan, Shijiazhuang and Beijing while the levels of elemental carbon (EC) were all lower than those in the urban road dust from Beijing, Significant positive correlation between EC and OC was found in samples from Quanzhou and Putian, suggesting the same and/or similar sources. The result of mass balance indicated that higher percentage compositions were soil and OM in both Quanzhou and Putian. Based on the cluster analysis, the 57 road dust samples were divided into four types: influenced by atmospheric deposition, influenced by soil dust, influenced by atmospheric deposition and soil dust, and influenced by soil and construction dust.

  7. Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence by Cinnamaldehyde, the Major Constituent of the Chinese Medicinal Herb Ramulus Cinnamomi

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ning; Chen, Wen-Chi; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common disorder in middle-aged women and the elderly population. Although surgical treatment of SUI has progressed, pharmacological therapies remain unelucidated. We screened potential herbal medicines against SUI with an ex vivo organ bath assay. Ramulus Cinnamomi and its major constituent cinnamaldehyde cause a high contractile force of the urethra and a low contractile force of blood vessels. Cinnamaldehyde dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. In the vaginal distension- (VD-) induced SUI model in mice, cinnamaldehyde significantly reversed the VD-induced SUI physical signs and reduced blood pressure. Cinnamaldehyde may offer therapeutic potential against SUI without the possible side effect of hypertension. The modulation of several SUI-related proteins including myosin, iNOS, survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, and superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) may play some crucial roles in the therapeutic approach against SUI. This information may offer clues to the pathogenesis of SUI and open additional avenues for potential therapy strategies. PMID:24711852

  8. Biting deterrence, repellency, and larvicidal activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) essential oil and its major individual constituents against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Demirci, Betul; Kiyan, Hulya Tuba; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Wedge, David E; Khan, Ikhlas A; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation, and its chemical profile was identified using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds, 2-undecanone (43.2%), 2-nonanone (27.9%), and 2-nonyl acetate (10.6%) were the major constituents of the oil. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil at 10 and 50 microg/cm2, 2-undecanone at 8.5 microg/cm2, 2-nonanone at 9 microg/cm2, and 2-nonyl acetate at 9.3 microg/cm2 was similar to DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) at 4.8 microg/cm2, against Aedes aegypti L. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis oil at 50 microg/cm2 against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say was statistically similar to DEET at 4.8 microg/cm2, whereas the activity was lower in the other compounds tested. In cloth patch assay, R. chalepensis essential oil was effective at 187 microg/cm2, whereas 2-undecanone was effective at 108.9 microg/cm2 against Ae. aegypti. In larval bioassays, 2-undecanone showed similar toxicity whereas toxicity of R. chalepensis essential oil and 2-nonanone was higher at 24-h posttreatment at the LD50 in An. quadrimaculatus than Ae. aegypti. This study revealed that R. chalepensis essential oil and its major compounds were active biting deterrents against Ae. aegypti at higher application rates whereas only the essential oil showed activity similar to DEET against An. quadrimaculatus. 2-undecanone was the most active compound in in vivo repellency bioassay against Ae. aegypti. Chemical composition of R. chalepensis essential oil varies because of plant production and harvest practices, and the activity level of the essential oil may depend on the source of the sample.

  9. Mars atmospheric phenomena during major dust storms, as measured at surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Henry, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological instrumentation aboard the Viking Mars Landers measures wind, temperature, and pressure. Two global dust storms occurred during northern autumn and winter, observed both by the orbiters and by the landers. The meteorological data from the landers has been analyzed for the period just before first storm arrival to just after second storm arrival, with the objectives of defining the meteorological phenomena during the storm period, determining those associated with storm and dust arrival, and evaluating the effects on synoptic conditions and the general circulation. Times of dust arrival over the sites could be defined fairly closely from optical and pressure (solar tide) data, and dust arrival was also accompanied by changes in diurnal temperature range, temperature maxima, and temperature minima. The arrivals of the storms at Viking Lander 1 were accompanied by significant increases in wind speed and pressure. No such changes were observed at Viking Lander 2. It is possible that surface material could have been raised locally at Viking Lander 1. Throughout the period except for the time following the second dust storm the synoptic picture at Viking Lander 2 was one of eastward moving cyclonic and anticyclonic systems. These disappeared following the second storm, a phenomenon which may be related to the storm.

  10. Horizontal aeolian sediment flux in the Minqin area, a major source of Chinese dust storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhibao; Man, Duoqing; Luo, Wanyin; Qian, Guangqiang; Wang, Jihe; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Shizeng; Zhu, Guoqinq; Zhu, Shujuan

    2010-03-01

    Minqin has become one of the key dust source areas in China due to its severely degraded eco-environment. However, little is known about how much dust is emitted and transported in this area. Aeolian dust samplers were mounted at 15 heights on a 50 m monitoring tower in Minqin in May 2007 to monitor the horizontal aeolian sediment flux. The monitoring data suggests that the total annual horizontal aeolian sediment flux over Minqin is about 8700 kg m - 1 . Of that annual total, the flux in the PM63, PM20, and PM10 size classes amounted to 1730, 780, and 580 kg m - 1 respectively. The flux in May and June accounted for 64% of the annual total, with a minimum in October. The horizontal aeolian sediment flux, including dust flux, decayed rapidly with increasing height following a modified power function, in agreement with the results of several previous studies. The sediment flux in Minqin depends primarily on the wind's characteristics, especially the maximum wind speeds (which create strong aeolian transport). Precipitation in this arid region had limited significance for reducing aeolian sediment transport. The mean diameter, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis of the aeolian sediments varied with height, but varied most significantly within 9 m above the surface. The mean diameter of the aeolian sediment ranged from 20 µm (5.6 ø) to 95 µm (3.4 ø), and thus primarily represents suspended dust, even though coarse particles of organic and salt aggregates are also present.

  11. Mars atmospheric phenomena during major dust storms, as measured at surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. A.; Henry, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorological instrumentation aboard the Viking Mars Landers measures wind, temperature, and pressure. Two global dust storms occurred during northern autumn and winter, observed both by the orbiters and by the landers. The meteorological data from the landers has been analyzed for the period just before first storm arrival to just after second storm arrival, with the objectives of defining the meteorological phenomena during the storm period, determining those associated with storm and dust arrival, and evaluating the effects on synoptic conditions and the general circulation. Times of dust arrival over the sites could be defined fairly closely from optical and pressure (solar tide) data, and dust arrival was also accompanied by changes in diurnal temperature range, temperature maxima, and temperature minima. The arrivals of the storms at Viking Lander 1 were accompanied by significant increases in wind speed and pressure. No such changes were observed at Viking Lander 2. It is possible that surface material could have been raised locally at Viking Lander 1. Throughout the period except for the time following the second dust storm the synoptic picture at Viking Lander 2 was one of eastward moving cyclonic and anticyclonic systems. These disappeared following the second storm, a phenomenon which may be related to the storm.

  12. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  13. A Meta-Analysis and Multisite Time-Series Analysis of the Differential Toxicity of Major Fine Particulate Matter Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Diez, David; Dou, Yiping; Barr, Christopher D.; Dominici, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Health risk assessments of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) often assume that all constituents of PM2.5 are equally toxic. While investigators in previous epidemiologic studies have evaluated health risks from various PM2.5 constituents, few have conducted the analyses needed to directly inform risk assessments. In this study, the authors performed a literature review and conducted a multisite time-series analysis of hospital admissions and exposure to PM2.5 constituents (elemental carbon, organic carbon matter, sulfate, and nitrate) in a population of 12 million US Medicare enrollees for the period 2000–2008. The literature review illustrated a general lack of multiconstituent models or insight about probabilities of differential impacts per unit of concentration change. Consistent with previous results, the multisite time-series analysis found statistically significant associations between short-term changes in elemental carbon and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Posterior probabilities from multiconstituent models provided evidence that some individual constituents were more toxic than others, and posterior parameter estimates coupled with correlations among these estimates provided necessary information for risk assessment. Ratios of constituent toxicities, commonly used in risk assessment to describe differential toxicity, were extremely uncertain for all comparisons. These analyses emphasize the subtlety of the statistical techniques and epidemiologic studies necessary to inform risk assessments of particle constituents. PMID:22510275

  14. The major role of dust in explaining 1954--1993 acid rain trends

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Calcium and other base cation levels in air and precipitation from the 1950`s to the 1990`s can be as important as sulfate and other acidic species in understanding acid rain trends (or basic rain trends). Precipitation quality data, air quality data, and estimates of sources of dust emissions are used to address the issue of calcium trends in the atmosphere. The apparent downward trend for calcium in precipitation from the 1950`s to the 1970`s is suggested to be due mainly to a change in sample collection methods while the decrease since the mid-1970`s is due to a real decrease in atmospheric calcium dust levels in the atmosphere.

  15. An extract of Apium graveolens var. dulce leaves: structure of the major constituent, apiin, and its anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Mencherini, T; Cau, A; Bianco, G; Della Loggia, R; Aquino, R P; Autore, G

    2007-06-01

    Flavonoids, natural compounds widely distributed in the plant kingdom, are reported to affect the inflammatory process and to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunomodulatory activity in-vitro and in-vivo. Since nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the inflammatory mediators, the effects of the ethanol/water (1:1) extract of the leaves of Apium graveolens var. dulce (celery) on iNOS expression and NO production in the J774.A1 macrophage cell line stimulated for 24 h with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were evaluated. The extract of A. graveolens var. dulce contained apiin as the major constituent (1.12%, w/w, of the extract). The extract and apiin showed significant inhibitory activity on nitrite (NO) production in-vitro (IC50 0.073 and 0.08 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) and iNOS expression (IC50 0.095 and 0.049 mg mL(-1) for the extract and apiin, respectively) in LPS-activated J774.A1 cells. The croton-oil ear test on mice showed that the extract exerted anti-inflammatory activity in-vivo (ID50 730 microg cm(-2)), with a potency seven-times lower than that of indometacin (ID50 93 microg cm(-2)), the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as reference. Our results clearly indicated the inhibitory activity of the extract and apiin in-vitro on iNOS expression and nitrite production when added before LPS stimulation in the medium of J774.A1 cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of the extract demonstrated in-vivo might have been due to reduction of iNOS enzyme expression.

  16. Kavain, the Major Constituent of the Anxiolytic Kava Extract, Potentiates GABAA Receptors: Functional Characteristics and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Han Chow; Christensen, Emilie T. H.; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Hartiadi, Leonny Y.; Ramzan, Iqbal; Jensen, Anders A.; Absalom, Nathan L.; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are assumed to be the in vivo molecular target of kavalactones based on data from binding assays, but evidence in support of a direct interaction between kavalactones and GABAARs is scarce and equivocal. In this study, we characterised the functional properties of the major anxiolytic kavalactone, kavain at human recombinant α1β2, β2γ2L, αxβ2γ2L (x = 1, 2, 3 and 5), α1βxγ2L (x = 1, 2 and 3) and α4β2δ GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. We found that kavain positively modulated all receptors regardless of the subunit composition, but the degree of enhancement was greater at α4β2δ than at α1β2γ2L GABAARs. The modulatory effect of kavain was unaffected by flumazenil, indicating that kavain did not enhance GABAARs via the classical benzodiazepine binding site. The β3N265M point mutation which has been previously shown to profoundly decrease anaesthetic sensitivity, also diminished kavain-mediated potentiation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the functional characteristics of a single kavalactone at distinct GABAAR subtypes, and presents the first experimental evidence in support of a direct interaction between a kavalactone and GABAARs. PMID:27332705

  17. Green tea extract and its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibit growth and halitosis-related properties of Solobacterium moorei.

    PubMed

    Morin, Marie-Pierre; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; Fournier-Larente, Jade; Haas, Bruno; Azelmat, Jabrane; Grenier, Daniel

    2015-03-10

    Solobacterium moorei is a volatile sulfide compound (VSC)-producing Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that has been associated with halitosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea extract and its major constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on growth and several halitosis-related properties of S. moorei. A microplate dilution assay was used to determine the antibacterial activity of green tea extract and EGCG against S. moorei. Their effects on bacterial cell membrane integrity were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and a fluorescence-based permeability assay. Biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining. Adhesion of FITC-labeled S. moorei to oral epithelial cells was monitored by fluorometry. The modulation of β-galactosidase gene expression in S. moorei was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. The green tea extract as well as EGCG inhibited the growth of S. moorei, with MIC values of 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis and a permeabilization assay brought evidence that the bacterial cell membrane was the target of green tea polyphenols. Regarding the effects of green tea polyphenols on the S. moorei colonization properties, it was found that biofilm formation on EGCG-treated surfaces was significantly affected, and that green tea extract and EGCG can cause the eradication of pre-formed S. moorei biofilms. Moreover, both the green tea extract and EGCG were found to reduce the adherence of S. moorei to oral epithelial cells. The β-galactosidase activity of S. moorei, which plays a key role in VSC production, was dose-dependently inhibited by green tea polyphenols. In addition, EGCG at ½ MIC significantly decreased the β-galactosidase gene expression. Our study brought evidence to support that green tea polyphenols possess a number of properties that may contribute to reduce S. moorei-related halitosis. Therefore, these natural compounds may be of interest to

  18. Cannabidiol, a Major Non-Psychotropic Cannabis Constituent Enhances Fracture Healing and Stimulates Lysyl Hydroxylase Activity in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Natalya M; Melamed, Eitan; Wasserman, Elad; Raphael, Bitya; Breuer, Aviva; Stok, Kathryn S; Sondergaard, Rachel; Escudero, Ana V Villarreal; Baraghithy, Saja; Attar-Namdar, Malka; Friedlander-Barenboim, Silvina; Mathavan, Neashan; Isaksson, Hanna; Mechoulam, Raphael; Müller, Ralph; Bajayo, Alon; Gabet, Yankel; Bab, Itai

    2015-10-01

    Cannabinoid ligands regulate bone mass, but skeletal effects of cannabis (marijuana and hashish) have not been reported. Bone fractures are highly prevalent, involving prolonged immobilization and discomfort. Here we report that the major non-psychoactive cannabis constituent, cannabidiol (CBD), enhances the biomechanical properties of healing rat mid-femoral fractures. The maximal load and work-to-failure, but not the stiffness, of femurs from rats given a mixture of CBD and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 8 weeks were markedly increased by CBD. This effect is not shared by THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis), but THC potentiates the CBD stimulated work-to-failure at 6 weeks postfracture followed by attenuation of the CBD effect at 8 weeks. Using micro-computed tomography (μCT), the fracture callus size was transiently reduced by either CBD or THC 4 weeks after fracture but reached control level after 6 and 8 weeks. The callus material density was unaffected by CBD and/or THC. By contrast, CBD stimulated mRNA expression of Plod1 in primary osteoblast cultures, encoding an enzyme that catalyzes lysine hydroxylation, which is in turn involved in collagen crosslinking and stabilization. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy we confirmed the increase in collagen crosslink ratio by CBD, which is likely to contribute to the improved biomechanical properties of the fracture callus. Taken together, these data show that CBD leads to improvement in fracture healing and demonstrate the critical mechanical role of collagen crosslinking enzymes. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Genesis of Major Dust Storms in West Africa during the Summer of 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    GRANT NUMBER(&) M. Estoque , J. Fernanidez-Partagas, D. M. Helgren and J. M. Prospero DAAG29-83-K-0082 S9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10...En’eated) AC~eI>Cn r, GENESIS OF M4AJOR DUST STORMS IN WEST AFRICA DURING THE SUMMER OF 1974 TECHNICAL REPORT M. ESTOQUE , J. FERNANDEZ-PARTAGAS, D.M

  20. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Methods Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. Results The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC50 value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides. PMID:24731297

  1. Evaluation of larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Allium macrostemon Bunge and its selected major constituent compounds against Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long

    2014-04-15

    During the screening programme for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and local wild plants, the essential oil of dried bulbs of Allium macrostemon Bunge (Liliaceae) was found to possess larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. The aim of this research was to determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil and its major constituent compounds against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Essential oil of A. macrostemon was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromaotography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The activity of the essential oil and its two major constituents were evaluated, using World Health Organization (WHO) procedures, against the fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus for 24 h and larval mortalities were recorded at various essential oil/compound concentrations ranging from 9.0 - 150 μg/ml. The essential oil of A. macrostemon exhibited larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with an LC₅₀ value of 72.86 μg/ml. The two constituent compounds, dimethyl trisulfide and methyl propyl disulfide possessed strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth instar larvae of Ae. albopictus with LC50 values of 36.36 μg/ml and 86.16 μg/ml, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. macrostemon and its major constituents have good potential as a source for natural larvicides.

  2. Meteorological, atmospheric and climatic perturbations during major dust storms over Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Kumar, Sanjay; Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Singh, Ramesh P.; Singh, Rajeev K.; Mishra, Amit K.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Singh, Abhay K.

    2015-06-01

    During the pre-monsoon season (April-June), the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) suffers from frequent and intense dust storms originated from the arid and desert regions of southwest Asia (Iran, Afghanistan), Arabia and Thar desert blanketing IGB and Himalayan foothills. The present study examines the columnar and vertical aerosol characteristics and estimates the shortwave (0.25-4.0 μm) aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and atmospheric heating rates over Kanpur, central IGB, during three intense dust-storm events in the pre-monsoon season of 2010. MODIS images, meteorological and AERONET observations clearly show that all the dust storms either originated from the Thar desert or transported over, under favorable meteorological conditions (low pressure and strong surface winds) affecting nearly the whole IGB and modifying the aerosol loading and characteristics (Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, size distribution and refractive index). CALIPSO observations reveal the presence of high-altitude (up to 3-5 km) dust plumes that strongly modify the vertical aerosol profile and are transported over Himalayan foothills with serious climate implications (atmospheric warming, enhanced melting of glaciers). Shortwave ARF calculations over Kanpur using SBDART model show large negative forcing values at the surface (-93.27, -101.60 and -66.71 W m-2) during the intense dusty days, associated with planetary (top of atmosphere) cooling (-18.16, -40.95, -29.58 W m-2) and significant atmospheric heating (75.11, 60.65, 37.13 W m-2), which is translated to average heating rates of 1.57, 1.41 and 0.78 K day-1, respectively in the lower atmosphere (below ∼3.5 km). The ARF estimates are in satisfactory agreement with the AERONET ARF retrievals over Kanpur.

  3. Qualitative analysis of major constituents from Xue Fu Zhu Yu Decoction using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chunyan; Xia, Zian; Liu, Yonghui; Lu, Hongmei; Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Yang; Fan, Xiaqiong

    2016-09-01

    Xue Fu Zhu Yu Decoction, a famous formula that has been used for treating many blood stasis-caused diseases for many centuries, comprises 11 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines. A convenient, efficient, and rapid analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the major compounds in this decoction. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with hybrid ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was used to rapidly separate and detect the major constituents of the decoction. Using this technique, we identified or tentatively identified 34 compounds, including 21 flavonoids, 5 terpenoids, 3 organic acids, 2 lactones, 1 alkaloid, 1 amino acid, and 1 cyanogenic glycoside. The MS analysis of these constituents was described in detail. Findings may contribute to future metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of this medicine.

  4. Dust levitation as a major resurfacing process on the surface of a saturnian icy satellite, Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Naoyuki; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2012-07-01

    A small inner satellite of Saturn, Atlas, has an enigmatic saucer-like shape explained by an accumulation of particles from A-ring of Saturn. However, its unusual smooth surface remains unexplained. Gardening through continuous particle impact events cannot be a unique explanation for the smoothness, because Prometheus does not exhibit a similar surface, though it too would have experienced a similar bombardment. Here, a detailed investigation using close-up images of Atlas reveals the surface to be (1) covered by fine particles (i.e., probably as small as several tens of micrometers); (2) mostly void of impact craters (i.e., only one has been thus far identified); and (3) continuously smooth, even between the equatorial ridge and the undulating polar region. These findings imply that some sort of crater-erasing process has been active on the surface of Atlas. From electro-static analyses, we propose that the upper-most layer of the fine particles can become electro-statically unstable and migrate as a result of dust levitation, which resulted in erasing craters on the surface of Atlas. If true, Atlas would represent the first recognized body where resurfacing is dominated by dust levitation.

  5. Identification and determination of the major constituents in Deng's herbal tea granules by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jiewei; Fan, Chunlin; Yang, Yunyun

    2011-12-15

    Deng's herbal tea (DHT), a famous traditional Chinese herbal tea consisting of six traditional Chinese medicines (Honeysuckle, Chrysanthemum, Rhizoma imperatae, Folium mori, dandelion and liquorice), is widely used in China for its health benefits. In this paper, a rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS) method was developed for the identification and determination of the major constituents in DHT granules. A good RRLC separation was achieved using an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C(18) column and gradient elution (0.5% formic acid in water/acetonitrile) within 30 min. Twenty-eight compounds were identified or tentatively characterized based on their exact molecular weights and fragmentation patterns. Fifteen major bioactive constituents of those 28 compounds were chosen as the benchmark substances. Their quantitative analyses were performed by a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) operating in multiple-reaction monitoring mode, and a full quantitative analysis of the 15 major constituents was performed by our developed RRLC-MS/MS method in only 10 min. Of the 16 DHT granule samples tested, the quality of the results was stable, which confirms that the developed method was efficient and robust for the quality control of DHT granules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen isotope signatures of quartz from major Asian dust sources: Implications for changes in the provenance of Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Sun, Youbin; Chen, Hongyun; Ma, Long

    2014-08-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the oxygen isotopic composition of quartz in both fine and coarse fractions (<16 and 16-63 μm) from major dust source regions in East Asia, including the Mongolian Gobi, the northern Chinese deserts, the Taklimakan desert, and the Qaidam Basin. The results demonstrate that the quartz oxygen isotope ratios of the Taklimakan desert and the Mongolian Gobi are more heterogeneous compared with the other areas. The quartz δ18O values of both the fine and coarse fractions from the various sources are overlapped to varying degrees, thus making it difficult to differentiate them. Nevertheless, the quartz δ18O values of both fractions exhibit an increasing trend from the Mongolian Gobi, to the northern Chinese deserts, and then to the Taklimakan desert. This implies that the geological settings of the source areas are different, which in turn results in differing contributions of high-temperature igneous rocks. The combination of quartz δ18O results with other quartz-based provenance tracers can clearly differentiate the three major source areas, i.e., the Taklimakan desert, the Mongolian Gobi, and the northern Chinese deserts. In addition, comparison of our results with previous δ18O measurements of fine-grained quartz from the Luochuan loess sequence suggests the likely glacial-interglacial fluctuations in dust provenance. Finally, we suggest that the combination of quartz δ18O signatures and other dust provenance tracers can potentially improve the recognition of long-term fluctuations in the provenance of Chinese loess-red clay deposits.

  7. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jurenka, Julie S

    2009-06-01

    Curcuma longa (turmeric) has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine as a treatment for inflammatory conditions. Turmeric constituents include the three curcuminoids: curcumin (diferuloylmethane; the primary constituent and the one responsible for its vibrant yellow color), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, as well as volatile oils (tumerone, atlantone, and zingiberone), sugars, proteins, and resins. While numerous pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, have been attributed to curcumin, this article focuses on curcumin's anti-inflammatory properties and its use for inflammatory conditions. Curcumin's effect on cancer (from an anti-inflammatory perspective) will also be discussed; however, an exhaustive review of its many anticancer mechanisms is outside the scope of this article. Research has shown curcumin to be a highly pleiotropic molecule capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets involved in inflammation. Based on early cell culture and animal research, clinical trials indicate curcumin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis, as well as certain types of cancer. Because of curcumin's rapid plasma clearance and conjugation, its therapeutic usefulness has been somewhat limited, leading researchers to investigate the benefits of complexing curcumin with other substances to increase systemic bioavailability. Numerous in-progress clinical trials should provide an even deeper understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic potential of curcumin.

  8. Chemical fingerprinting of Shexiang Baoxin Pill and simultaneous determination of its major constituents by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1. The analysis was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution, and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze nine SBP samples and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, stability and accuracy. Both the chemical fingerprints and quantification data were used to evaluate the quality of various SBP products. The proposed method allows obtaining chemical fingerprint and quantification of multi-components in one run, and therefore can be readily utilized as a comprehensive quality control approach for traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF MAJOR MERGER PAIRS AT z = 0: DUST MASS AND STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Cong Kevin; Lu, Nanyao; Mazzarella, Joe; Domingue, Donovan; Ronca, Joseph; Jacques, Allison; Buat, Veronique; Cheng, Yi-Wen; Gao, Yu; Huang, Jiasheng; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Lisenfeld, Ute; Sun, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Hong; Yun, Min S. E-mail: cxu@ipac.caltech.edu

    2016-02-15

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE far-infrared (FIR) and submillimeter imaging observations for a large K-band selected sample of 88 close major-merger pairs of galaxies (H-KPAIRs) in 6 photometric bands (70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm). Among 132 spiral galaxies in the 44 spiral–spiral (S+S) pairs and 44 spiral–elliptical (S+E) pairs, 113 are detected in at least 1 Herschel band. The star formation rate (SFR) and dust mass (M{sub dust}) are derived from the IR SED fitting. The mass of total gas (M{sub gas}) is estimated by assuming a constant dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01. Star-forming spiral galaxies (SFGs) in S+S pairs show significant enhancements in both specific star formation rate (sSFR) and star formation efficiency (SFE), while having nearly the same gas mass compared to control galaxies. On the other hand, for SFGs in S+E pairs, there is no significant sSFR enhancement and the mean SFE enhancement is significantly lower than that of SFGs in S+S pairs. This suggests an important role for the disk–disk collision in the interaction-induced star formation. The M{sub gas} of SFGs in S+E pairs is marginally lower than that of their counterparts in both S+S pairs and the control sample. Paired galaxies with and without interaction signs do not differ significantly in their mean sSFR and SFE. As found in previous works, this much larger sample confirms that the primary and secondary spirals in S+S pairs follow a Holmberg effect correlation on sSFR.

  10. Titanium, a major constituent of blue ink, causes resistance to Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser: results of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jea-Wook; Lee, Jae-Wook; Won, Young Ho; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Lee, Seung-Chul

    2006-01-01

    A blue tattoo is more resistant to laser therapy than black or brown tattoos. This study aimed to confirm titanium as a key response-disturbing constituent in a blue tattoo ink after Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser treatment by animal experiments. Rabbits' backs were tattooed with four ink colours, and the Nd-YAG (1064 nm) laser was used to remove the tattoos. The response to the laser treatment in the rabbits was evaluated and electron microscopic studies were also performed. Excellent to fair responses were observed for the black, brown and dark brown inks, but the blue ink responded poorly to the laser. Histological examination indicated that the blue pigments were unchanged even after the laser treatment. Quantitative energy dispersive spectrometry revealed that blue ink contained high amounts of titanium. Our animal experiments confirm that a blue tattoo ink containing titanium, is a key element in poor response to the Nd-YAG laser.

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Major Chemical Constituents in Fructus Akebiae by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhang, Qing; Zhu, Dan-dan; Chen, Fei; Kong, Xiu-hua; Liao, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Fructus Akebiae (FA), the dry fruit of Akebia quinata (THUNB.) DECNE., possesses potent antidepressant properties. Owing to the structural complexity, high polarity and thermal lability in plants, it is difficult and time-consuming to analyze the major chemical constituents by traditional strategies that involve extraction, isolation, purification and identification by chemical manipulations and spectroscopic methods. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS) method was established for quickly identifying the chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae. The main saponin components in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were detected with the HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS-MS in negative-ion mode. These components were further analyzed by MS(2) spectra, and compared with the corresponding reference substances and literature data. Nineteen saponins in the extract of Fructus Akebiae were well separated in one run. The new method is accurate and rapid. It can be used to identify the main chemical constituents in the extract of Fructus Akebiae and can be suitable for the quality control of Fructus Akebiae.

  12. Caffeoylquinic Acids Are Major Constituents with Potent Anti-Influenza Effects in Brazilian Green Propolis Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Urushisaki, Tomohiko; Takemura, Tomoaki; Tazawa, Shigemi; Fukuoka, Mayuko; Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Araki, Yoko; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Influenza A viral infections reached pandemic levels in 1918, 1957, 1968, and, most recently, in 2009 with the emergence of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. The development of novel therapeutics or prophylactics for influenza virus infection is urgently needed. We examined the evaluation of the anti-influenza virus (A/WSN/33 (H1N1)) activity of Brazilian green propolis water extract (PWE) and its constituents by cell viability and real-time PCR assays. Our findings showed strong evidence that PWE has an anti-influenza effect and demonstrate that caffeoylquinic acids are the active anti-influenza components of PWE. Furthermore, we have found that the amount of viral RNA per cell remained unchanged even in the presence of PWE, suggesting that PWE has no direct impact on the influenza virus but may have a cytoprotective activity by affecting internal cellular process. These findings indicate that caffeoylquinic acids are the active anti-influenza components of PWE. Above findings might facilitate the prophylactic application of natural products and the realization of novel anti-influenza drugs based on caffeoylquinic acids, as well as further the understanding of cytoprotective intracellular mechanisms in influenza virus-infected cells. PMID:21423687

  13. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer.

    PubMed

    Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina N; Lahlou, Saad; Barreto, João E F; Yum, Maria E M; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Oliveira, Hermógenes D; Celedônio, Nathalia R; Feitosa, Roney G F; Duarte, Gloria P; Santos, Cláudia F; de Albuquerque, Aline A C; Leal-Cardoso, José H

    2013-06-01

    Croton zehntneri, a plant native to northeastern Brazil, is widely used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems and has rich essential oil content. The effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) and its main constituent anethole on several models of gastric lesions were studied in mice and rats. Oral treatment with EOCZ and anethole, both at doses of 30-300 mg/kg, caused similar and dose-dependent gastroprotection against ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric damage, but did not change cold-restraint stress-induced ulcers in rats. Furthermore, EOCZ and anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) similarly and significantly increased the mucus production by the gastric mucosa, measured by Alcian blue binding, in ethanol-induced ulcer model. However, at the same doses, neither EOCZ nor anethole promoted significant alteration in gastric production of non-protein sulfhydryl groups. In pylorus-ligated model, neither EOCZ nor anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the volume of gastric juice, pH, or total acidity. The results of this study show for the first time that EOCZ possesses a gastroprotective potential, an effect mostly attributed to the action of anethole. This activity is related predominantly to the ability of EOCZ and anethole to enhance the production of gastric wall mucus, an important gastroprotective factor. Furthermore, they suggest that EOCZ has potential therapeutic application for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  14. Evaluation of Antiparasitc Activity of Mentha crispa Essential Oil, Its Major Constituent Rotundifolone and Analogues against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Lima, Tamires Cardoso; Steverding, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Considering the pressing need for new drugs to treat sleeping sickness and Nagana disease, Mentha crispa essential oil, its principal constituent rotundifolone, and four related p-menthane-type monoterpenes (two stereoisomers of limonene epoxide, perillyl alcohol, and perillyl aldehyde) were investigated for their activity against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The general cytotoxicity of the compounds was determined with human myeloid HL-60 cells. The effect of the M. crispa essential oil and the monoterpenes on the growth of parasite and human cells was evaluated in cell cultures with the resazurin viability assay. Of all of the compounds tested, M. crispa essential oil, rotundifolone, and perillyl aldehyde showed the highest trypanocidal activities with 50 % growth inhibition (GI50) and minimum inhibitory concentration values of 0.3 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. In contrast, HL-60 cells were considerably less sensitive to the compounds with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 100 µg/mL and GI50 values ranging between 3.4 to 13.8 µg/mL. As a consequence of this, GI50 and minimum inhibitory concentration ratios of cytotoxic to trypanocidal activity (selectivity index) of these three compounds were promising with values of 11-45 and 100, respectively. These results indicate that the p-menthane-type monoterpenes rotundifolone and perillyl aldehyde are interesting lead candidates for further rational antitrypanosomal drug development. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Purification, in vitro reassembly, and preliminary sequence analysis of epiplasmins, the major constituent of the membrane skeleton of Paramecium.

    PubMed

    Coffe, G; Le Caer, J P; Lima, O; Adoutte, A

    1996-01-01

    The epiplasmic layer, a continuous rigid granulo-fibrillar sheet directly subtending the surface membranes of Paramecium, is one of the outermost of the various cytoskeletal networks that compose it cortex. We have previously shown that the epiplasm consists of a set of 30 to 50 protein bands on SDS-PAGE in the range 50 to 33 kDa, the epiplasmins. We report a purification procedure for the set of epiplasmic proteins, a description of their physicochemical and reassembly properties, and a preliminary characterization of their sequence. The conditions for solubilization of the epiplasm and for in vitro reassembly of its purified constituents ar described. Reassembly of the entire set of proteins and of some (but not all) subsets are shown to yield filamentous aggregates. Microsequences of two purified bands of epiplasmins reveal a striking amino acid sequence consisting of heptad repeats of only three main amino acids, P, V, and Q. These repeats were confirmed by DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products. The motif is QPVQ-h, in which h is a hydrophobic residue. This may constitute the core of the epiplasmin sequence and, in view of the tendency of such a sequence to form a coiled-coil, may account for the remarkable self-aggregation properties of epiplasmins.

  16. Epitope mapping of the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus house dust mite major allergen Der p II using overlapping synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, W; Driedijk, P C; van den Berg, M; Beck-Sickinger, A G; Jung, G; Aalberse, R C

    1991-11-01

    Fourteen synthetic peptides of 15 amino acid residues length, overlapping by five residues and spanning the entire sequence of the major allergen Der p II from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were synthesized. These peptides were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose-4B and used as solid-phase antigens in epitope mapping studies using human IgE antisera. These antibodies bound predominantly to the peptide comprising residues 65-78, the binding of which was inhibited by native Der p II. In addition these antisera bound, to a lesser extent, to the peptide that comprised residues 1-15, which binding was not inhibited by native Der p II. Thus, we found one sequential epitope for a number of IgE sera.

  17. Method development for analysis of urban dust using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry to detect the possible presence of World Trade Center dust constituents.

    PubMed

    Bern, Amy M; Lowers, Heather A; Meeker, Gregory P; Rosati, Jacky A

    2009-03-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 microL aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results.

  18. Method development for analysis of urban dust using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry to detect the possible presence of world trade center dust constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bern, A.M.; Lowers, H.A.; Meeker, G.P.; Rosati, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, 2001, sent dust and debris across much of Manhattan and in the surrounding areas. Indoor and outdoor dust samples were collected and characterized by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). From this characterization, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS developed a particulate screening method to determine the presence of residual World Trade Center dust in the indoor environment using slag wool as a primary "signature". The method describes a procedure that includes splitting, ashing, and sieving of collected dust. From one split, a 10 mg/mL dust/ isopropanol suspension was prepared and 10-30 ??L aliquots of the suspension placed on an SEM substrate. Analyses were performed using SEM/EDS manual point counting for slag wool fibers. Poisson regression was used to identify some of the sources of uncertainty, which are directly related to the small number of fibers present on each sample stub. Preliminary results indicate that the procedure is promising for screening urban background dust for the presence of WTC dust. Consistent sample preparation of reference materials and samples must be performed by each laboratory wishing to use this method to obtain meaningful and accurate results. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by the extract of Stephania cephararantha HAYATA and bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid cycleanine, a major constituent.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kanako; Nagai, Fumiko; Ono, Minoru; Aoki, Naoto

    2003-08-01

    The Stephania cephararantha HAYATA extract, and its constituent bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, such as cycleanine, cepharanthine, isotetrandrine, berbamine, homoaromoline, and cepharanoline were studied for effects on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. The S. cephararantha HAYATA extract inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity with an apparent IC(50) value of 540 microg/mL. Cycleanine markedly inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity with an IC(50) value of 6.2 x 10(-4)M. It slightly inhibited Mg(2+)-ATPase, H(+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase. No effects on alkaline and acid phosphatase activities were observed. The inhibition by isotetrandrine, homoaromoline, cepharanthine, and berbamine was less marked, and cepharanoline showed no effect. Five synthetic analogues of cepharanthine slightly inhibited the activity. The mechanism of inhibition by cycleanine on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was examined in detail, and the following results were obtained in the overall reaction: (1) the mode of inhibition was noncompetitive with respect to ATP; (2) the degree of inhibition was decreased with a decrease of K(+) concentration; (3) it was not affected by Na(+) concentration; (4) the inhibition mechanism was different from that of ouabain. The activity of K(+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase, a partial reaction of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, did not appear to have been inhibited by cycleanine in the reaction mixture containing 15 mM K(+) (optimum condition). However, cycleanine increased the K(0.5) value for K(+) and reduced the K(i) values for Na(+) and ATP, in K(+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase. Cycleanine might interact with the enzyme in Na.E(1)-P form and prevents the reaction step from Na.E(1)-P to E(2)-P.

  20. Hypolipidemic effects of Solidago chilensis hydroalcoholic extract and its major isolated constituent quercetrin in cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Roman Junior, Walter A; Piato, Angelo L; Conterato, Greicy M M; Wildner, Silvana M; Marcon, Matheus; Mocelin, Ricieri; Emanuelli, Mauren P; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson; Santos, Cid A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite several studies on the effects of Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae), the phytochemical and hypolipidemic properties remain underappreciated. This study evaluates the hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) and quercetrin from S. chilensis aerial parts in cholesterol-fed rats. The HE was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, followed by quercetrin isolation. Hypercholesterolemic rats (1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for 15 d) were treated with HE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6), simvastatin (4 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6), or quercetrin (10 mg/kg p.o.; n = 6) once a day for 30 d. During this period, a high-cholesterol diet was maintained until the 30th day of treatment. Rats treated with HE (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) and quercetrin showed decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (-19.9, -27.5, -31.0, and -39.4%), lipoprotein-cholesterol (-36.0, -37.5, -43.3, and -59.4%), and triacylglycerides (-15.6, -23.5, -29.8, and -27.2%) when compared with the control group similar to simvastatin. Moreover, treatment with HE and quercetrin decreased hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity (35.1% on average) and increased fecal cholesterol levels (38.2% on average). Our results suggest that hypolipidemic effects of HE are associated with it modulating the activity of HMG-CoA reductase and its interference in the reabsorption and/or excretion of intestinal lipids. Solidago chilensis and its main constituent, quercetrin, may thus be effective as cholesterol-lowering agents and in preventing atherosclerosis.

  1. Three-Dimensional Distribution of a Major Desert Dust Outbreak over East Asia in March 2008 Derived from IASI Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Eremenko, Maxim; Flamant, Cyrille; Dufour, Gaelle; Laurent, Benoît; Bergametti, Gilles; Hopfner, Michael; Orphal, Johannes; Zhou, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the daily evolution of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a major dust outbreak initiated by an extratropical cyclone over East Asia in early March 2008, using new aerosol retrievals derived from satellite observations of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). A novel auto-adaptive Tikhonov-Phillips-type approach called AEROIASI is used to retrieve vertical profiles of dust extinction coefficient at 10 microns for most cloud-free IASI pixels, both over land and ocean. The dust vertical distribution derived from AEROIASI is shown to agree remarkably well with along-track transects of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) spaceborne lidar vertical profiles (mean biases less than 110 meters, correlation of 0.95, and precision of 260 meters for mean altitudes of the dust layers). AEROIASI allows the daily characterization of the 3D transport pathways across East Asia of two dust plumes originating from the Gobi and North Chinese deserts. From AEROIASI retrievals, we provide evidence that (i) both dust plumes are transported over the Beijing region and the Yellow Sea as elevated layers above a shallow boundary layer, (ii) as they progress eastward, the dust layers are lifted up by the ascending motions near the core of the extratropical cyclone, and (iii) when being transported over the warm waters of the Japan Sea, turbulent mixing in the deep marine boundary layer leads to high dust concentrations down to the surface. AEROIASI observations and model simulations also show that the progression of the dust plumes across East Asia is tightly related to the advancing cold front of the extratropical cyclone.

  2. Three-Dimensional Distribution of a Major Desert Dust Outbreak over East Asia in March 2008 Derived from IASI Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Eremenko, Maxim; Flamant, Cyrille; Dufour, Gaelle; Laurent, Benoît; Bergametti, Gilles; Hopfner, Michael; Orphal, Johannes; Zhou, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We describe the daily evolution of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a major dust outbreak initiated by an extratropical cyclone over East Asia in early March 2008, using new aerosol retrievals derived from satellite observations of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). A novel auto-adaptive Tikhonov-Phillips-type approach called AEROIASI is used to retrieve vertical profiles of dust extinction coefficient at 10 microns for most cloud-free IASI pixels, both over land and ocean. The dust vertical distribution derived from AEROIASI is shown to agree remarkably well with along-track transects of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) spaceborne lidar vertical profiles (mean biases less than 110 meters, correlation of 0.95, and precision of 260 meters for mean altitudes of the dust layers). AEROIASI allows the daily characterization of the 3D transport pathways across East Asia of two dust plumes originating from the Gobi and North Chinese deserts. From AEROIASI retrievals, we provide evidence that (i) both dust plumes are transported over the Beijing region and the Yellow Sea as elevated layers above a shallow boundary layer, (ii) as they progress eastward, the dust layers are lifted up by the ascending motions near the core of the extratropical cyclone, and (iii) when being transported over the warm waters of the Japan Sea, turbulent mixing in the deep marine boundary layer leads to high dust concentrations down to the surface. AEROIASI observations and model simulations also show that the progression of the dust plumes across East Asia is tightly related to the advancing cold front of the extratropical cyclone.

  3. Misidentification of Major Constituents by Automatic Qualitative Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis: A Problem that Threatens the Credibility of the Analytical Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newbury*, Dale E.

    2005-12-01

    Automatic qualitative analysis for peak identification is a standard feature of virtually all modern computer-aided analysis software for energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry with electron excitation. Testing of recently installed systems from four different manufacturers has revealed the occasional occurrence of misidentification of peaks of major constituents whose concentrations exceeded 0.1 mass fraction (10 wt%). Test materials where peak identification failures were observed included ZnS, KBr, FeS2, tantalum-niobium alloy, NIST Standard Reference Material 482 (copper gold alloy), Bi2Te3, uranium rhodium alloys, platinum chromium alloy, GaAs, and GaP. These misidentifications of major constituents were exacerbated when the incident beam energy was 10 keV or lower, which restricted or excluded the excitation of the high photon energy K- and L-shell X-rays where multiple peaks, for example, K[alpha] (K-L2,3) K[beta] (K-M2,3); L[alpha] (L3-M4,5) L[beta] (L2-M4) L[gamma] (L2-N4), are well resolved and amenable to identification with high confidence. These misidentifications are so severe as to properly qualify as blunders that present a serious challenge to the credibility of this critical analytical technique. Systematic testing of a peak identification system with a suite of diverse materials can reveal the specific elements and X-ray peaks where failures are likely to occur.

