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Sample records for major german cockroach

  1. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    PubMed Central

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Zurek, Ludek; Nalyanya, Godfrey; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Zhang, Aijun; Schal, Coby

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We demonstrate that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B. germanica revealed 40 VCAs. Feces from axenic cockroaches (no microorganisms in the alimentary tract) lacked 12 major fecal VCAs, and 24 of the remaining compounds were represented at extremely low amounts. Olfactory and aggregation bioassays demonstrated that nymphs strongly preferred the extract of control feces over the fecal extract of axenic cockroaches. Additionally, nymphs preferred a synthetic blend of 6 fecal VCAs over a solvent control or a previously identified VCA blend. To test whether gut bacteria contribute to the production of fecal aggregation agents, fecal aerobic bacteria were cultured, isolated, and identified. Inoculation of axenic cockroaches with individual bacterial taxa significantly rescued the aggregation response to the fecal extract, and inoculation with a mix of six bacterial isolates was more effective than with single isolates. The results indicate that the commensal gut microbiota contributes to production of VCAs that act as fecal aggregation agents and that cockroaches discriminate among the complex odors that emanate from a diverse microbial community. Our results highlight the pivotal role of gut bacteria in mediating insect–insect communication. Moreover, because the gut microbial community reflects the local environment, local plasticity in fecal aggregation pheromones enables colony-specific odors and fidelity to persistent aggregation sites. PMID:26644557

  2. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aggregation of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is regulated by fecal aggregation agents (pheromones), including volatile carboxylic acids (VCAs). We hypothesized that the gut microbial community contributes to production of these semiochemicals. Chemical analysis of the fecal extract of B...

  3. Polyphenol oxidase inhibitor(s) from German cockroach (Blattella germanica) extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract from German cockroach appears effective in inhibiting browning on apples and potatoes. Successful identification of inhibitor(s) of PPO from German cockroach would be useful to the fruit and vegetable segments of the food industry, due to the losses they incur from enzymatic browning. Ide...

  4. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliyahu, Dorit; Nojima, Satoshi; Capracotta, Sonja S.; Comins, Daniel L.; Schal, Coby

    2008-05-01

    The cuticular surface of sexually mature females of the German cockroach contains a sex pheromone that, upon contact with the male’s antennae, elicits a characteristic species-specific courtship behavior. This female-specific pheromone is a blend of several long-chain methyl ketones, alcohols and aldehydes, all derived from prominent cuticular hydrocarbons found in all life stages of this cockroach. We found that contact with the antennae of 5 out of 20 assayed cockroach species elicited courtship behavior in German cockroach males. The heterospecific courtship-eliciting compounds were isolated by behaviorally guided fractionation of the active crude extracts and compared to the native sex pheromone components. We identified two active compounds from the cuticular extract of the Oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis—11-methylheptacosan-2-one and 27-oxo-11-methylheptacosan-2-one; the former compound was confirmed by synthesis and proved to independently stimulate courtship in German cockroach males. These compounds share common features with, but are distinct from, any of the known contact sex pheromone components. This suggests that sex pheromone reception in the male German cockroach is unusually promiscuous, accepting a wide range of compounds that share certain features with its native pheromone, thus resulting in a broad spectrum of behavioral response to other species. We propose that several characteristics of their mating system—chiefly, absence of closely related species in the anthropogenic environment, resulting in relaxation of selection on sexual communication, and a highly male-biased operational sex ratio—have driven males to respond with extremely low thresholds to a wide spectrum of related compounds.

  5. Bacterial load of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) found in hospital environment

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Taha; Moussa, Fatima; El-Hamza, Souad; Tine, Samir; Megri, Rochdi; Chenchouni, Haroun

    2014-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are among the most common pests in public dwellings and health facilities. Their presence can raise safety concerns, especially as they maybe carriers of pathogenic organisms. Methods This study was carried out to isolate and identify the bacterial flora from German cockroaches (Blattella germanica). Cockroaches collected by hand catches from two public hospital environments in Tebessa city (northeast Algeria) were screened for microbial load from their external surfaces and alimentary tract using standard bacterial protocols. Results A total of 174 bacterial isolates were isolated from 39 German cockroach specimens. The most common and abundant bacterial species belonged to the Pseudomonas group (23.5%) and Serratia (13.2%). Pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated, as well as opportunistic pathogens like Klebsiella species and food spoilage bacteria such as Enterobacter and Citrobacter species were isolated from both external surface and digestive tract of the insect. Generalized linear models (GLM) were performed to analyze the variation of abundances and occurrences of bacterial isolates harboured by B. germanica. The GLMs revealed that the main factors affecting variation of bacterial diversity and abundance were sex and hospital (P < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that German cockroach acts as reservoir and potential vector of some bacterial pathogens. PMID:24766338

  6. [The yeast community associated with the digestive tract of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L].

