Sample records for major element characteristics

  1. The 'North American shale composite' - Its compilation, major and trace element characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gromet, L. P.; Dymek, R. F.; Haskin, L. A.; Korotev, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    North American shale composite (NASC) major element composition and compilation are presented, together with rare earth element (REE) redeterminations obtained by high precision analytical methods. The major element composition of the NASC compares closely with other average shale compositions, and significant portions of the REE and some other trace elements are contained in minor phases. The uneven REE distribution in NASC powder appears to yield the heterogeneity in analyzed aliquants. REE distributions of detrital sediments may to some extent be dependent on their minor mineral assemblages and the sedimentological factors controlling these assemblages.

  2. Apollo 16 impact-melt splashes - Petrography and major-element composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich; Morris, Richard V.

    1986-01-01

    Petrographic and major-element analyses are applied to 50 Apollo 16 impact-melt splash (IMS) samples in order to determine their origin and assess the nature of the subregolith source. The macroscopic analyses reveal that the IMSs exhibit a glassy appearance, but the textures range from holohyaline to hyalopilitic. Schlieren-rich glasses dominate the holohyaline areas, and the crystalline areas are mainly spherulitic. It is observed that most IMSs contain feldspathic monomineralic and lithic clasts and no regolithic materials. It is detected that the chemistry of most IMSs is not like the local regolith and appears to represent varied mixtures of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosite; the host rocks are mainly dimict breccias. It is concluded that the Cayley Formation is a polymict deposit composed of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosites. Tables revealing the macroscopic characteristics of the IMSs and the major-element composition of IMSs and various host rock are presented.

  3. Distribution of Major and trace elements in Koppunuru area, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, K; Srinivasalu, S; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, R

    2018-06-01

    From koppunuru study area totally 58 samples were collected in 7 different boreholes, minimum depth of 28 m and Maximum depth of 157.7 m. The borehole samples geochemical analysis (major and trace elements) was carried out at Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration & Research (AMD), Hyderabad, India. Major and trace element studies have been conducted on the Neoproterozoic Palnad sub-basin Andhra Pradesh, South India, to determine their Geochemistry, Uranium mineralization and provenance characteristics. Geochemically, this sedimentary basin has a different litho - unit like as gritty quartzite, conglomerate, and Shale. This study area mainly dominated by Uranium deposited and radioactive elements are predominately deposit. Strong positive correlation between Uranium and Lead ( r = 0.887) suggested radiogenic nature of this system.

  4. Retrotransposons Are the Major Contributors to the Expansion of the Drosophila ananassae Muller F Element

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Christopher D.; Chen, Elizabeth J.; Quisenberry, Thomas J.; Ko, Kevin; Braverman, John M.; Giarla, Thomas C.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Robic, Srebrenka; McCartha, Shannon R.; Perry, Danielle R.; Prescod, Lindsay M.; Sheppard, Zenyth A.; Saville, Ken J.; McClish, Allison; Morlock, Emily A.; Sochor, Victoria R.; Stanton, Brittney; Veysey-White, Isaac C.; Revie, Dennis; Jimenez, Luis A.; Palomino, Jennifer J.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Himelblau, Edward T.; Campbell, Jaclyn D.; Hertz, Alexandra L.; McEvilly, Maddison F.; Wagner, Allison R.; Youngblom, James; Bedi, Baljit; Bettincourt, Jeffery; Duso, Erin; Her, Maiye; Hilton, William; House, Samantha; Karimi, Masud; Kumimoto, Kevin; Lee, Rebekah; Lopez, Darryl; Odisho, George; Prasad, Ricky; Robbins, Holly Lyn; Sandhu, Tanveer; Selfridge, Tracy; Tsukashima, Kara; Yosif, Hani; Kokan, Nighat P.; Britt, Latia; Zoellner, Alycia; Spana, Eric P.; Chlebina, Ben T.; Chong, Insun; Friedman, Harrison; Mammo, Danny A.; Ng, Chun L.; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Xu, Thomas Q.; Burg, Martin G.; Batten, Spencer M.; Corbeill, Lindsay M.; Enoch, Erica; Ensign, Jesse J.; Franks, Mary E.; Haiker, Breanna; Ingles, Judith A.; Kirkland, Lyndsay D.; Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M.; Matthews, Jordan; Mittig, Cody M.; Monsma, Nicholaus; Olson, Katherine J.; Perez-Aragon, Guillermo; Ramic, Alen; Ramirez, Jordan R.; Scheiber, Christopher; Schneider, Patrick A.; Schultz, Devon E.; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Wernette, Adam C.; Wykle, Maxine E.; Zavala-Arellano, Elizabeth; McDonald, Mitchell J.; Ostby, Kristine; Wendland, Peter; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Ceasrine, Alexis M.; Cox, Amanda H.; Docherty, James E.B.; Gingras, Robert M.; Grieb, Stephanie M.; Pavia, Michael J.; Personius, Casey L.; Polak, Grzegorz L.; Beach, Dale L.; Cerritos, Heaven L.; Horansky, Edward A.; Sharif, Karim A.; Moran, Ryan; Parrish, Susan; Bickford, Kirsten; Bland, Jennifer; Broussard, Juliana; Campbell, Kerry; Deibel, Katelynn E.; Forka, Richard; Lemke, Monika C.; Nelson, Marlee B.; O'Keeffe, Catherine; Ramey, S. Mariel; Schmidt, Luke; Villegas, Paola; Jones, Christopher J.; Christ, Stephanie L.; Mamari, Sami; Rinaldi, Adam S.; Stity, Ghazal; Hark, Amy T.; Scheuerman, Mark; Silver Key, S. Catherine; McRae, Briana D.; Haberman, Adam S.; Asinof, Sam; Carrington, Harriette; Drumm, Kelly; Embry, Terrance; McGuire, Richard; Miller-Foreman, Drew; Rosen, Stella; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Segal, Matt; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Skuse, Gary; Paetkau, Don W.; Bridgman, Rachael K.; Brown, Charlotte M.; Carroll, Alicia R.; Gifford, Francesca M.; Gillespie, Julie Beth; Herman, Susan E.; Holtcamp, Krystal L.; Host, Misha A.; Hussey, Gabrielle; Kramer, Danielle M.; Lawrence, Joan Q.; Martin, Madeline M.; Niemiec, Ellen N.; O'Reilly, Ashleigh P.; Pahl, Olivia A.; Quintana, Guadalupe; Rettie, Elizabeth A.S.; Richardson, Torie L.; Rodriguez, Arianne E.; Rodriguez, Mona O.; Schiraldi, Laura; Smith, Joanna J.; Sugrue, Kelsey F.; Suriano, Lindsey J.; Takach, Kaitlyn E.; Vasquez, Arielle M.; Velez, Ximena; Villafuerte, Elizabeth J.; Vives, Laura T.; Zellmer, Victoria R.; Hauke, Jeanette; Hauser, Charles R.; Barker, Karolyn; Cannon, Laurie; Parsamian, Perouza; Parsons, Samantha; Wichman, Zachariah; Bazinet, Christopher W.; Johnson, Diana E.; Bangura, Abubakarr; Black, Jordan A.; Chevee, Victoria; Einsteen, Sarah A.; Hilton, Sarah K.; Kollmer, Max; Nadendla, Rahul; Stamm, Joyce; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gygi, Amber M.; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Van Camp, Matt; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Leatherman, Judith L.; Modahl, Cassie M.; Rubin, Michael R.; Apiz-Saab, Susana S.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Carrion-Ortiz, Carlos F.; Claudio-Vazquez, Patricia N.; Espada-Green, Debbie M.; Feliciano-Camacho, Marium; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Karina M.; Taboas-Arroyo, Mariela; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Montañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera-Burgos, Myrielis; Rivera-Rosario, Francisco J.; Eisler, Heather L.; Alexander, Jackie; Begley, Samatha K.; Gabbard, Deana; Allen, Robert J.; Aung, Wint Yan; Barshop, William D.; Boozalis, Amanda; Chu, Vanessa P.; Davis, Jeremy S.; Duggal, Ryan N.; Franklin, Robert; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Gong, Henry Z.; Greenstein, Rachel A.; Guo, Averill D.; Hanson, Casey; Homa, Kaitlin E.; Hsu, Simon C.; Huang, Yi; Huo, Lucy; Jacobs, Sarah; Jia, Sasha; Jung, Kyle L.; Wai-Chee Kong, Sarah; Kroll, Matthew R.; Lee, Brandon M.; Lee, Paul F.; Levine, Kevin M.; Li, Amy S.; Liu, Chengyu; Liu, Max Mian; Lousararian, Adam P.; Lowery, Peter B.; Mallya, Allyson P.; Marcus, Joseph E.; Ng, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Hien P.; Patel, Ruchik; Precht, Hashini; Rastogi, Suchita; Sarezky, Jonathan M.; Schefkind, Adam; Schultz, Michael B.; Shen, Delia; Skorupa, Tara; Spies, Nicholas C.; Stancu, Gabriel; Vivian Tsang, Hiu Man; Turski, Alice L.; Venkat, Rohit; Waldman, Leah E.; Wang, Kaidi; Wang, Tracy; Wei, Jeffrey W.; Wu, Dennis Y.; Xiong, David D.; Yu, Jack; Zhou, Karen; McNeil, Gerard P.; Fernandez, Robert W.; Menzies, Patrick Gomez; Gu, Tingting; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Elgin, Sarah C.R.

    2017-01-01

    The discordance between genome size and the complexity of eukaryotes can partly be attributed to differences in repeat density. The Muller F element (∼5.2 Mb) is the smallest chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster, but it is substantially larger (>18.7 Mb) in D. ananassae. To identify the major contributors to the expansion of the F element and to assess their impact, we improved the genome sequence and annotated the genes in a 1.4-Mb region of the D. ananassae F element, and a 1.7-Mb region from the D element for comparison. We find that transposons (particularly LTR and LINE retrotransposons) are major contributors to this expansion (78.6%), while Wolbachia sequences integrated into the D. ananassae genome are minor contributors (0.02%). Both D. melanogaster and D. ananassae F-element genes exhibit distinct characteristics compared to D-element genes (e.g., larger coding spans, larger introns, more coding exons, and lower codon bias), but these differences are exaggerated in D. ananassae. Compared to D. melanogaster, the codon bias observed in D. ananassae F-element genes can primarily be attributed to mutational biases instead of selection. The 5′ ends of F-element genes in both species are enriched in dimethylation of lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4me2), while the coding spans are enriched in H3K9me2. Despite differences in repeat density and gene characteristics, D. ananassae F-element genes show a similar range of expression levels compared to genes in euchromatic domains. This study improves our understanding of how transposons can affect genome size and how genes can function within highly repetitive domains. PMID:28667019

  5. The Pasamonte unequilibrated eucrite: Pyroxene REE systematic and major-, minor-, and trace-element zoning. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, A.; Papike, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    We are evaluating the trace-element concentrations in the pyroxenes of Pasamonte. Pasamonte is a characteristic member of the main group eucrites, and has recently been redescribed as a polymict eucrite. Our Pasamonte sample contained eucritic clasts with textures ranging from subophitic to moderately coarse-grained. This study concentrates on pyroxenes from an unequilibrated, coarse-grained eucrite clast. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses were measured for zoned pyroxenes in the eucritic clast of Pasamonte. The major- and minor-element zoning traverses were measured using the JEOL 733 electron probe with an Oxford-Link imaging/analysis system. Complemenatry trace elements were then measured for the core and rim of each of the grains by SIMS. The trace elements analyzed consisted of eight REE, Sr, Y, and Zr. These analyses were performed on a Cameca 4f ion probe. The results of the CI chondrite normalized (average CI trace-element analyses for several grains and the major- and minor-element zoning patterns from a single pyroxene grain are given. The Eu abundance in the cores of the pyroxenes represents the detection limit and therefore the (-Eu) anomaly is a minimum. Major- and minor-element patterns are typical for igneous zoning. Pyroxene cores are Mg enriched, whereas the rims are enriched in Fe and Ca. Also, Ti and Mn are found to increase, while Cr and Al generally decrease in core-to-rim traverses. The cores of the pyroxenes are more depleted in the Rare Earth Elements (REE) than the rims. Using the minor- and trace-element concentrations of bulk Pasamonte and the minor- and trace-element concentrations from the cores of the pyroxenes in Pasamonte measured in this study, we calculated partition coefficients between pyroxene and melt. This calculation assumes that bulk Pasamonte is representative of a melt composition.

  6. Elemental X-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: A non- destructive technique for determining compositional characteristics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Commeau, R.F.; Reynolds, Leslie A.; Poag, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The composition of agglutinated foraminiferal tests vary remarkably in response to local substrate characteristics, physiochemical properties of the water column and species- dependant selectivity of test components. We have employed a technique that combines a scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer system to identify major and minor elemental constituents of agglutinated foraminiferal walls. As a sample is bombarded with a beam of high energy electrons, X-rays are generated that are characteristic of the elements present. As a result, X- ray density maps can be produced for each of several elements present in the tests of agglutinated foraminifers. 

  7. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    PubMed

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  8. Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from Global Trends between Radiogenic Isotopes and Major Elements in Ocean Island Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Dasgupta, R.

    2008-12-01

    Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Al2O3 and K2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al2O3 and K2O/TiO2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'ì' = 238U/204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al2O3, FeOT, and TiO2 and low SiO2 and Al2O3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/86Sr and low 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K2O concentrations and K2O/TiO2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al2O3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al2O3 vs K2O/TiO2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent- daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial melt compositions to place

  9. Compositions of HIMU, EM1, and EM2 from global trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew G.; Dasgupta, Rajdeep

    2008-11-01

    Sr and Pb isotopes exhibit global trends with the concentrations of major elements (SiO 2, TiO 2, FeO, Al 2O 3 and K 2O) and major elements ratios (CaO/Al 2O 3 and K 2O/TiO 2) in the shield-stage lavas from 18 oceanic hotspots (including Hawaii, Iceland, Galapagos, Cook-Australs, St. Helena, Cape Verde, Cameroon, Canary, Madeira, Comoros, Azores, Samoa, Society, Marquesas, Mascarene, Kerguelen, Pitcairn, and Selvagen). Based on the relationships between major elements and isotopes in ocean island basalts (OIBs), we find that the lavas derived from the mantle end members, HIMU (or high 'μ' = 238U/ 204Pb), EM1 (enriched mantle 1), EM2 (enriched mantle 2), and DMM (depleted MORB [mid-ocean ridge basalt] mantle) exhibit distinct major element characteristics: When compared to oceanic hotspots globally, the hotspots with a HIMU (radiogenic Pb-isotopes and low 87Sr/ 86Sr) component, such as St. Helena and Cook-Australs, exhibit high CaO/Al 2O 3, FeO T, and TiO 2 and low SiO 2 and Al 2O 3. EM1 (enriched mantle 1; intermediate 87Sr/ 86Sr and low 206Pb/ 204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Pitcairn and Kerguelen) and EM2 (enriched mantle 2; high 87Sr/ 86Sr and intermediate 206Pb/ 204Pb; sampled by hotspots like Samoa and Societies) exhibit higher K 2O concentrations and K 2O/TiO 2 weight ratios than HIMU lavas. EM1 lavas exhibit the lowest CaO/Al 2O 3 in the OIB dataset, and this sets EM1 apart from EM2. A plot of CaO/Al 2O 3 vs K 2O/TiO 2 perfectly resolves the four mantle end member lavas. Melting processes (pressure, temperature and degree of melting) fail to provide an explanation for the full spectrum of major element concentrations in OIBs. Such processes also fail to explain the correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotopes. Instead, a long, time integrated history of various parent-daughter elements appears to be coupled to major element and/or volatile heterogeneity in the mantle source. End member lava compositions are compared with experimental partial

  10. Diffraction analysis of sidelobe characteristics of optical elements with ripple error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lei; Luo, Yupeng; Bai, Jian; Zhou, Xiangdong; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    The ripple errors of the lens lead to optical damage in high energy laser system. The analysis of sidelobe on the focal plane, caused by ripple error, provides a reference to evaluate the error and the imaging quality. In this paper, we analyze the diffraction characteristics of sidelobe of optical elements with ripple errors. First, we analyze the characteristics of ripple error and build relationship between ripple error and sidelobe. The sidelobe results from the diffraction of ripple errors. The ripple error tends to be periodic due to fabrication method on the optical surface. The simulated experiments are carried out based on angular spectrum method by characterizing ripple error as rotationally symmetric periodic structures. The influence of two major parameter of ripple including spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value to sidelobe is discussed. The results indicate that spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value both impact sidelobe at the image plane. The peak-tovalley value is the major factor to affect the energy proportion of the sidelobe. The spatial frequency is the major factor to affect the distribution of the sidelobe at the image plane.

  11. Extraction of information from major element chemical analyses of lunar basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Major element chemical analyses often form the framework within which similarities and differences of analyzed specimens are noted and used to propose or devise models. When percentages are formed the ratios of pairs of components are preserved whereas many familiar statistical and geometrical descriptors are likely to exhibit major changes. This ratio preserving aspect forms the basis for a proposed framework. An analysis of compositional variability within the data set of 42 major element analyses of lunar reference samples was selected to investigate this proposal.

  12. Analysis of major elements in pigmented melanocytic chicken skin using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Jin; Moon, Youngmin; Han, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    The concentration difference of major elements in melanocytic skin with respect to pigmentation level is analysed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to investigate the applicability of LIBS as an in situ feedback tool for selective and complete laser removal of melanocytic skin tissue like nevus. The skin of black silkie chicken which had a characteristic darkly pigmented perifollicular skin surrounded by lightly pigmented extrafollicular skin was used as the sample. The results showed higher LIBS signal intensities of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ but lower intensities of Na + , Cl - and K + in the perifollicular skin than in the extrafollicular skin, which demonstrated the feasibility to use LIBS as a reliable method to distinguish skin tissues with difference in pigmentation level. Plasma emission of biochemical elements generated with a laser irradiation on melanocytic skin lesion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004 - 2005 Tephra Samples with Major- and Trace-Element Geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, Michael C.; Thornber, Carl R.; Gooding, Daniel J.; Pallister, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This open-file report presents a catalog of information about 135 ash samples along with geochemical analyses of bulk ash, glass and individual mineral grains from tephra deposited as a result of volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens, Washington, from October 1, 2004 until August 15, 2005. This data, in conjunction with that in a companion report on 2004?2007 Mount St. Helens dome samples by Thornber and others (2008a) are presented in support of the contents of the U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750 (Sherrod and others, ed., 2008). Readers are referred to appropriate chapters in USGS Professional Paper 1750 for detailed narratives of eruptive activity during this time period and for interpretations of sample characteristics and geochemical data presented here. All ash samples reported herein are currently archived at the David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington. The Mount St. Helens 2004?2005 Tephra Sample Catalogue along with bulk, glass and mineral geochemistry are tabulated in 6 worksheets of the accompanying Microsoft Excel file, of2008-1131.xls. Samples in all tables are organized by collection date. Table 1 is a detailed catalog of sample information for tephra deposited downwind of Mount St. Helens between October 1, 2004 and August 18, 2005. Table 2 provides major- and trace-element analyses of 8 bulk tephra samples collected throughout that interval. Major-element compositions of 82 groundmass glass fragments, 420 feldspar grains, and 213 mafic (clinopyroxene, amphibole, hypersthene, and olivine) mineral grains from 12 ash samples collected between October 1, 2004 and March 8, 2005 are presented in tables 3 through 5. In addition, trace-element abundances of 198 feldspars from 11 ash samples (same samples as major-element analyses) are provided in table 6. Additional mineral and bulk ash analyses from 2004 and 2005 ash samples are published in chapters 30 (oxide thermometry; Pallister and others, 2008), 32

  14. Selected elements in major minerals from bituminous coal as determined by INAA: Implications for removing environmentally sensitive elements from coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Lyons, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The four most abundant minerals generally found in Euramerican bituminous coals are quartz, kaolinite, illite and pyrite. These four minerals were isolated by density separation and handpicking from bituminous coal samples collected in the Ruhr Basin, Germany and the Appalachian basin, U.S.A. Trace-element concentrations of relatively pure (??? 99+%) separates of major minerals from these coals were determined directly by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). As expected, quartz contributes little to the trace-element mass balance. Illite generally has higher trace-element concentrations than kaolinite, but, for the concentrates analyzed in this study, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U are in lower concentrations in illite than in kaolinite. Pyrite has higher concentrations of chalcophile elements (e.g., As and Se) and is considerably lower in lithophile elements as compared to kaolinite and illite. Our study provides a direct and sensitive method of determining trace-element relationships with minerals in coal. Mass-balance calculations suggest that the trace-element content of coal can be explained mainly by three major minerals: pyrite, kaolinite and illite. This conclusion indicates that the size and textural relationships of these major coal minerals may be a more important consideration as to whether coal cleaning can effectively remove the most environmentally sensitive trace elements in coal than what trace minerals are present.

  15. Major and trace element abundances in volcanic rocks of orogenic areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakes, P.; White, A. J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The composition of recent island-arc volcanic rocks in relation to their geographic and stratigraphic relations is discussed. The differences in composition between volcanic rocks and those in continental margins are pointed out. Trace elements and major elements are shown to suggest a continuous gradational sequence from tholeiites through calc-alkaline rocks to shoshonites.

  16. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  17. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  18. Studies on vibration characteristics of a pear using finite element method*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui-zhi; Wang, Jun; Li, Yong-hui

    2006-01-01

    The variation of the vibration characteristics of a Huanghua pear was investigated using finite element simulations. A new image processing technique was used to obtain the unsymmetrical and un-spherical geometrical model of a pear. The vibration characteristics of this type of pear with the correlation of its behavior with geometrical configurations and material characteristics were investigated using numerical modal analysis. The results showed that the eigenfrequency increased with the increasing pear Young’s modulus, while decreased with increasing pear density, and decreased with increasing pear volume. The results of this study provided foundation for further investigations of the physical characteristics of fruits and vegetables by using finite element simulations. PMID:16691644

  19. GIS-based multielement source analysis of dustfall in Beijing: A study of 40 major and trace elements.

    PubMed

    Luo, Nana; An, Li; Nara, Atsushi; Yan, Xing; Zhao, Wenji

    2016-06-01

    Dust, as an important carrier of inorganic and organic pollutants, daily exposes to human without any protection. It affects our health adversely, especially its chemical elements and ions. In this research, we investigated the chemical characteristics of dustfall in Beijing, specifically in terms of 40 major and trace elements, and presented semi-quantitative evaluations of the relative local and remote contributions. In total, 58 samples were collected in Beijing and nearby cities during 2013-2014 "the winter heating period". Using multiple statistical methods and GIS techniques, we obtained the relative similarities among certain elements and identified their pollution sources (from local or nearby cities). And more interestingly, the relative contributions of nearby cities can be calculated by the Hysplit4 backward-trajectory model. In addition, the correlation analysis for the 40 elements in dust and soil indicated that traffic restricted interchange between them; the city center, with the heaviest traffic, had the most significant influence. Finally, the resulting source apportionment was examined and modified using land use data and terrain information. We hope it can provide a strong basis for the environmental protection and risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Major and trace elements in igneous rocks from Apollo 15.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmke, P. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Telander, K.; Weiss, C.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The concentrations of major and trace elements have been determined in igneous rocks from Apollo 15. All materials analyzed have typical depletions of Eu except for minerals separated from sample 15085. Four samples have concentrations of trace elements that are similar to those of KREEP. The samples of mare basalt from Apollo 15 have higher concentrations of FeO, MgO, Mn, and Cr and lower concentrations of CaO, Na2O, K2O, and rare-earth elements (REE) as compared to the samples of mare basalt from Apollos 11, 12, and 14. The samples can be divided into two groups on the basis of their normative compositions. One group is quartz normative and has low concentrations of FeO while the other is olivine normative and has high concentrations of FeO. The trace element data indicate that the samples of olivine normative basalt could be from different portions of a single lava flow.

  1. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  2. Major and trace element concentrations in samples from 72275 and 72255. [chemical composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Blanchard, D. P.; Korotev, R.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. A.; Herrmann, A. G.

    1974-01-01

    Analytical data have been obtained for Co, Sc, Hf, Zn, Cr, Ga, Rb, Cs, Ni, major elements, and rare earth elements in eight samples from boulder 1. The data for trace elements were obtained by radiochemical neutron activation analysis. Major elements, except Na and Mn, were obtained by atomic absorption spectral photometry. Values for Na and Mn were obtained by neutron activation analysis of the same powder that was later dissolved to provide the atomic absorption analyses.

  3. Natural and anthropic effects on hydrochemistry and major and trace elements in the water mass of a Spanish Pyrenean glacial lake set.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Zoe; Arruebo, Tomás; Pardo, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Casals, Carlos; Matesanz, José María; Lanaja, Francisco Javier; Urieta, José Santiago

    2017-07-01

    This study presents the key hydrochemical characteristics and concentration levels of major (Ca, Mg, Na, Si, K, Sr, Fe) and trace (Ba, Sc, Cr, Mn, Al, As, Li, Co, Cu, U, Pb, Hg, Au, Sn, Zn, Cd, Ag, Ni) elements in the water mass of four selected Pyrenean cirque glacial lakes (Sabocos, Baños, Truchas and Escalar tarns) with different catchment features, between 2010 and 2013. Resulting data set is statistically analyzed to discriminate between the natural or anthropic origin of the elements. Analyses indicate that in all cases, the main source of most major and trace elements is geological weathering, being thus individual bedrock composition the main driver of differences between lakes. Several anthropogenic sources of airborne Cu, Sc, Co, and Cr must be also considered. The shallowness of the lake is also a factor that may influence element cycling and concentration levels in its water mass. Concentrations of anthropogenic elements were low, comparable to those reported in other glacial lakes, way below the WHO, US EPA, EC, and Spanish legal limits for drinking water quality, indicating the absence of serious pollution. Toxic heavy metals Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn were not detected in any of the tarns.

  4. Major and trace elements in organically or conventionally produced milk.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, John E; Badsberg, Jens H; Kristensen, Troels; Gundersen, Vagn

    2005-08-01

    A total of 480 samples of milk from 10 organically and 10 conventionally producing dairy farms in Denmark and covering 8 sampling periods over 1 year (triplicate samplings) were analysed for 45 trace elements and 6 major elements by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Sampling, sample preparation, and analysis of the samples were performed under carefully controlled contamination-free conditions. The dairy cattle breeds were Danish-Holstein or Jersey. Sources of variance were quantified, and differences between production systems and breeds were tested. The major source of variation for most elements was week of sampling. Concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Se, and Zn were within published ranges. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb were lower, and concentrations of Co and Sr were higher than published ranges. Compared with Holsteins, Jerseys produced milk with higher concentrations of Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Rh, and Zn and with a lower concentration of Bi. The organically produced milk, compared with conventionally produced milk, contained a significantly higher concentration of Mo (48 v. 37 ng/g) and a lower concentration of Ba (43 v. 62 ng/g), Eu (4 v. 7 ng/g), Mn (16 v. 20 ng/g) and Zn (4400 v. 5150 ng/g respectively). The investigation yielded typical concentrations for the following trace elements in milk, for which no or very few data are available: Ba, Bi, Ce, Cs, Eu, Ga, Gd, In, La, Nb, Nd, Pd, Pr, Rh, Sb, Sm, Tb, Te, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Y, and Zr.

  5. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Major Elements and Issues in Performance Management System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Eul-Kyoo

    2006-01-01

    Due to rapidly changing business environment, HRD practitioners are unprecedentedly demanded to actively participate in improving organizational effectiveness as performance management specialist. The purpose of this study was to examine and discuss major elements and issues in performance management system through an extensive literature review…

  7. Engine dynamic analysis with general nonlinear finite element codes. Part 2: Bearing element implementation overall numerical characteristics and benchmaking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.

    1982-01-01

    Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.

  8. Major element compositional variation within and between different late Eocene microtektite strewnfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hondt, S. L.; Keller, G.; Stallard, R. F.

    1987-03-01

    The major element composition of microspherules from all three late Eocene stratigraphic layers was analyzed using an electron microprobe. The results indicate a major element compositional overlap beween individual microspherules of different microtektite layers or strewn fields. However, multivariate factor analysis shows that the microtektites of the three late Eocene layers follow recognizably different compositional trends. The microtektite population of the North American strewn field is characterized by high concentrations of SiO2, Al2O3, and TiO2; the microspherules of an older layer, the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone, are relatively enriched in FeO and MgO and impoverished in SiO2 and TiO2; while those of the oldest layer in the uppermost G. semiinvoluta Zone are relatively enriched in CaO and impoverished in Al2O3 and Na2O.

  9. Major and trace element chemistry of separated fragments from a hibonite-bearing Allende inclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.; Allen, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The major and trace elements of separated fragments and a bulk sample from CG-11, a hibonite-bearing inclusion in the Allende meteorite, were analyzed. Major element abundances were used to determine the minerology of separated fragments. The high degree of correlation between Eu/Sm ratios and Lu/Yb ratios for the samples studied indicates that their rare earth element (REE) distributions are governed by two components. One, Lu-, Eu-rich, is probably hibonite; the other, depleted in these elements, seems to be associated with the secondary alteration phases, grossular, nepheline and anorthite. The REE distribution in CG-11 precludes melting events after formation of the secondary alteration phases, but a melting event involving the primary minerals cannot be excluded. The enrichment of Lu with respect to other measured REE in hibonite can be explained by present REE condensation models. Two Hf-bearing components, most likely hibonite and perovskite, are necessary to account for variations in Sc/Hf ratios in the fragments studied. The lithophile volatiles Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, and probably Cr increase in the same order as the amount of secondary alteration minerals; the volatile siderophile elements Co and Au, however, do not.

  10. What characteristics of primary anxiety disorders predict subsequent major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Bittner, Antje; Goodwin, Renee D; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Beesdo, Katja; Höfler, Michael; Lieb, Roselind

    2004-05-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the associations between specific anxiety disorders and the risk of major depressive disorder and to explore the role of various clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders in these relationships using a prospective, longitudinal design. The data are from a 4-year prospective, longitudinal community study, which included both baseline and follow-up survey data on 2548 adolescents and young adults aged 14 to 24 years at baseline. DSM-IV diagnoses were made using the Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The presence at baseline of any anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2]) and each of the anxiety disorders (specific phobia, OR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.3 to 2.8]; social phobia, OR = 2.9 [95% CI = 1.7 to 4.8]; agoraphobia, OR = 3.1 [95% CI = 1.4 to 6.7]; panic disorder, OR = 3.4 [95% CI = 1.2 to 9.0]; generalized anxiety disorder, OR = 4.5 [95% CI = 1.9 to 10.3]) was associated with a significantly (p <.05) increased risk of first onset of major depressive disorder. These associations remained significant after we adjusted for mental disorders occurring prior to the onset of the anxiety disorder, with the exception of the panic disorder association. The following clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders were associated with a significantly (p <.05) increased risk of developing major depressive disorder: more than 1 anxiety disorder, severe impairment due to the anxiety disorder, and comorbid panic attacks. In the final model, which included all clinical characteristics, severe impairment remained the only clinical characteristic that was an independent predictor of the development of major depressive disorder (OR = 2.2 [95% CI = 1.0 to 4.4]). Our findings suggest that anxiety disorders are risk factors for the first onset of major depressive disorder. Although a number of clinical characteristics of anxiety disorders appear to play a role in the association between anxiety disorders and

  11. Final-Year Projects as a Major Element in the IE Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitner, G.; Rozenes, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-perspective view of the final-year project of an industrial engineering and management (IEM) department. The final year project is a major element of a 4-year curriculum within any engineering discipline. Such a project gives the student an opportunity to use and implement methods, techniques and tools that he or she…

  12. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    PubMed

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  13. Distribution of major and trace elements in surface sediments of the western Gulf of Thailand: Implications to modern sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengfa; Shi, Xuefa; Yang, Gang; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Kornkanitnan, Narumol

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we analyze major and trace elements (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, K2O, MgO, Na2O, TiO2, P2O5, MnO, Cu, Pb, Ba, Sr, V, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, and Zr) and grain size of 157 surface sediment samples from the western Gulf of Thailand (GoT). On the basis of the space distribution characteristics, the study area can be classified into three geochemical provinces. Province I covers the northern and northwestern coastal zones of the GoT, including the whole upper GoT and thus the sediments from the rivers in the area. It contains high contents of SiO2. Province II is located in the middle of the GoT and has similar geochemistry composition as the South China Sea (SCS). It contains sediments that are characterized by higher contents of Na2O, TiO2, Ba, Cr, V, Zn, Zr, and Ni. Province Ш is located in the lower GoT, close to Malaysia. Major and trace elements in this area showed complex distribution patterns, which may be due to terrestrial materials from Malay rivers combining with some sediments from the SCS in this province. The results also indicate that grain size is the controlling factor in elemental contents, and that the hydrodynamic environment and mineral composition of the sediments play an important role in the distribution of these elements. The anthropogenic impact of heavy metal introduction (especially Cr, Zn, Cu, and Pb) can be seen in surface sediments from the nearshore region of Chantaburi province and north of Samui Island.

  14. Trace element geochemistry of Archean volcanic rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, B.-M.; Shih, C.-Y.; Murthy, V. R.

    1974-01-01

    The K, Rb, Sr, Ba and rare-earth-element contents of some Archean volcanic rocks from the Vermilion greenstone belt, northeast Minnesota, were determined by the isotopic dilution method. The characteristics of trace element abundances, supported by the field occurrences and major element chemistry, suggest that these volcanic rocks were formed in an ancient island arc system.

  15. Major and trace element chemistry of Luna 24 samples from Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Brannon, J. C.; Aaboe, E.; Budahn, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis were employed to analyze six Luna 24 soils for major and trace elements. The analysis revealed well-mixed soils, though size fractions of each of the soils showed quite dissimilar compositions. Thus the regolith apparently has not been extensively reworked. Noritic breccia admixed preferentially to the finest size fractions and differential comminution of one or more other soil components accounted for the observed elemental distributions as a function of grain size. The ferrobasalt composition and one or more components with higher MgO contents have been identified in the samples.

  16. Catalog of Mount St. Helens 2004-2007 Dome Samples with Major- and Trace-Element Chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, Carl R.; Pallister, John S.; Rowe, Michael C.; McConnell, Siobhan; Herriott, Trystan M.; Eckberg, Alison; Stokes, Winston C.; Cornelius, Diane Johnson; Conrey, Richard M.; Hannah, Tammy; Taggart, Joseph E.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.; Budahn, James R.; Knaack, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling and analysis of eruptive products at Mount St. Helens is an integral part of volcano monitoring efforts conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?s Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO). The objective of our eruption sampling program is to enable petrological assessments of pre-eruptive magmatic conditions, critical for ascertaining mechanisms for eruption triggering and forecasting potential changes in eruption behavior. This report provides a catalog of near-vent lithic debris and new dome-lava collected during 34 intra-crater sampling forays throughout the October 2004 to October 2007 (2004?7) eruptive interval at Mount St. Helens. In addition, we present comprehensive bulk-rock geochemistry for a time-series of representative (2004?7) eruption products. This data, along with that in a companion report on Mount St. Helens 2004 to 2006 tephra by Rowe and others (2008), are presented in support of the contents of the U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1750 (Sherrod and others, eds., 2008). Readers are referred to appropriate chapters in USGS Professional Paper 1750 for detailed narratives of eruptive activity during this time period and for interpretations of sample characteristics and geochemical data. The suite of rock samples related to the 2004?7 eruption of Mount St. Helens and presented in this catalog are archived at the David A. Johnson Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Wash. The Mount St. Helens 2004?7 Dome Sample Catalogue with major- and trace-element geochemistry is tabulated in 3 worksheets of the accompanying Microsoft Excel file, of2008-1130.xls. Table 1 provides location and sampling information. Table 2 presents sample descriptions. In table 3, bulk-rock major and trace-element geochemistry is listed for 44 eruption-related samples with intra-laboratory replicate analyses of 19 dacite lava samples. A brief overview of the collection methods and lithology of dome samples is given below as an aid to deciphering the dome sample

  17. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Major and trace element geochemistry and background concentrations for soils in Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Craig; Thomas, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Soil samples were collected throughout Connecticut (CT) to determine the relationship of soil chemistry with the underlying geology and to better understand background concentrations of major and trace elements in soils. Soil samples were collected (1) from the upper 5 cm of surficial soil at 100 sites, (2) from the A horizon at 86 of these sites, and (3) from the deeper horizon, typically the C horizon, at 79 of these sites. The <2-millimeter fraction of each sample was analyzed for 44 elements by methods that yield the total or near-total elemental content. Sample sites were characterized by glacial setting, underlying bedrock geology, and soil type. These spatial data were used with element concentrations in the C-horizon to relate geologic factors to soil chemistry. Concentrations of elements in C-horizon soils varied with grain size in surficial glacial materials and with underlying rock types, as determined using nonparametric statistical procedures. Concentrations of most elements in C-horizon soils showed a positive correlation with silt and (or) clay content and were higher in surficial materials mapped as till, thick till, and (or) fines. Element concentrations in C-horizon soils showed significant differences among the underlying geologic provinces and were highest overlying the Grenville Belt and (or) the Grenville Shelf Sequence Provinces in western CT. These rocks consist mainly of carbonates and the relatively high element concentrations in overlying soils likely result from less influence of dilution by quartz compared to other provinces. Element concentrations in C-horizon soils in CT were compared with those in samples from other New England states overlying similar lithologic bedrock types. The upper range of As concentrations in C-horizon soils overlying the New Hampshire-Maine (NH-ME) Sequence in CT was 15 mg/kg, lower than the upper range of 24 mg/kg in C-horizon soils overlying the same sequence in ME. In CT, U concentration means were

  19. Origin of major element chemical trends in DSDP Leg 37 basalts, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerly, G.R.; Wright, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the major element chemical variation for basalts from the Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 37 and relate it to stratigraphic position in each of five drilling sites. Least-squares techniques are successfully used to quantify the nature and extent of alteration in these basalts, and to correct the major element analysis back to a magmatic, or alteration-free, composition on the assumption that alteration takes place in two ways: (1) secondary minerals are introduced into veins and vesicles, and (2) CO2 and H2O react with components in the rock to form a simple alteration assemblage. A chemical stratigraphy is defined for these basalts by grouping lavas whose chemistries are related by low-pressure phenocryst-liquid differentiation as identified by least-squares calculation. Major chemical-stratigraphic units are as much as 200 m thick; correlations of these units can be made between the holes at site 332 (about 100 m apart), but not between the other sites. Compositions of parental magmas are calculated by extrapolating low-pressure variations to a constant value of 9% MgO. The differences in these extrapolated compositions reflect high-pressure processes, and suggest that clinopyroxene may be an important phase in either intermediate-level fractionation of basaltic liquids, or as a residual phase during the partial melting which produces these basaltic liquids. Several of the basaltic liquids calculated as parental to the Leg 37 basalts have CaO contents greater than 14% and indicate that the oceanic mantle is richer in CaO and Al2O3 than values used in pyrolite models for the upper mantle. A model for magma generation and eruption beneath the Mid-Atlantic Ridge embodies the following characteristics: 1. (1) Separate magma batches are generated in the mantle. 2. (2) Each of these may be erupted directly or stored at shallow depth where significant fractionation takes place. Common fractionation processes are inferred to be gravitative

  20. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ta; You, Chen-Feng; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Chao, Hung-Chun; Liu, Hou-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of B and Sr in rocks and sediments can be used as tracers for plant provincial sources. This study aims to test whether tea leaf origin can be discriminated using (10)B/(11)B and Sr isotopic composition data, along with concentrations of major/trace elements, in tea specimens collected from major plantation gardens in Taiwan. The tea leaves were digested by microwave and analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The data showed significant variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (from 0.70482 to 0.71462), which reflect changes in soil, groundwater or irrigation conditions. The most radiogenic tea leaves were found at the Taitung garden and the least radiogenic ones were from the Hualien garden. The δ (11)B was found to change appreciably (δ (11)B = 0.38-23.73 ‰) which could be due to fertilizers. The maximum δ (11)B was also observed in tea samples from the Hualien garden. Principal component analysis combining (87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ (11)B and major/trace elements results successfully discriminated different sources of major tea gardens in Taiwan, except the Hualien gardens, and this may be due to rather complicated local geological settings.

  1. Torque Characteristics Analysis of Hybrid Stepping Motor Using 3-D Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Masuda, Tatsuya; Domeki, Hideo; Kobori, Masaru

    Hybrid stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments because of high torque, high accuracy and small step angle. It is necessary for the optimum design of hybrid stepping motors to analyze torque characteristics accurately. In this paper, a hybrid stepping motor is analyzed using the 3-D finite element method taking into account the rotation of the armature. The effects of the interlaminar gap in the core on the torque characteristics are clarified using the gap elements. The validity of our method is clarified by comparison between the calculated results and measured ones.

  2. Engine dynamic analysis with general nonlinear finite element codes. II - Bearing element implementation, overall numerical characteristics and benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Lam, P.; Fertis, D.; Zeid, I.

    1982-01-01

    Second-year efforts within a three-year study to develop and extend finite element (FE) methodology to efficiently handle the transient/steady state response of rotor-bearing-stator structure associated with gas turbine engines are outlined. The two main areas aim at (1) implanting the squeeze film damper element into a general purpose FE code for testing and evaluation; and (2) determining the numerical characteristics of the FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulation scheme. The governing FE field equations are set out and the solution methodology is presented. The choice of ADINA as the general-purpose FE code is explained, and the numerical operational characteristics of the direct integration approach of FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulations is determined, including benchmarking, comparison of explicit vs. implicit methodologies of direct integration, and demonstration problems.

  3. Characterizing the Effect of Shock on Isotopic Ages I: Ferroan Anorthosite Major Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Cohen, B. A.; Spilde, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    A study underway at Marshall Space Flight Center is further characterizing the effects of shock on isotopic ages. The study was inspired by the work of L. Nyquist et al. [1, 2], but goes beyond their work by investigating the spatial distribution of elements in lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) and magnesium-suite (Mg-suite) rocks in order to understand the processes that may influence the radioisotope ages obtained on early lunar samples. This paper discusses the first data set (major elements) obtained on FANs 62236 and 67075.

  4. Distribution and Phase Association of Some Major and Trace Elements in the Arabian Gulf Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basaham, A. S.; El-Sayed, M. A.

    1998-02-01

    Twenty-four sediment samples were collected from the Arabian Gulf (ROPME Sea) and analysed for their grain size distribution and carbonate contents as well as the major elements Ca, Mg, Fe and Al and macro and trace elements Mn, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Concentration of trace elements are found comparable to previous data published for samples taken before and after the Gulf War, and reflect the natural background level. Grain size analyses, aluminium and carbonate measurements support the presence of two major sediment types: (1) a terrigenous, fine-grained and Al rich type predominating along the Iranian side; and (2) a coarse-grained and carbonate rich type predominating along the Arabian side of the Gulf. Investigation of the correlation of the elements analysed with the sediment type indicates that they could be grouped under two distinct associations: (1) carbonate association including Ca and Sr; and (2) terrigenous association comprising Al, Fe, Mg, Ba, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, V, Ni and Hg. Element/Al ratios calculated for the mud non-carbonate fraction indicate that the Euphrates and Tigris rivers have minor importance as sediment sources to the Gulf. Most of the elements have exceptionally high aluminium ratios in sediments containing more than 85-90% carbonate. These sediments are restricted to the southern and south-eastern part of the area where depth is shallow and temperature and salinity are high. Both biological accumulation and chemical and biochemical coprecipitation could be responsible for this anomaly.

  5. Characteristics and genesis of Rare Earth Element (REE) in western Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handoko, A. D.; Sanjaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) has unique properties that have been used in many hightech applications. The demand of REE increased recently in the world due to its special properties. Although REE concentration in the crust is higher than gold, economically viable deposits are still rare. Reduction of REE exports by China cause increased prices of REE. Due to this condition, exploration of potential REE mines emerged. Indonesia also participates in this phenomenon, and explore the possibility of REE mines in its area. This review will discuss the characteristics and genesis of REE and its occurrence in western Indonesia; focused in Sumatera, Tin Island, and Kalimantan. The review is done based on literature research from several resources about characteristics of rare earth element in general and in the given area. The research shows that the potential REE mines can be found in several different locations in Indonesia, such as Tin Island, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Most of them are composed of monazite, zircon, and xenotime as rare earth minerals. Monazite iss known for its elevated number of radioactive elements, so study about radioactive content and more environment friendly ore processing becomes compulsory.

  6. Major element, trace element, nutrient, and radionuclide mobility in a mining by-product-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Douglas, G; Adeney, J; Johnston, K; Wendling, L; Coleman, S

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of a mineral processing by-product, neutralized used acid (NUA), primarily composed of gypsum and Fe-oxyhydroxide, as a soil amendment. A 1489-d turf farm field trial assessed nutrient, trace element, and radionuclide mobility of a soil amended with ∼5% by mass to a depth of 15 cm of NUA. Average PO-P fluxes collected as subsoil leachates were 0.7 and 26.6 kg ha yr for NUA-amended and control sites, respectively, equating to a 97% reduction in PO-P loss after 434 kg P ha was applied. Total nitrogen fluxes in NUA-amended soil leachates were similarly reduced by 82%. Incorporation of NUA conferred major changes in leachate geochemistry with a diverse suite of trace elements depleted within NUA-amended leachates. Gypsum dissolution from NUA resulted in an increase from under- to oversaturation of the soil leachates for a range of Fe- and Ca-minerals including calcite and ferrihydrite, many of which have a well-documented ability to assimilate PO-P and trace elements. Isotopic analysis indicated little Pb addition from NUA. Both Sr and Nd isotope results revealed that NUA and added fertilizer became an important source of Ca to leachate and turf biomass. The NUA-amended soils retained a range of U-Th series radionuclides, with little evidence of transfer to soil leachate or turf biomass. Calculated radioactivity dose rates indicate only a small increment due to NUA amendment. With increased nutrient, trace element, and solute retention, and increased productivity, a range of potential agronomic benefits may be conferred by NUA amendment of soils, in addition to the potential to limit offsite nutrient loss and eutrophication. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Relationships between carapace sizes and plasma major and trace element status in captive hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Noda, Jun; Yanagisawa, Makio; Kawazu, Isao; Sera, Kouichiro; Fukui, Daisuke; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between carapace parameters as indicators of age and plasma elements in 25 captive hawksbill sea turtles. Particle-induced X-ray emission allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements. There were significant but weak correlations between the virtual carapace surface area and plasma bromide (r = -0.552, P<0.01), phosphorus (r = 0.547, P<0.01), lead (r =-0.434, P<0.05) and strontium (r = 0.599, P<0.01), while there were no significant correlations with other elements. These results suggest that major and trace plasma elements in captive sea turtles show almost no variation with carapace parameters, suggesting that the increase in plasma elements seen in wild sea turtles might be the result of marine pollution.

  8. Preliminary examination of the Yamato-86032 lunar meteorite. II - Major and trace element chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Warren, Paul H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Spettel, Bernhard; Fukuoka, Takaaki

    1989-01-01

    Results of the chemical composition analysis of Yamato-86032, found in Antarctica in 1986, are summarized. The meteorite may be classified as an anorthositic breccia, but its trace element composition is different from the composition of the other known lunar meteorites. The major element chemistry of Y-86032 is similar to the other lunar meteorites, except for the iron content, which is lower by a factor of about 1.4. The abundances of incompatible and lithophile elements such as Zr, Hf, Ta, Th, or the REEs are very low and comparable to Y-82192/3. Other elements, in particular Fe, Ti, Sc, Cr, Mn, and Co, have lower abundances in Y-86032 than in Y-82192/3. Variations between individual analysis demonstrate that the rock itself is heterogeneous.

  9. A review of the distribution coefficients of trace elements in soils: influence of sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Tsadilas, Christos D; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about the behavior and reactions of separate soil components with trace elements (TEs) and their distribution coefficients (Kds) in soils is a key issue in assessing the mobility and retention of TEs. Thus, the fate of TEs and the toxic risk they pose depend crucially on their Kd in soil. This article reviews the Kd of TEs in soils as affected by the sorption system, element characteristics, and soil colloidal properties. The sorption mechanism, determining factors, favorable conditions, and competitive ions on the sorption and Kd of TEs are also discussed here. This review demonstrates that the Kd value of TEs does not only depend on inorganic and organic soil constituents, but also on the nature and characteristics of the elements involved as well as on their competition for sorption sites. The Kd value of TEs is mainly affected by individual or competitive sorption systems. Generally, the sorption in competitive systems is lower than in mono-metal sorption systems. More strongly sorbed elements, such as Pb and Cu, are less affected by competition than mobile elements, such as Cd, Ni, and Zn. The sorption preference exhibited by soils for elements over others may be due to: (i) the hydrolysis constant, (ii) the atomic weight, (iii) the ionic radius, and subsequently the hydrated radius, and (iv) its Misono softness value. Moreover, element concentrations in the test solution mainly affect the Kd values. Mostly, values of Kd decrease as the concentration of the included cation increases in the test solution. Additionally, the Kd of TEs is controlled by the sorption characteristics of soils, such as pH, clay minerals, soil organic matter, Fe and Mn oxides, and calcium carbonate. However, more research is required to verify the practical utilization of studying Kd of TEs in soils as a reliable indicator for assessing the remediation process of toxic metals in soils and waters. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Addressable test matrix for measuring analog transfer characteristics of test elements used for integrated process control and device evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A set of addressable test structures, each of which uses addressing schemes to access individual elements of the structure in a matrix, is used to test the quality of a wafer before integrated circuits produced thereon are diced, packaged and subjected to final testing. The electrical characteristic of each element is checked and compared to the electrical characteristic of all other like elements in the matrix. The effectiveness of the addressable test matrix is in readily analyzing the electrical characteristics of the test elements and in providing diagnostic information.

  11. [Rare earth elements contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Lan, Xiaolin; Zhang, Lingzhen; Xiao, Fufu; Zhong, Zhaoming; Ye, Guilin; Li, Zong; Li, Shaojin

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the rare earth elements(REEs) contents and distribution characteristics in nasopharyngeal carcinoma( NPC) tissue in Gannan region. Thirty patients of NPC in Gannan region were included in this study. The REEs contents were measured by tandem mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma(ICP-MS/MS) in 30 patients, and the REEs contents and distribution were analyzed. The average standard deviation value of REEs in lung cancer and normal lung tissues was the minimum mostly. Light REEs content was higher than the medium REEs, and medium REEs content was higher than the heavy REEs content. REEs contents changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were variable obviously, the absolute value of Nd, Ce, Pr, Gd and other light rare earth elements were variable widely. The degree of changes on Yb, Tb, Ho and other heavy rare earth elements were variable widely, and there was presence of Eu, Ce negative anomaly(δEu=0. 385 5, δCe= 0. 523 4). The distribution characteristic of REEs contents in NPC patients is consistent with the parity distribution. With increasing atomic sequence, the content is decline wavy. Their distribution patterns were a lack of heavy REEs and enrichment of light REEs, and there was Eu , Ce negative anomaly.

  12. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of an unusual refractory inclusion from Essebi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloule, E.; Kennedy, A. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Elgoresy, A.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic and chemical properties of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) provide important clues to the early solar nebula environment. While the abundances of refractory major and trace elements are similar to those expected for high temperature condensates, the variety of textural, chemical, and isotopic signatures indicate most CAI experienced complex, multi-stage histories involving repeated episodes of condensation, evaporation, and metamorphism. Evidence of multiple processes is especially apparent in an unusual refractory inclusion from Essebi (URIE) described by El Goresy et al. The melilite (mel)-rich core of URIE contains polygonal framboids of spinel (sp) and hibonite (hb) or sp and fassaite (fas) and is surrounded by a rim sequence consisting of five layers. In contrast to rims on Allende, the mineralogy of the URIE rim layers becomes increasingly refractory from the core outwards, ending in a layer of spinel-Al2O3 solid solution + Sc-rich fassaite. The chemical and mineralogical features of URIE are inconsistent with crystallization from a homogeneous melt, and El Goresy et al. proposed a multi-step history involving condensation of sp + hb and aggregation into framboids, capture of framboids by a refractory silicate melt droplet, condensation of rim layers, and alteration of mel to calcite and feldspathoid. The PANURGE ion probe was used to investigate the isotopic and trace element characteristics of URIE to develop a more complete picture of the multiple processes leading to formation and metamorphism.

  13. A Brief History of the Status of Transposable Elements: From Junk DNA to Major Players in Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Biémont, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The idea that some genetic factors are able to move around chromosomes emerged more than 60 years ago when Barbara McClintock first suggested that such elements existed and had a major role in controlling gene expression and that they also have had a major influence in reshaping genomes in evolution. It was many years, however, before the accumulation of data and theories showed that this latter revolutionary idea was correct although, understandably, it fell far short of our present view of the significant influence of what are now known as “transposable elements” in evolution. In this article, I summarize the main events that influenced my thinking about transposable elements as a young scientist and the influence and role of these specific genomic elements in evolution over subsequent years. Today, we recognize that the findings about genomic changes affected by transposable elements have considerably altered our view of the ways in which genomes evolve and work. PMID:21156958

  14. Major to ultra trace elements in rainfall collected in suburban Tokyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Tadashi; Iwashita, Masato; Iijima, Satoe; Shintani, Megumi; Takaku, Yuichi

    Major to ultra trace elements such as rare earth elements (REEs), platinum group elements (PGEs) in 20 rainfall events from suburban Tokyo were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anion species were also determined by an ion chromatography (IC). The concentrations of PGEs were so low that only Pt was detected in some rainfall events. Enrichment factors (EFs), refer to soil and sea salt components, were calculated for the measured elements (with Al and Na as references). Be, (Na), Mg, (Al), Si, Cl, K, Fe, Rb, Sr, REEs (except La, Gd), Ta, and U were mostly originated from natural materials (soil and sea salt). For Li, B, Ca, Mn, Sr, Ba, and Cs, the contribution of natural materials was significant. EFs for Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, Cd, Pb, Bi, Ag, Te, Au, Pt, SO 4-S and NO 3-N exceeded 100 indicating non-crustal, non-sea salt origin, presumably anthropogenic; however, contribution of volcanic gases could not be excluded for As, Se, Te and Bi. Pt seemed to be uniformly distributed worldwide and a catalyst for automobile emission control may be the main source. Au also showed uniform distribution. On the other hand, EFs for Zr, Nb, Hf and Th were less than unity. Probably these elements resided in acid resistant refractory fine minerals that did not decompose with acid treatment, and did not evaporate and ionize in the ICP. An alternative explanation is that the concentration of these elements was lower in the soil of the sampling area than the average crust. In the crust normalized REE pattern plot, La, Eu and Gd showed clear positive anomalies. La and Gd could have anthropogenic components. A possible source of La and Gd is cracking catalyst for petrol refining, but this source does not fully explain the anomaly. The source of Gd may also be Gd-DTPA (Gadolinium (III) diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid) used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The Eu origin may be soil with higher concentration than the crust average.

  15. Elemental composition and structural characteristics of as-received TriTaniumTM orthodontic archwire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilievska, I.; Petrov, V.; Mihailov, V.; Karatodorov, S.; Andreeva, L.; Zaleski, A.; Mikli, V.; Gueorgieva, M.; Petrova, V.; Stoyanova-Ivanova, A.

    2018-03-01

    Orthodontic archwires are among the most important devices of fixed orthodontic therapy. Many types of archwires are made available on the market by various manufacturers with different elemental composition and structural characteristics. Knowing this information is important when choosing a suitable archwire for a particular stage of orthodontic treatment. The aim of our study is to characterize a new type orthodontic archwires (TriTaniumTM, American Orthodontics) before their placement in the oral cavity. To achieve the aim, we used modern methods for determining their elemental composition and structural characteristics: laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIBS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained from the qualitative elemental analysis by LIBS and the quantitative elemental analysis by EDX showed that Ni and Ti are the main elements in the archwire studied. The room-temperature XRD patterns showed peaks typical for a Ni-Ti alloy with an austenite-type structure. Monitoring the phase transitions by means of DSC measurements in the temperature range from –50 °C to +50 °C, we showed that in TriTaniumTM archwires, besides the austenite to martensite transition, there exists a rhombohedral intermediate phase (R phase). This study will be useful in assisting orthodontists in applying appropriate nickel-titanium orthodontic archwires in the clinical practice.