  4. A twentieth century major soluble ion record of dust and anthropogenic pollutants from Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Sneed, S. B.

    2017-02-01

    Using a high-resolution ( 18 samples/year) major soluble ion record (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) covering the period 1908-1995 A.D. from the Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, we provide a detailed climate and environmental proxy record for the region. Chemical concentrations, empirical orthogonal function analyses, and noncrustal excess calculations are used to identify natural and potential anthropogenic depositional trends. Dominant dust proxy species (i.e., Ca2+) reveal highest concentrations during the 1950s-1970s, with declining decadal trends through the end of the record. These trends likely reflect decreases in central Asian dust storm activity post-1950, which has been associated with coupled atmospheric circulation variability and anthropogenic activities. Comparison between Ca2+ and ERA-Interim (1979-1995) climate reanalysis data indicates a strong relationship to spring (March-May) geopotential height patterns in northwest China and southern Siberia associated with the Siberian High. Noncrustal contribution (excess) estimates of NO3-, K+, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations suggest discernable anthropogenic inputs began between the 1950s and 1970s, increased into the middle/late 1980s, and declined in the 1990s. Excess trends coincide with Former Soviet Union consumption, production, and emission of fossil fuels and fertilizers, reflecting the rapid growth of agriculture and industry, as well as economic declines in the middle to late 1980s/early 1990s. Excess-Cl- trends reflect timings that coincide with the construction of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant and the military production of Cl2 in Kazakhstan. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back trajectory frequency analysis suggests eastern Uzbekistan (e.g., Fergana Valley), Kyrgyzstan, and southern Kazakhstan as the primary pollutant sources to the study region.

  5. Antioxidant activity of extract and its major constituents from okra seed on rat hepatocytes injured by carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianmei; Yu, Wenlan; Li, Ying; Prasad, Nagendra; Tang, Zhaoxin

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.

  6. Acaricidal activity of Lippia gracilis essential oil and its major constituents on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Elizangela Mércia de Oliveira; Costa, Livio Martins; Pinto, Jessika Andreza Oliveira; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; de Araujo, Sandra Alves; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Bacci, Leandro; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Cavalcanti, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of Lippia gracilis Schauer essential oil obtained from different L. gracilis genotypes and their major components, carvacrol and thymol against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (cattle tick) larvae and engorged females. The larval test was performed parallel to the adult immersion test for engorged females for four L. gracilis genotypes. Similar tests were further performed for their major compounds carvacrol and thymol. Carvacrol (LC50 of 0.22 and 4.46 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively) was more efficient than thymol (LC50 of 3.86 and 5.50 mg/mL, to larvae and engorged females, respectively). The lethal concentrations obtained for the isolated essential oil from genotypes LGRA-201 against larvae (1.31 mg/mL) and LGRA-106 against engorged females (4.66 mg/mL) confirmed the acaricidal activity of L. gracilis essential oil and its effectiveness in controlling the southern cattle tick.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents from Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with UPLC/QQQ-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Da; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Li, Yan-Jing; Wang, Xue-Jing; Si, Hai-Hong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Ping; Xiao, Wei

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a sensitive and efficient method was established and validated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of major bioactive constituents in Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 32 compounds were tentatively identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, 12 constituents, namely gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, salidroside, p-coumaric acid-4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, bergeninum, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, syringate, 6''-O-galloylsalidroside, rhodiosin, rhodionin and kaempferol-7-O-α-l-rhamnoside, were simultaneously quantified by the developed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method in 9 min. All of them were analyzed on an Agilent ZorBax SB-C18 column (3.0 × 100 mm, 1.8 μm) with linear gradient elution of methanol-0.1% formic acid water. The proposed method was applied to analyze three batches of samples with acceptable linearity (R, 0.9979-0.9997), precision (RSD, 1.3-4.7%), repeatability (RSD, 1.7-4.9%), stability (RSD, 2.2-4.9%) and recovery (RSD, 0.6-4.4%) of the 12 compounds. As a result, the analytical method possessing high throughput and sensitivity is suitable for the quality control of Dazhu Hongjingtian capsule. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Danmu injection using LC-ESI-MSn and LC-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Li, Xiu-Feng; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Danmu injection, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Nauclea officinalis, has been commonly used for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat in China. However, the chemical constituents in Danmu injection have not been clarified yet. Objective: a HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components in Danmu injection. Materials and Methods: The chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Material XB-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm, 5μm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% formic acid (B) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Results: Twenty-five compounds, including phenolic acid and phenol glycoside, iridous glycoside and glycoalkaloid were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, UV absorption, MS and MSn data with those elucidated references or literature. In addition, eleven compounds were simultaneously determined by HPLC–DAD, which was validated and successfully applied for determination of major components in Danmu injection. Conclusion: The results suggested that the established qualitative and quantitative method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of Danmu injection. PMID:25210312

  9. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of major constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra by HPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Lin; Fan, Cai-rong; Li, Huang; Huang, Ming-qing; Xiang, Qing; Xu, Wen; Xu, Wei; Chu, Ke-dan; Lin, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In order to explore the differences of chemical constituents of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra, a qualitative analytical method of liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was developed for identification of multi-constituents and an HPLC-DAD analytical method was developed for simultaneously determining 14 major compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, paeoniflorin sulfonate, protocatechuic aldehyde, methyl gallate, oxypaeoniflorin, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin, ethyl gallate, benzoic acid, pentagaloylglucose, benzoyl-paeoniflorin, and paeonol) in Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Q-TOF/MS qualitative analysis was performed under negative ion mode and inferred 38 components of Paeoniae Radix Alba and 30 components of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. HPLC-DAD quantitative method result showed the contents of 8 ingredients were different between Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra. The results indicated that the new approach was applicable in qualitative and quantitative quality control of Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra.

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Danmu injection using LC-ESI-MS(n) and LC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Li, Xiu-Feng; Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-07-01

    Danmu injection, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Nauclea officinalis, has been commonly used for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat in China. However, the chemical constituents in Danmu injection have not been clarified yet. a HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) method was developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the components in Danmu injection. The chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Material XB-C18 (4.6mm × 250mm, 5μm) using gradient elution with acetonitrile (A) and water containing 0.1% formic acid (B) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Twenty-five compounds, including phenolic acid and phenol glycoside, iridous glycoside and glycoalkaloid were identified or tentatively deduced on the base of their retention behaviors, UV absorption, MS and MS(n) data with those elucidated references or literature. In addition, eleven compounds were simultaneously determined by HPLC-DAD, which was validated and successfully applied for determination of major components in Danmu injection. The results suggested that the established qualitative and quantitative method would be a powerful and reliable analytical tool for the characterization of multi-constituent in complex chemical system and quality control of Danmu injection.

  11. Inhibitory Effect of Chemical Constituents Isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi on Polyol Pathway and Simultaneous Quantification of Major Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Blocking the polyol pathway plays an important role preventing diabetic complications. Therefore, aldose reductase (AR) and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) formation has significant effect on diabetic complications. Artemisia iwayomogi has long been used as treatment of various diseases in Korea. However, no literatures have reported on AR and AGEs formation inhibitory activities of A. iwayomogi. For these reasons, we aimed to assess that A. iwayomogi had potential as anti-diabetic complications agents. We led to isolation of two coumarins (1 and 2), nine flavonoids (3–11), five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16), three diterpene glycosides (17–19), and one phenolic compound (20) from A. iwayomogi. Among them, hispidulin (4), 6-methoxytricin (6), arteanoflavone (7), quercetin-3-gentiobioside (10), 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (13), and suavioside A (18) were first reported on the isolation from A. iwayomogi. Not only two coumarins (1 and 2), nine flavonoids (3–11), and five caffeoylquinic acids (12–16) but also extracts showed significant inhibitor on AR and AGEs formation activities. We analyzed contents of major bioactive compounds in Korea's various regions of A. iwayomogi. Overall, we selected Yangyang, Gangwon-do, from June, which contained the highest amounts of bioactive compounds, as suitable areas for cultivating A. iwayomogi as preventive or therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetic complications. PMID:28512639

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Hanaa A.; Pang, Edwin C.; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms. PMID:27242708

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamani, Hanaa A; Pang, Edwin C; Mantri, Nitin; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years scientists worldwide have realized that the effective life span of any antimicrobial agent is limited, due to increasing development of resistance by microorganisms. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted to find new alternative sources of antimicrobial agents, especially from plants. The aims of this project were to examine the antimicrobial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Ocimum tenuiflorum (Tulsi), to quantify the volatile components present in flower spikes, leaves and the essential oil, and to investigate the compounds responsible for any activity. Broth micro-dilution was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Tulsi essential oil against selected microbial pathogens. The oils, at concentrations of 4.5 and 2.25% completely inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) and Escherichia coli, while the same concentrations only partly inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of 54 compounds identified in Tulsi leaves, flower spikes, or essential oil, three are proposed to be responsible for this activity; camphor, eucalyptol and eugenol. Since S. aureus (including MRSA), P. aeruginosa and E. coli are major pathogens causing skin and soft tissue infections, Tulsi essential oil could be a valuable topical antimicrobial agent for management of skin infections caused by these organisms.

  14. Expansion and functional diversification of a leucyl aminopeptidase family that encodes the major protein constituents of Drosophila sperm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The evolutionary diversification of gene families through gene creation (and loss) is a dynamic process believed to be critical to the evolution of functional novelty. Previous identification of a closely related family of eight annotated metalloprotease genes of the M17 Merops family in the Drosophila sperm proteome (termed, Sperm-LeucylAminoPeptidases, S-LAPs 1-8) led us to hypothesize that this gene family may have experienced such a diversification during insect evolution. Results To assess putative functional activities of S-LAPs, we (i) demonstrated that all S-LAPs are specifically expressed in the testis, (ii) confirmed their presence in sperm by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, (iii) determined that they represent a major portion of the total protein in sperm and (iv) identified aminopeptidase enzymatic activity in sperm extracts using LAP-specific substrates. Functionally significant divergence at the canonical M17 active site indicates that the largest phylogenetic group of S-LAPs lost catalytic activity and likely acquired novel, as yet undetermined, functions in sperm prior to the expansion of the gene family. Conclusions Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed the dramatic expansion of the S-LAP gene family during Drosophila evolution and copy number heterogeneity in the genomes of related insects. This finding, in conjunction with the loss of catalytic activity and potential neofunctionalization amongst some family members, extends empirical support for pervasive "revolving door" turnover in the evolution of reproductive gene family composition and function. PMID:21466698

  15. The calcium-binding protein calreticulin is a major constituent of lytic granules in cytolytic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL), natural killer cells, and lymphokine- activated killer (LAK) cells are cytolytic cells known to release the cytolytic protein perforin and a family of proteases, named granzymes, from cytoplasmic stores upon interaction with target cells. We now report the purification of an additional major 60-kD granule-associated protein (grp 60) from human LAK cells and from mouse cytolytic T cells. The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was found to be identical to calreticulin. Calreticulin is a calcium storage protein and carries a COOH-terminal KDEL sequence, known to act as a retention signal for proteins destined to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In CTLs, however, calreticulin colocalizes with the lytic perforin to the lysosome-like secretory granules, as confirmed by double label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Moreover, when the release of granule-associated proteins was triggered by stimulation of the T cell receptor complex, calreticulin was released along with granzymes A and D. Since perforin is activated and becomes lytic in the presence of calcium, we propose that the role of calreticulin is to prevent organelle autolysis due to the protein's calcium chelator capacity. PMID:8418194

  16. Purification of the major UsnRNPs from broad bean nuclear extracts and characterization of their protein constituents.

    PubMed

    Pálfi, Z; Bach, M; Solymosy, F; Lührmann, R

    1989-02-25

    Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles containing the five major nucleoplasmic snRNAs U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 as well as two smaller sized snRNAs were purified from broad bean nuclear extracts by anti-m3G, monoclonal antibody, immunoaffinity chromatography. We have so far defined 13 polypeptides of approximate mol. wts. of 11 kd, 11.5 kd, 12.5 kd, 16 kd, 17 kd, 17.5 kd, 18.5 kd, 25 kd (double band), 30 kd, 31 kd, 35 kd, 36 kd and 54 kd. Upon fractionation of the UsnRNPs by anion exchange chromatography, essentially pure U5 snRNPs were obtained, containing the 11 kd, 11.5 kd, 12.5 kd, 16 kd, 17 kd, 17.5 kd, 35 kd and 36 kd polypeptides. These may therefore represent the common snRNP polypeptides and which may also be present in the other snRNPs. By immunoblotting studies, using anti-Sm sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies we show that the 35 kd and 36 kd proteins are immunologically related to the mammalian common B/B' proteins. The broad bean 16 kd and 17 kd proteins appear to share structural elements with the mammalian D protein. The three proteins of mol. wts. 11 kd, 11.5 kd and 12.5 kd probably represent the broad bean polypeptides E, F, and G. Cross-reactivity of proteins of mol. wts of 30 kd and 31 kd with Anti-(U1/U2)RNP antibodies suggests that they may represent the broad bean A and B" polypeptides. The 54 kd protein and the 18.5 kd protein could be candidates for the U1 specific 70 k and C polypeptides. Our results demonstrate a strong similarity between the overall structure of broad bean and mammalian snRNPs.

  17. Hypnotic effects and GABAergic mechanism of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) ethanol extract and its major flavonoid constituent glabrol.

    PubMed

    Cho, Suengmok; Park, Ji-Hae; Pae, Ae Nim; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Dongsoo; Cho, Nam-Chul; No, Kyoung Tai; Yang, Hyejin; Yoon, Minseok; Lee, Changho; Shimizu, Makoto; Baek, Nam-In

    2012-06-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, GG) is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines worldwide, and its various biological activities have been widely studied. GG is reported to have neurological properties such as antidepressant, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant effects. However, its hypnotic effects and the mechanism of GG and its active compounds have not yet been demonstrated. In this study, GG ethanol extract (GGE) dose-dependently potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleep and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement sleep in mice without decreasing delta activity. The hypnotic effect of GGE was completely inhibited by flumazenil, which is a well-known γ-aminobutyric acid type A-benzodiazepine (GABA(A)-BZD) receptor antagonist, similar to other GABA(A)-BZD receptor agonists (e.g., diazepam and zolpidem). The major flavonoid glabrol was isolated from the flavonoid-rich fraction of GGE; it inhibited [(3)H] flumazenil binding to the GABA(A)-BZD receptors in rat cerebral cortex membrane with a binding affinity (K(i)) of 1.63 μM. The molecular structure and pharmacophore model of glabrol and liquiritigenin indicate that the isoprenyl groups of glabrol may play a key role in binding to GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Glabrol increased sleep duration and decreased sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner (5, 10, 25, and 50mg/kg); its hypnotic effect was also blocked by flumazenil. The results imply that GGE and its flavonoid glabrol induce sleep via a positive allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-BZD receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification of the major UsnRNPs from broad bean nuclear extracts and characterization of their protein constituents.

    PubMed Central

    Pálfi, Z; Bach, M; Solymosy, F; Lührmann, R

    1989-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles containing the five major nucleoplasmic snRNAs U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 as well as two smaller sized snRNAs were purified from broad bean nuclear extracts by anti-m3G, monoclonal antibody, immunoaffinity chromatography. We have so far defined 13 polypeptides of approximate mol. wts. of 11 kd, 11.5 kd, 12.5 kd, 16 kd, 17 kd, 17.5 kd, 18.5 kd, 25 kd (double band), 30 kd, 31 kd, 35 kd, 36 kd and 54 kd. Upon fractionation of the UsnRNPs by anion exchange chromatography, essentially pure U5 snRNPs were obtained, containing the 11 kd, 11.5 kd, 12.5 kd, 16 kd, 17 kd, 17.5 kd, 35 kd and 36 kd polypeptides. These may therefore represent the common snRNP polypeptides and which may also be present in the other snRNPs. By immunoblotting studies, using anti-Sm sera and mouse monoclonal antibodies we show that the 35 kd and 36 kd proteins are immunologically related to the mammalian common B/B' proteins. The broad bean 16 kd and 17 kd proteins appear to share structural elements with the mammalian D protein. The three proteins of mol. wts. 11 kd, 11.5 kd and 12.5 kd probably represent the broad bean polypeptides E, F, and G. Cross-reactivity of proteins of mol. wts of 30 kd and 31 kd with Anti-(U1/U2)RNP antibodies suggests that they may represent the broad bean A and B" polypeptides. The 54 kd protein and the 18.5 kd protein could be candidates for the U1 specific 70 k and C polypeptides. Our results demonstrate a strong similarity between the overall structure of broad bean and mammalian snRNPs. Images PMID:2522185

  19. Potent Anti-Inflammatory and Antiadipogenic Properties of Bamboo (Sasa coreana Nakai) Leaves Extract and Its Major Constituent Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hye; Choi, Moon-Hee; Yang, Seung Hwa; Cho, Sam Seok; Park, Su Jung; Shin, Hyun-Jae; Ki, Sung Hwan

    2017-08-09

    The pro-inflammatory response and recruitment of macrophages into adipose tissue contribute to metabolic dysfunction. Here, we reported the anti-inflammatory and antiadipogenic effects of the methanol (MeOH) extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of bamboo leaf and its molecular mechanism in RAW264.7 cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively. Functional macrophage migration assays also were performed. Surprisingly, the EtOAc fraction of MeOH extracts from native Korean plant species Sasa coreana Nakai (SCN) has shown potent anti-inflammatory properties; SCN pretreatment inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production (p < 0.01) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Inflammatory genes induced by LPS, including TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, were significantly attenuated by SCN (p < 0.01). Pretreatment with SCN antagonized NF-κB nuclear translocation and the simultaneous degradation of inhibitory κB protein. Furthermore, SCN selectively inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK (p < 0.01) and p38 (p < 0.05) but not ERK (p > 0.05). Similar to leaf extracts of other bamboo species, we identified that SCN contained several flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, and vitexin; these compounds inhibited LPS-induced NO production (p < 0.05) and iNOS expression. In addition, SCN inhibited adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by Oil Red O staining and the protein expression of mature adipogenic marker genes. Treatment with the major flavonoids of SCN also inhibited adipogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium obtained from adipocytes stimulated macrophage chemotaxis, whereas medium from adipocytes treated with SCN significantly inhibited macrophage migration. Therefore, SCN is a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of inflammation and obesity.

  20. Pulmonary epithelial response in the rat lung to instilled Montserrat respirable dusts and their major mineral components

    PubMed Central

    Housley, D; Berube, K; Jones, T; Anderson, S; Pooley, F; Richards, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: The Soufriere Hills, a stratovolcano on Montserrat, started erupting in July 1995, producing volcanic ash, both from dome collapse pyroclastic flows and phreatic explosions. The eruptions/ash resuspension result in high concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere, which includes cristobalite, a mineral implicated in respiratory disorders. Aims: To conduct toxicological studies on characterised samples of ash, together with major components of the dust mixture (anorthite, cristobalite), and a bioreactive mineral control (DQ12 quartz). Methods: Rats were challenged with a single mass (1 mg) dose of particles via intratracheal instillation and groups sacrificed at one, three, and nine weeks. Acute bioreactivity of the particles was assessed by increases in lung permeability and inflammation, changes in epithelial cell markers, and increase in the size of bronchothoracic lymph nodes. Results: Data indicated that respirable ash derived from pyroclastic flows (20.1% cristobalite) or phreatic explosion (8.6% cristobalite) had minimal bioreactivity in the lung. Anorthite showed low bioreactivity, in contrast to pure cristobalite, which showed progressive increases in lung damage. Conclusion: Results suggests that either the percentage mass of cristobalite particles present in Montserrat ash was not sufficient as a catalyst in the lung environment, or its surface reactivity was masked by the non-reactive volcanic glass components during the process of ash formation. PMID:12107295

  1. High-level expression and purification of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tuo; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Dou, Xia; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.

  2. Andrographis paniculata extracts and major constituent diterpenoids inhibit growth of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Suriyo, Tawit; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Watcharasit, Piyajit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2014-05-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an important herbal medicine widely used in several Asian countries for the treatment of various diseases due to its broad range of pharmacological activities. The present study reports that A. paniculata extracts potently inhibit the growth of liver (HepG2 and SK-Hep1) and bile duct (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1) cancer cells. A. paniculata extracts with different contents of major diterpenoids, including andrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, and 14-deoxyandrographolide, exhibited a different potency of growth inhibition. The ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage, which contained a high amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide but a low amount of andrographolide, showed a cytotoxic effect to cancer cells about 4 times higher than the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage, which contained a high amount of andrographolide but a low amount of 14-deoxyandrographolide. Andrographolide, not 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, neoandrographolide, or 14-deoxyandrographolide, possessed potent cytotoxic activity against the growth of liver and bile duct cancer cells. The cytotoxic effect of the water extract of A. paniculata at the mature leaf stage could be explained by the present amount of andrographolide, while the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage could not. HuCCA-1 cells showed more sensitivity to A. paniculata extracts and andrographolide than RMCCA-1 cells. Furthermore, the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata at the first true leaf stage increased cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 and G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis in both HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells. The expressions of cyclin-D1, Bcl-2, and the inactive proenzyme form of caspase-3 were reduced by the ethanolic extract of A. paniculata in the first true leaf stage treatment, while a proapoptotic protein Bax was increased. The cleavage of poly (ADP

  3. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography–Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. Objective: To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MSn) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. Materials and Methods: HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MSn data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. Results: A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). Conclusion: The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. SUMMARY This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and

  4. Identification and Quantification of the Major Constituents in Egyptian Carob Extract by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Owis, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Naggar, El-Motaz Bellah

    2016-01-01

    Carob - Ceratonia siliqua L., commonly known as St John's-bread or locust bean, family Fabaceae - is one of the most useful native Mediterranean trees. There is no data about the chromatography methods performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determining polyphenols in Egyptian carob pods. To establish a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methodology for the identification of the major constituents in Egyptian carob extract. HPLC with diode array detector and ESI-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of phenolic acids, flavonoid glycosides, and aglycones in the methanolic extract of Egyptian C. siliqua. The MS and MS(n) data together with HPLC retention time of phenolic components allowed structural characterization of these compounds. Peak integration of ions in the MS scans had been used in the quantification technique. A total of 36 compounds were tentatively identified. Twenty-six compounds were identified in the negative mode corresponding to 85.4% of plant dry weight, while ten compounds were identified in the positive mode representing 16.1% of plant dry weight, with the prevalence of flavonoids (75.4% of plant dry weight) predominantly represented by two methylapigenin-O-pentoside isomers (20.9 and 13.7% of plant dry weight). The identification of various compounds present in carob pods opens a new door to an increased understanding of the different health benefits brought about by the consumption of carob and its products. This research proposed a good example for the rapid identification of major constituents in complex systems such as herbs using sensitive, accurate and specific method coupling HPLC with DAD and MS, which facilitate the clarification of phytochemical composition of herbal medicine for better understanding of their nature and biological activities. Abbreviation used: HPLC: High performance liquid

  5. Coma morphology and dust-emission pattern of periodic Comet Halley. II - Nucleus spin vector and modeling of major dust features in 1910

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.; Larson, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    The continuous ejection of dust from discrete emission sources on the rotating nucleus of the Comet Halley is modelled in order to explain the evolution of spiral jets which unwind from the nucleus condensation into envelopes or halos in the comet head. The model is applied to digitally processed images of three features of the comet taken from Mount Wilson plates during the 1910 fly-by. The model permits a determination of the motion and spin vector for each emission source, its cometocentric coordinates, and a function relating particle ejection velocity to the solar radiation pressure exerted on the ejecta. It is found that the obliquity of the comet orbit's plane to its equatorial plane is 45 deg, the axis of rotation period of 17.3 days. The derived function of particle ejection velocity to the solar radiation pressure implied no contribution from grains larger than 10 microns in radius. High dust loading of gas flows from the June 1910 emission sources is indicated. It is estimated that because of the favorable approach geometry of the Gioto spacecraft during its 1986 flyby, the likelihood of encountering dense jets of dust is small.

  6. Atmospheric Processing of Iron-Containing Mineral Dust Aerosol: A Major Source of Bioavailable Iron to Ocean Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubasinghege, G. R. S.; Hurub, O. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the present day, it has become more apparent that redox reactions involving mineral dust are of great interest, especially for Fe-containing mineral dust, as they transported and deposited into certain regions of the ocean that dissolved iron is often a limiting nutrient for ocean life. Given that heterogeneous reactions of Fe-containing mineral dust with acidic gases and their precursors, i.e. HNO3, dimethyl sulfide( DMS), lead to lower pH environments, the amount of bioavailable iron can increase as they are transported through the atmosphere. The current work focuses on chemical and photochemical processing of Fe-containing mineral dust particles in the presence of HNO3, SO2 and DMS under atmospherically relevant conditions. Here, various spectroscopic methods are combined with dissolution measurements to investigate atmospheric processing of iron containing aerosol dust, with a specific focus on mineralogy and environmental conditions, i.e. pH, relative humidity, temperature and solar flux. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is used as one of the proxies for Fe-containing minerals that have enough complexity to mimic the mineral dust, yet simple enough to know the details of the reaction pathways. During these studies, above factors are found to play significant roles in the dissolution of iron from mineral dust aerosol. More importantly, data suggest that presence of titanium in the lattice structure of ilmenite enhances iron dissolution, at least by 3-fold in a comparison with hematite. Further, growth and activity of ocean diatoms (Cyclotella meneghiniana) are monitored in the presence of Fe-containing mineral dust under the same conditions. Here, diatoms are added to the reactors containing pre-dissolved iron from a prior 48hr reaction. Results show a high correlation between the growth of diatoms and the amount of bioavailable from iron containing minerals. The current study thus highlights these important, yet unconsidered, factors in the atmospheric processing of iron

  7. Vertical distribution of aerosols and shortwave radiative forcing over the Indo-Gangetic Basin during three major dust storms of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvan; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) and vertical distribution of aerosols over Kanpur (located in central Indo-Gangetic Basin; IGB) during the three (20 April, 28 May and 2 June, 2010) intense dust-storm events in the pre-monsoon season, using the synergy of ground and satellite observations and SBDART simulation. The analysis reveals considerable changes in the aerosol vertical profiles and ARF during the dust-storm events highlighting the important role of dust in the aerosol load and ARF properties over the IGB. The CALIOP-derived aerosol properties show vertically elevated aerosol profiles (up to 4 km altitude), majorly consisting of dust particles during the dust event. The maximum daily average top of the atmosphere (TOA), atmosphere (ATM) and surface (SRF) forcing is found to be -40.95, 60.65 W/m2 and -101.59W/m2 during the dust events respectively. A strong correlation is found between AOD at 500 nm and the ARF. The correlation coefficient (R2) between AOD and ARF is found to be 0.74, 0.46 and 0.84 at TOA, ATM and SRF respectively. The slope of the regression line gives the aerosol forcing efficiency at 500nm of about 24.29, -19.85 and -44.15 W/m2 at the ATM, TOA and SRF respectively. The ARF is found to increase with the advance of the dry season. Keywords: Dust Storms, Aerosol properties, AERONET, Satellites, Indo-Gangetic Basin, Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF).

  8. Enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and three essential oil major constituents to wild Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Chang, Kyu-Sik; Shin, E-Hyun; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-07-01

    An assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (E)-anethole (AN), (E) -cinnamaldehyde (CA), and eugenol (EU; 1:1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and rice paddy field-collected Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann. An. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. Based on 24-h LC50 values, binary mixtures of Bti and CA, AN, or EU were significantly more toxic against Ae. albopictus larvae (0.0084, 0.0134, and 0.0237 mg/liter) and An. sinensis larvae (0.0159, 0.0388, and 0.0541 mg/liter) than either Bti (1.7884 and 2.1681 mg/liter) or CA (11.46 and 18.56 mg/liter), AN (16.66 and 25.11 mg/liter), or EU (24.60 and 31.09 mg/liter) alone. As judged by cotoxicity coefficient (CC) and synergistic factor (SF), the three binary mixtures operated in a synergy pattern (CC, 140.7-368.3 and SF, 0.0007-0.0010 for Ae. albopictus; CC, 75.1-245.3 and SF, 0.0008-0.0017 for An. sinensis). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the aquatic environment justify further studies on the binary mixtures of Bti and essential oil constituents described, in particular CA, as potential larvicides for the control of malaria vector mosquito populations.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis data of the major constituents of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by UPLC-PDA and QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Blum-Silva, Carlos Henrique; Luz, Ana Beatriz Gobbo; Nascimento, Marcus Vinicius P S; de Campos Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Baratto, Bruna; Fröde, Tânia Silvia; Sandjo, Louis Pergaud; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique

    2016-09-01

    Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. is a native plant of South America widely consumed as beverages for its ethno pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic as well as its benefits on the cardiovascular system. Since these properties are related to its chemical composition, the identification and quantification of the major compounds of I. paraguariensis extracts still remains relevant. The data described in this article supports previous results on the anti-inflammatory effect of I. paraguariensis A. St. Hil (Mate), "The anti-inflammatory effect of I. paraguariensis A. St. Hil (Mate) in a murine model of pleurisy" [1]. The present data article reports on nine major compounds identified in I. paraguariensis extracts and its related fractions by using UPLC-PDA and UPLC-QTOF. Identification of the constituents was based on their retention times, UV absorption spectra and mass spectra data, as well as by comparison with authentic samples. The validated parameters show that the quantification by UPLC-PDA methodology developed is sensitive, precise and accurate.

  10. Concentrations, loads, and yields of select constituents from major tributaries of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers in Iowa, water years 2004-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Jessica D.

    2012-01-01

    Excess nutrients, suspended-sediment loads, and the presence of pesticides in Iowa rivers can have deleterious effects on water quality in State streams, downstream major rivers, and the Gulf of Mexico. Fertilizer and pesticides are used to support crop growth on Iowa's highly productive agricultural landscape and for household and commercial lawns and gardens. Water quality was characterized near the mouths of 10 major Iowa tributaries to the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers from March 2004 through September 2008. Stream loads were calculated for select ions, nutrients, and sediment using approximately monthly samples, and samples from storm and snowmelt events. Water-quality samples collected using standard streamflow-integrated protocols were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Statistical data summaries of sample data used parametric and nonparametric techniques to address potential bias related to censored data and multiple levels of censoring of data below analytical detection limits. Constituent stream loads were computed using standard pre-defined models in S-LOADEST that include streamflow and time terms plus additional terms for streamflow variability and streamflow anomalies. Streamflow variability terms describe the difference in streamflow from recent average conditions, whereas streamflow anomaly terms account for deviations from average conditions from long- to short-term sequentially. Streamflow variability or anomaly terms were included in 44 of 80 site/constituent individual models, demonstrating the usefulness of these terms in increasing accuracy of the load estimates. Constituent concentrations in Iowa streams exhibit streamflow, seasonal, and spatial patterns related to the landform and climate gradients across the studied basins. The streamflow-concentration relation indicated dilution for ions such as chloride and sulfate. Other constituent concentrations, such as dissolved organic carbon and

  11. Characterizing the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPARγ) Ligand Binding Potential of Several Major Flame Retardants, Their Metabolites, and Chemical Mixtures in House Dust

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Mingliang; Webster, Thomas F.; Ferguson, P. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that some environmental contaminants can alter adipogenesis and act as obesogens. Many of these contaminants act via the activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) nuclear receptor. Objectives: Our goal was to determine the PPARγ ligand binding potency of several major flame retardants, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), halogenated phenols and bisphenols, and their metabolites. Ligand binding activity of indoor dust and its bioactivated extracts were also investigated. Methods: We used a commercially available fluorescence polarization ligand binding assay to investigate the binding potency of flame retardants and dust extracts to human PPARγ ligand-binding domain. Rosiglitazone was used as a positive control. Results: Most of the tested compounds exhibited dose-dependent binding to PPARγ. Mono(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate, halogenated bisphenols and phenols, and hydroxylated PBDEs were found to be potent PPARγ ligands. The most potent compound was 3-OH-BDE-47, with an IC50 (concentration required to reduce effect by 50%) of 0.24 μM. The extent of halogenation and the position of the hydroxyl group strongly affected binding. In the dust samples, 21 of the 24 samples tested showed significant binding potency at a concentration of 3 mg dust equivalent (DEQ)/mL. A 3–16% increase in PPARγ binding potency was observed following bioactivation of the dust using rat hepatic S9 fractions. Conclusion: Our results suggest that several flame retardants are potential PPARγ ligands and that metabolism may lead to increased binding affinity. The PPARγ binding activity of house dust extracts at levels comparable to human exposure warrants further studies into agonistic or antagonistic activities and their potential health effects. Citation: Fang M, Webster TF, Ferguson PL, Stapleton HM. 2015. Characterizing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) ligand binding

  12. Cinnamomum cassia essential oil and its major constituent cinnamaldehyde induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Lun; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wang, Shu-Ping; Chou, Su-Tze; Shih, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Cinnamomum cassia essential oil (CC-EO) has various functional properties, such as anti-microbial, hypouricemic, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenesis activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer activities of CC-EO and its major constituent, cinnamaldehyde, in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells. Determination of the cell viability, apoptotic characteristics, DNA damage, cell cycle analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic Ca(2+) level and intracellular redox status were performed. Our results demonstrated that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde significantly decreased cell viability and caused morphological changes. The cell cycle analysis revealed that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde induced G2/M cell cycle arrest in HSC-3 cells. The apoptotic characteristics (DNA laddering and chromatin condensation) and DNA damage were observed in the CC-EO-treated and cinnamaldehyde-treated HSC-3 cells. Moreover, CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde promoted an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, induced mitochondrial dysfunction and activated cytochrome c release. The results of ROS production and intracellular redox status demonstrated that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde significantly increased the ROS production and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, and the cellular glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in HSC-3 cells. Our results suggest that CC-EO and cinnamaldehyde may possess anti-oral cancer activity in HSC-3 cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 456-468, 2017.

  13. Metabolism of citral, the major constituent of lemongrass oil, in the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, and effects of enzyme inhibitors on toxicity and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tak, Jun-Hyung; Isman, Murray B

    2016-10-01

    Although screening for new and reliable sources of botanical insecticides remains important, finding ways to improve the efficacy of those already in use through better understanding of their modes-of-action or metabolic pathways, or by improving formulations, deserves greater attention as the latter may present lesser regulation hurdles. Metabolic processing of citral (a combination of the stereoisomers geranial and neral), a main constituent of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil has not been previously examined in insects. To address this, we investigated insecticidal activities of lemongrass oil and citral, as well as the metabolism of citral in larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, in associations with well-known enzyme inhibitors. Among the inhibitors tested, piperonyl butoxide showed the highest increase in toxicity followed by triphenyl phosphate, but no synergistic interaction between the inhibitors was observed. Topical application of citral to fifth instar larvae produced mild reductions in food consumption, and frass analysis after 24h revealed geranic acid (99.7%) and neric acid (98.8%) as major metabolites of citral. Neither citral nor any other metabolites were found following in vivo analysis of larvae after 24h, and no significant effect of enzyme inhibitors was observed on diet consumption or citral metabolism.

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Weina; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Yuefei; Pan, Guixiang; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC. PMID:25654135

  15. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chinese medical preparation Lianhua-Qingwen capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weina; Wang, Chunhua; Wang, Yuefei; Pan, Guixiang; Jiang, Miaomiao; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC) is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC.

  16. An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Malik, Fayaz; Bhushan, Shashi; Sethi, Vijay K; Shahi, Ashok K; Kaur, Jagdeep; Taneja, Subhash C; Qazi, Ghulam N; Singh, Jaswant

    2008-02-15

    An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. CFO and ISO inhibited cell proliferation with 48 h IC50 of approximately 30 and 20 microg/ml, respectively. Both induced concentration dependent strong and early apoptosis as measured by various end-points, e.g. annexinV binding, DNA laddering, apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in hypo diploid sub-G0 DNA content during the early 6h period of study. This could be because of early surge in ROS formation with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed. Both CFO and ISO activated apical death receptors TNFR1, DR4 and caspase-8 activity. Simultaneously, both increased the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein with its concomitant release to cytosol leading to caspase-9 activation, suggesting thereby the involvement of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, Bax translocation, and decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB expression predict multi-target effects of the essential oil and ISO while both appeared to follow similar signaling apoptosis pathways. The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.

  17. Assessing seawater intrusion in an arid coastal aquifer under high anthropogenic influence using major constituents, Sr and B isotopes in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Mahlknecht, J; Merchán, D; Rosner, M; Meixner, A; Ledesma-Ruiz, R

    2017-06-01

    The La Paz aquifer system (Baja California Sur, Mexico) is under severe anthropogenic pressure because of high groundwater abstraction for urban supply (city of La Paz, around 222,000 inhabitants) and irrigated agriculture (1900ha). In consequence, seawater has infiltrated the aquifer, forcing the abandonment of wells with increased salinity. The objective of this study was to assess seawater intrusion, understand the hydrogeochemical processes involved and estimate the contribution of seawater in the wells tested. The aquifer comprises mainly the alluvial filling and marine sediments of a tectonic graben oriented north-south, in contact with the Gulf of California. Groundwater samples were collected in 47 locations and analyzed for major constituents. A subset of 23 samples was analyzed for strontium and boron concentrations and isotopic signatures ((87)Sr/(86)Sr and δ(11)B). Results were interpreted using standard hydrochemical plots along with ad hoc plots including isotopic data. Seawater intrusion was confirmed by several hydrogeochemical indicators, such as the high salinity in areas of intense pumping or the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange occurring in sediments that were previously in chemical equilibrium with fresh water. However, seawater contribution was not sufficient to explain the observed concentrations and isotopic signatures of Sr and B. According to the isotopic data, desorption processes triggered by a modification in chemical equilibrium and an increase in ionic strength by seawater intrusion significantly increased Sr and probably B concentrations in groundwater. From a calculation of seawater contribution to the wells, it was estimated that one-third of the sampled abstraction wells were significantly affected by seawater intrusion, reaching concentrations that would limit their use for human supply or even irrigated agriculture. In addition, significant agricultural pollution (nitrates) was detected. Planned management of the aquifer and corrective

  18. Antimalarial activity and safety assessment of Flueggea virosa leaves and its major constituent with special emphasis on their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Vardan; Manhas, Ashan; Kumar, Yogesh; Mishra, Sonali; Shanker, Karuna; Khan, Feroz; Srivastava, Kumkum; Pal, Anirban

    2017-03-05

    A clinical emergency stands due to the appearance of drug resistant Plasmodium strains necessitate novel and effective antimalarial chemotypes, where plants seem as the prime option, especially after the discovery of quinine and artemisinin. The present study was aimed towards bioprospecting leaves of Flueggea virosa for its antimalarial efficacy and active principles. Crude hydro-ethanolic extract along with solvent derived fractions were tested in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum CQ sensitive (3D7) and resistant (K1) strains, where all the fractions exhibited potential activity (IC50 values <10μg/mL) against both the strains. Interestingly, under in vivo conditions against P. berghei in Swiss mice, preferential chemo-suppression was recorded for crude hydro-ethanolic extract (77.38%) and ethyl acetate fraction (86.09%) at the dose of 500mg/kg body weight. Additionally, ethyl acetate fraction was found to be capable of normalizing the host altered pharmacological parameters and enhanced oxidative stress augmented during the infection. The bioactivity guided fractionation lead to the isolation of bergenin as a major and active constituent (IC50, 8.07±2.05μM) of ethyl acetate fraction with the inhibition of heme polymerization pathway of malaria parasite being one of the possible chemotherapeutic target. Furthermore, bergenin exhibited a moderate antimalarial activity against P. berghei and also ameliorated parasite induced systemic inflammation in host (mice). Safe toxicity profile elucidated through in vitro cytotoxicity and in silico ADME/T predications evidently suggest that bergenin possess drug like properties. Hence, the present study validates the traditional usage of F. indica as an antimalarial remedy and also insists for further chemical modifications of bergenin to obtain more effective antimalarial chemotypes.

  19. Sinomenine and magnoflorine, major constituents of Sinomeni caulis et rhizoma, show potent protective effects against membrane damage induced by lysophosphatidylcholine in rat erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakumoto, Hitoshi; Yokota, Yumiko; Ishibashi, Gakushi; Maeda, Shouta; Hoshi, Chihiro; Takano, Haruyo; Kobayashi, Miki; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Ijiri, Soichiro; Sakakibara, Iwao; Hara, Akiyoshi

    2015-07-01

    The effects of the water extract of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma (SCR-WE) and its major constituents, sinomenine (SIN) and magnoflorine (MAG), on moderate hemolysis induced by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) were investigated in rat erythrocytes and compared with the anti-hemolytic effects of lidocaine (LID) and propranolol (PRO) as reference drugs. LPC caused hemolysis at concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (CMC), and the concentration of LPC producing moderate hemolysis (60 %) was approximately 10 μM. SCR-WE at 1 ng/mL-100 μg/mL significantly inhibited the hemolysis induced by LPC. SIN and MAG attenuated LPC-induced hemolysis in a concentration-dependent manner from very low to high concentrations (1 nM-100 μM and 10 nM-100 μM, respectively). In contrast, the inhibiting effects of LID and PRO on LPC-induced hemolysis were observed at higher concentrations (1-100 μM) but not at lower concentrations (1-100 nM). Neither SIN nor MAG affected micelle formation of LPC, nor, at concentrations of 1 nM-1 μM, did they attenuate the hemolysis induced by osmotic imbalance (hypotonic hemolysis). Similarly, SCR-WE also did not modify micelle formation or hypotonic hemolysis, except at the highest concentration. These results suggest that SIN and MAG potently protect the erythrocyte membrane from LPC-induced damage and contribute to the beneficial action of SCR-WE. The protective effects of SIN and MAG are mediated by some mechanism other than prevention of micelle formation or protection of the erythrocyte membrane against osmotic imbalance.