    PubMed

    Zheltikova, T M; Glushakova, A M; Alesho, N A

    2011-01-01

    Data on the yeasts colonizing the digestive tract ofa German cockroach have been first obtained. Cockroach cultures are used in the commercial production of allergy vaccines to treat patients sensitized to cockroach allergens. The enteric microflora of the insects can bring nonshared antigens into the composition of the agents manufactured. An investigation established that out of 10 yeast species isolated from the digestive tract of the cockroaches fed sterile food, 6 species (Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus magnus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Metschikowia pulcherrima, Phodo-torula glutinis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were isolated from both the digestive tract and excrements and 4 (Candida oleophila, Candida shehatae, Cryptococcus albidus, Pichia membmnaefciens) were only from the digestive tract. It seems that the yeast is either digested or inactivated in the digestive tract of the insects and loses their capacity to grow When the cockroaches were fed sterile food for a long time (at least a month), all yeasts virtually disappeared from the digestive tract of the insects except for Candida glabrata, C.shehatae, and Rh.mucilaginosa. However, only C.glabrata achieved a great deal (10(7)-10(8) CFU/g) of cockroaches (both imagoes and larvae of 5-7 ages), which statistically significantly decreased by no less than three orders of magnitude in the excrements after passing through the digestive tract.

  7. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait Against Asian and German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2016-08-01

    The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait.

  8. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait Against Asian and German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2016-08-01

    The Asian cockroach (Blattella asahinai Mizukubo) was introduced to Florida in 1986 and has since spread throughout the Southeastern United States. Blattella asahinai is a peridomestic pest and high population densities in residential areas can become a nuisance, especially when adults fly into homes. Few studies to date have been conducted on Asian cockroach control, and we evaluated the efficacy of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait and Maxforce Complete Granular Insect Bait against this species in the laboratory compared with the closely related German cockroach (Blattella germanica (L.)). In no-choice and two-choice assays with both species, Zyrox bait and Maxforce bait achieved nearly 100% mortality within two and five days, respectively. We also tested Zyrox bait against B. asahinai in an invasive field population in North Carolina at the label rate (2 g/m(2)) and at approximately three times the label rate (6.9 g/m(2)), and found that broadcast applications at both rates reduced populations by an average of 64 and 92%, respectively, for 35 d after the initial application. Zyrox Fly Bait appears to be effective against the Asian and German cockroaches, and could be another tool in an integrated pest management program, if its label could be extended or the active ingredient (cyantraniliprole) formulated into a cockroach bait. PMID:27122494

  9. Biorational control programme for the German cockroach (Blattaria: Blattellidae) in selected urban communities.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, GholamHossein; Bin Ibrahim, Yusof; Noor, Hafidzi Mohd; Rafinejad, Javad; Shahar, Mohd Khadri

    2010-08-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a biorational control approach using 2% hydramethylnon gel bait on German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) in some residential and hospital buildings in South Western Iran. In total, three buildings consisting of 150 apartment units and 101 hospital units were monitored weekly via sticky trap for German cockroach infestations over a period of eight months. These infested units were randomly subjected to intervention and control treatments. Pamphlets and posters were provided and lectures were given to support the educational programmes as a tactic of the biorational system. Survey on cockroach index for intervention units showed 67-94% recovery to achieve clean level of infestation for intervention units of the residential buildings and 83% for the hospital. Mean percentage reductions for treatment groups throughout the 15-week treatment period were 76.8% for the residential buildings and 88.1% for the hospital, showing significant differences compared to the control groups. Linear regression of infestation rates were recorded weekly after treatment and their negative slope for treatment groups substantiated significant reductions for interventions. The results of this study showed that biorational control method, using gel bait, educational programmes and sanitation, is an effective way to manage German cockroach infestation.