  16. Characteristics of Matrix Metals in Which Fast Diffusion of Foreign Metallic Elements Occurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mae, Yoshiharu

    2018-04-01

    A few foreign elements are known to diffuse faster than the self-diffusion of the matrix metal. However, the characteristics of the matrix metal, which contribute to such fast diffusion remain unknown. In this study, the diffusion coefficients of various elements were plotted on a TC-YM diagram. The matrix metals that show fast diffusion are located in the low thermal conductivity range of the TC-YM diagram, while diffuser elements that undergo fast diffusion are mainly gulf elements such as Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, and Cu. The gulf elements are those that show the largest combination of thermal conductivity and Young's modulus. The great difference in the electron mobility between the matrix metal and diffuser elements generates a repulsive force between them, and the repulsive force—acting between the soft and large atoms of the matrix metal and the hard and small atoms of the diffuser elements—deforms the atoms of the matrix metal to open passageways for fast diffusion of diffuser elements.

  17. A majorized Newton-CG augmented Lagrangian-based finite element method for 3D restoration of geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Peipei; Wang, Chengjing; Dai, Xiaoxia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a majorized Newton-CG augmented Lagrangian-based finite element method for 3D elastic frictionless contact problems. In this scheme, we discretize the restoration problem via the finite element method and reformulate it to a constrained optimization problem. Then we apply the majorized Newton-CG augmented Lagrangian method to solve the optimization problem, which is very suitable for the ill-conditioned case. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method is a very efficient algorithm for various large-scale 3D restorations of geological models, especially for the restoration of geological models with complicated faults.

  18. Source/process apportionment of major and trace elements in sinking particles in the Sargasso sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Conte, M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental composition of the particle flux at the Oceanic Flux Program (OFP) time-series site off Bermuda was measured from January 2002 to March 2005. Eighteen elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Ba and Pb) in sediment trap material from 500, 1500 and 3200 m depths were quantified using fusion-HR-ICPMS. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was used to elucidate sources, elemental associations and processes that affect geochemical behavior in the water column. Results provide evidence for intense elemental cycling between the sinking flux material and the dissolved and suspended pools within mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters. Biological processing and remineralization rapidly deplete the sinking flux material in organic matter and associated elements (N, P, Cd, Zn) between 500 and 1500 m depth. Suspended particle aggregation, authigenic mineral precipitation, and chemical scavenging enriches the flux material in lithogenic minerals, barite and redox sensitive elements (Mn, Co, V, Fe). A large increase in the flux of lithogenic elements is observed with depth and confirms that the northeast Sargasso is a significant sink for advected continental materials, likely supplied via Gulf Stream circulation. PMF resolved major sources that contribute to sinking flux at all depths (carbonate, high-Mg carbonate, opal, organic matter, lithogenic material, and barite) as well as additional depth-specific elemental associations that contribute about half of the compositional variability in the flux. PMF solutions indicate close geochemical associations of barite-opal, Cd-P, Zn-Co, Zn-Pb and redox sensitive elements in the sinking flux material at 500 m depth. Major reorganizations of element associations occur as labile carrier phases break down and elements redistribute among new carrier phases deeper in the water column. Factor scores show strong covariation and similar temporal phasing among the three trap depths and indicate a tight

  19. Rare earth, major and trace element composition of Leg 127 sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1992-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the final preserved chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating the rare earth element (REE), major element, and trace element concentrations in 59 squeeze-cake whole-round and 27 physical-property sample residues from Sites 794, 795, and 797, cored during ODP Leg 127. The most important variation in sedimentary chemical composition is the increase in SiO2 concentration through the Pliocene diatomaceous sequences, which dilutes most other major and trace element components by various degrees. This biogenic input is largest at Site 794 (Yamato Basin), moderately developed at Site 797 (Yamato Basin), and of only minor importance at Site 795 (Japan Basin), potentially reflecting basinal contrasts in productivity with the Yamato Basin recording greater biogenic input than the Japan Basin and with the easternmost sequence of Site 794 lying beneath the most productive waters. There are few systematic changes in solid-phase chemistry resulting from the opal-A/opal-CT or opal-CT/quartz silica phase transformations. Most major and trace element concentrations are controlled by the aluminosilicate fraction of the sediment, although the effects of diagenetic silica phases and manganese carbonates are of localized importance. REE total abundances (IREE) in the Japan Sea are strongly dependent upon the paleoceanographic position of a given site with respect to terrigenous and biogenic sources. REE concentrations at Site 794 overall correspond well to aluminosilicate chemical indices and are strongly diluted by SiO2 within the upper Miocene-Pliocene diatomaceous sequence. Eu/Eu* values at Site 794 reach a maximum through the diatomaceous interval as well, most likely suggesting an association of Eu/Eu* with the siliceous component, or reflecting slight incorporation of a detrital feldspar phase. XREE at Site 795 also is affiliated strongly

  20. Using Major Elements to Determine Sources of Nitrate in Groundwater, Suffolk County, Long Island, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munster, J.; Hanson, G.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2004-05-01

    Suffolk County is the eastern most county on Long Island with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 1.4 million. Groundwater is the only source of potable water for Suffolk County. Nitrate levels have become a concern as a result of the continued eastward urbanization of Long Island since the mid 1900's. In 2003, 2% of 1000 public supply wells had greater than 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate, 8% had 6 to 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate and 62% of the wells were rated as susceptible to increased nitrate contamination based on land use, travel time and prevalence. Nitrogen as nitrate above 10 ppm is harmful to infants and is currently the drinking water standard of the Environmental Protection Agency. The major sources of the nitrate in the urbanized areas are most likely turf grass fertilizer and sewage from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants that provide only secondary treatment. Turf grass occupies about 28% of the land. Two-thirds of the houses have septic tank/cesspool systems and a majority of the sewage treatment plants discharge effluent to the groundwater. Previous investigators of the sources of nitrate in groundwater on Long Island have used 15N values of nitrate-nitrogen to identify nitrate contamination (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Flipse and Bonner, 1985; Flipse et al., 1984; Kreitler et al., 1978). However, due to overlapping source signatures, nitrogen isotopes alone were not sufficient to characterize the sources of nitrate. More recent studies have shown that major elements that accompany nitrate in the groundwater (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Elhatip et al., 2003; Trauth and Xanthopoulos, 1997) may distinguish sources of nitrate with less ambiguity. In this study samples of waste water from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants and samples of soil water collected below turf grass that is not fertilized, fertilized with organic fertilizer and fertilized with chemical fertilizer were analyzed for major elements

  1. Ocular refractive and biometric characteristics in patients with thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Nowroozzadeh, Mohammad Hosein; Kalantari, Zahra; Namvar, Khadije; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan

    2011-07-01

    Thalassaemia major is associated with characteristic findings in craniofacial bony structures and thereby may render abnormal bony orbit and subsequently distinctive ocular biometry. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ocular refractive and biometric characteristics in patients with thalassaemia major. This case-controlled study comprised 94 eyes of 47 patients with thalassaemia major and 88 eyes of 44 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. All participants had a complete ocular examination including slitlamp biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, ocular biometry, keratometry, refraction and analysis using Fourier transformation. There were no significant differences in spherical equivalent (p = 0.66) and total astigmatism (p = 0.83) between groups. Mean uncorrected vision and visual acuities (logMar) were similar (p = 0.32 and p = 0.71, respectively). Compared with controls, thalassaemic patients had a shorter axial length (23.01 ± 0.12 [SEM] mm versus 23.46 ± 0.12 mm, p = 0.035), thicker crystalline lens (4.01 ± 0.11 mm versus 3.87 ± 0.1 mm, p = 0.046) and steeper average keratometry (44.02 ± 0.24 D versus 43.44 ± 0.24, p = 0.03). Fifty-seven per cent of thalassaemic patients had against-the-rule astigmatism (total), while 64.6 per cent of controls showed a with-the-rule pattern (p < 0.05). These patterns were also found for corneal astigmatism. The magnitudes of total, corneal and lenticular astigmatism were similar among groups. Regression analysis showed significant correlation between corneal (J0 and J45) and total (J0 and J45) astigmatism. The correlations were less prominent between lenticular and total J0 and J45. The mean intraocular pressure was 14.68 ± 0.27 mmHg and 13.3 ± 0.26 mmHg in the thalassaemia and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Six eyes (12.8 per cent) of four patients in the thalassaemia group had posterior subcapsular cataract, while the condition had not been observed in controls (p = 0.049). Shorter axial

  2. Comparison of univariate and multivariate models for prediction of major and minor elements from laser-induced breakdown spectra with and without masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb I.; Giguere, Stephen; Lepore, Kate; Byrne, Sarah; Boucher, Thomas; Carey, CJ; Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2016-09-01

    This study uses 1356 spectra from 452 geologically-diverse samples, the largest suite of LIBS rock spectra ever assembled, to compare the accuracy of elemental predictions in models that use only spectral regions thought to contain peaks arising from the element of interest versus those that use information in the entire spectrum. Results show that for the elements Si, Al, Ti, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, and Zn, univariate predictions based on single emission lines are by far the least accurate, no matter how carefully the region of channels/wavelengths is chosen and despite the prominence of the selected emission lines. An automated iterative algorithm was developed to sweep through all 5485 channels of data and select the single region that produces the optimal prediction accuracy for each element using univariate analysis. For the eight major elements, use of this technique results in a 35% improvement in prediction accuracy; for minors, the improvement is 13%. The best wavelength region choice for any given univariate analysis is likely to be an inherent property of the specific training set that cannot be generalized. In comparison, multivariate analysis using partial least-squares (PLS) almost universally outperforms univariate analysis. PLS using all the same wavelength regions from the univariate analysis produces results that improve in accuracy by 63% for major elements and 3% for minor element. This difference is likely a reflection of signal to noise ratios, which are far better for major elements than for minor elements, and likely limit their prediction accuracy by any technique. We also compare predictions using specific wavelength ranges for each element against those employing all channels. Masking out channels to focus on emission lines from a specific element that occurs decreases prediction accuracy for major elements but is useful for minor elements with low signals and proportionally much higher noise; use of PLS rather than univariate

  3. The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendz, David; Tüchsen, Peter L.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-12-01

    Leaching and tracer experiments in batches at L/S 20 were performed with 3-month-old MSWI bottom ash separated into eight different particle sizes. The time-dependent leaching of major elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) was monitored for up to 747 h. Physical properties of the particles, the specific surface (BET), pore volume and pore volume distribution over pore sizes (BJH) were determined for all particle classes by N 2 adsorption/desorption experiments. Some common features of physical pore structure for all particles were revealed. The specific surface and the particle pore volume were found to be negatively correlated with particle size, ranging from 3.2 m 2/g to 25.7 m 2/g for the surface area and from 0.0086 cm 3/g to 0.091 cm 3/g for the pore volume. Not surprisingly, the specific surface area was found to be the major material parameter that governed the leaching behavior for all elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) and particle sizes. The diffusion resistance was determined independently by separate tracer (tritium) experiments. Diffusion gave a significant contribution to the apparent leaching kinetics for all elements during the first 10-40 h (depending on the particle size) of leaching and surface reaction was the overall rate controlling mechanism at late times for all particle sizes. For Ca 2+ and SO 4- 2 , the coupled effect of diffusion resistance and the degree of undersaturation in the intra particle pore volume was found to be a major rate limiting dissolution mechanism for both early and late times. The solubility control in the intra particulate porosity may undermine any attempt to treat bottom ash by washing out the sulfate. Even for high liquid/solid ratios, the solubility in the intra-particular porosity will limit the release rate.

  4. Personality Characteristics and Choice of Academic Major: Are Traditional Stereotypes Obsolete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Charles D.; DuBose, Philip B.; Yankey, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Among the many reasons for choosing an academic major are stereotypes that students hold of particular occupations and the degree to which they believe that their personalities match those stereotypes. We examined relevant personality characteristics (i.e., achievement motivation, conformity, conscientiousness, creativity and extroversion) of 899…

  5. STATISTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE RATIOS: OBSERVATIONS FROM THE ACE SPACECRAFT

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhao, L.-L.; Zhang, H.

    We statistically analyze the elemental galactic cosmic ray (GCR) composition measurements of elements 5 ≤ Z ≤ 28 within the energy range 30–500 MeV/nucleon from the CRIS instrument on board the ACE spacecraft in orbit about the L1 Lagrange point during the period from 1997 to 2014. Similarly to the last unusual solar minimum, the elevated elemental intensities of all heavy nuclei during the current weak solar maximum in 2014 are ∼40% higher than that of the previous solar maximum in 2002, which has been attributed to the weak modulation associated with low solar activity levels during the ongoing weakestmore » solar maximum since the dawn of space age. In addition, the abundance ratios of heavy nuclei with respect to elemental oxygen are generally independent of kinetic energy per nucleon in the energy region 60–200 MeV/nuc, in good agreement with previous experiments. Furthermore, the abundance ratios of most relatively abundant species, except carbon, exhibit considerable solar-cycle variation, which are obviously positively correlated with the sunspot numbers with about one-year time lag. We also find that the percentage variation of abundance ratios for most elements are approximately identical. These preliminary results provide valuable insights into the characteristics of elemental heavy nuclei composition and place new and significant constraints on future GCR heavy nuclei propagation and modulation models.« less

  6. Alterations of serum macro-minerals and trace elements are associated with major depressive disorder: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Islam, Md Reazul; Shalahuddin Qusar, M M A; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Kabir, Md Humayun; Mustafizur Rahman, G K M; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasnat, Abul

    2018-04-10

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mixed disorder with the highly irregular course, inconsistent response to treatment and has no well-known mechanism for the pathophysiology. Major causes of depression are genetic, neurobiological, and environmental. However, over the past few years, altered serum levels of macro-minerals (MM) and trace elements (TE) have been recognized as major causative factors to the pathogenesis of many mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the serum levels of MM (calcium and magnesium) and TE (copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc) in MDD patients and find out their associations with depression risk. This prospective case-control study recruited 247 patients and 248 healthy volunteers matched by age and sex. The serum levels of MM and TE were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Statistical analysis was performed with independent sample t-tests and Pearson's correlation test. We found significantly decreased concentrations of calcium and magnesium, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc in MDD patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.05). But the concentration of copper was significantly increased in the patients than control subjects (p < 0.05). Data obtained from different inter-element relations in MDD patients and control subjects strongly suggest that there is a disturbance in the element homeostasis. Our study suggests that altered serum concentrations of MM and TE are major contributing factors for the pathogenesis of MDD. Alterations of these elements in serum levels of MDD patients arise independently and they may provide a prognostic tool for the assessment of depression risk.

  7. Antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of major and trace element composition.

    PubMed

    Afanasieva, O G; Suslov, N I; Shilova, I V

    2013-06-01

    The antidepressant, psychostimulant, and nootropic effects of a composition of major and trace elements including KCl, RbNO3, magnesium sulfate, and zinc sulfate were studied on the models of behavioural despair (Porsolt test) and conditioned passive avoidance test. The preparation was found to shorten the immobilization time in the Porsolt test and promote retention of the conditioned passive avoidance. The most pronounced psychostimulant effect of the substance was observed at a dose of 4.68 mg/kg and the most pronounced antidepressant effect was found at a dose of 18.72 mg/kg. Maximum nootropic activity of the preparation was found at a dose of 93.6 mg/kg.

  8. Method of determining lanthanidies in a transition element host

    DOEpatents

    De Kalb, Edward L.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1976-02-03

    A phosphor composition contains a lanthanide activator element within a host matrix having a transition element as a major component. The host matrix is composed of certain rare earth phosphates or vanadates such as YPO.sub.4 with a portion of the rare earth replaced with one or more of the transition elements. On X-ray or other electromagnetic excitation, trace lanthanide impurities or additives within the phosphor are spectrometrically determined from their characteristic luminescence.

  9. Major chemical characteristics of Mesozoic Coast Range ophiolite in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.H.; Blake, Jr., M.C.

    1974-01-01

    Sixty-four major element analyses of rocks representative of the Coast Range ophiolite in California were compared with analyses of other onland ophiolite sequences and those of rocks from oceanic ridges. The rocks can be classed in five groups harzburgite-dunite, clinopyroxenite-wehrlite, gabbro, basalt-spilite, and keratophyre-quartz keratophyre which on various diagrams occupy nonoverlapping fields. The harzburgite-dunite from onland ophiolite and ocean ridges are comparable and very low in alkalies. Possible differentiation trends defined on AFM diagrams by other rocks from onland ophiolites and ocean ridges suggest two lines of descent: (1) A trend much like the calc-alkalic trend, though shifted somewhat toward higher iron, and (2) an iron-enrichment trend defined chiefly by the more iron-rich gabbros and amphibolite. MgO-variation diagrams for rocks from the Coast Range ophiolite further distinguish the iron-rich gabbros and amphibolite from the other rock groups and indicate that the iron enrichment, unlike that of the Skaergaard trend, is related to the formation of amphibole. Ophiolite sequences that include the most silicic rock types, such as quartz keratophyre, also exhibit the most pronounced dual lines of descent, suggesting that the silicic rocks and the amphibole-rich gabbros are somehow related. Although the major element chemistry of the Coast Range ophiolite is clearly like that of rocks dredged from oceanic ridges, it is not sufficiently diagnostic to discriminate among the choices of a spreading ridge, an interarc basin, or perhaps even the root zone of an island arc as the site of ophiolite formation.

  10. Minor Elements in Nakhlite Pyroxenes: Cr in MIL00346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G. A.; Schwandt, C.; Le, L.; Makishima, J.; Kurihara, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates. Based on petrographic characteristics, they may be divided into groups that cooled at different rates and may have been formed at different depths in a single flow. The order of cooling rate from slowest to fastest is NWA998major element composition surrounded by thin rims that are zoned to Fe-rich compositions. Detailed study of these pyroxenes is important because they retain a record of the crystallization history of the nakhlite magma. Moreover, because the composition of the nakhlite parent melt cannot be directly determined, inversion of the major and minor element composition of the cumulate pyroxene cores can be used to estimate the composition of that melt. Thus it is important to understand the major and minor element zoning in the cumulus pyroxenes. While major elements are nearly homogeneous, minor elements exhibit distinctive zoning patterns that vary from one nakhlite to another. This paper reports unusual Cr zoning patterns in pyroxenes from MIL03346 (MIL) and contrast these with pyroxenes from Y593.

  11. Sampling and major element chemistry of the recent (A.D. 1631-1944) Vesuvius activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Kilburn, C.R.J.; de Vivo, B.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed sampling of the Vesuvius lavas erupted in the period A.D. 1631-1944 provides a suite of samples for comprehensive chemical analyses and related studies. Major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Fetotal, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K and P), volatile species (Cl, F, S, H2O+, H2O- and CO2), and ferrous iron (Fe2+) were determined for one hundred and forty-nine lavas and five tephra from the A.D. 1631-1944 Vesuvius activity. The lavas represent a relatively homogeneous suite with respect to SiO2, TiO2, FeOtotal, MnO and P2O5, but show systematic variations among MgO, K2O, Na2O, Al2O3 and CaO. The average SiO2 content is 48.0 wt.% and the rocks are classified as tephriphonolites according to their content of alkalis. All of the lavas are silica-undersaturated and are nepheline, leucite, and olivine normative. There is no systematic variation in major-element composition with time, over the period A.D. 1631-1944. The inter-eruption and intra-eruption compositional differences are the same magnitude. The lavas are highly porphyritic with clinopyroxene and leucite as the major phases. Fractionation effects are not reflected in the silica content of the lavas. The variability of MgO, K2O, Na2O, and CaO can be modelled as a relative depletion or accumulation of clinopyroxene. ?? 1993.

  12. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation

  13. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  14. The spatial distribution of major and trace elements in the surface sediments from the northeastern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Q.; Xue, Z. G.

    2017-12-01

    Major and trace elements contents and grain size were analyzed for surface sediments retrieved from the northeastern Beibu (Tonkin) Gulf. The study area was divided into four zones: Zone I locates in the northeastern coastal area of the gulf, which received large amount of the fluvial materials from local rivers; Zone II locates in the center of the study area, where surface sediments is from multiple sources; Zone III locates in the Qiongzhou Strait, which is dominated by material from the Pearl River and Hainan Island; Zone IV locates in the southwest of the study area, and the sediments mainly originated from the Red River. Statistical analyses of sediment geochemical characteristics reveal that grain size is the leading factor for elementary distribution, which is also influenced by hydrodynamics, mineral composition of terrigenous sediments, anthropogenic activity, and authigenic components.

  15. Hydrous metasomatism of oceanic sub-arc mantle, Lihir, Papua New Guinea. Part 2. Trace element characteristics of slab-derived fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, Michel; McInnes, Brent I. A.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2001-11-01

    Spinel peridotite xenoliths recovered from the Tubaf and Edison volcanoes, south of Lihir Island in the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni island arc in Papua New Guinea, are predominantly fresh, refractory harzburgites. Many of the harzburgite xenoliths have cross-cutting vein networks and show evidence of modal metasomatism. These metasomatic veins contain a secondary mineral assemblage consisting of fibrous, radiating orthopyroxene and fine-grained Fe-Ni sulfide with minor olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite, amphibole and magnetite. Adjacent to the veins, primary clinopyroxene is cloudy while orthopyroxene exhibits replacement by secondary fibrous orthopyroxene, similar in habit to orthopyroxene occurring in the veins. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Tubaf mantle xenoliths are the product of two major processes: an early partial melting depletion event that was overprinted by oxidation and alkali enrichment related to percolation of slab-derived, hydrous melts. HREE and MREE concentrations in clinopyroxene from the least metasomatised harzburgites indicate that they are the residues from a 15% to 25% partial melting event, consistent with formation in a MOR setting. The secondary vein assemblages show strong enrichment in the LILE (primarily Sr, Ba, Rb, Th, U and Pb) and the REE (primarily La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), while the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti) are neither enriched nor depleted. The mineral precipitates in the vein assemblages have high LREE/HFSE and LILE/HFSE, and reflect the relative solubility of these elements in hydrous melts. These trace element characteristics are similar to those of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni arc lavas, and display the commonly observed HFSE depletion of arc magmatism. These findings support the hypothesis that this so-called "arc signature" is primarily dependent on the relative solubility of elements in slab-derived, hydrous melts, and the enrichment of these soluble elements in metasomatised mantle regions

  16. Major and trace element geochemistry of Lake Bogoria and Lake Nakuru, Kenya, during extreme draught.

    PubMed

    Jirsa, Franz; Gruber, Martin; Stojanovic, Anja; Omondi, Steve Odour; Mader, Dieter; Körner, Wilfried; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The physico-chemical properties of water samples from the two athalassic endorheic lakes Bogoria and Nakuru in Kenya were analysed. Surface water samples were taken between July 2008 and October 2009 in weekly intervals from each lake. The following parameters were determined: pH, salinity, electric conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the major cations (FAAS and ICP-OES) and the major anions (IC), as well as certain trace elements (ICP-OES). Samples of superficial sediments were taken in October 2009 and examined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for their major and trace element content including rare earth elements (REE). Both lakes are highly alkaline with a dominance of Na > K > Si > Ca in cations and HCO 3  > CO 3  > Cl > F > SO 4 in anions. Both lakes also exhibited high concentrations of Mo, As and fluoride. Due to an extreme draught from March to October 2009, the water level of Lake Nakuru dropped significantly. This created drastic evapoconcentration, with the total salinity rising from about 20‰ up to 63‰. Most parameters (DOC, Na, K, Ca, F, Mo and As) increased with falling water levels. A clear change in the quality of DOC was observed, followed by an almost complete depletion of dissolved Fe from the water phase. In Lake Bogoria the evapoconcentration effects were less pronounced (total salinity changed from about 40‰ to 48‰). The distributions of REE in the superficial sediments of Lake Nakuru and Lake Bogoria are presented here for the first time. The results show a high abundance of the REE and a very distinct Eu depletion of Eu/Eu* = 0.33-0.45.

  17. Major and trace element geochemistry of Lake Bogoria and Lake Nakuru, Kenya, during extreme draught

    PubMed Central

    Jirsa, Franz; Gruber, Martin; Stojanovic, Anja; Omondi, Steve Odour; Mader, Dieter; Körner, Wilfried; Schagerl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of water samples from the two athalassic endorheic lakes Bogoria and Nakuru in Kenya were analysed. Surface water samples were taken between July 2008 and October 2009 in weekly intervals from each lake. The following parameters were determined: pH, salinity, electric conductivity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the major cations (FAAS and ICP-OES) and the major anions (IC), as well as certain trace elements (ICP-OES). Samples of superficial sediments were taken in October 2009 and examined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for their major and trace element content including rare earth elements (REE). Both lakes are highly alkaline with a dominance of Na > K > Si > Ca in cations and HCO3 > CO3 > Cl > F > SO4 in anions. Both lakes also exhibited high concentrations of Mo, As and fluoride. Due to an extreme draught from March to October 2009, the water level of Lake Nakuru dropped significantly. This created drastic evapoconcentration, with the total salinity rising from about 20‰ up to 63‰. Most parameters (DOC, Na, K, Ca, F, Mo and As) increased with falling water levels. A clear change in the quality of DOC was observed, followed by an almost complete depletion of dissolved Fe from the water phase. In Lake Bogoria the evapoconcentration effects were less pronounced (total salinity changed from about 40‰ to 48‰). The distributions of REE in the superficial sediments of Lake Nakuru and Lake Bogoria are presented here for the first time. The results show a high abundance of the REE and a very distinct Eu depletion of Eu/Eu* = 0.33–0.45. PMID:25843965

  18. Unified viscoelasticity: Applying discrete element models to soft tissues with two characteristic times.

    PubMed

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Bucchi, Andrea; Bader, Dan L

    2015-09-18

    Discrete element models have often been the primary tool in investigating and characterising the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. However, studies have employed varied configurations of these models, based on the choice of the number of elements and the utilised formation, for different subject tissues. This approach has yielded a diverse array of viscoelastic models in the literature, each seemingly resulting in different descriptions of viscoelastic constitutive behaviour and/or stress-relaxation and creep functions. Moreover, most studies do not apply a single discrete element model to characterise both stress-relaxation and creep behaviours of tissues. The underlying assumption for this disparity is the implicit perception that the viscoelasticity of soft tissues cannot be described by a universal behaviour or law, resulting in the lack of a unified approach in the literature based on discrete element representations. This paper derives the constitutive equation for different viscoelastic models applicable to soft tissues with two characteristic times. It demonstrates that all possible configurations exhibit a unified and universal behaviour, captured by a single constitutive relationship between stress, strain and time as: σ+Aσ̇+Bσ¨=Pε̇+Qε¨. The ensuing stress-relaxation G(t) and creep J(t) functions are also unified and universal, derived as [Formula: see text] and J(t)=c2+(ε0-c2)e(-PQt)+σ0Pt, respectively. Application of these relationships to experimental data is illustrated for various tissues including the aortic valve, ligament and cerebral artery. The unified model presented in this paper may be applied to all tissues with two characteristic times, obviating the need for employing varied configurations of discrete element models in preliminary investigation of the viscoelastic behaviour of soft tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the origins of rhythmic major-element zoning in HP/LT garnets from worldwide subduction mélanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viete, D. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Seward, G.; Allen, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    Rhythmic major-element zoning has been documented in garnets from high pressure/low temperature (HP/LT) lenses within a number of worldwide subduction mélanges (e.g. California, Chinese Tianshan, Cuba, Greek Cyclades, Guatemala, Japan, Venezuela). The origin of these features has implications for the nature of subduction-zone processes. Conditions of rhythmic zoning acquirement in HP/LT garnets of California and Venezuela were investigated by use of Raman and FTIR microspectroscopy, and thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria. Quartz-in-garnet Raman barometry reveals varying P—on the order of 100­-300 MPa, over radial distances of 10s of µm—in association with the high-Mn (and low-Mg) bands that define the fine-scale rhythmic zoning. Results from FTIR microspectroscopy demonstrate association between the high-Mn bands and locally depressed (structural) OH and elevated (molecular) H2O concentrations. The microspectroscopy results suggest changes in P and fluid activity attended development of the cryptic rhythmic zoning. Perple_X modelling of phase equilibria shows that, for specific rock chemistry and subduction P-T conditions, garnet modal abundance is extremely sensitive to changes in P (e.g. 10-20 vol.% growth/dissolution for ΔP = 200 MPa). Rhythmic major-element zoning may reflect P- and/or fluid-driven cycles of garnet stability-instability and/or varying reaction progress/kinetics during subduction. Steep compositional gradients that define the rhythmic major-element zoning limit time scales at subduction T, requiring that such individual stability-instability and/or accelerated reaction cycles were extremely brief. Seismic cycles or porosity waves represent ephemeral phenomena capable of accounting for development of rhythmic major-element zoning in HP/LT garnet, during subduction, as a result of fluctuations in both P and fluids. Metamorphic rocks may well carry detailed records of the catastrophism that punctuates longer-term tectonometamorphic

  20. Spinel from Apollo 12 Olivine Mare Basalts: Chemical Systematics of Selected Major, Minor, and Trace Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Spilde, M. N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinels from Apollo 12 Olivine basalts have been studied by Electron and Ion microprobe techniques. The zoning trends of major, minor and trace elements provide new insights into the conditions under which planetary basalts form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Elevation-derived watershed basins and characteristics for major rivers of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, S.K.; Worstell, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center Topographic Science Project has developed elevation-derived watershed basins and characteristics for major rivers of the conterminous United States. Watershed basins are delineated upstream from the mouth of major rivers by using the hydrologic connectivity of the Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) seamless database. Watershed characteristics are quantified by integrating ancillary geospatial datasets, including land cover, population, slope, and topography, with elevation-derived watershed boundaries. The results are published in an online EDNA Watershed Atlas at http://edna.usgs.gov/watersheds. The atlas serves as a framework for evaluating and analyzing the physical, biological, and anthropogenic status of watersheds.

  2. Nursing Diagnosis of "Spiritual Distress" in Women With Breast Cancer: Prevalence and Major Defining Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Sílvia; Timmins, Fiona; de Carvalho, Emília C; Vieira, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and spiritual needs of cancer patients are frequently mentioned in the nursing literature, but the most significant defining characteristics of spiritual distress in the context of clinical reasoning and nursing diagnosis are rarely explored. Understanding of these is important for effective spiritual intervention. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and the defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis "spiritual distress," as classified according to NANDA International, among women with breast cancer. This was a quantitative and cross-sectional study, comprising the third phase of a larger study investigating the clinical validation of spiritual distress in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Fehring's clinical diagnostic validation model was used to identify the prevalence and the major defining characteristics of the diagnosis. A convenience sample was used, and data were collected by structured interview. A total of 70 women participated; most were married (62.9%) and had a mean age of 54 years, and 55.7% reported having at least 1 person depending on them. The average length of time since the cancer diagnosis was 30.9 months. Twenty-seven participants were experiencing spiritual distress (38.6%). Eleven defining characteristics were classified as major. The prevalence of spiritual distress and the major defining characteristics give clinical evidence about the nurse's role in providing spiritual care. The results are useful for the improved use of the NANDA International diagnoses within this domain. The findings highlight the importance of assessing the defining characteristics of the diagnosis as an objective strategy to improve clinical reasoning related to spirituality and to facilitate more effective interventions.

  3. Trace and major element levels in rats after oral administration of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Laçine; Sözbilir, Nalan Bayşu

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated the toxic effects of diesel and biodiesel derived from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) oil seeds on the trace and major elements in kidney, lung, liver, and serum of rats. By the end of 21 days, trace and major element concentrations in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We observed that trace and major element levels in kidney, lung, and liver tissues and the serum changed. Especially, important differences were detected in trace and major element concentrations in kidney and lung tissues. In kidney tissue, the concentration differences of calcium, sodium, and zinc (Zn) were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. In lung tissue, the concentration differences of cadmium, lithium, magnesium, manganese, and Zn were found between diesel and biodiesel groups. Among the significant findings, Zn concentration in serum and liver tissue of diesel and biodiesel were different from control (p < 0.05). However, the metal levels of biodiesel group were similar to control group. Due to lesser toxicity of biodiesel, it could be considered as an alternate fuel. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Validating modelled data on major and trace element deposition in southern Germany using Sphagnum moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempter, Heike; Krachler, Michael; Shotyk, William; Zaccone, Claudio

    2017-10-01

    Sphagnum mosses were collected from four ombrotrophic bogs in two regions of southern Germany: Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern, OB) and the Northern Black Forest (Nordschwarzwald, NBF). Surfaces of Sphagnum carpets were marked with plastic mesh and, one year later, plant matter was harvested and productivity determined. Major and trace element concentrations (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, Zn) were determined in acid digests using sector field ICP-MS. Up to 12 samples (40 × 40 cm) were collected per site, and 6-10 sites investigated per bog. Variation in element accumulation rates within a bog is mostly the result of the annual production rate of the Sphagnum mosses which masks not only the impact of site effects, such as microtopography and the presence of dwarf trees, but also local and regional conditions, including land use in the surrounding area, topography, etc. The difference in productivity between peat bogs results in distinctly higher element accumulation rates at the NBF bogs compared to those from OB for all studied elements. The comparison with the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP; wet-only and total deposition) and Modelling of Air Pollutants and Ecosystem Impact (MAPESI; total deposition) data shows that accumulation rates obtained using Sphagnum are in the same range of published values for direct measurements of atmospheric deposition of As, Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, and V in both regions. The accordance is very dependent on how atmospheric deposition rates were obtained, as different models to calculate the deposition rates may yield different fluxes even for the same region. In future studies of atmospheric deposition of trace metals, both Sphagnum moss and deposition collectors have to be used on the same peat bog and results compared. Antimony, however, shows considerable discrepancy, because it is either under-estimated by Sphagnum moss or over-estimated by both atmospheric deposition

  5. Leaching characteristics of rare metal elements and chlorine in fly ash from ash melting plants for metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hwan; Osako, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    In terms of resource recovery and environmental impact, melting furnace fly ash (MFA) is attracting much attention in Japan due to its high metal content. The study aims to obtain fundamental information on using a water extraction method not only to concentrate valuable rare metals but also to remove undesirable substances such as chlorine for their recovery from MFA. The composition and leaching characteristics of MFA was investigated. The results revealed that the metal content in MFA is nearly equal to raw ore quality. The content of Ag, In, Pd, Pb, and Zn is, in fact, higher than the content of raw ore. As for leaching behavior, Ag, Bi, In, Ga, Ge, Sb, Sn, and Te showed the lowest release at a neutral pH range. Pd was leached constantly regardless of pH, but its concentration was quite low. On the other hand, most of the Tl was easily leached, revealing that water extraction is not appropriate for Tl recovery from MFA. Major elements Cl, Ca, Na, and K, occupying about 70% of MFA, were mostly leached regardless of pH. Base metal elements Cu, Pb, and Zn showed minimum solubility at a neutral pH. The leaching ratio of target rare metal elements and base metal elements suggests that the optimal pH for water extraction is 8-10, at which the leaching concentration is minimized. The water extraction process removed most of the Cl, Ca, Na, and K, and the concentration of rare metals and base metals increased by four or five times.

  6. Principal locations of major-ion, trace-element, nitrate, and Escherichia coli loading to Emigration Creek, Salt Lake County, Utah, October 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Housing development and recreational activity in Emigration Canyon have increased substantially since 1980, perhaps causing an observed decrease in water quality of this northern Utah stream located near Salt Lake City. To identify reaches of the stream that contribute to water-quality degradation, a tracer-injection and synoptic-sampling study was done to quantify mass loading of major ions, trace elements, nitrate, and Escherichia coli (E. coli) to the stream. The resulting mass-loading profiles for major ions and trace elements indicate both geologic and anthropogenic inputs to the stream, principally from tributary and spring inflows to the stream at Brigham Fork, Burr Fork, Wagner Spring, Emigration Tunnel Spring, Blacksmith Hollow, and Killyon Canyon. The pattern of nitrate loading does not correspond to the major-ion and trace-element loading patterns. Nitrate levels in the stream did not exceed water-quality standards at the time of synoptic sampling. The majority of nitrate mass loading can be considered related to anthropogenic input, based on the field settings and trends in stable isotope ratios of nitrogen. The pattern of E. coli loading does not correspond to the major-ion, trace-element, or nitrate loading patterns. The majority of E. coli loading was related to anthropogenic sources based on field setting, but a considerable part of the loading also comes from possible animal sources in Killyon Canyon, in Perkins Flat, and in Rotary Park. In this late summer sampling, E. coli concentrations only exceeded water-quality standards in limited sections of the study reach. The mass-loading approach used in this study provides a means to design future studies and to evaluate the loading on a catchment scale.

  7. A SIMS study of lunar 'komatiitic glasses' - Trace element characteristics and possible origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Galbreath, K. C.; Wentworth, S. J.; Shimizu, N.

    1990-01-01

    In Apollo 16 regolith breccias, Wentworth and McKay (1988) identified a suite of minute (less than 120 microns) 'komatiitic glass beads'. The wide major element compositional range, and ultra-Mg-prime character of the glasses suggest a variety of possible origins from complex impact processes to complex volcanic processes involving rather unusual and primitive magmatism. The extent of trace element depletion or enrichment in these glasses appears to be correlated to the siderophile character of the element (ionization potential or experimentally determined silicate melt/Fe metal partition coefficients. The ultra-Mg-prime glasses are depleted in Co relative to a bulk Moon Mg/Co exhibited by many lunar samples (volcanic glasses, basalts, regolith breccia, estimated upper mantle). The low Co and high incompatible element concentrations diminish the possibility that these glasses are a product of lunar komatiitic volcanism or impact, excavation, and melting of a very high Mg-prime plutonic unit.

  8. Trace element and major ion composition of wet and dry depositon in Ankara, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Güven; Tuncel, Gürdal

    Daily, wet-only precipitation samples collected over a two year period were analyzed for SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl -, NH 4+, H +, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, V and Ni. Weekly dry-deposition samples collected on petri-dishes over the same period were analyzed only for major ions. Concentrations of ions and elements in Ankara precipitation are comparable with concentrations reported in literature for other urban areas. However, the wet deposition fluxes are the lowest among literature values, owing to small annual precipitation in the region. Although, annual average pH in precipitation is 4.7, episodic rain events with fairly low pH's were observed. Approximately half of the acidity in Ankara precipitation is neutralized in the winter season, while the acidity is completely neutralized by airborne soil particles that are rich in CaCO 3 in the summer precipitation. The SO 42- and NO 3- contributes approximately equally on the free acidity in winter. Main forms of SO 42- and NO 3- in precipitation are CaSO 4 and Ca(NO 3) 2, respectively. Crustal elements and ions have higher concentrations during summer season, while anthropogenic ions and elements did not show well-defined seasonal cycles. The lack of industrial activity in Ankara has profound influence on the temporal behavior of elements and ions.

  9. Major, trace element and isotope geochemistry (Sr-Nd-Pb) of interplinian magmas from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius (Southern Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somma, R.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.

    2001-01-01

    compositions in the interplinian rocks show a tendency to become slightly more radiogenic with age, from the Protohistoric (143Nd/144Nd=0.51240-0.51247) to Ancient Historic (143Nd/144Nd=0.51245-0.51251). Medieval interplinian activity (143Nd/144Nd: 0.51250-0.51241) lacks meaningful internal trends. All the interplinian rocks have virtually homogeneous compositions of 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb in acid-leached residues (207Pb/204Pb ???15.633 to 15.687, 208Pb/204Pb ???38.947 to 39.181). Values of 206Pb/204Pb are very distinctive, however, and discriminate among the three interplinian cycles of activity (Protohistoric: 18.929-18.971, Ancient Historic: 19.018-19.088, Medieval: 18.964-19.053). Compositional trends of major, trace element and isotopic compositions clearly demonstrate strong temporal variations of the magma types feeding the Somma-Vesuvius activity. These different trends are unlikely to be related only to low pressure evolutionary processes, and reveal variations of parental melt composition. Geochemical data suggest a three component mixing scheme for the interplinian activity. These involve HIMU-type and DMM-type mantle and Calabrian-type lower crust. Interaction between these components has taken place in the source; however, additional quantitative constraints must be acquired in order to better discriminate between magma characteristics inherited from the sources and those acquired during shallow level evolution.

  10. Major, minor, trace and rare earth elements in sediments of the Bijagós archipelago, Guinea-Bissau.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lina; Figueira, Paula; Monteiro, Rui; Reis, Ana Teresa; Almeida, Joana; Catry, Teresa; Lourenço, Pedro Miguel; Catry, Paulo; Barbosa, Castro; Catry, Inês; Pereira, Eduarda; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Vale, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    Sixty sediment samples from four sites in the Bijagós archipelago were characterized for fine fraction, loss on ignition, major, minor and trace elemental composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, P, Zr, Mn, Cr, Sr, Ba, B, V, Li, Zn, Ni, Pb, As, Co, U, Cu, Cs and Cd), and the elements of the La-Lu series. Element concentrations were largely explained by the Al content and the proportion of fine fraction content, with the exception of Ca and Sr. Sediments showed enhanced Ti, U, Cr, As and Cd concentrations with respect to estimated upper crust values, most likely mirroring a regional signature. Rare earth elements were in deficit relatively to the North American Shale Composite (NASC), mainly in coarser material. No pronounced Ce-anomaly was observed, while Eu-anomalies were positive in most analyzed sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Major- and Minor-Element Mapping to Measure Chemical Variability in Diogenite Pyroxenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilde, M. N.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-07-01

    Diogenite orthopyroxene grains have been shown to exhibit chemical variability within individual meteorite samples, e.g., the population groups reported by Hewins [1]. Our previous work [2] has shown a great deal of inter- and intragrain variability in OPX. The Garland diogenite, for example, appears to have two distinct populations of OPX, based on Cr/Al ratios. However, within individual crystals, excursions of Cr/Al ratios are present that may span a wide range within each population group. We are presently conducting SIMS analysis of OPX in diogenites and, therefore, the chemical variability of analyzed pyroxenes must be completely determined in order to find that portion of the crystal that most accurately records the igneous, rather than the metamorphic history. Optical analysis alone is not sufficient to categorize the pyroxene crystals. For example, numerous grains in EET 83246 appear to be zoned, with changes in interference colors toward the rims. However, EDS mapping indicates that the rims are chemically similar to the cores; the interference colors are interpreted to be due to some sort of grain abrasion process that occurred during brecciation. Backscattered image mapping at low magnification can identify intergrain variations and gross intragrain chemical variations, but this must be followed up with more detailed elemental mapping. Our microprobe employs a Link (Oxford) eXL II analyzer with full-stage automation, so that we can combine EDS maps of major elements with WDS maps of minor elements (Al, Ti, Mn, Cr). Large area maps (>1 mm) are produced using stage rastering to avoid defocusing of the WDS spectrometers. In a final step, quantitative elemental maps of target grains are produced, whereby the characteristic X-ray intensity collected at each map pixel is background suppressed and fitted against a standard intensity to yield an apparent concentration. Appropriate standards, close to the composition of the mapped grain, are used such that the

  12. Interactions between accumulation of trace elements and major nutrients in Salix caprea after inoculation with rhizosphere microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    De Maria, Susanna; Rivelli, Anna Rita; Kuffner, Melanie; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter W.; Gorfer, Markus; Strauss, Joseph; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Although the beneficial effects on growth and trace element accumulation in Salix inoculated with microbes are well known, little information is available on the interactions among trace elements and major nutrients. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of inoculation with rhizobacteria Agromyces sp. AR33, Streptomyces sp. AR17, and the combination of each of them with the fungus Cadophora finlandica PRF15 on biomass production and the accumulation of selected trace elements and major nutrients (Cd, Zn, Fe, Ca, K and Mg) in Salix caprea grown on a moderately polluted soil. Dry matter production was significantly enhanced only upon inoculation with Agromyces AR33. Microbial treatments differently affected the accumulation of Zn and Cd in plants. Both the inoculation with Streptomyces AR17 and the co-inoculation of C. finlandica with Agromyces AR33 were most efficient in enhancing the accumulation of Zn and Cd in leaves. These two treatments showed also a higher translocation factor from roots to the leaves for both Cd and Zn. Concentrations of major nutrients in shoots were generally increased in the treatments with the fungus compared to those without, except for K in plants inoculated with bacterial strain Streptomyces AR17. Co-inoculation of C. finlandica plus Agromyces AR33 resulted in a better accumulation of both Zn and Cd and Ca, K and Mg in shoots. This study suggests that the phytoextraction of Zn and Cd can be improved by inoculation with selected microbial strains. PMID:21612812

  13. Accurate quantitative CF-LIBS analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys via iterative correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuxia, ZHAO; Lei, ZHANG; Jiajia, HOU; Yang, ZHAO; Wangbao, YIN; Weiguang, MA; Lei, DONG; Liantuan, XIAO; Suotang, JIA

    2018-03-01

    The chemical composition of alloys directly determines their mechanical behaviors and application fields. Accurate and rapid analysis of both major and minor elements in alloys plays a key role in metallurgy quality control and material classification processes. A quantitative calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) analysis method, which carries out combined correction of plasma temperature and spectral intensity by using a second-order iterative algorithm and two boundary standard samples, is proposed to realize accurate composition measurements. Experimental results show that, compared to conventional CF-LIBS analysis, the relative errors for major elements Cu and Zn and minor element Pb in the copper-lead alloys has been reduced from 12%, 26% and 32% to 1.8%, 2.7% and 13.4%, respectively. The measurement accuracy for all elements has been improved substantially.

  14. Major factors influencing the elemental composition of surface estuarine sediments: the case of 15 estuaries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, M; Vale, C; Raimundo, J; Pereira, P; Brito, P; Caetano, M

    2014-07-15

    Upper sediments (0-5 cm) were sampled in 94 sites of water bodies of the fifteen Portuguese estuaries characterized by distinct settings of climate, topography and lithology, and marked by diverse anthropogenic pressures. Confined areas recognized as highly anthropogenic impacted, as well as areas dominated by erosion or frequently dredged were not sampled. Grain size, organic carbon (Corg), Al and trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined. Normalisation of trace element concentrations to Al and Corg, correlations between elements and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed identifying elemental associations and the relevance of grain-size, lithology and anthropogenic inputs on sediment chemical composition. Whereas grain-size is the dominant effect for the majority of the studied estuaries, the southern estuaries Mira, Arade and Guadiana are dominated by specific lithologies of their river basins, and anthropogenic effects are identified in Ave, Leça, Tagus and Sado. This study emphasizes how baseline values of trace elements in sediments may vary within and among estuarine systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Volcanism in the Sumisu Rift, I. Major element, volatile, and stable isotope geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hochstaedter, A.G.; Gill, J.B.; Kusakabe, M.; Newman, S.; Pringle, M.; Taylor, B.; Fryer, P.

    1990-01-01

    A bimodal volcanic suite with KAr ages of 0.05-1.40 Ma was collected from the Sumisu Rift using alvin. These rocks are contemporaneous with island arc tholeiite lavas of the Izu-Ogasawara arc 20 km to the east, and provide a present day example of volcanism associated with arc rifting and back-arc basin initiation. Major element geochemistry of the basalts is most similar to that of basalts found in other, more mature back-arc basins, which indicates that back-arc basins need not begin their magmatic evolution with lavas bearing strong arc signatures. Volatile concentrations distinguish Sumisu Rift basalts from island arc basalts and MORB. H2O contents, which are at least four times greater than in MORB, suppress plagioclase crystallization. This suppression results in a more mafic fractionating assemblage, which prevents Al2O3 depletion and delays the initiation of Fe2O3(tot) and TiO2 enrichment. However, unlike arc basalts, Fe3+ ??Fe ratios are only slightly higher than in MORB and are insufficient to cause magnetite saturation early enough to suppress Fe2O3(tot) and TiO2 enrichment. Thus, major element trends are more similar to those of MORB than arcs. H2O, CO2 and S are undersaturated relative to pure phase solubility curves, indicating exsolution of an H2O-rich mixed gas phase. High H2O S, high ??D, and low (MORB-like) ??34S ratios are considered primary and distinctive of the back-arc basin setting. ?? 1990.

  16. [Studies on six heavy metal elements dissolution characteristics of Andrographis herb by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Li, Tian-Peng; Gu, Xue-Shi; Li, Yong-Jian; Yang, Yi

    2010-02-01

    A simple and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in andrographis herb by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The samples were digested by HNO3-HClO4. The digestion-determination method was evaluated with the relative standard deviations for all these elements between 2.1% and 4.6%, and the recoveries were between 92.0% and 103.2%. The measuring method was proved to be simple, reliable and highly sensitive. The dissolution characteristics of the 6 heavy metal elements in different solvents and with different extraction methods such as refluxing, soaking, and ultrasonic assisted extraction were studied. The experimental results showed that Ba was in the highest concentration followed by Cu and Cr, and the concentration of As, Pb and Cd was relatively lower in the herb. With the increase in ethanol concentration, the dissolution amount of Ba decreased but that of Cu and Cr increased, and the highest concentration of Cd was dissolved in acidic solution. Overall, Cd and Pb were difficult to dissolve out with 85% ethanol refluxing, but As dissolved comparatively more under the same condition. Comparing the extraction methods, the higher concentration of these 6 metals was obtained by refluxing water or alkaline water than that by 85% ethanol maceration. These differences might be related to the existent forms of these six elements in the herb. The determination and study on dissolution characteristics of these elements by using ICP-OES was important for rational using medicinal resources and ensuring the safety of drugs.

  17. Energy flux and characteristic energy of an elemental auroral structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanchester, B. S.; Palmer, J. R.; Rees, M. H.; Lummerzheim, D.; Kaila, K.; Turunen, T.

    1994-01-01

    Electron density profiles acquired with the EISCAT radar at 0.2 s time resolution, together with TV images and photometric intensities, were used to study the characteristics of thin (less than 1 km) auroral arc structures that drifted through the field of view of the instruments. It is demonstrated that both high time and space resolution are essential for deriving the input parameters of the electron flux responsible for the elemental auroral structures. One such structure required a 400 mW/sq m (erg/sq cm s) downward energy flux carried by an 8 keV monochromatic electron flux equivalent to a current density of 50 micro Angstrom/sq m.

  18. Risk element sorption/desorption characteristics of dry olive residue: a technique for the potential immobilization of risk elements in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hovorka, Miloš; Száková, Jiřina; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Acebal, Mercedes Blanc; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Olive oil production is one of the most relevant agroindustrial activities in the Mediterranean region and generates a huge amount of both solid and semi-solid wastes, the uncontrolled disposal of which might lead to serious environmental problems. Due to its organic matter and mineral nutrient content, the waste material can be applied to agricultural soil as a fertilizer. However, due to its high organic matter content, dry olive residue (DOR), commonly called "alperujo," has the potential to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils. The main objective of this study was to assess the possible effect of DOR on sorption of risk elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. A set of batch sorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability of DOR to adsorb Cd, Pb, and Zn where the effect of the preceding biotransformation of DOR by four species of fungi: Penicillium chrysogenum, Coriolopsis floccosa, Bjerkhandera adusta, and Chondrostereum purpureum was compared. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were calculated to assess the sorption characteristics of both transformed and non-transformed DOR. The results showed good potential sorption capacity of DOR, especially for Pb and to a lesser extent for Cd and Zn. Better sorption characteristics were reported for the biotransformed DOR samples, which are expected to show higher humification of the organic matter. However, the desorption experiments showed weakness and instability of the DOR-bound elements, especially in the case of Zn. Thus, future research should aim to verify the DOR sorption pattern in contaminated soil as well as the potential stabilization of the DOR element bounds where the increase of the pH levels of the DOR samples needs to be taken into account.

  19. Trace and Major Element Chemistry Across the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary at Stevns Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graup, G.; Spettel, B.

    1992-07-01

    INAA measurements of samples obtained by high-resolution stratigraphy on a mm scale reveal considerable variations in element concentrations across the boundary with their respective maxima stratified in distinct sublayers (Graup et al., 1992). These results suggest that measurements of bulk boundary samples a few cm thick may be inappropriate as concentration variations and element ratios would be leveled out pretending a single geochemical signal. Having investigated a sample comprising sublayers B, C, and D (Fig. 1), Alvarez et al.(1980) acknowledge that "no information is available on the chemical variations within the boundary." This kind of information is given below and shown in Fig. 1 (sublayers A and B are drafted in double scale). From the main lithologic characteristics of Maastrichtian to Paleocene sediments (Schmitz, 1988; Graup et al., 1992) it is readily deduced that Eh and pH conditions in the marine environment changed from oxic-mildly alkaline with normal carbonate sedimentation (Q-M) to anoxic-(mildly) acid with deposition of pyrite spherules (A3), organic material, and clay minerals in the Fish Clay (A-D), followed by a restoration of oxic-alkaline conditions depositing the Cerithium limestone (E- I). The element distribution across the boundary obviously mirrors these alternating environmental conditions: compounds soluble under acid and reducing conditions like Ca-carbonate and Mn are strongly depleted in the Fish Clay (Fig. 1A), whereas compounds stable and insoluble under these conditions are highly enriched (Fig. 1B). The opposite holds true for the calcareous sediments. Across the boundary, enhanced element concentrations are not evenly distributed but appear to be stratified with maximum concentrations in three distinct sublayers for the following elements: (1) A1 (hard clay): peak concentrations for REE (La 72 ppm) and U (45.5 ppm) as compared to 13 ppm La and 2 ppm U in sublayer A2 immediately above. (2) A3 (pyrite spherules): peak

  20. The lunar core can be a major reservoir for volatile elements S, Se, Te and Sb.

    PubMed

    Steenstra, Edgar S; Lin, Yanhao; Dankers, Dian; Rai, Nachiketa; Berndt, Jasper; Matveev, Sergei; van Westrenen, Wim

    2017-11-06

    The Moon bears a striking compositional and isotopic resemblance to the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) for many elements, but is considered highly depleted in many volatile elements compared to BSE due to high-temperature volatile loss from Moon-forming materials in the Moon-forming giant impact and/or due to evaporative loss during subsequent magmatism on the Moon. Here, we use high-pressure metal-silicate partitioning experiments to show that the observed low concentrations of volatile elements sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), and antimony (Sb) in the silicate Moon can instead reflect core-mantle equilibration in a largely to fully molten Moon. When incorporating the core as a reservoir for these elements, their bulk Moon concentrations are similar to those in the present-day bulk silicate Earth. This suggests that Moon formation was not accompanied by major loss of S, Se, Te, Sb from Moon-forming materials, consistent with recent indications from lunar carbon and S isotopic compositions of primitive lunar materials. This is in marked contrast with the losses of other volatile elements (e.g., K, Zn) during the Moon-forming event. This discrepancy may be related to distinctly different cosmochemical behavior of S, Se, Te and Sb within the proto-lunar disk, which is as of yet virtually unconstrained.

  1. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  2. Origin of a major cross-element zone: Moroccan Rif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    1987-08-01

    Alpine age (Oligocene-Miocene) deformation in the western Mediterranean formed the Rif mountain belt of northern Morocco. A linear east-northeast-west-southwest trend of cross elements from Jebah (Mediterranean coast) to Arbaoua (near the Atlantic coast) extends through several thrust sheets in the western Rif. The cross elements are manifest as a lateral ramp, the northern limit of a large culmination, and they affect syntectonic turbidite sandstone distribution. Gravity anomalies indicate that the cross-element zone is coincident with a transition zone from normal thickness to thinner continental crust. It is suggested that an early Mesozoic strike-slip fault system related to rifting of North America from North Africa caused a strong east-northeast-west-southwest, basement block-fault trend to form on the normal thickness side of the thick-to-thin continental crustal transition zone. This trend later influenced the position of the Alpine age cross-element zone that traverses several different Mesozoic and Tertiary basins, inverted during the Alpine deformation.

  3. Grain-size distribution and selected major and trace element concentrations in bed-sediment cores from the Lower Granite Reservoir and Snake and Clearwater Rivers, eastern Washington and northern Idaho, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty subsamples from 15 cores were analyzed for major and trace elements. Concentrations of trace elements were low, with respect to sediment quality guidelines, in most cores. Typically, major and trace element concentrations were lower in the subsamples collected from the Snake River compared to those collected from the Clearwater River, the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers, and Lower Granite Reservoir. Generally, lower concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with coarser sediments (larger than 0.0625 millimeter) and higher concentrations of major and trace elements were associated with finer sediments (smaller than 0.0625 millimeter).

  4. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation of contaminated areas by trace elements: mechanisms and major benefits of their applications.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Lucélia; Soares, Claúdio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa; Giachini, Admir José; Siqueira, José Oswaldo

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the concentration of trace elements has increased in soil and water, mainly by industrialization and urbanization. Recovery of contaminated areas is generally complex. In that respect, microorganisms can be of vital importance by making significant contributions towards the establishment of plants and the stabilization of impacted areas. Among the available strategies for environmental recovery, bioremediation and phytoremediation outstand. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered the most important type of mycorrhizae for phytoremediation. AMF have broad occurrence in contaminated soils, and evidences suggest they improve plant tolerance to excess of certain trace elements. In this review, the use of AMF in phytoremediation and mechanisms involved in their trace element tolerance are discussed. Additionally, we present some techniques used to study the retention of trace elements by AMF, as well as a summary of studies showing major benefits of AMF for phytoremediation.