  20. Mucuna pruriens and Its Major Constituent L-DOPA Recover Spermatogenic Loss by Combating ROS, Loss of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Sarkar, Saumya; Tripathi, Muktanand; Rajender, Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ayurvedic medicinal system claims Mucuna pruriens (MP) to possess pro-male fertility, aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties. Some scientific evidence also supports its pro-male fertility properties; however, the mechanism of its action is not yet clear. The present study aimed at demonstrating spermatogenic restorative efficacy of MP and its major constituent L-DOPA (LD), and finding the possible mechanism of action thereof in a rat model. Methodology/Findings Ethinyl estradiol (EE) was administered at a rate of 3 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for a period of 14 days to generate a rat model with compromised spermatogenesis. MP and LD were administered in two separate groups of these animals starting 15th day for a period of 56 days, and the results were compared with an auto-recovery (AR) group. Sperm count and motility, testis histo-architecture, level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, peripheral hormone levels and testicular germ cell populations were analysed, in all experimental groups. We observed efficient and quick recovery of spermatogenesis in MP and LD groups in comparison to the auto-recovery group. The treatment regulated ROS level, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), recovered the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the number of testicular germ cells, ultimately leading to increased sperm count and motility. Conclusion/Significance M. pruriens efficiently recovers the spermatogenic loss induced due to EE administration. The recovery is mediated by reduction in ROS level, restoration of MMP, regulation of apoptosis and eventual increase in the number of germ cells and regulation of apoptosis. The present study simplified the complexity of mechanism involved and provided meaningful insights into MP/LD mediated correction of spermatogenic impairment caused by estrogens exposure. This is the first study demonstrating that L-DOPA largely accounts for pro

  1. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here 1-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size-segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~ 0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/([Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')) when Pn_fine is significant (> 10%). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined data sets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high-sulfate days while local formation

  2. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here one-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/[Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined datasets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high sulfate days, while local formation processes contributed approximately

  3. Occurrence, distribution and health risk from polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs and azaarenes) in street dust from a major West African Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2016-05-15

    Scientific evidence suggests that the burden of disease on urban residents of sub-Saharan African Countries is increasing, partly as a result of exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic environmental chemicals. However, characterization of the levels, composition pattern and sources of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in environmental samples from African cities is still lacking. This study measured the PAHs, oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs) and azaarene (AZAs) content of street dusts collected from Kumasi, Ghana (a major metropolis located in the tropical forest zone of West Africa). The ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs, ∑OPAHs and ∑AZAs concentration in street dust averaged 2570 ng g(-1) (range: 181-7600 ng g(-1)), 833 ng g(-1) (57-4200 ng g(-1)) and 73 ng g(-1) (3.3-240 ng g(-1)), respectively. The concentrations of ∑Alkyl+parent-PAHs were strongly correlated (n=25) with ∑OPAHs (r=0.96, p<0.01) and ∑AZAs (r=0.94, p<0.01). The ∑OPAHs concentrations were also strongly correlated with ∑AZAs (r=0.91, p<0.01). Concentrations of individual PAHs in these street dusts were enriched at between 12 and 836 compared to their average concentrations in background soils from same city, demonstrating the high influence of traffic emissions. Several individual OPAHs and AZAs had higher concentrations than their related and often monitored parent-PAHs. The estimated incremental lifetime cancer risks due to the parent-PAHs in street dusts was >10(-6) indicating high risk of contracting cancer from exposure to street dust from Kumasi. The contribution of OPAHs, AZAs, and alkyl-PAHs in street dust to cancer risk could not be quantified because of lack of toxicity equivalency factors for these compounds; however this could be significant because of their high concentration and known higher toxicity of some polar PACs and alkyl-PAHs than their related parent-PAHs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-range transport of mineral dust in the global atmosphere: Impact of African dust on the environment of the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    1999-01-01

    Soil dust is a major constituent of airborne particles in the global atmosphere. Dust plumes frequently cover huge areas of the earth; they are one of the most prominent and commonly visible features in satellite imagery. Dust is believed to play a role in many biogeochemical processes, but the importance of dust in these processes is not well understood because of the dearth of information about the global distribution of dust and its physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. This paper describes some features of the large-scale distribution of dust and identifies some of the geological characteristics of important source areas. The transport of dust from North Africa is presented as an example of possible long-range dust effects, and the impact of African dust on environmental processes in the western North Atlantic and the southeastern United States is assessed. Dust transported over long distances usually has a mass median diameter <10 μm. Small wind-borne soil particles show signs of extensive weathering; consequently, the physical and chemical properties of the particles will greatly depend on the weathering history in the source region and on the subsequent modifications that occur during transit in the atmosphere (typically a period of a week or more). To fully understand the role of dust in the environment and in human health, mineralogists will have to work closely with scientists in other disciplines to characterize the properties of mineral particles as an ensemble and as individual particles especially with regard to surface characteristics. PMID:10097049

  5. Influence of climate and eolian dust on the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils in the northern Bighorn basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Soil chronosequences in the northern Bighorn basin permit the study of chronologic changes in the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils formed in different climates. Two chronosequences along Rock Creek in south-central Montana formed on granitic alluvium in humid and semiarid climates over the past two million years. A chronosequence at the Kane fans in north-central Wyoming formed on calcareous alluvium in an arid climate over the past 600,000 years. Detailed analyses of elemental chemistry indicate that the soils in all three areas gradually incorporated eolian dust that contained less zirconium, considered to be chemically immobile during weathering, than did the alluvium. B and C horizons of soils in the wettest of the chronosequences developed mainly at logarithmic rates, suggesting that leaching, initially rapid but decelerating, dominated the dust additions. In contrast, soils in the most arid of the chronosequences developed at linear rates that reflect progressive dust additions that were little affected by leaching. Both weathering and erosion may cause changes with time to appear logarithmic in A horizons of soils under the moist and semiarid climatic regimes. Clay minerals form with time in the basal B and C horizons and reflect climatic differences in the three areas. Vermiculite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, and smectite form in the soils of the moist-climate chronosequence; smectite forms in the semiarid-climate chronosequence; and smectite and palygorskite form in the arid-climate chronosequence. ?? 1990.

  6. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    PubMed

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%.

  7. Size Distributions and Formation Pathways of Organic and Inorganic Constituents in Spring Aerosols from Okinawa Island in the Western North Pacific Rim: An Outflow Region of Asian Dusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, D. K.; Lazaar, M.; Kawamura, K.; Kunwar, B.; Tachibana, E.; Boreddy, S. K. R.

    2015-12-01

    Size-segregated aerosols (9-stages) were collected at Okinawa Island in the western North Pacific Rim in spring 2008. The samples were analyzed for diacids (C2-C12), ω-oxoacids (ωC2-ωC9), a-dicarbonyls (C2-C3), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble OC (WSOC) and major ions to understand the sources and atmospheric processes in the outflow region of Asian pollutants. The molecular distribution of diacids showed the predominance of oxalic acid (C2) followed by malonic and succinic acids in all the size-segregated aerosols. ω-Oxoacids showed the predominance of glyoxylic acid (ωC2) whereas glyoxal (Gly) was more abundant than methylglyoxal in all the sizes. The abundant presence of sulfate as well as phthalic and adipic acids in Okinawa aerosols suggested a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources in East Asia via long-range atmospheric transport. Diacids (C2-C5), ωC2 and Gly as well as WSOC and OC peaked at 0.65-1.1 µm in fine mode whereas azelaic (C9) and 9-oxononanoic (ωC9) acids peaked at 3.3-4.7 µm in coarse mode. Sulfate and ammonium are enriched in fine mode whereas sodium and chloride are in coarse mode. An important mechanism for the formation of these organic species in Okinawa aerosols is probably gas phase oxidation of VOCs and subsequent in-cloud processing during long-range transport. Their characteristics size distribution implies that fine particles enriched with these organic and inorganic species could act as CCN to develop the cloud cover over the western North Pacific. The major peak of C9 and ωC9 on coarse mode suggest that they are produced by photooxidation of unsaturated fatty acids mainly derived from phytoplankton via heterogeneous reactions on sea spray particles. This study demonstrates that anthropogenic aerosols emitted from East Asia have significant influence on the compositions of organic and inorganic aerosols in the western North Pacific Rim.

  8. Major house dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and Dermatophagoides farinae 1 degrade and inactivate lung surfactant proteins A and D.

    PubMed

    Deb, Roona; Shakib, Farouk; Reid, Kenneth; Clark, Howard

    2007-12-21

    Lung surfactant proteins (SP) A and D are calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. In addition to playing multiple roles in innate immune defense such as bacterial aggregation and modulation of leukocyte function, SP-A and SP-D have also been implicated in the allergic response. They interact with a wide range of inhaled allergens, competing with their binding to cell-sequestered IgE resulting in inhibition of mast cell degranulation, and exogenous administration of SP-A and SP-D diminishes allergic hypersensitivity in vivo. House dust mite allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma in the western world, and here we confirm the interaction of SP-A and SP-D with two major mite allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 and Dermatophagoides farinae 1, and show that the cysteine protease activity of these allergens results in the degradation of SP-A and SP-D under physiological conditions, with multiple sites of cleavage. A recombinant fragment of SP-D that is effective in diminishing allergic hypersensitivity in mouse models of dust mite allergy was more susceptible to degradation than the native full-length protein. Degradation was enhanced in the absence of calcium, with different sites of cleavage, indicating that the calcium associated with SP-A and SP-D influences accessibility to the allergens. Degradation of SP-A and SP-D was associated with diminished binding to carbohydrates and to D. pteronyssinus 1 itself and diminished capacity to agglutinate bacteria. Thus, the degradation and consequent inactivation of SP-A and SP-D may be a novel mechanism to account for the potent allergenicity of these common dust mite allergens.

  9. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels essential oil and its major constituent α-pinene exhibit anti-Leishmania activity through immunomodulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Amorim, Layane Valéria; Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Carneiro, Sabrina Maria Portela; Carvalho, Fernando Aécio de Amorim

    2015-02-03

    , and the elevated NO levels. ScEO and α-pinene exhibited low cytotoxicity against murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. The 50% cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) values for the macrophages in the MTT assay were 614.1 and 425.2µg/mL for ScEO and α-pinene, respectively, while the corresponding half-maximal hemolytic concentration (HC50) values were 874.3 and 233.3µg/mL. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ScEO and its major constituent α-pinene have significant anti-Leishmania activity, modulated by macrophage activation, with acceptable levels of cytotoxicity in murine macrophages and human erythrocytes. Further work is warranted, involving more in-depth mechanistic studies and in vivo investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dust Quantization and Effects on Agriculture Over Uttar Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Pavel; Tiwari, Shubhansh

    2017-01-01

    Dust plays a very important role in the atmosphere and the biosphere. In this communication, the effect of atmospheric dust on the yields of certain crops grown in Uttar Pradesh, India is assessed. Coherent physical and thermodynamic fingerprints of dust parameters such as from Satellite data- KALPANA-1, MODIS, OMI, CALIPSO; Model data- DREAM, HYSPLIT, ECMWF; have been considered to run the APSIM model to derive the impacts. This paper assesses dust as a physical atmospheric phenomenon including its Long Range Transport (LRT) and dispersion along with considerable variations of Aerosol Optical Depths (AODs) over the subcontinent of India. While AODs significantly increase by more dust concentration, the local dispersion of pollutants is a major concern with deposition of atmospheric dust such as sulphates and other chemical constituents that affect agricultural land. An approach in atmospheric physics is also taken to parameterize the model outputs. This communication indicates dust to be a positive factor for the cultivation of certain crops such as wheat, maize in the experimental location. Initial results suggest that LRT dust is a viable counterpart to decrease the concentration of soil acidity and related parameters thus enhancing the vitality of crops.

  11. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    PubMed

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  12. Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Hydrodistillation for the Identification of Major Constituents in Two Species of Hypericum.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, Alireza; Shadabi, Shahriar; Hajipour, Somayeh; Nasirian, Afagh; Borzouei, Mohammad; Hassani-Moghadam, Esfandyar; Hashemi, Payman

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction (UA-HS-SPME) and hydrodistillation (HD) methods, coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used for the extraction and analysis of volatile compounds from Hypericum perforatum and Hypericum scabrum collected from two different sites in Iran. In the UA-HS-SPME method, various experimental parameters such as the type of fiber coating, sonication time, extraction time, extraction temperature and desorption time were investigated. The highest extraction efficiency was achieved by a 100-µm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. Consequently, 36 compounds were identified in H. perforatum and H. scabrum samples, using the UA-HS-SPME-GC-MS method, of which 14 were the same in both species. On the other hand, 57 compounds of these species were identified by the HD-GC-MS method, of which 21 were the same. The predominant constituents identified using the UA-HS-SPME method in H. perforatum included β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, γ-cadinene, α-selinene, germacrene-D, limonene and myrcene, and in H. scabrum were α-pinene, nonane, β-pinene and limonene. The common constituents identified by the HD-GC-MS method for H. perforatum involved germacrene-D, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, β-pinene and germacrene-B, and for H. scabrum were α-pinene, β-pinene, germacrene-D, nonane, limonene and γ-cadinene. The results about the main constituents of the examined species correspond to the findings of other researchers. Additionally, comparing UA-HS-SPME-GC-MS and HD-GC-MS methods showed that the UA-HS-SPME-GC-MS method is much faster and simpler, and it requires much less sample size and lower temperature.

  13. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  14. Composition and properties of dust from Comet Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, Mark E.

    A study of the elemental and morphological properties of cometary dust is made using elemental composition data from the PUMA and PIA impact mass spectrometers that analyzed Comet Halley's dust on flyby missions in 1986. The study is unique in its special rigorous selection procedures and its resulting high quality data sets, the largest of which contains mass spectra from 279 dust particles. The results include findings that anhydrous mafic silicates, many rich in Mg composition, are a predominant and ubiquitous constituent of cometary dust. Iron sulfides are probably also a common constituent. Both silicates and sulfides occur as mineral grains smaller than the typical particle size, and they are mixed intimately with abundant organic 'CHON' material. Sulfates and carbonates that would be produced by aqueous alteration seem to be very rare or nonexistent. Compositional dispersions of the major rock-forming elements in the cometary dust are quite unlike those seen in carbonaceous chondrites and serpentine-dominated hydrous interplanetary particles. The Halley data show evidence for olivines and low-Fe silicates that are absent from the hydrous smectite layer-silicate class of interplanetary particles, and this type of IDP also appears unlikely to be cometary material. The overall compositional dispersions in Halley's dust appear most similar to the anhydrous, porous chondritic class of interplanetary dust particles, lending additional support to the belief that this class of interplanetary particle has a cometary origin. Several lines of evidence indicate that extensive sublimation of volatile organic material in the dust occurs up to approximately 40,000 km from the comet nucleus, resulting in declining organic fractions in dust populations more distant from the nucleus. Sublimation may lead to fragmentation of the dust and elimination of the larger particles beyond this radius. Limited evidence has been found that published estimates of PUMA and PIA dust

  15. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp. PMID:26394146

  16. Identification and Quantification of Oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-Trien-8-One and Cyanidin-3-Glucoside as One of the Major Volatile and Non-Volatile Low-Molecular-Weight Constituents in Pitanga Pulp.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Pignitter, Marc; Ehrnhöfer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Walker, Jessica; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The pulp of pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) is used to prepare pitanga juice. However, there are no reports on the identification and quantification of the main constituents in pitanga pulp. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight constituents of the pulp. Isolation of volatile compounds was performed by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation technique. Characterization of the main volatile and non-volatile constituents was performed by GC-MS, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. For quantitative measurements, the main volatile compound needed to be isolated from pitanga pulp to obtain a commercially not available reference standard. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was determined as one of the most abundant non-volatile pulp compound yielding 53.8% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by LC-MS. Quantification of cyanidin-3-glucoside in pitanga pulp resulted in a concentration of 344 ± 66.4 μg/mL corresponding to 688 ± 133 μg/g dried pulp and 530 ± 102 μg/g fruit. For the volatile fraction, oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one was identified as the main volatile pulp constituent (27.7% of the sum of the intensities of all ions detected by GC-MS), reaching a concentration of 89.0 ± 16.9 μg/mL corresponding to 1.34 ± 0.25 μg/g fresh pulp and 1.03 ± 0.19 μg/g fruit. The results provide quantitative evidence for the occurrence of an anthocyanin and an oxygenated sesquiterpene as one of the major volatile and non-volatile low-molecular-weight compounds in pitanga pulp.

  17. Secular changes in the tidal constituents in San Francisco Bay originated by the California Gold Rush and major dam-building projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Ortiz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hourly sea-level records for the time period of 1901 to 2012 at Fort Point tidal station in San Francisco Bay are analyzed in an attempt to find the origin of the secular changes found in the tidal constituents. Complex demodulation implemented with a low pass filter window of 8760 hours was employed to extract the amplitude and phase of the principal tidal constituent M2 as a function of time. The 18.6 year nodal signal was removed by using the tide potential of the equilibrium tide. The results show significant trends up to 4 cm in amplitude as well as phase shifts of 17 minutes per century. Moreover, yearly amplitude variations of M2 show to be inversely correlated to river flow discharge. On the other hand, the results of a simplified two-layer numerical hydrodynamic model indicate that long-term tide variations are directly related to the morphological evolution of a sandbank located outside the bay surrounding its entrance, acting as a hydraulic control for the whole bay. According to historical results, the sandbank reached its shallowest depth during the California Gold Rush (1848-1884), when mining debris together with large amounts of sediment were deposited into the estuary. After the Central Valley Water Project was approved (1933), many dams were built decreasing significantly the sediment supply. With the passage of time, the gradual loss of sedimentation also diminished the sandbank, increasing its depth. This fact explains the observed secular long-term advance of the tidal phase, as well as the increasing trend of the M2 amplitude.

  18. The surface of Syrtis Major - Composition of the volcanic substrate and mixing with altered dust and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Erard, S.; Bibring, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Hurtrez, S.; Langevin, Y.; Pieters, C. M.; Sotin, C. J.

    1993-02-01

    The study characterizes Syrtis Major, an old, low relief volcanic plateau near the equatorial regions of Mars, on the basis of ISM data in order to characterize the spectral properties of the surface, to identify the major mafic mineralogy of the volcanic materials, and to derive estimates of the chemistry of these minerals. The value and spatial distribution of four primary spectral variables (albedo, continuum slope, wavelength of the ferric-ferrous band minimum, and area of the ferric-ferrous absorption) are mapped and coregistered to Viking digital photomosaics. It is shown that although there is a high degree of overall spectral variability on the plateau, the key indicators of mafic mineralogy are relatively homogeneous.

  19. Atmospheric regime of dust and salt through 75,000 years of Taylor Dome ice core: Refinement by measurement of major, minor, and trace metal suites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.; Matsumoto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of absolute and relative amounts of dust and salt deposited in the polar ice record is central to several fields of study, including nutrient delivery, atmospheric deposition of trace elements, past wind strengths, dust provenance, and other aspects of climate and geochemical history. We present a method intended to give a more accurate picture than has been possible before of the total amounts and relative proportions of the dust and salt deposited by the atmosphere into polar ice. It also permits us to distinguish different compositional types of dust in the ice. The method is based on precise measurement of a suite of several metals whose proportions contrast strongly between dust and salt and vary substantially between dust types. We apply the method to a small suite of ice samples from the Taylor Dome core in coastal West Antarctica. In full glacial times, when total impurities were high and dust dominated over salt, wind strength in the West Antarctic region was apparently high, and extensive sea-ice cover prevented incorporation of salt into the atmospheric load. At the termination of the glacial period, increased salt in the dust-salt mixture indicates that sea ice diminished, but wind strength continued high, and unchanged dust composition indicates unchanged source areas. At about 10,000-11,000 y.B.P., sea-ice cover appears to have briefly returned to glacial conditions, but wind conditions remained in the milder postglacial condition. Soon after, sea ice retreated, and an abrupt change in dust composition indicates changed source materials or terranes. If extended by analysis of more samples from more sites, such information on salt and dust could provide firm constraints on past wind strengths, extent of sea-ice cover, deposition fluxes of salt and dust, and changing continental source areas of dust, for both polar regions of the Earth. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Differential protein expression by dendritic cells from atopic and non-atopic individuals after stimulation by the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Horlock, C; Shakib, F; Jones, N S; Sewell, H F; Ghaemmaghami, A M

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinels of the immune system and are known to play a key role in allergic responses. However, it is not clear how DCs that have been exposed to an allergen support Th2 type immune responses. It is possible that DCs from atopic individuals are inherently programmed to support allergic disease, or it is the exposure of dendritic cells to allergens that is key to the development of allergic sensitisation. We used 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI mass spectrometry to compare the proteome of DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals in both the resting state and after stimulation with the major house dust mite allergen Der p 1. Our data show that unstimulated DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals are very similar at the whole cell proteome level, showing few differentially expressed proteins. However, upon stimulation with Der p 1, a number of additional proteins are differentially expressed, and of these several were of potential relevance to Th2 cell differentiation and the allergic response, including GTP-binding regulatory protein Gi alpha-2, frabin and cathepsin D. Whilst there are inherent differences between DCs from atopic and non-atopic individuals, it seems that exposure to allergen plays a key role in differential expression of proteins by these key immune cells. Further studies should now focus on establishing the biological relevance of these proteins as biomarkers in house dust mite allergy and their role in allergen induced Th2 cell differentiation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dust in the Jovian System: Streams, Clouds and Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Gruen, E.

    2003-04-01

    Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with a typical rate of ˜ 1 kg s-1. The seven-year long record of Galileo in-situ dust measurements revealed significant variations of the fluxes of the dust stream particles with Jovian local time which are caused by the dawn-dusk asymmetry of the Io plasma torus. The streams probe the plasma conditions in the torus, and they can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The joint Galileo-Cassini dust measurements at Jupiter imply stream particle speeds up to 400 km s-1. All Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Jovian rings not only exist in the well-known region of the main and gossamer rings but also much farther out. Very tenuous rings composed of mostly micron-sized grains have been detected in-situ in the region between the Galilean moons and further beyond out to ˜ 250 R_J from the planet. The dust densities there are much too low to allow detection with imaging techniques. The measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity impacts onto satellites are the major constituent of dusty planetary rings. On 5 November 2002 Galileo traversed Jupiter's gossamer rings for the first time and had a close flyby at Amalthea. Several hundred dust impacts have been detected during this passage with the dust detector on

  2. Evaluation of acute toxicity of essential oil of garlic (Allium sativum) and its selected major constituent compounds against overwintering Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na Na; Zhang, Hang; Zhang, Xue Chang; Luan, Xiao Bing; Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Qi Zhi; Shi, Wang Peng; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-06-01

    In our screening program for insecticidal activity of the essential oils/extracts derived from some Chinese medicinal herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oil was found to possess strong insecticidal activity against overwintering adults of Cacopsylla chinensis Yang et Li (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The commercial essential oil of A. sativum was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixteen compounds, accounting for 97.44% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of A. sativum were diallyl trisulfide (50.43%), diallyl disulfide (25.30%), diallyl sulfide (6.25%), diallyl tetrasulfide (4.03%), 1,2-dithiolane (3.12%), allyl methyl disulfide (3.07%), 1,3-dithiane (2.12%), and allyl methyl trisulfide (2.08%). The essential oil of A. sativum possessed contact toxicity against overwintering C. chinensis, with an LC50 value of 1.42 microg per adult. The two main constituent compounds, diallyl trisulfide and diallyl disulfide, exhibited strong acute toxicity against the overwintering C. chinensis, with LC50 values of 0.64 and 11.04 /g per adult, respectively.

  3. SPITZER IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE TOOMRE SEQUENCE: SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH, GAS, AND DUST PROPERTIES IN NEARBY MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.; Armus, L.; Laine, S.; Surace, J. A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Beirao, P.; Stierwalt, S.; Charmandaris, V.; Smith, J. D.; Schweizer, F.; Murphy, E. J.; Brandl, B.; Evans, A. S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Yun, M.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    We have mapped the key mid-IR diagnostics in eight major merger systems of the Toomre sequence (NGC 4676, NGC 7592, NGC 6621, NGC 2623, NGC 6240, NGC 520, NGC 3921, and NGC 7252) using the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. With these maps, we explore the variation of the ionized-gas, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and warm gas (H{sub 2}) properties across the sequence and within the galaxies. While the global PAH interband strength and ionized gas flux ratios ([Ne III]/[Ne II]) are similar to those of normal star-forming galaxies, the distribution of the spatially resolved PAH and fine structure line flux ratios is significantly different from one system to the other. Rather than a constant H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio, we find that the relation between the H{sub 2} and PAH fluxes is characterized by a power law with a roughly constant exponent (0.61 {+-} 0.05) over all merger components and spatial scales. While following the same power law on local scales, three galaxies have a factor of 10 larger integrated (i.e., global) H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratio than the rest of the sample, even larger than what it is in most nearby active galactic nuclei. These findings suggest a common dominant excitation mechanism for H{sub 2} emission over a large range of global H{sub 2}/PAH flux ratios in major mergers. Early-merger systems show a different distribution between the cold (CO J = 1-0) and warm (H{sub 2}) molecular gas components, which is likely due to the merger interaction. Strong evidence for buried star formation in the overlap region of the merging galaxies is found in two merger systems (NGC 6621 and NGC 7592) as seen in the PAH, [Ne II], [Ne III], and warm gas line emission, but with no apparent corresponding CO (J = 1-0) emission. The minimum of the 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH interband strength ratio is typically located in the nuclei of galaxies, while the [Ne III/[Ne II] ratio increases with distance from the nucleus. Our findings also demonstrate that the variations of

  4. Mineralogy and Major Element Abundance of the Dust Particles Recovered from Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Yada, T.; Shirai, K.; Okazaki, R.; Fujimura, A.; Ishibashi, Y.; Abe, M.; Okada, T.; Ueno, M.; Mukai, T.

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing by the spacecraft Hayabusa suggested that outermost surface particles of Muses-C regio of the asteroid Itokawa consist of centimeter and sub-centimeter size small pebbles. However, particles we found in the sample catcher A stored in the Hayabusa capsule, where Muses-C particles were captured during first touchdown, are much smaller. i.e., most are smaller than 100 microns in size. This suggests that only small fractions of Muses-C particles were stirred up due to the impact of the sampling horn onto the surface, or due to jets from chemical thrusters during the lift off of the spacecraft from the surface. X-ray fluorescence and near-infrared measurements by the Hayabusa spacecraft suggested that Itokawa surface materials have mineral and major element composition roughly similar to LL chondrites. The particles of the Muses-C region are expected to have experienced some effects of space weathering. Both of these prospects can be tested by the direct mineralogical analyses of the returned Itokawa particles in our study and another one. This comparison is most important aspect of the Hayabusa mission, because it finally links chemical analyses of meteorites fallen on the Earth to spectroscopic measurements of the asteroids.

  5. Dust and Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Muddassir

    ABSTRACT Space is not empty it has comic radiations (CMBR), dust etc. Cosmic dust is that type of dust which is composed of particles in space which vary from few molecules to 0.1micro metres in size. This type of dust is made up of heavier atoms born in the heart of stars and supernova. Mainly it contains dust grains and when these dust grains starts compacting then it turns to dense clouds, planetary ring dust and circumstellar dust. Dust grains are mainly silicate particles. Dust plays a major role in our solar system, for example in zodiacal light, Saturn's B ring spokes, planetary rings at Jovian planets and comets. Observations and measurements of cosmic dust in different regions of universe provide an important insight into the Universe's recycling processes. Astronomers consider dust in its most recycled state. Cosmic dust have radiative properties by which they can be detected. Cosmic dusts are classified as intergalactic dusts, interstellar dusts and planetary rings. A planetary ring is a ring of cosmic dust and other small particles orbiting around a planet in flat disc shape. All of the Jovian planets in our solar system have rings. But the most notable one is the Saturn's ring which is the brightest one. In March 2008 a report suggested that the Saturn's moon Rhea may have its own tenuous ring system. The ring swirling around Saturn consists of chunks of ice and dust. Most rings were thought to be unstable and to dissipate over course of tens or hundreds of millions of years but it now appears that Saturn's rings might be older than that. The dust particles in the ring collide with each other and are subjected to forces other than gravity of its own planet. Such collisions and extra forces tend to spread out the rings. Pluto is not known to have any ring system but some Astronomers believe that New Horizons probe might find a ring system when it visits in 2015.It is also predicted that Phobos, a moon of Mars will break up and form into a planetary ring

  6. Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 μg ml(-1) and 30 μg ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 μg ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time.

  7. On the Seasonal and Annual Variability of Saharan Mineral Dust in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, O. M.; Riemer, N.; Hameed, S.

    2007-05-01

    Dust plumes originating in North Africa span the tropical Atlantic, depositing their load over large expanses, including the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. Mineral dust aerosols are known to play an important role in the climate system, affect cloud properties and impact many oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The seasonal and annual export of mineral dust is highly variable and controlled by large scale circulation patterns. Thus it is important to identify the key constituents of the large scale circulation that control dust export if we are to understand the impacts of mineral dust. In a new approach, we ascribe changes in the large scale circulation to the movement and strength of major "Centers of Action." We compare the atmospheric variability to variability found in TOMS/NIMBUS-7 and TOMS/Earth Probe satellite aerosol data over the Caribbean Basin. We find an increasing trend in the quantity of mineral dust over the Caribbean during the 1980s, with elevated dust levels extending into the 21st century. Furthermore, the yearly duration of the time in which dust is present in the Caribbean has been drastically increasing. We show that both increased emissions and changes in transport patterns contribute to the observed trend. By use of the "Centers of Action" approach we identify the longitudinal displacement and the pressure of the Hawaiian High and the longitudinal displacement of the Azores High as key players, with the Hawaiian High being especially important for intense dust events in the Caribbean.

  8. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial on the antileishmanial activity of a Morinda citrifolia (Noni) stem extract and its major constituents.

    PubMed

    Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmed, Fayaz; Ahmed, Nadeem; Sattar, Samina A; Malghani, Muhammad A K; Choudhary, Muhammad I

    2012-02-01

    A controlled study was conducted to determine the efficiency of a topical ointment prepared from the stem extract of Morinda citrifolia against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Similarly, the in vitro antileishmanial activity of morindicone and morinthone isolated from the extract were investigated against Leishmania major. These compounds displayed good activity. Out of 40 patients, 50% showed an excellent response and 30% exhibited good improvement.

  9. Dust Formation and Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Dmitry

    Recent infrared and sub-millimeter observations have opened up a new window in dust evolution studies. High angular resolution of Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes from near to far-infrared wavelengths allows observing dust emission in galactic and extragalactic star-forming complexes, covering a broad range of metallicities, radiation field properties, etc. A wide-scale picture of dust evolution starts to arise from these observations. In my contribution I will try to cover major recent advances in studies of dust formation and destruction, including such topics as a diverse role of supernovae in dust evolution, possibility of dust formation and/or growth in molecular clouds, and VSG and PAH evolution in HII regions and complexes.

  10. Comparison of major phenolic constituents and in vitro antioxidant activity of diverse Kudingcha genotypes from Ilex kudingcha, Ilex cornuta, and Ligustrum robustum.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Sun, Mei; Ke, Jinxia; Lu, Dayan; Corke, Harold

    2009-07-22

    A total of seven Kudingcha genotypes from three plant species (Ilex kudingcha, Ilex cornuta, and Ligustrum robustum) with different geographic origins in China were investigated for their major phenolic compounds, individual and total phenolics contents, and in vitro antioxidant properties (ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and OH assays). LC-PDA-APCI-MS analysis showed that Kudingcha genotypes from Ilex and Ligustrum had entirely different phenolic profiles. Major phenolics in Kudingcha genotypes from two Ilex species were mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids, whereas those in a Kudingcha genotype from Ligustrum were phenylethanoid and monoterpenoid glycosides. All Kudingcha genotypes of Ilex exhibited significantly stronger antioxidant capacities than that of Ligustrum. Within six Ilex genotypes, great variation existed in their composition of individual phenolic compounds and their antioxidant properties. The comparative data and LC fingerprints obtained in this study may provide useful information for screening and breeding of better Kudingcha genotypes and also for their authentication and quality control.

  11. Enhancement of insulin release from the beta-cell line INS-1 by an ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata and its major constituent roseoside.

    PubMed

    Frankish, Neil; de Sousa Menezes, Fábio; Mills, Clive; Sheridan, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Plants of the genus Bauhinia are used in several countries worldwide for the treatment of diabetes, and several related species have been shown to have hypoglycaemic effects in vivo in both normoglycaemic and alloxan- and streptozotocin-treated animal models. In this study, the insulin-secreting cell line INS-1 was used to examine the effects of the crude ethanolic extract of leaves of B. variegata L. var. Candida Voidt and its major metabolite (6 S,7 E,9 R)-9-hydroxymegastigma-4,7-dien-3-one-9- beta-glycopyraroside (roseoside) on insulinotropic activity. The crude extracts and the major metabolite were shown to increase insulin secretion in a dose-dependant manner.

  12. House dust mite major allergen Der f 1 enhances proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a cell line of canine epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Shingo; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Chimura, Naoki; Fukata, Tsuneo

    2009-10-15

    House dust mite (HDM) allergens are the most common allergens involved in the induction of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Recently, epicutaneous sensitization with HDM allergens has been emphasized in the development of atopic dermatitis (AD); however, direct stimulation of canine keratinocytes by mite allergens has not been well investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Der f 1, a major allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae, on cytokine and chemokine gene expression in a canine keratinocyte cell line, CPEK. CPEK constitutively expressed mRNA for TNF-alpha, IL-12p35, IL-18, GM-CSF, TGF-beta, IL-8/CXCL8, TARC/CCL17, CTACK/CCL27 and MEC/CCL28. Of all the cytokines and chemokines investigated in CPEK, transcription levels of GM-CSF, IL-8/CXCL8 and TNF-alpha mRNA were significantly enhanced by stimulation with Der f 1. The present results suggest that Der f 1 can directly augment inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production from keratinocytes, and may initiate allergic inflammation independently of Type-I hypersensitivity.

  13. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a major group 7 allergen, Der f 7, from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kang Wei; Kumar, Sundramurthy; Chew, Fook Tim; Mok, Yu Keung

    2011-12-01

    Der f 7 is a major group 7 allergen from the dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae that shows 86% sequence identity to the homologous allergen Der p 7 from D. pteronyssinus. Der f 7 was successfully overexpressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified to homogeneity using Ni-NTA affinity and size-exclusion column chromatography. SeMet-labelled Der f 7 was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using a reservoir solution consisting of 0.1 M bis-tris pH 7.4 and 28% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether 2000 at 293 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.24 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic system, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 50.19, b = 58.67, c = 123.81 Å. Based on the estimated Matthews coefficient (2.16 Å(3) Da(-1)), two molecules of Der f 7 could be present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal lattice.

  14. The Lunar Dust Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  15. Methanol extract from the stem of Cotinus coggygria Scop., and its major bioactive phytochemical constituent myricetin modulate pyrogallol-induced DNA damage and liver injury.

    PubMed

    Matić, Sanja; Stanić, Snežana; Bogojević, Desanka; Vidaković, Melita; Grdović, Nevena; Dinić, Svetlana; Solujić, Slavica; Mladenović, Milan; Stanković, Nevena; Mihailović, Mirjana

    2013-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the methanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. in rats exposed to the hepatotoxic compound pyrogallol. Assessed with the alkaline version of the comet assay, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight (bw) of the extract showed a low level of genotoxicity, while 500mg/kg bw of the extract showed no genotoxic potential. Quantitative HPLC analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids in the methanol extract of C. coggygria showed that myricetin was a major component. To test the hepatoprotective effect, a non-genotoxic dose of the C. coggygria extract and an equivalent amount of synthetic myricetin, as present in the extract, were applied either 2 or 12h prior to administration of 100mg/kg bw of pyrogallol. The extract and myricetin promoted restoration of hepatic function by significantly reducing pyrogallol-induced elevation in the serum enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and in total bilirubin. As measured by the decrease in total score and tail moment, the DNA damage in liver was also reduced by the extract and by myricetin. Our results suggest that pro-surviving Akt activity and STAT3 protein expression play important roles in decreasing DNA damage and in mediating hepatic protection by the extract. These results suggest that myricetin, as a major component in the extract, is responsible for the antigenotoxic and hepatoprotective properties of the methanol extract of C. coggygria against pyrogallol-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exceptional production of both prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin as major metabolic constituents by a novel marine bacterium, Zooshikella rubidus S1-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Yong-Sook; Park, Sooyeon; Kim, Jihoon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Jong Myoung; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2011-07-01

    A Gram-negative, red-pigment-producing marine bacterial strain, designated S1-1, was isolated from the tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, Korea. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genetic data, strain S1-1 (KCTC 11448BP) represented a new species of the genus Zooshikella. Thus, we propose the name Zooshikella rubidus sp. nov. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the red pigments produced by strain S1-1 revealed that the major metabolic compounds were prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin. In addition, this organism produced six minor prodigiosin analogues, including two new structures that were previously unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a microorganism that simultaneously produces prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin as two major metabolites. Both prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin showed antimicrobial activity against several microbial species. These bacteria were approximately 1.5-fold more sensitive to cycloprodigiosin than to prodigiosin. The metabolites also showed anticancer activity against human melanoma cells, which showed significantly more sensitivity to prodigiosin than to cycloprodigiosin. The secondary metabolite profiles of strain S1-1 and two reference bacterial strains were compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses based on secondary metabolite profiles by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the metabolite profile of strain S1-1 could clearly be distinguished from those of two phylogenetically related, prodigiosin-producing bacterial strains.

  17. Exceptional Production of both Prodigiosin and Cycloprodigiosin as Major Metabolic Constituents by a Novel Marine Bacterium, Zooshikella rubidus S1-1 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Yong-Sook; Park, Sooyeon; Kim, Jihoon; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Jong Myoung; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    A Gram-negative, red-pigment-producing marine bacterial strain, designated S1-1, was isolated from the tidal flat sediment of the Yellow Sea, Korea. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genetic data, strain S1-1 (KCTC 11448BP) represented a new species of the genus Zooshikella. Thus, we propose the name Zooshikella rubidus sp. nov. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of the red pigments produced by strain S1-1 revealed that the major metabolic compounds were prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin. In addition, this organism produced six minor prodigiosin analogues, including two new structures that were previously unknown. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a microorganism that simultaneously produces prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin as two major metabolites. Both prodigiosin and cycloprodigiosin showed antimicrobial activity against several microbial species. These bacteria were approximately 1.5-fold more sensitive to cycloprodigiosin than to prodigiosin. The metabolites also showed anticancer activity against human melanoma cells, which showed significantly more sensitivity to prodigiosin than to cycloprodigiosin. The secondary metabolite profiles of strain S1-1 and two reference bacterial strains were compared by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analyses based on secondary metabolite profiles by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that the metabolite profile of strain S1-1 could clearly be distinguished from those of two phylogenetically related, prodigiosin-producing bacterial strains. PMID:21642414

  18. Systematic definition of protein constituents along the major polarization axis reveals an adaptive reuse of the polarization machinery in pheromone-treated budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswamy, Rammohan; Moradi, Emily K; Niu, Wei; Hart, G Traver; Davis, Matthew; McGary, Kriston L; Ellington, Andrew D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2009-01-01

    Polarizing cells extensively restructure cellular components in a spatially and temporally coupled manner along the major axis of cellular extension. Budding yeast are a useful model of polarized growth, helping to define many molecular components of this conserved process. Besides budding, yeast cells also differentiate upon treatment with pheromone from the opposite mating type, forming a mating projection (the 'shmoo') by directional restructuring of the cytoskeleton, localized vesicular transport and overall reorganization of the cytosol. To characterize the proteomic localization changes accompanying polarized growth, we developed and implemented a novel cell microarray-based imaging assay for measuring the spatial redistribution of a large fraction of the yeast proteome, and applied this assay to identify proteins localized along the mating projection following pheromone treatment. We further trained a machine learning algorithm to refine the cell imaging screen, identifying additional shmoo-localized proteins. In all, we identified 74 proteins that specifically localize to the mating projection, including previously uncharacterized proteins (Ycr043c, Ydr348c, Yer071c, Ymr295c, and Yor304c-a) and known polarization complexes such as the exocyst. Functional analysis of these proteins, coupled with quantitative analysis of individual organelle movements during shmoo formation, suggests a model in which the basic machinery for cell polarization is generally conserved between processes forming the bud and the shmoo, with a distinct subset of proteins used only for shmoo formation. The net effect is a defined ordering of major organelles along the polarization axis, with specific proteins implicated at the proximal growth tip.

  19. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of cucurbit fruit vegetables and identification of active and major constituents from phenolic-rich extracts of Lagenaria siceraria and Sechium edule.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Supriatno

    2013-10-23

    Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.