  10. Pigment dispersing factor: an output regulator of the circadian clock in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Mei; Su, Ming-Tsan; Lee, How-Jing

    2009-02-01

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a neuropeptide that is synthesized specifically and constantly in the circadian clock cells of many insects. The functions of PDF have not been fully determined, but it might serve as the output and coupling signal of circadian locomotor rhythms. In this experiment, we explore the functions of PDF in the German cockroach with RNA interference technique. Since the 2nd day after pdf double-strand RNA (dsRNA) injection, the amount of pdf mRNA decreased significantly, and this knockdown effect could persist at least 56 days. With immunostaining technique, the clock cells of pdf dsRNA-injected cockroaches could not be stained by anti-PDF antibody. In the behavioral study, pdf dsRNA injection caused rhythmic males to become arrhythmic in light-dark cycles or in constant darkness. In addition, due to the nocturnal nature of the German cockroaches, the locomotor activity increased after lights-off or entering subjective night. However, this activity peak gradually disappeared after pdf dsRNA injection. Based on these 2 lines of evidences, PDF serves as an output regulator of locomotor circadian rhythm in the German cockroach.

  11. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Shik, J Z; Schal, C; Silverman, J

    2014-10-01

    Organisms have diverse adaptations for balancing dietary nutrients, but often face trade-offs between ingesting nutrients and toxins in food. While extremely omnivorous cockroaches would seem excluded from such dietary trade-offs, German cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in multiple populations have rapidly evolved a unique dietary specialization - an aversion to glucose, the phagostimulant in toxic baits used for pest control. We used factorial feeding experiments within the geometric framework to test whether glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches with limited access to this critical metabolic fuel have compensatory behavioural and physiological strategies for meeting nutritional requirements. GA cockroaches had severely constrained intake, fat and N mass, and performance on glucose-based diets relative to wild-type (WT) cockroaches and did not appear to exhibit digestive strategies for retaining undereaten nutrients. However, a GA × WT 'hybrid' had lower glucose aversion than GA and greater access to macronutrients within glucose-based diets - while still having lower intake and survival than WT. Given these intermediate foraging constraints, hybrids may be a reservoir for this maladaptive trait in the absence of positive selection and may account for the rapid evolution of this trait following bait application.

  12. Evaluation of sublethal effects of polymer-based essential oils nanoformulation on the german cockroach.

    PubMed

    González, Jorge Werdin; Yeguerman, Cristhian; Marcovecchio, Diego; Delrieux, Claudio; Ferrero, Adriana; Band, Beatriz Fernández

    2016-08-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sublethal activity of polymer-based essential oils (EOs) nanoparticles (NPs) on adults of B. germanica. The LC50 and LC25 for contact toxicity were determined. To evaluate the repellency of EOs and NPs at LC25, a software was specially created in order to track multiple insects on just-recorded videos, and generate statistics using the obtained information. The effects of EOs and NPs at LC25 and LC50 on the nutritional physiology were also evaluated. The results showed that NPs exerted sublethal effects on the German cockroach, since these products enhance the repellent effects of the EOs and negatively affected the nutritional indices and the feeding deterrence index.

  13. Evaluation of sublethal effects of polymer-based essential oils nanoformulation on the german cockroach.

    PubMed

    González, Jorge Werdin; Yeguerman, Cristhian; Marcovecchio, Diego; Delrieux, Claudio; Ferrero, Adriana; Band, Beatriz Fernández

    2016-08-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is a serious household and public health pest worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sublethal activity of polymer-based essential oils (EOs) nanoparticles (NPs) on adults of B. germanica. The LC50 and LC25 for contact toxicity were determined. To evaluate the repellency of EOs and NPs at LC25, a software was specially created in order to track multiple insects on just-recorded videos, and generate statistics using the obtained information. The effects of EOs and NPs at LC25 and LC50 on the nutritional physiology were also evaluated. The results showed that NPs exerted sublethal effects on the German cockroach, since these products enhance the repellent effects of the EOs and negatively affected the nutritional indices and the feeding deterrence index. PMID:27062341

  14. Method of insecticide delivery affects horizontal transfer of fipronil in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, G; Schal, C

    2001-06-01

    Horizontal transmission of insecticide occurs when foragers contact or ingest an insecticide, return to the aggregation or nest, and translocate the insecticide to the shelter and its vicinity. Relatively more sedentary members of the population then contact or eat the translocated insecticide and die. We evaluated three different methods of delivering fipronil to adult male German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), for their potential to cause such secondary mortality in various developmental stages of the cockroach. Adult males topically treated with 5 ng of fipronil (approximately LD99) caused low mortality in untreated nymphs and no mortality in untreated adults within the same aggregation. Males exposed to residual fipronil on a glass surface translocated more insecticide, resulting in higher mortality of cockroaches they contacted, but only early instars were affected and no adult mortality was observed. Ingested fipronil bait, however, was most effectively translocated, and caused high mortality of untreated adults and nymphs. Ingestion of fipronil also caused greater secondary kill compared with a topical application of 25 ng, approximately the same amount recovered from the exterior of males that ingested 1 mg of 0.05% fipronil bait. Secondary mortality in the untreated population was significantly affected by the duration of contact between the treated and untreated cockroaches, the quantity and freshness of excretions from the treated insects, and the accessibility of the secretions to untreated cockroaches. The mechanisms that cause secondary kill may include ingestion of excreted fipronil residues, cannibalism of bait-fed cockroaches, as well as contact with fipronil-contaminated substrates. PMID:11425023