  6. The elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloy in molten salt corrosion by using nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Qiantao; Liu, Ke; Gao, Jie; Li, Xiaolin; Shen, Hao; Li, Yan

    2017-08-01

    Nickel-based alloys as candidate materials for Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR), need to be used under high temperature in molten salt environment. In order to ensure the safety of the reactor running, it is necessary to study the elemental move characteristic of nickel-based alloys in the high temperature molten salts. In this work, the scanning nuclear microprobe at Fudan University was applied to study the elemental move. The Nickel-based alloy samples were corroded by molten salt at different temperatures. The element concentrations in the Nickel-based alloys samples were determined by the scanning nuclear microprobe. Micro-PIXE results showed that the element concentrations changed from the interior to the exterior of the alloy samples after the corrosion.

  7. Major and trace element partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases in Antarctic surface snow.

    PubMed

    Grotti, M; Soggia, F; Ardini, F; Magi, E

    2011-09-01

    In order to provide a new insight into the Antarctic snow chemistry, partitioning of major and trace elements between dissolved and particulate (i.e. insoluble particles, >0.45 μm) phases have been investigated in a number of coastal and inland snow samples, along with their total and acid-dissolvable (0.5% nitric acid) concentrations. Alkaline and alkaline-earth elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr) were mainly present in the dissolved phase, while Fe and Al were predominantly associated with the particulate matter, without any significant difference between inland and coastal samples. On the other hand, partitioning of trace elements depended on the sampling site position, showing a general decrease of the particulate fraction by moving from the coast to the plateau. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were for the most part in the dissolved phase, while Cr was mainly associated with the particulate fraction. Co, Mn and V were equally distributed between dissolved and particulate phases in the samples collected from the plateau and preferentially associated with the particulate in the coastal samples. The correlation between the elements and the inter-sample variability of their concentration significantly decreased for the plateau samples compared to the coastal ones, according to a change in the relative contribution of the metal sources and in good agreement with the estimated marine and crustal enrichment factors. In addition, samples from the plateau were characterised by higher enrichment factors of anthropogenic elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn), compared to the coastal area. Finally, it was observed that the acid-dissolvable metal concentrations were generally lower than the total concentration values, showing that the acid treatment can dissolve only a given fraction of the metal associated with the particulate (<20% for iron and aluminium).

  8. Origin of a major cross-element zone: Moroccan Rif

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Morley, C.K.

    1987-08-01

    Alpine age (Oligocene-Miocene) deformation in the western Mediterranean formed the Rif mountain belt of northern Morocco. A linear east-northeast-west-southwest trend of cross elements from Jebah (Mediterranean coast) to Arbaoua (near the Atlantic coast) extends through several thrust sheets in the western Rif. The cross elements are manifest as a lateral ramp, the northern limit of a large culmination, and they affect syntectonic turbidite sandstone distribution. Gravity anomalies indicate that the cross-element zone is coincident with a transition zone from normal thickness to thinner continental crust. It is suggested that an early Mesozoic strike-slip fault system related to rifting of Northmore » America from North Africa caused a strong east-northeast-west-southwest, basement block-fault trend to form on the normal thickness side of the thick-to-thin continental crustal transition zone. This trend later influenced the position of the Alpine age cross-element zone that traverses several different Mesozoic and Tertiary basins, inverted during the Alpine deformation.« less

  9. Markers of the pyroxenite contribution in the major-element compositions of oceanic basalts: Review of the experimental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambart, Sarah; Laporte, Didier; Schiano, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Based on previous and new results on partial melting experiments of pyroxenites at high pressure, we attempt to identify the major element signature of pyroxenite partial melts and to evaluate to what extent this signature can be transmitted to the basalts erupted at oceanic islands and mid-ocean ridges. Although peridotite is the dominant source lithology in the Earth's upper mantle, the ubiquity of pyroxenites in mantle xenoliths and in ultramafic massifs, and the isotopic and trace elements variability of oceanic basalts suggest that these lithologies could significantly contribute to the generation of basaltic magmas. The question is how and to what degree the melting of pyroxenites can impact the major-element composition of oceanic basalts. The review of experimental phase equilibria of pyroxenites shows that the thermal divide, defined by the aluminous pyroxene plane, separates silica-excess pyroxenites (SE pyroxenites) on the right side and silica-deficient pyroxenites (SD pyroxenites) on the left side. It therefore controls the melting phase relations of pyroxenites at high pressure but, the pressure at which the thermal divide becomes effective, depends on the bulk composition; partial melt compositions of pyroxenites are strongly influenced by non-CMAS elements (especially FeO, TiO2, Na2O and K2O) and show a progressive transition from the liquids derived from the most silica-deficient compositions to those derived from the most silica-excess compositions. Another important aspect for the identification of source lithology is that, at identical pressure and temperature conditions, many pyroxenites produce melts that are quite similar to peridotite-derived melts, making the determination of the presence of pyroxenite in the source regions of oceanic basalts difficult; only pyroxenites able to produce melts with low SiO2 and high FeO contents can be identified on the basis of the major-element compositions of basalts. In the case of oceanic island basalts

  10. Analysis of Personal and Home Characteristics Associated with the Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air in the RIOPA Study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patrick H; Brokamp, Cole; Fan, Zhi-Hua; Rao, M B

    2015-12-01

    The complex mixture of chemicals and elements that constitute particulate matter (PM*) varies by season and geographic location because source contributors differ over time and place. The composition of PM having an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is hypothesized to be responsible, in part, for its toxicity. Epidemiologic studies have identified specific components and sources of PM2.5 that are associated with adverse health outcomes. The majority of these studies use measures of outdoor concentrations obtained from one or a few central monitoring sites as a surrogate for measures of personal exposure. Personal PM2.5 (and its elemental composition), however, may be different from the PM2.5 measured at stationary outdoor sites. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the relationships between the concentrations of various elements in indoor, outdoor, and personal PM2.5 samples, (2) to identify groups of individuals with similar exposures to mixtures of elements in personal PM2.5 and to examine personal and home characteristics of these groups, and (3) to evaluate whether concentrations of elements from outdoor PM2.5 samples are appropriate surrogates for personal exposure to PM2.5 and its elements and whether indoor PM2.5 concentrations and information about home characteristics improve the prediction of personal exposure. The objectives of the study were addressed using data collected as part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. The RIOPA study has previously measured the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and its elemental constituents during 48-hour concurrent indoor, outdoor (directly outside the home), and personal samplings in three urban areas (Los Angeles, California; Houston, Texas; and Elizabeth, New Jersey). The resulting data and information about personal and home characteristics (including air-conditioning use, nearby emission sources, time spent indoors, census-tract geography, air-exchange rates, and

  11. Selected spectroscopic results on element 115 decay chains

    DOE PAGES

    Rudolph, D.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; ...

    2014-08-24

    We observed thirty correlated α-decay chains in an experiment studying the fusion-evaporation reaction 48Ca + 243Am at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fur Schwerionenforschung. The decay characteristics of the majority of these 30 chains are consistent with previous observations and interpretations of such chains to originate from isotopes of element Z = 115. High-resolution α-photon coincidence spectroscopy in conjunction with comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulations allow to propose excitation schemes of atomic nuclei of the heaviest elements, thereby probing nuclear structure models near the 'Island of Stability' with unprecedented experimental precision.

  12. The Effect of Alloying Elements on Thermal Conductivity and Casting Characteristic in High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Cho, Jae-Ik; Choi, Se-Weon; Kim, Young-Chan; Kang, Chang-Seog

    Recently, demand of aluminum alloys for use in high thermal conductivity application is increases but the most aluminum die casting alloys exhibit very lower thermal properties because of their high concentrations of alloying elements. However, those alloying elements are essential to obtain sufficient fluidity and mechanical strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of alloying elements in die casting alloys, Si, Cu, Mg, Fe and Mn, in thermal conductivity, die casting characteristics and mechanical properties and find out the appropriate amount of each alloying element for development of heat sink component. The results showed that Mn had the most deleterious effect in thermal conductivity and Si and Fe contents were important to improve strength and limit casting defects, such as hot tearing and die soldering. The alloy with 0.2 1.0wt%Cu, 0.3 0.6wt%Fe and 1.0 2.0wt%Si showed very good combination of high thermal conductivity and good casting characteristics.

  13. A survey of 16 rare Earth elements in the major foods in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ding Guo; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Da Jin

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities, during 2009-2010. 1 231 samples were analyzed and 19 121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected. The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly. The concentrations of cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high, while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels. The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals, fresh vegetables, fresh aquatic products, fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg. 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kissoon, La Toya T; Jacob, Donna L; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Bowe, Shane E; Otte, Marinus L

    2015-06-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds.

  15. Multi-Elements in Waters and Sediments of Shallow Lakes: Relationships with Water, Sediment, and Watershed Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Donna L.; Hanson, Mark A.; Herwig, Brian R.; Bowe, Shane E.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2015-01-01

    We measured concentrations of multiple elements, including rare earth elements, in waters and sediments of 38 shallow lakes of varying turbidity and macrophyte cover in the Prairie Parkland (PP) and Laurentian Mixed Forest (LMF) provinces of Minnesota. PP shallow lakes had higher element concentrations in waters and sediments compared to LMF sites. Redundancy analysis indicated that a combination of site- and watershed-scale features explained a large proportion of among-lake variability in element concentrations in lake water and sediments. Percent woodland cover in watersheds, turbidity, open water area, and macrophyte cover collectively explained 65.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake waters. Sediment fraction smaller than 63 µm, percent woodland in watersheds, open water area, and sediment organic matter collectively explained 64.2 % of variation in element concentrations in lake sediments. In contrast to earlier work on shallow lakes, our results showed the extent to which multiple elements in shallow lake waters and sediments were influenced by a combination of variables including sediment characteristics, lake morphology, and percent land cover in watersheds. These results are informative because they help illustrate the extent of functional connectivity between shallow lakes and adjacent lands within these lake watersheds. PMID:26074657

  16. Major and trace element chemistry of Boulder 1 at Station 2, Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Korotev, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-seven samples from Boulder 1 at Station 2 are analyzed for major and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis. Two types of matrix and several types of clast materials are characterized on the basis of their chemistry. It is shown that one matrix type is a common material at the Apollo 17 site, while the other is probably exotic to that site. The most unusual clast materials found are coarse norite (an old rock no longer found in millimeter fragments at the site) and pigeonite basalt (possibly a highland volcanic rock). It is concluded that the boulder-forming process combined materials from at least two different localities or vertical strata.

  17. The geochemistry of carbonatites revisited: Two major types of continental carbonatites and their trace-element signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhmouradian, A.

    2009-04-01

    There have been several attempts to systematize the geochemistry of carbonatites, most recently by Samoilov (1984), Nelson et al. (1988), Woolley and Kempe (1989), and Rass (1998). These studies revealed a number of important geochemical characteristics that can be used to track the evolutionary history of these rocks, distinguish them from modally similar metamorphic parageneses, and aid in mineral exploration for rare earths, niobium and other resources commonly associated with carbonatites. Important breakthroughs in the understanding of carbonatite petrogenesis and numerous reports of new carbonatite localities made in the past two decades lay the ground for a critical re-assessment of the geochemistry of these rocks. A new representative database of whole-rock carbonatite analyses was compiled from the post-1988 literature and various unpublished sources. The database contains 820 analyses encompassing calcio-, magnesio- and ferrocarbonatites from 174 localities (ca. one-third of the total number of carbonatites known worldwide) reduced to ca. 350 analyses following the approach of Woolley and Kempe (1989). Carbonatites emplaced in oceanic settings (e.g., Cape Verde), ophiolite belts (e.g., Oman), or those of uncertain tectonic affinity (e.g., El Picacho in Mexico) were not included. Two major types of continental carbonatites can be distinguished on the basis of their geological setting and trace-element geochemistry: (1) carbonatites emplaced in rifts and smaller-scale extensional structures developed in stable Archean cratons or paleo-orogenic belts, and (2) carbonatites emplaced in collisional settings following the orogenesis. In both settings, the most common and best-studied type of carbonatite is calcite carbonatite (predominantly intrusive with a small percentage of extrusive occurrences), which accounts for 62% of the analyses included in the database. Both types of carbonatite are typically associated with alkaline silicate lithologies (meleigites

  18. Interpretation of trace element and isotope features of basalts: relevance of field relations, petrology, major element data, phase equilibria, and magma chamber modeling in basalt petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, M. J.; Herzberg, C.

    2002-06-01

    The concentrations and ratios of the major elements determine the physical properties and the phase equilibria behavior of peridotites and basalts in response to the changing energy contents of the systems. The behavior of the trace elements and isotopic features are influenced in their turn by the phase equilibria, by the physical character of the partial melting and partial crystallization processes, and by the way in which a magma interacts with its wall rocks. Concentrating on the trace element and isotope contents of basalts to the exclusion of the field relations, petrology, major element data, and phase equilibria is as improvident as slaughtering the buffalo for the sake of its tongue. The crust is a cool boundary layer and a density filter, which impedes the upward transfer of hot, dense "primary" picritic and komatiitic liquids. Planetary crusts are sites of large-scale contamination and extensive partial crystallization of primitive melts striving to escape to the surface. Escape of truly unmodified primitive melts to the surface is a rare event, requiring the resolution of daunting problems in chemical and mechanical engineering. Primary status for volumetrically abundant basalts such as mid-ocean ridge basalt, ocean island basalt, and continental flood basalts is denied by their low-pressure cotectic character, first remarked upon on petrological grounds in 1928 and on experimental grounds in 1962. These basalt liquids are products of crystal-liquid separation at low pressure. Primary status for these common basalts is further denied by the phase equilibria of such compositions at elevated pressures, when the required residual mantle mineralogy (magnesian olivine and orthopyroxene) is not stable at the liquidus. It is also denied by the picritic or komatiitic nature of partial melts of candidate upper-mantle compositions at high pressures - a conclusion supported by calculation of the melt composition, which would need to be extracted in order to

  19. Performance characteristics of five triage tools for major incidents involving traumatic injuries to children.

    PubMed

    Price, C L; Brace-McDonnell, S J; Stallard, N; Bleetman, A; Maconochie, I; Perkins, G D

    2016-05-01

    Context Triage tools are an essential component of the emergency response to a major incident. Although fortunately rare, mass casualty incidents involving children are possible which mandate reliable triage tools to determine the priority of treatment. To determine the performance characteristics of five major incident triage tools amongst paediatric casualties who have sustained traumatic injuries. Retrospective observational cohort study using data from 31,292 patients aged less than 16 years who sustained a traumatic injury. Data were obtained from the UK Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database. Interventions Statistical evaluation of five triage tools (JumpSTART, START, CareFlight, Paediatric Triage Tape/Sieve and Triage Sort) to predict death or severe traumatic injury (injury severity score >15). Main outcome measures Performance characteristics of triage tools (sensitivity, specificity and level of agreement between triage tools) to identify patients at high risk of death or severe injury. Of the 31,292 cases, 1029 died (3.3%), 6842 (21.9%) had major trauma (defined by an injury severity score >15) and 14,711 (47%) were aged 8 years or younger. There was variation in the performance accuracy of the tools to predict major trauma or death (sensitivities ranging between 36.4 and 96.2%; specificities 66.0-89.8%). Performance characteristics varied with the age of the child. CareFlight had the best overall performance at predicting death, with the following sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) respectively: 95.3% (93.8-96.8) and 80.4% (80.0-80.9). JumpSTART was superior for the triaging of children under 8 years; sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) respectively: 86.3% (83.1-89.5) and 84.8% (84.2-85.5). The triage tools were generally better at identifying patients who would die than those with non-fatal severe injury. This statistical evaluation has demonstrated variability in the accuracy of triage tools at predicting outcomes for children who

  20. ICP-AES determination of minor- and major elements in apples after microwave assisted digestion.

    PubMed

    Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Krizman, Ivona; Zeiner, Michaela; Kampić, Štefica; Medunić, Gordana; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this paper was to determine the content of minor and major elements in apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Prior to ICP-AES measurement, dried apples were digested in a microwave assisted digestion system. The differences in the measured element concentrations after application of open and closed microwave system as sample preparation procedures are discussed. In whole apples, flesh and peel Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn were analysed after optimisation and validating the analytical method using ICP-AES. The accuracy of the method determined by spiking experiments was very good (recoveries 88-115%) and the limits of detection of elements of interest were from 0.01 up to 14.7 μg g(-1). The reference ranges determined in all apple samples are 39-47 mg g(-1) for K, 9-14 mg g(-1) for Na, 3-7 mg g(-1) for Mg, 3-7 μg g(-1) for Zn, 0.7-2.8 μg g(-1) for Sr. The range of Mn in peel 4-6 μg g(-1) is higher compared to whole apple from 0.7 to 1.7 μg g(-1). Cd is found only in peel, in the concentration range of 0.4-1.1 μg g(-1). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Craniofacial Characteristics of Thalassemia Major Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Sacide; Tellioglu, Ayfer Metin; Bilgin, Mehmet; Omurlu, Imran Kurt; Caliskan, Sercin; Coskun, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Thalassemias major are the most common autosomal recessive disorders; they are characterized by anomalies in the synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin and are often associated with varying degrees of craniofacial anomalies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the craniofacial dimensions of β-thalassemia patients and to identify differences by comparing them to those of a control group. Materials and Methods: The study comprised 43 thalassemia major patients and 26 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects. Anthropometric measurements were performed in six different craniofacial regions (head, face, nose, mouth, eyes, and ears); a total of 23 craniofacial variables were measured. Results: Craniofacial measurements in the regions of the face, nose, lips and mouth, and ears in the thalassemia major patient group yielded statistically significant differences compared to those in the control group (p<0.05). However, no statistically significant differences were observed in the measurements of the head and eye regions. Conclusion: The study increased our understanding of the craniofacial anatomy of thalassemia major patients and enabled us to obtain quantitative results. PMID:28149147

  2. Diffusion of major and trace elements in natural silicate melts as a tool to investigate timescales in magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, Diego; Zezza, Angela; Behrens, Harald; Vetere, Francesco; Petrelli, Maurizio; Morgavi, Daniele; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    New melt injection into a shallow magma chamber is regarded as one of the potential triggers for explosive volcanic eruptions. Chemical diffusion occurring between the two mixing melts is a time-dependent process, and thus has the potential to shed light on the timescales involved in magma mixing events leading to an eruption. In order to achieve this, a complete database of diffusion coefficients in natural melts is a necessary prerequisite. We have carried out a set of 12 diffusion couple experiments in order to determine diffusion coefficients (D) of major and trace elements in two natural silicate melts. Two end-members from the Vulcano island (Aeolian archipelago, Italy) have been chosen for the experiments: a shoshonite (Vulcanello lava platform) and a rhyolitic obsidian (Pietre Cotte lava flow, La Fossa cone). Glasses from each end-member with added water contents of 0 wt%, 1 wt% and 2 wt% were produced in an Internally Heated Pressure Vessel (IHPV). Two glass cylinders with similar water content but different base composition are inserted in Au-Pd capsules and experiments are run in the IHPV at 1200° C with pressure from 0.5 to 3 kbar. Experiment capsules are rapidly quenched and analyzed by FTIR, EPMA and LA-ICP-MS for H2O, major and trace elements, respectively, along 2 mm linear profiles extending across the interface. A Boltzmann-Matano approach is used to obtain concentration-dependent diffusivities. The obtained concentration-distance profiles are asymmetric and extend deeper into the shoshonite relative to the rhyolite, indicating that diffusion is slower in the latter. Results show that diffusivities are notably accelerated by the presence of H2O in the melt. Experiments performed by using water-free glass show diffusivities one order of magnitude lower compared to glasses containing up to 2 wt% H2O. The effect of pressure, in the investigated range, is negligible and falls within measurement error. Among major elements, Si and Ti are the slowest

  3. A Study on the Developmental Characteristics of Adverbial Conjuncts by Chinese Non-English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junmei, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Chinese Learner English Corpus, the present study seeks to investigate the developmental characteristics of the use of adverbial conjuncts. And the results show that at different learning stages Non-English majors use all kinds of adverbial conjuncts, but their occurrence frequencies are quite different, the enumerative adverbials are…

  4. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes).

  5. Linking major and trace element headwater stream concentrations to DOC release and hydrologic conditions in a bog and peaty riparian zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broder, Tanja; Biester, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands and organic-rich riparian zones are known to export large amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to surface water. In organic-rich, acidic headwater streams main carriers for element export are dissolved organic matter (DOM) and organic-iron complexes. In this environment DOM might also act as major carrier for metals, which otherwise may have a low solubility. This study examines annual and short term event-based variations of major and trace elements in a headwater catchment. Patterns are used to trace hydrological pathways and element sources under different hydrologic preconditions. Furthermore, it elucidates the importance of DOC as carrier of different elements in a bog and a peaty riparian catchment. The study was conducted in a small headwater stream draining an ombrotrophic peatland with an adjacent forested area with peaty riparian soils in the Harz Mountains (Germany). Discharge sampling was conducted weekly at two sites from snowmelt to begin of snowfall and in high resolution during selected discharge events in 2013 and 2014. Element concentrations were measured by means of ICP-MS and ICP-OES. A PCA was performed for each site and for annual and event datasets. Results show that a large number of element concentrations strongly correlate with DOC concentrations at the bog site. Even elements like Ca and Mg, which are known to have a low affinity to DOC. Congruently, the first principal component integrates the DOC pattern (element loadings > 0.8: Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, DOC) and explained about 35 % of total variance and even 50 % during rain events (loadings > 0.8: Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, Li, Co, As, Sr, Cd, Pb, DOC). The study cannot verify that all correlating elements bind to DOC. It is likely that also a common mobilization pattern in the upper peat layer by plant decomposition causes the same response to changes in hydrologic pathways. Additionally, a low mineral content and an enrichment of elements like Fe and Mn in the

  6. A compilation of whole-rock and glass major-element geochemistry of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, near-vent eruptive products: January 1983 through September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, Carl R.; Hon, Ken; Heliker, Christina; Sherrod, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents major-element geochemical data from 652 glasses (~6,520 analyses) and 795 whole-rock aliquots from 1,002 fresh samples of olivine-tholeiitic lava collected throughout the near-continuous eruption of Kïlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, from January 1983 through September 2001. The data presented herein provide a unique temporal compilation of lava geochemistry that best reflects variations of pre-eruptive magma compositions during prolonged rift-zone eruption. This document serves as a repository for geochemical data referred to in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1676 (Heliker, Swanson, and Takahashi, eds., 2003) which includes multidisciplinary research papers pertaining to the first twenty years of Puu Oo-Kupaianaha eruption activity. Details of eruption characteristics and nomenclature are provided in the introductory chapter of that volume (Heliker and Mattox, 2003). Geochemical relations among all or portions of this data set are depicted and interpreted by Thornber (2003), Thornber and others (2003) and Thornber (2001). Trace element compositions and Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic analyses of representative samples of this select eruption suite will be provided in a separate and complimentary open file report. From 1983 to October 2001, approximately 2,500 eruption samples were collected and archived by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Geochemical data for 1,002 of these samples are included here. Previous reports present bulk-lava major- element chemistry for eruption samples collected from 1983 to 1986 and from 1990 to 1994 (Neal and others, 1988 and Mangan and others, 1995, respectively). Major element glass chemistry and thermometry data for samples collected from 1983 to 1994 is reported by Helz and Hearn (1998) and whole-rock and glass chemistry for samples collected from September 1994 to October 2001 is provided by Thornber and others (2002). This report is a compilation of previously published data along

  7. [Variation characteristics and environmental significant of trace elements under rainfall condition in karst groundwater].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Bin; Yang, Ping-Heng; Lan, Jia-Cheng; Mo, Xue; Shi, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical dynamics of Qingmuguan karst groundwater system were continuously monitored during the rainfall events. A series of high-resolution concentrations data on trace elements, such as barium, strontium, iron, manganese, aluminum, and other major elements were acquired. Correlation analysis and analysis of concentration curve were employed to identify the sources and migration path of the trace elements. And the formation process of trace elements in groundwater was discussed with the geological background of underground river basin. Research shows that barium and strontium derived from carbonate dissolution appeared to be stored in features such as fissures and pores. These two ions were recharged into the underground river by diffusion during precipitation, which resulted in small changes in the their concentration. However total iron, total manganese and aluminum derived from soil erosion varied relatively widely with strong response to rainfall, attributing to the migration of total iron and aluminum with overland flow to recharge the subterranean river directly via sinkholes while total manganese via soil-rock porous media. The results showed that concentrations of all the five trace elements were below 1 mg x L(-1), and the highest concentrations of total iron, total manganese and aluminum exceeded the limit of drinking water. To some extent, the concentrations of total iron and aluminum may be an indicator for soil erosion and water quality.

  8. Geochemical distribution of major and trace elements in agricultural soils of Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain): finding criteria for baselines and delimiting regional anomalies.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Sandra; García-Ordiales, Efrén; García-Navarro, Francisco Jesús; Amorós, José Ángel; Pérez-de-Los-Reyes, Caridad; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo; Esbrí, José María; García-Noguero, Eva María; Higueras, Pablo

    2017-09-07

    Castilla-La Mancha (central Spain) is a region characterized by significant agricultural production aimed at high-quality food products such as wine and olive oil. The quality of agricultural products depends directly on the soil quality. Soil geochemistry, including dispersion maps and the recognition of baselines and anomalies of various origins, is the most important tool to assess soil quality. With this objective, 200 soil samples were taken from agricultural areas distributed among the different geological domains present in the region. Analysis of these samples included evaluation of edaphological parameters (reactivity, electrical conductivity, organic matter content) and the geochemistry of major and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence. The dataset obtained was statistically analyzed for major elements and, in the case of trace elements, was normalized with respect to Al and analyzed using the relative cumulative frequency (RCF) distribution method. Furthermore, the geographic distribution of analytical data was characterized and analyzed using the kriging technique, with a correspondence found between major and trace elements in the different geologic domains of the region as well as with the most important mining areas. The results show an influence of the clay fraction present in the soil, which acts as a repository for trace elements. On the basis of the results, of the possible elements related with clay that could be used for normalization, Al was selected as the most suitable, followed by Fe, Mn, and Ti. Reference values estimated using this methodology were lower than those estimated in previous studies.

  9. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees’ psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees’ performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees’ psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees’ performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees’ performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems’ performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees. PMID:26742054

  10. Structural Model for the Effects of Environmental Elements on the Psychological Characteristics and Performance of the Employees of Manufacturing Systems.

    PubMed

    Realyvásquez, Arturo; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely; García-Alcaraz, Jorge; Cortés-Robles, Guillermo; Blanco-Fernández, Julio

    2016-01-05

    This paper analyzes the effects of environmental elements on the psychological characteristics and performance of employees in manufacturing systems using structural equation modeling. Increasing the comprehension of these effects may help optimize manufacturing systems regarding their employees' psychological characteristics and performance from a macroergonomic perspective. As the method, a new macroergonomic compatibility questionnaire (MCQ) was developed and statistically validated, and 158 respondents at four manufacture companies were considered. Noise, lighting and temperature, humidity and air quality (THAQ) were used as independent variables and psychological characteristics and employees' performance as dependent variables. To propose and test the hypothetical causal model of significant relationships among the variables, a data analysis was deployed. Results found that the macroergonomic compatibility of environmental elements presents significant direct effects on employees' psychological characteristics and either direct or indirect effects on the employees' performance. THAQ had the highest direct and total effects on psychological characteristics. Regarding the direct and total effects on employees' performance, the psychological characteristics presented the highest effects, followed by THAQ conditions. These results may help measure and optimize manufacturing systems' performance by enhancing their macroergonomic compatibility and quality of life at work of the employees.

  11. Elemental Characteristics of Australian Sedimentary Opals and their Implications for Opal Formation and Gemstone Fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, A.; Landgrebe, T. C.; Rey, P. F.

    2011-12-01

    Opal consists of amorphous SiO2.nH2O comprising a network of silica spheres, which in precious opal are of similar size and form an ordered network allowing light to diffract into an array of colors. Common opal, which is often associated with precious opal, lacks this play of color as it is composed of silica spheres of variable sizes. Australia supplies over 95% of the world's precious opal. The opal is almost exclusively located within Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Great Artesian Basin, which experienced a major phase of uplift in the Late Cretaceous with subsequent erosion removing a package of sedimentary rock up to 3 km in thickness. Intense weathering resulted in extensive silicification at relatively shallow levels within the Tertiary regolith. However, despite a billion dollar industry and a well-constrained geological history of the basin, the formation of sedimentary opal and its uniqueness to the Australian continent are still very poorly understood. In this study we have used laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) on precious and common opal from key opal mining areas in order to constrain the possible sources of silica fluids involved in opal genesis and to assess whether any major or trace elements could be used to determine the provenance of opal with respect to a particular mining area. A total of 123 spots, each comprising 59 elements, including rare earth elements were analyzed. Globally, volcanic and sedimentary opals can be distinguished on the basis of Ba and Ca concentrations. Although the opals from the Great Artesian Basin are all sedimentary, some show Ba concentrations consistent with volcanic opals suggesting that silica fluids from which they formed were derived from a volcanic province. The most likely source is the Cretaceous volcanic-plutonic province of central Queensland, which supplied vast amounts of volcanogenic material into the Great Artesian Basin. The weathering of feldspars from the

  12. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2351 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2351 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2601 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality and degrees of each element. 29... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Elements of Quality § 29.2601 Elements of quality and degrees of each element. Tobacco attributes or characteristics which constitute quality are...

  20. Drill core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-04-01

    Analytical results for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill core from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  1. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  2. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of a Rectangular Multi-Element Supersonic Jet Mixer-Ejector Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Taghavi, Ray

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a unique, detailed evaluation of the acoustics and aerodynamics of a rectangular multi-element supersonic jet mixer-ejector noise suppressor. The performance of such mixer-ejectors is important in aircraft engine application for noise suppression and thrust augmentation. In contrast to most prior experimental studies on ejectors that reported either aerodynamic or acoustic data, our work documents both types of data. We present information on the mixing, pumping, ejector wall pressure distribution, thrust augmentation and noise suppression characteristics of four simple, multi-element, jet mixer-ejector configurations. The four configurations included the effect of ejector area ratio (AR = ejector area/primary jet area) and the effect of non-parallel ejector walls. We also studied in detail the configuration that produced the best noise suppression characteristics. Our results show that ejector configurations that produced the maximum maximum pumping (entrained flow per secondary inlet area) also exhibited the lowest wall pressures in the inlet region, and the maximum thrust augmentation. When cases having the same total mass flow were compared, we found that noise suppression trends corresponded with those for pumping. Surprisingly, the mixing (quantified by the peak Mach number, and flow uniformity) at the ejector exit exhibited no relationship to the noise suppression at moderate primary jet fully expanded Mach numbers (Mj is less than 1.4). However, the noise suppression dependence on the mixing was apparent at higher Mj. The above observations are justified by noting that the mixing at the ejector exit is ot a strong factor in determining the radiated noise when noise produced internal to the ejector dominates the noise field outside the ejector.

  3. Incorporating general race and housing flexibility and deadband in rolling element bearing analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. R.; Vallance, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for including the effects of general race and housing compliance and outer race-to-housing deadband (clearance) in rolling element bearing mechanics analysis is presented. It is shown that these effects can cause significant changes in bearing stiffness characteristics, which are of major importance in rotordynamic response of turbomachinery and other rotating systems. Preloading analysis is demonstrated with the finite element/contact mechanics hybrid method applied to a 45 mm angular contact ball bearing.

  4. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and pre-planned for the Skylab Mission, was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs include the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The Skylab experience proves conclusively that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools.

  5. Minor Elements in Nakhlite Pyroxenes: Does Cr Record Changes in REDOX Conditions during Crystallization?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Schwandt, C.; Le, L.; Mikouchi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates. Based on petrographic characteristics, they may be divided into groups that cooled at different rates and may have been formed at different depths in a single flow. The order of cooling rate from slowest to fastest is NWA998major element composition surrounded by thin rims that are zoned to Fe-rich compositions. Detailed study of these pyroxenes is important because they retain a record of the crystallization history of the nakhlite magma. Moreover, because the composition of the nakhlite parent melt cannot be directly determined, inversion of the major and minor element composition of the cumulate pyroxene cores can be used to estimate the composition of that melt. Moreover, minor and trace element zoning of pyroxenes can provide information about the oxidation conditions under which these samples crystallized. Thus it is important to understand the major and minor element zoning in the cumulus pyroxenes. While major elements are nearly homogeneous, minor elements exhibit distinctive zoning patterns that vary from one nakhlite to another. This abstract reports unusual Cr zoning patterns in pyroxenes from MIL03346 (MIL) and contrast these with pyroxenes from Y593 and Nakhla.

  6. Application of major and trace elements as well as boron isotopes for tracing hydrochemical processes: the case of Trifilia coastal karst aquifer, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagopoulos, G.

    2009-09-01

    The Trifilia karst aquifer presents a complex hydrochemical character due to the intricate geochemical processes that take place in the area. Their discernment was achieved by using the chemical analyses of major, trace elements and boron isotopes. Major ion composition indicates mixing between seawater and freshwater is occurring. Five hydrochemical zones corresponding to five respective groundwater types were distinguished, in which the chemical composition of groundwater is influenced mainly due to the different salinization grade of the aquifer. The relatively increased temperature of the aquifer indicates the presence of hydrothermal waters. Boron isotopes and trace elements indicate that the intruding seawater has been hydrothermally altered, as it is shown by the δ11B depleted signature and the increased concentrations of Li and Sr. Trace elements analyses showed that the groundwater is enriched in various metallic elements, which derive from the solid hydrocarbons (bitumens), contained in the carbonate sediments of the Tripolis zone. The concentration of these trace elements depends on the redox environment. Thus, in reductive conditions As, Mn, Co and NH4 concentrations are high, in oxidized conditions the V, Se, Mo, Tl and U concentration increases while Ni is not redox sensitive and present high concentration in both environments.

  7. Selective uptake of major and trace elements in Erica andevalensis, an endemic species to extreme habitats in the Iberian Pyrite Belt.

    PubMed

    Monaci, Fabrizio; Leidi, Eduardo O; Dolores, Mingorance Maria; Valdés, Benito Oliva; Rossini, Sabina Sabina; Bargagli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    To assess the ecophysiological traits and the phytoremediation potential of the endemic heather Erica andevalensis, we determined the concentrations of major and trace elements in different plant parts and in rizosphere soils from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain). The results showed that E. andevalensis may grow on substrates with very high As, Cu, Fe and Pb concentrations (up to 4114, 1050, 71900 and 15614 microg/g dry weight, respectively), very low availability of macro- and micronutrients and with pH values ranging from 3.3 to 4.9. In these harsh edaphic conditions E. andevalensis selectively absorbed and translocated essential nutrients and excludes potentially phytotoxic elements, which were accumulated in the root epidermis. The concentrations of major and trace elements in E. andevalensis aerial parts from the Riotinto mining district were in the normal range for plants; likewise other Erica species it accumulated Mn and only in a very polluted site we measured leaf concentrations of As and Pb within the excessive or toxic limits for plants. Differently from previous studies, which emphasized the soil pH and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements as the main stress factors, this study showed that in the Riotinto region, E. andevalensis can tolerate wide range of pH and toxic element concentrations; the harshest environments colonized by monospecific patches of this species were characterized above all by very low availability of nutrients. The extraordinary capability to adapt to these extreme habitats made E. andevalensis a priority species to promote the phytostabilization and the development of a self-sustaining vegetative cover on Riotinto mine tailings.

  8. Reconstructing paleosalinity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California using major elements in peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Alpers, C. N.; Taylor, H. E.; Windham-Myers, L.; Neymark, L. A.; Paces, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Marshes in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, the most landward extent of the San Francisco Estuary, started forming around ~6,700 years ago. Currently, Delta marshes are classified as tidal freshwater, however it is unknown to what degree the salinity regime has varied between brackish and fresh conditions since marsh development. This information is important to managers considering major changes to the flow regime in the Delta, because such changes could impact the future sustainability of endangered species such as the Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), which live in or just upstream of the mixing zone between fresh and brackish water. The main goal of the Rates and Evolution of PEat Accretion through Time project (REPEAT II) is to reconstruct paleosalinity regimes in the Delta. We are using elemental concentrations of Na, Ca, K, and Mg (the major cations in ocean water) in peat profiles to develop a quantitative index of salinity for the past 6000+ years. We are normalizing the elemental concentrations to Ti (a proxy for inorganic sediment content because it is inversely correlated with loss on ignition, a measure of peat organic content) to correct for bias in elemental concentrations caused by variations in the inorganic sediment content of peat through time. Plots of Ti-normalized element concentration vs. peat depth (or age) indicate that Browns Island, a brackish marsh on the western edge of the Delta, has experienced significant variations in salinity through the millennia. Vertical peat profiles show a spatial trend of decreasing salinity from west (bay-side) to east (landward) (i.e., Browns Island > Sherman Island > Franks Wetland ≧ Bacon Channel Island). During the period from 2300 to 500 calibrated years before present, Na concentrations in peat at Browns Island indicate a particularly saline period, with peat containing up to 3 wt. % Na. In the last 100 years or so, salinity at Browns Island has apparently decreased and the Na content of peat

  9. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Rock Samples Collected in 2005 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Bundtzen, Tom K.; Hudson, Travis L.

    2006-01-01

    The data consist of major- and minor-element concentrations for rock samples collected during 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey. Samples were analyzed by fire assay (Au, Pd, Pt), cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (Hg), and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) 10 and 42 element methods. For details of sample preparation and analytical techniques see USGS Open File Report 02-0223 (Analytical methods for chemical analysis of geologic and other materials, U.S. Geological Survey), available at .

  10. Major, trace element and stable isotope geochemistry of synorogenic breccia bodies, Ellsworth Mountains, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, J.P.; McGillion, M.S.; Webers, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    Cambrian carbonates in the Heritage Range of the Ellsworth Mountains, West Antarctica host a series of carbonate-rich breccia bodies that formed contemporaneously with the Permian Gondwanide orogen. The breccia bodies had a three-stage genesis, with the older breccias containing Cambrian limestone (and marble) clasts supported by calcite, whereas the younger breccias are nearly clast-free and composed entirely of matrix calcite. Breccia clasts, calcite matrix and detrital matrix samples were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence (major and trace elements), x-ray diffraction, and stable isotopes (C, O) and suggest that the breccias formed as part of a closed geochemical system, at considerable depth, within the Cambrian limestone host as the Ellsworth Mountains deformed into a fold-and-thrust belt along the margin of Gondwana

  11. Patchy distribution of magma that fed the Bishop Tuff supereruption: Evidence from matrix glass major and trace-element compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Hurst, A. A.; Allen, M. C.; Bradshaw, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    For more than 40 years, the Bishop Tuff has been the archetypical example of a singular, zoned magma body that fed a supereruption. Early-erupted material is pyroxene-free and crystal poor (<20 wt. %), presumably erupted from the upper parts of the magma body; late-erupted material is orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene-bearing, commonly more crystal rich (up to 30 wt. % crystals), and presumably tapped magma from the lower portions of the magma body. Fe-Ti oxide compositions suggest higher crystallization temperatures for late-erupted magmas (as high as 820 °C) than for early-erupted magmas (as low as 700 °C). Pressures and temperatures derived from major element compositions of glass inclusions led Gualda & Ghiorso (2013, CMP) to suggest an alternative model of lateral juxtaposition of two main magma bodies - each one feeding early-erupted and late-erupted units. Chamberlain et al. (2015, JPet) and Evans et al. (2016, AmMin) recently disputed this interpretation. We present a large dataset of matrix glass compositions for 161 pumice clasts that span the stratigraphy of the deposit. We calculate crystallization pressures based on major-element glass compositions using rhyolite-MELTS geobarometry, and crystallization temperatures based on Zr in glass using zircon saturation geothermometry. We apply the same methods to 1538 major-element and 615 trace-element analyses from Chamberlain et al. The results overwhelmingly demonstrate that there is no difference in crystallization temperature or pressure between early and late-erupted magmas. Crystallization pressures and temperatures are unimodal, with modes of 150 MPa and 730 °C (calibration of Watson & Harrison). Our results strongly support lateral juxtaposition of two main magma bodies. Smaller units recognized by Chamberlain et al. crystallized at the same pressures as the main bodies - this suggests the coexistence of larger and smaller magma bodies at the time of the Bishop Tuff supereruption. We compare our

  12. H-2RIIBP, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that binds to both the regulatory element of major histocompatibility class I genes and the estrogen response element.

    PubMed

    Hamada, K; Gleason, S L; Levi, B Z; Hirschfeld, S; Appella, E; Ozato, K

    1989-11-01

    Transcription of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is regulated by the conserved MHC class I regulatory element (CRE). The CRE has two factor-binding sites, region I and region II, both of which elicit enhancer function. By screening a mouse lambda gt 11 library with the CRE as a probe, we isolated a cDNA clone that encodes a protein capable of binding to region II of the CRE. This protein, H-2RIIBP (H-2 region II binding protein), bound to the native region II sequence, but not to other MHC cis-acting sequences or to mutant region II sequences, similar to the naturally occurring region II factor in mouse cells. The deduced amino acid sequence of H-2RIIBP revealed two putative zinc fingers homologous to the DNA-binding domain of steroid/thyroid hormone receptors. Although sequence similarity in other regions was minimal, H-2RIIBP has apparent modular domains characteristic of the nuclear hormone receptors. Further analyses showed that both H-2RIIBP and the natural region II factor bind to the estrogen response element (ERE) of the vitellogenin A2 gene. The ERE is composed of a palindrome, and half of this palindrome resembles the region II binding site of the MHC CRE. These results indicate that H-2RIIBP (i) is a member of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and (ii) may regulate not only MHC class I genes but also genes containing the ERE and related sequences. Sequences homologous to the H-2RIIBP gene are widely conserved in the animal kingdom. H-2RIIBP mRNA is expressed in many mouse tissues, in agreement with the distribution of the natural region II factor.

  13. A variational numerical method based on finite elements for the nonlinear solution characteristics of the periodically forced Chen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Sabeel M.; Sunny, D. A.; Aqeel, M.

    2017-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems and their solutions are very sensitive to initial conditions and therefore need to be approximated carefully. In this article, we present and analyze nonlinear solution characteristics of the periodically forced Chen system with the application of a variational method based on the concept of finite time-elements. Our approach is based on the discretization of physical time space into finite elements where each time-element is mapped to a natural time space. The solution of the system is then determined in natural time space using a set of suitable basis functions. The numerical algorithm is presented and implemented to compute and analyze nonlinear behavior at different time-step sizes. The obtained results show an excellent agreement with the classical RK-4 and RK-5 methods. The accuracy and convergence of the method is shown by comparing numerically computed results with the exact solution for a test problem. The presented method has shown a great potential in dealing with the solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems and thus can be utilized in delineating different features and characteristics of their solutions.

  14. The influence of seafloor hydrothermal activity on major and trace elements of the sediments from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua

    2017-10-01

    Sediment samples obtained from the South Mid-Atlantic Ridge were analyzed for the major and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the contents of elements (e.g., Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, V, Co) were high in samples 22V-TVG10 and 26V-TVG05 from the sites near the hydrothermal areas, and low in sample 22V-TVG14, which was collected far from the hydrothermal areas. The contents of Ca, Sr and Ba in the samples showed opposite trends. A positive correlation between the concentrations of metallic elements (Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb, V) and Fe in the samples were observed. These results are consistent with chemical evolution of the dispersing hydrothermal plume.

  15. Major and trace elements in Mahogany zone oil shale in two cores from the Green River Formation, piceance basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.; Dean, W.E.; Parduhn, N.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Parachute Creek Member of the lacustrine Green River Formation contains thick sequences of rich oil-shale. The richest sequence and the richest oil-shale bed occurring in the member are called the Mahogany zone and the Mahogany bed, respectively, and were deposited in ancient Lake Uinta. The name "Mahogany" is derived from the red-brown color imparted to the rock by its rich-kerogen content. Geochemical abundance and distribution of eight major and 18 trace elements were determined in the Mahogany zone sampled from two cores, U. S. Geological Survey core hole CR-2 and U. S. Bureau of Mines core hole O1-A (Figure 1). The oil shale from core hole CR-2 was deposited nearer the margin of Lake Uinta than oil shale from core hole O1-A. The major- and trace-element chemistry of the Mahogany zone from each of these two cores is compared using elemental abundances and Q-mode factor modeling. The results of chemical analyses of 44 CR-2 Mahogany samples and 76 O1-A Mahogany samples are summarized in Figure 2. The average geochemical abundances for shale (1) and black shale (2) are also plotted on Figure 2 for comparison. The elemental abundances in the samples from the two cores are similar for the majority of elements. Differences at the 95% probability level are higher concentrations of Ca, Cu, La, Ni, Sc and Zr in the samples from core hole CR-2 compared to samples from core hole O1-A and higher concentrations of As and Sr in samples from core hole O1-A compared to samples from core hole CR-2. These differences presumably reflect slight differences in depositional conditions or source material at the two sites. The Mahogany oil shale from the two cores has lower concentrations of most trace metals and higher concentrations of carbonate-related elements (Ca, Mg, Sr and Na) compared to the average shale and black shale. During deposition of the Mahogany oil shale, large quantities of carbonates were precipitated resulting in the enrichment of carbonate-related elements

  16. Major and trace element, and Sr isotope compositions of clinopyroxene phenocrysts in mafic dykes on Jiaodong Peninsula, southeastern North China Craton: Insights into magma mixing and source metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yayun; Deng, Jun; Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Qin, Cheng; Li, Yan; Yang, Yi; Zhou, Mian; Jiang, Jieyan

    2018-03-01

    Early Cretaceous mafic dyke swarms are widely developed on Jiaodong Peninsula in the southeastern part of the North China Craton (NCC), but their petrogenesis remains enigmatic. We have examined the in-situ major element, trace element and Sr isotope compositions of the clinopyroxene phenocrysts in these dykes in order to evaluate the extent of magma mixing and source metasomatism. Depending on the type of mineral zoning, the clinopyroxene phenocrysts in our samples can be classified into two groups: Group I (reverse zoning) and Group II (no zoning). Based on core compositions, the Group I phenocrysts with obvious reverse zoning can be divided into two subgroups: Groups IA and IB. The cores of Group IA clinopyroxenes have low values of Mg#, low Al2O3 contents, high Na2O contents, and high 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and they were probably derived from newly accreted lower crust that formed through the underplating of basaltic magma. In contrast, the cores of Group IB clinopyroxenes have lower Mg# values and lower contents of Al2O3, ΣREE (total rare earth elements), and incompatible elements, but they have similar 87Sr/86Sr ratios; these cores crystallised from crust-derived andesitic-dacitic magma. Group IA and IB clinopyroxene phenocryst rims (Group I rims) all have similar compositions with higher values of Mg# and higher Al2O3, Cr and Ni contents than the cores. The rims have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios, are enriched in LREEs (light rare earth elements) and LILEs (large ion lithophile elements), and are depleted in HFSEs (high field strength elements); these characteristics indicate that all the high-Mg rims were derived from a similar magma, possibly a relatively primitive magma derived from lithospheric mantle. We suggest, therefore, that the reversely-zoned clinopyroxene phenocrysts (Group I) in the Jiaodong mafic dykes provide evidence of magma mixing between a magma derived from lithospheric mantle and crust-derived andesitic-dacitic melt alongside with the newly accreted

  17. Trace Element Characteristics of the New Shergottite LEW88516

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhwa, M.; Crozaz, G.

    1992-07-01

    LEW88516, a meteorite collected in Antarctica, has recently been identified as a shergottite (Mason and Satterwhite, 1991). The shergottites belong to a group of unique achondritic meteorites, the SNCs, for which Mars has been suggested as the parent body. From preliminary petrologic and geochemical studies, it appears that LEW88516 is closely related to the shergottite ALHA77005. Like ALHA77005, LEW88516 is composed of two distinct lithologies; one consists of large (mm-sized) pyroxenes poikilitically enclosing olivine crystals, and the other is represented by interstitial areas that contain small pyroxenes, olivine, maskelynite, whitlockite, and opaques (Lindstrom et al., 1992). Besides mineralogy and texture, whole rock chemical characteristics of these two shergottites also appear to be strikingly similar (Lindstrom et al., 1992; Boynton et al., 1992). We measured REE and other selected trace elements in individual mineral phases present in LEW88516, and compared the results with similar data obtained for ALHA77005 by Lundberg et al. (1990). Analyses were made on a thin section of LEW88516 with an ion microprobe; trace elements concentrations were measured in poikilitic and interstitial pyroxenes (augites and pigeonites), maskelynite, whitlockite, and glass. The total REE inventory of LEW88516 is dominated by whitlockite, although this mineral, as in ALHA77005, is present in only small modal abundance. Maskelynite in LEW88516 is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly that is approximately twice as large as that present in the maskelynite in ALHA77005, although the rest of the REE are present in lower abundances. The homogeneous, crystallite-free glass in LEW88516 is slightly enriched relative to LEW88516 bulk rock REE abundances, and has a REE pattern that is parallel to the ALHA77005 whole rock REE pattern. Pyroxenes in LEW88516 are zoned in their trace element concentrations, as are the pyroxenes in ALHA77005. Elemental abundances (e.g., REE, Y, Ti, Zr, Cr, V

  18. Comparison of major and trace element concentrations in 16 varieties of Cuban mango stem bark (Mangifera indica L.).

    PubMed

    Sellés, Alberto J Núñez; Rodríguez, Maria D Durruthy; Balseiro, Eduardo Rodríguez; Gonzalez, Luis Nieto; Nicolais, Valeria; Rastrelli, Luca

    2007-03-21

    An aqueous decoction of mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark (MSB) has been developed in Cuba on an industrial scale to be used as a nutritional supplement, cosmetic, and phytomedicine, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. The concentration of major and trace elements was determined for 16 varieties of MSB belonging to two cultivars and grown in Cuba in the same soil (red ferralytic). Plants were classified into two groups, according to the tree age (12 and 26 year olds) and were analyzed for As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Pb, Se, and Zn content by means of ICP-AES technique. Experimental data were processed by ANOVA and principal component analysis in terms of elements, variety, and plant age, to choose the most adequate varieties for industrial purposes.

  19. Major to ultra trace element bulk rock analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Daniel; Pettke, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    An efficient, clean procedure for bulk rock major to trace element analysis by 193 nm Excimer LA-ICP-MS analysis of nanoparticulate pressed powder pellets (PPPs) employing a binder is presented. Sample powders are milled in water suspension in a planetary ball mill, reducing average grain size by about one order of magnitude compared to common dry milling protocols. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is employed as a binder, improving the mechanical strength of the PPP and the ablation behaviour, because MCC absorbs 193 nm laser light well. Use of MCC binder allows for producing cohesive pellets of materials that cannot be pelletized in their pure forms, such as quartz powder. Rigorous blank quantification was performed on synthetic quartz treated like rock samples, demonstrating that procedural blanks are irrelevant except for a few elements at the 10 ng g-1 concentration level. The LA-ICP-MS PPP analytical procedure was optimised and evaluated using six different SRM powders (JP-1, UB-N, BCR-2, GSP-2, OKUM, and MUH-1). Calibration based on external standardization using SRM 610, SRM 612, BCR-2G, and GSD-1G glasses allows for evaluation of possible matrix effects during LA-ICP-MS analysis. The data accuracy of the PPP LA-ICP-MS analytical procedure compares well to that achieved for liquid ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS glass analysis, except for element concentrations below ˜30 ng g-1, where liquid ICP-MS offers more precise data and in part lower limits of detection. Uncertainties on the external reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS PPP element concentrations are of the order of 0.5 to 2 % (1σ standard deviation) for concentrations exceeding ˜1 μg g-1. For lower element concentrations these uncertainties increase to 5-10% or higher when analyte-depending limits of detection (LOD) are approached, and LODs do not significantly differ from glass analysis. Sample homogeneity is demonstrated by the high analytical precision, except for very few elements where grain size effects can

  20. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky, USA: I. Weathering zones defined by mineralogy and major-element composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of chemical and mineralogical changes induced by weathering is valuable information when considering the supply of nutrients and toxic elements from rocks. Here minerals that release and fix major elements during progressive weathering of a bed of Devonian New Albany Shale in eastern Kentucky are documented. Samples were collected from unweathered core (parent shale) and across an outcrop excavated into a hillside 40 year prior to sampling. Quantitative X-ray diffraction mineralogical data record progressive shale alteration across the outcrop. Mineral compositional changes reflect subtle alteration processes such as incongruent dissolution and cation exchange. Altered primary minerals include K-feldspars, plagioclase, calcite, pyrite, and chlorite. Secondary minerals include jarosite, gypsum, goethite, amorphous Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)-Al sulfate salt (efflorescence). The mineralogy in weathered shale defines four weathered intervals on the outcrop-Zones A-C and soil. Alteration of the weakly weathered shale (Zone A) is attributed to the 40-a exposure of the shale. In this zone, pyrite oxidization produces acid that dissolves calcite and attacks chlorite, forming gypsum, jarosite, and minor efflorescent salt. The pre-excavation, active weathering front (Zone B) is where complete pyrite oxidation and alteration of feldspar and organic matter result in increased permeability. Acidic weathering solutions seep through the permeable shale and evaporate on the surface forming abundant efflorescent salt, jarosite and minor goethite. Intensely weathered shale (Zone C) is depleted in feldspars, chlorite, gypsum, jarosite and efflorescent salts, but has retained much of its primary quartz, illite and illite-smectite. Goethite and amorphous FE(III) oxides increase due to hydrolysis of jarosite. Enhanced permeability in this zone is due to a 14% loss of the original mass in parent shale. Denudation rates suggest that characteristics of Zone C

  1. Baseline models of trace elements in major aquifers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, L.; Helsel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations in baseline samples from a survey of aquifers used as potable-water supplies in the United States are summarized using methods appropriate for data with multiple detection limits. The resulting statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards. The models are based on data from the major aquifer studies of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. These data were produced with a nationally-consistent sampling and analytical framework specifically designed to determine the quality of the most important potable groundwater resources during the years 1991-2001. The analytical data for all elements surveyed contain values that were below several detection limits. Such datasets are referred to as multiply-censored data. To address this issue, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) is employed. Utilizing the 90th-95th percentile as an arbitrary range for the upper limits of expected baseline concentrations, the models show that baseline concentrations of dissolved Ba and Zn are below 500 ??g/L. For the same percentile range, dissolved As, Cu and Mo concentrations are below 10 ??g/L, and dissolved Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se are below 1-5 ??g/L. These models are also used to determine the probabilities that potable ground waters exceed drinking water standards. For dissolved Ba, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Mo and Se, the likelihood of exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency standards at the well-head is less than 1-1.5%. A notable exception is As, which has approximately a 7% chance of exceeding the maximum contaminant level (10 ??g/L) at the well head.

  2. Chapter 13 Petrogenesis of the Campanian Ignimbrite: implications for crystal-melt separation and open-system processes from major and trace elements and Th isotopic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohrson, W.A.; Spera, F.J.; Fowler, S.J.; Belkin, H.E.; de Vivo, B.; Rolandi, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite is a large-volume trachytic to phonolitic ignimbrite that was deposited at ???39.3 ka and represents one of a number of highly explosive volcanic events that have occurred in the region near Naples, Italy. Thermodynamic modeling using the MELTS algorithm reveals that major element variations are dominated by crystal-liquid separation at 0.15 GPa. Initial dissolved H2O content in the parental melt is ???3 wt.% and the magmatic system fugacity of oxygen was buffered along QFM+1. Significantly, MELTS results also indicate that the liquid line of descent is marked by a large change in the proportion of melt (from 0.46 to 0.09) at ???884??C, which leads to a discontinuity in melt composition (i.e., a compositional gap) and different thermodynamic and transport properties of melt and magma across the gap. Crystallization of alkali feldspar and plagioclase dominates the phase assemblage at this pseudo-invariant point temperature of ???884??C. Evaluation of the variations in the trace elements Zr, Nb, Th, U, Rb, Sm, and Sr using a mass balance equation that accounts for changing bulk mineral-melt partition coefficients as crystallization occurs indicates that crystal-liquid separation and open-system processes were important. Th isotope data yield an apparent isochron that is ???20 kyr younger than the age of the deposit, and age-corrected Th isotope data indicate that the magma body was an open system at the time of eruption. Because open-system behavior can profoundly change isotopic and elemental characteristics of a magma body, these Th results illustrate that it is critical to understand the contribution that open-system processes make to magmatic systems prior to assigning relevance to age or timescale information derived from such systems. Fluid-magma interaction has been proposed as a mechanism to change isotopic and elemental characteristics of magma bodies, but an evaluation of the mass and thermal constraints on such a process suggests

  3. Modeling focusing characteristics of low Fnumber diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Shan, Mingguang; Tan, Jiubin

    2007-12-10

    A theoretical model is established using Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory to describe the diffraction focusing characteristics of low F-number diffractive optical elements with continuous relief fabricated by laser direct writing, and continuous-relief diffractive optical elements with a design wavelength of 441.6nm and a F-number of F/4 are fabricated and measured to verify the validity of the diffraction focusing model. The measurements made indicate that the spot size is 1.75mum and the diffraction efficiency is 70.7% at the design wavelength, which coincide well with the theoretical results: a spot size of 1.66mum and a diffraction efficiency of 71.2%.