  20. Physicochemical impacts of dust particles on alpine glacier meltwater at the Laohugou Glacier basin in western Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwen; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Jizu; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Cui, Xiaoqing; Du, Zhiheng; Kang, Shichang

    2014-09-15

    This work discusses the temporal variation of various physicochemical species in the meltwater runoff of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (4260 ma.s.l.) in central Asia, and their correlation with dust particles, based on a two-year field observation in summer 2012 and 2013, mainly focusing on dust concentration and size distribution, meltwater chemistry, particles SEM-EDX analysis in the meltwater, and MODIS atmospheric optical depth fields around the Qilian Mountains in central Asia. We find that, the volume-size distribution of dust particles in the meltwater is mainly composed of three parts, which includes fine aerosol particles (with diameter of 0~3.0 μm, mainly PM 2.5), atmospheric dust (with diameter of 3.0~20 μm), and local dust particles (20~100 μm), respectively. Comparison of dust particles in the snowpack and meltwater runoff indicates that, large part of dust particles in the meltwater may have originated from atmospheric dust deposition to the snow and ice on the glacier, and transported into the meltwater runoff. Moreover, temporal variation of dust and major ions (especially crustal species) is very similar with each other, showing great influence of dust particles to the chemical constituents of the glacier meltwater. SPM and TDS implied significant influences of dust to the physical characteristics of the glacier meltwater. Results showed that, accelerated glacier melting may affect physicochemical characteristics of the meltwater at an alpine basin under global warming. MODIS atmospheric optical depth (AOD) fields derived using the Deep Blue algorithm, showed great influence of regional dust transportation over western Qilian Mountains in springtime. SEM-EDX analysis shows that dust particles in the glacier meltwater contain Si-, Al-, Ca-, K-, and Fe-rich materials, such as quartz, albite, aluminate, and fly ash, similar to that deposited in snowpack. These results showed great and even currently underestimated influences of atmospheric dust

  1. Shotgun Pyrosequencing Metagenomic Analyses of Dusts from Swine Confinement and Grain Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Boissy, Robert J.; Romberger, Debra J.; Roughead, William A.; Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of agricultural dusts causes inflammatory reactions and symptoms such as headache, fever, and malaise, which can progress to chronic airway inflammation and associated diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although in many agricultural environments feed particles are the major constituent of these dusts, the inflammatory responses that they provoke are likely attributable to particle-associated bacteria, archaebacteria, fungi, and viruses. In this study, we performed shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of DNA from dusts from swine confinement facilities or grain elevators, with comparisons to dusts from pet-free households. DNA sequence alignment showed that 19% or 62% of shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic DNA sequence reads from swine facility or household dusts, respectively, were of swine or human origin, respectively. In contrast only 2% of such reads from grain elevator dust were of mammalian origin. These metagenomic shotgun reads of mammalian origin were excluded from our analyses of agricultural dust microbiota. The ten most prevalent bacterial taxa identified in swine facility compared to grain elevator or household dust were comprised of 75%, 16%, and 42% gram-positive organisms, respectively. Four of the top five swine facility dust genera were assignable (Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Eubacterium, ranging from 4% to 19% relative abundance). The relative abundances of these four genera were lower in dust from grain elevators or pet-free households. These analyses also highlighted the predominance in swine facility dust of Firmicutes (70%) at the phylum level, Clostridia (44%) at the Class level, and Clostridiales at the Order level (41%). In summary, shotgun pyrosequencing metagenomic analyses of agricultural dusts show that they differ qualitatively and quantitatively at the level of microbial taxa present, and that the bioinformatic analyses

  2. Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

  3. Hypoglycemic Effect of the Methanol flower Extract of Piper Claussenianum and the Major Constituent 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marques, A. M.; Pereira, S. L.; Paiva, R. A.; Cavalcante, C. V.; Sudo, S. Z.; Tinoco, L. W.; Moreira, D. L.; Guimaraes, E. F.; Sudo, R. T.; Kaplan, M. A. C.; Sudo, G. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Piper claussenianum inflorescences crude methanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The blood glucose levels of rats treated with methanol extract were reduced from 318.4±28.1 mg/dl before treatment to 174.2±38.3 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). Phytochemical studies were carried out on inflorescences methanol crude extract in order to investigate the possible metabolites responsible for the pharmacological properties of the extract. After chromatographic procedures, three flavonoids were isolated and characterized. The major compound 2’,6’-dihydroxy-4’-methoxychalcone was also tested. Rats that received the chalcone content also displayed a reduction in blood glucose levels from 277.4±7.7 mg/dl before treatment to 158.8±9.2 mg/dl after 12 days of treatment (P<0.05). The results suggest this chalcone is one of the metabolite responsible for the blood glucose levels reduction in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The inflorescence crude extract of P. claussenianum was found to be composed mainly by flavonoids and may be a potential natural source of compounds with hypoglycemic properties. PMID:26009660

  4. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyejin; Woo, Junsung; Pae, Ae Nim; Um, Min Young; Cho, Nam-Chul; Park, Ki Duk; Yoon, Minseok; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, C Justin; Cho, Suengmok

    2016-11-01

    α-Pinene is a major monoterpene of the pine tree essential oils. It has been reported that α-pinene shows anxiolytic and hypnotic effects upon inhaled administration. However, hypnotic effect by oral supplementation and the molecular mechanism of α-pinene have not been determined yet. By combining in vivo sleep behavior, ex vivo electrophysiological recording from brain slices, and in silico molecular modeling, we demonstrate that (-)-α-pinene shows sleep enhancing property through a direct binding to GABAA-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors by acting as a partial modulator at the BZD binding site. The effect of (-)-α-pinene on sleep-wake profiles was evaluated by recording electroencephalogram and electromyogram. The molecular mechanism of (-)-α-pinene was investigated by electrophysiology and molecular docking study. (-)-α-pinene significantly increased the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and reduced the sleep latency by oral administration without affecting duration of rapid eye movement sleep and delta activity. (-)-α-pinene potentiated the GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic response by increasing the decay time constant of sIPSCs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. These effects of (-)-α-pinene on sleep and inhibitory synaptic response were mimicked by zolpidem, acting as a modulator for GABAA-BZD receptors, and fully antagonized by flumazenil, an antagonist for GABAA-BZD receptor. (-)-α-pinene was found to bind to aromatic residues of α1- and -γ2 subunits of GABAA-BZD receptors in the molecular model. We conclude that (-)-α-pinene enhances the quantity of NREMS without affecting the intensity of NREMS by prolonging GABAergic synaptic transmission, acting as a partial modulator of GABAA-BZD receptors and directly binding to the BZD binding site of GABAA receptor.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antialgic actions of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and a molecular docking study of its major chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raphaelle Sousa; Lima, Emerson Silva; Keita, Hady; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Duarte, Jonatas Lobato; Velázquez-Moyado, Josué; Ortiz, Brenda Lorena Sánchez; Castro, Andrés Navarrete; Ferreira, Jaderson Vieira; da Silva Hage-Melim, Lorane Izabel; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2017-07-13

    We evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antialgic potency of a nanoemulsion (NEORO) containing the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (EORO), which is composed primarily of limonene, camphor and 1,8-cineole. The EORO and NEORO were administered orally 30 min prior to starting the experiments. In a test of rat paw oedema induced by carrageenan, NEORO was effective in doses of 498 µg/kg, and it inhibited 46% of the maximum peak of the oedema; in a dose of 300 mg/kg, EORO inhibited 50% of the maximum peak of the oedema. In an acetic acid-induced writhing test, NEORO yielded a dose-dependent effect, and a dose of 830 µg/kg inhibited 84% of the algesic process; a dose of 100 mg/kg of EORO inhibited 55%. In an assay for H2S production in rat stomachs, a dose of 498 µg/kg of NEORO inhibited H2S production in all of the measurement phases, and a dose of 100 mg/kg EORO inhibited 60% and influenced the effect of the ethanol significantly, reducing the production of H2S. We suggest that NEORO potentiated the effect of EORO, demonstrating effectiveness in doses 600 times lower than those applied with EORO. Among the major compounds of EORO, the camphor molecule exhibited the largest number of interactions with the therapeutic targets related to the inflammatory process, suggesting that it is responsible for EORO's anti-inflammatory and antialgic effects. This work paves the way for future investigations related to the therapeutic role of NEORO in the inflammation process.

  6. Green tea extract and its major constituent, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induce epithelial beta-defensin secretion and prevent beta-defensin degradation by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Lombardo Bedran, T B; Feghali, K; Zhao, L; Palomari Spolidorio, D M; Grenier, D

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, such as beta-defensins, secreted by gingival epithelial cells, are thought to play a major role in preventing periodontal diseases. In the present study, we investigated the ability of green tea polyphenols to induce human beta-defensin (hBD) secretion in gingival epithelial cells and to protect hBDs from proteolytic degradation by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingival epithelial cells were treated with various amounts (25-200 μg/mL) of green tea extract or epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The secretion of hBD1 and hBD2 was measured using ELISAs, and gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR. The treatments were also carried out in the presence of specific kinase inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in hBD secretion. The ability of green tea extract and EGCG to prevent hBD degradation by proteases of P. gingivalis present in a bacterial culture supernatant was evaluated by ELISA. The secretion of hBD1 and hBD2 was up-regulated, in a dose-dependent manner, following the stimulation of gingival epithelial cells with a green tea extract or EGCG. Expression of the hBD gene in gingival epithelial cells treated with green tea polyphenols was also increased. EGCG-induced secretion of hBD1 and hBD2 appeared to involve extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Lastly, green tea extract and EGCG prevented the degradation of recombinant hBD1 and hBD2 by a culture supernatant of P. gingivalis. Green tea extract and EGCG, through their ability to induce hBD secretion by epithelial cells and to protect hBDs from proteolytic degradation by P. gingivalis, have the potential to strengthen the epithelial antimicrobial barrier. Future clinical studies will indicate whether these polyphenols represent a valuable therapeutic agent for treating/preventing periodontal diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of the evolution of cometary dust. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tails is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  8. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    Crew members can be directly exposed to celestial dust in several ways. After crew members perform extravehicular activities (EVAs), they may introduce into the habitat dust that will have collected on spacesuits and boots. Cleaning of the suits between EVAs and changing of the Environmental Control Life Support System filters are other operations that could result in direct exposure to celestial dusts. In addition, if the spacesuits used in exploration missions abrade the skin, as current EVA suits have, then contact with these wounds would provide a source of exposure. Further, if celestial dusts gain access to a suit's interior, as was the case during the Apollo missions, the dust could serve as an additional source of abrasions or enhance suit-induced injuries. When a crew leaves the surface of a celestial body and returns to microgravity, the dust that is introduced into the return vehicle will "float," thus increasing the opportunity for ocular and respiratory injury. Because the features of the respirable fraction of lunar dusts indicate they could be toxic to humans, NASA conducted several studies utilizing lunar dust simulants and authentic lunar dust to determine the unique properties of lunar dust that affect physiology, assess the dermal and ocular irritancy of the dust, and establish a permissible exposure limit for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during missions that would involve no more than 6 months stay on the lunar surface. Studies, with authentic lunar soils from both highland (Apollo 16) and mare (Apollo17) regions demonstrated that the lunar soil is highly abrasive to a high fidelity model of human skin. Studies of lunar dust returned during the Apollo 14 mission from an area of the moon in which the soils were comprised of mineral constituents from both major geological regions (highlands and mares regions) demonstrated only minimal ocular irritancy, and pulmonary toxicity that was less than the highly toxic terrestrial crystalline

  9. Whither Cometary Dust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  10. Urban dust settled at different sides and levels of a High Building next to a major road in Budapest: Integrated Magnetic, Mineralogical and Geochemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, E.; Sipos, P.; Németh, T.; Kovács Kis, V.; May, Z.

    2012-04-01

    We collected urban dust during two years, on seasonal basis, in 8 standard sampling pots with continuous supply of distilled water, placed at 2, 9, 21 and 33 m, on the front and back sides, respectively, on a 40 m high building. After the vacuum filtering and air-drying of the samples, magnetic measurements, mineralogical and geochemical analysis were carried out on them as well as on car exhaust filters. Then remarkably similar magnetic properties of the settled dust and the exhaust filters suggested that the anthropogenic contribution to the dust is traffic induced. The traffic induced pollution is best reflected in the apparent susceptibilities of the samples, which show a strong seasonal dependence. The settled dust has the highest values of apparent susceptibilities, the highest amounts of dust and the highest concentrations of Pb during summer. The bulk mineral composition of the dust also depends on the season, since the dust becomes enriched in dolomite, coming from a hill behind the building during spring and even more in summer. The most important metal bearing phases identified mineralogically are magnetite and clay minerals. The metals showing significant enrichment compared to background values are Pb, Zn and Cu. Most of the Pb is found in magnetite, while Zn is distributed between magnetite and clay minerals. Concerning vertical variations, they are most pronounced during summer. The amounts of dust, apparent susceptibilities and concentration of Pb all have maximum values at 9 m, on both sides of the building. The concentration of Pb at 9 m and higher exceeds the threshold limit by 8-35 times during summer. The shielding effect of the building from the traffic induced pollution is seen only at the lowest level in every season. When trying to account for the observed pattern of the distribution of the pollution, we compared it with the predictions of an air flow model published for high buildings with similar morphology and wind conditions and found

  11. Cosmic dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, Donald E.; Sandford, Scott A.

    1992-01-01

    Dust is a ubiquitous component of our galaxy and the solar system. The collection and analysis of extraterrestrial dust particles is important to exobiology because it provides information about the sources of biogenically significant elements and compounds that accumulated in distant regions of the solar nebula and that were later accreted on the planets. The topics discussed include the following: general properties of interplanetary dust; the carbonaceous component of interplanetary dust particles; and the presence of an interstellar component.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingqing; Xu, Shuyu; Xu, Wen; Chen, Daxing; Chu, Kedan; Xu, Wei; Peng, Jun; Lu, Jinjian

    2014-12-01

    Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal preparation, which has been used to treat the common cold in China. In this study, a systematic method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet. First, a method of high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for identification of the multi-constituents. Thirty-one compounds including ten phenolic acids, 18 flavonoids, and three iridoid glycosides were clearly identified by comparison with the reference standards, and 11 compounds were deduced by comparison with the literature data. Second, a new quantitative analysis method of Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet was established by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection. Twelve compounds, either with high contents or strong bioactivities, were chosen as marker components. This analytical method was validated through intra- and interday precision, repeatability, and stability, with respective relative standard deviations less than 1.74, 2.54, 2.44, and 2.48%. The limits of detection and quantification were less than 0.327 and 0.881 μg/mL, respectively. The overall recoveries ranged from 97.04-102.76% (relative standard deviation ≤ 2.91%). Then this validated method was applied to determine ten batches of Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet. The results indicated that these new approaches can be applicable for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Jin-Mu-Gan-Mao tablet. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dust Storm

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Massive Dust Storm over Australia     View ... at JPL September 22, 2009 - Massive dust storm over Australia. project:  MISR category:  ... Sep 22, 2009 Images:  Dust Storm location:  Australia and New Zealand ...

  14. On the evolution of dust in the solar vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Mukai, T.; Okamoto, H.

    The analysis of interplanetary dust shows that the majority of particles in out-of-ecliptic regions comes from comets and also that near solar dust, in the ecliptic regions, results most probably largely from comets. The intense radiation flux in the solar vicinity is expected to cause strong modifications in the material composition and surface structure of interplanetary dust particles and hence the analysis of near solar dust provides interesting insights into the evolution of meteoritic, especially cometary materials. Because of the lack of in-situ measurements our present knowledge concerning these processes derives from remote sensing, i.e. observations of the solar F-corona. In particular these are observations of albedo, polarization and colour temperature given in terms of average particle properties. For example the analysis of near infra-red F-corona data points to the existence of a strong component of irregularly structured silicate particles, most probably of cometary origin. The data may indicate a subsequent sublimation of different particles or different constituents of the particles. Here we compare particle properties derived from F-corona observations with model calculations of single particle properties and discuss perspectives of future analysis of cometary dust in the interplanetary cloud.

  15. On the evolution of dust in the solar vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Mukai, T.; Okamoto, H.

    1995-07-01

    The analysis of interplanetary dust shows that the majority of particles in out-of-ecliptic regions come from comets and also that near solar dust, in the ecliptic regions, results are most probably largely from comets. The intense radiation flux in the solar vicinity is expected to cause strong modifications in the material composition and surface structure of interplanetary dust particles and hence the analysis of near solar dust provides interesting insights into the evolution of meteoritic, especially cometary materials. Because of the lack of in-situ measurements our present knowledge concerning these processes derives from remote sensing, i.e. observations of the solar F-corona. In particular these are observations of albedo, polarization and color temperature given in terms of average particle properties. For example the analysis of near infra-red F-corona data points to the existence of a strong component of irregularly structured sillicate particles, most probably of cometary origin. The data may indicate a subsequent sublimation of different particles or different constituents of the particles. Here we compare particle properties derived from F-corona observations with model calculations of single particle properties and discuss perspectives of future analysis of cometary dust in the interplanetary cloud.

  16. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkley, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and trace rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study (??? 10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples. ?? 1994.

  17. Composition and sources of atmospheric dusts in snow at 3200 meters in the St. Elias Range, southeastern Alaska, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkley, T.K. )

    1994-08-01

    Dusts in snow from the accumulation zone in the St. Elias Range appear from their chemical compositions to have come from terranes of rocks of ferromagnesian composition. These dusts, with respect to their composition and to the moderate degree of variation that occurs through a depositional year, are similar to those deposited in Greenland. The high portion of the St. Elias Range is isolated from dominance by any local dust source terranes, because of altitude and the extent of the surrounding glacierized and snow-covered region. In Greenland the altitude is typically lower, but local sources are even less likely to dominate the character of the dusts deposited into the ice record there. The similar compositions and moderate compositional variations of dusts from these two places bear on the question of whether the dusts that are transported over long distances by the atmosphere under modern and glacial-period conditions are uniform and representative of a broad regional or even hemispheric background dust. The dusts in the snow were measured by means of a suite of major, minor, and track rock-forming metals chosen to give information about rock types, their constituent minerals, degree of degradation (weathering), and energies of atmospheric uptake from source. The variations in amounts of rock dust through the year in the St. Elias Range snowpack have no time-stratigraphic correspondence to the also-large variations in concentrations of other species that are not constituents of rock-derived dusts, such the anions chloride, sulfate, and nitrate; the highs and lows of the two types of materials are apparently completely independent. The structure revealed by the moderately fine-scale sampling of the present study ([approximately]10 increments/y) serves as a background for the interpretation of analysis of ice core samples, in which annual layers may be too compressed to permit analysis of sub-annual samples.

  18. Analysis and improved characterization of minor antioxidants from leaves of Malus doumeri using a combination of major constituents' knockout with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huading; Hu, Xin; Chen, Xiaoqin; Shi, Shuyun; Jiang, Xinyu; Liang, Xuejuan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shuihan

    2015-06-12

    Due to the complexity of natural products, efficient identification of bioactive compounds, especially for minor compounds, would require a huge effort. Here, we developed an effective strategy based on combining major constituents' knockout with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) to comprehensively identify minor antioxidants in Malus doumeri, one of the longest known and most used tonic plant in Taiwan. First, five major compounds (I-V) in M. doumeri were knocked out by two-step stepwise high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). Second, minor antioxidants were screened by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-HPLC (DPPH-HPLC) assay. Third, structures of thirty minor antioxidants, including 11 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavanones, 3 flavonols, 2 flavones, 3 aurones and 7 phenolic acids, were unambiguously or tentatively identified by matching their characteristic UV spectra, accurate mass signals and key diagnostic fragment ions with standards or previously reported compounds. Twenty-six of them, as far as was known, were discovered from M. doumeri for the first time. The results indicated that the proposed method was a useful approach to explore minor bioactive compounds from complex natural products.

  19. Dust storms: recent developments.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Dust storms have a number of impacts upon the environment including radiative forcing, and biogeochemical cycling. They transport material over many thousands of kilometres. They also have a range of impacts on humans, not least on human health. In recent years the identification of source areas for dust storms has been an important area or research, with the Sahara (especially Bodélé) and western China being recognised as the strongest sources globally. Another major development has been the recognition of the degree to which dust storm activity has varied at a range of time scales, millennial, century, decadal, annual and seasonal.

  20. Circumstellar dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of dust in the general interstellar medium is inferred from the extinction, polarization, and scattering of starlight; the presence of dark nebulae; interstellar depletions; the observed infrared emission around certain stars and various types of interstellar clouds. Interstellar grains are subject to various destruction mechanisms that reduce their size or even completely destroy them. A continuous source of newly formed dust must therefore be present for dust to exist in the various phases of the interstellar medium (ISM). The working group has the following goals: (1) review the evidences for the formation of dust in the various sources; (2) examine the clues to the nature and composition of the dust; (3) review the status of grain formation theories; (4) examine any evidence for the processing of the dust prior to its injection into the interstellar medium; and (5) estimate the relative contribution of the various sources to the interstellar dust population.

  1. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  2. Global impact of mineral dust on cloud droplet number concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydis, Vlassis A.; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Bacer, Sara; Pozzer, Andrea; Nenes, Athanasios; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-05-01

    The importance of wind-blown mineral dust for cloud droplet formation is studied by considering (i) the adsorption of water on the surface of insoluble particles, (ii) particle coating by soluble material (atmospheric aging) which augments cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity, and (iii) the effect of dust on inorganic aerosol concentrations through thermodynamic interactions with mineral cations. The ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model is used to simulate the composition of global atmospheric aerosol, while the ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium model treats the interactions of K+-Ca2+-Mg2+-NH4+-Na+-SO42--NO3--Cl--H2O aerosol with gas-phase inorganic constituents. Dust is considered a mixture of inert material with reactive minerals and its emissions are calculated online by taking into account the soil particle size distribution and chemical composition of different deserts worldwide. The impact of dust on droplet formation is treated through the unified dust activation parameterization that considers the inherent hydrophilicity from adsorption and acquired hygroscopicity from soluble salts during aging. Our simulations suggest that the presence of dust increases cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) over major deserts (e.g., up to 20 % over the Sahara and the Taklimakan desert) and decreases CDNC over polluted areas (e.g., up to 10 % over southern Europe and 20 % over northeastern Asia). This leads to a global net decrease in CDNC by 11 %. The adsorption activation of insoluble aerosols and the mineral dust chemistry are shown to be equally important for the cloud droplet formation over the main deserts; for example, these effects increase CDNC by 20 % over the Sahara. Remote from deserts the application of adsorption theory is critically important since the increased water uptake by the large aged dust particles (i.e., due to the added hydrophilicity by the soluble coating) reduce the maximum supersaturation and thus cloud droplet

  3. Interplanetary dust particles collected from the stratosphere: Physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties and implications for their sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, George J.

    1994-01-01

    The suggestion that significant quantities of interplanetary dust are produced by both main-belt asteroids and comets is based on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) detection of dust trails or bands associated with these objects. Gravitational focusing strongly biases all near-Earth collections of interplanetary dust in favor of particles with the lowest geocentric velocities, that is the dust from main-belt asteroids spiraling into the Sun under the influence of Poynting-Robertson radiation drag. The major dust bands in the main-belt appear to be associated with the catastrophic disruptions which produced the Eos, Themis and Koronis families of asteroids. If dust particles are produced in the catastrophic collision process, then Poynting-Robertson radiation drag is such an efficient transport mechanism from the main-belt to 1 AU that near-Earth collections of interplanetary dust should include, and perhaps be dominated by, this material. Interplanetary dust particles from 5 to 100 micrometers in diameter have been recovered from the stratosphere of the Earth by NASA sampling aircraft since the mid-1970s. The densities of a large fraction of these interplanetary dust particles are significantly lower than the densities of their constituent silicate mineral phases, indicating significant porosites. The majority of the particles are chemically and mineralogically similar to, but not identical to, the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Most stony interplanetary dust particles have carbon contents exceeding those of Allende, a carbonaceous chondrite meteorite having a low albedo. Higher albedo particles corresponding to S-type asteroids are underrepresented or absent from the stratospheric collections, and primitive carbonaceous particles seem to be overrepresented in the stratospheric collections compared to the fraction of main-belt asteroids classified as primitive. This suggests that much of the interplanetary dust may be generated by a stochastic process

  4. Protoplanetary Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apai, D.´niel; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-02-01

    Preface; 1. Planet formation and protoplanetary dust Daniel Apai and Dante Lauretta; 2. The origins of protoplanetary dust and the formation of accretion disks Hans-Peter Gail and Peter Hope; 3. Evolution of protoplanetary disk structures Fred Ciesla and Cornelius P. Dullemond; 4. Chemical and isotopic evolution of the solar nebula and protoplanetary disks Dmitry Semenov, Subrata Chakraborty and Mark Thiemens; 5. Laboratory studies of simple dust analogs in astrophysical environments John R. Brucato and Joseph A. Nuth III; 6. Dust composition in protoplanetaty dust Michiel Min and George Flynn; 7. Dust particle size evolution Klaus M. Pontoppidan and Adrian J. Brearly; 8. Thermal processing in protoplanetary nebulae Daniel Apai, Harold C. Connolly Jr. and Dante S. Lauretta; 9. The clearing of protoplanetary disks and of the protosolar nebula Ilaira Pascucci and Shogo Tachibana; 10. Accretion of planetesimals and the formation of rocky planets John E. Chambers, David O'Brien and Andrew M. Davis; Appendixes; Glossary; Index.

  5. Dust evolution from comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    The studies of the evolution of cometary debris are reviewed. The subject is divided into three major sections: (1) the developments in the immediate vicinity of the cometary nucleus, which is the source of the dust; (2) the formation of the dust tail; and (3) the blending of the debris with the dust component of interplanetary matter. The importance of the physical theory of comets is emphasized for the understanding of the early phase of evolution. A physico-dynamical model designed to analyze the particle-emission mechanism from the distribution of light in the dust tail is described and the results are presented. Increased attention is paid to large particles because of their importance for the evolution of the zodiacal cloud. Finally, implications are discussed for the future in situ investigations of comets.

  6. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  7. Climatology of the Middle East dust events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezazadeh, M.; Irannejad, P.; Shao, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Major sources of dust in the Middle East have been identified by analyzing the surface meteorological records from weather stations for the period 1998-2003. The geographical distribution, possible sources, and the wind patterns favoring the occurrence of four different types of dust events, i.e. dust-in-suspension, blowing dust, dust storm and severe dust storm, are examined. Four major regions of dust events are found in the study domain. These regions cover Sudan, parts of Saudi Arabia and Iraq, Pakistan, and parts of Iran and Afghanistan. The highest frequency of dust events occurs in Sudan, where the number of dust-in-suspension and severe dust storm is maximum. These events generally occur when north-easterly and north-westerly winds of less than 8 ms-1 prevail. The maximum numbers of blowing dust and dust storm are observed over Iran and Afghanistan as a result of strong north-westerlies, known as Sistan's 120-day winds. The highest values of mean dust concentration, estimated based on visibility, are found in Pakistan. The region of Saudi Arabia and Iraq are associated with relatively strong wind speeds during dust events that may carry dust particles from the sources. Because the synoptic features responsible for dust emission are different, the peak of the seasonal cycle of dust events occurs in different months of the year in different dust source regions. The major sources of dust are seen in the western parts of the domain during the winter months and shift to the east progressing towards the summer.

  8. China Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir-camera images of eastern China compare a somewhat hazy summer view from July 9, 2000 (left) with a ... arid and sparsely vegetated surfaces of Mongolia and western China pick up large quantities of yellow dust. Airborne dust clouds from the ...

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chinese medicinal preparation Dan-Lou tablet by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dong, Juan; Zhu, Yan; Gao, Xiumei; Chang, Yanxu; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Peng

    2013-06-01

    A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array detector/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF) method and a ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector (UPLC-DAD) method were developed for qualitative and quantitative analyses of the major chemical constituents in Dan-Lou tablet. Sixty-eight compounds including flavonoids, phenolic acids, tanshinones, protostane triterpenoids, lactones, and paeoniflorins were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing their retention times and accurate mass measurement in 40min with references or literature data. Among them, 19 compounds: gallic acid, danshensu, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 3'-hydroxy puerarin, puerarin, 3'-methoxy puerarin, mirificin, daidzin, paeoniflorin, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, naringin, genistin, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, formononetin, calycosin, cryptotanshinone and tanshinone IIA were further quantified in 30min as marker substances. It was found that the calibration curves for all analytes showed good linearity (R(2)>0.9997) within the test ranges. The overall limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.0073-0.34μg/mL and 0.022-1.04μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for intra- and inter-day precisions were below 1.90% and 2.85%, respectively. The results of repeatability were less than 2.74%. The sample was stable for at least 48h. The mean recovery rates ranged from 95.5% to 105% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 2.96%. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for quality control of Dan-Lou tablet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Trends in major-ion constituents and properties for selected sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds, Montana and Wyoming, based on data collected during water years 1980-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Sando, Thomas R.; Clark, Melanie L.; Lorenz, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present information relating to flow-adjusted temporal trends in major-ion constituents and properties for 16 sampling sites in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds based on data collected during 1980–2010. In association with this primary purpose, the report presents background information on major-ion characteristics (including specific conductance, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium adsorption ratio, sodium, alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, dissolved sulfate, and dissolved solids) of the sampling sites and coal-bed methane (CBM) produced water (groundwater pumped from coal seams) in the site watersheds, trend analysis methods, streamflow conditions, and factors that affect trend results. The Tongue and Powder River watersheds overlie the Powder River structural basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. Limited extraction of coal-bed methane (CBM) from the PRB began in the early 1990’s, and increased dramatically during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. CBM-extraction activities produce discharges of water with high concentrations of dissolved solids (particularly sodium and bicarbonate ions) relative to most stream water in the Tongue and Powder River watersheds. Water-quality of CBM produced water is of concern because of potential effects of sodium on agricultural soils and potential effects of bicarbonate on aquatic biota. Two parametric trend-analysis methods were used in this study: the time-series model (TSM) and ordinary least squares regression (OLS) on time, streamflow, and season. The TSM was used to analyze trends for 11 of the 16 study sites. For five sites, data requirements of the TSM were not met and OLS was used to analyze trends. Two primary 10-year trend-analysis periods were selected. Trend-analysis period 1 (water years 1986–95; hereinafter referred to as period 1) was selected to represent variability in major-ion concentrations in the Tongue and Powder River

  11. Andromeda's dust

    SciTech Connect

    Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G.; Krause, Oliver; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Klaas, Ulrich; Linz, Hendrik; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva; Schmiedeke, Anika; Walter, Fabian; Braun, Robert; Leroy, Adam E-mail: ganiano@ias.u-psud.fr

    2014-01-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory imaging of M31 is used, with a physical dust model, to construct maps of dust surface density, dust-to-gas ratio, starlight heating intensity, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance, out to R ≈ 25 kpc. The global dust mass is M {sub d} = 5.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, the global dust/H mass ratio is M {sub d}/M {sub H} = 0.0081, and the global PAH abundance is (q {sub PAH}) = 0.039. The dust surface density has an inner ring at R = 5.6 kpc, a maximum at R = 11.2 kpc, and an outer ring at R ≈ 15.1 kpc. The dust/gas ratio varies from M {sub d}/M {sub H} ≈ 0.026 at the center to ∼0.0027 at R ≈ 25 kpc. From the dust/gas ratio, we estimate the interstellar medium metallicity to vary by a factor ∼10, from Z/Z {sub ☉} ≈ 3 at R = 0 to ∼0.3 at R = 25 kpc. The dust heating rate parameter (U) peaks at the center, with (U) ≈ 35, declining to (U) ≈ 0.25 at R = 20 kpc. Within the central kiloparsec, the starlight heating intensity inferred from the dust modeling is close to what is estimated from the stars in the bulge. The PAH abundance reaches a peak q {sub PAH} ≈ 0.045 at R ≈ 11.2 kpc. When allowance is made for the different spectrum of the bulge stars, q {sub PAH} for the dust in the central kiloparsec is similar to the overall value of q {sub PAH} in the disk. The silicate-graphite-PAH dust model used here is generally able to reproduce the observed dust spectral energy distribution across M31, but overpredicts 500 μm emission at R ≈ 2-6 kpc, suggesting that at R = 2-6 kpc, the dust opacity varies more steeply with frequency (with β ≈ 2.3 between 200 and 600 μm) than in the model.

  12. The Organic Component of Interstellar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2003-01-01

    The distribution, chemical structure, and formation of organic matter in the interstellar medium are important to our understanding of the overall evolution of dust. The exchange of dust between the dense and diffuse interstellar medium, and the effects of processing on dust within dense clouds will affect the inventory of material available for incorporation into newly forming star and planetary systems. Observational ground-based studies have confirmed the widespread distribution of the 3.4 pm absorption band attributed to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the diffuse interstellar medium of our own galaxy, and in the dusty spectra of a few nearby galaxies, while space based observations from IS0 probed the signatures of corresponding mid-infrared features. Laboratory experiments which utilize both thermal processes and energetic processing by high energy photons and cosmic rays, produce candidate materials which offer close matches to the observed diffuse interstellar medium and extragalactic hydrocarbon absorption features. Through an analysis of the 4000 to 1000 cm (2.5 to 10 micrometers) region of the spectrum of diffuse interstellar medium (DISM) dust compared with the spectra of thirteen chemical entities produced in the laboratory which serve as analogs to the interstellar material, significant constraints have been placed on the applicability of proposed candidate materials to explain the interstellar features. The results indicate that the organic refractory material in the diffuse interstellar medium is predominantly hydrocarbon in nature, possessing little nitrogen or oxygen, with the carbon distributed between the aromatic and aliphatic forms. Long alkane chains H3C-(CH2),- with n much greater than 4 or 5 are not major constituents of this material. Comparisons to laboratory analogs indicate the DISM organic material resembles plasma processed pure hydrocarbon residues much more so than energetically processed ice residues. This result is consistent with a

  13. The Cosmic DUNE dust astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, E.; Srama, R.; Cosmic Dune Team

    A dust astronomy mission aims at the simultaneous measurement of the origin and the chemical composition of individual dust grains in space. Interstellar dust traversing the solar system constitutes the galactic solid phase of matter from which stars and planetary systems form. Interplanetary dust, from comets and asteroids, represents remnant material from bodies at different stages of early solar system evolution. Thus, studies of interstellar and interplanetary dust with Cosmic DUNE (Cosmic Dust Near Earth) will provide a comparison between the composition of the interstellar medium and primitive planetary objects. Cosmic DUNE will prepare the way for effective collection in near-Earth space of interstellar and interplanetary dust for subsequent return to Earth and analysis in laboratories. Cosmic DUNE establishes the next logical step beyond NASA's Stardust mission, with four major advancements in cosmic dust research: (1) Analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of individual cosmic dust grains, (2) determination of the size distribution of interstellar dust, (3) characterization of the interstellar dust flow through the planetary system, and (4) analysis of interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. This mission goal will be reached with novel dust instrumentation. A dust telescope trajectory sensor has been developed which is capable of obtaining precision trajectories of sub-micron sized particles in space. A new high mass resolution dust analyzer of 0.1m2 impact area can cope with the low fluxes expected in interplanetary space. Cosmic DUNE will be proposed to ESA in response to its upcoming call for mission ideas.

  14. Dynamics of Solar System Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2002-01-01

    The ongoing aim of the research is to investigate the dynamical and physical evolution of interplanetary dust particles in order to produce a detailed global model of the zodiacal cloud and its constituent components that is capable of predicting thermal fluxes in mid-infrared wave bands to an accuracy of 1% or better; with the additional aim of exploiting this research as a basis for predicting structure in exozodiacal clouds that may be signatures of unseen planets.

  15. History and Applications of Dust Devil Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Gu, Zhaolin; Kahanpää, Henrik; Klose, Martina; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Patel, Manish R.; Reiss, Dennis; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Spiga, Aymeric; Takemi, Tetsuya; Wei, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Studies of dust devils, and their impact on society, are reviewed. Dust devils have been noted since antiquity, and have been documented in many countries, as well as on the planet Mars. As time-variable vortex entities, they have become a cultural motif. Three major stimuli of dust devil research are identified, nuclear testing, terrestrial climate studies, and perhaps most significantly, Mars research. Dust devils present an occasional safety hazard to light structures and have caused several deaths.

  16. Exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchner, Marc Jason

    Besides the sun, the most luminous feature of the solar system is a cloud of "zodiacal" dust released by asteroids and comets that pervades the region interior to the asteroid belt. Similar clouds of dust around other stars---exozodiacal clouds---may be the best tracers of the habitable zones of extra-solar planetary systems. This thesis discusses three searches for exozodiacal dust: (1) We observed six nearby main-sequence stars with the Keck telescope at 11.6 microns, correcting for atmosphere-induced wavefront aberrations and deconvolving the point spread function via classical speckle analysis. We compare our data to a simple model of the zodiacal dust in our own system based on COBE DIRBE observations and place upper limits on the density of exozodiacal dust in these systems. (2) We observed Sirius, Altair, and Procyon with the NICMOS Coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope to look for scattered light from exozodiacal dust and faint companions within 10 AU from these stars. (3) The planned nulling capability of the Keck Interferometer should allow it to probe the region <200 milliarcsecond from a bright star and to suppress on-axis starlight by factors of 10 -3 to reveal faint circumstellar material. We model the response of the Keck Interferometer to hypothetical exozodiacal clouds to derive detection limits that account for the effects of stellar leakage, photon noise, noise from null depth fluctuations, and the fact that the cloud's shape is not known a priori. We also discuss the interaction of dust with planets. We used the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas and the IRAS Sky Survey Atlas to search for dynamical signatures of three different planets in the solar system dust complex: (1) We searched the COBE DIRBE Sky and Zodi Atlas for a wake of dust trailing Mars. We compare the DIRBE images to a model Mars wake based on the empirical model of the Earth's wake as seen by the DIRBE. (2) We searched the COBE DIRRE Sky and Zodi Atlas for Tiojan dust near

  17. Fractionation of grape seed extract and identification of gallic acid as one of the major active constituents causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Veluri, Ravikanth; Singh, Rana P; Liu, Zhengjie; Thompson, John A; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2006-07-01

    The anti-cancer efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer (PCA) via its anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activities in both cell culture and animal models have recently been described by us. GSE is a complex mixture containing gallic acid (GA), catechin (C), epicatechin (EC) and several oligomers (procyanidins) of C and/or EC, some of which are esterified to GA. To determine which components are most active against PCA, an ethyl acetate extract of GSE was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into three fractions. Fraction 1 was far more effective than others in causing growth inhibition and apoptotic death of human PCA DU145 cells. Of the components in this fraction, GA showed a very strong dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition and apoptotic death of DU145 cells, but C and procyanidins B1 (EC-C dimer), B2 (EC-EC dimer) and B3 (C-C dimer) were nearly ineffective. Mechanistic studies demonstrated a strong caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavages by GA in DU145 cells. Procyanidin oligomers eluting in HPLC Fractions 2 and 3 were obtained in larger quantities by separating GSE into eight fractions (I-VIII) on a gel filtration column. All fractions were analyzed by HPLC-UV and negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. Fractions I-III contained the active compound GA and inactive components C, EC, B1 and B2. Fraction IV contained other dimers and a dimer-GA ester and was also less active than GSE in DU145 cells. Fractions V-VIII, however, caused significant growth inhibition and apoptosis with the highest activity present in the later fractions that contained procyanidin trimers and GA esters of dimers and trimers. Together, these observations identify GA as one of the major active constituents in GSE. Several procyanidins, however, and especially the gallate esters of dimers and trimers also may be efficacious against PCA and merit further investigation.

  18. Use of on-line stop-flow heart-cutting two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of 12 major constituents in tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn).

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Wu, Caisheng; Zhang, Jinlan

    2013-08-23

    The use of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) for quantification studies presents challenges with respect to repeatability, precision, and robustness. The present study used an on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system to determine 12 chemical constituents in tartary buckwheat. A combination of various stationary phases was developed and bridged using two switch valves as the interface. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography was chosen for separation in the first dimension ((1)D), and mixed mode stationary phases (an amide polar-embedded phase and alkyl-phenyl phase) were used in parallel for separation in the second dimension ((2)D). The mobile phase comprised acetonitrile and water containing 0.03% aqueous phosphoric acid. The sample was separated into two fractions on the (1)D column (HILIC-10 column) using 5% acetonitrile. One fraction, mainly comprising flavonoids, was directly eluted onto the head of (2)D column (Polar Advantage II column) and further separated using a linear gradient of 11-23% acetonitrile. The second fraction, containing phenylpropanoid glycosides, was trapped on the (1)D column. This retained fraction was back-flushed onto the (2)D column (Phenyl-1 column) and separated using a linear gradient of 35-43% acetonitrile. An on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system was successfully developed with column switching and back-flush. This 2D-LC system was validated and was able to simultaneously determine 12 major components in tartary buckwheat: seven flavonoids, four phenylpropanoid glycosides, and N-trans-feruloyltyramine. The system showed good performance with respect to linearity (r>0.996), repeatability (RSD, relative standard deviation<3.4%), intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD<4.6%), recovery (91.2-108%), limit of detection (LOD) (0.05-0.21μg/mL), and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.10-0.41μg/mL). The on-line stop-flow heart-cutting 2D-LC system offers a potential approach to analyze compounds, which have similar

  19. Dust in the Wind: Modern and Ancient Dust Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, P. J.; Pierce, J. L.; Benner, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The addition of wind-blown sediments to soils can alter soil grain-size distributions, chemistry, and hydrologic properties, which can substantially affect geomorphic and hydrologic processes. In the Snake River Plain of Idaho, dust deposition has a profound influence on soil development, soil fertility and other soil characteristics. A rigorous study of the movement and chemistry of dust in the Boise area has not been completed. This study will establish a sampling method for dust collection, define the elemental signature of Boise dust and analyze Quaternary loess deposits to determine if the composition of dust in the Boise area has changed. We constructed passive marble samplers to collect wind-blown sediments within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) located in the Boise Front foothills about 16 km northeast of Boise, Idaho. Mass flux amounts and the mineralogical composition of dust samples will provide information about the influence of wind-blown sediments on the soils of Dry Creek Experimental Watershed. ICP-MS analysis of samples will define an elemental signature for Boise dust. Comparison of modern dust with ancient loess will improve the understanding of the role of climate change in dust transport. We analyzed hourly wind speed data collected over the past 10 years from three weather stations to investigate trends in the timing of peak wind events. Average annual wind speeds range from 1.29 to 4.91 mph with a total average of 2.82 mph. Analysis of wind speeds indicate that while the majority of the highest wind events occur in the winter, wind events that occur during the summer months may be responsible for transporting dust. Recent large dust storms may have originated from extensive burned rangelands, and/or large plowed agricultural land. Future work will investigate the percentages of organic vs. inorganic material in loess, in order to narrow down possible sources of dust in the Snake River Plain.

  20. Source apportionment of mercury in dust fallout at urban residential area of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S.; Balakrishna, G.; Tiwari, S.

    2009-10-01

    The components and quantities of atmospheric dust fallout have been reported to be the pollution indicator of large urban areas. The multiplicity and complexity of sources of atmospheric dusts in urban regions (e.g. industrial complexes composed of a variety of industrial processes, automobiles, construction activities etc.) has put forward the need of source apportionment of these sources indicating their contribution to specific environmental receptor. The study presented here is focused on investigation of source contribution estimates of Mercury in urban dust fallout in an urban-industrial area, Raipur, India. Source-receptor based representative sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted. Six sampling sites have been identified on the basis of land use for development plan of anthropogenic activities and factors related to the transportation and dispersion pattern of atmospheric dusts. 24 samples of dust fallout has been collected from each site (one in each month) and subjected to chemical analysis of selected chemical constituents known as markers of selected major dust emitting sources (Steel making average, Road traffic-borne dusts, construction activities, Auto mobile exhaust, and soils). Chemical composition of dust measured at sites marked for identified sources alongwith SPECIATE of USEPA has been used for the preparation of source profiles. Three classified residential receptors (ambient-outdoor, house-indoors and local street-outdoors) have been chosen for development of receptor compositional profiles. Source apportionment has been done using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB 8). Good fit parameters and relative source contribution has been analysed and documented. Dust fallout and respective mercury levels were found tobe higher compared to prescribed standards. Variation in relative contribution of selected sources from site to site within the study area has been occurred. Dominance of local line and area sources (road-traffic and

  1. DUST-PLASMA INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. M. Rosenberg

    2010-01-05

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  2. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    PubMed

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home.

  3. Zodiacal dust bands - Their relation to asteroid families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, Mark V.

    1990-01-01

    The zodiacal dust band phenomenon is presently reproduced by a mathematical model of orbitally evolved collisional debris spatial distributions whose torus exhibits particle-density maxima at heliocentric latitudes near its constituent particles' mean proper orbital inclinations, as well as near the loci of the particle orbits' perihelia and aphelia. Models of dust toruses for seven asteroid families are generated and compared with observations of the principal dust bands. Nonequilibrium models of dust band production and evolution furnish a framework within which all dust band observations can be understood.