  15. Development of the circadian clock in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Yu; Wen, Chih-Jen; Mishra, Archana; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Lee, How-Jing

    2009-05-01

    The cell distribution and immunoreactivity (ir) against period (PER), pigment dispersing factor (PDF) and corazonin (CRZ), were compared between adults and nymphs in the central nervous system of the German cockroach. Although PER-ir cells in the optic lobes (OL) were expressed in the nymphs from the first instar, the links between major clock cells became more elaborated after second/third instar. A circadian rhythm of locomotion was initiated at the fourth/fifth instar. The results suggest that the clock was running from hatching, but the control network needed more time to develop. In addition, the putative downstream regulators, PDF-ir and CRZ-ir, are co-localized in various regions of the brain, indicating potential output routes of the circadian clock. CRZ-ir cells with typical morphology of neurosecretory cells in the dorsolateral protocerebrum send out three neural fibers to reach the ipsilateral corpora cardiaca (CC), the antennal lobe and two hemispheres of the protocerebrum. Based on co-localization with some PER-ir/PDF-ir cells, the CRZ-ir cells have the potential to serve as a bridge between circadian neural signals and endocrine regulation. Based on PDF's role in the regulation of locomotion, our results support the finding that the locomotor circadian rhythm is possibly controlled by a hormonal route.

  16. Suboptimal nutrient balancing despite dietary choice in glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2015-10-01

    Insects have evolved fine-tuned gustatory and post-ingestive physiological mechanisms that enable them to self-select an optimal composition of macronutrients. Their ability to forage optimally among multiple food sources and maximize fitness parameters depends on their ability not only to taste and perceive the nutritional value of potential foods but also to avoid deleterious components; the strength of such avoidance should reflect the severity of the perceived hazard. In German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), glucose aversion has evolved in some populations in response to anthropogenic selection with glucose-containing insecticidal baits. In four feeding treatments, we gave newly eclosed glucose-averse female cockroaches free choice to feed from two artificial, nutritionally complementary foods varying in protein and carbohydrate composition, with glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source in either food. After 6days of feeding, we measured diet consumption and the length of basal oocytes as an estimate of sexual maturation. The females did not compromise on their aversion to glucose in order to balance their protein and carbohydrate intake, and experienced lower sexual maturation rates as a consequence. Nutrient specific hunger via feedback mechanisms, and adjustments to gustatory sensitivity thus do not override the deterrence of glucose, likely due to strong selection against ingesting even small amounts of toxin associated with glucose in baits. In the absence of baits, glucose aversion would be expected to incur a fitness cost compared to wild-type individuals due to lower overall food availability but also to larger difficulty in attaining a nutritionally balanced diet. PMID:26145203

  17. Hierarchical Genetic Analysis of German Cockroach (Blattella germanica) Populations from within Buildings to across Continents

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, Edward L.; Crissman, Jonathan R.; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G.; Mukha, Dmitry V.; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species. PMID:25020136

  18. Suboptimal nutrient balancing despite dietary choice in glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2015-10-01

    Insects have evolved fine-tuned gustatory and post-ingestive physiological mechanisms that enable them to self-select an optimal composition of macronutrients. Their ability to forage optimally among multiple food sources and maximize fitness parameters depends on their ability not only to taste and perceive the nutritional value of potential foods but also to avoid deleterious components; the strength of such avoidance should reflect the severity of the perceived hazard. In German cockroaches (Blattella germanica), glucose aversion has evolved in some populations in response to anthropogenic selection with glucose-containing insecticidal baits. In four feeding treatments, we gave newly eclosed glucose-averse female cockroaches free choice to feed from two artificial, nutritionally complementary foods varying in protein and carbohydrate composition, with glucose or fructose as the sole carbohydrate source in either food. After 6days of feeding, we measured diet consumption and the length of basal oocytes as an estimate of sexual maturation. The females did not compromise on their aversion to glucose in order to balance their protein and carbohydrate intake, and experienced lower sexual maturation rates as a consequence. Nutrient specific hunger via feedback mechanisms, and adjustments to gustatory sensitivity thus do not override the deterrence of glucose, likely due to strong selection against ingesting even small amounts of toxin associated with glucose in baits. In the absence of baits, glucose aversion would be expected to incur a fitness cost compared to wild-type individuals due to lower overall food availability but also to larger difficulty in attaining a nutritionally balanced diet.