  4. Species classification and bioactive ingredients accumulation of BaiJiangCao based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Lan, Li; Xue, Zhang; Xin-Xin, Yang; Shuai, Wang; Lin, Zhao; Huan-Jun, Zhao; Yong-Rui, Bao; Chen-Feng, Ji; Ning, Chen; Zheng, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patrinia scabiosaefolia Fisch and Patrinia villosa (Thunb.) Juss., two species herbs with the same Chinese name “BaiJiangCao”, are important ancient herbal medicines widely used for more than 2000 years. The clinical application of two species herb is confused due to the difficult identification. Objective: The objective was to authenticate the species of BaiJiangCao and analyze the accumulation of bioactive ingredients based on characteristic inorganic elements analysis. Materials and Methods: Content of 32 inorganic elements in BaiJiangCao from different habitats were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the characteristic inorganic elements were picked to distinguish the species of the herb by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Contents of two bioactive ingredients, luteoloside, and oleanolic acid, in the samples, were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Relationship between accumulation of bioactive ingredients and content of macroelements in BaiJiangCao was established by statistics. Results: A 4 macroelements (Na, Mg, K, Fe) in 32 determined inorganic elements were picked for characteristic inorganic elements. Content of Na, Mg, K and Fe showed positive correlations with that of luteoloside, content of Na, Mg showed positive correlations with that of oleanolic acid, but content of K and Fe showed negative correlations with that of oleanolic acid. Conclusion: It is for the first time to utilize the characteristic inorganic elements as an index to classify the herb species by the method of ICP-MS and multivariate analysis. And it is also the first report to investigate the influence of inorganic elements in herb on the accumulation of bioactive components which could affect the pharmacological efficacy of the herb medicine. And this method could also be utilized in research of corresponding aspects. PMID:26600721

  5. Rolling-Element Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Anderson, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    Rolling element bearings are a precision, yet simple, machine element of great utility. A brief history of rolling element bearings is reviewed and the type of rolling element bearings, their geometry and kinematics, as well as the materials they are made from and the manufacturing processes they involve are described. Unloaded and unlubricated rolling element bearings, loaded but unlubricated rolling element bearings and loaded and lubricated rolling element bearings are considered. The recognition and understanding of elastohydrodynamic lubrication covered, represents one of the major development in rolling element bearings.

  6. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0-90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit.

  7. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0–90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit. PMID:28579990

  8. Repair of major system elements on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    In-flight maintenance, as conceived and preplanned for the Skylab mission was limited to simple scheduled and unscheduled replacement tasks and minor contingency repairs. Tools and spares were provided accordingly. However, failures during the mission dictated complicated and sophisticated repairs to major systems so that the mission could continue. These repairs included the release of a large structure that failed to deploy, the assembly and deployment of large mechanical devices, the installation and checkout of precision electronic equipment, troubleshooting and repair of precision electromechanical equipment, and tapping into and recharging a cooling system. The repairs were conducted both inside the spacecraft and during extravehicular activities. Some of the repair tasks required team effort on the part of the crewmen including close procedural coordination between internal and extravehicular crewmen. The Skylab experience indicates that crewmen can, with adequate training, make major system repairs in space using standard or special tools. Design of future spacecraft systems should acknowledge this capability and provide for more extensive in-flight repair and maintenance.

  9. Migration laws of major elements of Laowashan bauxite in Zunyi area, northern Guizhou province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tao

    2018-01-01

    After exploring migration laws of major elements in Laowashan bauxite of northern Guizhou Province by geochemical methods, it was found that: 1) Si was negatively correlated to Al and Ti; Al showed significant negative correlations with Si and Fe; Al was positively correlated to Ti. 2) The content of Si and Fe was low in the middle part, high at the top and the highest at the bottom. The content of Al and Ti is the highest in the middle, followed by the content at the top and the bottom successively. 3) Karst depressions are favorable for groundwater discharge through leaching, leading to heavy loss of Fe in ZK-CS1.

  10. Agarase: Review of Major Sources, Categories, Purification Method, Enzyme Characteristics and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiao Ting; Kim, Sang Moo

    2010-01-01

    Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into α-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.158) and β-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.81) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as a tool enzyme for biological, physiological, and cytological studies. The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future. PMID:20161978

  11. Drill cutting and core major, trace and rare earth element anlayses from wells RN-17B and RN-30, Reykjanes, Iceland

    DOE Data Explorer

    Andrew Fowler

    2015-05-01

    Analytical results for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Couple Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurement of major, trace and rare earth elements in drill cuttings from geothermal wells in Reykjanes, Iceland. Total Fe was analyzed as FeO, therefore is not included under the Fe2O3 column.

  12. Major and trace elements in Boletus aereus and Clitopilus prunulus growing on volcanic and sedimentary soils of Sicily (Italy).

    PubMed

    Alaimo, M G; Dongarrà, G; La Rosa, A; Tamburo, E; Vasquez, G; Varrica, D

    2018-08-15

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the content of 28 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn) in fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus Bull. and Clitopilus prunulus P. Kumm collected from eleven unpolluted sites of Sicily (Italy) and, also to relate the abundance of chemical elements in soil with their concentration in mushrooms. Median concentrations of the most abundant elements in Boletus aereus ranged from 31,290 μg/g (K) to 107 μg/g (Zn) in caps and from 24,009 μg/g (K) to 57 μg/g (Zn) in stalks with the following abundance order: K > Na > Ca > Mg > Fe > Al > Rb > Zn. The same elements, in the whole fruiting body of Clitopilus prunulus samples, varied in the range 54,073-92 μg/g following the abundance order: K > Na > Mg > Ca > Fe > Al > Rb > Zn. Metal contents in Boletus aereus and in the whole fruiting body of Clitopilus prunulus, collected from the same sampling sites, showed statistically significant differences for most elements. In particular, Clitopilus prunulus contained around two to four times more Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mo, Pb, U and V than caps and stalks of Boletus aereus species which, in turn, was from two to four times more enriched in Cu, Se and Tl. Thus, the elemental content of Boletus aereus and Clitopilus prunulus appeared to be species-dependent. The distribution of chemical elements in Boletus aereus was not uniform throughout the whole fruiting body as most elements were significantly bioconcentrated in caps. Furthermore, the fruit bodies of Boletus aereus from the volcanic soil differed both in major and minor elements concentrations from those collected from sedimentary soils. Cadmium and lead concentrations were below the threshold limits for wild mushrooms proposed by EU Directives (2008 and 2015). The elemental content was not significantly influenced by soil pH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A finite element formulation preserving symmetric and banded diffusion stiffness matrix characteristics for fractional differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zeng; Wang, Dongdong

    2017-10-01

    Due to the nonlocal property of the fractional derivative, the finite element analysis of fractional diffusion equation often leads to a dense and non-symmetric stiffness matrix, in contrast to the conventional finite element formulation with a particularly desirable symmetric and banded stiffness matrix structure for the typical diffusion equation. This work first proposes a finite element formulation that preserves the symmetry and banded stiffness matrix characteristics for the fractional diffusion equation. The key point of the proposed formulation is the symmetric weak form construction through introducing a fractional weight function. It turns out that the stiffness part of the present formulation is identical to its counterpart of the finite element method for the conventional diffusion equation and thus the stiffness matrix formulation becomes trivial. Meanwhile, the fractional derivative effect in the discrete formulation is completely transferred to the force vector, which is obviously much easier and efficient to compute than the dense fractional derivative stiffness matrix. Subsequently, it is further shown that for the general fractional advection-diffusion-reaction equation, the symmetric and banded structure can also be maintained for the diffusion stiffness matrix, although the total stiffness matrix is not symmetric in this case. More importantly, it is demonstrated that under certain conditions this symmetric diffusion stiffness matrix formulation is capable of producing very favorable numerical solutions in comparison with the conventional non-symmetric diffusion stiffness matrix finite element formulation. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a series of numerical examples.

  14. Analysis of the Impact of Major Dust Events on the Aerosols Characteristics over Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Hariri, Mustafa M.

    2015-04-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust storms blow up and significantly affect human activities, airports and citizens' health. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics are influenced by major dust storms outbreaks. In this, paper, ground based AERONET measurements are integrated with space-borne sensors, namely MODIS and CALIPSO to analyze aerosols' characteristics during March - May of 2009 where a massive dust storm blew up and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric dust load over Saudi Arabia and the same period during 2010, where less dust activities were reported. The MODIS Deep Blue AOD analysis showed similar aerosols pattern over the land, however a substantial variance in aerosol loading during March - May 2009 compared with the same period in 2010 was observed. The angstrom exponent analysis showed that the majority of aerosol measurements in 2009 and 2010 are dominated by coarse-mode particles with angstrom exponent < 0.5. Detailed analysis of aerosol optical properties shows significant influence of coarse mode particles in the enhanced aerosol loading in 2009. The volume depolarization rations (VDR) derived from CALIPSO backscattering measurements is used to find latitudinal profile of mean aerosol optical depth to indicate the type of particles and to discriminate spherical aerosols with non-spherical particles. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-32-76). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. The academic and nonacademic characteristics of science and nonscience majors in Yemeni high schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anaam, Mahyoub Ali

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to identify the variables associated with selection of majors; (b) to determine the differences between science and nonscience majors in general, and high and low achievers in particular, with respect to attitudes toward science, integrated science process skills, and logical thinking abilities; and (c) to determine if a significant relationship exists between students' majors and their personality types and learning styles. Data were gathered from 188 twelfth grade male and female high school students in Yemen, who enrolled in science (45 males and 47 females) and art and literature (47 males and 49 females) tracks. Data were collected by the following instruments: Past math and science achievement (data source taken from school records), Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (1985), Integrated Science Process Skills Test, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Attitude Toward Science in School Assessment, Group Assessment of Logical Thinking, Yemeni High School Students Questionnaire. The Logistic Regression Model and the Linear Discriminant Analysis identified several variables that are associated with selection of majors. Moreover, some of the characteristics of science and nonscience majors that were revealed by these models include the following: Science majors seem to have higher degrees of curiosity in science, high interest in science at high school level, high tendency to believe that their majors will help them to find a potential job in the future, and have had higher achievement in science subjects, and have rated their math teachers higher than did nonscience majors. In contrast, nonscience majors seem to have higher degrees of curiosity in nonscience subjects, higher interest in science at elementary school, higher anxiety during science lessons than did science majors. In addition, General Linear Models allow that science majors generally demonstrate more positive attitudes towards science than do nonscience majors and they

  16. A Synthesis of Experimental Data Describing the Partitioning of Moderately Volatile Elements in Major Rock Forming Minerals: Implications for the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; Draper, David S.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Highly volatile elements [condensation temperatures below about 700 K] and water are highly informative about lunar bulk composition (hence origin), differentiation and magmatic evolution, and the role of impacts in delivering volatiles to the Moon. Fractionation of volatile elements compared to moderately volatile and refractory elements are informative about high-temperature conditions that operated in the proto-lunar disk. Existing data show clearly that the Moon is depleted in volatile elements compared to the bulk silicate Earth. For example, K/Th is 400-700 in the Moon compared to 2800-3000 in Earth. A complicating factor is that the abundances of the highly volatile elements in major lunar lithologies vary by approximately two orders of magnitude. Perhaps most interesting, H2O is not correlated with the concentration of volatile elements, indicating a decoupling of highly volatile elements from the even more volatile H2O. We contend that this decoupling could be a significant tracer of processes operating during lunar formation, differentiation, and bombardment, and the combination of analyzing both volatile elements and water is likely to provide significant insight into lunar geochemical history. This variation and lack of correlation raises the question: what were the relative contributions of crystallization in the magma ocean, subsequent mantle overturn, production of secondary magmas, and addition of volatiles by large impacts in producing this apparently large range in volatile abundances? This current study will produce new partitioning data relevant to the role and distribution of the volatile and non-volatile, yet geochemically significant elements (Co, Ni, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Ce, Yb, Tl, Pb, Bi) during the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon.

  17. Phase characteristics of rare earth elements in metallic fuel for a sodium-cooled fast reactor by injection casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuk, Seoung Woo; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jong Hwan; Song, Hoon; Oh, Seok Jin; Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Chan Bock; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yun

    2017-04-01

    Uranium-zirconium-rare earth (U-Zr-RE) fuel slugs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor were manufactured using a modified injection casting method, and investigated with respect to their uniformity, distribution, composition, and phase behavior according to RE content. Nd, Ce, Pr, and La were chosen as four representative lanthanide elements because they are considered to be major RE components of fuel ingots after pyroprocessing. Immiscible layers were found on the top layers of the melt-residue commensurate with higher fuel slug RE content. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) data showed that RE elements in the melt-residue were distributed uniformly throughout the fuel slugs. RE element agglomeration did not contaminate the fuel slugs but strongly affected the RE content of the slugs.

  18. MRI-based finite element modeling of facial mimics: a case study on the paired zygomaticus major muscles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ang-Xiao; Dakpé, Stéphanie; Dao, Tien Tuan; Pouletaut, Philippe; Rachik, Mohamed; Ho Ba Tho, Marie Christine

    2017-07-01

    Finite element simulation of facial mimics provides objective indicators about soft tissue functions for improving diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of facial disorders. There is a lack of in vivo experimental data for model development and validation. In this study, the contribution of the paired Zygomaticus Major (ZM) muscle contraction on the facial mimics was investigated using in vivo experimental data derived from MRI. Maximal relative differences of 7.7% and 37% were noted between MRI-based measurements and numerical outcomes for ZM and skin deformation behaviors respectively. This study opens a new direction to simulate facial mimics with in vivo data.

  19. Major, Trace Element Concentration and Triple-Oxygen Isotope Compositions of G- and I-Type Spherules from the Sør Rondane Mountains, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soens, B.; Goderis, S.; Greenwood, R. C.; McKibbin, S.; Van Ginneken, M.; Vanhaecke, F.; Debaille, V.; Franchi, I. A.; Claeys, Ph.

    2017-07-01

    We present new major, trace element concentration (LA-ICP-MS) and triple-oxygen isotope (LF-IRMS) data for G- and I-type cosmic spherules. This study suggests that both types of micrometeorites may originate from ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  20. Mantle End-Members: The Trace Element Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willbold, M.; Stracke, A.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of their isotopic composition, ocean island basalts (OIB) have been classified into three to four end-members; HIMU with the most radiogenic Pb isotope ratios of OIB and Enriched Mantle 1 and 2 (EM1, EM2) with less radiogenic but variable Pb isotope and highly radiogenic Sr isotope signatures. It has also been argued that each of these isotopic families has common trace element characteristics that distinguish them from one another and so substantiated this classification. Here, we present new high-precision trace element data for samples from St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Gough in the Atlantic Ocean. The overall data-set is augmented by OIB data from the GEOROC database and includes data from all major isotopic families (HIMU: St. Helena, Mangaia, Tubuai, and Rururtu; EM1: Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Pitcairn; and EM2: Samoa, Marquesas, and Society). For each locality we use only islands defining the most extreme isotopic compositions. The entire data-set has been screened to exclude altered and highly differentiated samples. HIMU basalts have a very uniform trace element composition. Compared to HIMU-type basalts, EM-type basalts are enriched in Rb, Ba, and K, and depleted in U, Nb, and Ta, relative to La. Different EM-type OIBs from the same isotopic family (EM1 or EM2), have distinct trace element characteristics that can ultimately only be caused by different source compositions. For example, Ba/Th ratios in samples from both Tristan da Cunha (EM1) and Samoa (EM2) are similarly high (ca. 110) whereas Ba/Th ratios in samples from Pitcairn (EM1) and Society (EM2) samples are consistently lower (ca. 70). Thus on the basis of their trace element composition, EM-type OIB cannot be classified into EM1 and EM2 type basalts, nor can any other grouping be identified. The remarkably uniform isotopic and trace element composition of HIMU-type basalts suggests derivation from a single common source reservoir, most likely subduction-modified oceanic crust

  1. Nutritional assessment of processing effects on major and trace element content in sea buckthorn juice (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides).

    PubMed

    Gutzeit, D; Winterhalter, P; Jerz, G

    2008-08-01

    Processing effects on the mineral content were investigated during juice production from sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L. ssp. rhamnoides, Elaeagnaceae) using berries from 2 different growing areas. The major and trace elements of sea buckthorn berries and juices were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS)--(calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)--(arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, zinc). Potassium is the most abundant major element in sea buckthorn berries and juices. The production process increased the potassium content in the juice by about 20%. Moreover, the processing of juice increased the value of manganese up to 32% compared to the content in berries. During industrial juice production, the technological steps caused a loss of about 53% to 77% of the chromium concentration, 50% of the copper content, 64% to 75% of the molybdenum amount, and up to 45% of the iron concentration in the final juice product. Consumption of sea buckthorn juice represents a beneficial source of chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, iron, and potassium for the achievement of the respective dietary requirements.

  2. Major and Trace Element Geochemistry and Os Isotopic Compositions of Komatiites From Dundonald Beach, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Walker, R. J.; Sproule, R. A.; Lesher, C.

    2003-12-01

    We have examined the major and trace elements, and Os isotopic compositions of a suite of cumulate and spinifex textured komatiitic rocks from the Dundonald Beach area, part of the ˜2.7 Ga Abitibi greenstone Belt, Ontario, Canada. This suite of rocks forms a series from peridotitic komatiites (MgO ˜ 42 wt.% on a volatile-free basis) to komatiitic basalts (MgO ˜8 wt.%). Based on major element oxide ratios (e.g. Al2O3/TiO2 ˜21-26 and CaO/Al2O3 typically <= 1) and unfractionated HREE characteristics (e.g. (Gd/Yb)N ˜0.9-1.1), these rocks are similar to the spatially associated Al-undepleted komatiites from Alexo and Munro Townships. Also, these rocks are strongly LREE-depleted ((La/Sm)N = 0.41-0.67; (Ce/Yb)N = 0.41-0.70)) and have variable total REE (4-22 ppm). A strong negative correlation between Mg# and total REEs suggests that the REE patterns of these rocks are primary features of their mantle source. The Re-Os isotope results for whole-rock komatiites and chromite separates from a single flow yield a model 3 isochron age of 2606 +/- 55 Ma. This age is slightly younger ( ˜50 Ma) compared to the U-Pb zircon ages of the associated volcanics reported from the presumed extension of the same Kidd-Munro assemblage in Alexo and Munro Townships. The initial 187Os/188Os ratio (0.1090 +/- 0.0019) obtained from the regression is essentially chondritic (γ Os(T) = -0.2 +/- 1.7). The peridotitic komatiites have the highest Os concentrations and low 187Re/188Os ratios (up to ˜4.2 ppb and < 0.5, respectively) among the whole rocks, whereas the komatiitic basalts have relatively low Os concentrations ( ˜0.3 ppb) and high 187Re/188Os ratios ( ˜3.1-11.9). For these komatiites, Os was compatible with the mantle residue (DOsmantle-melt ˜7.6), whereas Re was moderately incompatible (DRe ˜0.6), typical of most komatiitic magmas. The absence of a strong correlation between Os and Ni concentrations in the whole-rocks suggests that the distribution of Os in these rocks is not

  3. The role of the hospital and health care system characteristics in readmissions after major surgery in California.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joy C; Shaw, Jeremy D; Ma, Yifei; Rhoads, Kim F

    2016-02-01

    Hospital readmission after major surgery is a costly problem that has been associated with patient characteristics. Because hospitals are incentivized to join accountable care organizations, interventions on a hospital or health care system level may help reduce readmissions. Our objective was to identify hospital- and systems-level characteristics associated with readmissions after major operative procedures. Retrospective analysis of California discharge abstracts with record linkage numbers for adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), colectomy or total hip/knee arthroplasty (TJA) in California acute, nonfederal hospitals in 2011. The record linkage number showed where patients were readmitted. Hierarchic logistic regression estimated the odds of readmission by hospital characteristics. There were 91,205 records analyzed: CABG (6.4%), colectomy (12.0%), and TJA (82.3%). There were 120 hospitals that performed CABG surgery; 296 performed colectomy; and 298 performed TJA. Readmission rates after CABG was 9.7%, colectomy 7.7%, and TJA 3.9%. After adjustment for patient factors, rural location was predictive of readmission after colectomy (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-3.08). Low-volume (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.13-2.10) and minority-serving hospitals (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33) were associated with greater odds of readmission after TJA. Select hospital characteristics are associated with readmissions after major operative procedures. Because financial penalties may worsen performance in vulnerable or low-resource settings, policies aimed at reducing readmissions should be attentive to the potential unintended consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics Associated with Persistence and Retention among First-Generation College Students Majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, or Math

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Lorie Lasseter

    Persistence and retention of college students is a great concern in American higher education. The dropout rate is even more apparent among first-generation college students, as well as those majoring in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). More students earning STEM degrees are needed to fill the many jobs that require the skills obtained while in college. More importantly, those students who are associated with a low-socioeconomic background may use a degree to overcome poverty. Although many studies have been conducted to determine the characteristics associated with student attrition among first-generation students or STEM majors, very little information exists in terms of persistence and retention among the combined groups. The current qualitative study identified some of the characteristics associated with persistence and retention among first-generation college students who are also STEM majors. Participants were juniors or seniors enrolled at a regional 4-year institution. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to allow participants to share their personal experiences as first-generation STEM majors who continue to persist and be retained by their institution. Tinto's Theory of Individual Departure (1987) was used as a framework for the investigation. This theory emphasizes personal and academic background, personal goals, disconnecting from one's own culture, and institutional integration as predictors of persistence. The findings of the investigation revealed that persisting first-generation STEM majors are often connected to family, but have been able to separate that connection with that of the institution. They also are goal-driven and highly motivated and have had varied pre-college academic experiences. These students are academically integrated and socially integrated in some ways, but less than their non-first-generation counterparts. They are overcoming obstacles that students from other backgrounds may not experience. They receive

  5. Investigation of major and trace element distribution in the extraction-transesterification process of fatty acid methyl esters from microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Soares, Bruno M; Vieira, Augusto A; Lemões, Juliana S; Santos, Clarissa M M; Mesko, Márcia F; Primel, Ednei G; Montes D'Oca, Marcelo G; Duarte, Fábio A

    2012-04-01

    This work reports, for the first time, the determination of major and trace elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, Tl, U, V, and Zn) in the fractions of the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). These include fresh microalgae, residual biomass, lipid fraction, crude FAMEs, insoluble fraction and purified FAMEs from microalgae Chlorella sp. A microwave-assisted digestion procedure in closed vessels was applied for sample digestion and subsequent element determination by inductively coupled plasma-based techniques. The proposed method was suitable for the multielement determination in FAMEs and its fractions obtained from microalgae. The element concentration was compared with results found in the literature and a careful discussion about the use of residual biomass for different applications was performed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Finite Element Modelling and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis about One Kind of Armoured Vehicles’ Fuel Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Ge, Zhishang; Zhai, Weihao; Tan, Shiwang; Zhang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The static and dynamic characteristics of fuel tank are studied for the armoured vehicle in this paper. The CATIA software is applied to build the CAD model of the armoured vehicles’ fuel tank, and the finite element model is established in ANSYS Workbench. The finite element method is carried out to analyze the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the fuel tank, and the first six orders of mode shapes and their frequencies are also computed and given in the paper, then the stress distribution diagram and the high stress areas are obtained. The results of the research provide some references to the fuel tanks’ design improvement, and give some guidance for the installation of the fuel tanks on armoured vehicles, and help to improve the properties and the service life of this kind of armoured vehicles’ fuel tanks.

  7. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH 4 HF 2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH 4 HF 2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d 80  < 8.5 μm, and various silicate rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH 4 HF 2 , sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH 4 HF 2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid

  8. A Comparative Analyses of Granulometry, Mineral Composition and Major and Trace Element Concentrations in Soils Commonly Ingested by Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica M.; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the granulometric properties, mineralogical composition and concentrations of major and trace element oxides of commonly ingested soils (geophagic soil) collected from different countries with a view of understanding how varied they may be in these properties and to understand the possible health implications of ingesting them. Soil samples were collected from three different countries (South Africa, Swaziland and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)) and their granulometric properties, concentrations of major and trace element oxides as well as mineralogical composition determined. Differences were observed in the granulometric properties of geophagic soil from the three different countries with most of them having <20% clay content. The soils also showed varied degrees of weathering with values of Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) and Chemical Index of Weathering (CIW) being between 60% and 99.9% respectively. The mineral assemblages of the soils from South Africa and Swaziland were dominated by the primary minerals quartz and feldspar whereas soils from DRC had more of kaolinite, a secondary mineral than primary minerals. Soils from DRC were associated with silt, clay, Al2O3, and CIA unlike most samples from South Africa which were associated with SiO2, sand, K2O, CaO, and MgO. The soils from Swaziland were closely associated with silt, H2O and Fe2O3(t). These associations reflect the mineralogy of the samples. These soils are not likely to serve as nutrient supplements because of the low concentrations of the nutrient elements contained. The coarse texture of the samples may also result in dental destruction during mastication. Sieving of the soils before ingestion to remove coarse particles is recommended to reduce the potential health threat associated with the ingestion of coarse-textured soils. PMID:26264010

  9. Performance and Stability Characteristics of a Uni-Element Swirl Injector for Oxygen-Rich Stage Combustion Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Kalitan, D.; Woodward, R. D.; Santoro, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    A uni-element liquid propellant combustion performance and instability study for liquid RP-1 and hot oxygen-rich pre-burner products was conducted, at a chamber pressure of about 1000 psi. using flush and recessed swirl injectors. High-frequency pressure transducer measurements were analyzed to yield the characteristic frequencies which were compared to expected frequencies of the chamber. Modes, which were discovered to be present within the main chamber included, the first longitudinal, detected at approximately 1950 Hz, and the second longitudinal mode at approximately 3800 Hz. An additional first longitudinal quarter wave mode was measured at a frequency of approximately 23000 Hz for the recessed swirl injector configuration. The characteristic instabilities resulting from these experiments were relatively weak averaging 0.2% to 0.3% of the chamber pressure.

  10. Trace element abundances of high-MgO glasses from Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala volcanoes, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, T.P.; Clague, D.A.; Hauri, E.H.; Grove, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    We performed an ion-microprobe study of eleven high-MgO (6.7-14.8 wt%) tholeiite glasses from the Hawaiian volcanoes Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Haleakala. We determined the rare earth (RE), high field strength, and other selected trace element abundances of these glasses, and used the data to establish their relationship to typical Hawaiian shield tholeiite and to infer characteristics of their source. The glasses have trace element abundance characteristics generally similar to those of typical shield tholeiites, e.g. L(light)REE/H(heavy)REE(C1) > 1. The Kilauea and Mauna Loa glasses, however, display trace and major element characteristics that cross geochemical discriminants observed between Kilauea and Mauna Loa shield lavas. The glasses contain a blend of these discriminating chemical characteristics, and are not exactly like the typical shield lavas from either volcano. The production of these hybrid magmas likely requires a complexly zoned source, rather than two unique sources. When corrected for olivine fractionation, the glass data show correlations between CaO concentration and incompatible trace element abundances, indicating that CaO may behave incompatibly during melting of the tholeiite source. Furthermore, the tholeiite source must contain residual garnet and clinopyroxene to account for the variation in trace element abundances of the Kilauea glasses. Inversion modeling indicates that the Kilauea source is flat relative to C1 chondrites, and has a higher bulk distribution coefficient for the HREE than the LREE.

  11. High-temperature site preference and atomic short-range ordering characteristics of ternary alloying elements in γ'-Ni3Al intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriş, Rasim; Mekhrabov, Amdulla O.; Akdeniz, M. Vedat

    2017-10-01

    Remarkable high-temperature mechanical properties of nickel-based superalloys are correlated with the arrangement of ternary alloying elements in L12-type-ordered γ‧-Ni3Al intermetallics. In the current study, therefore, high-temperature site occupancy preference and energetic-structural characteristics of atomic short-range ordering (SRO) of ternary alloying X elements (X = Mo, W, Ta, Hf, Re, Ru, Pt or Co) in Ni75Al21.875X3.125 alloy systems have been studied by combining the statistico-thermodynamical theory of ordering and electronic theory of alloys in the pseudopotential approximation. Temperature dependence of site occupancy tendencies of alloying X element atoms has been predicted by calculating partial ordering energies and SRO parameters of Ni-Al, Ni-X and Al-X atomic pairs. It is shown that, all ternary alloying element atoms (except Pt) tend to occupy Al, whereas Pt atoms prefer to substitute for Ni sub-lattice sites of Ni3Al intermetallics. However, in contrast to other X elements, sub-lattice site occupancy characteristics of Re atoms appear to be both temperature- and composition-dependent. Theoretical calculations reveal that site occupancy preference of Re atoms switches from Al to both Ni and Al sites at critical temperatures, Tc, for Re > 2.35 at%. Distribution of Re atoms at both Ni and Al sub-lattice sites above Tc may lead to localised supersaturation of the parent Ni3Al phase and makes possible the formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases. The results of the current theoretical and simulation study are consistent with other theoretical and experimental investigations published in the literature.

  12. Determination of major elements by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in igneous rocks from the same fused sample (110 mg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amosova, Alena A.; Panteeva, Svetlana V.; Chubarov, Victor M.; Finkelshtein, Alexandr L.

    2016-08-01

    The fusion technique is proposed for simultaneous determination of 35 elements from the same sample. Only 110 mg of rock sample was used to obtain fused glasses for quantitative determination of 10 major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, 16 rare earth elements and some other trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Fusion was performed with 1.1 g of lithium metaborate and LiBr solution as the releasing agent in platinum crucible in electric furnace at 1100 °C. The certified reference materials of ultramafic, mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks have been applied to obtain the calibration curves for rock-forming oxides (Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, K2O, CaO, TiO2, MnO, Fe2O3) and some trace elements (Ba, Sr, Zr) determination by X-ray fluorescence analysis. The repeatability does not exceed the allowable standard deviation for a wide range of concentrations. In the most cases the relative standard deviation was less than 5%. Obtained glasses were utilized for the further determination of rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and some other (Ba, Sr, Zr, Rb, Cs, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Th and U) trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis with the same certified reference materials employed. The results could mostly be accepted as satisfactory. The proposed procedure essentially reduces the expenses in comparison with separate sample preparation for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis.

  13. Assessment of major ions and trace elements in groundwater supplied to the Monterrey metropolitan area, Nuevo León, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, Abrahan; Mahlknecht, Jürgen; Rosales-Lagarde, Laura; Hernández-Antonio, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    The Monterrey metropolitan area (MMA) is the third greatest urban area and the second largest economic city of Mexico. More than four million people living in this megacity use groundwater for drinking, industrial and household purposes. Thus, major ion and trace element content were assessed in order to investigate the main hydrochemical properties of groundwater and determine if groundwater of the area poses a threat to the MMA population. Hierarchical cluster analysis using all the groundwater chemical data showed five groups of water. The first two groups were classified as recharge waters (Ca-HCO 3 ) coming from the foothills of mountain belts. The third group was also of Ca-HCO 3 water type flowing through lutites and limestones. Transition zone waters of group four (Ca-HCO 3 -SO 4 ) flow through the valley of Monterrey, whereas discharge waters of group 5 (Ca-SO 4 ) were found toward the north and northeast of the MMA. Principal component analysis performed in groundwater data indicates four principal components (PCs). PC1 included major ions Si, Co, Se, and Zn, suggesting that these are derived by rock weathering. Other trace elements such as As, Mo, Mn, and U are coupled in PC2 because they show redox-sensitive properties. PC3 indicates that Pb and Cu could be the less mobile elements in groundwater. Although groundwater supplied to MMA showed a high-quality, high mineralized waters of group 5 have NO 3 - concentrations higher than the maximum value proposed by international guidelines and SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and total dissolved solid concentrations higher than the maximum levels allowed by the Mexican normative.

  14. As Compared to What? Characteristics of the AACSB Institutions That Utilize the Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William

    2014-01-01

    The publishers of the Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), an assessment of learning instrument, provide a list of institutions utilizing the instrument and a table that allows for comparison of local MFT-B mean scores to those of other institutions. The absence of information regarding the comparison group's characteristics limits the validity…

  15. Volatile Emissions from Subduction-related Volcanoes: Major and Trace Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; Hilton, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    to 2 x1010 mol/yr; H2O: ˜ 8 x1012 mol/yr; HCl ˜1 x1010 to 4x1011 mol/yr, HF: ˜3 x109 to 3 x1011 mol/yr)[1,3]. Due to the preferential partitioning of HCl and HF into volcano hosted hydrothermal systems, fluxes from magma bodies are probably much larger than what is emitted into the atmosphere. Trace element emissions from subduction related volcanoes are also poorly constrained but are potentially significant. High temperature (>700C) volcanic gas samples show that concentrations of Be, Rb, Sr, Ru, Rh, Pd, Cd, W, Re, Pt, Pb, Bi, Se, Sc are in the 5 to 1300 ug/L range and up to 25000 ug/L of B have been measured [4,5]. Using these concentrations and the global arc SO2 flux gives estimates of trace element fluxes on the order of 3 x104 to 8 x106 mol/yr (and 3 x109 mol/yr of B). These flux estimates are certainly upper limits because low temperature (<200C) gases that make up the majority of emissions have much lower trace element concentrations. Further work is needed to better constrain volatile contributions of volcanoes to the atmosphere, and to improve global geochemical models which assess the impact of volcanic gases on the atmosphere. {[1]} Hilton, Fischer & Marty (2002) Rev. Min. vol 47 for review [2] Kerrick Rev. Geophys. (2001) vol. 39 #4. [3] Symnods, Rose & Reed (1988) nature vol 334, p. 415 [4] Fischer, Shuttleworth & O'Day (1998) Fres. J. Anal. Chem. vol 362, p. 457 [5] Taran et al., (1995) Gochim. Cosmochim. Acta vol. 59, p. 1749

  16. An ion microprobe study of the intra-crystalline behavior of REE and selected trace elements in pyroxene from mare basalts with different cooling and crystallization histories

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1989-05-01

    To study the effects of crystallization sequence and rate on trace element zoning characteristics of pyroxenes, the authors used combined electron microprobe-ion microprobe techniques on four nearly isochemical Apollo 12 and 15 pigeonite basalts with different cooling rates and crystallization histories. Major and minor element zoning characteristics are nearly identical to those reported in the literature. All the pyroxenes have similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns: negative Eu anomalies, positive slopes as defined by Yb/Ce, and slopes of REE patterns from Ce to Sm much steeper than from Gd to Yb. These trace element zoning characteristics in pyroxene and the partitioning ofmore » trace elements between pyroxene and the melt are intimately related to the interplay among the efficiency of the crystallization process, the kinetics at the crystal-melt interface, the kinetics of plagioclase nucleation and the characteristics of the crystal chemical substitutions within both the pyroxene and the associated crystallizing phases (i.e. plagioclase).« less

  17. Major and EDXRF Trace Element Chemical Analyses of Volcanic Rocks from Lassen Volcanic National Park and Vicinity, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Siems, D.F.; Taggart, J.E.; Bruggman, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    This open-file report presents WDXRF major-element chemical data for late Pliocene to Holocene volcanic rocks collected from Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California. Data for Rb, Sr, Ba, Y, Zr, Nb, Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu obtained by EDXRF are included for many samples. Data are presented in an EXCEL spreadsheet and are keyed to rock units as displayed on the Geologic Map of Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity (Clynne and Muffler, in press). Location of the samples is given in latitude and longitude in degrees and decimal minutes and in decimal degrees.

  18. Regression modeling and prediction of road sweeping brush load characteristics from finite element analysis and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Sun, Qun; Wahab, Magd Abdel; Zhang, Xingyu; Xu, Limin

    2015-09-01

    Rotary cup brushes mounted on each side of a road sweeper undertake heavy debris removal tasks but the characteristics have not been well known until recently. A Finite Element (FE) model that can analyze brush deformation and predict brush characteristics have been developed to investigate the sweeping efficiency and to assist the controller design. However, the FE model requires large amount of CPU time to simulate each brush design and operating scenario, which may affect its applications in a real-time system. This study develops a mathematical regression model to summarize the FE modeled results. The complex brush load characteristic curves were statistically analyzed to quantify the effects of cross-section, length, mounting angle, displacement and rotational speed etc. The data were then fitted by a multiple variable regression model using the maximum likelihood method. The fitted results showed good agreement with the FE analysis results and experimental results, suggesting that the mathematical regression model may be directly used in a real-time system to predict characteristics of different brushes under varying operating conditions. The methodology may also be used in the design and optimization of rotary brush tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CONTROL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Newson, H.W.

    1960-09-13

    A novel composite neutronic reactor control element is offered. The element comprises a multiplicity of sections arranged in end-to-end relationship, each of the sections having a markedly different neutron-reactive characteristic. For example, a three-section control element could contain absorber, moderator, and fuel sections. By moving such an element longitudinally through a reactor core, reactivity is decreased by the absorber, increased slightly by the moderator, or increased substantially by the fuel. Thus, control over a wide reactivity range is provided.

  20. Environmental Characteristics of Carbonatite and Alkaline Intrusion-related Rare Earth Element (REE) Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, R. R., II; Piatak, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusions are important sources of REEs. Environmental risks related to these deposit types have been assessed through literature review and evaluation of the geochemical properties of representative samples of mill tailings and their leachates. The main ore mineral in carbonatite deposits is bastnasite [(Ce,La)(CO3)F], which is found with dolomite and calcite ( 65 %), barite (20 - 25 %), plus a number of minor accessory minerals including sulfides such as galena and pyrite. Generally, alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits either occur in layered complexes or with dikes and veins cutting alkaline intrusions. Such intrusions have a more diverse group of REE ore minerals that include fluorcarbonates, oxides, silicates, and phosphates. Ore also can include minor calcite and iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) sulfides. The acid-generating potential of both deposit types is low because of a predominance of carbonate minerals in the carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite in alkaline intrusion-related deposits, and to only minor to trace occurrence of potentially acid-generating sulfide minerals. Both deposit types, however, are produced by igneous and hydrothermal processes that enrich high-field strength, incompatible elements, which typically are excluded from common rock-forming minerals. Elements such as yttrium (Y), niobium Nb), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), scandium (Sc), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) can be characteristic of these deposits and may be of environmental concern. Most of these elements, including the REEs, but with the exception of U, have low solubilities in water at the near-neutral pH values expected around these deposits. Mill tailings from carbonatite deposits can exceed residential soil and sediment criteria for Pb, and leachates from mill tailings can exceed drinking water guidelines for Pb. The greatest environmental challenges, however, are

  1. Whole-rock and glass major-element geochemistry of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, near-vent eruptive products: September 1994 through September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thornber, Carl R.; Sherrod, David R.; Siems, David F.; Heliker, Christina C.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Oscarson, Robert L.; Kauahikaua, James P.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents major-element geochemical data for glasses and whole-rock aliquots among 523 lava samples collected near the vent on Kilauea's east rift zone between September 1994 and October 2001. Information on sample collection, analysis techniques and analytical standard reproducibility are presented as a PDF file, which also includes a detailed explantion of the categories of sample information presented in the database spreadsheet. The sample database is downloadable as a separate Microsoft Excel file.

  2. Major and trace element investigation of the Pine Mountain massif--The southernmost exposure of Grenville age crust in North America

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Salpas, P.A.; Daniell, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Pine Mountain massif is a 1.1 Ga basement massif exposed in Alabama and Georgia. The Whatley Mill Gneiss (WMG) constitutes a major exposure of rock in the Pine Mountain massif of eastern Alabama. Based on appearance in outcrop, the WMG can be divided into three distinct lithologies. The first is a massive augen gneiss (AG) consisting of K-spar augen in a finer grained matrix of biotite, K-spar, plagioclase, and quartz. The second lithology is a fine-grained gneiss (FG) composed predominantly of quartz with minor muscovite. The FG occurs sporadically as band of mylonite within the AG. The third lithologymore » is generally accepted to be the protolith of the AG. It is a relatively unfoliated and undeformed rock (UN) of sparse occurrence whose mineralogy is similar to that of the AG but also contains hornblende and rounded mafic inclusions of biotite gneiss. AG and FG samples were collected along a traverse through over 220 meters of stratigraphic thickness of the WMG and were analyzed for major element compositions by XRF and for trace element compositions by INAA. Relative to the AG samples, the FG samples are enriched in SiO[sub 2] and depleted in FeO and ferromagnesian trace elements such as Sc. REE concentrations are generally higher in the AG than in the FG but the sizes of the ranges in concentrations among both groups of rocks are similar. REE systematics indicate that the silica-rich fluid introduced into the AG during shearing appears to have made negligible contributions to the absolute and relative whole-rock REE concentrations but, instead, simply diluted the REE in the parent AG. Based upon the limited sampling of UN so far, deformation to produce the foliated AG, including augen formation, appears to have occurred isochemically.« less

  3. [Removal Characteristics of Elemental Mercury by Mn-Ce/molecular Sieve].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zeng-qiang; Niu, Guo-ping; Chen, Xiao-wen; An, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    The impregnation method was used to support molecular sieve with active manganese and cerium components to obtain a composite molecular sieve catalyst. The mercury removal performance of the catalyst was studied with a bench-scale setup. XPS analysis was used to characterize the sample before and after the modification in order to study the changes in the active components of the catalyst prepared. The results showed that the catalyst carrying manganese and cerium components had higher oxidation ability of elemental mercury in the temperature range of 300 degrees C - 450 degrees C, especially at 450 degrees C, the oxidation efficiency of elemental mercury was kept above 80%. The catalyst had more functional groups that were conducive to the oxidation of elemental mercury, and the mercury removal mainly depended on the chemical adsorption. The SO2 and NO in flue gas could inhibit the oxidation of elemental mercury to certain extent.

  4. Microstrip antenna arrays with parasitic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kai-Fong

    1996-01-01

    This research was concerned with using parasitic elements to improve the bandwidth, gain and axial ratio characteristics of microstrip antennas and arrays. Significant improvements in these characteristics were obtained using stacked and coplanar parasitic elements. Details of the results are described in a total of 16 journal and 17 conference papers. These are listed in Section four of this report.

  5. Minor elements in Keweenawan lavas, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornwall, H.R.; Rose, H.J.

    1957-01-01

    The distribution of minor elements in three basaltic flows of the Keweenawan series, of Michigan, is related to differentiation in the flows. Thus, nickel is most abundant in the early differentiates; nickel, chromium, and barium are generally deficient in the pegmatites, which formed late; whereas copper, vanadium, yttrium, and other minor elements are concentrated in the pegmatites. The minor-element content of individual minerals in the Greenstone flow varies markedly from one mineral to another and seems to depend primarily on the presence or absence in the minerals of major elements for which the minor elements can substitute. Minor elements have substituted most readily for those major elements with similar ionic radii. Valence and electronegativity also seem to influence the ease of substitution. The distribution of other minor elements in copper-bearing lodes of the Michigan copper district shows no apparent relation to copper mineralization. ?? 1957.

  6. Characteristics of US Students That Pursued a STEM Major and Factors That Predicted Their Persistence in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mau, Wei-Cheng J.

    2016-01-01

    Low participation and completion rates in the science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) careers are a world-wide concern. This study tracked American college students over a 5-year period and identifies factors that lead to choosing a STEM major and in turn successfully earning a STEM degree. Characteristics of female and minority…

  7. Trace Elements in River Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Viers, J.; Dupré, B.

    2003-12-01

    Trace elements are characterized by concentrations lower than 1 mg L-1 in natural waters. This means that trace elements are not considered when "total dissolved solids" are calculated in rivers, lakes, or groundwaters, because their combined mass is not significant compared to the sum of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H4SiO4, HCO3-, CO32-, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3-. Therefore, most of the elements, except about ten of them, occur at trace levels in natural waters. Being trace elements in natural waters does not necessarily qualify them as trace elements in rocks. For example, aluminum, iron, and titanium are major elements in rocks, but they occur as trace elements in waters, due to their low mobility at the Earth's surface. Conversely, trace elements in rocks such as chlorine and carbon are major elements in waters.The geochemistry of trace elements in river waters, like that of groundwater and seawater, is receiving increasing attention. This growing interest is clearly triggered by the technical advances made in the determination of concentrations at lower levels in water. In particular, the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has considerably improved our knowledge of trace-element levels in waters since the early 1990s. ICP-MS provides the capability of determining trace elements having isotopes of interest for geochemical dating or tracing, even where their dissolved concentrations are extremely low.The determination of trace elements in natural waters is motivated by a number of issues. Although rare, trace elements in natural systems can play a major role in hydrosystems. This is particularly evident for toxic elements such as aluminum, whose concentrations are related to the abundance of fish in rivers. Many trace elements have been exploited from natural accumulation sites and used over thousands of years by human activities. Trace elements are therefore highly sensitive indexes of human impact from local to global scale. Pollution

  8. A predictive model for diagnosing bipolar disorder based on the clinical characteristics of major depressive episodes in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhaoyu; Diao, Feici; Wei, Qinling; Wu, Xiaoli; Cheng, Minfeng; Guan, Nianhong; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jinbei

    2011-11-01

    A correct timely diagnosis of bipolar depression remains a big challenge for clinicians. This study aimed to develop a clinical characteristic based model to predict the diagnosis of bipolar disorder among patients with current major depressive episodes. A prospective study was carried out on 344 patients with current major depressive episodes, with 268 completing 1-year follow-up. Data were collected through structured interviews. Univariate binary logistic regression was conducted to select potential predictive variables among 19 initial variables, and then multivariate binary logistic regression was performed to analyze the combination of risk factors and build a predictive model. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. Of 19 initial variables, 13 variables were preliminarily selected, and then forward stepwise exercise produced a final model consisting of 6 variables: age at first onset, maximum duration of depressive episodes, somatalgia, hypersomnia, diurnal variation of mood, irritability. The correct prediction rate of this model was 78% (95%CI: 75%-86%) and the area under the ROC curve was 0.85 (95%CI: 0.80-0.90). The cut-off point for age at first onset was 28.5 years old, while the cut-off point for maximum duration of depressive episode was 7.5 months. The limitations of this study include small sample size, relatively short follow-up period and lack of treatment information. Our predictive models based on six clinical characteristics of major depressive episodes prove to be robust and can help differentiate bipolar depression from unipolar depression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lack of chemical fractionation in major and minor elements during agglutinate formation. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.-N.; Taylor, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Rhodes et al. (1975, 1976) and Adams et al. (1975) have reported that the agglutinate fraction of the soils on the lunar surface displays a marked enrichment in Fe, Mg, Ti, K, and La, and a depletion in Ca, Na, Al, and Eu, relative to the bulk soils. The reported investigation is concerned with a testing of the theory of chemical fractionation involving magnetic separation which was developed in connection with these findings. Soils 64421 and 71501 were sieved and the magnetic fractions separated according to the method developed by Adams and McCord (1973). Analyses of agglutinitic glass did not indicate any appreciable chemical fractionation for the major and minor elements accompanying the agglutination process. It was found that most, if not all fractionations reported can be accounted for completely by the magnetic nonagglutinate impurities in the agglutinate fraction. It is, therefore, concluded that there appears to be no reason to make use of any chemical fractionation theory, whose validity remains to be demonstrated.

  10. Trace element abundances in major minerals of Late Permian coals from southwestern Guizhou province, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Jiahua; Ren, D.; Zheng, C.; Zeng, R.; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen samples of minerals were separated by handpicking from Late Permian coals in southwestern Guizhou province, China. These 14 minerals were nodular pyrite, massive recrystallized pyrite, pyrite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water; clay minerals; and calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and from ground water. The mineralogy, elemental composition, and distribution of 33 elements in these samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and ion-selective electrode (ISE). The results show that various minerals in coal contain variable amounts of trace elements. Clay minerals have high concentrations of Ba, Be, Cs, F, Ga, Nb, Rb, Th, U, and Zr. Quartz has little contribution to the concentration of trace elements in bulk coal. Arsenic, Mn, and Sr are in high concentrations in calcite. Pyrite has high concentrations of As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and Zn. Different genetic types of calcite in coal can accumulate different trace elements; for example Ba, Co, Cr, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sn, Sr, and Zn are in higher concentrations in calcite deposited from low-temperature hydrothermal fluid than in that deposited from ground water. Furthermore, the concentrations of some trace elements are quite variable in pyrite; different genetic types of pyrites (Py-A, B, C, D) have different concentrations of trace elements, and the concentrations of trace elements are also different in pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal origin collected from different locations. The study shows that elemental concentration is rather uniform in a pyrite vein. There are many micron and submicron mosaic pyrites in a pyrite vein, which is enriched in some trace elements, such as As and Mo. The

  11. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  13. Reporting of research quality characteristics of studies published in 6 major clinical dental specialty journals.

    PubMed

    Pandis, Nikolaos; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Madianos, Phoebus; Makou, Margarita; Eliades, Theodore

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this article was to record reporting characteristics related to study quality of research published in major specialty dental journals with the highest impact factor (Journal of Endodontics, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics; Pediatric Dentistry, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, and International Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry). The included articles were classified into the following 3 broad subject categories: (1) cross-sectional (snap-shot), (2) observational, and (3) interventional. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted for effect estimation using the journal as the response and randomization, sample calculation, confounding discussed, multivariate analysis, effect measurement, and confidence intervals as the explanatory variables. The results showed that cross-sectional studies were the dominant design (55%), whereas observational investigations accounted for 13%, and interventions/clinical trials for 32%. Reporting on quality characteristics was low for all variables: random allocation (15%), sample size calculation (7%), confounding issues/possible confounders (38%), effect measurements (16%), and multivariate analysis (21%). Eighty-four percent of the published articles reported a statistically significant main finding and only 13% presented confidence intervals. The Journal of Clinical Periodontology showed the highest probability of including quality characteristics in reporting results among all dental journals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics of the trace elements and arsenic, iodine and bromine species in snow in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunchuan; Yang, Chao; Ma, Jin; Yin, Meixue

    2018-02-01

    Fifty-five snow samples were collected from 11 cities in east-central China. These sampling sites cover the areas with the most snowfall in 2014, there were only two snowfalls from June 2013 to May 2014 in east-central China. Twenty-three trace elements in the filtered snow samples were measured with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis of the results show that the total concentrations of elements in the samples from different cities are in the order of SJZ > LZ > XA > ZZ > GD > NJ > QD > JX > WH > HZ > LA, which are closely related to the levels of AQI, PM2.5 and PM10 in these cities, and their correlation coefficients are 0.93, 0.76 and 0.93. The concentration of elements in snow samples is highly correlated with air pollution and reflects the magnitude of the local atmospheric deposition. The concentrations of Fe, Al, Zn, Ba, and P are over 10.0 μg/L, the concentrations of Mn, Cu, Pb, As, Br and I are between 1.0 μg/L to 10.0 μg/L, the concentrations of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Se, Mo, Cd and Sb are less than 1.0 μg/L in snow samples in east-central China, and Rh, Pd, Pt, Hg were not detected. Iodine and bromine species in all samples and arsenic species (As(III), As(V), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethyl arsenic (MMA)) in some samples were separated and measured successfully by HPLC-ICP-MS. The majority of arsenic in the snow samples is inorganic arsenic, and the concentration of As(III) (0.104-1.400 μg/L) is higher than that of As(V) (0.012-0.180 μg/L), while methyl arsenicals, such as DMA and MMA, were almost not detected. The concentration of I- (Br-) is much higher than that of IO3- (BrO3-). The mean concentration of soluble organic iodine (SOI) (1.64 μg/L) is higher than that of I- (1.27 μg/L), however the concentration of Br- (5.58 μg/L) is higher than that of soluble organic bromine (SOBr) (2.90 μg/L). The data presented here shows that SOI is the most abundant species and the majority of the total bromine is

  15. Coupling characteristics of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Minning; Shang, Fengtao; Chen, Dandan

    2018-06-01

    An empirical formula related to the stress field distribution in the optical fiber with triple stress elements is proposed and proved. The possible intercoupling between the fundamental modes and the higher order modes is demonstrated. The transmission property of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements is analyzed. The experimental data from a sample of the spun optical fiber with triple stress elements confirm the theoretical results very well.

  16. Trace element and strontium isotope characteristics of volcanic rocks from Isla Tortuga: a young seamount in the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batiza, Rodey; Futa, K.; Hedge, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Isla Tortuga is a small isolated central volcano which is located near an actively spreading trough in the Gulf of California. The basalt lavas from Tortuga which have the highest Mg/Fe and Ni contents have trace element abundances and ratios and 87Sr/86Sr which are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge tholeiite. The major element, rare earth element and Sr abundances of fractionated tholeiite (low Mg/Fe) and tholeiitic andesite of Tortuga are consistent with an origin by closed-system fractional crystallization. This hypothesis is not supported by K, Na, Rb and Ba abundances in the lavas nor by their variable 87Sr/86Sr (0.7024-0.7035). It is proposed that the apparent decoupling of light rare earth elements, other incompatible trace elements and 87Sr/86Sr is due to contamination of some Tortuga magmas while they are fractionated in a high-level crustal magma chamber. The mantle source of least-contaminated, high Mg/Fe basalt lavas of Tortuga is similar, although not identical to the source of normal mid-ocean ridge tholeiite; significant differences exist. The reasons for these differences are not yet known. ?? 1979.

  17. Evolution of the Campanian Ignimbrite Magmatic System II: Trace Element and Th Isotopic Evidence for Open-System Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrson, W. A.; Spera, F. J.; Fowler, S.; Belkin, H.; de Vivo, B.