  4. Antifibrotic constituents from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young-Won; Shin, Eunjin; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2011-09-01

    From the CHCl3-soluble fraction of the fruits of Garcinia mangostana (Clusiaceae), six xanthone derivatives, alpha-mangostin (1), gamma-mangostin (2), gartanin (3), deoxygartanin (4), 1-isomangstanin (5) and garcinone E (6), were isolated. All these compounds significantly inhibited HSC-T6 viability as assessed by employing HSC-T6 hepatic stellate cells as an in vitro assay system. Among them, compounds 1 and 2, the most potent and major constituents of G. mangostana, inhibited HSC-T6 viability in dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 significantly reduced collagen content, a pathological characteristic of liver fibrosis. Taken together, G. mangostana and its constituents might be beneficial for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  5. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  6. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Andrysík, Zdeněk; Vondráček, Jan; Marvanová, Soňa; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neča, Jiří; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Mahadevan, Brinda; Topinka, Jan; Baird, William M; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-09-01

    Many of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of urban air pollution have been linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to airborne particulate matter (PM). The carcinogenic properties of PAHs in complex organic mixtures derived from PM have been chiefly attributed to their mutagenicity. Nevertheless, PAHs are also potent activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which may contribute to their nongenotoxic effects, including tumor promotion. As the genotoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs in complex mixtures derived from urban PM is often inhibited by other mixture constituents, the AhR-mediated activity of urban PM extracts might significantly contribute to the carcinogenic activity of such mixtures. In the present study, we used an organic extract of the urban dust standard reference material, SRM1649a, as a model mixture to study a range of toxic effects related to DNA damage and AhR activation. Both the organic extract and its neutral aromatic fraction formed a low number of DNA adducts per nucleotide in the liver epithelial WB-F344 cells model, without inducing DNA damage response, such as tumor suppressor p53 activation and apoptosis. In contrast, we found that this extract, as well as its neutral and polar fractions, were potent inducers of a range of AhR-mediated responses, including induction of the AhR-mediated transcription, such as cytochrome P450 1A1/1B1 expression, and the AhR-dependent cell proliferation. Importantly, these toxic events occurred at doses one order of magnitude lower than DNA damage. The AhR-mediated activity of the neutral fraction was linked to PAHs and their derivatives, as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls were only minor contributors to the overall AhR-mediated activity. Taken together, our data suggest that more attention should be paid to the AhR-dependent nongenotoxic events elicited by urban PM constituents, especially PAHs and their derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  7. Dynamic Dust Accumulation and Dust Removal Observed on the Mars Exploration Rover Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertelsen, P.; Bell, J. F., III; Goetz, W.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hviid, S. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Kinch, K. M.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers each carry a set of Magnetic Properties Experiments designed to investigate the properties of the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere. It is a preferred interpretation of previous experiments that the airborne dust in the Martian atmosphere is primarily composed by composite silicate particles containing one or more highly magnetic minerals as a minor constituent. The ultimate goal of the magnetic properties experiments on the Mars Exploration Rover mission is to provide some information/ constraints on whether the dust is formed by volcanic, meteoritic, aqueous, or other processes. The first problem is to identify the magnetic mineral(s) in the airborne dust on Mars. While the overall results of the magnetic properties experiments are presented in, this abstract will focus on dust deposition and dust removal on some of the magnets.

  8. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  9. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  10. Dust devils as observed by Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, Francesca; Smith, Peter H.; Lemmon, Mark; Rennó, Nilton O.

    2003-12-01

    Dust devils are localized meteorological phenomena frequently observed in terrestrial dry lands and desert landscapes as well as on Mars. They are low-pressure, warm core vortices that form at the bottom of convective plumes and loft dust from the surface. They move with the speed of the ambient wind and are tilted by wind shears. The Mars Pathfinder detected dust devils as dust plumes in the Imager for Mars Pathfinder images and as low-pressure convective vortices in the meteorological Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology (ASI/MET) experiment data. The Pathfinder data have been analyzed in terms of dust devil size, spatial distribution, and frequency of occurrence. The results show that the Pathfinder imaging and MET observations are consistent with each other and with the observations made by the Viking 1 Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor. The dust devil's ability to loft dust into the atmosphere has been investigated and a thermodynamic theory for dust devils has been used to calculate their physical parameters relevant to dust transport. The dust devils observed in an active day provide a pumping rate larger than the dust-settling rate derived from the optical obscuration of the Pathfinder rover solar panels. Therefore dust devils are a major factor in transporting dust from the surface to the atmosphere at the Pathfinder site.

  11. Planetary Magnetosphere Probed by Charged Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Z.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Kempf, S.; Krueger, H.

    2010-12-01

    In-situ and remote sensing observations combined with theoretical and numerical modeling greatly advanced our understanding planetary magnetospheres. Dust is an integral component of the Saturnian and Jovian magnetospheres where it can act as a source/sink of plasma particles (dust particles are an effective source for plasma species like O2, OH, etc. through sputtering of ice particles, for example); its distribution is shaped by electrodynamic forces coupled radiation pressure, plasma, and neutral drag, for example. The complex interaction can lead to unusual dust dynamics, including the transport, capture, and ejection of dust grains. The study of the temporal and spatial evolution of fine dust within or outside the magnetosphere thus provides a unique way to combine data from a large number of observations: plasma, plasma wave, dust, and magnetic field measurements. The dust detectors on board the Galileo and Cassini spacecrafts lead to major discoveries, including the jovian dust stream originating from Io or the in-situ sampling and analysis of the plumes of Enceladus. Recent advancement in dust detector technology enables accurate measurement of the dust trajectory and elemental composition that can greatly enhance the understanding of dust magnetorspheric interaction and indentify the source of the dust with high precision. The capabilities of a modern dust detector thus can provide support for the upcoming Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  12. Cosmic dust analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-10-01

    The cosmic dust analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the dust analyzer (DA) and the high rate detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the chemical analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(superscript 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring plane crossings.

  13. Fibre constituents of some foods.

    PubMed

    Rani, B; Kawatra, A

    1994-06-01

    Some plant foods viz. bottlegourd, carrot, cauliflower, cabbage, green bengalgram, pea, apple, plum, guava, karonda, blackgram husk and lentil husk were analysed for their dietary fibre components. The total dietary fibre contents of these foods varied from 14.68 to 78.21 percent on dry matter basis. As compared to fruits and vegetables, the husks had higher amount of total dietary fibre. Cellulose represented as the major fibre constituent in most of the foods whereas, husks were observed to be good sources of hemicellulose. All foods were low in pectin and lignin contents except guava.

  14. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  15. Anticipated results from dust experiments on cometary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, J.; Fechtig, H.; Grun, E.

    1981-01-01

    The major scientific objectives of a mission are: to determine the chemical nature and physical structure of comet nuclei, and to characterize the changes that occur as a function of time orbital position; to characterize the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets as well as the processes that occur in them, and to characterize the development of the atmospheres and ionospheres as functions of time and orbital position; and to determine the nature of comet tails and processes by which they are formed, and to characterize the interaction of comets with the solar wind. Since dust is a major constituent of a comet, the achievement of these goals requires the intensive study of the paticulate emission from a comet.

  16. Farm Animal Models of Organic Dust Exposure and Toxicity: Insights and Implications for Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Chakia J.; Gerald, Carresse L.; Waterman, Jenora T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Modern food animal production is a major contributor to the global economy, owing to advanced intensive indoor production facilities aimed at increasing market readiness and profit. Consequences of these advances are accumulation of dusts, gases and microbial products that diminish air quality within production facilities. Chronic inhalation exposure contributes to onset and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and diseases in animals and workers. This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts; animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings –Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary – Pigs are well adapted to the exposures common to swine production buildings and thus serve as excellent models for facility workers. Insight for understanding mechanisms governing organic dust associated respiratory diseases may come from parallel comparisons between farmers and the animals they raise. PMID:25636160

  17. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  18. Synthesis of Amaryllidaceae Constituents and Unnatural Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ghavre, Mukund; Froese, Jordan; Pour, Milan; Hudlicky, Tomas

    2016-05-04

    This update covers the syntheses of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids since the publication of the last major review in 2008. A short summary of past syntheses and their step count is provided for the major constituents; pancratistatin, 7-deoxypancratistatin, narciclasine, lycoricidine, lycorine, and for other natural constituents, as well as for unnatural derivatives. Discussion of biological activities is provided for unnatural derivatives. Future prospects and further developments in this area are covered at the end of the review. The literature is covered to the end of August 2015.

  19. Squalene and cholesterol in dust from danish homes and daycare centers.

    PubMed

    Weschler, Charles J; Langer, Sarka; Fischer, Andreas; Bekö, Gabriel; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2011-05-01

    Given the rate at which humans shed their skin (desquamation), skin flakes that contain squalene and cholesterol are anticipated to be major constituents of indoor dust. These compounds have been detected in more than 97% of the dust samples collected from 500 bedrooms and 151 daycare centers of young children living in Odense, Denmark. The mass fractions of squalene in dust were approximately log-normally distributed (homes: GM = 32 μg/g, GSD = 4.3; daycare centers: GM = 11.5 μg/g, GSD = 4.3); those of cholesterol displayed a poorer fit to such a distribution (homes: GM = 625 μg/g, GSD = 3.4; daycare centers: GM = 220 μg/g, GSD = 4.0). Correlations between squalene and cholesterol were weak (r = 0.22). Furthermore, the median squalene-to-cholesterol ratio in dust (~0.05) was more than an order of magnitude smaller than that in skin oil. This implies sources in addition to desquamation (e.g., cholesterol from cooking) coupled, perhaps, with a shorter indoor lifetime for squalene. Estimated values of squalene's vapor pressure, while uncertain, suggest meaningful redistribution from dust to other indoor compartments. We estimate that dust containing squalene at 60 μg/g would contribute about 4% to overall ozone removal by indoor surfaces. This is roughly comparable to the fraction of ozone removal that can be ascribed to reactions with indoor terpenes. Squalene containing dust is anticipated to contribute to the scavenging of ozone in all settings occupied by humans.

  20. Migration of tungsten dust in tokamaks: role of dust-wall collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratynskaia, S.; Vignitchouk, L.; Tolias, P.; Bykov, I.; Bergsåker, H.; Litnovsky, A.; den Harder, N.; Lazzaro, E.

    2013-12-01

    The modelling of a controlled tungsten dust injection experiment in TEXTOR by the dust dynamics code MIGRAINe is reported. The code, in addition to the standard dust-plasma interaction processes, also encompasses major mechanical aspects of dust-surface collisions. The use of analytical expressions for the restitution coefficients as functions of the dust radius and impact velocity allows us to account for the sticking and rebound phenomena that define which parts of the dust size distribution can migrate efficiently. The experiment provided unambiguous evidence of long-distance dust migration; artificially introduced tungsten dust particles were collected 120° toroidally away from the injection point, but also a selectivity in the permissible size of transported grains was observed. The main experimental results are reproduced by modelling.

  1. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  2. Gas and dust cooling along the major axis of M 33 (HerM33es). ISO/LWS [C ii] observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, C.; Abreu-Vicente, J.; García-Burillo, S.; Relaño, M.; Aalto, S.; Boquien, M.; Braine, J.; Buchbender, C.; Gratier, P.; Israel, F. P.; Nikola, T.; Röllig, M.; Verley, S.; van der Werf, P.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2013-05-01

    Aims: We aim to better understand the heating of gas by observing the prominent gas cooling line [C ii] at 158 μm in the low-metallicity environment of the Local Group spiral galaxy M 33 on scales of 280 pc. In particular, we describe the variation of the photoelectric heating efficiency with the galactic environment. Methods: In this study, we present [C ii] observations along the major axis of M 33 using the Infrared Space Observatory in combination with Herschel continuum maps, IRAM 30 m CO 2-1, and VLA H i data to study the variation in velocity integrated intensities. The ratio of [C ii] emission over the far-infrared continuum is used as a proxy for the heating efficiency, and models of photon-dominated regions are used to study the local physical densities, far-ultraviolet radiation fields, and average column densities of the molecular clouds. Results: The heating efficiency stays constant at 0.8% in the inner 4.5 kpc radius of the galaxy, where it increases to reach values of ~3% in the outskirts at about a 6 kpc radial distance. The rise of efficiency is explained in the framework of PDR models by lowered volume densities and FUV fields for optical extinctions of only a few magnitudes at constant metallicity. For the significant fraction of H i emission stemming from PDRs and for typical pressures found in the Galactic cold neutral medium (CNM) traced by H i emission, the CNM contributes ~15% to the observed [C ii] emission in the inner 2 kpc radius of M 33. The CNM contribution remains largely undetermined in the south, while positions between radial distances of 2 and 7.3 kpc in the north of M 33 show a contribution of ~40% ± 20%. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led PrincipalInvestigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean coastline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kubilay, Nilgün; Koçak, Mustafa; Gray, Mike A.; Borden, Timothy C.; Shinn, Eugene A.

    Between 18 March and 27 October 2002, 220 air samples were collected on 209 of 224 calendar days, on top of a coastal atmospheric research tower in Erdemli, Turkey. The volume of air filtered for each sample was 340 liters. Two hundred fifty-seven bacterial and 2598 fungal colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated from the samples using a low-nutrient agar. Ground-based dust measurements demonstrated that the region is routinely impacted by dust generated regionally and from North Africa and that the highest combined percent recovery of total CFU and African dust deposition occurred in the month of April (93.4% of CFU recovery and 91.1% of dust deposition occurred during African dust days versus no African dust present, for that month). A statistically significant correlation was observed (peak regional African dust months of March, April and May; rs=0.576, P=0.000) between an increase in the prevalence of microorganisms recovered from atmospheric samples on dust days (regional and African as determined by ground-based dust measurements), versus that observed on non-dust days. Given the prevalence of atmospherically suspended desert dust and microorganisms observed in this study, and that culture-based studies typically only recover a small fraction (<1.0%) of the actual microbial population in any given environment, dust-borne microorganisms and other associated constituents (organic detritus, toxins, etc.) may play a significant role in the regional human and ecosystem health.

  4. Chemical and mineral composition of dust and its effect on the dielectric constant

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, S.

    1995-03-01

    Chemical analysis is carried out for dust sample collected from central Sudan and the dust chemical constituents are obtained. The mineral composition of dust are identified by the X-ray diffraction techniques. The mineral quantities are obtained by a technique developed based on the chemical analytical methods. Analyses show that Quartz is the dominant mineral while the SiO{sub 2} is the dominant oxide. A simple model is derived for the dust chemical constituents. This model is used with models for predicting the mixture dielectric constant to estimate the dust dielectric constant; the results of which are seen to be in a good agreement with the measured values. The effects of the different constituents on the dust dielectric constant are studied and results are given.

  5. Composition of jovian dust stream particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, Frank; Kempf, Sascha; Srama, Ralf; Green, Simon F.; Hillier, Jon K.; McBride, Neil; Grün, Eberhard

    2006-07-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encountered Jupiter in late 2000. Within more than 1 AU of the gas giant the Cosmic Dust Analyser onboard the spacecraft recorded the first ever mass spectra of jovian stream particles. To determine the chemical composition of particles, a comprehensive statistical analysis of the dataset was performed. Our results imply that the vast majority (>95%) of the observed stream particles originate from the volcanic active jovian satellite Io from where they are sprinkled out far into the Solar System. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was identified as the major particle constituent, accompanied by sulphurous as well as potassium bearing components. This is in contrast to observations of gas in the ionian atmosphere, its co-rotating plasma torus, and the neutral cloud, where sulphur species are dominant while alkali and chlorine species are only minor components. Io has the largest active volcanoes of the Solar System with plumes reaching heights of more than 400 km above the moons surface. Our in situ measurements indicate that alkaline salt condensation of volcanic gases inside those plumes could be the dominant formation process for particles reaching the ionian exosphere.

  6. Mechanical intervention for reducing dust concentration in traditional rice mills

    PubMed Central

    PRANAV, Prabhanjan K.; BISWAS, Mrinmoy

    2016-01-01

    A huge number of workers are employed in traditional rice mills where they are potentially exposed to dust. In this study a dust collection system was developed to capture the airborne dust in the rice mill. The feeding and sieving section of the mill was identified as major dust creating zone. The dust was captured by creating suitable air stream at feeding and sieving sections of the mill and collected in cyclone dust collector. The air stream was created by blower which was selected on the basis to get minimum air speed of 0.5 m/s in the working zones of workers. It was observed that the developed system is successfully collects the significant amount of dust and able to reduce the dust concentration up to 58%. Further, the respirable dust concentration reduced to below 5 mg/m3 throughout the mill which is within the recommended limit of dust exposure. PMID:26829976

  7. The Role of Spatially-variable Surface Dust in GCM Simulations of the Martian Dust Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. John

    An outstanding problem for simulating the present Mars climate is representing the spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and the feedbacks that connect dust raising and transport with the evolving atmospheric circulation. A particular challenge has been the inability of Mars global circulation models (MGCMs) to realistically simulate interannual variability, most notably in the occurrence of major dust storms. The threshold for dust lifting by resolved surface stresses plays a central role in the current parameterizations of dust lifting used in these simulations. In the results to be presented, the GFDL MGCM is run with fairly typical representations of convective ("dust devils") and wind stress lifting. A new type of negative feedback has been introduced to the model climate system by providing a finite surface dust reservoir and allowing the stress threshold for dust lifting is vary as a function of the surface dust depth. The simulated surface dust typically evolves toward a relatively statistically-stable distribution that reflects the seasonally-integrated effects of stress dust lifting. Dust is preferentially depleted in regions with unusually high stress but surfaces are never stripped clean. Thus the stress lifting scheme continues to allow dust to be raised in these regions, but on a more episodic basis that is dependent on the replenishment by local and remote dust lifting activity. This work provides support for the concept, first proposed in a pair of papers by A. Pankine and A. Ingersoll, that surface/atmosphere dust interactions are able to organize to yield aperiodic global dust storm activity. The influence of an equilibrated finite dust reservoir with a spatially variable surface stress lifting threshold will additionally be illustrated in simulations of the 2001 planet-encircling dust storm.

  8. Status and Future of Dust Storm Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, D. L.

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been given to the large amounts of airborne dust derived from the deserts and desertified areas of the world and transported over scales ranging from local to global. This dust can have positive and negative impacts on human activities and the environment, including modifying cloud formation, fertilizing the ocean, degrading air quality, reducing visibility, transporting pathogens, and inducing respiratory problems. The atmospheric radiative forcing by the dust has implications for global climate change and presently is one of the largest unknowns in climate models. These uncertainties have lead to much of the funding for research into the sources, properties, and fate of atmospheric dust. As a result of advances in numerical weather prediction over the past decades and the recent climate research, we are now in a position to produce operational dust storm forecasts. International organizations and national agencies are developing programs for dust forecasting. The approaches and applications of dust detection and forecasting are as varied as the nations that are developing the models. The basic components of a dust forecasting system include atmospheric forcing, dust production, and dust microphysics. The forecasting applications include air and auto traffic safety, shipping, health, national security, climate and weather. This presentation will summarize the methods of dust storm forecasting and illustrate the various applications. The major remaining uncertainties (e.g. sources and initialization) will be discussed as well as approaches for solving those problems.

  9. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through ftir spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2013-08-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively.

  10. Chemical constituents of Asparagus

    PubMed Central

    Negi, J. S.; Singh, P.; Joshi, G. P.; Rawat, M. S.; Bisht, V. K.

    2010-01-01

    Asparagus species (family Liliaceae) are medicinal plants of temperate Himalayas. They possess a variety of biological properties, such as being antioxidants, immunostimulants, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antioxytocic, and reproductive agents. The article briefly reviews the isolated chemical constituents and the biological activities of the plant species. The structural formula of isolated compounds and their distribution in the species studied are also given. PMID:22228964

  11. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  12. eblur/dust: a modular python approach for dust extinction and scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Lia

    2016-03-01

    I will present a library of python codes -- github.com/eblur/dust -- which calculate dust scattering and extinction properties from the IR to the X-ray. The modular interface allows for custom defined dust grain size distributions, optical constants, and scattering physics. These codes are currently undergoing a major overhaul to include multiple scattering effects, parallel processing, parameterized grain size distributions beyond power law, and optical constants for different grain compositions. I use eblur/dust primarily to study dust scattering images in the X-ray, but they may be extended to applications at other wavelengths.

  13. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  15. Retagging Identifies Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-3 (ICAM3)-grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN) Protein as a Novel Receptor for a Major Allergen from House Dust Mite*

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Mohamed; Royer, Pierre-Joseph; Mahdavi, Jafar; Shakib, Farouk; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to play a key role in the initiation and maintenance of immune responses to microbial pathogens as well as to allergens, but the exact mechanisms of their involvement in allergic responses and Th2 cell differentiation have remained elusive. Using retagging, we identified DC-SIGN as a novel receptor involved in the initial recognition and uptake of the major house dust mite and dog allergens Der p 1 and Can f 1, respectively. To confirm this, we used gene silencing to specifically inhibit DC-SIGN expression by DCs followed by allergen uptake studies. Binding and uptake of Der p 1 and Can f 1 allergens was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. Intriguingly, our data showed that silencing DC-SIGN on DCs promotes a Th2 phenotype in DC/T cell co-cultures. These findings should lead to better understanding of the molecular basis of allergen-induced Th2 cell polarization and in doing so paves the way for the rational design of novel intervention strategies by targeting allergen receptors on innate immune cells or their carbohydrate counterstructures on allergens. PMID:22205703

  16. Der f 34, a Novel Major House Dust Mite Allergen Belonging to a Highly Conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 Family of Imine Deaminases.

    PubMed

    ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Fujimura, Takashi; Baba, Koji; Kim, Ji Won; Kawamoto, Chika; Isobe, Toshihide; Abe, Takuya; Hodge-Hanson, Kelsey; Downs, Diana M; Refaat, Inas Hussein; Beshr Al-Azhary, Diaa; Aki, Tsunehiro; Asaoku, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Katsutani, Takashi; Tsuboi, Shinji; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2016-10-07

    The high prevalence of house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a growing health problem worldwide, and the characterization of clinically important HDM allergens is a prerequisite for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we report a novel HDM allergen that belongs structurally to the highly conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family (Rid family) with imine deaminase activity. Isolated HDM cDNA, named der f 34, encodes 128 amino acids homologous to Rid-like proteins. This new protein belongs to the Rid family and has seven conserved residues involved in enamine/imine deaminase activity. Indeed, we demonstrated that purified Der f 34 had imine deaminase activity that preferentially acted on leucine and methionine. Native Der f 34 showed a high IgE binding frequency as revealed by two-dimensional immunoblotting (62.5%) or ELISA (68%), which was comparable with those of a major HDM allergen Der f 2 (77.5 and 79%, respectively). We also found that Der f 34 showed cross-reactivity with another prominent indoor allergen source, Aspergillus fumigatus This is the first report showing that the Rid family imine deaminase represents an additional important pan-allergen that is conserved across organisms.

  17. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    ... help control dust. The system should include special filters to capture dust and animal dander. Change furnace filters frequently. Use high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. When cleaning: Wipe away dust with a damp cloth and vacuum once a ...

  18. Diurnal variation in martian dust devil activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R. M.; Lewis, S. R.; Balme, M.; Steele, L. J.

    2017-08-01

    We show that the dust devil parameterisation in use in most Mars Global Circulation Models (MGCMs) results in an unexpectedly high level of dust devil activity during morning hours. Prior expectations of the diurnal variation of Martian dust devils are based mainly upon the observed behaviour of terrestrial dust devils: i.e. that the majority occur during the afternoon. We instead find that large areas of the Martian surface experience dust devil activity during the morning in our MGCM, and that many locations experience a peak in dust devil activity before mid-sol. We find that the diurnal variation in dust devil activity is governed by near-surface wind speeds. Within the range of daylight hours, higher wind speeds tend to produce higher levels of dust devil activity, rather than the activity simply being governed by the availability of heat at the planet's surface, which peaks in early afternoon. Evidence for whether the phenomenon we observe is real or an artefact of the parameterisation is inconclusive. We compare our results with surface-based observations of Martian dust devil timings and obtain a good match with the majority of surveys. We do not find a good match with orbital observations, which identify a diurnal distribution more closely matching that of terrestrial dust devils, but orbital observations have limited temporal coverage, biased towards the early afternoon. We propose that the generally accepted description of dust devil behaviour on Mars is incomplete, and that theories of dust devil formation may need to be modified specifically for the Martian environment. Further surveys of dust devil observations are required to support any such modifications. These surveys should include both surface and orbital observations, and the range of observations must encompass the full diurnal period and consider the wider meteorological context surrounding the observations.

  19. Building a Constituency for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Margie

    One of the goals of the West Virginia Task Force on Children, Youth and Families is to build a constituency for children. Two critical factors in building a constituency for children are a shared vision and influential leaders. The four principles used by the Task Force for building a constituency are: (1) defining a regional target for organizing…

  20. Building a Constituency for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Margie

    One of the goals of the West Virginia Task Force on Children, Youth and Families is to build a constituency for children. Two critical factors in building a constituency for children are a shared vision and influential leaders. The four principles used by the Task Force for building a constituency are: (1) defining a regional target for organizing…

  1. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  2. Dust agglomeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    John Marshall, an investigator at Ames Research Center and a principal investigator in the microgravity fluid physics program, is studying the adhesion and cohesion of particles in order to shed light on how granular systems behave. These systems include everything from giant dust clouds that form planets to tiny compressed pellets, such as the ones you swallow as tablets. This knowledge should help us control the grains, dust, and powders that we encounter or use on a daily basis. Marshall investigated electrostatic charge in microgravity on the first and second U.S. Microgravity Laboratory shuttle missions to see how grains aggregate, or stick together. With gravity's effects eliminated on orbit, Marshall found that the grains of sand that behaved ever so freely on Earth now behaved like flour. They would just glom together in clumps and were quite difficult to disperse. That led to an understanding of the prevalence of the electrostatic forces. The granules wanted to aggregate as little chains, like little hairs, and stack end to end. Some of the chains had 20 or 30 grains. This phenomenon indicated that another force, what Marshall believes to be an electrostatic dipole, was at work.(The diagram on the right emphasizes the aggregating particles in the photo on the left, taken during the USML-2 mission in 1995.)

  3. 40 CFR 63.1445 - What work practice standards must I meet for my fugitive dust sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Unloading of fugitive dust materials from trucks or railcars. (3) Outdoor piles used for storage of fugitive dust materials. (4) Bedding areas used for blending copper concentrate and other feed constituents. (5... transporting bulk quantities of fugitive dust materials. Paved roads and parking areas that are not used...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1445 - What work practice standards must I meet for my fugitive dust sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Unloading of fugitive dust materials from trucks or railcars. (3) Outdoor piles used for storage of fugitive dust materials. (4) Bedding areas used for blending copper concentrate and other feed constituents. (5... transporting bulk quantities of fugitive dust materials. Paved roads and parking areas that are not used...

  5. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  6. Industrial dust sulphate and its effects on biochemical and morphological characteristics of Morus (Morus alba) plant in NCR Delhi.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Gyan Prakash; Singh, Sudha; Kumar, Bablu; Kulshrestha, U C

    2015-03-01

    Abundance of CaCO3 rich soil dust is a typical feature of atmospheric environment in the Indian region. During prevailing dry weather conditions, dustfall is deposited onto the foliar surfaces of plant affecting their morphology, stomata and the levels of biochemical constituents. This study reports the chemical characteristics of dustfall, its effect on foliar morphology and biochemical constituents of a medicinal plant (Morus alba) at two sites which are differentiated on the basis of landuse pattern, viz., (i) residential, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), and (ii) industrial, Sahibabad (SB), located in the National Capital Region (NCR) of Delhi. Dustfall was characterized for major anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-) and SO4 (--)) and cations (Na(+), NH4 (+), K(+), Mg(++) and Ca(++)). Biochemical parameters such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, proline and ascorbic acid were determined in foliar samples. The results showed that the dustfall fluxes of all the major ions were found to be higher at the industrial site (SB) as compared to the residential site (JNU). Foliar analysis revealed that the levels of biochemical parameters were more affected at SB site due to higher levels of dust SO4 (--) contributed by various anthropogenic sources resulting in more stressful conditions affecting the biochemistry of the plant. The possible entry pathways for dust SO4 (--) into foliar cells are also discussed in the paper. It was noticed that the deposition of urban dust was responsible for the damage of trichome, epidermis, cuticle and stomatal guard cells significantly affecting foliar morphology. SB exhibited more damage to these morphological parts suggesting that industrial dust is harmful to the plants.

  7. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  8. Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. (Editor); Allamandola, Louis J. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A coherent picture of the dust composition and its physical characteristics in the various phases of the interstellar medium was the central theme. Topics addressed included: dust in diffuse interstellar medium; overidentified infrared emission features; dust in dense clouds; dust in galaxies; optical properties of dust grains; interstellar dust models; interstellar dust and the solar system; dust formation and destruction; UV, visible, and IR observations of interstellar extinction; and quantum-statistical calculations of IR emission from highly vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules.

  9. A major constituent of green tea, EGCG, inhibits the growth of a human cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells, through apoptosis, G(1) arrest, and regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woong Shick; Huh, Seung Won; Bae, Su-Mi; Lee, Insu P; Lee, Jun Mo; Namkoong, Sung Eun; Kim, Chong Kook; Sin, Jeong-Im

    2003-03-01

    A constituent of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been known to possess antiproliferative properties. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of EGCG in human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 associated cervical cancer cell line, CaSki cells. The growth inhibitory mechanism(s) and regulation of gene expression by EGCG were also evaluated. EGCG showed growth inhibitory effects in CaSki cells in a dose-dependent fashion, with an inhibitory dose (ID)(50) of approximately 35 microM. When CaSki cells were further tested for EGCG-induced apoptosis, apoptotic cells were significantly observed after 24 h at 100 microM EGCG. In contrast, an insignificant induction of apoptotic cells was observed at 35 microM EGCG. However, cell cycles at the G1 phase were arrested at 35 microM EGCG, suggesting that cell cycle arrests might precede apoptosis. When CaSki cells were tested for their gene expression using 384 cDNA microarray, an alteration in the gene expression was observed by EGCG treatment. EGCG downregulated the expression of 16 genes over time more than twofold. In contrast, EGCG upregulated the expression of four genes more than twofold, suggesting a possible gene regulatory role of EGCG. This data supports that EGCG can inhibit cervical cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest as well as regulation of gene expression in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo antitumor effects of EGCG were also observed. Thus, EGCG likely provides an additional option for a new and potential drug approach for cervical cancer patients.

  10. Dust in Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, H.; Graps, A.

    2007-01-01

    , analysis of the Galileo data is still ongoing. Other space missions such as Ulysses experienced its 2nd flyby at Jupiter in 2004 and the New Horizons mission Jupiter flyby is coming up. The recent years saw significant improvements of dust detection techniques. Most notably, the development of large-area mass analyzers combined with trajectory sensors has been a major step forward towards dedicated dust astronomy missions. Moving outside our solar system, with over 200 detected extrasolar planets, the dusty debris disk research is a rapidly expanding field. Dusty debris disks can serve as detailed tracers of extrasolar planetary systems. Even though the planets are obscured, they are nevertheless dynamically imprinted in the surrounding dust to provide our best clue to study solar systems like our own. Is our system dustier or rockier than the average? Is the timing of our late heavy bombardment typical? Improvements in models comparing with improving observational data for extrasolar debris disks are reaching the point to answer these questions. Significant progress has also been made in the laboratory with investigations of 'dusty' processes and material analyses of collected samples. The Scientific Organizing Committee defined the scientific content and selected the invited reviews. These proceedings contain 6 invited papers and 39 contributed papers. The papers reflect the scientific content of the meeting, covering the areas of cosmic dust research described here. Each paper was peer-reviewed. After each review, each paper was modified by the authors, accordingly. The workshop was sponsored by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, European Space Agency, Lunar and Planetary Institute and the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii at Manoa. It is a pleasure to thank Mary Cloud and all individuals who worked so hard behind the scenes to make this workshop a success. The generous help of all manuscript reviewers is gratefully

  11. The effects of combined application of inorganic Martian dust simulant and carbon dots on glutamate transport rat brain nerve terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina

    2016-07-01

    During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Recently, the research team of this study found the minor fractions of nanoparticles with the size ~ 50 -60 nm in Lunar and Martian dust stimulants (JSC-1a and JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin), whereas the average size of the simulants was 1 mm and 4mm, respectively (Krisanova et al., 2013). Also, the research team of this study discovered new phenomenon - the neuromodulating and neurotoxic effect of carbon nano-sized particles - Carbon dots (C-dots), originated from ash of burned carbon-containing product (Borisova et al, 2015). The aims of this study was to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant of inorganic Martian dust derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, carbon dots, on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon dot-contained Martian dust analogue. These effects were associated with action of carbon component of the upgraded Martian dust stimulant but not with its inorganic constituent.

  12. Unraveling the mystery of exozodiacal dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, Steve; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Thebault, Philippe; Absil, Olivier; Bonsor, Amy; Defrere, Denis; Kral, Quentin; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Jeremy; Coude du Foresto, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the habitable zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemisphere. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. In addition to the statistical analysis of our survey results, detailed modeling studies of single systems, modeling of possible dust creation mechanisms and the development of next-generation modeling tools dedicated to address the mystery of exozodiacal dust are main tasks of our project.

  13. How Do Martian Dust Devils Vary Throughout the Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R.; Lewis, S.; Balme, M. R.; Steele, L.

    2016-12-01

    Dust devils are vortices of air made visible by entrained dust particles. Dust devils have been observed on Earth and captured in many Mars lander and orbiter images. Martian dust devils may be important to the global climate and are parameterised within Mars Global Circulation Models (MGCMs). We show that the dust devil parameterisation in use within most MGCMs results in an unexpectedly high level of dust devil activity during morning hours. In contrast to expectations, based on the observed behaviour of terrestrial dust devils and the diurnal maximum thermal contrast at the surface, we find that large areas of the modelled Martian surface experience dust devil activity during the morning as well as in the afternoon, and that many locations experience a peak in dust devil activity before mid-sol. Using the UK MGCM, we study the amount of surface dust lifted by dust devils throughout the diurnal cycle as a proxy for the level of dust devil activity occurring. We compare the diurnal variation in dust devil activity with the diurnal variation of the variables included in the dust devil parameterisation. We find that the diurnal variation in dust devil activity is strongly modulated by near-surface wind speeds. Within the range of daylight hours, higher wind speeds tend to produce more dust devil activity, rather than the activity simply being governed by the availability of heat at the planet's surface, which peaks in early afternoon. We compare our results with observations of Martian dust devil timings and obtain a good match with the majority of surface-based surveys. We do not find such a good match with orbital observations, but these data tend to be biased in their temporal coverage. We propose that the generally accepted description of dust devil behaviour on Mars is incomplete, and that theories of dust devil formation may need to be modified specifically for the Martian environment. Further dust devil observations are required to support any such

  14. Modern dust aerosol availability in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xunming; Cheng, Hong; Che, Huizheng; Sun, Jimin; Lu, Huayu; Qiang, Mingrui; Hua, Ting; Zhu, Bingqi; Li, Hui; Ma, Wenyong; Lang, Lili; Jiao, Linlin; Li, Danfeng

    2017-08-18

    The sources of modern dust aerosols and their emission magnitudes are fundamental for linking dust with climate and environment. Using field sample data, wind tunnel experiments and statistical analysis, we determined the contributions of wadis, gobi (stony desert), lakebeds, riverbeds, and interdunes to modern dust aerosol availability in the three important potential dust sources including the Tarim Basin, Qaidam Basin, and Ala Shan Plateau of China. The results show that riverbeds are the dominant landscape for modern dust aerosol availabilities in the Qaidam Basin, while wadis, gobi, and interdunes are the main landscapes over the Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin. The Ala Shan Plateau and Tarim Basin are potential dust sources in northwestern China, while the Qaidam Basin is not a major source of the modern dust aerosols nowadays, and it is not acting in a significant way to the Loess Plateau presently. Moreover, most of modern dust aerosol emissions from China originated from aeolian processes with low intensities rather than from major dust events.

  15. Laboratory observations of self-excited dust acoustic shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Robert L.; Heinrich, Jonathon R.; Kim, Su-Hyun

    2009-11-01

    Dust acoustic waves have been discussed in connection with dust density structures in Saturn's rings and the Earth's mesosphere, and as a possible mechanism for triggering condensation of small grains in dust molecular clouds. Dust acoustic waves are a ubiquitous occurrence in laboratory dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges. We report observations of repeated, self-excited dust acoustic shock waves in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma using high-speed video imaging. Two major observations will be presented: (1) The self-steepening of a nonlinear dust acoustic wave into a saw-tooth wave with sharp gradient in dust density, very similar to those found in numerical solutions [1] of the fully nonlinear fluid equations for nondispersive dust acoustic waves, and (2) the collision and confluence of two dust acoustic shock waves. [4pt] [1] B. Eliasson and P. K. Shukla, Phys. Rev. E 69, 067401 (2004).

  16. Organic marker compounds in surface soils of crop fields from the San Joaquin Valley fugitive dust characterization study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Wolfgang F.; Medeiros, Patricia M.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Fugitive dust from the erosion of arid and fallow land, after harvest and during agricultural activities, can at times be the dominant source of airborne particulate matter. In order to assess the source contributions to a given site, chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling is typically used together with source-specific profiles for organic and inorganic constituents. Yet, the mass balance closure can be achieved only if emission profiles for all major sources are considered. While a higher degree of mass balance closure has been achieved by adding individual organic marker compounds to elements, ions, EC, and organic carbon (OC), major source profiles for fugitive dust are not available. Consequently, neither the exposure of the population living near fugitive dust sources from farm land, nor its chemical composition is known. Surface soils from crop fields are enriched in plant detritus from both above and below ground plant parts; therefore, surface soil dust contains natural organic compounds from the crops and soil microbiota. Here, surface soils derived from fields growing cotton, safflower, tomato, almonds, and grapes have been analyzed for more than 180 organic compounds, including natural lipids, saccharides, pesticides, herbicides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The major result of this study is that selective biogenically derived organic compounds are suitable markers of fugitive dust from major agricultural crop fields in the San Joaquin Valley. Aliphatic homologs exhibit the typical biogenic signatures of epicuticular plant waxes and are therefore indicative of fugitive dust emissions and mechanical abrasion of wax protrusions from leaf surfaces. Saccharides, among which α- and β-glucose, sucrose, and mycose show the highest concentrations in surface soils, have been proposed to be generic markers for fugitive dust from cultivated land. Similarly, steroids are strongly indicative of fugitive dust. Yet, triterpenoids reveal the most

  17. The cosmic dust analyzer: Experimental evaluation of an impact ionization model. [considering thermal equilibrium plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friichtenicht, J. F.; Roy, N. L.; Becker, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    A thermal equilibrium plasma model is used to process data from an impact ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to convert the raw ion data to relative abundances of the elemental constituents of cosmic dust particles.

  18. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  19. The Fate of Saharan Dust Across the Atlantic and Implications for a Central American Dust Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowottnick, E.; Colarco, P.; da Silva, A.; Hlavka, D.; McGill, M.

    2011-01-01

    Saharan dust was observed over the Caribbean basin during the summer 2007 NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4) field experiment. Airborne Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) and satellite observations from MODIS suggest a barrier to dust transport across Central America into the eastern Pacific. We use the NASA GEOS-5 atmospheric transport model with online aerosol tracers to perform simulations of the TC4 time period in order to understand the nature of this barrier. Our simulations are driven by the Modem Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological analyses. We evaluate our baseline simulated dust distributions using MODIS and CALIOP satellite and ground-based AERONET sun photometer observations. GEOS-5 reproduces the observed location, magnitude, and timing of major dust events, but our baseline simulation does not develop as strong a barrier to dust transport across Central America as observations suggest. Analysis of the dust transport dynamics and lost processes suggest that while both mechanisms play a role in defining the dust transport barrier, loss processes by wet removal of dust are about twice as important as transport. Sensitivity analyses with our model showed that the dust barrier would not exist without convective scavenging over the Caribbean. The best agreement between our model and the observations was obtained when dust wet removal was parameterized to be more aggressive, treating the dust as we do hydrophilic aerosols.

  20. Electric Dust Devils and Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, N. O.; Yana, C.

    2004-12-01

    Electrical fields measurements in terrestrial dust devils show that they maintain tremendous charge separation and that their electric fields exceeds the breakdown potential (~10 kV/m) of the Martian atmosphere (Farrell et al., 2002, 2003; Krauss et al., 2002; Renno et al., 2004). Typical Martian dust devils are be up to 100 times larger and much stronger than the small terrestrial analogues. Martian dust devils have higher dust content and may produce even stronger electrical fields. Indeed, the dust devils observed in the Pathfinder images have about 700 times the dust content of the local background atmosphere (Metzger et al., 1999). Thus, strong charge separations and electric-field breakdown are likely to occur on Martian dust devils and dust storms. Our theory (Renno et al., 2004) and laboratory experiments in a Mars chamber shows that collisions between sand and dust particles produce non-thermal microwave radiation. The non-thermal microwave emission allows not only the indirect detection of electric activity but also the determination of the physical properties of Martian sand and dust by remote sensing. Besides being geologically important, electrically charged Martian dust devils and dust storms are potential hazards to Landers and will be dangerous to future astronauts exploring its surface. Indeed, the design of adequate mechanical and electrical systems for these Landers cannot progress effectively without a better understanding of Martian dust devils and dust storms. Moreover, ancillary phenomena associated with electrically charged vortices can ionize atmospheric gases and might have important implications for atmosphere chemistry and even habitability.

  1. Impact of Atmospheric Mineral Dust on the Surface Energy Balance and PAR in the NEESPI Study Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolik, I. N.; Dickinson, R. E.; Dai, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Large uncertainties in the effects of changing atmospheric aerosols are among the major factors currently limiting our understanding of and ability to predict global climate changes. The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Science Plan identifies atmospheric aerosols and pollutions and their impacts on and interactions with the Earth systems (and terrestrial ecosystem dynamics in particular) as a cross- cutting topic of special interest. Wind-blown mineral dust, being an important atmospheric constituent in the NEESPI drylands, can exert a strong radiative impact as well as trigger a multitude of complex feedbacks that remain poorly defined. Given the intimate coupling between the land processes and wind-blown atmospheric dust and their importance in the climate system, an improved understanding of how land-use/land-cover changes affect Asian dust and associated feedbacks is urgently needed to make assessments of climate change more realistic. The focus of this talk will be on the impact of atmospheric dust on the surface energy balance and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Both processes play a key role in the ecosystem functioning as well as overall land-atmosphere interactions, but they are rarely considered in an integrated fashion. Focusing on Central and East Asia, we present the results of extensive radiative transfer modeling in the presence of dust over the different type of land surfaces. The surface albedo and land emissivity retrieved from MODIS and ASTER, respectively, were included in the modeling. The modifications of the radiative fields are quantified and used to estimate changes of surface temperatures, surface fluxes of heat and moisture, boundary layer height, surface winds and other dust induced changes. Formulation of the possible feedbacks in the coupled land- atmospheric dust system and implications for the integrated systems modeling will be addressed.