  19. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations from within buildings to across continents.

    PubMed

    Vargo, Edward L; Crissman, Jonathan R; Booth, Warren; Santangelo, Richard G; Mukha, Dmitry V; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure of species that disperse primarily by human transport is essential to predicting and controlling human-mediated spread of invasive species. The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a widespread urban invader that can actively disperse within buildings but is spread solely by human-mediated dispersal over longer distances; however, its population structure is poorly understood. Using microsatellite markers we investigated population structure at several spatial scales, from populations within single apartment buildings to populations from several cities across the U.S. and Eurasia. Both traditional measures of genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering methods revealed increasing levels of genetic differentiation at greater geographic scales. Our results are consistent with active dispersal of cockroaches largely limited to movement within a building. Their low levels of genetic differentiation, yet limited active spread between buildings, suggests a greater likelihood of human-mediated dispersal at more local scales (within a city) than at larger spatial scales (within and between continents). About half the populations from across the U.S. clustered together with other U.S. populations, and isolation by distance was evident across the U.S. Levels of genetic differentiation among Eurasian cities were greater than those in the U.S. and greater than those between the U.S. and Eurasia, but no clear pattern of structure at the continent level was detected. MtDNA sequence variation was low and failed to reveal any geographical structure. The weak genetic structure detected here is likely due to a combination of historical admixture among populations and periodic population bottlenecks and founder events, but more extensive studies are needed to determine whether signatures of global movement may be present in this species.

  20. Efficacy of Fipronil and Propoxur in the control of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blatellidae).

    PubMed

    Tilak, Rina; Tilak, V W; Yadav, J D; Gupta, K K Dutta

    2002-03-01

    A field trial for comparative evaluation of chemicals Fipronil gel, Propoxur spray and bait was carried out. The results in the Fipronil treated area indicate a reduction of 89%, 100% and 98% in cockroach infestation by days 7, 30 and 60, whereas the reduction in Propoxur spray treated area during the same period was 88%, 91% and 87% respectively. Propoxur bait was not found to be effective in reducing the cockroach infestation; rather a build up of the cockroach infestation was noticed in the treated site. The study reports the efficacy of Fipronil gel treatment over conventional insecticidal formulations in the control of cockroach infestation in cookhouses of urban households.

  1. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-06-27

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy.

  2. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; Ko, Alexander E.; Schal, Coby; Silverman, Jules

    2016-01-01

    Fitness-related costs of evolving insecticide resistance have been reported in a number of insect species, but the interplay between evolutionary adaptation to insecticide pressure and variable environmental conditions has received little attention. We provisioned nymphs from three German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) populations, which differed in insecticide resistance, with either nutritionally rich or poor (diluted) diet throughout their development. One population was an insecticide-susceptible laboratory strain; the other two populations originated from a field-collected indoxacarb-resistant population, which upon collection was maintained either with or without further selection with indoxacarb. We then measured development time, survival to the adult stage, adult body size, and results of a challenge with indoxacarb. Our results show that indoxacarb resistance and poor nutritional condition increased development time and lowered adult body size, with reinforcing interactions. We also found lower survival to the adult stage in the indoxacarb-selected population, which was exacerbated by poor nutrition. In addition, nutrition imparted a highly significant effect on indoxacarb susceptibility. This study exemplifies how poor nutritional condition can aggravate the life-history costs of resistance and elevate the detrimental effects of insecticide exposure, demonstrating how environmental conditions and resistance may interactively impact individual fitness and insecticide efficacy. PMID:27345220

  3. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-01

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  4. Stage-dependent tolerance of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica for dichlorvos and propoxur.