    2005-12-01

    The Campanian Ignimbrite, a large volume (~200 km3 DRE) trachytic to phonolitic ignimbrite was deposited at ~39.3 ka and represents the largest of a number of highly explosive volcanic events in the region near Naples, Italy. Thermodynamic modeling of the major element evolution using the MELTS algorithm (see companion contribution by Fowler et al.) provides detailed information about the identity of and changes in proportions of solids along the liquid line of descent during isobaric fractional crystallization. We have derived trace element mass balance equations that explicitly accommodate changing mineral-melt bulk distribution coefficients during crystallization and also simultaneously satisfy energy and major element mass conservation. Although major element patterns are reasonably modeled assuming closed system fractional crystallization, modeling of trace elements that represent a range of behaviors (e.g. Zr, Nb, Th, U, Rb, Sm, Sr) yields trends for closed system fractionation that are distinct from those observed. These results suggest open-system processes were also important in the evolution of the Campanian magmatic system. Th isotope data yield an apparent isochron that is ~20 kyr younger than the age of the deposit, and age-corrected Th isotope data indicate that the magma body was an open-system at the time of eruption. Because open-system processes can profoundly change isotopic characteristics of a magma body, these results illustrate that it is critical to understand the contribution that open-system processes make to silicic magma bodies prior to assigning relevance to age or timescale information derived from isotope systematics. Fluid-magma interaction has been proposed as a mechanism to change isotopic and elemental characteristics of magma bodies, but an evaluation of the mass and thermal constraints on such a process suggest large-scale fluid-melt interaction at liquidus temperatures is unlikely. In the case of the magma body associated with

  18. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  19. Organic contaminants, trace and major elements, and nutrients in water and sediment sampled in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Ludtke, Amy S.; Mueller, David K.; Scott, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    geochemical evidence of Macondo-1 oil in post-landfall sediments and tarballs. For trace and major elements in water, analytical reporting levels for several elements were high and variable. No human-health benchmarks were exceeded, although these were available for only two elements. Aquatic-life benchmarks for trace elements were exceeded in 47 percent of water samples overall. The elements responsible for the most exceedances in post-landfall samples were boron, copper, and manganese. Benchmark exceedances in water could be substantially underestimated because some samples had reporting levels higher than the applicable benchmarks (such as cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) and some elements (such as boron and vanadium) were analyzed in samples from only one sampling period. For trace elements in whole sediment, empirical upper screening-value benchmarks were exceeded in 57 percent of post-landfall samples and 40 percent of pre-landfall samples, but there was no significant difference in the proportion of samples exceeding benchmarks between paired pre-landfall and post-landfall samples. Benchmark exceedance frequencies could be conservatively high because they are based on measurements of total trace-element concentrations in sediment. In the less than 63-micrometer sediment fraction, one or more trace or major elements were anthropogenically enriched relative to national baseline values for U.S. streams for all sediment samples except one. Sixteen percent of sediment samples exceeded upper screening-value benchmarks for, and were enriched in, one or more of the following elements: barium, vanadium, aluminum, manganese, arsenic, chromium, and cobalt. These samples were evenly divided between the sampling periods. Aquatic-life benchmarks were frequently exceeded along the Gulf of Mexico coast by trace elements in both water and sediment and by PAHs in sediment. For the most part, however, significant differences between pre-landfall and post-landfall samples were limited to

  20. Clinical characteristics and medication use patterns among hospitalized patients admitted with psychotic vs nonpsychotic major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Weinstock, Lauren M; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Miller, Ivan W

    2016-02-01

    In routine practice, major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features often goes under-recognized and undertreated. Previous research has specified several demographic and clinical differences in MDD patients with psychotic features compared with those without psychosis in routine outpatient practice, but there is little systematic research in modern routine hospital settings. We conducted a retrospective electronic medical records chart review of 1,314 patients diagnosed with MDD who were admitted consecutively to a major psychiatric hospital over a 1-year period. We examined the prevalence of psychotic features in the sample and investigated the differences in demographic variables, clinical characteristics, and medication use patterns among patients with and without psychosis. The prevalence of psychotic features was 13.2% in the current hospital sample. Patients with psychotic depression were more likely to be older, male, a member of a racial/ethnic minority, and have more medical comorbidities and certain Axis I disorders compared with nonpsychotic patients. In addition, patients with psychotic depression were more likely to be prescribed antipsychotics and hypnotics before admission. Several demographic and clinical characteristics differentiate MDD patients with psychosis from those without psychosis in hospital settings that may be helpful in identifying these patients. Comparisons with outpatient samples and treatments implications are discussed.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudina, Tatiana V.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Lim, Artyom G.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Istigechev, Georgy I.; Kuzmina, Daria M.; Kulizhsky, Sergey P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-07-01

    Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and related trace elements (TEs) from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT) deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg) and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th) elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the fluids in some elements

  2. FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Bean, R.W.

    1963-11-19

    A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)

  3. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  4. Major and trace element distribution in soil and sediments from the Egyptian central Nile Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, W. M.; Ghanim, E. H.; Duliu, O. G.; El Samman, H.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    The distributions of 32 major and trace elements in 72 surface soil and sediment samples collected from the Asyut to Cairo Nile river section were determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis and compared with corresponding data for the Upper Continental Crust, North American Shale Composite, Average Soil and Average Sediment as well as suspended sediments from Congo and Upper Niger Rivers, in order to establish to which extent the Nile sedimentary material can be related to similar material all over the world as well as to local geology. Their relative distributions indicate the presence of detrital material of igneous origin, most probably resulting from weathering of the Ethiopian Highlands and transported by the Blue Nile, the Nile main tributary. The distributions of nickel, zinc, and arsenic contents suggest that the lower part of the Nile and its surroundings including the Nile Delta is not seriously polluted with heavy metals, so that, in spite of a human activity, which lasted four millennia, the Nile River continues to be less affected by any anthropogenic contamination.

  5. 3D Finite Element Analysis of Some Structural Modified PC Sleeper with the Vibration Characteristics between Sleeper and Ballast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Hirotaka; Urakawa, Fumihiro; Aikawa, Akira; Namura, Akira

    The vibration of concrete sleepers is an important factor engendering track deterioration. In this paper, we created a three-dimensional finite element model to reproduce a prestressed concrete (PC) sleeper in detail, expressing influence of ballast layers with a 3D spring series and dampers to reproduce their vibration and dynamic characteristics. Determination of these parameters bases on the experimental modal analysis using an impact excitation technique for PC sleepers by adjusting the accelerance between the analytical results and experimental results. Furthermore, we compared the difference of these characteristics between normal sleepers and those with some structural modifications. Analytical results clarified that such means as sleeper width extension and increased sleeper thickness will influence the reduction of ballasted track vibration as improvements of PC sleepers.

  6. Trace elements assessment in agricultural and desert soils of Aswan area, south Egypt: Geochemical characteristics and environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Mohamed Abdallah Gad; Pöllmann, Hebert

    2015-12-01

    Determination of chemical elements, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Y, and Zn have been performed in agricultural and desert soils and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) at Aswan area. Consequently, the pollution indices, univariate and multivariate statistical methods have been applied, in order to assess the geochemical characteristics of these elements and their impact on soil environmental quality and plant, and to reach for their potential input sources. The investigation revealed that the mean and range values of all element concentrations in agricultural soil are higher than those in desert soil. Furthermore, the agricultural soil displayed various degrees of enrichment and pollution of Cd, Zn, Mo, Co, P, Ti, Pb. The geochemical pattern of integrated pollution indices gave a clear image of extreme and strong pollution in the agricultural soil stations, their poor quality with high risk to human health and considered as a tocsin for an alert. In contrast, the desert soil is the good environmental quality and safe for plant, animal and human health. Alfalfa is tolerant plant and considered as a biomarker for P and Mo in polluted agricultural soil. Four geochemical associations of analyzing elements in agricultural soil and three ones in desert soil have been generated, and their enhancements were essentially caused by various anthropogenic activities and geogenic sources. The investigation also revealed that the broad extended desert soil is fruitful and promising as cultivable lands for agricultural processes in the futures.

  7. Re-187 Os-187 Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVB Irons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honesto, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Walker, R. J.; McCoy, T. J.; Ash, R. D.

    2005-01-01

    Study of the magmatic iron meteorite groups permits constraints to be placed on the chemical and isotopic composition of parent bodies, and the timing of, and crystal-liquid fractionation processes involved in the crystallization of asteroidal cores. Here we examine Re-Os isotopic and trace elemental systematics of group IVB irons. Compared to most irons, the irons comprising this group are enriched in some of the most refractory siderophile elements, yet highly-depleted in most volatile siderophile elements. These characteristics have been attributed to processes such as high temperature condensation of precursor materials and oxidation in the parent body. Most recently it has been suggested that both processes may be involved in the chemical complexity of the group. Here, high precision isotopic and highly siderophile element (HSE) concentrations are used to further examine these possible origins, and the crystallization history of the group. In addition, we have begun to assess the possibility of relating certain ungrouped irons with major groups via multi-element, trace element modeling. In a companion abstract, the isotopic and trace element systematics of the ungrouped iron Tishomingo are compared with the IVB irons.

  8. Major- and Trace-Element Concentrations in Soils from Two Geochemical Surveys (1972 and 2005) of the Denver, Colorado, Metropolitan Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilburn, James E.; Smith, David B.; Closs, L. Graham; Smith, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected in 1972 and 2005 from the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. A total of 405 sites were sampled in the 1972 study from an area approximately bounded by the suburbs of Golden, Thornton, Aurora, and Littleton to the west, north, east, and south, respectively. This data set included 34 duplicate samples collected in the immediate vicinity of the primary sample. In 2005, a total of 464 sites together with 34 duplicates were sampled from the same approximate localities sampled in 1972 as well as additional sites in east Aurora and the area surrounding the Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Sample density for both surveys was on the order of 1 site per square mile. At each site, sample material was collected from a depth of 0-5 inches. Each sample collected was analyzed for near-total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; and (2) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for selenium. The samples collected in 2005 were also analyzed by a cold vapor-atomic absorption method for mercury. This report makes available the analytical results of these studies.

  9. 7 CFR 29.6014 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.6014 Section 29.6014... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6014 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are...

  10. 7 CFR 29.6014 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.6014 Section 29.6014... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6014 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are...

  11. 7 CFR 29.6014 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.6014 Section 29.6014... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6014 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6014 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.6014 Section 29.6014... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6014 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6014 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.6014 Section 29.6014... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6014 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are...

  14. Characteristics of unrecognised bipolar disorder in patients treated for major depressive disorder in China: general versus psychiatric hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chen, F Z; Xiang, Y T; Lu, Z; Wang, G; Hu, C; Kilbourne, A M; Ungvari, G S; Fang, Y R; Si, T M; Yang, H C; Lai, K Yc; Hu, J; Chen, Z Y; Huang, Y; Sun, J; Wang, X P; Li, H C; Zhang, J B; Zhang, X Y; Chiu, H F K

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. Such misdiagnosis partly depends on the type of treatment setting. This study compared general hospital psychiatric units with psychiatric hospitals in China with respect to basic demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with unrecognised bipolar disorder who are treated for major depressive disorder. Patients treated for major depressive disorder were consecutively examined in 13 health centres (6 general hospital psychiatric units and 7 psychiatric hospitals) in China. Their socio-demographic and clinical features were recorded using a standardised protocol and data collection procedure. The DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Of the 1487 patients included in the study, 309 (20.8%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There was no significant difference between general hospital psychiatric units and psychiatric hospitals in the ratio of all types of unrecognised bipolar disorders (χ2 = 0.008, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.9) and bipolar II disorders (χ2 = 3.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.08). The proportions of unrecognised bipolar I disorders (χ2 = 4.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.04) differed significantly between the 2 types of study site. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with bipolar I disorders with more seasonal depressive episodes were more likely to receive treatment in general hospital psychiatric units (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-9.8). Patients with bipolar I disorders receiving treatment in general hospital psychiatric units had different clinical characteristics compared to their counterparts treated in psychiatric hospitals in China.

  15. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    PubMed Central

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  16. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  17. Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from seven 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, Bruce M.; Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Shew, Nora B.; Labay, Keith A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; O'Leary, Richard M.; Detra, David E.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s through the 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted reconnaissance geochemical surveys of drainage basins throughout most of the Iliamna, Lake Clark, Lime Hills, and Talkeetna 1:250,000-scale quadrangles and parts of the McGrath, Seldovia, and Tyonek 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in Alaska. These geochemical surveys provide data necessary to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and provide data that may be used to determine regional-scale element baselines. This report provides new data for 1,075 of the previously collected stream-sediment samples. The new analyses include a broader spectrum of elements and provide data that are more precise than the original analyses. All samples were analyzed for arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, for gold, palladium, and platinum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after lead button fire assay separation, and for a suite of 55 major, rare earth, and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after sodium peroxide sinter at 450 degrees Celsius.

  18. Study on elemental fingerprint of traditional marine Chinese medicine oysters from Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yongjun; Zheng, Kang; Li, Yantuan

    2012-09-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between the trace elements and the characteristics of the oysters, we analyzed the trace elements present in the germplasm of oysters from different producing areas in the Jiaozhou Bay. The element fingerprints were established to reflect the elemental characteristics of the oysters. Concentration patterns of the elements were deciphered by principle component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The six regions were discriminated with accuracy using HCA and PCA based on the concentration of 16 trace elements. The elements were viewed as characteristic elements of the oysters and the fingerprints of these elements could be used to distinguish the quality of the oysters.

  19. Major and minor oxide and trace element determination in silicate rocks by direct current plasma optical emission echelle spectrometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bankston, D.C.; Humphris, S.E.; Thompson, G.

    1979-07-01

    A technique for the determination of major concentrations of SiO/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgO, CaO, Na/sub 2/O, and K/sub 2/O, minor levels of TiO/sub 2/, P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and MnO, and trace concentrations of Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sr, V, and Zn, in semi-microsamples 200 mg) of powdered whole rock, is described. Chemically diverse standard reference rocks are used both for calibration and assessment of accuracy. A lithium metaborate fusion melt of each standard or sample is dissolved in dilute HNO/sub 3/ containing Cs/sup +/ at a level of 0.2% (w/v). The resulting solution is usedmore » to perform all analyses except those for Na/sub 2/O and K/sub 2/O, which are determined in a portion of the original sample solution wherein the Cs/sup +/ concentration has been raised to 0.32% (w/v). Analyses of both portions of each sample solution are performed using an optical emission spectrometer/spectrograph equipped with an echelle monochromator and a dc argon plasma excitation source. Trace element detection limits ranged from 2 ppM for Cu to 15 ppM for Zn. A study of precision based on replicate determinations in three splits of the proposed USGS reference basalt BHVO-1 yielded the following results: (1) For analyses of the major and minor oxide constituents, values of the percent relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1 for CaO, to 21 for P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. 2) For trace element determinations, values of the RSD ranged from 2 for Cu, to 19 for Zn. 2 figures, 11 tables.« less

  20. mHealth Intervention Elements and User Characteristics Determine Utility: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lyndsay A; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Johnson, Kevin B; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2017-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are improving the medication adherence of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but few studies examine how users experience these interventions. Therefore, we used a mixed-methods approach to understand how T2DM users experience a text messaging and interactive voice response (IVR)-delivered medication adherence intervention called MEssaging for Diabetes (MED). Adults with T2DM used MED as part of a 3-month pilot study. MED sends daily tailored text messages addressing adherence barriers, daily assessment text messages asking about adherence, and weekly tailored IVR calls providing adherence feedback, encouragement, and questions to facilitate problem solving. Sixty participants completed feedback interviews. We used a mixed-methods approach to understand their experience, examining associations between participants' characteristics and their feedback. Participants who completed feedback interviews were on average 50.0 ± 10.1 years old; 65% female, 62% non-white; 15% had less than a high school education, 70% had annual incomes less than $20K; and average hemoglobin A1c was 8.0% ± 1.9%. Participants rated each intervention element favorably; common reasons for MED's helpfulness included receiving novel information about diabetes medications, emotional support, and reminders to take medication. People who were younger and more recently diagnosed with T2DM had more favorable experiences using MED. In general, users valued text messages more than IVR calls. Consideration of the user experience is critical for developing engaging mHealth interventions. User feedback reveals what mHealth elements have the most value and why, which users to target, and how to optimize an intervention's utility and appeal.

  1. 7 CFR 29.2266 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.2266 Section 29.2266... 21) § 29.2266 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are shown in the chart in § 29.2351. ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2266 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.2266 Section 29.2266... 21) § 29.2266 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are shown in the chart in § 29.2351. ...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2266 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.2266 Section 29.2266... 21) § 29.2266 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are shown in the chart in § 29.2351. ...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2266 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.2266 Section 29.2266... 21) § 29.2266 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are shown in the chart in § 29.2351. ...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2266 - Elements of quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of quality. 29.2266 Section 29.2266... 21) § 29.2266 Elements of quality. Physical characteristics used to determine the quality of tobacco. Words selected to describe degrees within each element are shown in the chart in § 29.2351. ...

  6. Early developmental characteristics and features of major depressive disorder among child psychiatric patients in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kapornai, Krisztina; Gentzler, Amy L; Tepper, Ping; Kiss, Eniko; Mayer, László; Tamás, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Maria; Vetró, Agnes

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the relations of early atypical characteristics (perinatal problems, developmental delay, and difficult temperament) and onset-age (as well as severity of) first major depressive disorder (MDD) and first internalizing disorder in a clinical sample of depressed children in Hungary. Participants were 371 children (ages 7-14) with MDD, and their biological mothers, recruited through multiple clinical sites. Diagnoses (via DSM-IV criteria) and onset dates of disorders were finalized "best estimate" psychiatrists, and based on multiple information sources. Mothers provided developmental data in a structured interview. Difficult temperament predicted earlier onset of MDD and first internalizing disorder, but its effect was ameliorated if the family was intact during early childhood. Further, the importance of difficult temperament decreased as a function of time. Perinatal problems and developmental delay did not impact onset ages of disorders, and none of the early childhood characteristics associated with MDD episode severity. Children with MDD may have added disadvantage of earlier onset if they had a difficult temperament in infancy. Because early temperament mirrors physiological reactivity and regulatory capacity, it can affect various areas of functioning related to psychopathology. Early caregiver stability may attenuate some adverse effects of difficult infant temperament.

  7. Along-strike variability of primitive magmas (major and volatile elements) inferred from olivine-hosted melt inclusions, southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. J.; Stern, C. R.

    2018-01-01

    Glass compositions of melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts found in tephras derived from explosive eruptions of the four volcanoes along the volcanic front of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ) are used to constrain primitive magma compositions and melt generation parameters. Primitive magmas from Hudson, Macá, and Melimoyu have similar compositions and are formed by low degrees (8-18%) of partial melting. Compared to these other three centers, primitive magmas from Mentolat have higher Al2O3 and lower MgO, TiO2 and other incompatible minor elements, and are generated by somewhat higher degrees (12-20%) of partial melting. The differences in the estimated primitive parental magma compositions between Mentolat and the other three volcanic centers are consistent with difference in the more evolved magmas erupted from these centers, Mentolat magmas having higher Al2O3 and lower MgO, TiO2 and other incompatible minor element contents, suggesting that these differences are controlled by melting processes in the mantle source region above the subducted oceanic plate. Parental magma S = 1430-594 and Cl = 777-125 (μg/g) contents of Hudson, Macá, and Melimoyu are similar to other volcanoes further north in the SVZ. However, Mentolat primitive magmas have notably higher concentrations of S = 2656-1227 and Cl = 1078-704 (μg/g). The observed along-arc changes in parental magma chemistry may be due to the close proximity below Mentolat of the subducted Guamblin Fracture Zone that could efficiently transport hydrous mineral phases, seawater, and sediment into the mantle, driving enhanced volatile fluxed melting beneath this center compared to the others. Table S2. Olivine-hosted melt inclusion compositions, host-olivine compositions, and the post-entrapment crystallization corrected melt inclusion compositions. Table S3. Olivine-hosted melt inclusion modeling information. Table S4. Major element compositions of the fractionation corrected melt inclusion

  8. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  9. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahing, Lahasen@Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-01

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm3 and 15×15×15 cm3 were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  10. Contrast in air pollution components between major streets and background locations: Particulate matter mass, black carbon, elemental composition, nitrogen oxide and ultrafine particle number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Kos, Gerard P. A.; Weijers, Ernie P.; Janssen, Nicole A. H.; Fischer, Paul H.; van der Zee, Saskia C.; de Hartog, Jeroen J.; Hoek, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Policies to reduce outdoor air pollution concentrations are often assessed on the basis of the regulated pollutants. Whether these are the most appropriate components to assess the potential health benefits is questionable, as other health-relevant pollutants may be more strongly related to traffic. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast in concentration between major roads and (sub)urban background for a large range of pollutants and to analyze the magnitude of the measured difference in the street - background for major streets with different street configurations. Measurements of PM 10, PM 2.5, particle number concentrations (PNC), black carbon (BC), elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 and NO x were conducted simultaneously in eight major streets and nine (sub)urban background locations in the Netherlands. Measurements were done six times for a week during a six month period in 2008. High contrasts between busy streets and background locations in the same city were found for chromium, copper and iron (factor 2-3). These elements were especially present in the coarse fraction of PM. In addition, high contrasts were found for BC and NO x (factor 1.8), typically indicators of direct combustion emissions. The contrast for PNC was similar to BC. NO 2 contrast was lower (factor 1.5). The largest contrast was found for two street canyons and two streets with buildings at one side of the street only. The contrast between busy streets and urban background in NO 2 was less than the contrast found for BC, PNC and elements indicative of non-exhaust emissions, adding evidence that NO 2 is not representing (current) traffic well. The study supports a substantial role for non-exhaust emissions including brake- and tyre wear and road dust in addition to direct combustion emissions. Significant underestimation of disease burden may occur when relying too much on the regulated components.

  11. Solar Ion Processing of Major Element Surface Compositions of Mature Mare Soils: Insights from Combined XPS and Analytical TEM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christoffersen, R.; Dukes, C.; Keller, L. P.; Baragiola, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solar wind ions are capable of altering the sur-face chemistry of the lunar regolith by a number of mechanisms including preferential sputtering, radiation-enhanced diffusion and sputter erosion of space weathered surfaces containing pre-existing compositional profiles. We have previously reported in-situ ion irradiation experiments supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and analytical TEM that show how solar ions potentially drive Fe and Ti reduction at the monolayer scale as well as the 10-100 nm depth scale in lunar soils [1]. Here we report experimental data on the effect of ion irradiation on the major element surface composition in a mature mare soil.

  12. Effects of an Extreme Flood on Trace Elements in River Water-From Urban Stream to Major River Basin.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Paschke, Suzanne S; Battaglin, William A; Douville, Chris; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Keefe, Steffanie H; Roth, David A; Vajda, Alan M

    2017-09-19

    Major floods adversely affect water quality through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and damage to municipal water infrastructure. Despite their importance, it can be difficult to assess the effects of floods on streamwater chemistry because of challenges collecting samples and the absence of baseline data. This study documents water quality during the September 2013 extreme flood in the South Platte River, Colorado, USA. Weekly time-series water samples were collected from 3 urban source waters (municipal tap water, streamwater, and wastewater treatment facility effluent) under normal-flow and flood conditions. In addition, water samples were collected during the flood at 5 locations along the South Platte River and from 7 tributaries along the Colorado Front Range. Samples were analyzed for 54 major and trace elements. Specific chemical tracers, representing different natural and anthropogenic sources and geochemical behaviors, were used to compare streamwater composition before and during the flood. The results differentiate hydrological processes that affected water quality: (1) in the upper watershed, runoff diluted most dissolved constituents, (2) in the urban corridor and lower watershed, runoff mobilized soluble constituents accumulated on the landscape and contributed to stream loading, and (3) flood-induced groundwater discharge mobilized soluble constituents stored in the vadose zone.

  13. Effects of an extreme flood on trace elements in river water—From urban stream to major river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Paschke, Suzanne; Battaglin, William A.; Douville, Chris; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Roth, David A.; Vajda, Alan M.

    2017-01-01

    Major floods adversely affect water quality through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and damage to municipal water infrastructure. Despite their importance, it can be difficult to assess the effects of floods on streamwater chemistry because of challenges collecting samples and the absence of baseline data. This study documents water quality during the September 2013 extreme flood in the South Platte River, Colorado, USA. Weekly time-series water samples were collected from 3 urban source waters (municipal tap water, streamwater, and wastewater treatment facility effluent) under normal-flow and flood conditions. In addition, water samples were collected during the flood at 5 locations along the South Platte River and from 7 tributaries along the Colorado Front Range. Samples were analyzed for 54 major and trace elements. Specific chemical tracers, representing different natural and anthropogenic sources and geochemical behaviors, were used to compare streamwater composition before and during the flood. The results differentiate hydrological processes that affected water quality: (1) in the upper watershed, runoff diluted most dissolved constituents, (2) in the urban corridor and lower watershed, runoff mobilized soluble constituents accumulated on the landscape and contributed to stream loading, and (3) flood-induced groundwater discharge mobilized soluble constituents stored in the vadose zone.

  14. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    DOEpatents

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  15. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    PubMed

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, P<0.001), but higher Fe (1.3 (0.4, 4.7) vs 1.1 (0.5, 8.4)μg/mL, P=0.003) and Se (85.7 (43.0, 256.7) vs 77.8 (24.3, 143.8)ng/mL, P=0.002) values compared with elderly controls. The logistic regression analysis identified the combination of Cu and Se as significant predictor variables associated with successful aging (P=0.001), while receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis confirmed that Cu and Se (either alone or in combination) were independent variables associated with healthy aging. An 'improved' trace element profile (reduced Cu and elevated Se, which are involved in key physiological processes) could play a role in the resistance to disease showed by centenarian 'dodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping trace element distribution in fossil teeth and bone with LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinz, E. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    Trace element profiles were measured in fossil bones and teeth from the late Pleistocene (c. 25 ka) Merrell locality, Montana, USA, by using laser-ablation ICP-MS. Laser-ablation ICP-MS can collect element counts along predefined tracks on a sample’s surface using a constant ablation speed allowing for rapid spatial sampling of element distribution. Key elements analyzed included common divalent cations (e.g. Sr, Zn, Ba), a suite of REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb), and U, in addition to Ca for composition normalization and standardization. In teeth, characteristic diffusion penetration distances for all trace elements are at least a factor of 4 greater in traverses parallel to the dentine-enamel interface (parallel to the growth axis of the tooth) than perpendicular to the interface. Multiple parallel traverses in sections parallel and perpendicular to the tooth growth axis were transformed into trace element maps, and illustrate greater uptake of all trace elements along the central axis of dentine compared to areas closer to enamel, or within the enamel itself. Traverses in bone extending from the external surface, through the thickness of cortical bone and several mm into trabecular bone show major differences in trace element uptake compared to teeth: U and Sr are homogeneous, whereas all REE show a kinked profile with high concentrations on outer surfaces that decrease by several orders of magnitude within a few mm inward. The Eu anomaly increases uniformly from the outer edge of bone inward, whereas the Ce anomaly decreases slightly. These observations point to major structural anisotropies in trace element transport and uptake during fossilization, yet transport and uptake of U and REE are not resolvably different. In contrast, transport and uptake of U in bone must proceed orders of magnitude faster than REE as U is homogeneous whereas REE exhibit strong gradients. The kinked REE profiles in bone unequivocally indicate differential transport rates

  17. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F

    2015-01-01

    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Petrological characterization of the seismic low-velocity anomaly beneath the Eifel volcanic field (West Germany) using major and trace element compositions of olivine macrocrysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejan, Prelevic; Dieter, Mertz; Regina, Mertz-Kraus; Stephan, Buhre

    2014-05-01

    The Eifel volcanic field is part of the Central European Cenozoic Magmatic Province and was periodically active from the mid-Cretaceous until the latest Pleistocene. Two contrasting models are used to explain sources and magma generation mechanisms of the Pleistocene Eifel volcanism: i) decompressional partial melting at the base of the subcontinental lithosphere as a consequence of extension caused by lithospheric flexuring from emplacement of Alpine nappes (Wilson & Downes, 1991); ii) plume-type thermal upwelling in the asthenosphere on the basis of seismic tomography indicating a low-velocity anomaly beneath the Eifel probably caused by temperatures higher than the normal asthenosphere adiabat (e.g., Ritter et al. 2001). We present high-precision electron microprobe data for major and minor elements as well as laser ablation ICP-MS data for trace elements of olivine from the Eifel in order to put new constraints on the origin of Pleistocene Eifel volcanism. Being an early liquidus phase in the crystallization of basaltic melts, olivine composition may be used to characterize the composition of primary mantle melts and their source region in terms of major and trace elements. Moreover, it is useful for T estimation providing a snapshot of the liquid equilibria at early magmatic stage. In addition, important petrological parameters can be constrained, like the extent of prior melt extraction of their mantle source, the presence of different geochemical components in the source, olivine residence times etc. Olivine macrocrysts occur in most of the Eifel Mg-rich lavas, forming up to 10 vol% of the rocks. We studied olivines from 10 representative lava flows of basanitic composition. Based on compositional and textural differences, three genetic groups are recognized: i) volumetrically dominant igneous olivines or phenocrysts (melt related); they are equilibrated with their host melt showing normal zonation (core-rim Fo89-80) and NiO contents up to 0.3 wt%, whereas

  19. Modular structural elements in the replication origin region of Tetrahymena rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Du, C; Sanzgiri, R P; Shaiu, W L; Choi, J K; Hou, Z; Benbow, R M; Dobbs, D L

    1995-01-01

    Computer analyses of the DNA replication origin region in the amplified rRNA genes of Tetrahymena thermophila identified a potential initiation zone in the 5'NTS [Dobbs, Shaiu and Benbow (1994), Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 2479-2489]. This region consists of a putative DNA unwinding element (DUE) aligned with predicted bent DNA segments, nuclear matrix or scaffold associated region (MAR/SAR) consensus sequences, and other common modular sequence elements previously shown to be clustered in eukaryotic chromosomal origin regions. In this study, two mung bean nuclease-hypersensitive sites in super-coiled plasmid DNA were localized within the major DUE-like element predicted by thermodynamic analyses. Three restriction fragments of the 5'NTS region predicted to contain bent DNA segments exhibited anomalous migration characteristic of bent DNA during electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels. Restriction fragments containing the 5'NTS region bound Tetrahymena nuclear matrices in an in vitro binding assay, consistent with an association of the replication origin region with the nuclear matrix in vivo. The direct demonstration in a protozoan origin region of elements previously identified in Drosophila, chick and mammalian origin regions suggests that clusters of modular structural elements may be a conserved feature of eukaryotic chromosomal origins of replication. Images PMID:7784181

  20. Major Limitations in Using Element Concentrations in Hair as Biomarkers of Exposure to Toxic and Essential Trace Elements in Children

    PubMed Central

    Skröder, Helena; Kippler, Maria; Nermell, Barbro; Tofail, Fahmida; Levi, Michael; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Raqib, Rubhana

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair is a commonly used exposure biomarker for metals and other trace elements, but concern has been raised regarding its appropriateness for assessing the internal dose. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate children’s hair as biomarker of internal dose for toxic (As, Mn, Cd, Pb) and essential elements (Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Mo). Methods: In 207 children (9–10 years of age), originating from a population-based cohort in rural Bangladesh, we measured concentrations of the selected elements in hair (2cm closest to the scalp) using ICP-MS. We compared these with previously measured concentrations in erythrocytes, urine, and water. For a subset of children (n=19), we analyzed four consecutive 2cm pieces of hair. Results: There were strong associations between hair As and the other biomarkers (erythrocytes: rS=0.73, p<0.001; urine: rS=0.66, p<0.001); and water (rS=0.60, p<0.001); and there were significant correlations between Se in hair and erythrocytes (overall rS=0.38, p<0.001), and urine (rS=0.29, p<0.001). Hair Co and Mo showed weak correlations with concentrations in erythrocytes. Hair Mn was not associated with Mn in erythrocytes, urine, or water, and the geometric mean concentration increased almost five times from the 2cm closest to the head to the 7th–8th cm (p<0.001). Also Mg, Ca, Co, Cd, and Pb increased from the scalp outward (>50% higher in 7th–8th cm compared with 1st–2nd cm, p<0.001). Conclusions: Hair was found to be a useful exposure biomarker of absorbed As and Se only. Of all measured elements, hair Mn seemed the least reflective of internal dose. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1239 PMID:28669939

  1. The Effects of Surface Roughness on the NEAR XRS Elemental Results: Monte-Carlo Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Lucy F.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the NEAR-Shoemaker X-ray Gamma-Ray Spec1roscopy ("XGRS") investigation was to determine the elemental composition of the near-Earth asteroid 433 Eros. The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) system measured the characteristic fluorescence of six major elements (Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe) in the 1-10 keV energy range excited by the interaction of solar X-rays with the upper 100 microns of the surface of 433 Eros. Various investigators, using both laboratory experiments and computer simulations have established that X-ray fluorescent line ratios can be influenced by small-scale surface roughness at high incidence or emission angles. The effect on the line ratio is specific to the geometry, excitation spectrum, and composition involved, In general, however, the effect is only substantial for ratios of lines with a significant energy difference between them: Fe/Si and Ca/Si are much more likely to be affected than AI/Si or Mg/Si. We apply a Monte-Carlo code to the specific geometry and spectrum of a major NEAR XRS solar flare observation, using an H chondrite composition as the substrate. The seventeen most abundant elements were included in the composition model, from oxygen to titanium.

  2. The SIDER2 elements, interspersed repeated sequences that populate the Leishmania genomes, constitute subfamilies showing chromosomal proximity relationship.

    PubMed

    Requena, Jose M; Folgueira, Cristina; López, Manuel C; Thomas, M Carmen

    2008-06-02

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are causative agents of a diverse spectrum of human diseases collectively known as leishmaniasis. These eukaryotic pathogens that diverged early from the main eukaryotic lineage possess a number of unusual genomic, molecular and biochemical features. The completion of the genome projects for three Leishmania species has generated invaluable information enabling a direct analysis of genome structure and organization. By using DNA macroarrays, made with Leishmania infantum genomic clones and hybridized with total DNA from the parasite, we identified a clone containing a repeated sequence. An analysis of the recently completed genome sequence of L. infantum, using this repeated sequence as bait, led to the identification of a new class of repeated elements that are interspersed along the different L. infantum chromosomes. These elements turned out to be homologues of SIDER2 sequences, which were recently identified in the Leishmania major genome; thus, we adopted this nomenclature for the Leishmania elements described herein. Since SIDER2 elements are very heterogeneous in sequence, their precise identification is rather laborious. We have characterized 54 LiSIDER2 elements in chromosome 32 and 27 ones in chromosome 20. The mean size for these elements is 550 bp and their sequence is G+C rich (mean value of 66.5%). On the basis of sequence similarity, these elements can be grouped in subfamilies that show a remarkable relationship of proximity, i.e. SIDER2s of a given subfamily locate close in a chromosomal region without intercalating elements. For comparative purposes, we have identified the SIDER2 elements existing in L. major and Leishmania braziliensis chromosomes 32. While SIDER2 elements are highly conserved both in number and location between L. infantum and L. major, no such conservation exists when comparing with SIDER2s in L. braziliensis chromosome 32. SIDER2 elements constitute a relevant piece in the Leishmania

  3. A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2015-01-01

    The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.

  4. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS.

    PubMed

    Ashida, A

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a possibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  5. Recycling of trace elements required for humans in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashida, A.

    1994-11-01

    Recycle of complete nourishment necessary for human should be constructed in CELSS (Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems). Essential elements necessary for human support are categorized as major elements, semi-major elements and trace elements. Recently, trace elements have been identified from considerations of local diseases, food additive problems, pollution problems and adult diseases, consisting of Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, Co, F, Si, Mn, Cr, I, As, Mo, Ni, V, Sn, Li, Br, Cd, Pb, B. A review of the biogeochemical history of the earth's biosphere and the physiological nature of humans and plants explains some of the requirements. A possible route for intake of trace elements is considered that trace elements are dissolved in some chemical form in water, absorbed by plants through their roots and then transfered to human as foods. There may be a posibility that living things absorb some trace elements from atmosphere. Management and recycling of trace elements in CELSS is discussed.

  6. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in Design and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Todd C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) enables industrial designers to analyze complex components by dividing them into smaller elements, then assessing stress and strain characteristics. Traditionally mainframe based, FEA is being increasingly used in microcomputers. (SK)

  7. Major Chronic Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai: Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Their Correlations.

    PubMed

    Pothirat, Chaicharn; Phetsuk, Nittaya; Liwsrisakun, Chalerm; Bumroongkit, Chaiwat; Deesomchok, Athavudh; Theerakittikul, Theerakorn

    2016-09-01

    To identify the prevalence, clinical characteristics, disease severity, and correlations of major chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) among the adult population living in Chiang Mai. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adults living in municipal areas of Chiang Mai. All clinical relevant data collected by face-to-face interview was confirmed by pulmonologists. The chest radiographic findings and post-bronchodilator spirometry were done in all subjects. The aeroallergen skin test and rhinoscopy were performed in all chronic rhinitis and asthma subjects. Five hundred seventy four subjects with mean age 52.9±10.0 years, 59.6% female, and 37.5% smokers were recruited. The prevalence of overall CRDs was 59.2%. Chronic rhinitis was the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease (n = 239, 41.6%), followed by asthma (n = 58, 10.1%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 21, 3.7%). The most common abnormal pulmonary function test was restrictive lung disorders (n = 53, 9.6%). Asthma subjects were determined to be more allergic than chronic rhinitis subjects (58.1% vs. 39.9%, p-value = 0.033). Regarding the disease severity, 14.9% of chronic rhinitis and 10.3% of asthma subjects were classified as moderate to severe degree, whereas 81% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects were classified as moderate to very severe degrees. In asthma patients, there were positive association with chronic rhinitis (OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.1-7.0, p-value <0.001). The prevalence of major CRDs in adults among Chiang Mai population was significantly high with overlapped respiratory symptoms and varying disease severity. Additionally, chronic rhinitis had correlation with asthma but not with COPD.

  8. Direct evidence of the feedback between climate and nutrient, major, and trace element transport to the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Gislason, Sigurður Reynir; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2015-10-01

    Climate changes affect weathering, denudation and riverine runoff, and therefore elemental fluxes to the ocean. This study presents the climate effect on annual fluxes of 28 dissolved elements, and organic and inorganic particulate fluxes, determined over 26-42 year period in three glacial and three non-glacial river catchments located in Eastern Iceland. Annual riverine fluxes were determined by generating robust correlations between dissolved element concentrations measured from 1998 to 2003 and suspended inorganic matter concentrations measured from 1962 to 2002 with instantaneous discharge measured at the time of sampling in each of these rivers. These correlations were used together with measured average daily discharge to compute daily elemental fluxes. Integration of these daily fluxes yielded the corresponding annual fluxes. As the topography and lithology of the studied glacial and non-glacial river catchments are similar, we used the records of average annual temperature and annual runoff to examine how these parameters and glacier melting influenced individual element fluxes to the oceans. Significant variations were found between the individual elements. The dissolved fluxes of the more soluble elements, such as Mo, Sr, and Na are less affected by increasing temperature and runoff than the insoluble nutrients and trace elements including Fe, P, and Al. This variation between the elements tends to be more pronounced for the glacial compared to the non-glacial rivers. These observations are interpreted to stem from the stronger solubility control on the concentrations of the insoluble elements such that they are less affected by dilution. The dilution of the soluble elements by increasing discharge in the glacial rivers is enhanced by a relatively low amount of water-rock interaction; increased runoff due to glacial melting tend to be collected rapidly into river channels limiting water-rock interaction. It was found that the climate effect on particle

  9. Characteristics and Core Curricular Elements of Medical Simulation Fellowships in North America.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rami A; Frey, Jennifer; Gardner, Aimee K; Gordon, James A; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Tekian, Ara

    2016-05-01

    Background In the past few years, there has been rapid growth in the number of simulation fellowships for physicians in the United States and Canada, with the objective of producing faculty with expertise and leadership training in medical simulation. Relatively little is known about the collective content and structure of these new fellowship opportunities. Objective We sought to identify a common set of core curricular elements among existing simulation fellowships and to obtain demographic background information on participants and leadership. Methods We designed a web-based survey and circulated it to simulation fellowship directors in the United States and Canada. The questions explored aspects of the fellowship curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to qualitatively analyze fellowship goals and objectives. Results Of the 29 program directors surveyed, 23 responded (79%). The most commonly listed goals and objectives were to increase skills in simulation curriculum development, simulation operations and training environment setup, research, educational theory, administration, and debriefing. The majority of the responding fellowship directors (17 of 22, 77%) indicated that a set of consensus national guidelines would benefit their fellowship program. Conclusions Simulation fellowships are experiencing a period of rapid growth. Development of a common set of program guidelines is a widely shared objective among fellowship directors.

  10. Characteristics and Core Curricular Elements of Medical Simulation Fellowships in North America

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rami A.; Frey, Jennifer; Gardner, Aimee K.; Gordon, James A.; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Tekian, Ara

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past few years, there has been rapid growth in the number of simulation fellowships for physicians in the United States and Canada, with the objective of producing faculty with expertise and leadership training in medical simulation. Relatively little is known about the collective content and structure of these new fellowship opportunities. Objective We sought to identify a common set of core curricular elements among existing simulation fellowships and to obtain demographic background information on participants and leadership. Methods We designed a web-based survey and circulated it to simulation fellowship directors in the United States and Canada. The questions explored aspects of the fellowship curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to qualitatively analyze fellowship goals and objectives. Results Of the 29 program directors surveyed, 23 responded (79%). The most commonly listed goals and objectives were to increase skills in simulation curriculum development, simulation operations and training environment setup, research, educational theory, administration, and debriefing. The majority of the responding fellowship directors (17 of 22, 77%) indicated that a set of consensus national guidelines would benefit their fellowship program. Conclusions Simulation fellowships are experiencing a period of rapid growth. Development of a common set of program guidelines is a widely shared objective among fellowship directors. PMID:27168898

  11. Lithospheric heterogeneity beneath the EARS interpreted from major and trace element analyses of mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblock, J.; Anthony, E.; Omenda, P.; Chesley, J.

    2003-04-01

    We report chemical analyses for tholeiites from the axial region of the EARS and tholeiites and basanites from the Chyulu Hills Volcanic Province (CHVP), located on the SE flank of the Kenya Rift. The purpose of the study is to: i) explore contrasts in lithospheric composition from the axial region, where seismic velocities imply high temperatures and presence of melt at shallow depths, to the flanks, where geophysical studies indicate thick lithosphere and a zone of partial melt centered under the CHVP (Ritter and Kaspar, 1997, Tectonophysics 278, 149-169). ii) investigate plume components and plume-lithosphere interactions in the different settings. This study complements the characterization of lithosphere along the axis of the Rift by MacDonald et al. (2001, J. Petrol. 42, 877-900) and the study of temporal evolution of the CHVP by Späth et al. (2001, J. Petrol. 42, 765-787). Basanites within the CHVP are similar to OIB in their trace-element patterns, but with a pronounced negative K-anomaly. Späth et al. attribute this anomaly to melting of a lithospheric mantle source containing amphibole. They postulate, based on radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Pb, Nd), recent metasomatism due to interaction of the lithosphere with the EARS plume. High La/Yb suggests a source within the garnet-peridotite field. Tholeiites from the CHVP are distinct in trace-element chemistry from basanites, with flatter multi-element patterns and generally lower elemental concentrations. The CHVP tholeiites have La/Yb indicative of a spinel peridotite source. The role of crustal contamination for tholeiites remains open; however, substantial evidence exists for lithospheric heterogeneity beneath the CHVP. Axial lavas show similar elemental behavior as the CHVP: basanites have negative K-anomalies (MacDonald et al., 2001), whereas tholeiites do not. Tholeiites have flat multi-element patterns with low overall concentrations, similar to those from the CHVP, with one significant difference

  12. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    PubMed

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Stream-sediment samples reanalyzed for major, rare earth, and trace elements from ten 1:250,000-scale quadrangles, south-central Alaska, 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Elizabeth A.; Shew, Nora B.; Labay, Keith A.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.; O'Leary, Richard M.; Detra, David E.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1960s through the 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted reconnaissance geochemical surveys of the drainage basins throughout most of the Anchorage, Bering Glacier, Big Delta, Gulkana, Healy, McCarthy, Mount Hayes, Nabesna, Talkeetna Mountains, and Valdez 1:250,000-scale quadrangles in Alaska as part of the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). These geochemical surveys provide data necessary to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources on public and other lands, and provide data that may be used to determine regional-scale element baselines. This report provides new data for 366 of the previously collected stream-sediment samples. These samples were selected for reanalysis because recently developed analytical methods can detect additional elements of interest and have lower detection limits than the methods used when these samples were originally analyzed. These samples were all analyzed for arsenic by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), for gold, palladium, and platinum by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after lead button fire assay separation (FA/ICP-MS), and for a suite of 55 major, rare earth, and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-AES-MS) after sodium peroxide sinter at 450 degrees Celsius.

  14. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  15. A Review of International Space Station Habitable Element Equipment Offgassing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed spacecraft trace contaminant control employs both passive and active methods to achieve acceptable cabin atmospheric quality. Passive methods include carefully selecting materials of construction, employing clean manufacturing practices, and minimizing systems and payload operational impacts to the cabin environment. Materials selection and manufacturing processes constitute the first level of equipment offgassing control. An element-level equipment offgassing test provides preflight verification that passive controls have been successful. Offgassing test results from multiple International Space Station (ISS) habitable elements and cargo vehicles are summarized and implications for active contamination control equipment design are discussed

  16. A survey of major east coast snowstorms, 1960-1983. Part 2. Summary of surface and upperlevel characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocin, P. J.; Uccellini, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Surface and upper-level characteristics of selected meteorological fields are summarized. Two major types of sea level development are described and applied to the cases at hand, with a few storm systems showing characteristics of both types. Aspects such as rapid sea level deepening, coastal frontogenesis, cold air damming, low level jet formation, the development of an S-shaped isotherm pattern, diffluence downwind of a negatively tilted upper level trough axis, upper level confluence and an increase of geopotential heights at the base of the upper level trough characterized the pre-cyclogenetic and cyclogenetic periods of many of the storm systems. Large variability was also observed, especially with regard to the spatial dimensions of the surface and upper level systems, as well as variations in trough/ridge amplification and the evolution of upper level jet streak systems. The influence of transverse circulations associated with a confluent jet streak entrance region and the diffluent exit region of a jet streak/trough system on the production of snowfall is also discussed.

  17. Major, Trace, and Volatile (CO2, H2O, S, F, and Cl) Elements from 1000+ Hawaiian Olivine-hosted Melt Inclusions Reveal the Dynamics of Crustal Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marske, J. P.; Hauri, E. H.; Trusdell, F.; Garcia, M. O.; Pietruszka, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Global cycling of volatile elements (H2O, CO2, F, S, Cl) via subduction to deep mantle followed by entrainment and melting within ascending mantle plumes is an enigmatic process that controls key aspects of hot spot volcanism (i.e. melting rate, magma supply, degassing, eruptive style). Variations in radiogenic isotope ratios (e.g.187Os/188Os) at hot spots such as Hawaii reveal magmatic processes within deep-seated mantle plumes (e.g. mantle heterogeneity, lithology, and melt transport). Shield-stage lavas from Hawaii likely originate from a mixed plume source containing peridotite and recycled oceanic crust (pyroxenite) based on variations of radiogenic isotopes. Hawaiian lavas display correlations among isotopes, major and trace elements [1] that might be expected to have an expression in the volatile elements. To investigate this link, we present Os isotopic ratios (n=51), and major, trace, and volatile elements from 1003 olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) and their host minerals from tephra from Koolau, Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Loihi volcanoes. The data show a strong correlation between MI volatile contents and incompatible trace element ratios (La/Yb) with Os isotopes of the same host olivines and reveal large-scale volatile heterogeneity and zonation exists within the Hawaiian plume. 'Loa' chain lavas, which are thought to originate from greater proportions of recycled oceanic crust/pyroxenite, have MIs with lower H2O, S, F, and Cl contents compared to 'Kea' chain lavas that were derived from more peridotite-rich sources. The depletion of volatile elements in the 'Loa' volcano MIs can be explained if they tapped an ancient dehydrated oceanic crust component within the Hawaiian plume. Higher extents of melting beneath 'Loa' volcanoes can also explain these depletions. The presence of dehydrated recycled mafic material in the plume source suggests that subduction effectively devolatilizes part of the oceanic crust. These results are similar to the

  18. The abundances of major elements in Cas A and Tycho supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program was to map the abundances of major elements such as O, Si, S, and Fe in the supernova remnants, Tycho and Cas A. The approach was based upon using archival cosmic X-ray data from several space missions, notably, the Einstein Observatory, EXOSAT, ROSAT, BBSRT, and ASCA. Two of the missions, Einstein and ROSAT, had high resolution telescopes that provided excellent images, but no spectral information. Two missions with much poorer resolution telescopes, BBXRT and ASCA, gave good spectral information through pulse height of signals in their cooled solid state detector, but rather crude spatial information. Our goal was to extract spectral information from the combined analysis of the Einstein and ROSAT images of Cas A and Tycho and to verify or refine the spectral map by checking its agreement with the BBSRT or ASCA spectra results for larger regions. In particular, we note that the Einstein and ROSAT telescopes have different spectral responses. The Einstein bandwidth includes the 2-4 keV region which is absent from ROSAT. Hence, by forming linear combinations of the Einstein and ROSAT images, we are able to resolve the contributions of the 0.5-2 keV band from the 2-4 keV band. The former contains lines of O and Fe while the latter is dominated by Si and S. We correct for the expansion that has taken place in the remnants during the ten-year interval between the Einstein and ROSAT measurements, but we must assume that no significant spectral changes have occurred during that time. The analysis of the Tycho SNR was completed and the results have been published. A copy of the paper is included. The analysis of Cas A has proved to be more complicated. It is continuing with support from another program. Part of the problem may be due to difficulties in the aspect information which is needed to precisely register the ROSAT and Einstein images.

  19. Impact of snow deposition on major and trace element concentrations and elementary fluxes in surface waters of the Western Siberian Lowland across a 1700 km latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Politova, Nadezhda V.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Dara, Olga M.; Auda, Yves; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Zemtsov, Valery A.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2017-11-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of snow and its impact on surface water hydrochemistry in the poorly studied Western Siberia Lowland (WSL), the surface layer of snow was sampled in February 2014 across a 1700 km latitudinal gradient (ca. 56.5 to 68° N). We aimed at assessing the latitudinal effect on both dissolved and particulate forms of elements in snow and quantifying the impact of atmospheric input to element storage and export fluxes in inland waters of the WSL. The concentration of dissolved+colloidal (< 0.45 µm) Fe, Co, Cu, As and La increased by a factor of 2 to 5 north of 63° N compared to southern regions. The pH and dissolved Ca, Mg, Sr, Mo and U in snow water increased with the rise in concentrations of particulate fraction (PF). Principal component analyses of major and trace element concentrations in both dissolved and particulate fractions revealed two factors not linked to the latitude. A hierarchical cluster analysis yielded several groups of elements that originated from alumino-silicate mineral matrix, carbonate minerals and marine aerosols or belonging to volatile atmospheric heavy metals, labile elements from weatherable minerals and nutrients. The main sources of mineral components in PF are desert and semi-desert regions of central Asia. The snow water concentrations of DIC, Cl, SO4, Mg, Ca, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, W, Pb and U exceeded or were comparable with springtime concentrations in thermokarst lakes of the permafrost-affected WSL zone. The springtime river fluxes of DIC, Cl, SO4, Na, Mg, Ca, Rb, Cs, metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb), metalloids (As, Sb), Mo and U in the discontinuous to continuous permafrost zone (64-68° N) can be explained solely by melting of accumulated snow. The impact of snow deposition on riverine fluxes of elements strongly increased northward, in discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones of frozen peat bogs. This was consistent with the decrease in the impact of rock

  20. Trace element analyses of fluid-bearing diamonds from Jwaneng, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrauder, Marcus; Koeberl, Christian; Navon, Oded

    1996-12-01

    Fibrous diamonds from Botswana contain abundant micro-inclusions, which represent syngenetic mantle fluids under high pressure. The major element composition of the fluids within individual diamonds was found to be uniform, but a significant compositional variation exists between different diamond specimens. The composition of the fluids varies between a carbonatitic and a hydrous endmember. To constrain the composition of fluids in the mantle, the trace element contents of thirteen micro-inclusion-bearing fibrous diamonds from Botswana was studied using neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of incompatible elements (including K, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs, Ba, Hf, Ta, Th, U, and the LREEs) in the fluids are higher than those of mantle-derived rocks and melt inclusions. The compatible elements (e.g., Cr, Co, Ni) have abundances that are similar to those of the primitive mantle. The concentrations of most trace elements decrease by a factor of two from the carbonate-rich fluids to the hydrous fluids. Several models may explain the observed elemental variations. Minerals in equilibrium with the fluid were most likely enriched in incompatible elements, which does not agree with derivation of the fluids by partial melting of common peridotites or eclogites. Fractional crystallization of a kimberlite-like magma at depth may yield carbonatitic fluids with low mg numbers (atomic ratio [Mg/(Mg+Fe)]) and high trace element contents. Fractionation of carbonates and additional phases (e.g., rutile, apatite, zircon) may, in general, explain the concentrations of incompatible elements in the fluids, which preferably partition into these phases. Alternatively, mixing of fluids with compositions similar to those of the two endmembers may explain the observed variation of the elemental contents. The fluids in fibrous diamonds might have equilibrated with mineral inclusions in eclogitic diamonds, while peridotitic diamonds do not show evidence of interaction with these fluids

  1. An estimation of the input conductivity characteristic of some resistive (percolation) structures composed of elements having a two-term polynomial characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluskin, Emanuel

    2007-07-01

    A specific circuit connection is suggested for the calculation of the input conductivity (current caused by voltage) characteristic i in= F( v in) of a 1-port named “ f-circuit”, composed of similar conductors described by conductive characteristic of the type f( v)= D mv m+D nv n. It is assumed that such circuit models can be relevant to the theory of percolation structures [S.W. Kenkel, J.P. Straley, Percolation theory of nonlinear circuit elements, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49(11)(1982)767-770; J.P. Straley, S.W. Kenkel, Percolation theory for nonlinear conductors, Phys. Rev. B 29(11)(1984)6299-6305; R. Rammal, A.-M.S. Trembley, Resistance noise in nonlinear resistor networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4)(1987)415-418; Ch.P. Hatsell, A quasi-power theorem for bulk conductors: comments on Rheoencephalography, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 38(7)(1991)665-669; L. Venkataraman, Y.S. Hong, P. Kim, Electron transport in a multichannel one-dimensional conductor: molybdenum selenide nanowires, Phys. Rev. Lett 96(076601)(2006)076601-1-076601-4; A.A. Snarskii, K.V. Slipchenko, A.A. Sevryukov, Critical behavior in two-phase, highly inhomogeneous composites, J. Exp. Theor. Phy. 89(4)(1999)788-799; A.A. Snarskii, M. Zhenirovskiy, Effective conductivity of non-linear composites, Physica B 322(2002)84-91], in a state not far from the percolation threshold, even though the main result seems to be sufficiently interesting by itself and one can expect that other interesting applications for such conductive structures will be found. The f-circuit is constructed here from two power-law “ α-circuits”, f( v)∼ vα, of the same topology [E. Gluskin, One-ports composed of power-law resistors, IEEE Trans. CAS-II 51(9)(2004)464-467], but having different α. In this construction, named “ f-connection”, the respective nodes of the α-circuits are short-circuited, and the respective branches become connected in parallel, which causes f(.) to be an additive function; thus f( v)= D mv m+D nv n is

  2. Seasonal growth and translocation of some major and trace elements in two Mediterranean grasses (Stipa tenacissima Loefl. ex L. and Lygeum spartum Loefl. ex L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid

    2018-05-01

    The rangelands of Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum (Poaceae) constitute one of the main typical ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. This study examines the seasonal changes in aboveground biomass accumulation and translocation of some major (Ca and K) and trace elements (Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn) from topsoil to shoots of these perennial grasses. Species, season and their interaction significantly affected the dry biomass (DW) and chemical composition of both species and their surrounding soil. The maximum DW was found in spring due to high physiological activity and was correlated positively with rainfall. A significant relationship between seasons and chemical elements was found. For both species the maximum concentrations of Ca, Cu and Zn were found in spring season. However L. spartum had the highest concentrations of K, Cr, Br, and Sr in autumn season, indicating exceptional ability of these species to accumulate large contents of these elements during the active growth periods. By way of contrast, in the topsoil the highest concentrations of almost all chemical elements were found in summer and autumn. Principal component analyses (PCA) showed that growth of L. spartum was highly associated with K, Ca, Zn, Br and Sr, whereas topsoil was correlated with Cu, Cr, Fe and Mn concentrations. Translocation factor (TFx) of chemical elements was not identical across the two species, demonstrating inter-specific variability to uptake chemical elements. The maximum values of TFx were recorded for K, Ca and Sr especially for L. spartum. To cope with arid conditions, S. tenacissima and L. spartum sprout quickly by increasing their rate of growth and nutrient uptake as soon as soil water is available after the rain.

  3. Sensing Device with Whisker Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  4. Sensing device with whisker elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Mitra J. (Inventor); Solomon, Joseph H. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A sensing device includes an elongated whisker element having a flexible cantilever region and a base region where a change in moment or curvature is generated by bending of the cantilever region when it contacts an object. One or more sensor elements cooperatively associated with the whisker element provide one or more output signals that is/are representative of two orthogonal components of change in moment or curvature at the whisker base region to permit determination of object distance, fluid velocity profile, or object contour (shape) with accounting for lateral slip of the whisker element and frictional characteristics of the object. Multiple sensing devices can be arranged in arrays in a manner to sense object contour without or with adjustment for lateral slip.

  5. Production characteristics of the complex "SLS-vegetables" as the element of bioregenerative life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Lasseur, Christophe

    Previously we had shown possibility of long-term cultivation of wheat and radish uneven-aged conveyer on the soil-like substrate (SLS) with periodic introduction in the SLS of edible (in the form of a mineral solution after physicochemical burning) and inedible biomass of the plants grown on it. The given work was aimed at the study of production characteristics of the plants cultivated on the SLS with a periodic introduction of plant biomass, which consisted of harvested inedible biomass and wheat straw. The wheat straw was introduced in the SLS to compensate carrying out of mineral elements from the SLS with the edible biomass of the harvested plants. Also possibility of joint cultivation of the chosen vegetable plants under the given way of plant inedible biomass introduction in the SLS was estimated. Chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were taken as the objects of research. Plants were grown in the regime of the three-species uneven-aged conveyer. Before each next planting of plants we introduced in the SLS all inedible biomass of earlier harvested plants and wheat straw. The amount of introduced wheat straw depended on nitrogen content in edible biomass of the harvested plants. Plants irrigation was performed by means of common nutrient solution containing mineral elements extracted from the SLS. 2 concentration in a vegetation chamber was maintained in limits from 0.1The work was carried out under support of SB RAS grant 132 and INTAS grant 05-1000008-8010

  6. Isotopic and trace element geochemistry of the Seligdar magnesiocarbonatites (South Yakutia, Russia): Insights regarding the mantle evolution beneath the Aldan-Stanovoy shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Izokh, Andrey E.; Klemd, Reiner; Ponomarchuk, Anton V.; Nikolaeva, Irina V.; Vladykin, Nikolay V.