  2. A Novel Dust Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, E.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Kempf, S.; Harris, D.; Conlon, T.; Auer, S.

    2001-11-01

    Dust particles in space, like photons, are born at remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and the particles' bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. A dust telescope is a combination of a dust trajectory sensor together with a chemical composition analyzer for dust particles. A novel dust telescope is described. It consists of a highly sensitive dust trajectory sensor, and a large area chemical dust analyzer. It can provide valuable information about the particles' birthplace which may not be accessible by other techniques. Dust particles' trajectories are determined by the measurement of the electric signals that are induced when a charged grain flies through an appropriately configured electrode systems. After the successful identification of a few charged micron-sized dust grains in space by the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer, this dust telescope has a ten fold increased sensitivity of charge detection (10-16 Coulombs) and will be able to obtain trajectories for sub-micron sized dust grains. State-of-the art dust chemical analyzers have sufficient mass resolution to resolve ions with atomic mass numbers above 100. However, since their impact areas are small they can analyze statistically meaningful numbers of grains only in the dust-rich environments of comets or ringed planets. Therefore, this dust telescope includes a large area (0.1 m2) chemical dust analyzer of mass resolution > 100 that will allow us to obtain statistically significant measurements of interplanetary and interstellar dust grains in space.

  3. The impact of surface dust source exhaustion on the martian dust cycle, dust storms and interannual variability, as simulated by the MarsWRF General Circulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Claire E.; Richardson, Mark I.

    2015-09-01

    Observations of albedo on Mars suggest a largely invariant long-term mean surface dust distribution, but also reveal variations on shorter (seasonal to annual) timescales, particularly associated with major dust storms. We study the impact of finite surface dust availability on the dust cycle in the MarsWRF General Circulation Model (GCM), which uses radiatively active dust with parameterized 'dust devil' and wind stress dust lifting to enable the spontaneous production of dust storms, and tracks budgets of dust lifting, deposition, and total surface dust inventory. We seek a self-consistent, long-term 'steady state' dust cycle for present day Mars, consisting of (a) a surface dust distribution that varies from year to year but is constant longer-term and in balance with current dust redistribution processes, and (b) a fixed set of dust lifting parameters that continue to produce major storms for this distribution of surface dust. We relax the GCM's surface dust inventory toward this steady state using an iterative process, in which dust lifting rate parameters are increased as progressively more surface sites are exhausted of dust. Late in the equilibration process, the GCM exhibits quasi-steady state behavior in which few new surface grid points are exhausted during a 60 year period with constant dust lifting parameters. Complex regional-scale dust redistribution occurs on time-scales from less than seasonal to decadal, and the GCM generates regional to global dust storms with many realistic features. These include merging regional storms, cross-equatorial storms, and the timing and location of several storm types, though very early major storms and large amounts of late storm activity are not reproduced. Surface dust availability in key onset and growth source regions appears vital for 'early' major storms, with replenishment of these regions required before another large storm can occur, whereas 'late' major storms appear primarily dependent on atmospheric

  4. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  5. Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Crater wall dust avalanches in southern Arabia Terra.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 10.3, Longitude 24.5 East (335.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  6. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  7. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  8. Characterization of minerals in air dust particles in the state of Tamilnadu, India through FTIR, XRD and SEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Rajkumar, P.

    2014-11-01

    The abstract of this paper explains the presence of minerals in air which causes great concern regarding public health issues. The spectroscopic investigation of air dust particles of several samples in various locations in the state of Tamilnadu, India is reported. Qualitative analyses were carried out to determine the major and minor constituent minerals present in the samples based on the FTIR, XRD absorption peaks. This study also identified the minerals like quartz, asbestos, kaolinite, calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, nacrite and several other trace minerals in the air dust particles. The presents of quartz is mainly found in all the samples invariably. Hence the percentage of quartz and its crystalline nature were determined with the help of extinction co-efficient and crystallinity index respectively. The shape and size of the particulates are studied with SEM analysis.

  9. Fast and automated characterization of major constituents in rat biofluid after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot extract using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and MetaboLynx.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianming; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Yuping; Qian, Dawei; Su, Shulan

    2010-02-01

    In drug metabolism research, the setting up of a complex series of mass spectrometry experiments and the subsequent analysis of the large amounts of data produced are often time-consuming. In this paper, we describe a strategy using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOFMS) with automated data analysis software (MetaboLynx) for fast analysis of the metabolic profile of flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot. Rat plasma and urine samples collected 1 h and 0-12 h after oral administration of Abelmoschus manihot were analyzed by UPLC/QTOFMS within 15 min. The post-acquisition data were processed using MetaboLynx. With key parameters carefully set, MetaboLynx is able to show the presence of a wide range of metabolites with only a limited requirement for manual intervention and data interpretation time. A total of 16 and 38 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine compared with blank samples. The results indicated that methylation and glucuronidation after deglycosylation were the major metabolic pathways of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot. The present study provided important information about the metabolism of flavonoid glycosides in Abelmoschus manihot which will be helpful for fully understanding the mechanism of action of this herb. Furthermore, this work demonstrated the potential of the UPLC/QTOFMS approach using MetaboLynx for fast and automated identification of metabolites from Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Structural constituents of the seagrass Posidonia australis.

    PubMed

    Torbatinejad, Nour Mohammad; Annison, Geoffrey; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay; Sabine, John R

    2007-05-16

    Large amounts of seagrass, Posidonia australis, wash onto beaches in South Australia each year, causing substantial environmental problems. It was of interest to assess the potential for an economic use of this seagrass-such as for animal nutrition. Structural constituents of P. australis (green, freshly deposited, and both washed and unwashed samples from dried deposits on the beach) were examined and compared. Glucose, galactose, and mannose were the dominant sugars (>10 g kg-1 of dry matter) in the soluble fraction of nonstarch polysaccharides in all seagrass forms. The content of the insoluble constituents of the nonstarch polysaccharides was significantly higher than soluble nonstarch polysaccharide constituents (P < 0.01). Data showed that the major constituents of the Posidonia cell wall are cellulose and lignin (190-209 and 145-154 g kg-1, respectively). The crude protein content of Posidonia ranged from 54 to 61 g kg-1. Results showed no biologically significant compositional differences between the four different forms of seagrass tested. Dry, unwashed seagrass, which is readily available in large quantities and easily harvested, may have potential as a foodstuff for ruminant animals.

  11. Constituents of response rates

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Joseph J.; Rector, Brian L.

    1979-01-01

    Response rate and the proportion of time pigeons allocated to a key-pecking activity were measured on several basic types of reinforcement schedules. Reinforcement frequency was varied within each type of basic schedule, and the effects on two constituents of response rate were noted. Propensity, the proportion of time the birds spent on a platform in front of the key, showed very consistent effects as reinforcement frequency varied: in general, it decreased when reinforcement frequency markedly decreased and it increased when reinforcement frequency increased. Speed, key pecks per unit of time spent on the platform, showed inconsistent effects when reinforcement frequency varied. Consequently, response rate showed less consistent effects than did propensity. Cumulative response records demonstrated the existence of several different types of transitions or boundary states between the key-pecking activity and other activities. The types of transitions that occurred between activities depended on both the type of reinforcement schedule and the frequency of reinforcement. The propensity data support the position that general laws of behavior can be based on temporal measures of behavior. The speed data suggest that, if a complete assessment of the dynamic properties of behavior is to be achieved, measures of behavior must incorporate the structural variations in the operant unit. PMID:16812155

  12. Levels of total suspended particulate matter and major trace elements in Kosovo: a source identification and apportionment study.

    PubMed

    Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    2005-04-01

    Concentration levels of total suspended particles (TSP) and 27 major, minor and trace elemental components were determined at four sites in Kosovo through a 1-year survey (January-December 2002). Ambient concentrations were evaluated in comparison to limit values. The origin of elemental TSP constituents was investigated by calculating enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios. Multivariate statistics, such as hierarchical cluster analysis and factor analysis, were also employed to identify emission sources. A multivariate statistical receptor model (Absolute Principal Component Analysis, APCA) was applied to quantify source contributions. Soil dust, cement production, vehicular emissions, brake wear, and fuel combustion were identified as major sources with variable contributions at the four sampling sites.

  13. Mining cosmic dust from the blue ice lakes of Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurette, M.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fehrenback, L.; Hammer, C.; Jehano, C.; Thomsen, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Extraterrestrial material, most of which invisible settles to Earth's surface as dust particles smaller than a millimeter in size were investigated. Particles of 1/10 millimeter size fall at a rate of one/sq m/yr collection of extraterrestrial dust is important because the recovered cosmic dust particles can provide important information about comets. Comets are the most important source of dust in the solar system and they are probably the major source of extraterrestrial dust that is collectable at the Earth's surface. A new collection site for cosmic dust, in an environment where degradation by weathering is minimal is reported. It is found that the blue ice lakes on the Greenland ice cap provide an ideal location for collection of extraterrestrial dust particles larger than 0.1 mm in size. It is found that the lakes contain large amounts of cosmic dust which is much better preserved than similar particles recovered from the ocean floor.

  14. Braided TARs in Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-03

    Transverse aeolian ridges TARs are commonly found throughout the Martian tropics, including rocky regions such as Syrtis Major that are largely devoid of dust as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a 350 μm dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350 μm = 114-650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3-34 × 107 M ⊙ and 0.03%-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  16. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the Dust Analyzer (DA) and the High Rate Detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the Chemical Analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(exp 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring, plane crossings.

  17. Desert dust hazards: A global review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, N. J.

    2017-02-01

    Dust storms originate in many of the world's drylands and frequently present hazards to human society, both within the drylands themselves but also outside drylands due to long-range transport of aeolian sediments. Major sources of desert dust include the Sahara, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and parts of Australia, but dust-raising occurs all across the global drylands and, on occasion, beyond. Dust storms occur throughout the year and they vary in frequency and intensity over a number of timescales. Long-range transport of desert dust typically takes place along seasonal transport paths. Desert dust hazards are here reviewed according to the three phases of the wind erosion system: where dust is entrained, during the transport phase, and on deposition. This paper presents a synthesis of these hazards. It draws on empirical examples in physical geography, medical geology and geomorphology to discuss case studies from all over the world and in various fields. These include accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones - where dust storms represent a severe form of accelerated soil erosion - the health effects of air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution. Given the importance of desert dust as a hazard to human societies, it is surprising to note that there have been relatively few attempts to assess their impact in economic terms. Existing studies in this regard are also reviewed, but the wide range of impacts discussed in this paper indicates that desert dust storms deserve more attention in this respect.

  18. California Dust and Ash

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Airborne Dust and Ash over Southern California     ... during late fall and winter swept large amounts of dust and ash across the skies of San Diego and over the Pacific Ocean on November 27, ...

  19. Dust on the Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-11-02

    NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows that the dust avalanches found on this crater rim have exposed darker rocky material on an otherwise dust coated slope. This unnamed crater is located east of Schiaparelli Crater.

  20. Dust Plume off Mauritania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A thick plume of dust blew off the coast of Mauritania in western Africa on October 2, 2007. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite observed the dust plume as it headed toward the southwest over the Atlantic Ocean. In this image, the dust varies in color from nearly white to medium tan. The dust plume is easier to see over the dark background of the ocean, but the plume stretches across the land surface to the east, as well. The dust plume's structure is clearest along the coastline, where relatively clear air pockets separate distinct puffs of dust. West of that, individual pillows of dust push together to form a more homogeneous plume. Near its southwest tip, the plume takes on yet another shape, with stripes of pale dust fanning out toward the northwest. Occasional tiny white clouds dot the sky overhead, but skies are otherwise clear.

  1. Earth GRAM-99 and trace constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justus, C.; Duvall, A.; Keller, V.

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. As a result of that study, there was no need identified for updating GRAM constituent climatology is the 0-120 km height range. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies

  2. Earth GRAM-99 and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Duvall, Aleta; Keller, Vernon W.

    2004-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, GRAM thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR International Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH4, and CO2. At COSPAR 2002 a comparison was made between GRAM constituents below 120 km and those provided by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology. No current need to update GRAM constituent climatology in that height range was identified. This report examines GRAM (MET) constituents between 100 and 1000 km altitudes. Discrepancies are noted between GRAM (MET) constituent number densities and mass density or molecular weight. Near 110 km altitude, there is up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mass density (with mass density being valid and number densities requiring adjustment). Near 700 km altitude there is also up to about 25% discrepancy between MET number density and mean molecular weight (with molecular weight requiring adjustment). In neither case are MET mass density estimates invalidated. These discrepancies have been traced to MET subroutines SLV (which affects 90-170 km height range) and SLVH (which affects helium above 440 km altitude). With these discrepancies corrected, results are presented to

  3. Acoustic cues to Nehiyawewin constituency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Clare; Muehlbauer, Jeff

    2005-04-01

    This study examines how speakers use acoustic cues, e.g., pitch and pausing, to establish syntactic and semantic constituents in Nehiyawewin, an Algonquian language. Two Nehiyawewin speakers autobiographies, which have been recorded, transcribed, and translated by H. C. Wolfart in collaboration with a native speaker of Nehiyawewin, provide natural-speech data for the study. Since it is difficult for a non-native-speaker to reliably distinguish Nehiyawewin constituents, an intermediary is needed. The transcription provides this intermediary through punctuation marks (commas, semi-colons, em-dashes, periods), which have been shown to consistently mark constituency structure [Nunberg, CSLI 1990]. The acoustic cues are thus mapped onto the punctuated constituents, and then similar constituents are compared to see what acoustic cues they share. Preliminarily, the clearest acoustic signal to a constituent boundary is a pitch drop preceding the boundary and/or a pitch reset on the syllable following the boundary. Further, constituent boundaries marked by a period consistently end on a low pitch, are followed by a pitch reset of 30-90 Hz and have an average pause of 1.9 seconds. I also discuss cross-speaker cues, and prosodic cues that do not correlate to punctuation, with implications for the transcriptional view of orthography [Marckwardt, Oxford 1942].

  4. Wind modeling of Chihuahuan Desert dust outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Rivera, Nancy I.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gebhart, Kristi A.; Hand, Jennifer L.; Bleiweiss, Max P.; Fitzgerald, Rosa M.

    The Chihuahuan Desert region of North America is a significant source of mineral aerosols in the Western Hemisphere, and Chihuahuan Desert dust storms frequently impact the Paso del Norte (El Paso, USA/Ciudad Juarez, Mexico) metropolitan area. A statistical analysis of HYSPLIT back trajectory residence times evaluated airflow into El Paso on all days and on days with synoptic (non-convective) dust events in 2001-2005. The incremental probability—a measure of the areas most likely to have been traversed by air masses arriving at El Paso during dusty days—was only strongly positively associated with the region west-southwest of the city, a zone of known dust source areas. Focused case studies were made of major dust events on 15 April and 15 December 2003. Trajectories approached the surface and MM5 (NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model) wind speeds increased at locations consistent with dust sources observed in satellite imagery on those dates. Back trajectory and model analyses suggested that surface cyclones adjacent to the Chihuahuan Desert were associated with the extreme dust events, consistent with previous studies of dust storms in the Southern High Plains to the northeast. The recognition of these meteorological patterns serves as a forecast aid for prediction of dust events likely to impact the Paso del Norte.

  5. Health risks due to coffee dust.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Bittner, Cordula; Baur, Xaver

    2009-08-01

    This study assessed current health risks due to occupational exposure to coffee dust. We performed a cross-sectional study in a coffee haulage company (n = 24), a coffee silo (n = 19), and a decaffeinating company (n = 17). Cross-shift and cross-week case histories of these employees as well as lung function values were recorded. During the handling of green coffee, measurements of airborne dust were conducted. The employees in these workplaces were mainly affected by erythematous and rhinoconjunctival symptoms. They occurred especially in subjects exposed to a high dust load (> 10 mg of inhalable dust per cubic meter of air; n = 28) [Pearson chi(2) test, p = 0.020 and p = 0.023]. IgE antibodies to green coffee and castor beans were detected in 3 workers and 10 workers, respectively. The majority of them (two employees and six employees, respectively) had shown respiratory symptoms during the past 12 months. The preshift lung function values were below average but were not dependent on the level of the inhalable coffee dust exposure. Employees with a coffee dust load > 10 mg/m(3) of air showed higher unspecific bronchial responsiveness more frequently than those with lower exposures. During the transshipment (especially during unloading) of green coffee, a high and clinically relevant exposure to irritative and sensitizing dust occurs. Therefore, efforts to reduce these dust exposures are generally recommended.

  6. Mineral dust transport in the Arctic modelled with FLEXPART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot Zwaaftink, Christine; Grythe, Henrik; Stohl, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Aeolian transport of mineral dust is suggested to play an important role in many processes. For instance, mineral aerosols affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and mineral deposits influence ice sheet mass balances and terrestrial and ocean ecosystems. While many efforts have been done to model global dust transport, relatively little attention has been given to mineral dust in the Arctic. Even though this region is more remote from the world's major dust sources and dust concentrations may be lower than elsewhere, effects of mineral dust on for instance the radiation balance can be highly relevant. Furthermore, there are substantial local sources of dust in or close to the Arctic (e.g., in Iceland), whose impact on Arctic dust concentrations has not been studied in detail. We therefore aim to estimate contributions of different source regions to mineral dust in the Arctic. We have developed a dust mobilization routine in combination with the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART to make such estimates. The lack of details on soil properties in many areas requires a simple routine for global simulations. However, we have paid special attention to the dust sources on Iceland. The mobilization routine does account for topography, snow cover and soil moisture effects, in addition to meteorological parameters. FLEXPART, driven with operational meteorological data from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, was used to do a three-year global dust simulation for the years 2010 to 2012. We assess the model performance in terms of surface concentration and deposition at several locations spread over the globe. We will discuss how deposition and dust load patterns in the Arctic change throughout seasons based on the source of the dust. Important source regions for mineral dust found in the Arctic are not only the major desert areas, such as the Sahara, but also local bare-soil regions. From our model results, it appears that total dust load in the

  7. Effect of dust ion collision on dust ion acoustic waves in the framework of damped Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in presence of external periodic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanti Das, Tushar; Ali, Rustam; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of dust ion acoustic waves (DIAWs) is investigated in a magnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are cold ions, superthermal electrons, and dust particles in the framework of a damped Zakharov-Kuznetsov (dZK) equation in the presence of externally applied periodic force. The dZK equation is derived employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The effect of dust ion collision on the quasiperiodic and chaotic motion of dust ion acoustic waves is discussed. It is observed that the collision frequency νid 0 plays the role of a switching parameter from the quasiperiodic route to chaos for the DIAWs.

  8. Niamey Dust Observations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Flynn, Connor

    2008-10-01

    Niamey aerosol are composed of two main components: dust due to the proximity of the Sahara Desert, and soot from local and regional biomass burning. The purpose of this data product is to identify when the local conditions are dominated by the dust component so that the properties of the dust events can be further studied.

  9. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  10. Dust in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Armosky, Brad J.

    2004-01-01

    Space is seeming less and less like empty space as new discoveries and reexaminations fill in the gaps. And, ingenuity and technology, like the Spitzer Space Telescope, is allowing examination of the far reaches of the Milky Way and beyond. Even dust is getting its due, but not the dust everyone is familiar with. People seldom consider the dust in…

  11. Middle East Dust

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... only some of the dust over eastern Syria and southeastern Turkey can be discerned. The dust is much more obvious in the center panel, ... 18, 2002 - A large dust plume extends across Syria and Turkey. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  12. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  13. Identifying sources of aeolian mineral dust: Present and past

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, Daniel R; Prospero, Joseph M; Baddock, Matthew C; Gill, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    glacial periods are likely due to greater production of glaciogenic dust particles from expanded ice sheets and mountain glaciers, but could also include dust inputs from exposed continental and insular shelves now submerged. Future dust sources are difficult to assess, but will likely differ from those of the present because of global warming. Global warming could bring about shifts in dust sources by changes in degree or type of vegetation cover, changes in wind strength, and increases or decreases in the size of water bodies. A major uncertainty in assessing dust sources of the future is related to changes inhuman land use, which could affect land surface cover, particularly due to increased agricultural endeavors and water usage.

  14. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Major Constituents Analysis for the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandrake, Lukas; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Madzunkov, Stojan; Macaskill, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) can provide a means for monitoring the air within enclosed environments such as the International Space Station, the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), a Lunar habitat, or another vehicle traveling to Mars. The software processes a sum total spectra (counts vs. mass channel) with the intention of computing abundance ratios for N2, O2, CO2, Ar2, and H2O. A brute-force powerset expansion compares a library of expected mass lines with those found within the data. Least squares error is combined with a penalty term for using small peaks.

  17. The search for refractory interplanetary dust particles from preindustrial aged Antarctic ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Webb, Susan J.; Thomas, Kathie

    1988-01-01

    In a study of refractory interplanetary dust particles, preindustrial-aged Antarctic ice samples have been collected, melted, and filtered to separate the particle load. Particles containing a significant amount of aluminum, titanium, and/or calcium were singled out for detailed SEM and STEM characterization. The majority of these particles are shown to be volcanic tephra from nearby volcanic centers. Six spherical aggregates were encountered that consist of submicron-sized grains of rutile within polycrystalline cristobalite. These particles are probably of terrestrial volcanic origin, but have not been previously reported from any environment. One aggregate particle containing fassaite and hibonite is described as a probable interplanetary dust particle. The constituent grain sizes of this particle vary from 0.1 to 0.3 microns, making it significantly more fine-grained than meteoritic calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions. This particle is mineralogically and morphologically similar to recently reported refractory interplanetary dust particles collected from the stratosphere, and dissimilar to the products of modern spacecraft debris.

  18. A Tilt at Constituent Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, C. A.

    The history of the transformation between current and constituent quarks, introduced 30 years ago to explain the pattern of the axial charge matrix elements and the saturation of current algebra, is briefly recollected. The work of Buccella, Kleinert et al. is succinctly recalled and its interpretation in terms of the so-called Melosh transformation, as well as more recent work to understand the surprisingly simple properties of the constituent quarks.

  19. Cosmic Dust VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Li, Aigen; Inoue, Akio K.; Jäger, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    This special issue is primarily devoted to the 6th meeting on Cosmic Dust (COSMIC DUST VI), which was held at CPS (Center for Planetary Science) in Kobe, Japan, on August 5-9, 2013. This meeting was coordinated in an order where a friendly and welcoming atmosphere persuaded the participants of the meeting to develop human relations and interactions among themselves. This has been our interdisciplinary approach to answering the question of where dust comes from and where dust goes. We briefly review some of the exciting papers presented at the meeting and provide perspectives for the development of cosmic dust research.

  20. Long-term trend of chemical constituents in precipitation in Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, from 1990 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Tomoaki; Iwase, Tamami; Ueda, Hideko; Suda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Shigeru; Dokiya, Yukiko; Fushimi, Katsuhiko; Hosoe, Morikazu

    2005-03-01

    In order to understand the actual status and mechanism of acid rain, it is important to know the pH of precipitation and its chemical constituents on a continuous and regular basis over a wide area. This study examines acid rain over a wide area using an observational network in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, and analyzes the major chemical constituents of every precipitation sample. Precipitation was collected continuously for a period of 12 years from June 1990 to May 2002 at several sampling sites in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and its pH and chemical constituent concentrations were measured. The average pH ranged from 4.23 to 4.62, clearly indicating acidification of precipitation over the entire Tokyo metropolitan area. A time-trend model was applied to describe temporal variations of chemical constituent concentrations, including annual change rate, seasonal variation, and precipitation effects. Seasonal and annual trends for the past 12 years were examined with the model, using the least squares method. Nonsea salt (nss)-Ca2+ shows a maximum value in early spring, a seasonality probably caused by calcium-rich particles in airborne yellow dust from Asia. Slightly decreasing annual trends of nss-SO4(2-) may correspond to the recent decreasing trend of atmospheric SO2 gas concentrations in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The annual trends of NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ show a large site-to-site difference. The increasing NO3-, NH4+, and nss-Ca2+ concentrations at inland suburban sites may be caused by increases in their local sources such as vehicle traffic and municipal waste incineration. The annual change rate of H+ is slightly negative or almost zero at every site, so the acidification of precipitation has not become worse since 1990 over the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  1. Toroidal dust motion in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Reichstein, Torben; Pilch, Iris; Piel, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    In a magnetized anodic plasma, dust particles can be confined in a torus-shaped cloud with a distinct dust-free region (void) in its center. The formation of these clouds and their dynamical behavior are experimentally studied with a new observation geometry. The particles rotate about the major axis of the torus. A refined model for the description of the particle dynamics is presented that accounts for inertia and many-body effects.

  2. Dust in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polikarpova, O. L.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2017-02-01

    The conditions for the destruction of dust in hot gas in galaxy clusters are investigated. It is argued that extinction measurements can be subject to selection effects, hindering their use in obtaining trustworthy estimates of dust masses in clusters. It is shown, in particular, that the ratio of the dust mass to the extinction M d / S d increases as dust grains are disrupted, due to the rapid destruction of small grains. Over long times, this ratio can asymptotically reach values a factor of three higher than the mean value in the interstellar medium in the Galaxy. This lowers dust-mass estimates based on measurements of extinction in galaxy clusters. The characteristic lifetime of dust in hot cluster gas is determined by its possible thermal isolation by the denser medium of gas fragments within which the dust is ejected from galaxies, and can reach 100-300 million years, depending on the kinematics and morphology of the fragments. As a result, the mass fraction of dust in hot cluster gas can reach 1-3% of the Galactic value. Over its lifetime, dust can also be manifest through its far-infrared emission. The emission characteristics of the dust change as it is disrupted, and the ratio of the fluxes at 350 and 850 μm can increase appreciably. This can potentially serve as an indicator of the state of the dust and ambient gas.

  3. Dust Mitigation Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    A document describes the development and demonstration of an apparatus, called a dust mitigation vehicle, for reducing the amount of free dust on the surface of the Moon. The dust mitigation vehicle would be used to pave surfaces on the Moon to prevent the dust from levitating or adhering to surfaces. The basic principle of operation of these apparatuses is to use a lens or a dish mirror to concentrate solar thermal radiation onto a small spot to heat lunar regolith. In the case of the prototype dust mitigation vehicle, a Fresnel lens was used to heat a surface layer of regolith sufficiently to sinter or melt dust grains into a solid mass. The prototype vehicle has demonstrated paving rates up to 1.8 square meters per day. The proposed flight design of the dust mitigation vehicle is also described.

  4. Interstellar Dust - A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2012-01-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic materials. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar physics and chemistry and in the formation of organic materials, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Laboratory experiments that are performed under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments to provide information on the nature, the size and the structure of interstellar dust particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. A review of the properties of dust and of the laboratory experiments that are conducted to study the formation processes of dust grains from molecular precursors will be given.

  5. Light Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 October 2004 Many Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images exhibit wild patterns of dark streaks thought to have formed by the passage of many dust devils. The dust devils disrupt the dust coating the martian surface, leaving behind a streak. However, not all dust devils make streaks, and not all dust devil streaks are dark. Some are light---it simply depends upon which is darker, the substrate or the dust that the spinning vortex disrupts. The example of light-toned dust devil streaks shown here is located in southern Schiaparelli Basin near 5.3oS, 343.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/upper left.

  6. Quiescence of Asian dust events in South Korea and Japan during 2012 spring: Dust outbreaks and transports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yun Gon; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Kim, Joo-Hong; Kim, Jhoon

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the quiescence of Asian dust events in South Korea and Japan during the spring of 2012, presenting a synoptic characterization and suggesting possible causes. Synoptic observation reports from the two countries confirmed that spring 2012 had the lowest number of dust events in 2000-2012. The monthly dust frequency (DF) in March 2012 over the dust source regions, i.e., deserts in northern China and Mongolia, indicated a significant decrease compared to the 12 year (2000-2011) March climatology. The DF in April 2012 was comparable to the 12 year climatology values, but in May 2012 it was slightly lower. The daily Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index and the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System simulations revealed stagnant dust movement in March and May 2012. Anomalous anticyclones north of the source regions decreased the dust outbreaks and enhanced the southeasterly winds, resulting in few dust events over the downwind countries (i.e., South Korea and Japan). By contrast, in April 2012, a strong anomalous cyclone east of Lake Baikal slightly increased the dust outbreaks over northeastern China. However, the major dust outbreaks were not transported downwind because of exceptional dust pathways, i.e., the southeastward pathway of dust transport was unusually blocked by the expansion of an anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the Sea of Okhotsk, with dust being transported northeast.

  7. Dust charging effects on test charge potential in a multi-ion dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S.

    2009-11-01

    The Debye-Hückel and oscillatory wake potentials caused by a test charge are studied in a multi-ion dusty plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann distributed electrons and light positive ions, the heavy mobile negative ions, and static but charge fluctuating dust particles. For this purpose, fluid equations are employed to obtain the dielectric constant of the dust-negative-ion acoustic wave involving the negative ions and dust charge fluctuation effects. Theoretical and numerical investigations have revealed the modification in the Debye-Hückel and wake potentials due to the effects of dust relaxation rate, dust absorption frequency, dust grain radius, and negative ion temperature. The present results should be important to form new materials in the presence of negative ions in laboratory as well as dust coagulation/agglomeration in space dusty plasmas.

  8. [Geochemical characteristics and sources of atmospheric particulates in Shanghai during dust storm event].

    PubMed

    Qian, Peng; Zheng, Xiang-min; Zhou, Li-min

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric particulates were sampled from three sampling sites of Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts in Shanghai between Oct. , 2009 and Oct. , 2010. In addition, particulate samples were also collected from Nantong, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, and Beijing city where dust storm dust transported along during spring. Element compositions of atmospheric particulates were determined by XRF and ICP-MS. The concentrations of major and trace elements in atmospheric particulates from Putuo, Minhang and Qingpu Districts were similar, indicating their common source. The UCC standardization distribution map showed that the major element composition of dust storm samples was similar to that of loess in northwestern China, indicating that the dust storm dust was mainly derived from Western desert and partly from local area. The REE partition patterns of dust storm dusts among different cities along dust transport route were similar to each other, as well as to those of northern loess, which indicates that the dust storm samples may have the same material source as loess, which mainly comes from crust material. However, the REE partition patterns of non-dust storm particulates were different among the studied cities, and different from those of loess, which suggests that the non-dust storm samples may be mixed with non-crust source material, which is different from dust storm dust and loess. The major element composition and REE partition pattern are effective indicators for source tracing of dust storm dust.

  9. Assessment of personal direct-reading dust monitors for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The performances of five portable direct-reading dust monitors were investigated in a wind tunnel for a range of industrial dusts and three sizes of aluminium oxide test dust to mainly determine their suitability for measuring the inhalable fraction of airborne dust in workplaces. The instruments tested were Split 2 (SKC Ltd), Sidepak (TSI Inc.), Dataram (Thermo Electron Ltd), PDS-2 (Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd) and the Respicon TM (Hund Ltd). The instruments' responses were compared with reference dust samplers. These were the IOM sampler for the inhalable fraction and the Casella cyclone sampler for the respirable fraction. All instruments are predominantly responsive to and are designed to measure particles in the respirable size range, although two of the instruments, the Split 2 and Respicon TM, are claimed to be capable of measuring inhalable-sized particles. For the purpose of the tests, major modifications to an existing wind tunnel dust injection system were made to facilitate the generation of uniform concentrations of large inhalable-sized dust particles at low air velocities. Each monitor greatly underestimated the measurement of inhalable concentration for all the dusts tested, although the linearity was good over a wide range of concentrations for any particular size distribution of dust. However, their calibration factors, defined as the ratio of reference inhalable concentration to monitor concentration, were especially sensitive to changes in particle size as the response of the instruments decreased rapidly with increasing particle size. The monitors generally overestimated the measurement of respirable dust concentration by up to a factor of about 2, apart from the PDS-2, which underestimated it by a factor of up to 3. There was, however, a great deal more scatter in the reference respirable concentration measurements owing to the collection of small dust samples. Therefore, monitor linearity and effects of monitor response to changes in

  10. LDEX: Lunar Dust EXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Sternovsky, Z.; Gruen, E.; Srama, R.; Auer, S.; Munsat, T.; Robertson, S.; Wang, X.

    2008-12-01

    The lunar dust environment is expected to be dominated by submicron sized dust particles released from the Moon due to: a) the continuous bombardment by interplanetary dust, and b) due to plasma-induced, intense, small-scale electric fields. To a good approximation, the impact-produced ejecta are expected to form a spherically symmetric, continuously present cloud, while the electrically lofted population is expected to be concentrated over the terminators, and remain highly temporally and spatially variable. The Lunar Dust EXperiment (LDEX) instrument is proposed for the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission for in-situ dust detection in orbit around the Moon. LDEX is based on the detection of ions generated in hypervelocity dust impacts. The instrument is capable of detecting submicron sized dust grains with impact speeds above about 1 km/s. Particles larger than about 0.2 microns can be detected individually, and the parameters of the impact signal yield the mass, velocity, and charge of the dust. Smaller dust grains, below the detection threshold for individual detection, are measured collectively as an average from a large number of impacts. With the extended detection size range, LDEX can verify the existence of the putative lunar dust-exosphere. LDEX has been recently developed at LASP, and it has a high degree of heritage based on similar instruments on the Ulysses and Galileo missions. An engineering prototype version of LDEX is scheduled for testing and calibration at the Heidelberg dust accelerator facility. The talk will briefly review the science goals and measurement requirements for in situ dust detection, as well as the capabilities of LDEX.

  11. Modelling ice nucleation due to dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickovic, Slobodan; Petkovic, Slavko; Pejanovic, Goran; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Formation of cold clouds is enhanced if ice nuclei (IN) are available. Cold clouds contribute at global scale with 60% in average in precipitation and their presence significantly affects the atmospheric radiation properties. It is expected that better description of the IN process should substantially improve cloud parameterization in climate and numerical weather prediction models. Observations show that mineral dust particles are the dominant residuals found in cloud ice. In this study we employ the regional dust DREAM model based on high horizontal and vertical grid resolution to parameterize IN caused by mineral dust. DREAM has been already deployed in a study related to IN process (Klein et al, 2010), also in model experiments using several IN parameterization schemes in support of the IN field experiment CALIMA over Canaries. The model has been also extended by adding the major dust mineral fractions as tracers in order to facilitate staying a role of dust mineralogy in ice nucleation. This study will present parameterization of IN using the simulated dust concentration, water moisture and temperature. Preliminary results of simulated IN will be shown, as well as IN validation against lidar aerosol profiles and ice cloud water profiles observed by cloud radar in the Potenza EARLINET site. This study is an initial step in improving a cloud physics parameterization using IN as an input variable in an integrated dust-atmospheric modelling system.

  12. F-corona-experiment: Requirements for remote sensing of interplanetary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Hartwig, Hermann

    1991-11-01

    The near solar dust that produces the brightness of the F corona represents the central region of the interplanetary dust cloud. The structure of the inner dust cloud and the properties of the near solar dust contribute to the understanding of the meteoritic complex and its relation to other constituents of the interplanetary medium. The flux rates of these micrometeorites have to be considered for the concept of near solar missions. To investigate this complex a synoptical observation in different spectral ranges is needed. The concept of the dedicated rocket-borne experiment is outlined.

  13. Dust processing and its feedback on interstellar shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, Vincent; Jones, Anthony; Pineau Des Forets, Guillaume

    Shocks in the interstellar medium (ISM) have a fundamental impact on the dust that they encounter. Supernova-generated shocks in the warm intercloud medium are the principal lifetimedetermining agents for dust evolution in the ISM. However, the presence of dust can also have a major influence on the structure of the shocks themselves. In this review we focus on the important role of dust in shocks and present the results of numerical models that simulate dust destruction and processing, and the effect of the dust on, shocks in molecular clouds and in the warm intercloud medium. A proper treatment of grain charging, gyration and coupling to the magnetic field determines the details of the dust dynamics and therefore the nature of the gas-grain and grain-grain interactions. The resultant processing of dust by shocks in the ISM can lead to changes in the dust-to-gas mass ratio through sputtering and vaporisation, and also to an evolution of the dust size distribution through the competition between coagulation and shattering in graingrain collisions. The presence of dust, and its processing, can also alter the shock structure and the gas composition. In high velocity shocks propagating through the warm intercloud medium, dust is the main coolant in the regions where hydrogen is ionized, until it is fully destroyed by sputtering. The reformation of H2 in the cooling gas depends on the level of dust destruction and shattering in the shock. In shocked molecular clouds, the destruction of silicate grains produces shock tracers like SiO. Dust grains and their fragments produced by shattering in the shock also affect the coupling between the magnetic field and the neutral gas in multi-fluid shocks. We emphasize the necessity of a detailed modelling of grain charging and dynamics through the shock in order to determine the impact of shocks on the dust size distribution, and its feedback on the shock structure and the evolution of the shocked gas.

  14. Dust devils on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. G.; Gierasch, P.

    1985-01-01

    Large columns of dust have been discovered rising above plains on Mars. The storms are probably analogous to terrestrial dust devils, but their size indicates that they are more similar to tornadoes in intensity. They occur at locations where the soil has been strongly warmed by the Sun, and there the surface is smooth and fine grained. These are the same conditions that favor dust devils on Earth. Warm gas from the lowest atmospheric layer converges and rises in a thin column, with intense swirl developing at the edge of the column. In one area a mosaic of Viking images shows 97 vortices in a three day period. This represents a density of vortices of about one in each 900 square kilometers. Thus, these dust devils may be important in moving dust or starting over dust storms.

  15. Interstellar Dust: Physical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dust is formed in stellar environments, and destroyed by sputtering, shattering and vaporization in shock waves due to cloud-cloud collisions and supernova blast waves. Dust is also destroyed during star formation. We review the dust formation and destruction balance. The calculated destruction time-scale is less than or equal to one billion years and the star dust injection time-scale is approx. 2.5 billion years. Hence, the fractions of elemental carbon and silicon locked up in stardust are less than 0.3 and less than 0.15, respectively. An efficient ISM dust formation route is therefore implied. In particular, in dense clouds dust grows; through the processes of coagulation and the accretion of gas phase molecules e.g. H20, CO, CH4. These icy materials may then be photoprocessed to refractory materials in more diffuse regions. The resulting carbonaceous grain mantle may actually be the glue that holds the coagulated grains together.

  16. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito; Nozawa, Takaya E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  17. Reducing float coal dust

    PubMed Central

    Patts, J.R.; Colinet, J.F.; Janisko, S.J.; Barone, T.L.; Patts, L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Controlling float coal dust in underground coal mines before dispersal into the general airstream can reduce the risk of mine explosions while potentially achieving a more effective and efficient use of rock dust. A prototype flooded-bed scrubber was evaluated for float coal dust control in the return of a continuous miner section. The scrubber was installed inline between the face ventilation tubing and an exhausting auxiliary fan. Airborne and deposited dust mass measurements were collected over three days at set distances from the fan exhaust to assess changes in float coal dust levels in the return due to operation of the scrubber. Mass-based measurements were collected on a per-cut basis and normalized on the basis of per ton mined by the continuous miner. The results show that average float coal dust levels measured under baseline conditions were reduced by more than 90 percent when operating the scrubber. PMID:28018004

  18. Field measurements of dust emission from sand dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Kok, J. F.; Martin, R. L.; Turney, F. A.; Souza Freire, L.; Chamecki, M.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust affects Earth's radiation budget, the climate system, biogeochemistry, as well as human health. Model simulations of the global dust emission rate vary by a factor of 8, ranging from 500 to 4000 Tg/yr. A primary reason for these divergent model results is a lack of understanding of the exact sources and emission mechanism of dust. Regions containing soils with a large proportion of fine clay and silt particles, like topographic depressions, have long been treated as the primary source of mineral dust. However, recent remote sensing results suggest that sand dunes, which contain only a small fraction of fine dust, might be a major contributor to mineral dust emissions, and account for over 40% of North Africa dust storms. This makes it problematic that dust emissions from sand dunes are generally not accounted for in climate models. In order to evaluate the potential of sand dunes as an important global source of dust emissions, we conducted a field campaign at the Oceano sand dunes in California. Comparing with soils that contain a larger proportion of fine dust particles, the size distribution of sand dunes is finer, however vertical dust flux of sand dunes per unit horizontal sand saltation flux is smaller. This emission efficiency of sand dunes remains constant when shear velocity increases.

  19. Interactions Between Mineral Dust, Climate, and Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Grassian, Vicki H.; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, technological improvements in the chemical and physical characterization of dust have provided insights into a number of phenomena that were previously unknown or poorly understood. In addition, models are now incorporating a wider range of physical processes, which will allow us to better quantify the climatic and ecological impacts of dust. For example, some models include the effect of dust on oceanic photosynthesis and thus on atmospheric CO 2 (Friedlingstein et al. 2006). The impact of long-range dust transport, with its multiple forcings and feedbacks, is a relatively new and complex area of research, where input from several disciplines is needed. So far, many of these effects have only been parameterized in models in very simple terms. For example, the representation of dust sources remains a major uncertainty in dust modeling and estimates of the global mass of airborne dust. This is a problem where Earth scientists could make an important contribution, by working with climate scientists to determine the type of environments in which easily erodible soil particles might have accumulated over time. Geologists could also help to identify the predominant mineralogical composition of dust sources, which is crucial for calculating the radiative and chemical effects of dust but is currently known for only a few regions. Understanding how climate and geological processes control source extent and characterizing the mineral content of airborne dust are two of the fascinating challenges in future dust research.

  20. Interactions Between Mineral Dust, Climate, and Ocean Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; Grassian, Vicki H.; Miller, Ron L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, technological improvements in the chemical and physical characterization of dust have provided insights into a number of phenomena that were previously unknown or poorly understood. In addition, models are now incorporating a wider range of physical processes, which will allow us to better quantify the climatic and ecological impacts of dust. For example, some models include the effect of dust on oceanic photosynthesis and thus on atmospheric CO 2 (Friedlingstein et al. 2006). The impact of long-range dust transport, with its multiple forcings and feedbacks, is a relatively new and complex area of research, where input from several disciplines is needed. So far, many of these effects have only been parameterized in models in very simple terms. For example, the representation of dust sources remains a major uncertainty in dust modeling and estimates of the global mass of airborne dust. This is a problem where Earth scientists could make an important contribution, by working with climate scientists to determine the type of environments in which easily erodible soil particles might have accumulated over time. Geologists could also help to identify the predominant mineralogical composition of dust sources, which is crucial for calculating the radiative and chemical effects of dust but is currently known for only a few regions. Understanding how climate and geological processes control source extent and characterizing the mineral content of airborne dust are two of the fascinating challenges in future dust research.

  1. Dust Devil Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafkin, S.; Jemmett-Smith, B.; Fenton, L.; Lorenz, R.; Takemi, T.; Ito, J.; Tyler, D.