    PubMed

    Qian, K; Wei, Xq; Zeng, Xp; Liu, T; Gao, Xw

    2010-01-01

    tage-dependent dichlorvos and propoxur tolerance in a field population of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica Linnaeus (Blatodea: Blattellidae), was investigated in the laboratory using a topical application bioassay. The results showed the 6 week-old nymphs were more tolerant to dichlorvos and propoxur than the other ages tested. LD₅₀ values of dichlorvos and propoxur for the 6 week-old nymphs were 2.003 µg per insect and 5.296 µg per insect, respectively. Tolerance ratios of 18.55-fold and 4.98-fold for LD₅₀ were obtained from 6-week-old nymphs compared to 4 week-old nymphs. The specific activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from 1 week-old nymphs was the highest among all tested developmental stages of nymphs and adult males and females. The specific activity of AChE decreased significantly with increasing age. The sensitivity of AChE to dichlorvos was the highest with a k(i) value of 3.12 × 10⁴ mol⁻¹min⁻¹ in the last nymphal stage of B. germanica (about 6 weeks-old). The AChE from 4 week-old nymphs was the most sensitive to propoxur, with the highest k(i) value being 2.63 × 10⁵ mol⁻¹ min⁻¹. These results indicated that the different developmental stages and sexes of B. germanica affected the inhibition of AChE by dichlorvos and propoxur.

  5. Toxicity of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against a field-collected strain of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Davari, B; Limoee, M; Khodavaisy, S; Zamini, G; Izadi, S

    2015-09-01

    The German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) has been recognized as a serious health problem throughout the world. Control failures due to insecticide resistance and chemical contamination of environment have led some researchers focus on the other alternative strategy controls. Microbial insecticides such as those containing entomo pathogenic fungi could be of high significance. Lecanicillium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana grow naturally in soils throughout the world and act as a parasite on various arthropod species, causing white muscardine disease. Thus, these two species could be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. The current study conducted to evaluate the toxicity of Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium muscarium against German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Conidial formulations of L. muscarium (PTCC 5184) and B. bassiana (PTCC5197) were prepared in aqueous suspensions with Tween 20. Bioassays were performed using two methods including submersion of cockroaches in conidial suspension and baiting. Data were analyzed by Probit program and LC50 and LC90 were estimated. The obtained results indicated that both fungi species were toxic against German cockroach however; Beauveria bassiana was significantly 4.8 fold more toxic than L. muscarium against German cockroach using submersion method.

  6. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a "push-pull" strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, G; Moore, C B; Schal, C

    2000-05-01

    "Push-pull" is a behavior manipulation strategy in which behavior-modifying stimuli are integrated with a pest control agent. We evaluated the efficacy of an insecticide bait in combination with attractants ("pull"), repellents ("push"), or both ("push-pull") using a hydramethylnon-based bait, feces-contaminated surfaces as an attractant, and methyl neodecanamide-treated surfaces to repel cockroaches. Both adult males and first-instar German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.), chose shelters nearest the attractant-treated surfaces and farthest from the repellent-treated surfaces. Food consumption was highest from food nearest the preferred shelters, and mortality was highest when the insecticide bait was near the preferred shelter. These patterns were more apparent in first instars than in adults. Our results from large arena studies in the laboratory show that the push-pull strategy can be used to displace pests from resources or commodities that are to be protected, and simultaneously lure the pest to an attractant source coupled with a pest control agent. Concentrating cockroaches into a limited area should facilitate the precision-targeting of the pest population and promises to reduce insecticide use.

  7. Detection of the A302S Rdl mutation in fipronil bait-selected strains of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Ang, Ling-Hui; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Kuah, Meng-Kiat; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2013-10-01

    Extensive usage and heavy reliance on insecticides have led to the development of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Six field-collected strains of B. germanica from Singapore were used to investigate resistance to fipronil and dieldrin. The three strains (Boat Quay, Cavenagh Road, and Ghimmoh Road) with greatest resistance to fipronil were subjected to selection with fipronil bait up to the F5 generation. Synergism assay and molecular detection of a target site mutation were used to elucidate the mechanism of fipronil resistance in these strains. With the exception of the Cavenagh Road strain, all parental strains were susceptible to dieldrin. This strain exhibited resistance to dieldrin and fipronil with resistance ratios of 4.1 and 3.0, respectively. Piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate were antagonistic toward fipronil toxicity in all strains. Bait selection significantly increased fipronil and dieldrin resistance in the three chosen strains, either in topical bioassay or bait evaluations. There was a significant positive relationship [y = (6,852.69 +/- 1,988.37) x - (708.93 +/- 1,226.28), where x = fipronil toxicity and y = dieldrin toxicity] between dieldrin and fipronil resistance levels, indicating significant cross-resistance between the insecticides. High frequencies of individuals possessing the Rdl gene mutation were found in the F5 generation of the three strains selected with fipronil bait. The synergism assays indicated that monooxygenase and esterase were not involved in fipronil resistance in the strains studied herein. The A302S Rdl mutation was the major mechanism contributing to fipronil and dieldrin resistance in these strains.