    2018-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Seligdar magnesiocarbonatite intrusion of the Aldan-Stanovoy shield in Russia underwent extensive postmagmatic hydrothermal alteration and metamorphic events. This study comprises new isotopic (Sr, Nd, C and O) data, whole-rock major and trace element compositions and trace element characteristics of the major minerals to gain a better understanding of the source and the formation process of the carbonatites. The Seligdar carbonatites have high concentrations of P2O5 (up to 18 wt%) and low concentrations of Na, K, Sr and Ba. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns of these carbonatites display significant enrichments of LREE relative to HREE with an average La/Ybcn ratio of 95. Hydrothermal and metamorphic overprints changed the trace element characteristics of the carbonatites and their minerals. These alteration processes were responsible for Sr loss and the shifting of the Sr isotopic compositions towards more radiogenic values. The altered carbonatites are further characterized by distinct 18O- and 13C-enrichments compared to the primary igneous carbonatites. The alteration most likely resulted from both the percolation of crustal-derived hydrothermal fluids and subsequent metamorphic processes accompanied by interaction with limestone-derived CO2. The narrow range of negative εNd(T) values indicates that the Seligdar carbonatites are dominated by a homogenous enriched mantle source component that was separated from the depleted mantle during the Archean.

  7. Water-quality characteristics of Everglades National Park, 1959-77, with reference to the effects of water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, Bradley G.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has collected water-quality data in the Everglades National Park since 1959. Major ions, macronutrients, trace elements, and pesticides are the primary chemical groups analyzed. The period of record and frequency of sampling vary for each chemical group, with the longest record for the major ions and the shortest for the macronutrients. Within the park there are three major drainageways: Big Cypress Swamp, Shark River Slough, and Taylor Slough. Each drainageway exhibits unique hydrologic conditions, yet there is a high degree of homogeneity in water-quality characteristics among these areas. Seasonal changes in major-ion, trace-element, and macronutrient concentrations are marked in the shallow marsh. Concentrations generally increase in the dry season due to evapotranspiration, changes in chemical equilibria, and precipitation. Water-management practices in south Florida have changed the water quality in the Shark River Slough. Most major-ion, dissolved-solid, and iron concentrations and color levels have steadily increased since 1963. The water quality in the other two drainageways has not changed since sampling began. Chlorinated-hydrocarbon insecticide residues in bottom material were found in low concentration at every sampling station in the park. (USGS)

  8. Characterization of Fine Airborne Particulate Collected in Tokyo and Major Atmospheric Emission Sources by Using Single Particle Measurement of SEM-EDX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Iijima, A.; Furuta, N.

    2008-12-01

    In our long-term monitoring of size-classified Airborne Particulate Matter (APM) in Tokyo since 1995, it had been demonstrated that toxic elements such as As, Se, Cd, Sb and Pb were extremely enriched in fine APM (PM2.5). However, in that study, total sampled APM on a filter was digested with acids, and thus only averaged elemental composition in fine APM could be obtained. One of the effective methods to determine the origin of APM is single particle measurement by using SEM-EDX. By using characteristic shapes observed by SEM and marker elements contained in APM measured by EDX, detailed information for source identification can be obtained. In this study, fine APM (PM2.5) was collected at various locations such as roadside, diesel vehicle exhaust, a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant as well as ambient atmosphere in Tokyo, and characteristics of fine particles that will be utilized for identification of emission sources are elucidated. Fine particles can be classified into 3 main characteristic shape groups; edge-shaped, cotton-like and spherical. Shape of particles collected in a heavy oil combustion plant and a waste incineration plant was mostly spherical, and these particles may be associated with thermal process. Diesel exhaust particles were predominantly cotton-like which may consist of coagulated nano-sized particles. Most of brake abrasion dusts were edge-shaped, which may be associated with mechanical abrasion of brake pads. In the elemental analysis of fine particles, high concentrations of Sb, Cu, Ti and Ba were detected in brake abrasion dusts. Since these elements are major constituents of brake pads, these can be used for marker elements of brake abrasion dusts. High concentration of C was detected in diesel exhaust particles and oil combustion particles, and thus C can be used for marker elements of their origin. Furthermore, high concentrations of C, Ca and K were detected in fly ash from a waste incineration plant, which

  9. Characterization of biogenic elements in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    Those particles that were designated cometary are aggregates of amorphous materials including carbon, iron-magnesium silicates, sulfides, metal and trace amounts of unusual phases. Most aggregates are carbon-rich with major and minor element abundances similar to a fine grained matrix of carbonaceous chondrites. Several particles were analyzed by a laser microprobe. The negative ionic species identified to date include carbon clusters, protonated carbon clusters, CN-, HCN-, CNO-, PO2-, PO3-, S-, S2- asnd OH-. These species are similar to those observed in cometary spectra and they support the assumption that organic materials are present. The occurance of phosphate ions suggests the presence of apatite or whitlockite. Cometary particle characteristics may indicate that the component grains represent primitive unaltered dust whose overall properties are extremely similar to altered primitive dust in carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Trace elements in ocean ridge basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, R. W.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the trace elements found in ocean ridge basalts. General assumptions regarding melting behavior, trace element fractionation, and alteration effects are presented. Data on the trace elements are grouped according to refractory lithophile elements, refractory siderophile elements, and volatile metals. Variations in ocean ridge basalt chemistry are noted both for regional and temporal characteristics. Ocean ridge basalts are compared to other terrestrial basalts, such as those having La/Yb ratios greater than those of chondrites, and those having La/Yb ratios less than those of chondrites. It is found that (1) as compared to solar or chondrite ratios, ocean ridge basalts have low ratios of large, highly-charged elements to smaller less highly-charged elements, (2) ocean ridge basalts exhibit low ratios of volatile to nonvolatile elements, and (3) the transition metals Cr through Zn in ocean ridge basalts are not fractionated more than a factor of 2 or 3 from the chondritic abundance ratios.

  11. Evaluation of some essential element levels in thalassemia major patients in Mosul district, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Al-Samarrai, Abdulmunaim H; Adaay, Mohaisen H; Al-Tikriti, Khudhair A; Al-Anzy, Muayed M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of some essential elements in thalassemic patients in Mosul, Iraq. One hundred and five thalassemic blood transfusion dependent children, 2.5-18 years of age attending Ibn-Al-Atheer teaching hospital in Mosul City, Iraq, during 2005, were used in this study. Fifty-four healthy subjects served as a control group. Patients were allocated in a non-randomized prospective cross-sectional hospital based study. Essential elements levels were estimated. The mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient, and z-test were used. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Low serum zinc, and magnesium, and high serum copper, and potassium levels were found among the 105 thalassemic patients compared to the 54 controls. Levels of calcium, phosphate, and sodium were within normal limits. Fluctuations in the essential elements levels seem to be related to the different complications associated with the disease. Zinc deficiency may be attributed to hyperzincuria resulted from the release of Zn from hemolyzed red cells. Hypercupremia occurs in acute and chronic infections and hemochromatosis, which is a principal complication of thalassemia. Increased Na levels may be due to renal damage. Hypomagnesemia may occur due to hypoparathyroidism.

  12. Associations between major life events and adherence, glycemic control, and psychosocial characteristics in teens with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Commissariat, Persis V; Volkening, Lisa K; Guo, Zijing; ElBach, Jessica L; Butler, Deborah A; Laffel, Lori M

    2018-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the type of major life events occurring in a contemporary sample of teens with type 1 diabetes and the association between event frequency and demographic, diabetes management, and psychosocial characteristics. Parents of 178 teens completed the Life Events Checklist to report major events teens had experienced in the last year: 42% experienced 0 to 1 event (n = 75), 32% experienced 2 to 3 events (n = 57), and 26% experienced 4+ events (n = 46). Teens and parents completed validated measures of treatment adherence, diabetes-specific self-efficacy, quality of life, and diabetes-specific family conflict. Parent-youth interview and chart review provided demographics and diabetes management data. Mean number of events/teen was 2.6 ± 2.7 (range = 0-15). The most common events were "Hospitalization of a family member" (24%), "Getting a bad report card" (20%), "Serious arguments between parents" (19%), and "Serious illness/injury in a family member" (19%). Compared with teens experiencing 0 to 1 event, teens experiencing 4+ events were less likely to have married parents (P = .01) and a parent with a college degree (P = .006). Teens with 4+ events had significantly poorer adherence (P = .002 teen, P = .02 parent), lower self-efficacy (P = .03 teen, P < .0001 parent), poorer quality of life (P < .0001 teen, P < .0001 parent), and more conflict (P = .006 teen, P = .02 parent) than teens with fewer events. In a multivariate model (R 2  = 0.21, P < .0001) controlling for demographic and diabetes management characteristics, fewer events was associated with lower A1c (P = .0009). Occurrence of more major life events was associated with poorer diabetes care and A1c and more negative psychosocial qualities in teens with type 1 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Modernisation of a test rig for determination of vehicle shock absorber characteristics by considering vehicle suspension elements and unsprung masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniowski, M.; Para, S.; Knapczyk, M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a modernization approach of a standard test bench for determination of damping characteristics of automotive shock absorbers. It is known that the real-life work conditions of wheel-suspension dampers are not easy to reproduce in laboratory conditions, for example considering a high frequency damper response or a noise emission. The proposed test bench consists of many elements from a real vehicle suspension. Namely, an original tyre-wheel with additional unsprung mass, a suspension spring, an elastic top mount, damper bushings and a simplified wheel guiding mechanism. Each component was tested separately in order to identify its mechanical characteristics. The measured data serve as input parameters for a numerical simulation of the test bench behaviour by using a vibratory model with 3 degrees of freedom. Study on the simulation results and the measurements are needed for further development of the proposed test bench.

  14. Using Finite Element and Eigenmode Expansion Methods to Investigate the Periodic and Spectral Characteristic of Superstructure Fiber Bragg Gratings

    PubMed Central

    He, Yue-Jing; Hung, Wei-Chih; Lai, Zhe-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a numerical simulation method was employed to investigate and analyze superstructure fiber Bragg gratings (SFBGs) with five duty cycles (50%, 33.33%, 14.28%, 12.5%, and 10%). This study focuses on demonstrating the relevance between design period and spectral characteristics of SFBGs (in the form of graphics) for SFBGs of all duty cycles. Compared with complicated and hard-to-learn conventional coupled-mode theory, the result of the present study may assist beginner and expert designers in understanding the basic application aspects, optical characteristics, and design techniques of SFBGs, thereby indirectly lowering the physical concepts and mathematical skills required for entering the design field. To effectively improve the accuracy of overall computational performance and numerical calculations and to shorten the gap between simulation results and actual production, this study integrated a perfectly matched layer (PML), perfectly reflecting boundary (PRB), object meshing method (OMM), and boundary meshing method (BMM) into the finite element method (FEM) and eigenmode expansion method (EEM). The integrated method enables designers to easily and flexibly design optical fiber communication systems that conform to the specific spectral characteristic by using the simulation data in this paper, which includes bandwidth, number of channels, and band gap size. PMID:26861322

  15. Coupled-mode analysis of gain and wavelength oscillation characteristics of diode laser phased arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. K.; Ettenberg, M.; Ackley, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The lasing wavelengths and gain characteristics of the modes of phase-locked arrays of channel-substrate-planar (CSP) lasers are presented. The gain values for the array modes are determined from complex coupling coefficients calculated using the fields of neighboring elements of the array. The computations show that, for index guided lasers which have nearly planar phase fronts, the highest order array mode will be preferred. The 'in-phase' or fundamental mode, which produces only one major lobe in the far-field radiation pattern, has the lowest modal gain of all array modes. The modal gain differential between the highest order and fundamental modes is less than 10/cm for weak coupling between the elements.

  16. Student and high-school characteristics related to completing a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) major in college

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBeau, Brandon; Harwell, Michael; Monson, Debra; Dupuis, Danielle; Medhanie, Amanuel; Post, Thomas R.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The importance of increasing the number of US college students completing degrees in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) has prompted calls for research to provide a better understanding of factors related to student participation in these majors, including the impact of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum. Purpose: This study examines the relationship between various student and high-school characteristics and completion of a STEM major in college. Of specific interest is the influence of a student's high-school mathematics curriculum on the completion of a STEM major in college. Sample: The sample consisted of approximately 3500 students from 229 high schools. Students were predominantly Caucasian (80%), with slightly more males than females (52% vs 48%). Design and method: A quasi-experimental design with archival data was used for students who enrolled in, and graduated from, a post-secondary institution in the upper Midwest. To be included in the sample, students needed to have completed at least three years of high-school mathematics. A generalized linear mixed model was used with students nested within high schools. The data were cross-sectional. Results: High-school predictors were not found to have a significant impact on the completion of a STEM major. Significant student-level predictors included ACT mathematics score, gender and high-school mathematics GPA. Conclusions: The results provide evidence that on average students are equally prepared for the rigorous mathematics coursework regardless of the high-school mathematics curriculum they completed.

  17. Water-quality assessment of the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin; major and trace elements in water, sediment, and biota, 1978-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, F.A.; Scudder, B.C.; Crawford, J.K.; Schmidt, A.R.; Sieverling, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of 22 major and trace elements was examined in water, sediment, and biota in the upper Illinois River Basin in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin as part of a pilot National Water-Quality Assessment project done by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1987 through 1990. The 22 elements are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority pollutants among the 22 elements were elevated in the Chicago area in all three aquatic components (water, sediment, and biota). Further, some of the priority pollutants also were found at elevated concentrations in biota in agricultural areas in the basin. Cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc concentrations in water exceeded USEPA acute or chronic water-quality criteria at several sites in the Chicago area. Correlations among concentra- tions of elements in water, sediment, and biota were found, but the correlation analysis was hindered by the large proportion of observations less than the minimum reporting level in water. Those sites where water-quality criteria were sometimes exceeded were not always the same sites where concentrations in biota were the largest. This relation indicates that accumulation of these pollutants in biota is confounded by complex geochemical and biological processes that differ throughout the upper Illinois River Basin.

  18. [Rapid determination of major and trace elements in the salt lake clay minerals by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Huan; Meng, Qing-Fen; Dong, Ya-Ping; Chen, Mei-Da; Li, Wu

    2010-03-01

    A rapid multi-element analysis method for clay mineral samples was described. This method utilized a polarized wave-length dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer--Axios PW4400, which had a maximum tube power of 4 000 watts. The method was developed for the determination of As, Mn, Co, Cu, Cr, Dy, Ga, Mo, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ni, ,Cs, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Y, Zn, Zr, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2 and so on. Thirty elements in clay mineral species were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder pellets. Spectral interferences, in particular the indirect interferences of each element, were studied. A method to distinguish the interference between each other periodic elements in element periodic table was put forward. The measuring conditions and existence were mainly investigated, and the selected background position as well as corrected spectral overlap for the trace elements were also discussed. It was found that the indirect spectral overlap line was the same important as direct spectral overlap line. Due to inducing the effect of indirect spectral overlap, some elements jlike Bi, Sn, W which do not need analysis were also added to the elements channel. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 0.01% to 5.45% except three elements Mo, Cs and Ta. The detection limits, precisions and accuracies for most elements using this method can meet the requirements of sample analysis in clay mineral species.

  19. Pb, Sr and Nd isotopic composition and trace element characteristics of coarse airborne particles collected with passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoàng-Hòa, Thi Bich; Stille, Peter; Dietze, Volker; Guéguen, Florence; Perrone, Thierry; Gieré, Reto

    2015-09-01

    Passive samplers for collection of coarse airborne particulate matter have been installed in and around the coal-mining town of Cam Pha, Quang Ninh Province (Vietnam). Analysis of Pb, Sr, and Nd isotope ratios and of major and trace element distribution patterns in atmospheric particulates collected at three stations allowed for the identification of four important dust components: (1) coal dust from an open-pit mine and fly ash particles from a coal-fired power station, (2) diesel soot, (3) traffic dust from metal, tire and pavement abrasion, and (4) limestone-derived dust. Outside of the coal-mining area, traffic-derived dust defines the atmospheric baseline composition of the studied environment.

  20. Acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion: Characteristics of cardioembolism and atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Tateishi, Yohei; Morikawa, Minoru; Morofuji, Yoichi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi; Matsuo, Takayuki

    2016-10-01

    Acute ischemic stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion is commonly due to cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion, and immediate identification of these subtypes is important to establish the optimal treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to clarify the differences in clinical presentation, radiological findings, neurological temporal courses, and outcomes between these etiologies, which have not been fully evaluated. Consecutive emergency patients with acute ischemic stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, patients with stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion were analyzed with a focus on clinical and radiological findings, and a comparison was performed for those with cardioembolic or atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. Of 1053 patients, 80 had stroke with acute major intracranial vessel occlusion (45 with cardioembolic and 35 with atherosclerosis-related in situ stenosis/occlusion). Interestingly, the susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) on T2-weighted MR angiography was more frequently detected in cardioembolic stroke (80.0%) than in atherosclerosis (in situ stenosis: 5.9%, chronic occlusion: 14.3%). Moreover, the proximal intra-arterial signal (IAS) on arterial spin labeling MRI and the distal IAS on fluid attenuated inversion recovery MRI was less frequently detected in chronic occlusion (27.3% and 50.0%, respectively) than in acute occlusion due to cardioembolic or in situ stenosis. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the SVS was significantly related to cardioembolism (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 21.68, P=0.004). Clinical characteristics of acute stroke with major intracranial vessel occlusion differ depending on the etiology. The SVS and proximal/distal IAS on MRI are useful to distinguish between cardioembolic and atherosclerotic-related in situ stenosis/occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes... identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011...

  2. 40 CFR 268.34 - Waste specific prohibitions-toxicity characteristic metal wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing; radioactive wastes mixed with EPA Hazardous wastes... identified characteristic wastes from elemental phosphorus processing, radioactive waste mixed with D004-D011...

  3. Ultra-Sensitive Elemental Analysis Using Plasmas 7.Application to Criminal Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    This paper describes the application of trace elemental analysis using ICP-AES and ICP-MS to criminal investigation. The comparison of trace elements, such as Rb, Sr, Zr, and so on, is effective for the forensic discrimination of glass fragments, which can be important physical evidence for connecting a suspect to a crime scene or to a victim. This procedure can be applied also to lead shotgun pellets by the removal of matrix lead as the sulfate precipitate after the dissolution of a pellet sample. The determination of a toxic element in bio-logical samples is required to prove that a victim ingested this element. Arsenous acids produced in Japan, China, Germany and Switzerland show characteristic patterns of trace elements characteristic to each country.

  4. Evaluation of frictional melting on the basis of trace element analyses of fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Ujiie, K.

    2016-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes (solidified frictional melts produced during seismic slip) found in exhumed accretionary complexes are considered to have formed originally at seismogenic depths, and help our understanding of the dynamics of earthquake faulting in subduction zones. The frictional melting should affect rock chemistry. Actually, major element compositions of unaltered pseudotachylyte matrix in the Shimanto accretionary complex are reported to be similar to that of illite, implying disequilibrium melting in the slip zone (Ujiie et al., 2007). Bulk-rock trace element analyses of the pseudotachylyte-bearing fault rocks also revealed their shift to the clay-mineral-like compositions (Honda et al., 2011). Toward better understanding of the frictional melting using chemical means, we carried out detailed major and trace element analyses for pseudotachylyte-bearing dark veins and surrounding host rocks from the Mugi area of the Shimanto accretionary complex (Ujiie et al., 2007). About one milligram each of samples was collected from a rock chip along the microstructure by using the PC-controlled micro-drilling apparatus, and then analyzed by ICP-MS. Host rocks showed a series of compositional trends controlled by mixing of detrital sedimentary components. Unaltered part of the pseudotachylyte vein, on the other hand, showed striking enrichment of fluid-immobile trace elements, consistent with selective melting of fine-grained, clay-rich matrix of the fault rock. Importantly, completely altered parts of the dark veins exhibit essentially the same characteristics as the unaltered part, indicating that the trace element composition of the pseudotachylyte is well preserved even after considerable alteration in the later stages. These results demonstrate that trace element and structural analyses are useful to detect preexistence of pseudotachylytes resulting from selective frictional melting of clay minerals. It has been controversial that pseudotachylytes are rarely formed or

  5. Uncovering drug-responsive regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Luizon, Marcelo R; Ahituv, Nadav

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide changes in gene regulatory elements can have a major effect on interindividual differences in drug response. For example, by reviewing all published pharmacogenomic genome-wide association studies, we show here that 96.4% of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms reside in noncoding regions. We discuss how sequencing technologies are improving our ability to identify drug response-associated regulatory elements genome-wide and to annotate nucleotide variants within them. We highlight specific examples of how nucleotide changes in these elements can affect drug response and illustrate the techniques used to find them and functionally characterize them. Finally, we also discuss challenges in the field of drug-responsive regulatory elements that need to be considered in order to translate these findings into the clinic. PMID:26555224

  6. Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Four Major Muscles in Korean Native Black Goat.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Sung-Hyun; Bakhsh, Allah; Ismail, Ishamri; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid composition of four major muscles in Korean native black goat (KNBG). Longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM), and gluteus medius (GM) were obtained from five male KNBGs of 36 mon of age and subjected to histochemical analysis and to determine fatty acid composition and meat quality traits. There were significant ( p <0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of fiber types among these four muscles. PM had the highest FNP of type I and the lowest FNP of type IIB, while SM had the highest FNP of type IIB. The highest fat content was observed in LL while SM had the lowest fat content. The proportions of SFA and MUFA were significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles due to differences in the majority of fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. The PUFA/SFA ratio was significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio was observed in PM. Results suggested that LL and PM might be healthful because of higher desirable fatty acid value and PUFA/SFA ratio, respectively. Also, data showed that correlations between muscle fiber types and fatty acids proportion of goat muscles were reversed with those of cattle muscles.

  7. Major Management Challenges and Program Risks. Department of Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    GAO United States General Accounting Office Performance and Accountability SeriesJanuary 2001 Major Management Challenges and Program Risks ...34) Title and Subtitle Major Management Challenges and Program Risks Department of Education Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors...Accountability Series: Major Management Challenges and Program Risks . In that series, GAO advised the Congress that it planned to reassess the

  8. Non-native, N-terminal Hsp70 Molecular Motor Recognition Elements in Transit Peptides Support Plastid Protein Translocation*

    PubMed Central

    Chotewutmontri, Prakitchai; Bruce, Barry D.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we identified the N-terminal domain of transit peptides (TPs) as a major determinant for the translocation step in plastid protein import. Analysis of Arabidopsis TP dataset revealed that this domain has two overlapping characteristics, highly uncharged and Hsp70-interacting. To investigate these two properties, we replaced the N-terminal domains of the TP of the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and its reverse peptide with a series of unrelated peptides whose affinities to the chloroplast stromal Hsp70 have been determined. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that eight out of nine peptides in this series are not similar to the TP N terminus. Using in vivo and in vitro protein import assays, the majority of the precursors containing Hsp70-binding elements were targeted to plastids, whereas none of the chimeric precursors lacking an N-terminal Hsp70-binding element were targeted to the plastids. Moreover, a pulse-chase assay showed that two chimeric precursors with the most uncharged peptides failed to translocate into the stroma. The ability of multiple unrelated Hsp70-binding elements to support protein import verified that the majority of TPs utilize an N-terminal Hsp70-binding domain during translocation and expand the mechanistic view of the import process. This work also indicates that synthetic biology may be utilized to create de novo TPs that exceed the targeting activity of naturally occurring sequences. PMID:25645915

  9. Influence of trace elements mixture on bacterial diversity and fermentation characteristics of liquid diet fermented with probiotics under air-tight condition.

    PubMed

    He, Yuyong; Chen, Zhiyu; Liu, Xiaolan; Wang, Chengwei; Lu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- are often supplemented to the diet of suckling and early weaning piglets, but little information is available regarding the effects of different Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on bacteria growth, diversity and fermentation characteristics of fermented liquid diet for piglets. Pyrosequencing was performed to investigate the effect of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- mixtures on the diversity, growth and fermentation characteristics of bacteria in the liquid diet fermented with Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecalis under air-tight condition. Results showed that the mixtures of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- at different concentrations promoted Bacillus growth, increased bacterial diversity and lactic acid production and lowered pH to about 5. The importance of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is different for Bacillus growth with the order Zn2+> Fe2+>Cu2+> I- in a 21-d fermentation and Cu2+>I->Fe2+>Zn2+ in a 42-d fermentation. Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and I- is recommended at a level of 150, 60, 150 and 0.6 mg/kg respectively for the production of fermented liquid diet with Bacillus subtilis. The findings improve our understanding of the influence of trace elements on liquid diet fermentation with probiotics and support the proper use of trace elements in the production of fermented liquid diet for piglets.

  10. Trace Element Geochemistry of Basaltic Tephra in Maar Cores; Implications for Centre Correlation, Field Evolution, and Mantle Source Characteristics of the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.; Leonard, G.; Timm, C.; Wilson, C. J. N.; Neil, H.; Millet, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing volcanic hazard and risk management strategies hinges on a detailed understanding of the type, timing and tephra dispersal of past eruptions. In order to unravel the pyroclastic eruption history of a volcanic field, genetic links between the deposits and eruption source centre need to be established. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF; New Zealand) has been active for ca. 200 kyr and comprises ca. 53 individual centres covering an area of ca. 360km2. These centres show a range of sizes and eruptive styles from maar craters and tuff rings, to scoria cones and lava flows consistent with both phreatomagmatic and magmatic eruptions. Superimposition of the metropolitan area of Auckland (ca. 1.4 million inhabitants) on the volcanic field makes it critically important to assess the characteristics of the volcanic activity, on which to base assessment and management of the consequent hazards. Here we present a geochemical approach for correlating tephra deposits to their source centres. To acquire the most complete stratigraphic record of pyroclastic events, maar crater cores from different locations, covering various depths and thus ages across the field were selected. Magnetic susceptibility and x-ray density scanning of the cores was used to identify the basaltic tephra horizons, which were sampled and in-situ analysis of individual shards undertaken for major and trace elements using EPMA and LA-ICP-MS techniques, respectively. Our results show that tephra shard trace element ratios are comparable and complementary to the AVF whole rock database. The use of specific trace element ratios (e.g. Gd/Yb vs. Zr/Yb) allows us to fingerprint and cross correlate tephra horizons between cores and, when coupled with newly acquired 40Ar-39Ar age dating and eruption size estimates, correlate horizons to their source centres. This integrated style of study can provide valuable information to help volcanic hazard management and forecasting, and mitigation of related risks.

  11. Geochemistry of trace elements in coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zheng, Lingyun; Chou, C.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of nine major elements and thirty-eight trace elements in 520 samples of low sulfur coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China, were determined. Samples were mainly collected from 10 minable coal seams of 29 boreholes during exploration. The B content in coals shows that the influence of brackish water decreased toward the top of coal seams; marine transgression and regression occurred frequently in the Lower Shihezi Formation. A wide range of elemental abundances is found. Weighted means of Na, K, Fe, P, Be, B, Co, Ni, Cr, Se, Sb, Ba, and Bi abundances in Zhuji coals are higher, and the remainder elements are either lower or equal to the average values of elements in coals of northern China. Compared to the Chinese coals, the Zhuji coals are higher in Na, K, Be, B, Cr, Co, Se, Sn, Sb, and Bi, but lower in Ti, P, Li, V and Zn. The Zhuji coals are lower only in S, P, V and Zn than average U.S. and world coals. Potassium, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr, As, Se, Sb and light rare earth elements (LREE) had a tendency to be enriched in thicker coal seams, whereas Fe, Ti, P, V, Co, Ni, Y, Mo, Pb and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were inclined to concentrate in thinner coal seams. The enrichment of some elements in the Shanxi or Upper Shihezi Formations is related to their depositional environments. The elements are classified into three groups based on their stratigraphic distributions from coal seams 3 to 11-2, and the characteristics of each group are discussed. Lateral distributions of selected elements are also investigated. The correlation coefficients of elemental abundances with ash content show that the elements may be classified into four groups related to modes of occurrence of these elements. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of a Streptococcus suis tet(O/W/32/O)-carrying element transferable to major streptococcal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Mingoia, Marina; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Ripa, Sandro; Varaldo, Pietro E; Facinelli, Bruna

    2012-09-01

    Mosaic tetracycline resistance determinants are a recently discovered class of hybrids of ribosomal protection tet genes. They may show different patterns of mosaicism, but their final size has remained unaltered. Initially thought to be confined to a small group of anaerobic bacteria, mosaic tet genes were then found to be widespread. In the genus Streptococcus, a mosaic tet gene [tet(O/W/32/O)] was first discovered in Streptococcus suis, an emerging drug-resistant pig and human pathogen. In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a tet(O/W/32/O) gene-carrying mobile element from an S. suis isolate. tet(O/W/32/O) was detected, in tandem with tet(40), in a circular 14,741-bp genetic element (39.1% G+C; 17 open reading frames [ORFs] identified). The novel element, which we designated 15K, also carried the macrolide resistance determinant erm(B) and an aminoglycoside resistance four-gene cluster including aadE (streptomycin) and aphA (kanamycin). 15K appeared to be an unstable genetic element that, in the absence of recombinases, is capable of undergoing spontaneous excision under standard growth conditions. In the integrated form, 15K was found inside a 54,879-bp integrative and conjugative element (ICE) (50.5% G+C; 55 ORFs), which we designated ICESsu32457. An ∼1.3-kb segment that apparently served as the att site for excision of the unstable 15K element was identified. The novel ICE was transferable at high frequency to recipients from pathogenic Streptococcus species (S. suis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus agalactiae), suggesting that the multiresistance 15K element can successfully spread within streptococcal populations.

  13. Trace Elements Characteristic Based on ICP-AES and the Correlation of Flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinsheng; Wu, Yanfang; Wu, Chengying; Wu, Qinan; Niu, Qingshan

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the trace elements and the correlation with flavonoids from Sparganii rhizoma. The ICP-AES and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy were employed to analyze trace elements and flavonoids. The concentrations of trace elements and flavonoids were calculated using standard curve. The content of flavonoids was expressed as rutin equivalents. The cluster analysis was applied to evaluate geographical features of S. rhizoma from different geographical regions. The correlation analysis was used to obtain the relationship between the trace elements and flavonoids. The results indicated that the 15 trace elements were measured and the K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, Cu, and Zn are rich in Sparganii rhizome. The different producing regions samples were classified into four groups. There was a weak relationship between trace elements and flavonoids.

  14. Comparison of the characteristics of suicide attempters with major depressive disorder and those with no psychiatric diagnosis in emergency departments of general hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a known major risk factor for suicide due to the high suicide mortality. However, studies comparing the characteristics of suicide attempters with major depressive disorder and those with no psychiatric diagnosis in China are very limited. This study examined and compared the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of suicide attempters with MDD and those with no psychiatric diagnosis in emergency departments of general hospitals to better understand the risk factors for suicide attempts in China. All subjects were enrolled in the study between June 2007 and January 2008. A total of 127 suicide attempters-54 with MDD and 73 with no psychiatric diagnosis-were enrolled. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were compared between two groups using the statistical analysis performed using frequency distribution, Student's t test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test and a logistic regression model. Suicide attempters with MDD were more likely to be more depressive, older, divorced or separated, unemployed, and living alone, and more likely to write a suicide note, have suicide ideation, and be motivated by reducing pain and burden. Suicide attempters with no psychiatric diagnosis were more likely to be younger and more impulsive, have self-rescue, and be motivated by threatening or taking revenge on others. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of suicide attempts in individuals with MDD: a lower score on the quality of life scale, more years of education, and suicide ideation. The present study found both similarities and differences in the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempters with MDD and those with no psychiatric diagnosis in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China. These findings will help us to recognize the characteristics of suicide attempters in both groups and develop specific interventions for the two

  15. Dasheng: a recently amplified nonautonomous long terminal repeat element that is a major component of pericentromeric regions in rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Bao, Zhirong; Temnykh, Svetlana; Cheng, Zhukuan; Jiang, Jiming; Wing, Rod A; McCouch, Susan R; Wessler, Susan R

    2002-07-01

    A new and unusual family of LTR elements, Dasheng, has been discovered in the genome of Oryza sativa following database searches of approximately 100 Mb of rice genomic sequence and 78 Mb of BAC-end sequence information. With all of the cis-elements but none of the coding domains normally associated with retrotransposons (e.g., gag, pol), Dasheng is a novel nonautonomous LTR element with high copy number. Over half of the approximately 1000 Dasheng elements in the rice genome are full length (5.6-8.6 kb), and 60% are estimated to have amplified in the past 500,000 years. Using a modified AFLP technique called transposon display, 215 elements were mapped to all 12 rice chromosomes. Interestingly, more than half of the mapped elements are clustered in the heterochromatic regions around centromeres. The distribution pattern was further confirmed by FISH analysis. Despite clustering in heterochromatin, Dasheng elements are not nested, suggesting their potential value as molecular markers for these marker-poor regions. Taken together, Dasheng is one of the highest-copy-number LTR elements and one of the most recent elements to amplify in the rice genome.

  16. Atmospheric emission inventory of hazardous trace elements from China's coal-fired power plants--temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Liu, Kaiyun; Zhou, Junrui; Lu, Long; Hao, Jiming; Qiu, Peipei; Gao, Jiajia; Zhu, Chuanyong; Wang, Kun; Hua, Shenbing

    2014-03-18

    Coal-fired power plants are the important sources of anthropogenic atmospheric releases of various hazardous trace elements (HTE) because a large quantity of emissions can cause wide dispersion and possible long-distance transportation. To obtain the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of various HTE discharged from coal-fired power plants of China, a multiple-year comprehensive emission inventory of HTE including Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Sb has been established for the period 2000-2010. Thanks to the cobenefit removal effects of conventional particulate matter/sulfur dioxide/nitrogen oxides (PM/SO2/NOx) control devices, emissions of these 8 toxic elements have shown a gradual decline since the peak in 2006. The total emissions of Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Sb are substantial and are estimated at about 118.54, 335.45, 459.4, 705.45, 13.34, 505.03, 446.42, and 82.33 tons (t), respectively, in 2010. Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanxi, and Hebei always rank among the top ten provinces with the highest emissions. Further, future emissions for 2015 and 2020 are projected with scenario analysis. Advanced technologies and integrated management strategies to control HTE are in great need.

  17. Trace element distribution in waters of the northern catchment area of Lake Linneret, northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandler, A.; Brenner, I. B.; Halicz, L.

    1988-02-01

    Waters of the northern watershed of Lake Kineret, sampled during the period 1978 1983, were analyzed for their major and trace element contents. The trace element concentrations of the major water sources of the watershed (the Dan and Banias springs) represent background values. After emergence, the waters are subjected to human activity. In crossing the populated and cultivated Hula Basin in man-made canals, the major and trace element contents increase. In comparison to the trace element concentrations, those of the major elements have narrow ranges and small temporal fluctuations. Trace element concentrations varied by 3 orders of magnitude, and temporal variations were large but not neccessarily seasonal. Point sources of trace elements were urban effluents, fish pond wastes, and peat soil drainage. The trace element concentrations decrease in the waters of the last segment of the Jordan River. All measured trace elements were below the criteria levels established by regulatory agencies. Several, however, were of the same order of magnitude. Addition of wastes from enhanced recycling, and morphologic modification of the final course of the Jordan River could result in increase in the trace element concentrations in the water.

  18. Transforming Mean and Osculating Elements Using Numerical Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    Mean element propagation of perturbed two body orbits has as its mathematical basis averaging theory of nonlinear dynamical systems. Averaged mean elements define the long-term evolution characteristics of an orbit. Using averaging theory, a near identity transformation can be found that transforms the mean elements back to the osculating elements that contain short period terms in addition to the secular and long period mean elements. The ability to perform the conversion is necessary so that orbit design conducted in mean elements can be converted back into osculating results. In the present work, this near identity transformation is found using the Fast Fourier Transform. An efficient method is found that is capable of recovering the osculating elements to first order

  19. Geochemistry of CI chondrites: Major and trace elements, and Cu and Zn Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, J. A.; Zanda, B.; Moynier, F.; Bollinger, C.; Liorzou, C.; Bayon, G.

    2012-04-01

    In order to check the heterogeneity of the CI chondrites and determine the average composition of this group of meteorites, we analyzed a series of six large chips (weighing between 0.6 and 1.2 g) of Orgueil prepared from five different stones. In addition, one sample from each of Ivuna and Alais was analyzed. Although the sizes of the chips used in this study were “large”, our results show evidence for minor chemical heterogeneity in Orgueil, particularly for alkali elements and U. After removal of one outlier sample, the spread of the results is considerably reduced. For most of the 46 elements analyzed in this study, the average composition calculated for Orgueil is in very good agreement with previous CI estimates. This average, obtained with a “large” mass of samples, is analytically homogeneous and is suitable for normalization purposes. Finally, the Cu and Zn isotopic ratios are homogeneously distributed within the CI parent body with a spread of less than 100 ppm per atomic mass unit (amu).

  20. Biomechanical characteristics of self-ligating brackets in a vertically displaced canine model: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Kwon, Y-H; Hwang, C-J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics between two types of self-ligating brackets and conventional metal brackets using finite element analysis of a vertically displaced canine model focusing on the desired force on the canine and undesirable forces on adjacent teeth. Three-dimensional finite element models of the maxillary dentition with 1-mm, 2-mm, and 3-mm vertically displaced canines were constructed. Two different self-ligating brackets (In-Ovation C and Smart clip) and a conventional metal bracket (Micro-arch) were modeled. After a 0.016-inch NiTi (0.40 mm, round) wire was engaged, the displacement of each tooth was calculated using x-, y-, and z-coordinates, and the tensile and compressive stresses were calculated. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine differed little between the three brackets, but the intrusion and minimal compressive stress values of the adjacent teeth differed considerably and were highest in the Smart clip and least in the In-Ovation C. The extrusion and maximal tensile stress of the canine in the 3-mm displacement model was less than that in the 2-mm displacement model, and the intrusion and minimal compressive stress of the adjacent teeth increased with the degree of displacement. Self-ligating brackets were not superior to conventional brackets in leveling a vertically displaced canine. A continuous arch wire may not be recommended for leveling of severely displaced canines whether using self-ligating or conventional brackets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Abnormal expression and functional characteristics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein in postmortem brain of suicide subjects.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rao, Jagadeesh Sridhara; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Kotowski, Jacek; Conley, Robert R; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Tamminga, Carol A; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2003-03-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that, on phosphorylation by protein kinases, is activated, and in response, regulates the transcription of many neuronally expressed genes. In view of the recent observations that catalytic properties and/or expression of many kinases that mediate their physiological responses through the activation of CREB are altered in the postmortem brain of subjects who commit suicide (hereafter referred to as suicide subjects), we examined the status of CREB in suicidal behavior. These studies were performed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and hippocampus obtained from 26 suicide subjects and 20 nonpsychiatric healthy control subjects. Messenger RNA levels of CREB and neuron-specific enolase were determined in total RNA by means of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Protein levels and the functional characteristics of CREB were determined in nuclear fractions by means of Western blot and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element (CRE)-DNA binding activity, respectively. In the same nuclear fraction, we determined the catalytic activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase A by means of enzymatic assay. We observed a significant reduction in messenger RNA and protein levels of CREB, CRE-DNA binding activity, and basal and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-stimulated protein kinase A activity in BA 9 and hippocampus of suicide subjects, without any change in messenger RNA levels of neuron-specific enolase in BA 9. Except for protein kinase A activity, changes in CREB expression and CRE-DNA binding activity were present in all suicide subjects, irrespective of diagnosis. These changes were unrelated to postmortem intervals, age, sex, or antidepressant treatment. Given the significance of CREB in mediating various physiological functions through gene transcription, our results of decreased expression and functional characteristics of CREB

  2. Trace Elements and Healthcare: A Bioinformatics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Biological trace elements are essential for human health. Imbalance in trace element metabolism and homeostasis may play an important role in a variety of diseases and disorders. While the majority of previous researches focused on experimental verification of genes involved in trace element metabolism and those encoding trace element-dependent proteins, bioinformatics study on trace elements is relatively rare and still at the starting stage. This chapter offers an overview of recent progress in bioinformatics analyses of trace element utilization, metabolism, and function, especially comparative genomics of several important metals. The relationship between individual elements and several diseases based on recent large-scale systematic studies such as genome-wide association studies and case-control studies is discussed. Lastly, developments of ionomics and its recent application in human health are also introduced.

  3. Monte-Carlo gamma response simulation of fast/thermal neutron interactions with soil elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil elemental analysis using characteristic gamma rays induced by neutrons is an effective method of in situ soil content determination. The nuclei of soil elements irradiated by neutrons issue characteristic gamma rays due to both inelastic neutron scattering (e.g., Si, C) and thermal neutron capt...

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with major depressive disorder with and without hypothyroidism: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mowla, Arash; Kalantarhormozi, Mohammad Reza; Khazraee, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Differentiating major depressive disorder (MDD) without hypothyroidism from MDD associated with hypothyroidism can be challenging. Therefore some authors have suggested that thyroid function should be tested in all depressed patients. This study compared the clinical characteristics of patients with MDD associated with hypothyroidism with those of patients with MDD without hypothyroidism. Thyroid function tests were administered to 75 patients (60 female and 15 male) who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD. The 15 patients with hypothyroidism (8 with subclinical hypothyroidism and 7 with overt hypothyroidism) were compared with the other 60 patients with regard to depressive characteristics. The primary measure of depressive signs and symptoms used to assess depression severity and symptoms was the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, first 17 items (Ham-D-17). Baseline demographic data, including age and sex, were also compared. The two groups did not differ significantly in severity of overall depression at baseline, as measured by total score on the Ham-D-17 (P=0.471, Z=0.970). Patients with MDD without hypothyroidism had worse scores on item 1 (depressed mood), item 2 (feelings of guilt), item 3 (suicidality), item 6 (late insomnia), and item 16 (loss of weight). In contrast, depressed patients with hypothyroidism had more severe anxiety symptoms and greater agitation (items 9, 10, and 11). Our results may help clinicians differentiate MDD associated with hypothyroidism from MDD without hypothyroidism. Depressed patients with hypothyroidism had more anxiety symptoms and greater agitation, but they had fewer severe core depressive symptoms and biological signs of MDD. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 2011;17:67-71).

  5. Multilayer photosensitive structures based on porous silicon and rare-earth-element compounds: Study of spectral characteristics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kirsanov, N. Yu.; Latukhina, N. V., E-mail: natalat@yandex.ru; Lizunkova, D. A.

    2017-03-15

    The spectral characteristics of the specular reflectance, photosensitivity, and photoluminescence (PL) of multilayer structures based on porous silicon with rare-earth-element (REE) ions are investigated. It is shown that the photosensitivity of these structures in the wavelength range of 0.4–1.0 μm is higher than in structures free of REEs. The structures with Er{sup 3+} ions exhibit a luminescence response at room temperature in the spectral range from 1.1 to 1.7 μm. The PL spectrum of the erbium impurity is characterized by a fine line structure, which is determined by the splitting of the {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} multiplet of the Er{sup 3+}more » ion. It is shown that the structures with a porous layer on the working surface have a much lower reflectance in the entire spectral range under study (0.2–1.0 μm).« less

  6. Elimination of active tad elements during the sexual phase of the Neurospora crassa life cycle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C; Tang, Q; Kinsey, J A

    2001-06-01

    Tad is an active LINE-like retrotransposon isolated from the Adiopodoumé strain of Neurospora crassa. Extensive analysis of other Neurospora strains has revealed no other strain with active Tad, but all strains tested have multiple copies of defective Tad elements. We have examined the ability of Tad to survive during the sexual cycle of Neurospora and find that active Tad is rapidly eliminated. The characteristics of this elimination suggest that the repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) mechanism was responsible. By the use of transformation to switch the mating type of the Adiopodoumé strain we concluded that this strain is not defective in the RIP process. Analysis of defective Tad elements isolated from a variety of strains indicates that the major difference between these elements and active Tad is due to the presence of a large number of G-C to A-T transition mutations. This would be expected if the changes were due primarily to the RIP process. Mapping of a selection of defective Tad elements reveals that they are present on all of the chromosomes; however, many of the elements are not widely shared among strains. This suggests that repeated introduction and elimination of Tad elements has occurred. Mechanisms that might be responsible for this repeated introduction are discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. An interactive graphics system to facilitate finite element structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, R. C.; Held, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of an interactive graphics systems to facilitate the finite element method of structural analysis are described. The finite element model analysis consists of three phases: (1) preprocessing (model generation), (2) problem solution, and (3) postprocessing (interpretation of results). The advantages of interactive graphics to finite element structural analysis are defined.

  8. [Pollution characteristics of platinum group elements in road rust in Xiamen].

    PubMed

    Hong, Zhen-yu; Hong, You-wei; Yin, Li-qian; Chen, Jin-sheng; Chen, Yan-ting; Xu, Ling-ling

    2015-01-01

    With the potential risks for the environment and human health, the concentration and distribution characteristics of platinum group element(PGEs) in road dust in Xiamen city were investigated. Road dust samples were collected from the traffic trunk road, tunnel, tourism area, and industrial area of Xiamen on October 2012. The samples were digested with aqua regia in a microwave assisted digestion system under high pressure condition, separated and purified with cation exchange resin( Dowex AG50W-X8), and the resulting solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that the average concentrations(range) of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust were 246.82 (58.68-765.52) ng x g(-1), 95.45 (42.14-371.36) ng x g(-1) and 51.76 (21.04-119.72) ng x g(-1), respectively, which were two orders of magnitude higher than the background values. Compared with other cities worldwide, the concentrations of Pd, Pt and Rh in road dust in Xiamen were at higher levels. Theconcentrations of PGEs for different functional areas were listed in the following order: tunnel > urban district > industrial area > tourism area, which indicated that their spatial distributions were mainly affected by the traffic intensity. Correlation analysis results showed that concentration of Pd in the urban traffic artery was significantly correlated with Rh, while Pt was not so correlated with Pd and Rh, suggesting that other sources contributed to PGEs in road dust in addition to the vehicle emission. Although motor vehicle traveling was banned in tourist area, the concentration of PGEs was still at a high level. Some of them might originate from the road dust in surrounding area by atmosphere diffusion.

  9. Characteristics of dental clinics in US children's hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, David; Kerins, Carolyn A; Seale, N Sue; Casamassimo, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe the workforce, patient, and service characteristics of dental clinics affiliated with US children's hospitals belonging to the National Association of Children's Hospital and Related Institutions (NACHRI). A 2-stage survey mechanism using ad hoc questionnaires sought responses from hospital administrators and dental clinic administrators. Questionnaires asked about: (1) clinic purpose; (2) workforce; (3) patient population; (4) dental services provided; (5) community professional relations; and (5) relationships with medical services. Of the 222 NACHRI-affiliated hospitals, 87 reported comprehensive dental clinics (CDCs) and 64 (74%) of CDCs provided data. Provision of tertiary medical services was significantly related to presence of a CDC. Most CDCs were clustered east of the Mississippi River. Size, workload, and patient characteristics were variable across CDCs. Most were not profitable. Medical diagnosis was the primary criterion for eligibility, with all but 1 clinic treating special needs children. Most clinics (74%) had dental residencies. Over 75% reported providing dental care prior to major medical care (cardiac, oncology, transplantation), but follow-up care was variable. Many children's hospitals reported comprehensive dental clinics, but the characteristics were highly variable, suggesting this element of the pediatric oral health care safety net may be fragile.

  10. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  11. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics of a Major Tropical Cyclone Tornado Outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCaul, Eugene W., Jr.; Buechler, Dennis; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that most tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall along the Gulf coast of the United States spawn at least a few tornadoes. Although most landfalling TCs generate fewer than a dozen such tornadoes, a small proportion produce large swarm outbreaks, with as many as 25 or more tornadoes. Usually, these major outbreaks occur in large, intense hurricane-strength TCs, but on 15-17 August 1994 Tropical Storm Beryl spun off 37 tornadoes along its path from the Florida panhandle through the mid-Atlantic states. Some 32 of these tornadoes occurred on 16 August 1994 from eastern Georgia to southern Virginia, with most of these taking place in South Carolina. Beryl's 37 tornadoes moved it into what was at that time fifth place historically in terms of TC tornado productivity. The Beryl outbreak is especially noteworthy in that at least three of the tornadoes achieved peak intensity of F3 on the Fujita damage intensity scale. Although no fatalities resulted from the Beryl outbreak, at least 50 persons suffered injuries, and property damages totalled more than $50 million . The Beryl outbreak is a good example of a TC whose greatest danger to the public is its post-landfall severe weather. In this respect, and in the character of its swarm outbreak of tornadoes, it resembles another large tornado outbreak spawned by a relatively weak TC, Hurricane Danny of 1985). In the Danny outbreak, numerous shallow mini-supercell storms were found to have occurred, and it was noted that, because of the storms' relatively shallow depth, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning was negligible. Better observations of future TC tornado outbreaks, especially with modern surveillance tools such as Doppler radars and the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), were recommended. Although the Beryl tornado outbreak is not the first set of TC-spawned tornado storms to be observed with the NLDN, it is one of the largest and likely the most intense such outbreak. The purpose of this paper

  12. Rare Earth Element Concentration of Wyoming Thermal Waters Update

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Quillinan, Scott; Nye, Charles; Neupane, Hari

    Updated version of data generated from rare earth element investigation of produced waters. These data represent major, minor, trace, isotopes, and rare earth element concentrations in geologic formations and water associated with oil and gas production.

  13. Photoluminescence Characteristics of Yag:Ce, Gd Based Phosphors with Different Prehistories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Soshchin, N. P.; Yang yang, Yu; Stepanov, S. A.; Lisitsyna, L. A.; Tulegenova, A. T.; Abdullin, Kh. A.

    2017-09-01

    Luminescence characteristics of yttrium-aluminum garnet based phosphor samples differed by their elemental composition and prehistory of synthesis are studied. The morphology, structure, and elemental composition of phosphor samples, their excitation and emission spectra, efficiency of phosphor conversion of chip emission, and kinetics of luminescence decay are measured. The emission characteristics of phosphors are compared with their structural properties and elemental composition.

  14. Major element chemistry of glasses in Apollo 14 soil 14156.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Jakes, P.

    1973-01-01

    Glasses in a soil sample (14156) from the middle layer of the trench at the Fra Mauro landing site show a wide range of compositions clustered around certain preferred compositions. Ninety per cent of the glasses are of two major types - Fra Mauro basalt (63%) with high K and 17 wt % Al2O3 and Highland basalt or anorthositic gabbro (27%) with low K and 25 to 26 wt % Al2O3. The glass population is almost identical with that of the comprehensive soil 14259.

  15. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Le Poupon, C; Angeletti, B; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Variscan calc-alkalic plutonism of western Corsica: mineralogy and major and trace element geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocherie, A.; Rossi, Ph.; Le Bel, L.

    1984-10-01

    Petrographic and structural observations on the calc-alkalic plutonism of western Corsica revealed the existence of several successively emplaced units associated with large basic bodies. The present mineralogical and geochemical study deals with the genesis, evolution and relationships of these different units. Basic plutonism is represented by three genetically linked types of rock: norites and troctolites with cumulate textures characterized by low REE contents and either no Eu anomaly or a positive Eu anomaly; gabbros with enriched LREE relatively to HREE patterns, probably close to an initial basaltic liquid; and diorites ranging up to charnockites which represent liquids evolved to varying degrees, mainly by fractional crystallization. Trace element data and studies on the evolution of pyroxene pairs demonstrate the consanguinity of these calc-alkaline basic rocks which are derived from a high alumina basaltic melt. The various granitoids (granodiorites, monzogranites and leucocratic monzogranites, i.e., adamellites) have distinct evolution trends as shown by the composition of their mafic minerals and by trace element distributions. They cannot be considered as being derivatives of the basic suite and they cannot be related by a common fractionation sequence. Rather, they represent distinctive batches of crustal anatexis. In addition, hybridization phenomena with the basic melt are noticed in granodiorites. The particular problem of the low La/Yb, Eu/Eu∗ and the high U, Th, Cs leucocratic monzogranites is discussed in detail. In addition to more conventional trace element diagrams, the simultaneous statistical treatment of all the geochemical data by correspondence factor analysis is shown to be a very use tool in distinguishing between the different units and to classify the elements according to their geochemical properties.

  17. Log-ratio transformed major element based multidimensional classification for altered High-Mg igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Rivera-Gómez, M. Abdelaly; Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    A new multidimensional classification scheme consistent with the chemical classification of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) is proposed for the nomenclature of High-Mg altered rocks. Our procedure is based on an extensive database of major element (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3t, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, and P2O5) compositions of a total of 33,868 (920 High-Mg and 32,948 "Common") relatively fresh igneous rock samples. The database consisting of these multinormally distributed samples in terms of their isometric log-ratios was used to propose a set of 11 discriminant functions and 6 diagrams to facilitate High-Mg rock classification. The multinormality required by linear discriminant and canonical analysis was ascertained by a new computer program DOMuDaF. One multidimensional function can distinguish the High-Mg and Common igneous rocks with high percent success values of about 86.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Similarly, from 10 discriminant functions the High-Mg rocks can also be classified as one of the four rock types (komatiite, meimechite, picrite, and boninite), with high success values of about 88%-100%. Satisfactory functioning of this new classification scheme was confirmed by seven independent tests. Five further case studies involving application to highly altered rocks illustrate the usefulness of our proposal. A computer program HMgClaMSys was written to efficiently apply the proposed classification scheme, which will be available for online processing of igneous rock compositional data. Monte Carlo simulation modeling and mass-balance computations confirmed the robustness of our classification with respect to analytical errors and postemplacement compositional changes.

  18. Element speciation during nuclear glass alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galoisy, L.; Calas, G.; Bergeron, B.; Jollivet, P.; Pelegrin, E.

    2011-12-01

    Assessing the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses implies the prediction of their long-term performance. An important controlling parameter is their evolution during interaction with water under conditions simulating geological repositories. After briefly recalling the major characteristics of the local and medium-range structure of borosilicate glasses of nuclear interest, we will present some structural features of this evolution. Specific structural tools used to determine the local structure of glass surfaces include synchrotron-radiation x-ray absorption spectroscopy with total electron yield detection. The evolution of the structure of glass surface has been determined at the Zr-, Fe-, Si- and Al-K edges and U-LIII edge. During alteration in near- or under-saturated conditions, some elements such as Fe change coordination, as other elements such as Zr only suffer structural modifications in under-saturated conditions. Uranium exhibits a modification of its speciation from an hexa-coordinated U(VI) in the borosilicate glass to an uranyl group in the gel. These structural modifications may explain the chemical dependence of the initial alteration rate and the transition to the residual regime. They also illustrate the molecular-scale origin of the processes at the origin of the glass-to-gel transformation. Eventually, they explain the provisional trapping of U by the alteration gel: the uranium retention factors in the gel depend on the alteration conditions, and thus on the nature of the resulting gel and on the trapping conditions.

  19. Major system acquisitions process (A-109)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Major System examined is a combination of elements (hardware, software, facilities, and services) that function together to produce capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The system acquisition process is a sequence of activities beginning with documentation of mission need and ending with introduction of major system into operational use or otherwise successful achievement of program objectives. It is concluded that the A-109 process makes sense and provides a systematic, integrated management approach along with appropriate management level involvement and innovative and 'best ideas' from private sector in satisfying mission needs.

  20. Elements in the history of the Periodic Table.

    PubMed

    Rouvray, Dennis H

    2004-06-01

    Discovery of the Periodic Table was rendered possible only after four decisive prerequisites had been achieved. These were (i) the abandonment of the metaphysical and occult notions of elements that typified the alchemical era; (ii) the adoption of a modern and workable definition of an element; (iii) the development of analytical chemical techniques for the isolation of the elements and determination of their properties; and (iv) the devising of a means of associating each element with a characteristic natural number. The Periodic Table made its appearance on cue almost as soon as these preconditions had been fulfilled.

  1. Transposable elements in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    McCullers, Tabitha J; Steiniger, Mindy

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms. There are 2 main classes of TEs: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. These classes are further divided into subgroups of TEs with unique structural and functional characteristics, demonstrating the significant variability among these elements. Despite this variability, D. melanogaster and other eukaryotic organisms utilize conserved mechanisms to regulate TEs. This review focuses on the transposition mechanisms and regulatory pathways of TEs, and their functional roles in D. melanogaster .