    2016-11-01

    The essential dynamical characteristic of convective vortices, including dust devils, is a highly localized vorticity tube that extends into the vertical. This chapter is concerned with both the generation of vorticity and the subsequent focusing of that vorticity into a tight vortex, and with the environmental conditions that are conducive to the formation of convective vortices in general and dust devils in particular. A review of observations, theory, and modeling of dust devil formation is provided.

  2. Galaxy formation by dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Field, Goerge B.

    1989-01-01

    It has been known since the early 1940's that radiation can cause an instability in the interstellar medium. Absorbing dust particles in an isotropic radiation field shadow each other by a solid angle which is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two particles, leading to an inverse-square attractive force - mock gravity. The effect is largest in an optically thin medium. Recently Hogan and White (HW, hereafter) proposed that if the pre-galactic universe contained suitable sources of radiation and dust, instability in the dust distribution caused by mock gravity may have led to the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters. In their picture of a well-coupled dust-gas medium, HW show that mock gravity begins to dominate gravitational instability when the perturbation becomes optically thin, provided that the radiation field at the time is strong enough. The recent rocket observation of the microwave background at submillimeter wavelengths by Matsumoto et al. might be from pre-galactic stars, the consequence of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation by dust, and infrared reemission which is subsequently redshifted. HW's analysis omits radiative drag, incomplete collisional coupling of gas and dust, finite dust albedo, and finite matter pressure. These effects could be important. In a preliminary calculation including them, the authors have confirmed that mock gravitational instability is effective if there is a strong ultraviolet radiation at the time, but any galaxies that form would be substantially enriched in heavy elements because the contraction of the dust is more rapid than that of the gas. Moreover, since the dust moves with supersonic velocity through the gas soon after the perturbation becomes optically thin, the sputtering of dust particles by gas is significant, so the dust could disappear before the instability develops significantly. They conclude that the mock gravity by dust is not important in galaxy formations.

  3. A study on solar dust ring formation based on fractal dust models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, H.; Ishimoto, H.; Mukai, T.

    1997-10-01

    Using the fractal aggregate model for circumsolar dust grains, the nature of the circumsolar dust clouds is examined. As a fractal dimension of the aggregate decreases, the porosity of the aggregate increases. Consequently, its temperature becomes independent of its size, and approaches that of its constituent particles. This evidence suggests that the fractal aggregates with different sizes and made of the same chemical components sublimate at the same solar distance. This implies that the distance of the sublimation zone depends on the chemical composition alone. We have found that the aggregates consisting of silicate material, as well as carbon material, sublimate in the solar F-corona. On the other hand, a ratio of radiation pressure force to solar gravity on the fractal aggregate scarcely increases with decreasing size due to sublimation, in contrast with a strong dependence of its ratio on its size for a compact sphere. Our computer simulation for dynamical evolution of fractal aggregates suggests that they produce a narrow ring structure in the circumsolar dust cloud, compared with that expected for spherical dust grains. When the aggregates have more fluffy structure with a small fractal dimension, however, it is found that the circumsolar dust clouds would make no remarkable ring structure.

  4. Volatiles in interplanetary dust particles - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the most abundant elements in our solar system, and their abundances, distributions, and isotopic compositions in early solar system materials permit workers to better understand the processes operating early in the evolutionary history of solar system materials. Interplanetary dust particles have a range of elemental compositions, but generally they have been shown to be similar to carbonaceous chondrites, the solar photosphere, Comet Halley's chondritic cores, and matrix materials of chondritic chondrites. Recovery and analysis of interplanetary dust particles have opened new opportunities for analysis of primitive materials, although interplanetary dust particles represent major challenges to the analyst because of their small size.

  5. Using Dust from Asteroids as Regolith Microsamples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Chabot, Nancy; Klima, Rachel; Ernst, Carolyn; Rivkin, Andy; Postberg, Frank; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    More robust links need to be forged between meteorites and their parent bodies to understand the composition, diversity and distribution of the asteroids. A major link can be sample analysis of the parent body material and comparison with meteorite data. Dust is present around all airless bodies, generated by micrometeorite impact into their airless surfaces, which in turn lofts regolith particles into a "cloud" around the body. The composition, flux, and size distribution of dust particles can provide insight into the geologic evolution of airless bodies. For example, the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer detected salts and minerals emitted by plumes at Enceladus, evidence for a subsurface ocean with a silicate seafloor. Dust analysis instruments may enable future missions to obtain elemental, isotopic and mineralogical composition of regolith particles without returning the samples to terrestrial laboratories.

  6. Unraveling the Mystery of Exozodiacal Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, S.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thébault, P.; Absil, O.; Bonsor, A.; Defrère, D.; Kral, Q.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lebreton, J.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2014-01-01

    Exozodiacal dust clouds are thought to be the extrasolar analogs of the Solar System's zodiacal dust. Studying these systems provides insights in the architecture of the innermost regions of planetary systems, including the Habitable Zone. Furthermore, the mere presence of the dust may result in major obstacles for direct imaging of earth-like planets. Our EXOZODI project aims to detect and study exozodiacal dust and to explain its origin. We are carrying out the first large, near-infrared interferometric survey in the northern (CHARA/FLUOR) and southern (VLTI/PIONIER) hemispheres. Preliminary results suggest a detection rate of up to 30% around A to K type stars and interesting trends with spectral type and age. We focus here on presenting the observational work carried out by our team.

  7. The flow of interstellar dust through the solar system: the role of dust charging

    SciTech Connect

    Sterken, V. J.; Altobelli, N.; Schwehm, G.; Kempf, S.; Srama, R.; Strub, P.; Gruen, E.

    2011-11-29

    Interstellar dust can enter the solar system through the relative motion of the Sun with respect to the Local Interstellar Cloud. The trajectories of the dust through the solar system are not only influenced by gravitation and solar radiation pressure forces, but also by the Lorentz forces due to the interaction of the interplanetary magnetic field with the charged dust particles. The interplanetary magnetic field changes on two major time scales: 25 days (solar rotation frequency) and 22 years (solar cycle). The short-term variability averages out for regions that are not too close (>{approx}2 AU) to the Sun. This interplanetary magnetic field variability causes a time-variability in the interstellar dust densities, that is correlated to the solar cycle.In this work we characterize the flow of interstellar dust through the solar system using simulations of the dust trajectories. We start from the simple case without Lorentz forces, and expand to the full simulation. We pay attention to the different ways of modeling the interplanetary magnetic field, and discuss the influence of the dust parameters on the resulting flow patterns. We also discuss the possibilities of using this modeling for prediction of dust fluxes for different space missions or planets, and we pay attention to where simplified models are justified, and where or when a full simulation, including all forces is necessary. One of the aims of this work is to understand measurements of spacecraft like Ulysses, Cassini and Stardust.

  8. Operational Dust Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; hide

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  9. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  10. Dust devils on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1985-10-01

    Viking Orbiter photographic imagery has confirmed the occurrence of dust devils on Mars. The images were of small bright clouds with long, tapered shadows viewed from a nearly-nadir angle. Spectra of the features were consistent with dust and not condensates. A maximum height of 6.8 km and width of 1 km were measured. The dust devils appeared on smooth planes, and had average dimensions of 2 km height and 200 m diam, carrying 3000 kg of dust. The data may be of use in interpreting convective processes on earth.

  11. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  12. Sintering-induced Dust Ring Formation in Protoplanetary Disks: Application to the HL Tau Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Momose, Munetake; Sirono, Sin-iti; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    The latest observation of HL Tau by ALMA revealed spectacular concentric dust rings in its circumstellar disk. We attempt to explain the multiple ring structure as a consequence of aggregate sintering. Sintering is known to reduce the sticking efficiency of dust aggregates and occurs at temperatures slightly below the sublimation point of the constituent material. We present a dust growth model that incorporates sintering and use it to simulate global dust evolution due to sintering, coagulation, fragmentation, and radial inward drift in a modeled HL Tau disk. We show that aggregates consisting of multiple species of volatile ices experience sintering, collisionally disrupt, and pile up at multiple locations slightly outside the snow lines of the volatiles. At wavelengths of 0.87-1.3 mm, these sintering zones appear as bright, optically thick rings with a spectral slope of ≈ 2, whereas the non-sintering zones appear as darker, optically thinner rings of a spectral slope of ≈ 2.3-2.5. The observational features of the sintering and non-sintering zones are consistent with those of the major bright and dark rings found in the HL Tau disk, respectively. Radial pileup and vertical settling occur simultaneously if disk turbulence is weak and if monomers constituting the aggregates are ˜ 1 μ {{m}} in radius. For the radial gas temperature profile of T=310{(r/1{au})}-0.57 {{K}}, our model perfectly reproduces the brightness temperatures of the optically thick bright rings and reproduces their orbital distances to an accuracy of ≲ 30%.

  13. Direct observations of the atmospheric processing of Asian mineral dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, R. C.; Guazzotti, S. A.; Sodeman, D. A.; Prather, K. A.

    2007-02-01

    The accumulation of secondary acids and ammonium on individual mineral dust particles during ACE-Asia has been measured with an online single-particle mass spectrometer, the ATOFMS. Changes in the amounts of sulphate, nitrate, and chloride mixed with dust particles correlate with air masses from different source regions. The uptake of secondary acids depended on the individual dust particle mineralogy; high amounts of nitrate accumulated on calcium-rich dust while high amounts of sulphate accumulated on aluminosilicate-rich dust. Oxidation of S(IV) to S(VI) by iron in the aluminosilicate dust is a possible explanation for this enrichment of sulphate, which has important consequences for the fertilization of remote oceans by soluble iron. This study shows the segregation of sulphate from nitrate and chloride in individual aged dust particles for the first time. A transport and aging timeline provides an explanation for the observed segregation. Our data suggests that sulphate became mixed with the dust first. This implies that the transport pathway is more important than the reaction kinetics in determining which species accumulate on mineral dust. Early in the study, dust particles in volcanically influenced air masses were mixed predominately with sulphate. Dust mixed with chloride then dominated over sulphate and nitrate when a major dust front reached the R. V. Ronald Brown. We hypothesize that the rapid increase in chloride on dust was due to mixing with HCl(g) released from acidified sea salt particles induced by heterogeneous reaction with volcanic SO2(g), prior to the arrival of the dust front. The amount of ammonium mixed with dust correlated strongly with the total amount of secondary acid reaction products in the dust. Submicron dust and ammonium sulphate were internally mixed, contrary to frequent reports that they exist as external mixtures. The size distribution of the mixing state of dust with these secondary species validates previous mechanisms of

  14. MicroMED: a dust particle counter for the characterization of airborne dust close to the surface of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzolino, Fabio; Esposito, Francesca; Molfese, Cesare; Cortecchia, Fausto; Saggin, Bortolino; D'amato, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of airborne dust is very important in planetary climatology. Indeed, dust absorbs and scatter solar and thermal radiation, severely affecting atmospheric thermal structure, balance and dynamics (in terms of circulations). Wind-driven blowing of sand and dust is also responsible for shaping planetary surfaces through the formation of sand dunes and ripples, the erosion of rocks, and the creation and transport of soil particles. Dust is permanently present in the atmosphere of Mars and its amount varies with seasons. During regional or global dust storms, more than 80% of the incoming sunlight is absorbed by dust causing an intense atmospheric heating. Airborne dust is therefore a crucial climate component on Mars which impacts atmospheric circulations at all scales. Main dust parameters influencing the atmosphere heating are size distribution, abundance, albedo, single scattering phase function, imaginary part of the index of refraction. Moreover, major improvements of Mars climate models require, in addition to the standard meteorological parameters, quantitative information about dust lifting, transport and removal mechanisms. In this context, two major quantities need to be measured for the dust source to be understood: surface flux and granulometry. While many observations have constrained the size distribution of the dust haze seen from the orbit, it is still not known what the primary airborne dust (e.g. the recently lifted dust) is made of, size-wise. MicroMED has been designed to fill this gap. It will measure the abundance and size distribution of dust, not in the atmospheric column, but close to the surface, where dust is lifted, so to be able to monitor dust injection into the atmosphere. This has never been performed in Mars and other planets exploration. MicroMED is an Optical Particle Counter, analyzing light scattered from single dust particles to measure their size and abundance. A proper fluid-dynamic system, including a pump and a

  15. Dust-wall and dust-plasma interaction in the MIGRAINe code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignitchouk, L.; Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.

    2014-09-01

    The physical models implemented in the recently developed dust dynamics code MIGRAINe are described. A major update of the treatment of secondary electron emission, stemming from models adapted to typical scrape-off layer temperatures, is reported. Sputtering and plasma species backscattering are introduced from fits of available experimental data and their relative importance to dust charging and heating is assessed in fusion-relevant scenarios. Moreover, the description of collisions between dust particles and plasma-facing components, based on the approximation of elastic-perfectly plastic adhesive spheres, has been upgraded to take into account the effects of particle size and temperature.

  16. Grain fever syndrome induced by inhalation of airborne grain dust.

    PubMed

    doPico, G A; Flaherty, D; Bhansali, P; Chavaje, N

    1982-05-01

    To study the clinical and physiologic manifestations of the grain fever syndrome and the potentially pathogenic role of complement activation, 12 subjects (six grain workers and six healthy non-grain workers) underwent inhalation provocations with airborne grain dust. The clinical response was characterized by facial warmth, headache, malaise, myalgias, feverish sensation, chilliness, throat and tracheal burning sensation, chest tightness, dyspnea, cough, and expectoration. Fever developed in four grain workers and two controls. Leukocytosis, ranging between 11,700 and 24,300 leukocytes/mm3 with left shift, developed in five grain workers and five controls. There was no evidence of complement activation by the classical or alternate pathway. None of the subjects had serum precipitins to grain dust. The pulmonary response was characterized by a decrease in FEV1, FVC, MMF, Vmax50, and Vmax75, with significant rise in pulmonary resistance and consistent change in dynamic compliance but without changes in static compliance or diffusing capacity. Hence, grain dust inhalation induced diffuse airways obstruction without detectable parenchymal reaction. The airways response to high concentrations of grain dust inhalation were unrelated to the presence of immediate skin hypersensitivity. Although we cannot exclude the etiopathogenetic role of an immunologic reaction to grain dust, our data do not support the hypothesis that the grain fever syndrome is a precipitin-mediated allergic pneumonitis. More likely, the manifestations of grain fever probably reflect the host reaction to grain dust bacterial endotoxins and/or nonallergic mediator release by grain or grain dust constituents.

  17. Long-term variability of dust-storms in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserová, Pavla; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Ólafur

    2013-04-01

    Iceland is a volcanic island in the North Atlantic Ocean with maritime climate. In spite of moist climate, large areas are with limited vegetation cover where >40% of Iceland is classified with considerable to very severe erosion and 21% of Iceland are volcanic sandy deserts. Natural emissions from these sources influenced by strong winds affect not only regional air quality in Iceland ("Reykjavik haze") but dust particles are transported over the Atlantic ocean and Arctic Ocean > 1000 km at times. The study places Icelandic dust production area into international perspective, present long term frequency of dust storm events in NE Iceland, and estimate dust aerosol concentrations during reported dust events. Meteorological observations with dust presence codes and related visibility were used to identify the frequency and the long-term changes in dust production in NE Iceland. There were annually 16.4 days on average with reported dust observations on weather stations within the NE erosion area, indicating extreme dust plume activity and erosion within the NE deserts, even though the area is covered with snow during the major part of winter. During the 2000s the highest occurrence of dust events in six decades was reported. We have measured saltation and aeolian transport during dust/volcanic ash storms in Iceland which give some of the most intense wind erosion events ever measured. Icelandic dust affects the ecosystems over much of Iceland and causes regional haze. It is likely to affect the ecosystems of the oceans around Iceland, and it brings dust that lowers the albedo of the Icelandic glaciers, increasing melt-off due to global warming. The study indicates that Icelandic dust is not only a substantial source for regional air pollution, but may be considered to contribute to the Arctic haze phenomena and Arctic air pollution.

  18. Phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels.

    PubMed

    Maranz, Steven; Wiesman, Zeev; Garti, Nissim

    2003-10-08

    Analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) kernels by LC-MS revealed eight catechin compounds-gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate-as well as quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid. The mean kernel content of the eight catechin compounds was 4000 ppm (0.4% of kernel dry weight), with a 2100-9500 ppm range. Comparison of the profiles of the six major catechins from 40 Vitellaria provenances from 10 African countries showed that the relative proportions of these compounds varied from region to region. Gallic acid was the major phenolic compound, comprising an average of 27% of the measured total phenols and exceeding 70% in some populations. Colorimetric analysis (101 samples) of total polyphenols extracted from shea butter into hexane gave an average of 97 ppm, with the values for different provenances varying between 62 and 135 ppm of total polyphenols.

  19. STARDUST and Interplanetary Dust Particles - Big Science from Small Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Flynn, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Comets are primitive bodies that are widely believed to be a reservoir of preserved interstellar and circumstellar grains, and molecular cloud materials (organics). Direct samples of cometary dust along with interstellar grains will be returned by the STARDUST Mission in 2006. Analyses of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and analogue materials in the laboratory provide constraints and serve as "ground truth" for evaluating various hypotheses on the nature of comets and interstellar grains. Anhydrous IDPs are the most primitive remnants of the primordial Solar System, and are our only known samples of comets. These cometary lDPs are rich in preserved interstellar organic compounds II]. In addition, abundant interstellar silicates have recently been discovered in cluster lDPs [2]. In some of these IDPs, the presolar silicate abundance reaches 1 wt %, exceeding the total presolar grain abundance in meteorites by three orders of magnitude, where presolar silicates are still notably absent. The results to date support the idea that comets are rich in presolar materials, but are at odds with the common perception that they are 'pristine aggregates of interstellar grains'. These results underscore the scientific importance of sample return missions to comets. The technology for the analysis of micrometer-sized samples is well advanced. The newest generation of ion probe instruments allow for isotopic analyses at the submicrometer level. The nature of the organic matter is analyzed using Infrared and soft X-ray spectroscopy techniques on synchrotron-based instruments, also at the micrometer-scale and smaller. Electron microscopy and spectroscopy provide details on the mineralogy and chemistry of constituent grains in !DPs at nearly the atomic scale. Novel sample preparation techniques have been developed such that all of these measurements can now be made on the same 10 micrometer diameter particle. Returned comet samples captured in aerogel will pose new challenges in

  20. Dust in supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, H.

    In this Review, I will discuss our changing view on supernovae as interstellar dust sources. In particular I will focus on infrared and submillimetre studies of the historical supernova remnants Cassiopeia A, the Crab Nebula, SN 1987A, Tycho and Kepler. In the last decade (and particularly in recent years), SCUBA, Herschel and ALMA have now demonstrated that core-collapse supernovae are prolific dust factories, with evidence of 0.1 - 0.7 M⊙ of dust formed in the ejecta, though there is little evidence (as yet) for significant dust production in Type Ia supernova ejecta. There is no longer any question that dust (and molecule) formation is efficient after some supernova events, though it is not clear how much of this will survive over longer timescales. Current and future instruments will allow us to investigate the spatial distribution of dust within corecollapse ejecta, and whether this component contributes a significant amount to the dust content of the Universe or if supernovae ultimately provide a net loss once dust destruction by shocks is taken into account.

  1. Supernova Dust Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Haley; Consortium, MESS; LCOGT

    2013-01-01

    The origin of interstellar dust in galaxies is poorly understood, particularly the relative contribution from supernovae. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Galactic remnants Tycho, Kepler and the Crab Nebula, taken as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program (MESS). Although we detect small amounts of dust surrounding Tycho and Kepler (the remnants of Type Ia supernovae), we show this is due to swept-up interstellar and circumstellar material respectively. The lack of dust grains in the ejecta suggests that Type Ia remnants do not produce substantial quantities of iron-rich dust grains and has important consequences for the ‘missing’ iron mass observed in ejecta. After carefully subtracting the synchrotron and line emission from the Crab, the remaining far-infrared continuum originates from 0.1-0.2 solar masses of dust. These observations suggest that the Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust and that these grains appear well set to survive their journey into the interstellar medium. In summary, our Herschel observations show that significantly less dust forms in the ejecta of Type Ia supernovae than in the remnants of core-collapse explosions, placing stringent constraints on the environments in which dust and molecules can form.

  2. Pathfinder Spies Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This set of images from NASA's 1997 Pathfinder mission highlight the dust devils that gust across the surface of Mars. The right image shows the dusty martian sky as our eye would see it. The left image has been enhanced to expose the dust devils that lurk in the hazy sky.

  3. Dust resuspension without saltation

    PubMed Central

    Loosmore, Gwen A.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Wind resuspension (or entrainment) provides a source of dust and contaminants for the atmosphere. Conventional wind erosion models parameterize dust resuspension flux with a threshold velocity or with a horizontal abrasion flux; in the absence of abrasion the models assume dust flux is transient only. Our experiments with an uncrusted, fine material at relative humidities exceeding 40% show a long-term steady dust flux in the absence of abrasion, which fits the approximate form: Fd = 3.6(u*)3, where Fd is the dust flux (in μg/m2 s), and u* is the friction velocity (in m/s). These fluxes are generally too small to be significant sources of dust in most models of dust emission. However, they provide a potential route to transport contaminants into the atmosphere. In addition, dust release is substantial during the initial transient phase. Comparison with field data suggests that the particle friction Reynolds number may prove a better parameter than u* for correlating fluxes and understanding the potential for abrasion. PMID:20336175

  4. Dust and Smoke

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... dust, the most common non-spherical aerosol type, from pollution and forest fire particles. Determining aerosol characteristics is a ... aerosol is quite thick, and in some places, the dust over water is too optically thick for MISR to retrieve the aerosol amount. For the ...

  5. Space dust in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-02-01

    Next time you take a stroll in Paris, Oslo or Berlin, you might be breathing in big particles of cosmic dust after a study led by earth scientist Matthew Genge from Imperial College London found tiny specks of space dust on the rooftops of the three European capitals.

  6. Talc dust pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed

    Berner, A; Gylseth, B; Levy, F

    1981-01-01

    Various types of mineral dust can induce interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, but there is no definite correlation between lung X-ray findings, tissue lesions and the type of dust. In this paper, we report on the post mortem verification of talcosis by lung tissue analysis, using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis and x-ray diffractometry.

  7. Combustible dust tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  8. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  9. Dust escape from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flandes, Alberto

    2004-08-01

    The Dust ballerina skirt is a set of well defined streams composed of nanometric sized dust particles that escape from the Jovian system and may be accelerated up to >=200 km/s. The source of this dust is Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active body in the Solar system. The escape of dust grains from Jupiter requires first the escape of these grains from Io. This work is basically devoted to explain this escape given that the driving of dust particles to great heights and later injection into the ionosphere of Io may give the particles an equilibrium potential that allow the magnetic field to accelerate them away from Io. The grain sizes obtained through this study match very well to the values required for the particles to escape from the Jovian system.

  10. Isidis Dust Devil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 March 2004 This arrow in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image points to an active dust devil observed in Isidis Planitia near 18.3oN, 268.9oW. The columnar shadow of the dust devil is visible, as is a pencil-thin (at least, pencil-thin at the scale of the image) line created by the vortex as it disrupted the dust that coats the surface. The streak indicates that the dust devil had already traveled more than 3 kilometers (1.9 miles), over craters, large ripples, and ridges, before the MOC took this picture. The dust devil was moving from the northeast (upper right) toward the southwest (lower left). Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  11. Interstellar PAHs and Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    Interstellar dust and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) molecules are important components of the Interstellar Medium of galaxies where, among other things, they regulate the opacity, influence the heating and cooling of neutral atomic and molecular gas, and provide active surfaces for chemistry. Through this interaction with gas, photons, and energetic ions, dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules influence key processes in the evolution of the interstellar medium and in turn are modified in their physical and chemical properties. This complex feedback drives the evolution of galaxies and its observational characteristics. In this chapter, our understanding of interstellar dust and large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules is described. Besides observations and their analysis, this chapter describes the physical processes involved, the life cycle of interstellar dust, and some aspects of the role of interstellar dust and PAHs in the evolution of the interstellar medium.

  12. Saharan dust deposition in the Carpathian Basin and its possible effects on interglacial soil formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, György; Cserháti, Csaba; Kovács, János; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-09-01

    Several hundred tons of windblown dust material are lifted into the atmosphere and are transported every year from Saharan dust source areas towards Europe having an important climatic and other environmental effect also on distant areas. According to the systematic observations of modern Saharan dust events, it can be stated that dust deflated from North African source areas is a significant constituent of the atmosphere of the Carpathian Basin and Saharan dust deposition events are identifiable several times in a year. Dust episodes are connected to distinct meteorological situations, which are also the determining factors of the different kinds of depositional mechanisms. By using the adjusted values of dust deposition simulations of numerical models, the annual Saharan dust flux can be set into the range of 3.2-5.4 g/m2/y. Based on the results of past mass accumulation rates calculated from stratigraphic and sedimentary data of loess-paleosol sequences, the relative contribution of Saharan dust to interglacial paleosol material was quantified. According to these calculations, North African exotic dust material can represent 20-30% of clay and fine silt-sized soil components of interglacial paleosols in the Carpathian Basin. The syngenetic contribution of external aeolian dust material is capable to modify physicochemical properties of soils and hereby the paleoclimatic interpretation of these pedogene stratigraphic units.

  13. Dust acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rahim, Z.; Qamar, A.; Ali, S.

    2014-07-15

    The linear and nonlinear properties of dust-acoustic waves are investigated in a collisionless Thomas-Fermi magnetoplasma, whose constituents are electrons, ions, and negatively charged dust particles. At dust time scale, the electron and ion number densities follow the Thomas-Fermi distribution, whereas the dust component is described by the classical fluid equations. A linear dispersion relation is analyzed to show that the wave frequencies associated with the upper and lower modes are enhanced with the variation of dust concentration. The effect of the latter is seen more strongly on the upper mode as compared to the lower mode. For nonlinear analysis, we obtain magnetized Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equations involving the dust-acoustic solitary waves in the framework of reductive perturbation technique. Furthermore, the shock wave excitations are also studied by allowing dissipation effects in the model, leading to the Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (KdVB) and ZKB equations. The analysis reveals that the dust-acoustic solitary and shock excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma are strongly influenced by the plasma parameters, e.g., dust concentration, dust temperature, obliqueness, magnetic field strength, and dust fluid viscosity. The present results should be important for understanding the solitary and shock excitations in the environments of white dwarfs or supernova, where dust particles can exist.

  14. Torus-Shaped Dust Clouds in Magnetized Anodic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, I.; Reichstein, T.; Greiner, F.; Piel, A.

    2008-09-07

    The generation of a torus-shaped dust cloud in an anodic plasma is decribed. The confined dust particles perfom a rotational motion around the torus major axis. The structure of the cloud in dependence of the external parameters are observed and the rotation velocity of the particles was measured and compared with a simple estimate.

  15. Theoretical Studies of Dust in the Galactic Environment: Some Recent Advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Chun Ming

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains, although a minor constituent, play a very important role in the thermodynamics and evolution of many astronomical objects, e.g., young and evolved stars, nebulae, interstellar clouds, and nuclei of some galaxies. Since the birth of infrared astronomy over two decades ago, significant progress has been made not only in the observations of galactic dust, but also in the theoretical studies of phenomena involving dust grains. Models with increasing degree of sophistication and physical realism (in terms of grain properties, dust formation, emission processes, and grain alignment mechanisms) have become available. Here I review recent progress made in the following areas: (1) Extinction and emission of fractal grains. (2) Dust formation in radiation-driven outflows of evolved stars. (3) Transient heating and emission of very small dust grains. Where appropriate, relevant modeling results are presented and observational implications emphasized.

  16. Boundary Layer Dust Occurrence III Atmospheric Dust Over Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    number of days with: (a) wind speed >. 15 m/sec and (b) >_ 20 m/sec based on current observations (1) and with gale forecast (2). Approximately the...storms can be characterized in greater de- tail by gale forecast data since they give strong gusts. The correlation coefficient between the number...of days with a dust storm and the number of days with a strong wind (>_ 20 m/sec) based on gale forecast data was 0.75, i.e., in the majority of

  17. A note on the stochastic nature of particle cohesive force and implications to threshold friction velocity for aerodynamic dust entrainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yaping; Klose, Martina

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable interest to determine the threshold for aeolian dust emission on Earth and Mars. Existing schemes for threshold friction velocity are all deterministic in nature, but observations show that in the dust particle size range the threshold friction velocity scatters strongly due to stochastic inter-particle cohesion. In the real world, there always exists a certain amount of free dust which can be easily lifted from the surface by weak winds or even turbulence, as exemplified by dust devils. It has been proposed in the dust-devil research community, that the pressure drop at dust-devil center may be a major mechanism for dust-devil dust emission, known as the Δp effect. It is questioned here whether the Δp effect is substantial or whether the elevated dust concentration in dust devils is due to free dust emission. A simple analysis indicates that the Δp effect appears to be small and the dust in dust devils is probably due to free dust emission and dust convergence. To estimate free dust emission, it is useful to define a lower limit of dust-particle threshold friction velocity. A simple expression for this velocity is proposed by making assumptions to the median and variance of inter-particle cohesive force. The simple expression is fitted to the data of the Arizona State University Vortex Generator. While considerable uncertainty remains in the scheme, this note highlights the need for additional research on the stochastic nature of dust emission.

  18. Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

  19. Global Reference Atmospheric Model and Trace Constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C.; Johnson, D.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is an engineering-level model of the Earth's atmosphere. It provides both mean values and perturbations for density, temperature, pressure, and winds, as well as monthly- and geographically-varying trace constituent concentrations. From 0-27 km, thermodynamics and winds are based on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) climatology. Above 120 km, GRAM is based on the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model. In the intervening altitude region, GRAM is based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) climatology that also forms the basis of the 1986 COSPAR Intemationa1 Reference Atmosphere (CIRA). MAP data in GRAM are augmented by a specially-derived longitude variation climatology. Atmospheric composition is represented in GRAM by concentrations of both major and minor species. Above 120 km, MET provides concentration values for N2, O2, Ar, O, He, and H. Below 120 km, species represented also include H2O, O3, N2O, CO, CH, and CO2. Water vapor in GRAM is based on a combination of GUACA, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL), and NASA Langley Research Center climatologies. Other constituents below 120 km are based on a combination of AFGL and h4AP/CIRA climatologies. This report presents results of comparisons between GRAM Constituent concentrations and those provided by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) climatology of Summers (NRL,/MR/7641-93-7416, 1993). GRAM and NRL concentrations were compared for seven species (CH4, CO, CO2, H2O, N2O, O2, and O3) for months January, April, July, and October, over height range 0-115 km, and latitudes -90deg to + 90deg at 10deg increments. Average GRAM-NRL correlations range from 0.878 (for CO) to 0.975 (for O3), with an average over all seven species of 0.936 (standard deviation 0.049).

  20. Frontiers in In-Situ Cosmic Dust Detection and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Auer, Siegfried; Drake, Keith; Gruen, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Le, Huy; Xie Jianfeng; Srama, Ralf

    2011-11-29

    In-situ cosmic dust instruments and measurements played a critical role in the emergence of the field of dusty plasmas. The major breakthroughs included the discovery of {beta}-meteoroids, interstellar dust particles within the solar system, Jovian stream particles, and the detection and analysis of Enceladus's plumes. The science goals of cosmic dust research require the measurements of the charge, the spatial, size and velocity distributions, and the chemical and isotopic compositions of individual dust particles. In-situ dust instrument technology has improved significantly in the last decade. Modern dust instruments with high sensitivity can detect submicron-sized particles even at low impact velocities. Innovative ion optics methods deliver high mass resolution, m/dm>100, for chemical and isotopic analysis. The accurate trajectory measurement of cosmic dust is made possible even for submicron-sized grains using the Dust Trajectory Sensor (DTS). This article is a brief review of the current capabilities of modern dust instruments, future challenges and opportunities in cosmic dust research.

  1. Deposition of inhaled wood dust in the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Z F; Inthavong, K; Tu, J Y

    2007-11-01

    Detailed deposition patterns of inhaled wood dust in an anatomically accurate nasal cavity were investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. Three wood dusts, pine dust, heavy oak dust, and light oak dust, with a particle size distribution generated by machining (Chung et al., 2000), were simulated at an inhalation flow rate of 10 L/min. It was found that the major particle deposition sites were the nasal valve region and anterior section of the middle turbinate. Wood dust depositing in these regions is physiologically removed much more slowly than in other regions. This leads to the surrounding layer of soft tissues being damaged by the deposited particles during continuous exposure to wood dust. Additionally, it was found that pine dust had a higher deposition efficiency in the nasal cavity than the two oak dusts, due to the fact that it comprises a higher proportion of larger sized particles. Therefore, this indicates that dusts with a large amount of fine particles, such as those generated by sanding, may penetrate the nasal cavity and travel further into the lung.

  2. East Asia Dust Source Location Using the Naval Research Laboratory's 1-km Dust Enhancement Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Richardson, K.; Westphal, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    In the effort to predict dust storms and their effects on local, regional and global scales an often cited uncertainty is the precise location of dust sources. Many approaches have been used to identify major dust source regions in East Asia. These approaches include analysis of station data for frequency of dust storms, drifting dust, dusty day, wind speed, and PM10 total suspended particulates. Some approaches emphasize the location of land surface type (Gobi, sandy desert, and loess) and geomorphological setting/features (basins, plateaus, alluvial fans, dry rivers, or oases). Other approaches use remote sensing to locate areas of high dust activity using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Aerosol Index (TOMS AI) data, to correlate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) vegetation cover with dust storm frequency, or to track dust storm event origination by analyzing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. It is also customary for researchers to combine two or more of these approaches to identify dust source regions. In this paper we use a novel approach to locate dust sources in East Asia. Utilizing the Naval Research Laboratory's satellite derived 1-km Dust Enhancement Product (DEP) imagery we can readily distinguish elevated dust over land from other components of the scene and individual dust plumes are readily seen. The high resolution of the DEP allows the many small, eroding point sources (measuring 1-10s km across) that form individual plumes to be located. Five years (2007 - 2011) of East Asia DEP imagery have been analyzed. Dust source frequency plots will be shown highlighting the most active dust source areas in East Asia. Our results show the most active point sources are located along the slopes and around the rim of large basins. Within basins, on plateaus and in valleys point sources are concentrated in smaller depressions relative to the surrounding topography. Point sources are also associated with the action of

  3. Effects of soil dust emissions on air quality over East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Y.; Kim, S.; Cho, J.

    2012-12-01

    Dust emissions from the Gobi Desert, sand desert, Loess Plateau and barren mixed soil in Northern China and Mongolia have a major impact on the air quality in the East Asian region. These mineral aerosols increase PM10 concentration over 1000 μg/m3 during the dust storm event as well as PM10 background concentrations as the fugitive dust during the non-dust period in Korea. The mineral dusts also modifies the formation mechanism of inorganic aerosols via the chemical interactions with atmospheric gas species. The performance of available dust emission schemes to depict not only the high PM10 concentration and onset time for the dust storm period but also the level of background PM10 concentration for the non-dust event were evaluated against the surface measurements of EANET (Acid Deposition Monitoring NETwork in East Asia) and satellite measurements over East Asia. The US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v5.0 by modifying the fugitive dust modules was used to simulate the chemical transport including the mineral aerosols. The results show that the Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) and DEAD are relatively good dust emission schemes in this region and influence of mineral dusts on the sulfate and nitrate formations is significant when the dust mixes with anthropogenic emissions over China. Details of modifications of dust emission schemes and annual background PM10 concentrations by the soil fugitive dust in Korea will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. Provenance of dust to Antarctica: A lead isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gili, Stefania; Gaiero, Diego M.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Koester, Edinei; Jweda, Jason; Vallelonga, Paul; Kaplan, Michael R.

    2016-03-01

    Antarctic ice preserves an ~800 kyr record of dust activity in the Southern Hemisphere. Major efforts have been dedicated to elucidate the origin of this material in order to gain greater insight into the atmospheric dust cycle. On the basis of Pb isotopes in Antarctic dust samples and potential sources, this contribution demonstrates for the first time that Patagonia is the main contributor of dust to Antarctica during interglacial periods as well as glacials, although the potential importance of Tierra del Fuego remains unclear because of its geochemical similarities to Patagonia. An important new finding is that the Puna-Altiplano sector of the continent is a second important dust source to eastern Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials, being more prominent during interglacials. The data indicate South America is the primary dust source to Antarctica during both glacials and interglacials.

  5. Lead in Chinese villager house dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiangyang; Liu, Jinling; Han, Zhixuan

    2016-04-01

    House dust has been recognized as an important contributor to children's blood Pb. Here we conducted a comprehensive study to investigate geographical variation of Pb in Chinese villager house dust. The concentrations of Pb in 477 house dust samples collected from twenty eight areas throughout China varied from 12 to 2510 mg/kg, with geometric mean and median concentration of 54 mg/kg and 42 mg/kg, respectively. The median Pb concentrations in different geographical areas ranged from 16 (Zhangjiakou, Hebei) to 195 mg/kg (Loudi, Hunan). The influences of outdoor soil Pb concentrations, dates of construction, house decorative materials, heating types, and site specific pollution on Pb concentrations in house dust were evaluated. No correlations were found between the house dust Pb concentrations and the age of houses, as well as house decorative materials. Whereas outdoor soil, coal combustion, and site specific pollution may be potential Pb sources. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Pb bearing particles appeared as cylindrical, flaky and irregular aggregates with the particle size ranging from about 10 to 800 μm. The energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) suggested that Pb in the dust particles may be associated with calcium compounds. But the major fraction of Pb in the household dust samples was found to be strongly bound to Fe-Mn oxide phases (37%) while Pb present in minor fractions individually making up between 14 and 18% was characterized in falling order as residual, carbonate, organic/sulphide and exchangeable fractions by the sequential extraction method applied. Bioaccessible Pb making up an average proportion of 53% in the household dusts was significantly correlated to the Fe-Mn oxide phases of Pb.

  6. Probing Dust with Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D.

    2009-12-01

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) result from the deaths of certain massive stars. Since GRBs occur in actively star-forming regions, there should be significant dust extinction of their optical afterglows. The dust properties of GRB environments are of interest not only for their value in studies of GRB and their formation, but also because GRBs occur in star-forming galaxies at very high redshifts (currently = 2.2), and GRB afterglows give us a means to study dust and metallicity in the hearts of extremely distant star-forming regions that are accessible in no other way. Their brightness and simple, power-law spectra across a wide wavelength range, makes them well-suited to extinction studies in star-forming regions at all redshifts. The vast majority of reddening curves have been featureless—the 2175 Å bump for example has only been detected in a GRB host galaxy for the first time very recently and is presented here. Another new, unusual extinction curve is also briefly presented. Extinctions derived solely from the reddening in GRB optical/near IR spectra have so far been relatively low and at the same time those reddening measurements disagree strongly with extinctions inferred from metallicity measurements and have led to the suggestion of a flat dust extinction curve (grey dust), possibly because of dust destruction by the GRB. In spite of the large literature on grey dust and the alteration of the extinction curve by dust destruction, its existence has so far never been demonstrated because of the difficulty in obtaining absolute extinction curves.

  7. Carbonaceous Components in the Comet Halley Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary grains containing large amounts of carbon and/or organic matter (CHON) were discovered by in situ measurements of comet Halley dust composition during VEGA and GIOTTO flyby missions. In this paper, we report the classification of these cometary, grains by means of cluster analysis, discuss the resulting compositional groups, and compare them with substances observed or hypothesized in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and the interstellar medium. Grains dominated by carbon and/or organic matter (CHON grains) represent approx. 22% of the total population of measured cometary dust particles. They, usually contain a minor abundance of rock-forming elements as well. Grains having organic material are relatively more abundant in the vicinity of the nucleus than in the outer regions of the coma, which suggests decomposition of the organics in the coma environment. The majority of comet Halley organic particles are multicomponent mixtures of carbon phases and organic compounds. Possibly, the cometary CHON grains may be related to kerogen material of an interstellar origin in carbonaceous meteorites. Pure carbon grains, hydrocarbons and polymers of cyanopolyynes, and multi-carbon monoxides are present in cometary dust as compositionally simple and distinctive components among a variety of others. There is no clear evidence of significant presence of pure formaldehyde or HCN polymers in Halley dust particles. The diversity of types of cometary organic compounds is consistent with the inter-stellar dust model of comets and probably reflects differences in composition of precursor dust. Preservation of this heterogeneity among submicron particles suggest the gentle formation of cometary, nucleus by aggregation of interstellar dust in the protosolar nebula without complete mixing or chemical homogenization at the submicron level.

  8. Dust Devil Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.

    2008-11-01

    A dust devil is a rotating updraft, with coherent structures ranging from small (H/D ˜ 5m/1m) to large (H/D ˜ 1000 m/10 m). Common in west Texas and Arizona, dust devils are formed unstable stratification of the air by solar heating over a sandy floor. Unstable gravity waves grow exponentially in the low density, hot air, rising into the upper layer of stably stratified atmosphere creating the large, 3D vortex. Dust devils are common on Mars. On Earth radio noise and electrical fields greater than 100kV/m are inferred [Kok J. F., N. O. Renno (2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19S10]. Dust devils pick up small dirt and dust particles. The whirling charged dust particles (30 -50 microns) create a magnetic field that fluctuates between 3 and 30 times each second. The electric fields created assist the vortices in lifting materials off the ground and into the atmosphere. We use the theory and simulation tools of fusion plasma physics to describe dust devils. The Grad-Shafranov equation governs the vorticity dynamics and gives a solution for steady axisymmetric flows. The high core velocity is limited by the vortex model with viscous dissipation. The Reynolds number is not large, so these structures are well represented with super computers, in contrast to collisionless plasmas. 1mm Research supported by NIFS, Japan and the NSF through ATM-0638480 at UT Austin.

  9. Sahara's dust transport from Bodele to French Guiana by dust characteristic and Back Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobinddass, M.; Molinie, J.; Panechou-Pulcherie, K.; Roussas, A.

    2013-12-01

    Desert dust particles present the ability to be transported over far distances and impact large regions of the earth. Back trajectories analysis and ground validations allow us to approach the dust physical characteristics on a large scale. Here we were interested to the Saharan dust transport event in 2010 to the Amazonian Bassin and in particular French Guiana. The dust particles were collected at ground level and have been analyzed by the SEM. First results point out a valley in a central Region of Bodele in the oldest Tchad's Lake. In fact, diatoms (Bacillariophyta) presence and their particular physical aspect seem to correspond to Bodele Lakes. We compared the ground based results and back trajectories to try to determine the exact origin of these aerosols. The Bodele is known as the major source of dust for Amazonian Bassin, however the back trajectories identified don't really show a departure of the dust from this site. A discussion about links between uplift of the dust and the specific settlement in Africa and resuspension of these particles will be drawn. The few sample of diatome obtained in 2010 will be described and an experiment on Bodele site will be proposed to confirm our hypotesis.