  8. The Cockroach Origin of the Termite Gut Microbiota: Patterns in Bacterial Community Structure Reflect Major Evolutionary Events

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Termites digest wood and other lignocellulosic substrates with the help of their intestinal microbiota. While the functions of the symbionts in the digestive process are slowly emerging, the origin of the bacteria colonizing the hindgut bioreactor is entirely unknown. Recently, our group discovered numerous representatives of bacterial lineages specific to termite guts in a closely related omnivorous cockroach, but it remains unclear whether they derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor or were independently selected by the gut environment. Here, we studied the bacterial gut microbiota in 34 species of termites and cockroaches using pyrotag analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Although the community structures differed greatly between the major host groups, with dramatic changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, we found that the majority of sequence reads belonged to bacterial lineages that were shared among most host species. When mapped onto the host tree, the changes in community structure coincided with major events in termite evolution, such as acquisition and loss of cellulolytic protists and the ensuing dietary diversification. UniFrac analysis of the core microbiota of termites and cockroaches and construction of phylogenetic tree of individual genus level lineages revealed a general host signal, whereas the branching order often did not match the detailed phylogeny of the host. It remains unclear whether the lineages in question have been associated with the ancestral cockroach since the early Cretaceous (cospeciation) or are diet-specific lineages that were independently acquired from the environment (host selection). PMID:24487532

  9. The cockroach origin of the termite gut microbiota: patterns in bacterial community structure reflect major evolutionary events.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Carsten; Köhler, Tim; Brune, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Termites digest wood and other lignocellulosic substrates with the help of their intestinal microbiota. While the functions of the symbionts in the digestive process are slowly emerging, the origin of the bacteria colonizing the hindgut bioreactor is entirely unknown. Recently, our group discovered numerous representatives of bacterial lineages specific to termite guts in a closely related omnivorous cockroach, but it remains unclear whether they derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor or were independently selected by the gut environment. Here, we studied the bacterial gut microbiota in 34 species of termites and cockroaches using pyrotag analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Although the community structures differed greatly between the major host groups, with dramatic changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, we found that the majority of sequence reads belonged to bacterial lineages that were shared among most host species. When mapped onto the host tree, the changes in community structure coincided with major events in termite evolution, such as acquisition and loss of cellulolytic protists and the ensuing dietary diversification. UniFrac analysis of the core microbiota of termites and cockroaches and construction of phylogenetic tree of individual genus level lineages revealed a general host signal, whereas the branching order often did not match the detailed phylogeny of the host. It remains unclear whether the lineages in question have been associated with the ancestral cockroach since the early Cretaceous (cospeciation) or are diet-specific lineages that were independently acquired from the environment (host selection).

  10. Ultrastructural investigation of the spore-forming protist Nephridiophaga blattellae in the Malpighian tubules of the German cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Radek, R; Herth, W

    1999-03-01

    Multinuclear plasmodia of the sporogenic protist Nephridiophaga blattellae are found intracellularly and in the lumen of the Malpighian tubules of the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Spore formation occurs only in the lumen. During sporogony, about 10-35 spores measuring 5.5x3.2 microm are endogenously formed within a plasmodium. Sporoblasts arise by the fusion of cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum into a double membranous wall, which encloses a generative nucleus plus a portion of cytoplasm. Several somatic nuclei remain in the residual cytoplasm. Sporoblast and residual cytoplasm include mitochondria of the tubular type, endoplasmic reticulum, and many free ribosomes. During spore maturation, electron-dense wall material is deposited between the spore membranes, and the spores gain their typical oval, biconcave form. Freeze-etched spores reveal a small, central, cap-like structure, which may be the site where an infectious sporoplasm could emerge. Mature spores always have one nucleus, whereas early sporoblast stages with two small nuclei were found by transmission electron microscopy. Many nuclei of different developmental stages contain granules within the nuclear envelope. The systematic position of N. blattellae is unresolved. In certain respects it is reminiscent of Haplosporidia. However, the organisms of the two groups have different spore-forming processes and haplosporosomes are missing in the nephridiophagids. Therefore a new phylum might have to be erected for members of the family Nephridiophagidae. PMID:9951966