  2. Characteristics and source identification of dissolved trace elements in the Jinshui River of the South Qinling Mts., China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Wang, Weibo; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved trace elements and physiochemical parameters were analyzed to investigate their physicochemical characteristics and identify their sources at 12 sampling sites of the Jinshui River in the South Qinling Mts., China from October 2006 to November 2008. The two-factor ANOVA indicated significant temporal variations of the dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, and V (p < 0.001 or p < 0.05). With the exception of Sr (p < 0.001), no significant spatial variations were found. Distributions and concentrations of the dissolved trace elements displayed that dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, Si, V, and Cr were originated from chemical weathering and leaching from the soil and bedrock. Dissolved Cu, Fe, Sr, As, and Si were also from anthropogenic inputs (farming and domestic effluents). Correlation and regression analysis showed that the chemical and physical processes of dissolved Cu was influenced by water temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) to some degree. Dissolved Fe and Sr were affected by colloid destabilization or sedimentary inputs. Concentrations of dissolved Si were slightly controlled by biological uptake. Principal component analysis confirmed that Fe, Sr, and V resulted from domestic effluents, agricultural runoff, and confluence, whereas As, Cu, and Si were from agricultural activities, and Cr and Zn through natural processes. The research results provide a reference for ecological restoration and protection of the river environment in the Qinling Mts., China.

  3. The fuelbed: a key element of the Fuel Characteristic Classification System.

    Treesearch

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Roger D. Ottmar; David V. Sandberg; Anne Andreu; Ella Elman; Karen Kopper; Jennifer Long

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuelbed characteristics are temporally and spatially complex and can vary widely across regions. To capture this variability, we designed the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a national system to create fuelbeds and classify those fuelbeds for their capacity to support fire and consume fuels. This paper describes the structure of the fuelbeds...

  4. Bibliometric Analysis of Manuscript Characteristics That Influence Citations: A Comparison of Six Major Radiology Journals.

    PubMed

    Shekhani, Haris Naseem; Shariff, Shoaib; Bhulani, Nizar; Khosa, Faisal; Hanna, Tarek Noel

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate radiology manuscript characteristics that influence citation rate, capturing features of manuscript construction that are discrete from study design. Consecutive articles published from January 2004 to June 2004 were collected from the six major radiology journals with the highest impact factors: Radiology (impact factor, 5.076), Investigative Radiology (2.320), American Journal of Neuroradiology (AJNR) (2.384), RadioGraphics (2.494), European Radiology (2.364), and American Journal of Roentgenology (2.406). The citation count for these articles was retrieved from the Web of Science, and 29 article characteristics were tabulated manually. A point-biserial correlation, Spearman rank-order correlation, and multiple regression model were performed to predict citation number from the collected variables. A total of 703 articles-211 published in Radiology, 48 in Investigative Radiology, 106 in AJNR, 52 in RadioGraphics, 129 in European Radiology, and 157 in AJR-were evaluated. Punctuation was included in the title in 55% of the articles and had the highest statistically significant positive correlation to citation rate (point-biserial correlation coefficient [r pb ] = 0.85, p < 0.05). Open access status provided a low-magnitude, but significant, correlation to citation rate (r pb = 0.140, p < 0.001). The following variables created a significant multiple regression model to predict citation count (p < 0.005, R 2 = 0.186): study findings in the title, abstract word count, abstract character count, total number of words, country of origin, and all authors in the field of radiology. Using bibliometric knowledge, authors can craft a title, abstract, and text that may enhance visibility and citation count over what they would otherwise experience.

  5. Critical Elements in Fly Ash from the Combustion of Bituminous Coal in Major Polish Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielowicz, Barbara; Botor, Dariusz; Misiak, Jacek; Wagner, Marian

    2018-03-01

    The concentration of critical elements, including such REE as Fe, Co, W, Zn, Cr, Ni, V, Mn, Ti, Ag, Ga, Ta, Sr, Li, and Cu, in the so-called fly ash obtained from the 9 Polish power plants and 1 thermal power station has been determined. The obtained values, compared with the global average concentration in bituminous coal ash and sedimentary rocks (Clarke values), have shown that the enrichment of fly ash in the specified elements takes place in only a few bituminous coal processing sites in Poland. The enrichment factor (EF) is only slightly higher (the same order of magnitude) than the Clarke values. The enrichment factor in relation to the Clarke value in the Earth's crust reached values above 10 in all of the examined ashes for the following elements: Cr, Ni, V, W, and, in some ash samples, also Cu and Zn. The obtained values are low, only slightly higher than the global average concentrations in sedimentary rocks and bituminous coal ashes. The ferromagnetic grains (microspheres) found in bituminous coal fly ashes seem to be the most economically prospective in recovery of selected critical elements. The microanalysis has shown that iron cenospheres and plerospheres in fly ash contain, in addition to enamel and iron oxides (magnetite and hematite), iron spinels enriched in Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, W, and Zn.

  6. Elements and inorganic ions as source tracers in recent Greenland snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Alexandra M.; Shafer, Martin M.; Dibb, Jack E.; Polashenski, Chris M.; Schauer, James J.

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric transport of aerosols leads to deposition of impurities in snow, even in areas of the Arctic as remote as Greenland. Major ions (e.g. Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, K+, SO42-) are frequently used as tracers for common aerosol sources (e.g. sea spray, dust, biomass burning, anthropogenic emissions). Trace element data can supplement tracer ion data by providing additional information about sources. Although many studies have considered either trace elements or major ions, few have reported both. This study determined total and water-soluble concentrations of 31 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Eu, Fe, Gd, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Nd, Pb, Pr, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, U, Y, Zn) in shallow snow pits at 22 sampling sites in Greenland, along a transect from Summit Station to sites in the northwest. Black carbon (BC) and inorganic ions were measured in colocated samples. Sodium, which is typically used as a tracer of sea spray, did not appear to have any non-marine sources. The rare earth elements, alkaline earth elements (Mg, Ca, Sr), and other crustal elements (Fe, Si, Ti, V) were not enriched above crustal abundances relative to Al, indicating that these elements are primarily dust sourced. Calculated ratios of non-sea salt Ca (nssCa) to estimated dust mass affirm the use of nssCa as a dust tracer, but suggest up to 50% uncertainty in that estimate in the absence of other crustal element data. Crustal enrichment factors indicated that As, Cd, Pb, non-sea-salt S, Sb, Sn, and Zn were enriched in these samples, likely by anthropogenic sources. Principal component analysis indicated more than one crustal factor, and a variety of factors related to anthropogenically enriched elements. Analysis of trace elements alongside major tracer ions does not change interpretation of ion-based source attribution for sources that are well-characterized by ions, but is valuable for assessing uncertainty in source attribution and identifying sources not represented by major ions.

  7. Symptom Frequency Characteristics of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale of Major Depressive Disorder in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wiglusz, Mariusz S; Landowski, Jerzy; Michalak, Lidia; Cubała, Wiesław J

    2015-09-01

    Depressive disorders are common among patients with epilepsy (PWE). The aim of this study was to explore symptom frequencies of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and recognize the clinical characteristics of Major Depressive Disorder in PWE. A sample of 40 adults outpatients with epilepsy and depression was diagnosed using SCID-I for DSM-IV-TR and HDRS-17. The total HDRS-17 score was analysed followed by the exploratory analysis based on the hierarchical model. The frequencies of HDRS-17 items varied widely in this study. Insomnia related items and general somatic symptoms items as well as insomnia and somatic factors exhibited constant and higher frequency. Feeling guilty, suicide, psychomotor retardation and depressed mood showed relatively lower frequencies. Other symptoms had variable frequencies across the study population. Depressive disorders are common among PWE. In the study group insomnia and somatic symptoms displayed highest values which could represent atypical clinical features of mood disorders in PWE. There is a need for more studies with a use of standardized approach to the problem.

  8. Survey of elemental specificity in positron annihilation peak shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myler, U.; Simpson, P. J.

    1997-12-01

    Recently the detailed interpretation of positron-annihilation γ-ray peak shapes has proven to be of interest with respect to their chemical specificity. In this contribution, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements. To this purpose, annihilation spectra with strongly reduced background intensities were recorded in the two detector geometry, using a variable-energy positron beam. Division of the subsequently normalized spectra by a standard spectrum (in our case the spectrum of pure silicon) yields quotient spectra, which display features characteristic of the sample material. First we ascertain that the specific spectrum of an element is conserved in different chemical compounds, demonstrated here by identical oxygen spectra obtained from both SiO2/Si and MgO/Mg. Second, we show highly resolved spectra for a number of different elements (Fe...Zn, Ag, Ir...Au). We show that the characteristic features in these spectra vary in a systematic fashion with the atomic number of the element and can be tentatively identified with particular orbitals. Finally, for 26 different elements we compare the maximum intensity in the quotient spectra with the relative atomic density in the corresponding element. To our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive survey of such data made to date.

  9. Two-lattice models of trace element behavior: A response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Adam J. G.; Hess, Paul C.

    1990-08-01

    Two-lattice melt components of Bottinga and Weill (1972), Nielsen and Drake (1979), and Nielsen (1985) are applied to major and trace element partitioning between coexisting immiscible liquids studied by RYERSON and Hess (1978) and Watson (1976). The results show that (1) the set of components most successful in one system is not necessarily portable to another system; (2) solution non-ideality within a sublattice severely limits applicability of two-lattice models; (3) rigorous application of two-lattice melt components may yield effective partition coefficients for major element components with no physical interpretation; and (4) the distinction between network-forming and network-modifying components in the sense of the two-lattice models is not clear cut. The algebraic description of two-lattice models is such that they will most successfully limit the compositional dependence of major and trace element solution behavior when the effective partition coefficient of the component of interest is essentially the same as the bulk partition coefficient of all other components within its sublattice.

  10. Siderophile Volatile Element Partitioning during Core Formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loroch, D. C.; Hackler, S.; Rohrbach, A.; Klemme, S.

    2017-12-01

    Since the nineteen sixties it is known, that the Earth's mantle is depleted relative to CI chondrite in numerous elements as a result of accretion and core-mantle differentiation. Additionally, if we take the chondritic composition as the initial solar nebular element abundances, the Earth lacks 85 % of K and up to 98 % of other volatiles. However one potentially very important group of elements has received considerably less attention in this context and these elements are the siderophile but volatile elements (SVEs). SVEs perhaps provide important information regarding the timing of volatile delivery to Earth. Especially for the SVEs the partitioning between metal melt and silicate melt (Dmetal/silicate) at core formation conditions is poorly constrained, never the less they are very important for most of the core formation models. This study is producing new metal-silicate partitioning data for a wide range of SVEs (S, Se, Te, Tl, Ag, As, Au, Cd, Bi, Pb, Sn, Cu, Ge, Zn, In and Ga) with a focus on the P, T and fO2dependencies. The initial hypothesis that we are aiming to test uses the accretion of major portions of volatile elements while the core formation was still active. The key points of this study are: - What are the effects of P, T and fO2 on SVE metal-silicate partioning? - What is the effect of compositional complexity on SVE metal-silicate partioning? - How can SVE's D-values fit into current models of core formation? The partitioning experiments will be performed using a Walker type multi anvil apparatus in a pressure range between 10 and 20 GPa and temperatures of 1700 up to 2100 °C. To determine the Dmetal/silicate values we are using a field emission high-resolution JEOL JXA-8530F EPMA for major elements and a Photon Machines Analyte G2 Excimer laser (193 nm) ablation system coupled to a Thermo Fisher Element 2 single-collector ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) for the trace elements. We recently finished the first sets of experiments and can provide the

  11. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) Fuel Element Testing in the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    To support the on-going nuclear thermal propulsion effort, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The facility to perform this testing is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator (NTREES). Last year NTREES was successfully used to satisfy a testing milestone for the Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) project and met or exceeded all required objectives.

  12. A discrete element model for the influence of surfactants on sedimentation characteristics of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kwon Joong

    2018-02-01

    Hindering particle agglomeration and re-dispersion processes, gravitational sedimentation of suspended particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluids causes inferior performance and controllability of MR fluids in response to a user-specified magnetic field. Thus, suspension stability is one of the principal factors to be considered in synthesizing MR fluids. However, only a few computational studies have been reported so far on the sedimentation characteristics of suspended particles under gravity. In this paper, the settling dynamics of paramagnetic particles suspended in MR fluids was investigated via discrete element method (DEM) simulations. This work focuses particularly on developing accurate fluid-particle and particle-particle interaction models which can account for the influence of stabilizing surfactants on the MR fluid sedimentation. Effect of the stabilizing surfactants on interparticle interactions was incorporated into the derivation of a reliable contact-impact model for DEM computation. Also, the influence of the stabilizing additives on fluid-particle interactions was considered by incorporating Stokes drag with shape and wall correction factors into DEM formulation. The results of simulations performed for model validation purposes showed a good agreement with the published sedimentation measurement data in terms of an initial sedimentation velocity and a final sedimentation ratio.

  13. A Technique for Mapping Characteristic Lengths to Preserve Energy Dissipated via Strain Softening in a Multiscale Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often advantageous to account for the microstructure of the material directly using multiscale modeling. For computational tractability, an idealized repeating unit cell (RUC) is used to capture all of the pertinent features of the microstructure. Typically, the RUC is dimensionless and depends only on the relative volume fractions of the different phases in the material. This works well for non-linear and inelastic behavior exhibiting a positive-definite constitutive response. Although, once the material exhibits strain softening, or localization, a mesh objective failure theories, such as smeared fracture theories, nodal and element enrichment theories (XFEM), cohesive elements or virtual crack closure technique (VCCT), can be utilized at the microscale, but the dimensions of the RUC must then be defined. One major challenge in multiscale progressive damage modeling is relating the characteristic lengths across the scales in order to preserve the energy that is dissipated via localization at the microscale. If there is no effort to relate the size of the macroscale element to the microscale RUC, then the energy that is dissipated will remain mesh dependent at the macroscale, even if it is regularized at the microscale. Here, a technique for mapping characteristic lengths across the scales is proposed. The RUC will be modeled using the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, and local failure in the matrix constituent subcells will be modeled using the crack band theory. The subcell characteristic lengths used in the crack band calculations will be mapped to the macroscale finite element in order to regularize the local energy in a manner consistent with the global length scale. Examples will be provided with and without the regularization, and they will be compared to a baseline case where the size and shape of the element and RUC are coincident (ensuring energy is preserved across the scales).

  14. A survey of the selenochemistry of major, minor and trace elements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. A.; Laul, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Average data for igneous and/or metaigneous rocks and soils from seven lunar sites are presented. There are compositional similarities between Apollo 11 and Luna 16 eastern maria, Ap 12 and 15 western maria, and between Ap 16 and L 20 highlands. Subtle differences do exist between the paired mare sites and the two highland sites and striking differences between the eastern and western maria. Chondritic normalized REE (rare earth element) patterns for igneous rocks and soils from all sites range from 7-350 generally with negative Eu anomalies. Anorthositic gabbroes to anorthosites, presumably highland material, exhibit a positive Eu anomaly. The REE patterns or Sr isotopic ratios suggest two lava flows each for the L 16 and Ap 14 sites, at least four lava flows for the Ap 11 and 12 site and about six for the Ap 15 site.

  15. A parametric study of hard tissue injury prediction using finite elements: consideration of geometric complexity, subfailure material properties, CT-thresholding, and element characteristics.

    PubMed

    Arregui-Dalmases, Carlos; Del Pozo, Eduardo; Duprey, Sonia; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Lau, Anthony; Subit, Damien; Kent, Richard

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the axial response of the clavicle under quasistatic compressions replicating the body boundary conditions and to quantify the sensitivity of finite element-predicted fracture in the clavicle to several parameters. Clavicles were harvested from 14 donors (age range 14-56 years). Quasistatic axial compression tests were performed using a custom rig designed to replicate in situ boundary conditions. Prior to testing, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans were taken of each clavicle. From those images, finite element models were constructed. Factors varied parametrically included the density used to threshold cortical bone in the CT scans, the presence of trabecular bone, the mesh density, Young's modulus, the maximum stress, and the element type (shell vs. solid, triangular vs. quadrilateral surface elements). The experiments revealed significant variability in the peak force (2.41 +/- 0.72 kN) and displacement to peak force (4.9 +/- 1.1 mm), with age (p < .05) and with some geometrical traits of the specimens. In the finite element models, the failure force and location were moderately dependent upon the Young's modulus. The fracture force was highly sensitive to the yield stress (80-110 MPa). Neither fracture location nor force was strongly dependent on mesh density as long as the element size was less than 5 x 5 mm(2). Both the fracture location and force were strongly dependent upon the threshold density used to define the thickness of the cortical shell.

  16. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, Norman B.

    1998-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000.degree. F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics.

  17. Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials

    DOEpatents

    Heubeck, N.B.

    1998-09-08

    A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

  18. Molecular characteristics of clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius harboring arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) from dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching; Wan, Min-Tao; Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Yeh, Kuang-Sheng; Chen, Charles; Hsiao, Yun-Hsia; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and its associated molecular characteristics in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Among the 72 S. pseudintermedius recovered from various infection sites of dogs and cats, 52 (72.2%) were MRSP. ACME-arcA was detected commonly (69.2%) in these MRSP isolates, and was more frequently detected in those from the skin than from other body sites (P=0.047). There was a wide genetic diversity among the ACME-arcA-positive MRSP isolates, which comprised three SCCmec types (II-III, III and V) and 15 dru types with two predominant clusters (9a and 11a). Most MRSP isolates were multidrug-resistant. Since S. pseudintermedius could serve as a reservoir of ACME, further research on this putative virulence factor is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transposable elements in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McCullers, Tabitha J.; Steiniger, Mindy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements that can mobilize within host genomes. As TEs comprise more than 40% of the human genome and are linked to numerous diseases, understanding their mechanisms of mobilization and regulation is important. Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal model organism for the study of eukaryotic TEs as its genome contains a diverse array of active TEs. TEs universally impact host genome size via transposition and deletion events, but may also adopt unique functional roles in host organisms. There are 2 main classes of TEs: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. These classes are further divided into subgroups of TEs with unique structural and functional characteristics, demonstrating the significant variability among these elements. Despite this variability, D. melanogaster and other eukaryotic organisms utilize conserved mechanisms to regulate TEs. This review focuses on the transposition mechanisms and regulatory pathways of TEs, and their functional roles in D. melanogaster. PMID:28580197

  20. Weathering of primary minerals and mobility of major elements in soils affected by an accidental spill of pyrite tailing.

    PubMed

    Martín, Francisco; Diez, María; García, Inés; Simón, Mariano; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Iriarte, Angel; Aguilar, José

    2007-05-25

    In the present work, soil profiles were sampled 40 days and three years after an accidental pyrite tailing spill from the Aznalcóllar mine (S Spain) in order to figure out the effects of the acidic solution draining from the tailing. The composition of the acidic solution, the mineralogy, and the total and soluble content of the major elements were analysed at varying depths. The results show a weathering process of carbonates and of primary silicates. Calcium released is leached or reacts with the sulphate ions to form gypsum. Magnesium, aluminium and potassium tend to leach from the uppermost millimetres of the soil, accumulating where the pH>/=5.0; also the iron, probably forming more or less complex hydroxysulphates, precipitate in the upper 5 cm. The strong releasing of soluble salts increases the electrical conductivity, while the soluble potassium tends to decrease in the uppermost part of the soil due to the neoformation of jarosite. Iron is soluble only where the pH

  1. Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rajani, R.P.; Chodankar, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (r = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values ( 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (r > 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (r < 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-ocean redox conditions and water masses.

  2. Finite element analysis of auditory characteristics in patients with middle ear diseases.

    PubMed

    Tu, Bo; Li, Xiaoping; Nie, Zhenhua; Shi, Changzheng; Li, Hengguo

    2017-07-01

    This study validates that a finite element model of the human ossicular chain and tympanic membrane can be used as an effective surgical assessment tool in clinics. The present study was performed to investigate the application of a finite element model of ossicular chain and tympanic membrane for fabrication of individualized artificial ossicles. Twenty patients (20 ears) who underwent surgery for middle ear disease (n = 20) and 10 healthy controls (10 ears) were enrolled in the hospital. Computed tomography (CT) and pure tone audiometry were performed before and after surgery. A finite element model was developed using CT scans, and correlation analysis was conducted between stapes displacement and surgical methods. An audiometric test was also performed for 14 patients before and after surgery. Stapes displacement in the healthy group (average = 3.31 × 10 -5  mm) was significantly greater than that in the impaired group (average = 1.41 × 10 -6 mm) prior to surgery. After surgery, the average displacement in the impaired group was 2.55 × 10 -6 mm, which represented a significant improvement. For the patients who underwent the audiometric test, 10 improved hearing after surgery, and stapes displacement increased in nine of these 10 patients.

  3. Distribution and origin of major and trace elements (particularly REE, U and Th) into labile and residual phases in an acid soil profile (Vosges Mountains, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, D.; Probst, A.; Stille, P.

    2003-04-01

    Physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals lead to soil formation and allow the removal of chemical elements from these systems to ground- or surface waters. But most of the time the determination of element concentrations in soils is not sufficient to estimate whether they are being accumulated or what is their ability to be released in the environment. Thus, the distribution and chemical binding for a given element is very important because it determines its mobility and potential bioavailability throughout a soil profile. Heavy metals and REE (Rare Earth Elements) are particularly of environmental concern because of their potential toxicity. For most of them, their chemical form strongly depends on the evolution of physico-chemical parameters like pH or redox conditions that will induce adsorption-desorption, complexation or co-precipitation phenomena in the material. The purpose of this study is to determine the distribution of several major and trace elements (especially REE, Th and U) in an acidic forested podzolic soil profile from the Vosges Mountains (France). To achieve this goal we use a 7 step sequential extraction procedure that allows determining precisely the origin and the behaviour of particular elements in the environment (Leleyter et al., 1999). In addition we performed leaching experiments using very dilute acetic and hydrochloric acid in order to establish the origin of REE in this soil. The results of the sequential extraction indicate that most of the metals, Th and U are mainly bound to Fe oxides. Organic matter appears also to be a great carrier of P, Ca, Fe and REE even if its content is very low in the deep horizons of the soil. Moreover, we show that in each soil horizon, middle REE (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) are more labile than light REE (LREE). Leaching experiments using dilute acid solution further suggest that in the shallowest horizons REE largely derive from atmospheric deposition whereas at greater depth, weathering

  4. An Approach to Tailoring Major Technical Reviews Based on Project Characteristics and Stakeholder Interests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richstein, Alan B.; Nolte, Jerome T.; Pfarr, Barbara B.

    2004-01-01

    There are numerous technical reviews that occur throughout the systems engineering process life cycle. Many are well known by project managers and stakeholders such as developers and end users, an example of much is the critical design review (CDR). This major milestone for a large, complex new project may last two or more days, include an extensive agenda of topics, and entail hundreds of hours of developer time to prepare presentation materials and associated documents. Additionally, the weeks of schedule spent on review preparation is at least partly at the expense of other work. This paper suggests an approach for tailoring technical reviews, based on the project characteristics and the project manager s identification of the key stakeholders and understanding of their most important issues and considerations. With this insight the project manager can communicate to, manage expectations oc and establish formal agreement with the stakeholders as to which reviews, and at what depth, are most appropriate to achieve project success. The authors, coming from diverse organizations and backgrounds, have drawn on their personal experiences and summarized the best practices of their own organizations to create a common framework to provide guidance on the adaptation of design reviews to other system engineers.

  5. Holographic optical elements: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zech, R. G.; Shareck, M.; Ralston, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The basic properties and use of holographic optical elements were investigated to design and construct wide-angle, Fourier-transform holographic optical systems for use in a Bragg-effect optical memory. The performance characteristics are described along with the construction of the holographic system.

  6. Characterization of edible seaweed harvested on the Galician coast (northwestern Spain) using pattern recognition techniques and major and trace element data.

    PubMed

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-02-10

    Major and trace elements in North Atlantic seaweed originating from Galicia (northwestern Spain) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Br and I) and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) (As). Pattern recognition techniques were then used to classify the edible seaweed according to their type (red, brown, and green seaweed) and also their variety (Wakame, Fucus, Sea Spaghetti, Kombu, Dulse, Nori, and Sea Lettuce). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as exploratory techniques, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used as classification procedures. In total, t12 elements were determined in a range of 35 edible seaweed samples (20 brown seaweed, 10 red seaweed, 4 green seaweed, and 1 canned seaweed). Natural groupings of the samples (brown, red, and green types) were observed using PCA and CA (squared Euclidean distance between objects and Ward method as clustering procedure). The application of LDA gave correct assignation percentages of 100% for brown, red, and green types at a significance level of 5%. However, a satisfactory classification (recognition and prediction) using SIMCA was obtained only for red seaweed (100% of cases correctly classified), whereas percentages of 89 and 80% were obtained for brown seaweed for recognition (training set) and prediction (testing set), respectively.

  7. Water-quality characteristics of streams in forested and rural areas of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Clyde E.; Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in North Carolina during 1973-78 from a statewide network of 39 rural sampling sites were used to define unpolluted or baseline stream quality. The basins were 90 to 100 percent forested and, except for the unknown effects of air pollution, were relatively unaffected by man 's activities. Five distinct geochemical zones were delineated across the State. The chemical characteristics of surface waters in each zone are similar. Mean and other statistical values for major dissolved constituents, nutrients, and minor elements in base runoff and storm runoff were determined. Twenty additional rural sites were located in basins where farming activities ranged from 15 to 55 percent of basins ' land area. Data from these 20 sites were used for comparison with data from the 39 unpolluted sites to determine the increase in constituent levels caused by man. For basins where farming activities accounted for 20 or more percent of total land use, phosphorus levels were 2 to 13 times greater than those from the forested basins and several major constituents were 2 to 3 times greater. Concentrations of minor elements were essentially the same in both developed and undeveloped basins. (Kosco-USGS)

  8. Element availability of bivalve with symbiotic zooxanthellae in coral sea area as studied by multielement profiling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, A.; Kabe, N.

    2008-12-01

    In coral sea, a characteristic ecosystem is formed by many kinds of marine animals and plants, although seawater is uneutrophic. This may be explained by the fact that various chemical species with bioessentiality are effectively taken and used by lower animals and plants in coral sea area. A symbiotic relationship often found among different animals and plants in this area is considered to be working as one of such processes. However, the specific bioavailability of the elements for the marine animals and plants in coral reef area has not been studied from the viewpoints of trace and ultratrace elements. It is found by the present authors that bivalve with symbiotic zooxanthellae (Tridacna crocea) living on coral reef had relatively higher bio- accumulation factors for many bio-essential elements than other kinds of bivalves, although they live in the uneutrophic sea area. The present authors focused on Tridacna crocea as one of the symbiotic animals. Thus, in the present study, at first, multielement determination of major-to-ultratrace elements (about 20 elements) in each organ of Tridacna crocea with symbiotic zooxanthellae, were carried out by ICP-AES, ICP- MS, and CHN coder. At Second, the specific bioavailability of trace and ultratrace elements in Tridacna crocea was discussed on the multielement data for seawater, seaweeds, and other bivalves in coral sea area.

  9. Young Tanzanians and the Cinema: A Study of the Effects of Selected Basic Motion Picture Elements and Population Characteristics on Filmic Comprehension of Tanzanian Adolescent Primary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltrow, David Roger

    A study was conducted of Tanzanian adolescent school children's responses to filmic elements. The design included a very large sample in a complicated factorial design, varying such factors as color, type of action, background and sound of the film, and the demographic characteristics of the subjects. Results showed that of these variables,…

  10. Changes in a Starting Pitcher's Performance Characteristics Across the Duration of a Major League Baseball Game.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Martini, Douglas N; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2016-03-01

    With a view to informing in-game decision making as it relates to strategy and pitcher health, this study examined changes in pitching-performance characteristics across 9 innings of Major League Baseball (MLB) games. 129 starting MLB pitchers met the inclusion criteria for this study. Pitch type, speed, ball movement, release location, and strike-zone data-collected using the MLB's ball-tracking system, PITCHf/x-were obtained for 1,514,304 pitches thrown from 2008 to 2014. Compared with the 1st inning, the proportion of hard pitches thrown decreased significantly until the 7th inning, while the proportions of breaking and off-speed pitches increased. Significant decreases in pitch speed, increases in vertical movement, and decreases in release height emerged no later than the 5th inning, and the largest differences in all variables were generally recorded between the 1st inning and the late innings (7-9). Pitchers were most effective during the 2nd inning and significantly worse in innings 4 and 6. These data revealed that several aspects of a starting pitcher's pitching characteristics exhibited changes from baseline as early as the 2nd or 3rd inning of an MLB game, but this pattern did not reflect the changes in his effectiveness. Therefore, these alterations do not appear to provide reasonable justification for relieving a starting pitcher, although future work must address their relevance to injury. From an offensive standpoint, batters in the MLB should anticipate significantly more hard pitches during the early innings but more breaking and off-speed pitches, with decreasing speed, as the game progresses.

  11. A New Axi-Symmetric Element for Thin Walled Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Rui P. R.; Yoon, Jeong Whan; Dick, Robert E.

    2010-06-01

    A new axi-symmetric finite element for sheet metal forming applications is presented in this work. It uses the solid-shell element's concept with only a single element layer and multiple integration points along the thickness direction. The cross section of the element is composed of four nodes with two degrees of freedom each. The proposed formulation overcomes major locking pathologies including transverse shear locking, Poisson's locking and volumetric locking. Some examples are shown to demonstrate the performance and accuracy of the proposed element with special focus on the numerical simulations for the beverage can industry.

  12. Elements and Principles of Design Posters. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This book accompanies a poster series and allows the teacher to pre-plan a lesson or activity for students with the objectives shown for each element or principle of design to be presented. Along with a black-and-white reproduction of each poster, major concepts are discussed. Suggested student activities relating to a particular element or…

  13. Transient analysis using conical shell elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, J. C. S.; Goeller, J. E.; Messick, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the NASTRAN conical shell element in static, eigenvalue, and direct transient analyses is demonstrated. The results of a NASTRAN static solution of an externally pressurized ring-stiffened cylinder agree well with a theoretical discontinuity analysis. Good agreement is also obtained between the NASTRAN direct transient response of a uniform cylinder to a dynamic end load and one-dimensional solutions obtained using a method of characteristics stress wave code and a standing wave solution. Finally, a NASTRAN eigenvalue analysis is performed on a hydroballistic model idealized with conical shell elements.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of free vibration characteristics of an in situ railway concrete sleeper to variations of rail pad parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Remennikov, Alex M.

    2006-11-01

    The vibration of in situ concrete sleepers in a railway track structure is a major factor causing cracking of prestressed concrete sleepers and excessive railway track maintenance cost. Not only does the ballast interact with the sleepers, but the rail pads also take part in affecting their free vibration characteristics. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of free vibration behaviors of an in situ railway concrete sleeper (standard gauge sleeper), incorporating sleeper/ballast interaction, subjected to the variations of rail pad properties. Through finite element analysis, Timoshenko-beam and spring elements were used in the in situ railway concrete sleeper modeling. This model highlights the influence of rail pad parameters on the free vibration characteristics of in situ sleepers. In addition, information on the first five flexural vibration modes indicates the dynamic performance of railway track when using different types of rail pads, as it plays a vital role in the cracking deterioration of concrete sleepers.

  15. Rare earth elements geochemistry in springs from Taftan geothermal area SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Ata; Ghoreyshinia, Sayedkazem; Mehrabi, Behzad; Delavari, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in springs and andesitic-dacitic rocks of Taftan geothermal field. Hydrochemical results of major ions indicate that thermal springs are Na-SO4-Cl and Ca-SO4-Cl types. Concentrations of REEs are in ranges of 10- 4 to 1.2 and 49 to 62 times of chondrite for springwater and rock samples, respectively. The thermal (STS and TTS) and the cold (APS) springs with low pH values exhibit a very high REE contents (0.64 to 3.15 mg/l). Saturation index indicates that Fe and Al phases can control dissolved REE concentration in FTS and PF cold springs. The speciation of REE complexes indicates dominant presence of LnSO4+ and free ion in the Taftan thermal springs. In APS cold spring with pH 4, fluoride complexes are dominate over the free ion and sulfate species, while in PF and FTS cold springs with pH 6.4 and 7, respectively, carbonate complexes (LnCO3+) are predominant species. Chondrite-normalized pattern for the low-pH waters show very distinctive gull-wing patterns, characteristic feature of acid-sulfate geothermal systems, and are similar to those of the host rocks. Chemical characteristics of rare earth elements in spring and volcanic rock samples indicate that REEs are originated from the andesitic-dacitic host rocks. Whole-rock-normalized REE patterns and petrographic evidences show that rare earth elements leached mainly from marginal alteration of minerals and matrix decomposition in volcanic rocks. In chondrite-normalized REE patterns, significant negative Eu anomaly in the cold springs compare to the thermal and acidic springs indicates that alteration of plagioclase is more intense in the later, corresponding to increasing in temperature and acidic state of reactant water.

  16. Nuclear microscopy in trace-element biology — from cellular studies to the clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindh, Ulf

    1993-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of trace and major elements in cells are of great interest in cell biology. PIXE can provide elemental concentrations in the bulk of cells or organelles as other bulk techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and nuclear activation analysis. Supplementary information, perhaps more exciting, on the intracellular distributions of trace elements can be provided using nuclear microscopy. Intracellular distributions of trace elements in normal and malignant cells are presented. The toxicity of mercury and cadmium can be prevented by supplementation of the essential trace element selenium. Some results from an experimental animal model are discussed. The intercellular distribution of major and trace elements in isolated blood cells, as revealed by nuclear microscopy, provides useful clinical information. Examples are given concerning inflammatory connective-tissue diseases and the chronic fatigue syndrome.

  17. Finite element modeling of frictionally restrained composite interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, Roberto; Ahmed, Shamim

    1989-01-01

    The use of special interface finite elements to model frictional restraint in composite interfaces is described. These elements simulate Coulomb friction at the interface, and are incorporated into a standard finite element analysis of a two-dimensional isolated fiber pullout test. Various interfacial characteristics, such as the distribution of stresses at the interface, the extent of slip and delamination, load diffusion from fiber to matrix, and the amount of fiber extraction or depression are studied for different friction coefficients. The results are compared to those obtained analytically using a singular integral equation approach, and those obtained by assuming a constant interface shear strength. The usefulness of these elements in micromechanical modeling of fiber-reinforced composite materials is highlighted.

  18. Physicochemical properties and the concentration of anions, major and trace elements in groundwater, treated drinking water and bottled drinking water in Najran area, KSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brima, Eid I.

    2017-03-01

    Basic information about major elements in bottled drinking water is provided on product labels. However, more information is needed about trace elements in bottled drinking water and other sources of drinking water to assess its quality and suitability for drinking. This is the first such study to be carried out in Najran city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A total of 48 water samples were collected from different sources comprising wells, stations for drinking water treatment and bottled drinking water (purchased from local supermarkets). The concentrations of 24 elements [aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molydenum (Mo), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), rubidium (Rb), selenium (Se), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), vanadium (V), uranium (U) and zinc (Zn)] were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Anions (chlorine (Cl-), fluoride (F-), sulfate (SO4 2-) and nitrate (NO3 -) were determined by ion chromatography (IC). Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) and total hardness (TH) were also measured. All parameters of treated drinking water and bottled drinking water samples did not exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA 2009), Gulf Cooperation Council Standardization Organization (GSO) 2008 and Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO) 1984 recommended guidelines. It is noteworthy that groundwater samples were not used for drinking purpose. This study is important to raise public knowledge about drinking water, and to promote public health.

  19. Lightning protection for shuttle propulsion elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, Carolyn C.; Giudici, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of lightning protection analyses and tests are weighed against the present set of waivers to the NASA lightning protection specification. The significant analyses and tests are contrasted with the release of a new and more realistic lightning protection specification, in September 1990, that resulted in an inordinate number of waivers. A variety of lightning protection analyses and tests of the Shuttle propulsion elements, the Solid Rocket Booster, the External Tank, and the Space Shuttle Main Engine, were conducted. These tests range from the sensitivity of solid propellant during shipping to penetration of cryogenic tanks during flight. The Shuttle propulsion elements have the capability to survive certain levels of lightning strikes at certain times during transportation, launch site operations, and flight. Changes are being evaluated that may improve the odds of withstanding a major lightning strike. The Solid Rocket Booster is the most likely propulsion element to survive if systems tunnel bond straps are improved. Wiring improvements were already incorporated and major protection tests were conducted. The External Tank remains vulnerable to burn-through penetration of its skin. Proposed design improvements include the use of a composite nose cone and conductive or laminated thermal protection system coatings.

  20. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  1. Leaching of major and trace elements from paper-plastic gasification chars: an experimental and modelling study.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Lopez-Anton, M A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Zomeren, A van; Cieplik, M; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2013-01-15

    The control of soluble metal species in the sub-product leachate generated in electricity production processes is of great concern from an environmental and health point of view. Unlike fly ash, the leaching behaviour of char materials has received little attention. Yet, these solids are captured together with fly ashes in the particle control devices of power plants and are emitted in the same way as by-products. The present study was carried out using two char samples: (i) a raw char and (ii) the same type of char employed in a previous study so that it could serve as a sorbent for mercury species in gas phase. The char samples were by-products (residues) that had been generated during the gasification of plastic and paper waste. The leachates were analyzed for the following elements: Al, Ca, Si, Mg, Ba, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mo and Hg. In addition, geochemical modelling of the leaching test results was employed to identify the underlying chemical processes that led to the release of toxic elements. The results showed that at alkaline pH values, sorption on the solid surfaces of the char was negligible due to the inorganic complexation of cations in the solution. When the char was used as mercury sorbent slight changes occurred on the reactive surface resulting in the modification of the binding of some elements. As the pH increased, complexation with dissolved organic matter played a more important role in the case of some elements such as Cu because of the greater concentration of dissolved organic matter in solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite element method for calculating spectral and optical characteristics of axially symmetric quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Derbov, V. L.; Hai, L. L.; Kazaryan, E. M.; Sarkisyan, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    We present new calculation schemes using high-order finite element method implemented on unstructured grids with triangle elements for solving boundary-value problems that describe axially symmetric quantum dots. The efficiency of the algorithms and software is demonstrated by benchmark calculations of the energy spectrum, the envelope eigenfunctions of electron, hole and exciton states, and the direct interband light absorption in conical and spheroidal impenetrable quantum dots.

  3. The Obscure World of Integrative and Mobilizable Elements, Highly Widespread Elements that Pirate Bacterial Conjugative Systems

    PubMed Central

    Guédon, Gérard; Libante, Virginie; Coluzzi, Charles; Payot, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation is a key mechanism of bacterial evolution that involves mobile genetic elements. Recent findings indicated that the main actors of conjugative transfer are not the well-known conjugative or mobilizable plasmids but are the integrated elements. This paper reviews current knowledge on “integrative and mobilizable elements” (IMEs) that have recently been shown to be highly diverse and highly widespread but are still rarely described. IMEs encode their own excision and integration and use the conjugation machinery of unrelated co-resident conjugative element for their own transfer. Recent studies revealed a much more complex and much more diverse lifecycle than initially thought. Besides their main transmission as integrated elements, IMEs probably use plasmid-like strategies to ensure their maintenance after excision. Their interaction with conjugative elements reveals not only harmless hitchhikers but also hunters that use conjugative elements as target for their integration or harmful parasites that subvert the conjugative apparatus of incoming elements to invade cells that harbor them. IMEs carry genes conferring various functions, such as resistance to antibiotics, that can enhance the fitness of their hosts and that contribute to their maintenance in bacterial populations. Taken as a whole, IMEs are probably major contributors to bacterial evolution. PMID:29165361

  4. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma constitutes the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. It is shown that abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. Although compatible and incompatible trace elements are useful in modeling, the present review focuses primarily on examples involving the rare-earth elements.

  5. Investigation of the relation between the return periods of major drought characteristics using copula functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüsami Afşar, Mehdi; Unal Şorman, Ali; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    Different drought characteristics (e.g. duration, average severity, and average areal extent) often have monotonic relation that increased magnitude of one often follows a similar increase in the magnitude of the other drought characteristic. Hence it is viable to establish a relationship between different drought characteristics with the goal of predicting one using other ones. Copula functions that relate different variables using their joint and conditional cumulative probability distributions are often used to statistically model the drought characteristics. In this study bivariate and trivariate joint probabilities of these characteristics are obtained over Ankara (Turkey) between 1960 and 2013. Copula-based return period estimation of drought characteristics of duration, average severity, and average areal extent show joint probabilities of these characteristics can be satisfactorily achieved. Among different copula families investigated in this study, elliptical family (i.e. including normal and t-student copula functions) resulted in the lowest root mean square error. "This study was supported by TUBITAK fund #114Y676)."

  6. Rare earth element geochemistry characteristics of seawater and porewater from deep sea in western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinan; Ren, Jiangbo; Guo, Qingjun; Cao, Jun; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Chenhui

    2017-11-28

    Deep-sea sediments contain high concentrations of rare earth element (REE) which have been regarded as a huge potential resource. Understanding the marine REE cycle is important to reveal the mechanism of REE enrichment. In order to determine the geochemistry characteristics and migration processes of REE, seawater, porewater and sediment samples were systematically collected from the western Pacific for REE analysis. The results show a relatively flat REE pattern and the HREE (Heavy REE) enrichment in surface and deep seawater respectively. The HREE enrichment distribution patterns, low concentrations of Mn and Fe and negative Ce anomaly occur in the porewater, and high Mn/Al ratios and low U concentrations were observed in sediment, indicating oxic condition. LREE (Light REE) and MREE (Middle REE) enrichment in upper layer and depletion of MREE in deeper layer were shown in porewater profile. This study suggests that porewater flux in the western Pacific basin is a minor source of REEs to seawater, and abundant REEs are enriched in sediments, which is mainly caused by the extensive oxic condition, low sedimentation rate and strong adsorption capacity of sediments. Hence, the removal of REEs of porewater may result in widespread REE-rich sediments in the western Pacific basin.

  7. Mineralogy and Major Element Abundance of the Dust Particles Recovered from Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid Itokawa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, T.; Noguchi, T.; Tanaka, M.; Zolensky, M. E.; Kimura, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Yada, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Remote sensing by the spacecraft Hayabusa suggested that outermost surface particles of Muses-C regio of the asteroid Itokawa consist of centimeter and sub-centimeter size small pebbles. However, particles we found in the sample catcher A stored in the Hayabusa capsule, where Muses-C particles were captured during first touchdown, are much smaller. i.e., most are smaller than 100 microns in size. This suggests that only small fractions of Muses-C particles were stirred up due to the impact of the sampling horn onto the surface, or due to jets from chemical thrusters during the lift off of the spacecraft from the surface. X-ray fluorescence and near-infrared measurements by the Hayabusa spacecraft suggested that Itokawa surface materials have mineral and major element composition roughly similar to LL chondrites. The particles of the Muses-C region are expected to have experienced some effects of space weathering. Both of these prospects can be tested by the direct mineralogical analyses of the returned Itokawa particles in our study and another one. This comparison is most important aspect of the Hayabusa mission, because it finally links chemical analyses of meteorites fallen on the Earth to spectroscopic measurements of the asteroids.

  8. The elements of life and medicines

    PubMed Central

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed. PMID:25666066

  9. The elements of life and medicines.

    PubMed

    Chellan, Prinessa; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-03-13

    Which elements are essential for human life? Here we make an element-by-element journey through the periodic table and attempt to assess whether elements are essential or not, and if they are, whether there is a relevant code for them in the human genome. There are many difficulties such as the human biochemistry of several so-called essential elements is not well understood, and it is not clear how we should classify elements that are involved in the destruction of invading microorganisms, or elements which are essential for microorganisms with which we live in symbiosis. In general, genes do not code for the elements themselves, but for specific chemical species, i.e. for the element, its oxidation state, type and number of coordinated ligands, and the coordination geometry. Today, the biological periodic table is in a position somewhat similar to Mendeleev's chemical periodic table of 1869: there are gaps and we need to do more research to fill them. The periodic table also offers potential for novel therapeutic and diagnostic agents, based on not only essential elements, but also non-essential elements, and on radionuclides. Although the potential for inorganic chemistry in medicine was realized more than 2000 years ago, this area of research is still in its infancy. Future advances in the design of inorganic drugs require more knowledge of their mechanism of action, including target sites and metabolism. Temporal speciation of elements in their biological environments at the atomic level is a major challenge, for which new methods are urgently needed.

  10. Subsurface In Situ Elemental Composition Measurements with PING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Ann; McClanahan, Timothy; Bodnarik, Julia; Evans, Larry; Nowicki, Suzanne; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Starr, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Probing In situ with Neutron and Gamma rays (PING) instrument, that can measure the subsurface elemental composition in situ for any rocky body in the solar system without the need for digging into the surface. PING consists of a Pulsed Neutron Generator (PNG), a gamma ray spectrometer and neutron detectors. Subsurface elements are stimulated by high-energy neutrons to emit gamma rays at characteristic energies. This paper will show how the detection of these gamma rays results in a measurement of elemental composition. Examples of the basalt to granite ratios for aluminum and silicon abundance are provided.

  11. The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nittler, Larry R; Starr, Richard D; Weider, Shoshana Z; McCoy, Timothy J; Boynton, William V; Ebel, Denton S; Ernst, Carolyn M; Evans, Larry G; Goldsten, John O; Hamara, David K; Lawrence, David J; McNutt, Ralph L; Schlemm, Charles E; Solomon, Sean C; Sprague, Ann L

    2011-09-30

    X-ray fluorescence spectra obtained by the MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting Mercury indicate that the planet's surface differs in composition from those of other terrestrial planets. Relatively high Mg/Si and low Al/Si and Ca/Si ratios rule out a lunarlike feldspar-rich crust. The sulfur abundance is at least 10 times higher than that of the silicate portion of Earth or the Moon, and this observation, together with a low surface Fe abundance, supports the view that Mercury formed from highly reduced precursor materials, perhaps akin to enstatite chondrite meteorites or anhydrous cometary dust particles. Low Fe and Ti abundances do not support the proposal that opaque oxides of these elements contribute substantially to Mercury's low and variable surface reflectance.

  12. Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guo, Y.; Parker, R.

    2014-01-01

    Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding tomore » two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.« less

  13. Characteristics of U.S. Veteran Patients with Major Depressive Disorder who require "next-step" treatments: A VAST-D report.

    PubMed

    Zisook, Sidney; Tal, Ilanit; Weingart, Kimberly; Hicks, Paul; Davis, Lori L; Chen, Peijun; Yoon, Jean; Johnson, Gary R; Vertrees, Julia E; Rao, Sanjai; Pilkinton, Patricia D; Wilcox, James A; Sapra, Mamta; Iranmanesh, Ali; Huang, Grant D; Mohamed, Somaia

    2016-12-01

    Finding effective and lasting treatments for patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) that fail to respond optimally to initial standard treatment is a critical public health imperative. Understanding the nature and characteristics of patients prior to initiating "next-step" treatment is an important component of identifying which specific treatments are best suited for individual patients. We describe clinical features and demographic characteristics of a sample of Veterans who enrolled in a "next-step" clinical trial after failing to achieve an optimal outcome from at least one well-delivered antidepressant trial. 1522 Veteran outpatients with nonpsychotic MDD completed assessments prior to being randomized to study treatment. Data is summarized and presented in terms of demographic, social, historical and clinical features and compared to a similar, non-Veteran sample. Participants were largely male and white, with about half unmarried and half unemployed. They were moderately severely depressed, with about one-third reporting recent suicidal ideation. More than half had chronic and/or recurrent depression. General medical and psychiatric comorbidities were highly prevalent, particularly PTSD. Many had histories of childhood adversity and bereavement. Participants were impaired in multiple domains of their lives and had negative self-worth. These results may not be generalizable to females, and some characteristics may be specific to Veterans of US military service. There was insufficient data on age of clinical onset and depression subtypes, and three novel measures were not psychometrically validated. Characterizing VAST-D participants provides important information to help clinicians understand features that may optimize "next-step" MDD treatments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Quality assessment and control of finite element solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Babuska, Ivo

    1987-01-01

    Status and some recent developments in the techniques for assessing the reliability of finite element solutions are summarized. Discussion focuses on a number of aspects including: the major types of errors in the finite element solutions; techniques used for a posteriori error estimation and the reliability of these estimators; the feedback and adaptive strategies for improving the finite element solutions; and postprocessing approaches used for improving the accuracy of stresses and other important engineering data. Also, future directions for research needed to make error estimation and adaptive movement practical are identified.

  15. Semi-analytical discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for the calculation of dispersion properties of guided waves in plates.

    PubMed

    Hebaz, Salah-Eddine; Benmeddour, Farouk; Moulin, Emmanuel; Assaad, Jamal

    2018-01-01

    The development of reliable guided waves inspection systems is conditioned by an accurate knowledge of their dispersive properties. The semi-analytical finite element method has been proven to be very practical for modeling wave propagation in arbitrary cross-section waveguides. However, when it comes to computations on complex geometries to a given accuracy, it still has a major drawback: the high consumption of resources. Recently, discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG-FEM) has been found advantageous over the standard finite element method when applied as well in the frequency domain. In this work, a high-order method for the computation of Lamb mode characteristics in plates is proposed. The problem is discretised using a class of DG-FEM, namely, the interior penalty methods family. The analytical validation is performed through the homogeneous isotropic case with traction-free boundary conditions. Afterwards, functionally graded material plates are analysed and a numerical example is presented. It was found that the obtained results are in good agreement with those found in the literature.

  16. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  17. Habitability design elements for a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Habitability in space refers to the components, characteristics, conditions, and design parameters that go beyond but include the basic life sustaining requirements. Elements of habitability covered include internal environment, architecture, mobility and restraint, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communications, and crew activities. All elements are interrelated and need to be treated as an overall discipline. Designing for a space station is similar to designing on earth but with 'space rules' instead of ground rules. It is concluded that some habitability problems require behavioral science solutions.

  18. Interoceanic variation in the rare earth, major, and trace element depositional chemistry of chert: Perspectives gained from the DSDP and ODP record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, R.W.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price; Jones, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE), major, and trace element abundances and relative fractionations in forty nodular cherts sampled by the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) indicate that the REE composition of chert records the interplay between terrigenous sources and scavenging from the local seawater. Major and (non-REE) trace element ratios indicate that the aluminosilicate fraction within the chert is similar to NASC (North American Shale Composite), with average Pacific chert including ~7% NASC-like particles, Indian chert ~ 11% NASC, Atlantic chert ~ 17% NASC, and southern high latitude (SHL) chert 53% NASC. Using La as a proxy for ∑REE, approximations of Laex (the amount of La in excess of that supplied by the detrital aluminosilicate fraction) indicate that Pacific chert contains the greatest Laex (85% of Latotal) and SHL chert the least (38% of Latotal). As shown by interelement associations, this Laex is most likely an adsorbed component onto aluminosilicate and phosphatic phases.Accordingly, chert from the large Pacific Ocean, where deposition occurs relatively removed from significant terrigenous input, records a depositional REE signal dominated by adsorption of dissolved REEs from seawater. Pacific chert CeCe*⪡ 1 and LanYbn ~ 0.8-1, resulting from adsorption of local Ce-depleted seawater and preferential adsorption of LREEs from seawater (e.g., LanYbn ~ 0.4), which increases the LanYbn ratio recorded in chert. Chert from the Atlantic basin, a moderately sized ocean basin lined by passive margins and with more terrigenous input than the Pacific, records a mix of adsorptive and terrigenous REE signals, with moderately negative Ce anomalies and LanYbn">LanYbn ratios intermediate to those of the Pacific and those of terrigenous input. Chert from the SHL region is dominated by the large terrigenous input on the Antarctic passive margin, with inherited CeCe*~1">CeCe*~1 and inherited LanYbn">LanYbn values of ~1.2–1

  19. Assimilation and regeneration of trace elements by marine copepods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.-X.; Reinfelder, J.R.; Lee, B.-G.; Fisher, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of five trace elements (Am, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn) and carbon by neritic copepods (Acartia tonsa and Temora longicornis) feeding at different food concentrations and on different food types (diatoms, green algae, flagellates, dinoflagellates, and Fe oxides) were measured with radiotracer techniques. Food concentration had little influence on AEs of C, Cd, Co, and Se within a range of 16-800 ?? C liter-1. AEs of Am and Zn were highest at low food concentrations (16-56 ??g C liter-1) but remained relatively constant when food levels exceeded 160 ??g C liter-1. Different algal diets had no major influence on AEs, which generally were in the order Cd > Se > Zn > Co > Am. Metals (Cd, Co, and Zn) were assimilated from Fe oxides with 50% less efficiency than from algal cells. Element regeneration into the dissolved phase was a significant route for the release of ingested elements by copepods and increased with increased food concentration. Element regeneration rates for Cd, Se, and Zn were comparable to the regeneration rates of major nutrients such as P (30-70% daily). Retention half-times of elements in decomposing fecal pellets ranged from 10 d (Am). The efficient assimilation and regeneration of Cd, Se, and Zn can significantly lengthen the residence time of these elements in ocean surface waters.

  20. Performance characteristics of LOX-H2, tangential-entry, swirl-coaxial, rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Doug; Petersen, Eric; Clark, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Development of a high performing swirl-coaxial injector requires an understanding of fundamental performance characteristics. This paper addresses the findings of studies on cold flow atomic characterizations which provided information on the influence of fluid properties and element operating conditions on the produced droplet sprays. These findings are applied to actual rocket conditions. The performance characteristics of swirl-coaxial injection elements under multi-element hot-fire conditions were obtained by analysis of combustion performance data from three separate test series. The injection elements are described and test results are analyzed using multi-variable linear regression. A direct comparison of test results indicated that reduced fuel injection velocity improved injection element performance through improved propellant mixing.

  1. Nutrient elements in large Chinese estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing

    1996-07-01

    Based on comprehensive observations since 1983, this study summarizes major features of nutrient elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon) in large Chinese river/estuary systems. Elevated nutrient element levels were observed in Chinese rivers, when compared to large and less disturbed aquatic systems (e.g. the Amazon, Zaire and Orinoco). Data from this study are similar to those obtained from the polluted and/or eutrophic rivers in Europe and North America (e.g. the Rhóne and Loire). Nutrient elements may have either conservative or active distributions, or both, in the mixing zone, depending on the element and the estuary. For example, non-conservative behaviors were observed in the upper estuary, where nutrient elements may be remobilized due to the strong desorption and variations of the fresh water end-member, but conservative distributions were found afterwards in the lower estuary. Outside the riverine effluent plumes, nutrient elements may be depleted in surface waters relative to elevated bioproduction, whereas the regeneration with respect to decomposition of organic material and/or nitrification/denitrification offshore, may sustain high levels of nutrient elements in near-bottom waters. Laboratory experiment data generally compares well with field observations. The high fluxes and area] yields of nutrient elements from large Chinese rivers, indicate the extensive use of chemical fertilizers and domestic waste drainage over watersheds in China.

  2. Nontoxic strains of cyanobacteria are the result of major gene deletion events induced by a transposable element.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Guntram; Molitor, Carole; Philmus, Benjamin; Kurmayer, Rainer

    2008-08-01

    Blooms that are formed by cyanobacteria consist of toxic and nontoxic strains. The mechanisms that result in the occurrence of nontoxic strains are enigmatic. All the nontoxic strains of the filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix that were isolated from 9 European countries were found to have lost 90% of a large microcystin synthetase (mcy) gene cluster that encoded the synthesis of the toxic peptide microcystin (MC). Those strains still contain the flanking regions of the mcy gene cluster along with remnants of the transposable elements that are found in between. The majority of the strains still contain a gene coding for a distinct thioesterase type II (mcyT), which is putatively involved in MC synthesis. The insertional inactivation of mcyT in an MC-producing strain resulted in the reduction of MC synthesis by 94 +/- 2% (1 standard deviation). Nontoxic strains that occur in shallow lakes throughout Europe form a monophyletic lineage. A second lineage consists of strains that contain the mcy gene cluster but differ in their photosynthetic pigment composition, which is due to the occurrence of strains that contain phycocyanin or large amounts of phycoerythrin in addition to phycocyanin. Strains containing phycoerythrin typically occur in deep-stratified lakes. The rare occurrence of gene cluster deletion, paired with the evolutionary diversification of the lineages of strains that lost or still contain the mcy gene cluster, needs to be invoked in order to explain the absence or dominance of toxic cyanobacteria in various habitats.

  3. Soils element history, sampling, analyses, and recommendations. [Plutonium isotopes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    A five year history of the Soils Element of the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) is presented. Major projects are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on mound studies and profile studies for the period March 1, 1975, through February 1, 1976. A series of recommendations is made relative to extensions of past efforts of the Soils Element of the NAEG.

  4. Sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than primary care supply, are major drivers of geographic variation in preventable hospitalizations in Australia.