  10. Mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol and the transformation of aerosol components during the dust storm over China in spring 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun; Li, Juan; Wang, Qiongzhen; Sun, Yele; Lin, Yanfen; Fu, Joshua S.

    2010-04-01

    An intensive spring aerosol sampling campaign over northwestern and northern China and a megacity in eastern China was conducted in the spring of 2007 to investigate the mixing of Asian dust with pollution aerosol during its long-range transport. On the basis of the results of the three sites near dust source regions (Tazhong, Yulin, and Duolun) and a metropolitan city (Shanghai), three dust sources, i.e., the western high-Ca dust in the Taklimakan Desert, the northwestern high-Ca dust and the northeastern low-Ca dust in Mongolia Gobi, were identified on the basis of the air mass trajectories and the elemental tracer analysis (e.g., Ca/Al, SO42-/S, Ca2+/Ca, and Na+/Na). The western dust was least polluted in comparison to the other two dust sources. The results evidently indicated that the dust could have already mixed with pollution aerosol even in near dust source regions. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and S were elevated several times at all sites during dust days, showing the entrainment of pollution elements by dust. The secondary SO42- was observed to show much higher concentration due to the heterogeneous reaction on the alkaline dust during dust storm, while the concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ decreased owing to the dilution of the local pollution by the invaded dust. The western dust contained relatively low anthropogenic aerosols, and it mainly derived from the Taklimakan Desert, a paleomarine source. The northwestern dust had a considerable chemical reactivity and mixing with sulfur precursors emitted from the coal mines on the pathway of the long-range transport of dust. The northeastern dust reached Shanghai with high acidity, and it became the mixed aerosol with the interaction among dust, local pollutants, and sea salts. Comparison of the speciation of the water-soluble ions on both nondust and dust days at all sites illustrated the evolution of major ion species from different dust sources during the long-range transport of dust. The

  11. Constituent Data Assimilation: Challenges and Limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Stajner, I.; Winslow, N.; Douglass, A.; Pawson, S.; Straham, S.; Atlas, Robert M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The assimilation of observations of atmospheric constituents naturally divides into two major pieces. The first is the assimilation of trace gases whose variability is related to atmospheric motions. The second is the assimilation of trace gases which are sharply influenced by chemical exchange between different constituents. In order to advance beyond the initial successes of explorative investigation of assimilation techniques, tremendous challenges must be met to improve the geophysical integrity of assimilated data products. A subject of special interest is ozone near the tropopause. At the tropopause the information from both the observations and the model simulation becomes most uncertain. However a number of important geophysical parameters, e.g. stratosphere-troposphere exchange and tropospheric ozone, require the assimilation to have high accuracy at the tropopause. This talk will review the current status of the quality of assimilated data products near the tropopause, what must be done to improve the assimilation near the tropopause, and the intrinsic limitations that will require additional sources of information in order for the field to advance.

  12. EXTREME DUST AND SMOKE EVENTS OVER THE U.S. IN 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms and forest fires are major PM events that occur several times a year over different parts of the US. Such events also originate outside the US, e.g., dust from Sahara and the Asian deserts and smoke from forest fires in Central America and Canada. Such dust and smok...

  13. EXTREME DUST AND SMOKE EVENTS OVER THE U.S. IN 1998

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust storms and forest fires are major PM events that occur several times a year over different parts of the US. Such events also originate outside the US, e.g., dust from Sahara and the Asian deserts and smoke from forest fires in Central America and Canada. Such dust and smok...

  14. Nano-Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Moebius, E.; Sternovsky, Z.; Auer, S.; Srama, R.; Juhasz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, the STEREO WAVES instruments recorded a large number of intense electric field signals, which were interpreted as impacts from nanometer sized particles striking the spacecraft with velocities of about the solar wind speed [1]. This high flux and strong spatial and/or temporal variations of nanometer sized dust grains at low latitude appears to be uncorrelated with the solar wind properties. Early dust instruments onboard Pioneer 8 and 9 and Helios spacecraft detected a flow of submicron sized dust particles coming from the direction of the Sun. These particles originate in the inner solar system from mutual collisions among meteoroids and move on hyperbolic orbits that leave the Solar System under the prevailing radiation pressure force [2]. The observed fluxes of inner-source pickup ions also point to the existence of a much enhanced dust population in the nanometer size range [3]. A new highly sensitive instrument is being developed within NASA's Heliophysics Program to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and measure their chemical composition. The instrument is based on the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) that has analyzed the composition of nanometer sized dust particles emanating from the Jovian and Saturnian systems but could not be pointed towards the Sun. By applying technologies implemented in solar wind instruments and coronagraphs a highly sensitive dust analyzer will be developed and tested in the laboratory. The measurements will enable us to identify the source of the dust by comparing their elemental composition with that of larger micrometeoroid particles of cometary and asteroid origin and will reveal interaction of nano-dust with the interplanetary medium by investigating the relation of the dust flux with solar wind and IMF properties. [1] Meyer-Vernet, N. et al., Solar Physics, 256, 463, 2009 [2] Zook, H.A. and Berg, O.E.: A source for hyperbolic cosmic dust particles

  15. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  16. Economics of wood dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  17. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for ease of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  18. Dust control for Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Kevin; Karl, Chad; Litherland, Mark; Ritchie, David; Sun, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    The dust control group designed a system to restrict dust that is disturbed by the Enabler during its operation from interfering with astronaut or camera visibility. This design also considers the many different wheel positions made possible through the use of artinuation joints that provide the steering and wheel pitching for the Enabler. The system uses a combination of brushes and fenders to restrict the dust when the vehicle is moving in either direction and in a turn. This design also allows for each of maintenance as well as accessibility of the remainder of the vehicle.

  19. The lunar dust environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horanyi, Mihaly; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2011-11-01

    Each year the Moon is bombarded by about 10 6 kg of interplanetary micrometeoroids of cometary and asteroidal origin. Most of these projectiles range from 10 nm to about 1 mm in size and impact the Moon at 10-72 km/s speed. They excavate lunar soil about 1000 times their own mass. These impacts leave a crater record on the surface from which the micrometeoroid size distribution has been deciphered. Much of the excavated mass returns to the lunar surface and blankets the lunar crust with a highly pulverized and "impact gardened" regolith of about 10 m thickness. Micron and sub-micron sized secondary particles that are ejected at speeds up to the escape speed of 2300 m/s form a perpetual dust cloud around the Moon and, upon re-impact, leave a record in the microcrater distribution. Such tenuous clouds have been observed by the Galileo spacecraft around all lunar-sized Galilean satellites at Jupiter. The highly sensitive Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the LADEE mission will shed new light on the lunar dust environment. LADEE is expected to be launched in early 2013. Another dust related phenomenon is the possible electrostatic mobilization of lunar dust. Images taken by the television cameras on Surveyors 5, 6, and 7 showed a distinct glow just above the lunar horizon referred to as horizon glow (HG). This light was interpreted to be forward-scattered sunlight from a cloud of dust particles above the surface near the terminator. A photometer onboard the Lunokhod-2 rover also reported excess brightness, most likely due to HG. From the lunar orbit during sunrise the Apollo astronauts reported bright streamers high above the lunar surface, which were interpreted as dust phenomena. The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) Experiment was deployed on the lunar surface by the Apollo 17 astronauts in order to characterize the lunar dust environment. Instead of the expected low impact rate from interplanetary and interstellar dust, LEAM registered hundreds of signals

  20. Electrostatic dust detector

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Charles H.

    2006-05-02

    An apparatus for detecting dust in a variety of environments which can include radioactive and other hostile environments both in a vacuum and in a pressurized system. The apparatus consists of a grid coupled to a selected bias voltage. The signal generated when dust impacts and shorts out the grid is electrically filtered, and then analyzed by a signal analyzer which is then sent to a counter. For fine grids a correlation can be developed to relate the number of counts observed to the amount of dust which impacts the grid.

  1. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exposure to waste constituents; (ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and... constituents; and (x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects. (c) In making any...

  2. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exposure to waste constituents; (ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and... constituents; and (x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects. (c) In making any...

  3. 40 CFR 264.93 - Hazardous constituents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exposure to waste constituents; (ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects; and... constituents; and (x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects. (c) In making any...

  4. Effect of dust on the iNdian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharana, Pyarimohan; Priyadarshan Dimri, Ashok

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric dust plays a major role in deciding the radiation balance over the earth. The dust scatters the light, acts as cloud condensation nuclei, and hence helps in the formation of different types of clouds. This property of the dust has a long term effect on the Indian summer monsoon and its spatial distribution. India receives around 80% of its annual rainfall during summer monsoon and around 50% of the Indian population depends upon the monsoonal rain for the agricultural activities. The rain also has an important contribution to the industry, water resource management, ground water recharge, provide relief from the heat and also play a major role in deciding the socio-economic condition of a major part of the population. Two sets of simulations (control and dust chemistry simulation) are made to analyze the effect of dust on the Indian summer monsoon. Both the simulations nicely represent the spatial structure of different meteorological parameters. The magnitude of the pressure gradient, circulation and the precipitation is more during the JJAS for the dust chemistry simulation except for the temperature climatology. The analysis of the pre-monsoon and May temperature climatology reflects that the heating of the land mass is more in the dust chemistry simulation as compared to the control simulation, which is providing the strength to the monsoon flow during JJAS. The dust simulation shows that it increases the hydrological cycle over the Indian land mass.

  5. Recent measurements of trace constituents from rocket and balloon probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, K. U.

    During the past few years several field campaigns each employing a number of different experiments and of different experimental techniques have given new insights into the behavior of trace constituent distributions in the middle atmosphere. Results from the MAP/WINE and from the Energy Budget Campaigns are presented and compared with results previously obtained. The measured trace gas distributions are often very structured in time and/or space. These variations cannot be understood if photochemical equilibrium conditions are assumed. It is therefore concluded that dynamical processes are of major importance to the trace constituent distributions even at altitudes where gases are believed to be in photochemical equilibrium.

  6. Dust ion-acoustic shock waves in an adiabatic dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Armina; Sayed, Fatema; Mamun, A. A.

    2007-03-15

    The properties of dust ion-acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma, whose constituents are adiabatic ion fluid, Boltzmann electrons, and static dust, are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The Burgers equation is derived and its stationary analytical solution is numerically analyzed. It has been found that both the amplitude and the width decrease with the increase of the ion-fluid temperature. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.

  7. Interstellar Ice and Dust: The Feedstock of the Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studying the chemical and isotopic composition of interstellar ice and dust provides insight into the composition and chemical history of the solid bodies in the solar nebula and the nature of the material subsequently brought into the inner part of the solar system by comets and meteorites. It is now possible to probe the composition of these microscopic interstellar particles (some hundreds of light years away), thanks to substantial progress in two areas: astronomical spectroscopic techniques in the middle-infrared, the spectral region most diagnostic of composition; and laboratory simulations which realistically reproduce the critical conditions in various interstellar environments. High quality infrared spectra of many different astronomical sources, some associated with dark molecular clouds, and others in the diffuse interstellar medium (DISM) are now available. What comparisons of these spectra with laboratory spectra tell us about the complex organic components of these materials is the subject of this talk. Most interstellar material is concentrated in large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by gas phase and dust grain surface reactions. Gaseous species (except H2) striking the cold (10K) dust will stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with energetic particle bombardment and UV photolysis, will produce a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. One can compare spectra of the diffuse and dense interstellar medium with the spectra of analogs produced in the laboratory under conditions which mimic those in these different environments. In this way one can determine the composition and abundances of the major constituents present and place general constraints on the types and relative abundances of organics coating the grains. Ices in dense clouds contain H2O, CH3OH, CO, perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as nitriles and ketones or esters. There is some evidence

  8. Tokamak dust in ITER -- Safety issues and R and D supporting dust limits

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Petti, D.A.; Carmack, W.J.; Gorman, S.V.

    1998-07-01

    Tokamak dust is an important contributor to the source term in ITER safety analyses. In this paper the authors present results of R and D at the INEEL to characterize tokamak dust, and which has been used to set safety limits on dust for ITER. They present the results of analysis of particulate collected from three operating tokamaks: DIII-D at General Atomics, TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, and Alcator C-MOD at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and analysis of particulate produced in SIRENS, a disruption simulator at North Carolina State University. Analyses done include characterization of particulate to produce particle size distributions, chemical analysis, and measurement of effective surface area. The safety limits on dust in ITER have evolved during the EDA as more data have become available. The safety limits specified in NSSR-2 envelope the majority of the data, and provide conservatism to account for the uncertainty in extrapolation of the data to ITER.

  9. Assessment of dust activity and dust-plume pathways over Jazmurian Basin, southeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashki, A.; Arjmand, M.; Kaskaoutis, D. G.

    2017-02-01

    Jazmurian (or hamun-e Jaz Murian) is a dried lake located in a topographic-low basin in southeast Iran and a major source for high dust emissions under favorable weather conditions. This work examines for the first time the dust activity over the basin by classifying the dust events (DEs, visibility <10 km) and dust-storm events (DSEs, visibility <1 km) based on observations at five local meteorological stations during the period 1990-2013. Analysis of the temporal evolution, seasonality, frequency and persistence (duration) of the DEs and DSEs, along with examination of the backward and forward air-mass trajectories in the Jazmurian Basin are the main objectives of the present study. The DEs exhibit maximum frequency in June-July and lowest in autumn and winter, while the DSEs peak mostly during March-May also presenting large variability between the stations. The frequency of both the DEs and DSEs increases during ∼2001-2004 due to a prolonged drought over southeastern Iran, while no significant tendency is found during the period 1990-2013. Further, the DEs and DSEs exhibit a clear diurnal pattern with highest frequency between 15:30 and 18:30 LST due to thermal convection and transported dust plumes. The analysis reveals an average frequency of 12.7 dust-storm days per year, while the DSEs last for 5.1 h, on average, during the dust-storm days. The dust storms originating from Jazmurian affect mostly the northern coast of the Arabian Sea (Makran mountains), the Oman Sea, the southeastern Arabian Peninsula and the western Pakistan, while air masses from the arid/desert areas of central-eastern Iran and Arabia seem to further aggravate the dust-aerosol loading over Jazmurian.

  10. Origins and Dynamics of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2005-01-01

    This is a final report for research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration issued through the Office of Space Science Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, covering all relevant activities during its 3-year period of funding from 02/01/2002 through to 01/31/2005. The ongoing aim of the research supported through this grant, and now through a successor award, is to investigate the origin of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and their dynamical and collisional evolution, in order to: (1) understand the provenance of zodiacal cloud particles and their transport from their source regions to the inner solar system; (2) produce detailed models of the zodiacal cloud and its constituent components; (3) determine the origin of the dust particles accreted by the Earth; (4) ascertain the level of temporal variations in the dust environment of the inner solar system and the accretion rate of IDPs by the Earth, and evaluate potential effects on global climate; and to (5) exploit this research as a basis for interpreting the structure observed in exozodiacal clouds that may result from the collisional evolution of planetesimals and the presence of unseen planets.

  11. Sahara Dust Cloud

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-07-15

    In July of 2005, a continent-sized cloud of hot air and dust originating from the Sahara Desert crossed the Atlantic Ocean and headed towards Florida and the Caribbean, captured by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder onboard NASA Aqua satellite. A Saharan Air Layer, or SAL, forms when dry air and dust rise from Africa's west coast and ride the trade winds above the Atlantic Ocean. These dust clouds are not uncommon, especially during the months of July and August. They start when weather patterns called tropical waves pick up dust from the desert in North Africa, carry it a couple of miles into the atmosphere and drift westward. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00448

  12. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, Kip; Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lnnar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however. the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  13. The Lunar Dust Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Farrell, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Shadowed regions on the lunar surface acquire a negative potential. In particular, shadowed craters can have a negative potential with respect to the surrounding lunar regolith in sunlight, especially near the terminator regions. Here we analyze the motion of a positively charged lunar dust grain in the presence of a shadowed crater at a negative potential in vacuum. Previous models describing the transport of charged lunar dust close to the surface have typically been limited to one-dimensional motion in the vertical direction, e.g. electrostatic levitation; however, the electric fields in the vicinity of shadowed craters will also have significant components in the horizontal directions. We propose a model that includes both the horizontal and vertical motion of charged dust grains near shadowed craters. We show that the dust grains execute oscillatory trajectories and present an expression for the period of oscillation drawing an analogy to the motion of a pendulum.

  14. 1983 Transatlantic Dust Event

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This visualization (prepared in 2001) shows dust being blown westward over the Atlantic from northern Africa in early 1983, from aerosol measurements taken by Nimbus 7's TOMS instrument. Saharan du...

  15. Tendrils of Cold Dust

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-17

    This three-color combination constructed from ESA Planck two highest frequency channels and an image obtained with the NASA Infrared Astronomical Satellite shows local dust structures within 500 light-years of the sun.

  16. Dust Mite Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... in dust mite allergy. What causes the allergic reaction Allergies occur when your immune system reacts to ... nurse observes your skin for signs of allergic reactions after 15 minutes. If you're allergic to ...

  17. Three Faces of Martian Dust: Dust for Cover, Dust to Breathe, and Dust Everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spry, J. A.; Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.; Conley, C. A.

    2017-06-01

    While detailed approaches are mature for robotic missions, only guidelines are available for how planetary protection might be implemented on human missions. More dust-related data is needed before adequate mitigations can be identified and deployed.

  18. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  19. Photoemission of Single Dust Grains for Heliospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Abbas, Mian M.; Comfort, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Initial results of an experiment to measure the photoemission of single dust grains as a function of far ultraviolet wavelengths are presented. Coulombic forces dominate the interaction of the dust grains in the heliosphere. Knowledge of the charge state of dust grains, whether in a dusty plasma (Debye length < intergrain distance) or in the diffuse interplanetary region, is key to understanding their interaction with the solar wind and other solar system constituents. The charge state of heliospheric grains is primarily determined by primary electron and ion collisions, secondary electron emission and photoemission due to ultraviolet sunlight. We have established a unique experimental technique to measure the photoemission of individual micron-sized dust grains in vacuum. This technique resolves difficulties associated with statistical measurements of dust grain ensembles and non-static dust beams. The photoemission yield of Aluminum Oxide 3-micron grains For wavelengths from 120-300 nm with a spectral resolution of 1 nm FWHM is reported. Results are compared to interplanetary conditions.

  20. Photoemission of Single Dust Grains for Heliospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Venturini, Catherine C.; Abbas, Mian M.; Comfort, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    Initial results of an experiment to measure the photoemission of single dust grains as a function of far ultraviolet wavelengths are presented. Coulombic forces dominate the interaction of the dust grains in the heliosphere. Knowledge of the charge state of dust grains, whether in a dusty plasma (Debye length < intergrain distance) or in the diffuse interplanetary region, is key to understanding their interaction with the solar wind and other solar system constituents. The charge state of heliospheric grains is primarily determined by primary electron and ion collisions, secondary electron emission and photoemission due to ultraviolet sunlight. We have established a unique experimental technique to measure the photoemission of individual micron-sized dust grains in vacuum. This technique resolves difficulties associated with statistical measurements of dust grain ensembles and non-static dust beams. The photoemission yield of Aluminum Oxide 3-micron grains For wavelengths from 120-300 nm with a spectral resolution of 1 nm FWHM is reported. Results are compared to interplanetary conditions.

  1. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Selecting baghouse dust collectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.; Rubak, J.; Jolin, M. |

    1996-10-01

    Control of nuisance or process dusts generated within a plant is a vital concern with today`s growing emphasis on indoor air quality. In the past, many companies simply moved these contaminants away from workers and discharged them into the atmosphere. More stringent pollution control requirements now make this course of action unacceptable. Also, in some cases there is a need to recover high-value dusts, such as chemicals or precious metals. As a result, proper design and selection of a dust collection system are more critical than ever. There are two types of fabric filter dust collection systems commonly used today: baghouses and cartridges. Baghouses were the first collection systems with fabric media (in the form of long tubes, or bags) for removal of contaminants. The versatility of the baghouse--coupled with constant technological refinements--have made it a long-standing favorite among specifiers of pollution control equipment. In fact, baghouses account for more than 80% of all fabric filter dust collection systems in use today. Cartridge dust collectors use rigidly pleated filter elements instead of bags, making it possible to accommodate a large amount of filter surface area in a comparatively small package. Cartridge collectors also offer high efficiency and low pressure drop.

  3. Argyre Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-363, 17 May 2003

    This summertime Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) view of the floor of Argyre Basin shows a plethora of dark streaks thought to have been created by the passage of dust devils. Dust devils are vortices of wind--just as a tornado is a vortex of wind associated with stormy weather on Earth, and the spiraling of water down a bathtub drain is a vortex in a liquid. Dust devils usually form on Mars on relatively calm, quiet, spring and summer afternoons. The passage of a dust devil picks up and disturbs the thin coatings of dust on the martian surface, forming streaks that mark the path that the moving dust devil took. This picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is located near 48.5oS, 43.0oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  4. Comments on Dust Reverberation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.

    2015-09-01

    Dust reverberation is an important technique for studying the inner structure of AGNs and probing the properties of astrophysical dust, and even has some potential as a cosmological probe. We will discuss two recent results that pose a serious limitation to understanding dust reverberation at the present time. First, recent high-cadence monitoring of the UV and optical continuum in two AGNs, NGC 2617 and NGC 5548, have yielded unambiguous lags between variations of the UV continuum and corresponding variations of the continuum at longer wavelengths. In the absence of UV data, this leads to a systematic underestimate of the innermost radius where dust is found. This similarly leads to an underestimate of the size of the broad emission-line region, although it does not affect the AGN black hole mass scale, which calibrates out this effect. Second, broad-band monitoring of continuum variations in the optical through near-IR show that the innermost dust is not necessarily at the 'instantaneous sublimation radius.' The innermost dust can be considerably cooler than expected at the sublimation radius and thus can heat up without sublimating when the central continuum source becomes more luminous (see the poster by Pott).

  5. The Galileo Dust Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruen, Eberhard; Fechtig, Hugo; Hanner, Martha S.; Kissel, Jochen; Lindblad, Bertil-Anders; Linkert, Dietmar; Maas, Dieter; Morfill, Gregor E.; Zook, Herbert A.

    1992-01-01

    The Galileo Dust Detector is intended to provide direct observations of dust grains with masses between 10 exp -19 and 10 exp -9 kg in interplanetary space and in the Jovian system, to investigate their physical and dynamical properties as functions of the distances to the sun, to Jupiter and to its satellites, and to study its interaction with the Galilean satellites and the Jovian magnetosphere. The investigation is performed with an instrument that measures the mass, speed, flight direction and electric charge of individual dust particles. It is a multicoincidence detector with a mass sensitivity 1 000 000 times higher than that of previous in situ experiments which measured dust in the outer solar system. The instrument weighs 4.2 kg, consumes 2.4 W, and has a normal data transmission rate of 24 bits/s in nominal spacecraft tracking mode. On December 29, 1989 the instrument was switched-on. After the instrument had been configured to flight conditions cruise science data collection started immediately. In the period to May 18, 1990 at least 168 dust impacts have been recorded. For 81 of these dust grains masses and impact speeds have been determined. First flux values are given.

  6. Hebes Chasma Dust Avalanches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Dust avalanches, also called slope streaks, occur on many Martian terrains. The deposition of airborne dust on surfaces causes a bright tone in the THEMIS VIS images. Any movement of the dust downhill, a dust avalanche, will leave behind a streak where the darker, dust-free surface is exposed.

    These dust avalanches are located in Hebes Chasma.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -1.4, Longitude 286.6 East (73.4 West). 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Search for porphyrins in lunar dust.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, G W; Peterson, E; Kvenvolden, K A; Bunnenberg, E; Halpern, B; Ponnamperuma, C

    1970-01-30

    Evidence for porphyrins was obtained in the Apollo 11 bulk sample of lunar dust by fluorescence spectrometry and analytical demetallation. The indicated porphyrins showed major fluorescence excitation at 390 nanometers. Abundance was about 10(-10) gram of porphyrin per gram of dust. Similar pigments were found in exhaust products from tests of a lunar descent engine. The similarity of results suggests that most if not all of the indicated porphyrin aggregate of the lunar sample probably was synthesized from rocket fuel during the landing of the lunar module. These compounds may be the product of a novel high-temperature synthesis of cosmochemical interest.

  8. Iron mobilization in North African dust.

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, A.; Feng, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for phytoplankton. Although iron-containing dust mobilized from arid regions supplies the majority of the iron to the oceans, the key flux in terms of the biogeochemical response to atmospheric deposition is the amount of soluble or bioavailable iron. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants (e.g. sulfuric acid) may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Previous studies have suggested higher iron solubility in smaller particles, as they are subject to more thorough atmospheric processing due to a longer residence time than coarse particles. On the other hand, the specific mineralogy of iron in dust may also influence the particulate iron solubility in size. Compared to mineral dust aerosols, iron from combustion sources could be more soluble, and found more frequently in smaller particles. Internal mixing of alkaline dust with iron-containing minerals could significantly reduce iron dissolution in large dust aerosols due to the buffering effect, which may, in contrast, yield higher solubility in smaller particles externally mixed with alkaline dust (Ito and Feng, 2010). Here, we extend the modeling study of Ito and Feng (2010) to investigate atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols from African dust. In contrast to Asian dust, we used a slower dissolution rate for African dust in the fine mode. We compare simulated fractional iron solubility with observations. The inclusion of alkaline compounds in aqueous chemistry substantially limits the iron dissolution during long-range transport to the Atlantic Ocean: only a small fraction of iron (<0.2%) dissolves from illite in coarsemode dust aerosols with 0.45% soluble iron initially. In contrast, a significant fraction (1-1.5%) dissolves in fine-mode dust aerosols due to the acid mobilization of the iron-containing minerals externally mixed with carbonate minerals. Consequently, the model generally reproduces higher iron solubility in smaller particles

  9. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Michael; Uhlemann, Cora; Haugg, Thomas E-mail: cora.uhlemann@physik.lmu.de

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves.

  10. Trace constituents in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gary E.

    The paper examines recent composition measurements, the large-scale distributions of trace constituents, and the interpretation of these global patterns in the light of the current understanding of chemistry and transport. Attention is given to results from the following space missions: the Nimbus 7 LIMS and SAMS experiments; the SMM UV spectrometer solar occultation experiment; the SME UVS and AGS experiments; and the Spacelab 1 solar occultation experiment. A brief summary of measurements and their implications is presented for three long-lived species, CO, NO, and H2O. The reactive or short-lived species OH and O3 are also examined.

  11. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time.

  12. The inorganic constituents of echinoderms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, F.W.; Wheeler, W.C.

    1915-01-01

    In a recent paper on the composition of crinoid skeletons we showed that crinoids contain large quantities of magnesia, and that its proportion varies with the temperature of the water in which the creatures live. This result was so novel and surprising that it seemed desirable to examine other echinoderms and to ascertain whether they showed the same characteristics and regularity. A number of sea urchins and starfishes were therefore studied, their inorganic constituents being analyzed in the same manner as those of the crinoids

  13. [Chemical constituents of Physalis pubescens].

    PubMed

    Luo, Li-ping; Cheng, Fan-qin; Ji, Long; Yu, He-yong

    2015-11-01

    Chemical constituents of 95% ethanol extract of the dried persistent calyx of Physalis pubescens were investigated. By chromatography on a silica gel column and reverse-phase preparative HPLC, 10 compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction. Based on the MS and 1D/2D NMR data, these compounds were identified as 5-O-(E-feruloyl) blumenol (1), isovanillin (2), (E) -ethyl 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acrylate (3), 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde(4), 4-methylphenol (5), (E) -methyl cinnamate (6), 7,3',4' trimethoxyquercetin (7), 5,3', 5'-trihydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone(8), danielone (9), and 5,5'-diisobutoxy-2,2'-bifuran (10).

  14. [Chemical constituents of Viola tianshanica].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiandong; Dai, Zhong; Lin, Ruichao

    2009-11-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Viola tianshanica. Compounds were isolated by silica column, pharmadex LH-20 column and polyamide column, and their structures were elucidated by UV, IR, ESI-MS and NMR. Six compounds were isolated and identified as daucosterol (1), kaempferol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol- 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-glucoside (4), kaempferol (5) and quercetin (6). Compounds 2-5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. Characterization of dusts collected from swine confinement buildings. [Verticillium sp. ; Actinomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Donham, K.J.; Scallon, L.J.; Popendorf, W.; Treauhaft, M.W.; Roberts, R.D.

    1986-07-01

    The air in 21 different swine confinement buildings was sampled with 37 mm cassette filters with and without cyclone preselectors and with cascade impactors. Filter results yielded a mean total aerosol of 6.3 mg/m/sup 3/, a mean respirable aerosol of 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/; the geometric mean diameter was 2.9 microns. Cascade impactor measurements revealed a mean total aerosol of 7.6 mg/m/sup 3/, a respirable aerosol of 2.5 mg/m/sup 3/ and a mass median diameter of 9.6 microns. The two major constituents in these aerosols were grain particles and dried fecal matter. The grain particles were larger than fecal particles and proportionately more abundant in finishing buildings where 50 kg-100 kg animals are housed. Therefore the respirable fraction was less in finishing buildings than in farrowing and nursery buildings. Culturing of settled dusts yielded six different mold species, with the highest counts for Verticillium sp. (5 x 10/sup 2/ cfu/mg dry dust) grown at 37/sup 0/C. Thermophilic Actinomycetes and both gram negative and gram positive bacteria were isolated.

  16. Cosmic meteor dust: potentially the dominant source of bio-available iron in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Marsh, D. R.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Fentzke, J.; Lopez-Rosado, R.; Behrenfeld, M.

    2012-12-01

    Johnson, 2001 [Johnson, Kenneth. S. (2001), Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean: Is extraterrestrial dust a significant source of bioavailable iron?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(1), 61-63, doi:10.1029/2000GB001295], first suggested that meteoric particulate flux could be a significant source of bio-available iron, particularly in regions with little or no eolean sources, such as the Southern Ocean. While these calculations raised intriguing questions, there were many large unknowns in the input calculations between meteor flux and bio-available ocean molecular densities. There has been significant research in the intervening decade on related topics, such as the magnitude (~200 ktons per year) and composition of the meteoric flux, its atmospheric evaporation, transport, mesospheric formation of potentially soluble meteoric smoke, and extraterrestrial iron isotope identification. Paramount of these findings are recent NCAR WACCM atmosphere model results demonstrating that the majority of meteoric constituents are transported towards the winter poles and the polar vortex. This may lead to a focusing of meteoritic iron deposition towards the Southern Ocean. We present a proposed research plan involving Southern Ocean sample collection and analysis and atmospheric and biological modeling to determine both the current relevance of meteoric iron, and examine the past and future consequences of cosmic dust under a changing climate.

  17. Dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of SVS13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiyoshi, T.; Wright, C.; Moore, T.

    It is of great interest to study the mineralogy of circumstellar dust around young stars as it represents the original constituents of planetesimals, hence of the rocky planets like our own Earth. To this end, we have obtained an N-band (8-13 µm) spectrum of a pre-main-sequence star SVS13, using the facility mid-infrared imaging spectrometer COMICS on the Japanese 8.2-m Subaru Telescope atop the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We have fitted various emissivities/absorption coefficients of dust species to the spectrum to examine dust mineralogy in the circumstellar envelope of this remarkable young star. In this presentation, we outline the modelling and highlight some of our findings.

  18. Developing a new controllable lunar dust simulant: BHLD20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao; Yi, Min; Shen, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Shulin

    2017-07-01

    Identifying and eliminating the negative effects of lunar dust are of great importance for future lunar exploration. Since the available lunar samples are limited, developing terrestrial lunar dust simulant becomes critical for the study of lunar dust problem. In this work, beyond the three existing lunar dust simulants: JSC-1Avf, NU-LHT-1D, and CLDS-i, we developed a new high-fidelity lunar dust simulant named as BHLD20. And we concluded a methodology that soil and dust simulants can be produced by variations in portions of the overall procedure, whereby the properties of the products can be controlled by adjusting the feedstock preparation and heating process. The key ingredients of our innovative preparation route include: (1) plagioclase, used as a major material in preparing all kinds of lunar dust simulants; (2) a muffle furnace, applied to expediently enrich the glass phase in feedstock, with the production of some composite particles; (3) a one-step sand-milling technique, employed for mass pulverization without wasting feedstock; and (4) a particle dispersant, utilized to prevent the agglomeration in lunar dust simulant and retain the real particle size. Research activities in the development of BHLD20 can help solve the lunar dust problem.

  19. Dust and Ionized Gas in Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul

    1995-05-01

    ellipticals. The detection rate of dust and ionized gas are found to be about 40% and 60%, respectively, which is significantly higher than that of previous imaging studies. The distributions of dust and ionized gas are consistent with being physically associated with each other. The wavelength dependence of the dust extinction in elliptical galaxies with large-scale dust lanes are presented and discussed in chapter 5. We find that the dust grains in dust-lane elliptical galaxies are smaller on average than the canonical grain size in our Galaxy. Comparing the typical lifetime of dust grains in different environments with formation timescales of lanes and/or rings in elliptical galaxies, we suggest that the observed characteristic dust grain size is determined by the time elapsed since the dust lane was accreted from outside. In Chapter 6 we combine the IRAS far-infrared observations, our optical survey data, and the available X-ray data of the galaxies in our sample. We find that dust masses as determined from the IRAS data are roughly an order of magnitude higher than those determined from optical extinction. To solve this dilemma we argue that the majority of the dust in elliptical galaxies exists as a diffusely distributed component. We show that the assumption of this newly postulated distribution of dust in terms of total masses and energetics of the dust is entirely consistent with heating by optical photons and hot electrons in the X-ray-emitting gas. The diffuse component of dust is found to have a non-negligible effect on the radial colour gradients in elliptical galaxies, and should thus be taken seriously in the interpretation of colour gradients. Several arguments in favour of an external origin of dust in elliptical galaxies are discussed. Last but not least, a strong anticorrelation between the masses of dust and hot gas in X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies is found and discussed. (SECTION: Dissertation Summaries)

  20. Interstellar and Cometary Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, John S.

    1997-01-01

    'Interstellar dust' forms a continuum of materials with differing properties which I divide into three classes on the basis of observations: (a) diffuse dust, in the low-density interstellar medium; (b) outer-cloud dust, observed in stars close enough to the outer edges of molecular clouds to be observed in the optical and ultraviolet regions of the spectrum, and (c) inner-cloud dust, deep within the cores of molecular clouds, and observed only in the infrared by means of absorption bands of C-H, C=O, 0-H, C(triple bond)N, etc. There is a surprising regularity of the extinction laws between diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. The entire mean extinction law from infrared through the observable ultraviolet spectrum can be characterized by a single parameter. There are real deviations from this mean law, larger than observational uncertainties, but they are much smaller than differences of the mean laws in diffuse- and outer-cloud dust. This fact shows that there are processes which operate over the entire distribution of grain sizes, and which change size distributions extremely efficiently. There is no evidence for mantles on grains in local diffuse and outer-cloud dust. The only published spectra of the star VI Cyg 12, the best candidate for showing mantles, does not show the 3.4 micro-m band which appreciable mantles would produce. Grains are larger in outer-cloud dust than diffuse dust because of coagulation, not accretion of extensive mantles. Core-mantle grains favored by J. M. Greenberg and collaborators, and composite grains of Mathis and Whiffen (1989), are discussed more extensively (naturally, I prefer the latter). The composite grains are fluffy and consist of silicates, amorphous carbon, and some graphite in the same grain. Grains deep within molecular clouds but before any processing within the solar system are presumably formed from the accretion of icy mantles on and within the coagulated outer-cloud grains. They should contain a mineral

  1. [Chemical Constituents from Angelica keiskei].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan-zhi; Li, Sheng-hua

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents from Angelica keiskei. The constituents were isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative TLC. Their structures were identified on the basis of spectral data and physiochemical characteristics. 14 compounds were isolated from 70% ethanol extracts and identified as falcarindiol (1), selinidin (2), isobavachalcone (3), pteryxin (4), kaempferol-5-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), β-amyrin ace- tate (6), β-sitosteryl glucoside-6'-O-heptadecoicate (7), 2,5-dimethyl-6,8-dihydroxyl-chromone (8), quercetin-3,3'-di-O-α-L-rhamno- side (9), 2-hydroxynaringenin-4'-O-glucopyranoside (10), 3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl (1-->3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)-α-L-rhamnosyl (1--> 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl hederagenin-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (11), chrysoeriol (12), orientin (13) and 1β,6α-dihydroxyeudesm-4 (15)-ene (14). All compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  2. Antibacterial constituents from Melodinus suaveolens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang-Ling; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Qin, Xu-Jie; Yang, Xing-Wei; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the non-alkaloidal chemical constituents of the stems and leaves of Melodinus suaveolens and their antibacterial activities. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, RP18, and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by comparison with published spectroscopic data, as well as on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antibacterial screening assays were performed by the dilution method. Fourteen compounds were isolated, and identified as lycopersene (1), betulinic aldehyde (2), 3β-acetoxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one (3), 3a-acetyl-2, 3, 5-trimethyl-7a-hydroxy-5-(4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanyl)-1,3a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-4-oxainden-1-one (4), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17β-hydroperoxide (5), 3β-hydroxy-28-norlup-20(29)-ene-17α-hydroperoxide (6), β-sitosterol (7), 28-nor-urs-12-ene-3β, 17β-diol (8), α-amyrin (9), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (10), 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide (11), betulin (12), obtusalin (13), and ursolic acid (14). Among the isolates, compounds 1, 2, 6, 8, 10, and 14 showed potent antibacterial activities against the four bacteria. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of the constituents of Melodinus suaveolens.

  3. Control of Dust Inventory in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Andrew, P.; Ciattaglia, S.; Pitcher, C. S.; Taylor, N.; Furlan, J.

    2008-09-07

    Particles with sizes ranging from 100 nm to 100 {mu}m are produced in tokamaks by the interaction of the plasma with the first wall materials and divertor. Dust has not yet been of a major concern in existing tokamaks mainly because their quantities are small and these devices are not nuclear facilities. However, in ITER and in future reactors, they could represent operational and potential safety issues. The aim of this paper is thus to describe the dust creation processes in the tokamak environment. The diagnostics and removal techniques that are needed to be implemented to measure and minimise the dust inventory are also presented. The integration of these techniques into a tokamak environment is also discussed.

  4. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  5. Dust storm in Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Dust storm in Alaska captured by Aqua/MODIS on Nov. 17, 2013 at 21:45 UTC. When glaciers grind against underlying bedrock, they produce a silty powder with grains finer than sand. Geologists call it “glacial flour” or “rock flour.” This iron- and feldspar-rich substance often finds its ways into rivers and lakes, coloring the water brown, grey, or aqua. When river or lake levels are low, the flour accumulates on drying riverbanks and deltas, leaving raw material for winds to lift into the air and create plumes of dust. Scientists are monitoring Arctic dust for a number of reasons. Dust storms can reduce visibility enough to disrupt air travel, and they can pose health hazards to people on the ground. Dust is also a key source of iron for phytoplankton in regional waters. Finally, there is the possibility that dust events are becoming more frequent and severe due to ongoing recession of glaciers in coastal Alaska. To read more about dust storm in this region go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=79518 Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, F.; Peng, R. D.; Liu, Y. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Ye, M. F.; Wang, L.

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  7. Desert dust and human health disorders.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew S

    2014-02-01

    Dust storms may originate in many of the world's drylands and have an effect not only on human health in the drylands themselves but also in downwind environments, including some major urban centres, such as Phoenix, Kano, Athens, Madrid, Dubai, Jedda, Tehran, Jaipur, Beijing, Shanghai, Seoul, Taipei, Tokyo, Sydney, Brisbane and Melbourne. In some parts of the world dust storms occur frequently throughout the year. They can transport particulate material, pollutants, and potential allergens over thousands of km from source. The main sources include the Sahara, central and eastern Asia, the Middle East, and parts of the western USA. In some parts of the world, though not all, the frequency of dust storms is changing in response to land use and climatic changes, and in such locations the health implications may become more severe. Data on the PM10 and P2.5 loadings of dust events are discussed, as are various pollutants (heavy metals, pesticides, etc.) and biological components (spores, fungi, bacteria, etc.). Particulate loadings can far exceed healthy levels. Among the human health effects of dust storms are respiratory disorders (including asthma, tracheitis, pneumonia, allergic rhinitis and silicosis) cardiovascular disorders (including stroke), conjunctivitis, skin irritations, meningococcal meningitis, valley fever, diseases associated with toxic algal blooms and mortality and injuries related to transport accidents.

  8. Investigation of dust vertical dispersion relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Hyde, Truell

    2007-11-01

    The dust acoustic wave (DAW) was first theoretically predicted in 1990 by Rao et al. [Ref] and later observed experimentally by Barkan, et al. [Ref. 2], Pieper and Goree [Ref. 3] and others. The charge on the dust, Debye length and various other fundamental complex plasma parameters can be obtained experimentally through measurement of the DAW. Since under normal laboratory conditions, ordered structures formed within a complex plasma are generally two dimensional in nature, the majority of experiments to date examining such a system's dispersion relationships have been conducted on the horizontal plane. We will present an experimental method providing for a vertical dispersion relationship measurement, and present corresponding data. References [1]. N. N. Rao, P. K. Shukla, and M. Y. Yu, ``Dust-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas,'' Planet. Space Sci. 38, 543-546 (1990). [2]. A. Barkan, R. L. Merlino, and N. D'Angelo, ``Laboratory observation of the dust-acoustic wave mode,'' Phys. Plasmas, 2, 3563-3565, 1995. [3]. J. B. Pieper, J. Goree, ``Dispersion of Plasma Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strong-Coupling Regime,'' Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 3137-3140, 1996.

  9. Respirable coal mine dust sample processing

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, L.D.; Tomb, T.F.; Parobeck, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 established mandatory dust standards for coal mines. Regulatory requirements for complying with the provisions of the Act were prescribed in Title 30, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 70 and 71, which were published in the Federal Register on April 3, 1970, and March 28, 1972, respectively. These standard and sampling requirements of coal mine operators, along with a description of the laboratory which was established to process respirable coal mine dust samples collected in accordance with these requirements, were published in MESA Informational Report (MESA, the acronym for the Mining Enforcement and Safety Administration, was changed to MSHA, the acronym for the Mine Safety and Health Administration, in 1977). These standards and regulatory requirements continued under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 until November 1980, when major regulatory revisions were made in the operator's dust sampling program. This paper describes the changes in the respirable coal mine dust sampling program and the equipment and procedures used by MSHA to process respirable coal mine