    PubMed

    Falster, Michael O; Jorm, Louisa R; Douglas, Kirsty A; Blyth, Fiona M; Elliott, Robert F; Leyland, Alastair H

    2015-05-01

    Geographic rates of preventable hospitalization are used internationally as an indicator of accessibility and quality of primary care. Much research has correlated the indicator with the supply of primary care services, yet multiple other factors may influence these admissions. To quantify the relative contributions of the supply of general practitioners (GPs) and personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, to geographic variation in preventable hospitalization. Self-reported questionnaire data for 267,091 participants in the 45 and Up Study, Australia, were linked with administrative hospital data to identify preventable hospitalizations. Multilevel Poisson models, with participants clustered in their geographic area of residence, were used to explore factors that explain geographic variation in hospitalization. GP supply, measured as full-time workload equivalents, was not a significant predictor of preventable hospitalization, and explained only a small amount (2.9%) of the geographic variation in hospitalization rates. Conversely, more than one-third (36.9%) of variation was driven by the sociodemographic composition, health, and behaviors of the population. These personal characteristics explained a greater amount of the variation for chronic conditions (37.5%) than acute (15.5%) or vaccine-preventable conditions (2.4%). Personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than GP supply, are major drivers of preventable hospitalization. Their contribution varies according to condition, and if used for performance comparison purposes, geographic rates of preventable hospitalization should be reported according to individual condition or potential pathways for intervention.

  5. Sociodemographic and Health Characteristics, Rather Than Primary Care Supply, are Major Drivers of Geographic Variation in Preventable Hospitalizations in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Louisa R.; Douglas, Kirsty A.; Blyth, Fiona M.; Elliott, Robert F.; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Geographic rates of preventable hospitalization are used internationally as an indicator of accessibility and quality of primary care. Much research has correlated the indicator with the supply of primary care services, yet multiple other factors may influence these admissions. Objective: To quantify the relative contributions of the supply of general practitioners (GPs) and personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, to geographic variation in preventable hospitalization. Methods: Self-reported questionnaire data for 267,091 participants in the 45 and Up Study, Australia, were linked with administrative hospital data to identify preventable hospitalizations. Multilevel Poisson models, with participants clustered in their geographic area of residence, were used to explore factors that explain geographic variation in hospitalization. Results: GP supply, measured as full-time workload equivalents, was not a significant predictor of preventable hospitalization, and explained only a small amount (2.9%) of the geographic variation in hospitalization rates. Conversely, more than one-third (36.9%) of variation was driven by the sociodemographic composition, health, and behaviors of the population. These personal characteristics explained a greater amount of the variation for chronic conditions (37.5%) than acute (15.5%) or vaccine-preventable conditions (2.4%). Conclusions: Personal sociodemographic and health characteristics, rather than GP supply, are major drivers of preventable hospitalization. Their contribution varies according to condition, and if used for performance comparison purposes, geographic rates of preventable hospitalization should be reported according to individual condition or potential pathways for intervention. PMID:25793270

  6. An Overview of Climatic Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, H. L.; Johnson, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    This Technical Publication (TP) addresses some climatic elements with emphasis on atmospheric composition, including gas radiative characteristics. Solar radiation is discussed with considerable information on the mathematical and statistical formulae. On a worldwide basis, temperature and precipitation for the globe are discussed along with interaction in drought. Also included is the simultaneous interaction with winds, humidity, and solar radiation. Volcanology gets minimum treatment. The oceans and seas are treated in chart form along with the interrelationship of oceanic currents and El Nino and La Nina, and ENSO phenomena. Upper air circulations are discussed. Various cloud formations up to 85-95 km altitude are described. Information on tornadoes and hurricanes is also included. One section is devoted to the climate physical-chemical elements. A short discussion is given on the importance for the quality of data and/or information in descriptions of the climate. This TP presents only an overview or survey of these and other various climatic elements.

  7. Surface protection coating material for controlling the decay of major construction stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, T.; Ray, D. K.; Gupta, V. P.; Panda, S. S.; Sahoo, P. K.; Ghosh, Jaydip; Sengupta, Pranesh; Satyam, P. V.

    2017-05-01

    Degradation of the building stones are creating instability in the old building and monuments which is to be protected. To investigate the characteristics of such a stones used for the construction in eastern India, we have collected the khondalite stones. The microstructural and elemental composition analysis of the khondalite stones are analyzed by using SEM, EDX and PIXE trace elemental analysis. We have prepared surface protection coating material with graphene oxide and cobalt ferrite as a base material along with other residuals. The prepared coating materials is coated on the galvanized iron substrate for further characterization. The surface morphology characteristics of the coating material is analyzed by SEM and AFM. The corrosion resistance characteristics of the prepared coating material is studied by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results suggests that the prepared coating material can be used as a surface protection materials to control the self-destruction of khondalite stones.

  8. Element Mapping in Anhydrous IDPs: Identification of the Host Phases of Major/Minor Elements as a Test of Nebula Condensation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Wirick, S.; Jacobsen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Many anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are the most pristine samples of primitive solar system dust currently available for laboratory analysis. Their primitive nature is demonstrated by: 1) the high content of moderately volatile elements, indicating they have not been heated significantly since formation, 2) the absence of hydrated material, indicating they never experienced aqueous processing, 3) the presence of unequilibrated mineral assemblages, 4) the presence of large isotopic anomalies (e.g., D and 15N enrichment), in these IDPs.

  9. Critical Elements of Scientist-Teacher Partnerships and Lessons Learned About Partnership Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B.; Hall, M. K.; Regens, N. L.

    2006-05-01

    Partnerships between scientists and K-12 teachers have the potential for long-term impacts, but there are many barriers to forming sustainable relationships between these two work environment cultures. By analyzing data from an NSF GK-12 program that pairs graduate and undergraduate students (fellows) with K-12 teachers, we identified several key attributes of effective partnerships. Our data indicate that communicating openly about goals, roles, and dissatisfaction is the foundation of successful partnership evolution. Although it was possible to develop strong communication, goals, and roles over time, partnership pairs that achieved these elements through deliberate and early action experienced less frustration than those who did not. Undefined goals and roles represented major barriers to partnership formation. Often, dissatisfaction was related to one partner perceiving the other as being uninvested in the relationship. Direct communication about dissatisfaction was rare, but the majority of fellows and teachers who discussed their frustrations benefited. Communicating openly demonstrated partners' desire and commitment to collaborate and led to increased planning time, a shared division of labor, the exchange of scientific and pedagogical resources, and the development of new knowledge and skills. Program design is an influential factor in developing sustainable partnerships as well. We will give examples of how the GK-12 program studied has been modified over the last five years to promote the partnership characteristics that we identified. We will also discuss program elements that facilitate communication, goal setting, role definition, and planning time.

  10. Environmental mineralogy - Understanding element behavior in ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Calas, Georges

    2011-02-01

    Environmental Mineralogy has developed over the past decade in response to the recognition that minerals are linked in many important ways with the global ecosystem. Minerals are the main repositories of the chemical elements in Earth's crust and thus are the main sources of elements needed for the development of civilization, contaminant and pollutant elements that impact global and local ecosystems, and elements that are essential plant nutrients. These elements are released from minerals through natural processes, such as chemical weathering, and anthropogenic activities, such as mining and energy production, agriculture and industrial activities, and careless waste disposal. Minerals also play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of the elements, sequestering elements and releasing them as the primary minerals in crustal rocks undergo various structural and compositional transformations in response to physical, chemical, and biological processes that produce secondary minerals and soils. These processes have resulted in the release of toxic elements such as arsenic in groundwater aquifers, which is having a major impact on the health of millions of people in South and Southeast Asia. The interfaces between mineral surfaces and aqueous solutions are the locations of most chemical reactions that control the composition of the natural environment, including the composition of natural waters. The nuclear fuel cycle, from uranium mining to the disposition of high-level nuclear waste, is also intimately related to minerals. A fundamental understanding of these processes requires molecular-scale information about minerals, their bulk structures and properties such as solubility, their surfaces, and their interactions with aqueous solutions, atmospheric and soil gases, natural organic matter, and biological organisms. Gaining this understanding is further complicated by the presence of natural, incidental, and manufactured nanoparticles in the environment, which are

  11. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-12-08

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in US Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled ``Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System.`` The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity. 8 figs.

  12. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System." The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

  13. A Seven-Year Major and Trace Element Study of Rain Water in the Barcés River Watershed, A Coruña, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    concentration 8 mg/L. Based on standard normalization procedures, the source of some major and trace precipitation elements have been identified, including sea water, soil and pollution/anthropogenic sources as well as multiyear trends. Available data has allowed also the computation of elemental loads in the studied area.

  14. Major and trace element modeling of mid-ocean ridge mantle melting from the garnet to the plagioclase stability fields: Generating local and global compositional variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. M.; Behn, M. D.; Grove, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present results of a combined petrologic - geochemical (major and trace element) - geodynamical forward model for mantle melting and subsequent melt modification. The model advances Behn & Grove (2015), and is calibrated using experimental petrology. Our model allows for melting in the plagioclase, spinel, and garnet fields with a flexible retained melt fraction (from pure batch to pure fractional), tracks residual mantle composition, and includes melting with water, variable melt productivity, and mantle mode calculations. This approach is valuable for understanding oceanic crustal accretion, which involves mantle melting and melt modification by migration and aggregation. These igneous processes result in mid-ocean ridge basalts that vary in composition at the local (segment) and global scale. The important variables are geophysical and geochemical and include mantle composition, potential temperature, mantle flow, and spreading rate. Accordingly, our model allows us to systematically quantify the importance of each of these external variables. In addition to discriminating melt generation effects, we are able to discriminate the effects of different melt modification processes (inefficient pooling, melt-rock reaction, and fractional crystallization) in generating both local, segment-scale and global-scale compositional variability. We quantify the influence of a specific igneous process on the generation of oceanic crust as a function of variations in the external variables. We also find that it is unlikely that garnet lherzolite melting produces a signature in either major or trace element compositions formed from aggregated melts, because when melting does occur in the garnet field at high mantle temperature, it contributes a relatively small, uniform fraction (< 10%) of the pooled melt compositions at all spreading rates. Additionally, while increasing water content and/or temperature promote garnet melting, they also increase melt extent, pushing the

  15. Elements of Conjunctive Use Water Supply.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    180 ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ............ oee-eesessese..........182 EFFECTS OF FACILITIES...184 EFFECTS OF APPLICATION OF WATER .................. 191 EFFECTS OF GROUNDWATER PUMPING ........................ 197 AIR QUALITY, NOISE...those involved in conjunctive use planning to more effectively and quickly focus on the necessary tasks. The major elements are described and important

  16. Statistical analysis of major ion and trace element geochemistry of water, 1986-2006, at seven wells transecting the freshwater/saline-water interface of the Edwards Aquifer, San Antonio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    The statistical analyses taken together indicate that the geochemistry at the freshwater-zone wells is more variable than that at the transition-zone wells. The geochemical variability at the freshwater-zone wells might result from dilution of ground water by meteoric water. This is indicated by relatively constant major ion molar ratios; a preponderance of positive correlations between SC, major ions, and trace elements; and a principal components analysis in which the major ions are strongly loaded on the first principal component. Much of the variability at three of the four transition-zone wells might result from the use of different laboratory analytical methods or reporting procedures during the period of sampling. This is reflected by a lack of correlation between SC and major ion concentrations at the transition-zone wells and by a principal components analysis in which the variability is fairly evenly distributed across several principal components. The statistical analyses further indicate that, although the transition-zone wells are less well connected to surficial hydrologic conditions than the freshwater-zone wells, there is some connection but the response time is longer. 

  17. High permittivity patch radiator for single and multi-element hyperthermia applicators.

    PubMed

    Andreuccetti, D; Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Vanni, R

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes a compact, low-profile patch radiator which is the base element for efficient, small-size applicators suitable for superficial hyperthermia. The design criteria and the technological processes involved are presented. The electromagnetic characteristics of the patch element are outlined, and possible application of the radiator are discussed.

  18. Force characteristics of a modular squeeze mode magneto-rheological element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Michael J.; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Farjoud, Alireza; Burke, William C. T.; Nagode, Clement

    2010-04-01

    While few publications exist on the behavior of Magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid in squeeze mode, devices using squeeze mode may take advantage of the very large range of adjustment that squeeze mode offers. Based on results obtained through modeling and testing MR fluid in a squeeze mode rheometer, a novel compression-adjustable element has been fabricated and tested, which utilizes MR fluid in squeeze mode. While shear and valve modes have been used exclusively for MR fluid damping applications, recent modeling and testing with MR fluid has revealed that much larger adjustment ranges are achievable in squeeze mode. Utilizing squeeze mode, a compression element, or MR Pouch, was developed consisting of a flexible cylindrical membrane with each end fastened to a steel endplate (pole plates). The silicone rubber pouch material was molded in the required shape for use in the squeeze mode rheometer. This flexible membrane allows for the complete self-containment of MR fluid and because the pouch compensates for volume changes, there is no need for dynamic seals and associated surface finish treatments on the steel components. An electromagnet incorporated in the rheometer passes an adjustable magnetic field axially through the pole plates and MR fluid. Test results show the device was capable of varying the compression force from less than 8lbs to greater than 1000lbs when the pole plates were 0.050" apart. Simulations were compared against test data with good correlation. Possible applications of this technology include primary suspension components, auxiliary suspension bump stops, and other vibration isolation components, as MR Pouches are scalable depending on the application and force requirements.

  19. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  20. Geochemical variations of rare earth elements in Marcellus shale flowback waters and multiple-source cores in the Appalachian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, C.; Jain, J.; Hakala, A.; Schroeder, K.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) - encompassing the naturally occurring lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium - are potential tracers for subsurface groundwater-brine flows and geochemical processes. Application of these elements as naturally occurring tracers during shale gas development is reliant on accurate quantitation of trace metals in hypersaline brines. We have modified and validated a liquid-liquid technique for extraction and pre-concentration of REE from saline produced waters from shale gas extraction wells with quantitative analysis by ICP-MS. This method was used to analyze time-series samples of Marcellus shale flowback and produced waters. Additionally, the total REE content of core samples of various strata throughout the Appalachian Basin were determined using HF/HNO3 digestion and ICP-MS analysis. A primary goal of the study is to elucidate systematic geochemical variations as a function of location or shale characteristics. Statistical testing will be performed to study temporal variability of inter-element relationships and explore associations between REE abundance and major solution chemistry. The results of these analyses and discussion of their significance will be presented.

  1. Psychosocial Characteristics of Optimum Performance in Isolated and Confined Environments (ICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Keeton, Kathryn E.; Shea, Camille; Leveton, Lauren B.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element addresses human health risks in the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), including the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and the Risk of Psychiatric Disorders. BHP supports and conducts research to help characteristics and mitigate the Behavioral Medicine risk for exploration missions, and in some instances, current Flight Medical Operations. The Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element identified research gaps within the Behavioral Medicine Risk, including Gap BMed6: What psychosocial characteristics predict success in an isolated, confined environment (ICE)? To address this gap, we conducted an extensive and exhaustive literature review to identify the following: 1) psychosocial characteristics that predict success in ICE environments; 2) characteristics that are most malleable; and 3) specific countermeasures that could enhance malleable characteristics.

  2. Highly siderophile elements in chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horan, M.F.; Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Rubin, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), Re, Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd, were determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry for bulk samples of 13 carbonaceous chondrites, 13 ordinary chondrites and 9 enstatite chondrites. These data are coupled with corresponding 187Re-187Os isotopic data reported by Walker et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2002] in order to constrain the nature and timing of chemical fractionation relating to these elements in the early solar system. The suite of chondrites examined displays considerable variations in absolute abundances of the HSE, and in the ratios of certain HSE. Absolute abundances of the HSE vary by nearly a factor of 80 among the chondrite groups, although most vary within a factor of only 2. Variations in concentration largely reflect heterogeneities in the sample aliquants. Different aliquants of the same chondrite may contain variable proportions of metal and/or refractory inclusions that are HSE-rich, and sulfides that are HSE-poor. The relatively low concentrations of the HSE in CI1 chondrites likely reflect dilution by the presence of volatile components. Carbonaceous chondrites have Re/Os ratios that are, on average, approximately 8% lower than ratios for ordinary and enstatite chondrites. This is also reflected in 187Os/188Os ratios that are approximately 3% lower for carbonaceous chondrites than for ordinary and enstatite chondrites. Given the similarly refractory natures of Re and Os, this fractionation may have occurred within a narrow range of high temperatures, during condensation of these elements from the solar nebula. Superimposed on this major fractionation are more modest movements of Re or Os that occurred within the last 0-2 Ga, as indicated by minor open-system behavior of the Re-Os isotope systematics of some chondrites. The relative abundances of other HSE can also be used to discriminate among the major classes of chondrites. For example, in comparison to the enstatite chondrites

  3. Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Electronic Holograms of Vibrating Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks can be used to process efficiently the characteristic patterns or mode shapes from electronic holograms of vibrating blades. The models used for routine design may not yet be sufficiently accurate for this application. This document discusses the creation of characteristic patterns; compares model generated and experimental characteristic patterns; and discusses the neural networks that transform the characteristic patterns into strain or damage information. The current potential to adapt electronic holography to spin rigs, wind tunnels and engines provides an incentive to have accurate finite element models lor training neural networks.

  4. Fire and Brimstone: The Microbially Mediated Formation of Elemental Sulfur Nodules from an Isotope and Major Element Study in the Paleo-Dead Sea

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Tom; Turchyn, Alexandra V.; Sivan, Orit

    2013-01-01

    We present coupled sulfur and oxygen isotope data from sulfur nodules and surrounding gypsum, as well as iron and manganese concentration data, from the Lisan Formation near the Dead Sea (Israel). The sulfur isotope composition in the nodules ranges between -9 and -11‰, 27 to 29‰ lighter than the surrounding gypsum, while the oxygen isotope composition of the gypsum is constant around 24‰. The constant sulfur isotope composition of the nodule is consistent with formation in an ‘open system’. Iron concentrations in the gypsum increase toward the nodule, while manganese concentrations decrease, suggesting a redox boundary at the nodule-gypsum interface during aqueous phase diagenesis. We propose that sulfur nodules in the Lisan Formation are generated through bacterial sulfate reduction, which terminates at elemental sulfur. We speculate that the sulfate-saturated pore fluids, coupled with the low availability of an electron donor, terminates the trithionate pathway before the final two-electron reduction, producing thionites, which then disproportionate to form abundant elemental sulfur. PMID:24098403

  5. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie

    2017-04-01

    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  6. Chemical elements in the environment: multi-element geochemical datasets from continental to national scale surveys on four continents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caritat, Patrice de; Reimann, Clemens; Smith, David; Wang, Xueqiu

    2017-01-01

    During the last 10-20 years, Geological Surveys around the world have undertaken a major effort towards delivering fully harmonized and tightly quality-controlled low-density multi-element soil geochemical maps and datasets of vast regions including up to whole continents. Concentrations of between 45 and 60 elements commonly have been determined in a variety of different regolith types (e.g., sediment, soil). The multi-element datasets are published as complete geochemical atlases and made available to the general public. Several other geochemical datasets covering smaller areas but generally at a higher spatial density are also available. These datasets may, however, not be found by superficial internet-based searches because the elements are not mentioned individually either in the title or in the keyword lists of the original references. This publication attempts to increase the visibility and discoverability of these fundamental background datasets covering large areas up to whole continents.

  7. Method based on artificial excitation of characteristic radiation by an electron beam for remote X-ray spectral elemental analysis of surface rocks on atmosphereless celestial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.

    2016-11-01

    This article, like our previous one [1], is devoted to advanced space technology concepts. It evaluates the potential for developing active systems to conduct a remote elemental analysis of surface rocks on an atmosphereless celestial body. The analysis is based on the spectrometry of characteristic X-rays (CXR) artificially excited in the surface soil layer. It has been proposed to use an electron beam injected from aboard a spacecraft orbiting the celestial body (or moving in a flyby trajectory) to excite the CXR elements contained in surface rocks. The focus is on specifying technical requirements to the parameters of payloads for a global mapping of the composition of lunar rocks from aboard of a low-orbiting lunar satellite. This article uses the results obtained in [2], our first study that shows the potential to develop an active system for a remote elemental analysis of lunar surface rocks using the above method. Although there has been interest in our research on the part of leading national academic institutions and space technology developers in the Soviet Union, the studies were discontinued because of the termination of the Soviet lunar program and the completion of the American Apollo program.

  8. Trace and rare-earth element characteristics of acidic tuffs from southern Peru and northern Bolivia and a fission-track age for the sillar of Arequipa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatin-Perignon, N.; Poupeau, G.; Oliver, R. A.; La Venu, A.; Labrin, F.; Keller, F.; Bellot-Gurlet, L.

    1996-03-01

    Trace-element and REE data of glass and pumices of acidic tuffs and related fall deposits erupted in southern Peru and northern Bolivia between 20 and 0.36 Ma display typical characteristics of subduction related continental arc magmatism of the CVZ with strong LILE/HFSE enrichment and non enrichment of HREE and Y. Geochemical variations of these tuffs are linked to subduction processes and controlled by changes in tectonic regimes which occured with each Quechua tectonic pulse and affected the astenospheric wedge and both the dowgoing and the overriding lithospheres. During Neogene — Pleistocene times, tuffs erupted in northern Bolivia are typically enriched in Zr, Hf, Th, Ba, LREEs and other incompatible elements and incompatible /Yb ratios are much higher relative to those erupted from southern Peru, at a given SiO 2 content (65-67 wt. for dacites, 72-73 wt.% for rhyolites). {Zr}/{Hf} ratios increase eastward from 27 to 30 and {Ce}/{Yb N} ratios from 11 to 19 reflecting the variation of degree of wedge contribution. Fractionation of the LREE over the HREE and fractionation of incompatible elements may be due to their heterogeneous distribution in the magma source. More highly fractionated REE patterns of Bolivian tuffs than Peruvian tuffs are attributed to variable amounts of contamination of magmas by lower crust. After the Quechua compressional event at 7 Ma, {Sr}/{Y} ratios of tuffs of the same age, erupted at 150-250 km or 250-400 km from the Peru-Chile trench, increase from southern Peru to northern Bolivia. These differences may be attributed to the subduction of a swarm oceanic lithosphere under the Bolivian Alti-plano, leading to partial melting of the sudbucted lithosphere. New FT dating of obsidian fragments of the sillar of Arequipa at 2.42 ± 0.11 Ma. This tuff dates the last Quechua compressional upper Pliocene phase ( 2.5 Ma) and confirms that the sillar is not contemporaneous with the Toba 76 tuff or the Perez ignimbrite of northern Bolivia

  9. Genetic Nature of Elemental Contents in Wheat Grains and Its Genomic Prediction: Toward the Effective Use of Wheat Landraces from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Shuhei; Yoshimura, Kazusa; Kondou, Youichi; Onogi, Akio; Matsui, Minami; Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Ban, Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Profiling elemental contents in wheat grains and clarifying the underlying genetic systems are important for the breeding of biofortified crops. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic potential of 269 Afghan wheat landraces for increasing elemental contents in wheat cultivars. The contents of three major (Mg, K, and P) and three minor (Mn, Fe, and Zn) elements in wheat grains were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Large variations in elemental contents were observed among landraces. Marker-based heritability estimates were low to moderate, suggesting that the elemental contents are complex quantitative traits. Genetic correlations between two locations (Japan and Afghanistan) and among the six elements were estimated using a multi-response Bayesian linear mixed model. Low-to-moderate genetic correlations were observed among major elements and among minor elements respectively, but not between major and minor elements. A single-response genome-wide association study detected only one significant marker, which was associated with Zn, suggesting it will be difficult to increase the elemental contents of wheat by conventional marker-assisted selection. Genomic predictions for major elemental contents were moderately or highly accurate, whereas those for minor elements were mostly low or moderate. Our results indicate genomic selection may be useful for the genetic improvement of elemental contents in wheat. PMID:28072876

  10. Chemical characteristics and origin of H chondrite regolith breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschutz, M. E.; Biswas, S.; Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Petrologic data and contents of Ag, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, Ga, In, Rb, Se, Te, Tl and Zn-trace elements spanning the volatility/mobility range-in light and dark portions of H chondrite regolith breccias and L chondrite fragmental breccias are reported. The chemical/petrologic characteristics of H chondrite regolith breccias differ from those of nonbrecciated chondrites or fragmental breccias. Petrologic characteristics and at least some trace element contents of H chondrite regolith breccias reflect primary processes; contents of the most volatile/mobile elements may reflect either primary or secondary processing, possibly within layered H chondrite parent object(s). Chemical/petrologic differences existed in different regions of the parent(s). Regoligh formation and gardening and meteoroid compaction were not so severe as to alter compositions markedly.

  11. The Selection of a Business Major: Elements Influencing Student Choice and Implications for Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Robert E.; Potter, Gregory C.; Saccucci, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the key factors that influence student choice of a business major and how business schools can help students make that choice more realistically. Investigating students at a regional university, the authors found that whereas those with better quantitative skills tended to major in accounting or finance, those…

  12. Trace elements in major marketed marine bivalves from six northern coastal cities of China: concentrations and risk assessment for human health.

    PubMed

    Li, Peimiao; Gao, Xuelu

    2014-11-01

    One hundred and fifty nine samples of nine edible bivalve species (Argopecten irradians, Chlamys farreri, Crassostrea virginica, Lasaea nipponica, Meretrix meretrix, Mytilus edulis, Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Sinonovacula constricta) were randomly collected from eight local seafood markets in six big cities (Dalian, Qingdao, Rizhao, Weifang, Weihai and Yantai) in the northern coastal areas of China for the investigation of trace element contamination. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn were quantified. The risk of these trace elements to humans through bivalve consumption was then assessed. Results indicated that the concentrations of most of the studied trace element varied significantly with species: the average concentration of Cu in C. virginica was an order of magnitude higher than that in the remaining species; the average concentration of Zn was also highest in C. virginica; the average concentration of As, Cd and Pb was highest in R. philippinarum, C. farreri and A. irradians, respectively. Spatial differences in the concentrations of elements were generally less than those of interspecies, yet some elements such as Cr and Hg in the samples from different cities showed a significant difference in concentrations for some bivalve species. Trace element concentrations in edible tissues followed the order of Zn>Cu>As>Cd>Cr>Pb>Hg generally. Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) indicated that different species examined showed different bioaccumulation of trace elements. There were significant correlations between the concentrations of some elements. The calculated hazard quotients indicated in general that there was no obvious health risk from the intake of trace elements through bivalve consumption. But care must be taken considering the increasing amount of seafood consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The fractionation and geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements measured in ambient size-resolved PM in an integrated iron and steelmaking industry zone.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qili; Li, Liwei; Yang, Jiamei; Liu, Baoshuang; Bi, Xiaohui; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, YuFen; Yao, Lin; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-09-01

    Improved understanding of the fractionation and geochemical characteristic of rare earth elements (REEs) from steel plant emissions is important due to the unclear atmospheric signature of these elements and their adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, ambient particulate matter of different sizes was collected from one site in an integrated iron and steelmaking industrial zone (HG) and one urban background site with no direct industrial emissions (ZWY) during a 1-year sampling campaign in China. The total concentrations of REEs for TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 27.248, 14.989, 3.542 ng/m(3) in HG and 6.326, 5.274, 1.731 ng/m(3), respectively, in ZWY, which revealed the local influence of the steelmaking activities to the air quality. With respect to ZWY, the REEs in HG site are obviously fractionated in the coarser fraction, and LREEs account for more than 80 % of the total REE burden in all of the samples. Additionally, the REEs in HG and ZWY show a homogeneous trend with successively increased LREE/HREE ratios from the coarse particles to the fine particles. In our samples, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm are the most enriched rare earth elements, especially in the HG site. Moreover, ternary diagrams of LaCeSm indicate that the REEs in HG are potentially contributed by steelworks, carrier vehicles, coal combustion, and road dust re-suspension.

  14. Potential Relationship between Season of Birth and Clinical Characteristics in Major Depressive Disorder in Koreans: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeong-Kyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to examine the potential relationship between season of birth (SOB) and clinical characteristics in Korean patients with unipolar non-psychotic major depressive disorder (MDD). Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in South Korea, 891 MDD patients were divided into two groups, those born in spring/summer (n=457) and those born in autumn/winter (n=434). Measurement tools comprising the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Clinical Global Impression of severity, Social and Occupation Functional Assessment Scale, WHO Quality of Life assessment instrument-abbreviated version, Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and Temperament and Character Inventory were used to evaluate depression, anxiety, overall symptoms, suicidal ideation, global severity, social function, quality of life, drinking, and temperament and character, respectively. Using independent t-tests for continuous variables and χ² tests for discrete variables, the clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. MDD patients born in spring/summer were on average younger at onset of first depressive episode (t=2.084, p=0.038), had greater loss of concentration (χ²=4.589, p=0.032), and were more self-directed (t=2.256, p=0.025) than those born in autumn/winter. Clinically, there was a trend for the MDD patients born in spring/summer to display the contradictory characteristics of more severe clinical course and less illness burden; this may have been partly due to a paradoxical effect of the 5-HT system.

  15. Spatial distributions, fractionation characteristics, and ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediments of Chaohu Lake, a large eutrophic freshwater lake in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Rongqiong; Xi, Shanshan; Da, Chunnian; Liu, Fei

    2018-01-01

    The concentrations, spatial distribution, fractionation characteristics, and potential ecological risks of trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co) in the surface sediment samples collected from 32 sites in Chaohu Lake were investigated. The improved BCR sequential extraction procedure was applied to analyze the chemical forms of trace elements in sediments. The enrichment factor (EF), sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and risk assessment code (RAC) were employed to evaluate the pollution levels and the potential ecological risks. The results found that the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Co in the surface sediments were 78.59, 36.91, 161.84, 98.87, 38.92, and 10.09 mg kg -1 , respectively. The lower concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni were almost found in the middle part of the lake, while Co increased from the western toward the eastern parts of the lake. Cr, Ni, Co, and Zn predominantly existed in the residual fractions, with the average values of 76.35, 59.22, 45.60, and 44.30%, respectively. Cu and Pb were mainly combined with Fe/Mn oxides in reducible fraction, with the average values of 66.4 and 69.1%, respectively. The pollution levels were different among the selected elements. Cu had the highest potential ecological risk, while Cr had the lowest potential ecological risk.

  16. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  18. Dispersion characteristics of plasmonic waveguides for THz waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markides, Christos; Viphavakit, Charusluk; Themistos, Christos; Komodromos, Michael; Kalli, Kyriacos; Quadir, Anita; Rahman, Azizur

    2013-05-01

    Today there is an increasing surge in Surface Plasmon based research and recent studies have shown that a wide range of plasmon-based optical elements and techniques have led to the development of a variety of active switches, passive waveguides, biosensors, lithography masks, to name just a few. The Terahertz (THz) frequency region of the electromagnetic spectrum is located between the traditional microwave spectrum and the optical frequencies, and offers a significant scientific and technological potential in many fields, such as in sensing, in imaging and in spectroscopy. Waveguiding in this intermediate spectral region is a major challenge. Amongst the various THz waveguides suggested, the metal-clad waveguides supporting surface plasmon modes waves and specifically hollow core structures, coated with insulating material are showing the greatest promise as low-loss waveguides for their use in active components and as well as passive waveguides. The H-field finite element method (FEM) based full-vector formulation is used to study the vectorial modal field properties and the complex propagation characteristics of Surface Plasmon modes of a hollow-core dielectric coated rectangular waveguide structure. Additionally, the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to estimate the dispersion parameters and the propagation loss of the rectangular waveguide.

  19. Damage Identification of Piles Based on Vibration Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Yao, Wenjuan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    A method of damage identification of piles was established by using vibration characteristics. The approach focused on the application of the element strain energy and sensitive modals. A damage identification equation of piles was deduced using the structural vibration equation. The equation contained three major factors: change rate of element modal strain energy, damage factor of pile, and sensitivity factor of modal damage. The sensitive modals of damage identification were selected by using sensitivity factor of modal damage firstly. Subsequently, the indexes for early-warning of pile damage were established by applying the change rate of strain energy. Then the technology of computational analysis of wavelet transform was used to damage identification for pile. The identification of small damage of pile was completely achieved, including the location of damage and the extent of damage. In the process of identifying the extent of damage of pile, the equation of damage identification was used in many times. Finally, a stadium project was used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method of damage identification for piles. The correctness and practicability of the proposed method were verified by comparing the results of damage identification with that of low strain test. The research provided a new way for damage identification of piles. PMID:25506062

  20. Finite Element Models and Properties of a Stiffened Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2010-01-01

    Finite element models were developed of a floor-equipped, frame and stringer stiffened composite cylinder including a coarse finite element model of the structural components, a coarse finite element model of the acoustic cavities above and below the beam-supported plywood floor, and two dense models consisting of only the structural components. The report summarizes the geometry, the element properties, the material and mechanical properties, the beam cross-section characteristics, the beam element representations and the boundary conditions of the composite cylinder models. The expressions used to calculate the group speeds for the cylinder components are presented.

  1. Numerical simulation of aerodynamic characteristics of multi-element wing with variable flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Hongyan; Zhang, Xinpeng; Kuang, Jianghong

    2017-10-01

    Based on the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equation, the mesh generation technique and the geometric modeling method, the influence of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model on the aerodynamic characteristics is investigated. In order to study the typical configuration of aircraft, a similar DLR-F11 wing is selected. Firstly, the 3D model of wing is established, and the 3D model of plane flight, take-off and landing is established. The mesh structure of the flow field is constructed and the mesh is generated by mesh generation software. Secondly, by comparing the numerical simulation with the experimental data, the prediction of the aerodynamic characteristics of the multi section airfoil in takeoff and landing stage is validated. Finally, the two flap deflection angles of take-off and landing are calculated, which provide useful guidance for the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing and the flap angle design of the wing.

  2. Characteristics of the USA dairy herd as related to management and demographic elements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data characteristics of the United States dairy herd related to animals enrolled in milk recording (dairy herd improvement) are the basic foundation and important influencers for the management and genetic progress achieved in a population or animal production unit. The amount, characteristics ...

  3. THE RECRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURE OF IRON AS AFFECTED BY DILUTE TRANSITIONAL ELEMENTS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abrahamson, E.P. II; Blakeney, B.S. Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of the transition elements in binary solid solution additions upon the recrystalization temperature of iron has been investigated. All these elements immediately raise the temperature, most having their major effect in less than 0.10 at.%. A correlation is noted between the rate of change of recrystallization temperature with at.% solute and the electron configuration of the added element. An explanation is proposed to account for this phenomena. (auth)

  4. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    PubMed

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  5. Rare Earth Element Geochemistry for Produced Waters, WY

    DOE Data Explorer

    Quillinan, Scott; Nye, Charles; McLing, Travis; Neupane, Hari

    2016-06-30

    These data represent major, minor, trace, isotopes, and rare earth element concentrations in geologic formations and water associated with oil and gas production. *Note - Link below contains updated version of spreadsheet (6/14/2017)

  6. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  7. Spectroscopic identification of rare earth elements in phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devangad, Praveen; Tamboli, Maktum; Muhammed Shameem, K. M.; Nayak, Rajesh; Patil, Ajeetkumar; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Santhosh, C.; Kumar, G. A.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, rare earth-doped phosphate glasses were synthesized and characterized using three different spectroscopic techniques. The absorption spectra of the prepared praseodymium (Pr) and samarium (Sm) doped glasses, recorded by a UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer, show the characteristic absorption bands of these elements. To confirm this inference, laser-induced fluorescence spectra of Pr and Sm were obtained at a laser excitation of 442 nm. Their emission bands are reported here. The elemental analysis of these samples was carried out using a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system. Characteristic emission lines of Pr and Sm have been identified and reported by the recorded LIBS spectra of glass samples. Results prove that using these three complimentary spectroscopic techniques (absorption, fluorescence and LIBS), we can meaningfully characterize rare earth-doped glass samples.

  8. The effects of sorting by aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of surface materials: a wind tunnel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xunming; Lang, Lili; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia; Li, Hui

    2018-03-01

    The geochemical characteristics of aeolian and surface materials in potential source areas of dust are frequently employed in environmental reconstructions as proxies of past climate and as source tracers of aeolian sediments deposited in downwind areas. However, variations in the geochemical characteristics of these aeolian deposits that result from near-surface winds are currently poorly understood. In this study, we collected surface samples from the Ala Shan Plateau (a major potential dust source area in Central Asia) to determine the influence of aeolian processes on the geochemical characteristics of aeolian transported materials. Correlation analyses show that compared with surface materials, the elements in transported materials (e.g., Cu, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, Ga, K, Mg, P, Rb, Co, Cr, Na, Nb, Si, and Zr) were subjected to significant sorting by aeolian processes, and the sorting also varied among different particle size fractions and elements. Variations in wind velocity were significantly correlated with the contents of Cr, Ga, Sr, Ca, Y, Nd, Zr, Nb, Ba, and Al, and with the Zr/Al, Zr/Rb, K/Ca, Sr/Ca, Rb/Sr, and Ca/Al ratios. Given the great variation in the geochemical characteristics of materials transported under different aeolian processes relative to those of the source materials, these results indicate that considerable uncertainty may be introduced to analyses by using surface materials to trace the potential source areas of aeolian deposits that accumulate in downwind areas.

  9. Characteristics of and interventions for fever in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ikematsu, Y

    2004-12-01

    As part of a larger multinational validation study of the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) alpha version, a survey was conducted in Japan to determine characteristics of 'fever' and interventions to treat febrile patients. Three hundred and fifty-six acute and critical care Japanese nurses participated in this study. The major and minor characteristics of 'fever' perceived by Japanese nurses and interventions used by the nurses in managing febrile patients were identified using the Diagnostic Content Validity (DCV) model. Two characteristics, 'increased body temperature' and 'chills' were selected as major characteristics from the standardized list of the ICNP alpha version validation study. Nine characteristics among the standardized list of characteristics were rated as minor characteristics, and six of the ICNP characteristics were rejected. 'Shivering' and 'infectious lab data' were added with a level of representativeness similar to a major characteristic by nine of the nurses. A variety of interventions to treat fever were reported. The most frequently reported intervention was cooling, followed by warming and medication. Nine dimensions were derived from all reported interventions. As well as perceived characteristics of fever, these interventions may have aspects unique to Japanese nursing practice and to the acute and critical care settings. These results can be compared to those of other populations in future studies.

  10. Major- and trace-element concentrations in rock samples collected in 2004 from the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Miller, Marti L.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Karl, Sue M.; Baichtal, James F.; Blodgett, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The Kuskokwim mineral belt of Bundtzen and Miller (1997) forms an important metallogenic region in southwestern Alaska that has yielded more than 3.22 million ounces of gold and 400,000 ounces of silver. Precious-metal and related deposits in this region associated with Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary igneous complexes extend into the Taylor Mountains 1:250,000-scale quadrangle. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting geologic mapping and a mineral resource assessment of this area that will provide a better understanding of the geologic framework, regional geochemistry, and may provide targets for mineral exploration and development. During the 2004 field season 137 rock samples were collected for a variety of purposes. The 4 digital files accompanying this report reflect the type of analysis performed and its intended purpose and are available for download as an Excel workbook, comma delimited format (*.csv), dBase 4 files (*.dbf) or as point coverages in ArcInfo interchange format (*.e00). Data values are provided in percent, pct (1gram per 100grams), or parts per million, ppm (1gram per 1,000,000grams) per the column heading in the table. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 42 trace-elements (icp42.*) to provide data for use in geochemical exploration as well as some baseline data. Selected samples were analyzed by additional methods; 104 targeted geochemical exploration samples were analyzed for gold, arsenic, and mercury (auashg.*); 21 of these samples were also analyzed to obtain concentrations of 10 loosely bound metals (icp10.*); 33 rock samples were analyzed for major element oxides to support the regional mapping program (reg.*), of which 28 sedimentary rock samples were also analyzed for total carbon, and carbonate carbon.

  11. Assessment of species-specific and temporal variations of major, trace and rare earth elements in vineyard ambient using moss bags.

    PubMed

    Milićević, Tijana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Vuković, Gordana; Škrivanj, Sandra; Relić, Dubravka; Frontasyeva, Marina V; Popović, Aleksandar

    2017-10-01

    Since the methodological parameters of moss bag biomonitoring have rarely been investigated for the application in agricultural areas, two mosses, Sphagnum girgensohnii (a species of the most recommended biomonitoring genus) and Hypnum cupressiforme (commonly available), were verified in a vineyard ambient. The moss bags were exposed along transects in six vineyard parcels during the grapevine season (March‒September 2015). To select an appropriate period for the reliable 'signal' of the element enrichment in the mosses, the bags were simultaneously exposed during five periods (3 × 2 months, 1 × 4 months, and 1 × 6 months). Assuming that vineyard is susceptible to contamination originated from different agricultural treatments, a wide range of elements (41) were determined in the moss and topsoil samples. The mosses were significantly enriched by the elements during the 2-month bag exposure which gradually increasing up to 6 months, but Cu and Ni exhibited the noticeable fluctuations during the grapevine season. However, the 6-month exposure of moss bags could be recommended for comparative studies among different vineyards because it reflects the ambient pollution comprising unpredictable treatments of grapevine applied during the whole season. Although higher element concentrations were determined in S. girgensohnii than H. cupressiforme, both species reflected the spatio-temporal changes in the ambient element content. Moreover, the significant correlation of the element (Cr, Cu, Sb, and Ti) concentrations between the mosses, and the same pairs of the elements correlated within the species, imply the comparable use of S. girgensohnii and H. cupressiforme in the vineyard (agricultural) ambient. Finally, both the moss bags and the soil analyses suggest that vineyard represents a dominant diffuse pollution source of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Fe, and V. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The chemical characteristics of ground water near Fairbanks, Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, G. Lang; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Lilly, Michael R.; Bolton, Bob; Meier, Allen L.; Sanzolone, Richard F.

    2000-01-01

    Major- and trace-element abundances, and Sr and Pb isotopic compositions, of ground waters in and near Fairbanks, Alaska, were determined to characterize their chemical characteristics and to assess the factors controlling variations in dissolved arsenic concentrations. Collected samples show majorelement (Ca>Mg>Na>K) and strontium and lead isotopic compositions characteristic of waters that have interacted with lithologies comprising the Fairbanks Schist. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are not highly correlated with the abundances of other major and trace elements in these waters; however, waters with high arsenic concentrations (5.4 to 450 parts per billion) tend to have relatively high concentrations of antimony (as much as 1.7 ppb). The correlation between arsenic and antimony suggests that both elements were derived from the oxidation of hypogene sulfide minerals (arsenopyrite) that originally formed within the Fairbanks Schist during hydrothermal activity associated with the emplacement of Cretaceous granitic rocks. Variations in measured arsenic concentrations are due, in part, to the variations in the original abundance of upgradient sulfide minerals from a given well or spring. However, speciation studies on the ground water containing the highest concentration of arsenic in this study (450 ppb) demonstrate that the arsenic occurs primarily in its reduced form (As(III)). In agreement with previous studies, we conclude that relatively reducing ground waters have the highest potential for high arsenic concentrations due to greater mobility of As(III) relative to its oxidized counterpart (As(V)). In light of this conclusion, additional studies are being undertaken to determine how seasonal variations in ground-water redox affect arsenic mobility

  13. Trace Elemental Imaging of Rare Earth Elements Discriminates Tissues at Microscale in Flat Fossils

    PubMed Central

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B.; Cohen, Serge X.; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies. PMID:24489809

  14. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  15. Field study on the accumulation of trace elements by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Paula; Simões, Isabel; Palma, Patrícia; Amaral, Olga; Matos, João Xavier

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of trace elements (TE) by vegetables produced in the vicinity of abandoned pyrite mines, eighteen different small farms were selected near three mines from the Portuguese sector of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (São Domingos, Aljustrel and Lousal). Total and bioavailable As, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations were analyzed in the soils, and the same TE were analyzed in three different vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), collected at the same locations. The soils were contaminated with As, Cu, Pb, and Zn, since their total concentrations exceeded the considered soil quality guideline values for plant production in the majority of the sampling sites. The maximum total concentrations for those TE were extremely high in some of the sampling sites (e.g. 1,851 mg As kg(-1) in São Domingos, 1,126 mg Cu kg(-1) in Aljustrel, 4,946 mg Pb kg(-1) in São Domingos, and 1,224 mg Zn kg(-1) in Aljustrel). However, the soils were mainly circumneutral, a factor that contributes to their low bioavailable fractions. As a result, generally, the plants contained levels of these elements characteristic of uncontaminated plants, and accumulation factors for all elements <1, typical of excluder plants. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) for Cu and Zn, through the consumption of these vegetables, falls below the recommended upper limit for daily intake of these elements. The sampling site that stood out from the others was located at São João de Negrilhos (Aljustrel), where bioavailable Zn levels were higher, a consequence of the slight acidity of the soil. Therefore, the Zn content in vegetables was also higher, characteristic of contaminated plants, emphasizing the risk of Zn entering the human food chain via the consumption of crops produced on those soils. © 2013.

  16. Chemical composition of modern and fossil Hippopotamid teeth and implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and enamel formation: 1. major and minor element variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brügmann, G.; Krause, J.; Brachert, T. C.; Kullmer, O.; Schrenk, F.; Ssemmanda, I.; Mertz, D. F.

    2011-05-01

    Bioapatite in mammalian teeth is readily preserved in continental sediments and represents a very important archive for reconstructions of environment and climate evolution. This project intends to provide a detailed data base of major, minor and trace element and isotope tracers for tooth apatite using a variety of microanalytical techniques. The aim is to identify specific sedimentary environments and to improve our understanding on the interaction between internal metabolic processes during tooth formation and external nutritional control and secondary alteration effects. Here, we use the electron microprobe, to determine the major and minor element contents of fossil and modern molar enamel, cement and dentin from hippopotamids. Most of the studied specimens are from different ecosystems in Eastern Africa, representing modern and fossil lakustrine (Lake Kikorongo, Lake Albert, and Lake Malawi) and modern fluvial environments of the Nile River system. Secondary alteration effects in particular FeO, MnO, SO3 and F concentrations, which are 2 to 10 times higher in fossil than in modern enamel; secondary enrichments in fossil dentin and cement are even higher. In modern and fossil enamel, along sections perpendicular to the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) or along cervix-apex profiles, P2O5 and CaO contents and the CaO/P2O5 ratios are very constant (StdDev ~1 %). Linear regression analysis reveals very tight control of the MgO (R2∼0.6), Na2O and Cl variation (for both R2>0.84) along EDJ-outer enamel rim profiles, despite large concentration variations (40 % to 300 %) across the enamel. These minor elements show well defined distribution patterns in enamel, similar in all specimens regardless of their age and origin, as the concentration of MgO and Na2O decrease from the enamel-dentin junction (EDJ) towards the outer rim, whereas Cl displays the opposite variation. Fossil enamel from hippopotamids which lived in the saline Lake Kikorongo have a much higher MgO/Na2O

  17. Cardiomyopathy mutations reveal variable region of myosin converter as major element of cross-bridge compliance.

    PubMed

    Seebohm, B; Matinmehr, F; Köhler, J; Francino, A; Navarro-Lopéz, F; Perrot, A; Ozcelik, C; McKenna, W J; Brenner, B; Kraft, T

    2009-08-05

    The ability of myosin to generate motile forces is based on elastic distortion of a structural element of the actomyosin complex (cross-bridge) that allows strain to develop before filament sliding. Addressing the question, which part of the actomyosin complex experiences main elastic distortion, we suggested previously that the converter domain might be the most compliant region of the myosin head domain. Here we test this proposal by studying functional effects of naturally occurring missense mutations in the beta-myosin heavy chain, 723Arg --> Gly (R723G) and 736Ile --> Thr (I736T), in comparison to 719Arg --> Trp (R719W). All three mutations are associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and are located in the converter region of the myosin head domain. We determined several mechanical parameters of single skinned slow fibers isolated from Musculus soleus biopsies of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients and healthy controls. Major findings of this study for mutation R723G were i), a >40% increase in fiber stiffness in rigor with a 2.9-fold increase in stiffness per myosin head (S( *)(rigor R723G) = 0.84 pN/nm S( *)(rigor WT) = 0.29 pN/nm); and ii), a significant increase in force per head (F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.99 pN vs. 1.49 pN = 1.3-fold increase; F( *)(20 degrees C), 2.56 pN vs. 1.92 pN = 1.3-fold increase) as well as stiffness per head during isometric steady-state contraction (S( *)(active10 degrees C), 0.52 pN/nm vs. 0.28 pN/nm = 1.9-fold increase). Similar changes were found for mutation R719W (2.6-fold increase in S( *)(rigor); 1.8-fold increase in F( *)(10 degrees C), 1.6-fold in F( *)(20 degrees C); twofold increase in S( *)(active10 degrees C)). Changes in active cross-bridge cycling kinetics could not account for the increase in force and active stiffness. For the above estimates the previously determined fraction of mutated myosin in the biopsies was taken into account. Data for wild-type myosin of slow soleus muscle fibers support previous

  18. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhill, L. M.

    1991-01-01

    Roller element bearings provide the primary mechanical interface between rotating and nonrotating components in the high performance turbomachinery of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Knowledge of bearing behavior under various loading and environmental conditions is essential to predicting and understanding the overall behavior of turbopumps, including rotordynamic stability, critical speeds and bearing life. The objective is to develop mathematical models and computer programs to describe the mechanical behavior of ball and cylinder roller bearings under the loading and environmental conditions encountered in the SSME and future high performance rocket engines. This includes characteristics such as nonlinear load/motion relationships, stiffness and damping, rolling element loads for life prediction, and roller and cage stability.

  19. A mixed shear flexible finite element for the analysis of laminated plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putcha, N. S.; Reddy, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    A mixed shear flexible finite element based on the Hencky-Mindlin type shear deformation theory of laminated plates is presented and their behavior in bending is investigated. The element consists of three displacements, two rotations, and three moments as the generalized degrees of freedom per node. The numerical convergence and accuracy characteristics of the element are investigated by comparing the finite element solutions with the exact solutions. The present study shows that reduced-order integration of the stiffness coefficients due to shear is necessary to obtain accurate results for thin plates.

  20. Characteristics and impacts of trace elements in atmospheric deposition at a high-elevation site, southern China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiaoling; Wang, Yan; Li, Yaxin; Sun, Lei; Li, Tao; Yang, Minmin; Yang, Xueqiao; Wang, Wenxing

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the regional background trace element (TE) level in atmospheric deposition (dry and wet), TEs (Fe, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, and Pb) in 52 rainwater samples and 73 total suspended particles (TSP) samples collected in Mt. Lushan, Southern China, were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that TEs in wet and dry deposition of the target area were significantly elevated compared within and outside China and the volume weight mean pH of rainwater was 4.43. The relative contributions of wet and dry depositions of TEs vary significantly among elements. The wet deposition fluxes of V, As, Cr, Se, Zn, and Cd exceeded considerably their dry deposition fluxes while dry deposition dominated the removal of pollution elements such as Mo, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Al. The summed dry deposition flux was four times higher than the summed wet deposition flux. Prediction results based on a simple accumulation model found that the content of seven toxic elements (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) in soils could increase rapidly due to the impact of annual atmospheric deposition, and the increasing amounts of them reached 0.063, 0.012, 0.026, 0.459, 0.076, 0.004, and 0.145 mg kg -1 , respectively. In addition, the annual increasing rates ranged from 0.05% (Cr and Ni) to 2.08% (Cd). It was also predicted that atmospheric deposition induced the accumulation of Cr and Cd in surface soils. Cd was the critical element with the greatest potential ecological risk among all the elements in atmospheric deposition.

  1. Experimental evidence for mobility of Zr and other trace elements in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Mark E.

    2002-03-01

    A Soxhlet extraction was carried out over a period of 27 d on a column comprising 3 cm of quartz overlain by 4 cm of soil from the B horizon and then 1 cm of soil from the A horizon of a granitic podzol. Major and trace elements were leached from the column and accumulated in a reservoir at the base of the column. Total loss of elements from the soil over the course of the experiment ranged from 0.002 to 1 wt% with major elements and the light and heavy rare earth elements (REE) showing the largest percentage losses. Zirconium (0.002%) and then Al (0.008%) showed the lowest percentage loss. The light REE were leached out of the soil preferentially to the mid REE. All elements showed accumulation, by a factor of 2 to 11, in the quartz layers at the base of the column, particularly in the upper first 1 cm of the quartz. Major elements were leached from the column at a rate of 0.02 to 0.59 μmol h-1 whereas Zr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Rb, and Sr were leached at the rate of 0.5 to 30 × 10-6 μmol h-1. Concentrations of other REE in the reservoir increased over the duration of the experiment, but they were poorly correlated with time, so leaching rates were not calculated. Normalization of the major element leaching rates to take into account the constant flushing of water through the column, the average annual rainfall in the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment in Scotland from where the soil was sampled, and the cross-sectional area of the soil in the column, together with the temperature of the soil in the column (70°C) compared with the average annual temperature of the Allt a'Mharcaidh catchment (5.7°C), gave major element release rates from the soil of 0.002 to 0.97 mEq m-2 yr-1 (depending on the choice of Ea, the dissolution activation energy), which are generally less than those measured in the field of 0.1 to 40.9 mEq m-2 yr-1. Calculations showed that despite the redistribution and loss of Zr from the column, assumptions of Zr mobility would have had a negligible effect on

  2. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  3. Spatial And Temporal Patterns As Well As Major Influencing Factors Of Global And Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance Over China: 1960-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Sun, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) on Earth is a central element of climate systems. With changes in the climate and regional development, the patterns and influencing factors of GHI, in addition to presenting global consistency, are increasingly showing regional particularities. Based on data for GHI, Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) and potential impact factors (geographical position, elevation, cloud cover, water vapor, and ground atmospheric transparency related variables) from 1960 to 2014 in China, we analyzed the pattern and major influencing factors of GHI and DHI. The results showed that the major influencing factors of the GHI spatial pattern were the total cloud cover (TCC) and relative humidity (RH) in China. Dividing all of China into two regions, the major factors were the water vapor pressure (WVP) in the northern region and TCC in the southern region. And we divided the GHI and DHI data into two periods (1960-1987 and 1988-2014) due to global dimming and brightening observed in China in the late 1980's. The temporal GHI showed that 31 of 58 decreased significantly with an average decreasing rate of 95 MJ.10yr-1 during the periods of 1960-2014 and 49 of 76 stations decreased significantly with an rate of 342 MJ.10yr-1 during 1960-1987, whereas 57 of 88 stations did not change and 24 stations increased significantly with an rate of 201 MJ.10yr-1 during the period of 1988-2014. The temporal DHI showed that 40 of 61sites did not change significantly from 1960 to 1987. The major influencing factors for temporal changes of GHI in nine typical cities from 1960 to 2013 were as follows: air quality-related variables in super cities, sandstorms and wind in desert oasis cities, clouds in cities with good air quality and a low cloud amount (LCA) and annual fog days (FD) in Chengdu. Overall, we identified characteristics of GHI and DHI based on global climate change and regional urban development and found that the spatial characteristics of GHI results for

  4. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  5. [Finite element analysis on the effect of lateral wedge insole intervention on the contact characteristics of the subtalar joint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, En-Chang; Tang, Ping; Zhu, Chuan-Ying; Liu, Shi-Ming

    2017-01-25

    To establish a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower limb bones, and investigate the changes of the contact characteristics of the subtalar joint after using laterally wedge insole intervention. Using the reverse modeling technology, the lower limb bones of normal adult volunteers was scanned by CT. Mimics 10.0 and Geomagic Studio 6.0 software were used to reconstruct the 3D morphology of bones and external soft tissue of the feet. The laterally wedge insole was designed in ProE 5.0. And then all the models were imported into Hyperwork 10.0 and meshed, and given the material properties. The finite element analysis was carried out in ABAQUS 6.9. A three-dimensional finite element model of the lower extremity was established, which was consisted of 95 365 nodes and 246 238 elements. The contact area of the standing state of the lower joint was larger than that of the anterior middle joint surface. The peak stress was concentrated in the anterior lateral part of the posterior articular surface, and the average stress value was(3.85±1.03) MPa. Compared with the model of 0°, the contact area of the subtalar joint was reduced accordingly. There was a significant correlation between anterior middle joint | r |=0.964, P =0.008, and posterior articular | r |=0.978, P =0.002. The equivalent stress of 0° model distributed from(3.07±1.14) MPa to(3.85± 1.03) MPa, which had no statistically difference. Compared with the 0° model, the equivalent stress of the anterior and middle joint surfaces of the 8° model was significantly reduced( P <0.05), but the peak stress of the posterior articular surface was significantly increased(