  11. Detection of Bendiocarb and Carbaryl Resistance Mechanisms among German Cockroach Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) Collected from Tabriz Hospitals, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Afshin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hazratian, Teimour; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza; Hooshyar, Hossein; Arbabi, Mohsen; Salim-Abadi, Yaser; Sharafati-Chaleshtori, Reza; Gorouhi, Mohammad Amin; Paksa, Azim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insecticide resistance is one of the serious problems for German cockroach control program. This study was conducted to determine the bendiocarb and Carbaryl resistance mechanisms in German cockroaches using the piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Methods: Bioassay tests were conducted with 4 to 6 different concentrations of both insecticides with four replicates of 10 susceptible strain cockroaches per concentration to determine of discriminative concentration. After determining discriminative concentration, the result was compared to wild strain. The levels of susceptibility and resistance ratio (RR) and synergism ratio (SR) were calculated for each five wild strains. Moreover resistance mechanisms in wild strains were determined using PBO synergist in vivo. Results: Hospital strains showed different levels of resistance to bendiocarb and carbaryl compared to susceptible strain. The bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance ratios ranged from 2.11 to 7.97 and 1.67 to 2 at LD50 levels, respectively. The synergist PBO significantly enhanced the toxicity of bendiocarb and carbaryl to all strains with different degrees of synergist ratio, 1.31, 1.39, 3.61, 1.78, 1.62 and 2.1 fold for bendiocarb, 1.19, 1.18, 1.12. 1.29, 1.45 and 1.11-fold for carbaryl, suggesting monooxygenase involvement in bendiocarb and carbaryl resistance. Conclusion: The synergetic effect of PBO had the highest effect on bendiocarb and resistance level was significantly reduced, which indicates the important role of monoxidase enzyme in creating resistance to Bendiocarb. Piperonyl butoxide did not have a significant synergistic effect on carbaryl and did not significantly break the resistance. PMID:27308298

  12. Insulin receptor-mediated nutritional signalling regulates juvenile hormone biosynthesis and vitellogenin production in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Abrisqueta, Marc; Süren-Castillo, Songül; Maestro, José L

    2014-06-01

    Female reproductive processes, which comprise, amongst others, the synthesis of yolk proteins and the endocrine mechanisms which regulate this synthesis, need a considerable amount of energy and resources. The role of communicating that the required nutritional status has been attained is carried out by nutritional signalling pathways and, in particular, by the insulin receptor (InR) pathway. In the present study, using the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, as a model, we analysed the role of InR in different processes, but mainly those related to juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis and vitellogenin production. We first cloned the InR cDNA from B. germanica (BgInR) and then determined that its expression levels were constant in corpora allata and fat body during the first female gonadotrophic cycle. Results showed that the observed increase in BgInR mRNA in fat body from starved compared to fed females was abolished in those females treated with systemic RNAi in vivo against the transcription factor BgFoxO. RNAi-mediated BgInR knockdown during the final two nymphal stages produced significant delays in the moults, together with smaller adult females which could not spread the fore- and hindwings properly. In addition, BgInR knockdown led to a severe inhibition of juvenile hormone synthesis in adult female corpora allata, with a concomitant reduction of mRNA levels corresponding to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase-1, HMG-CoA synthase-2, HMG-CoA reductase and methyl farnesoate epoxidase. BgInR RNAi treatment also reduced fat body vitellogenin mRNA and oocyte growth. Our results show that BgInR knockdown produces similar phenotypes to those obtained in starved females in terms of corpora allata activity and vitellogenin synthesis, and indicate that the InR pathway mediates the activation of JH biosynthesis and vitellogenin production elicited by nutrition signalling. PMID:24657890

  13. First Report of German Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) as Reservoirs of CTX-M-15 Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase- and OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Batna University Hospital, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Loucif, Lotfi; Gacemi-Kirane, Djamila; Cherak, Zineb; Chamlal, Naima; Grainat, Nadia; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-10-01

    Here we report the isolation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from German cockroaches caught in the burn unit of Batna University Hospital in Algeria. Nine of 12 isolates harbored the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene. One Enterobacter cloacae isolate belonging to sequence type 528 coexpressed the blaOXA-48, blaCTX-M-15, and blaTEM genes. Our findings indicate that cockroaches may be one of the most dangerous reservoirs for ESBL and carbapenemase producers in hospitals.

  14. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels.

    PubMed

    French, Andrew S; Meisner, Shannon; Liu, Hongxia; Weckström, Matti; Torkkeli, Päivi H

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1) was 100-1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO), while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR). Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) was achieved by injecting long (596-708 bp) double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude 7 days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram (ERG) reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction. PMID:26257659

  15. Transcriptome analysis and RNA interference of cockroach phototransduction indicate three opsins and suggest a major role for TRPL channels

    PubMed Central

    French, Andrew S.; Meisner, Shannon; Liu, Hongxia; Weckström, Matti; Torkkeli, Päivi H.

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of insect phototransduction is based on a small number of species, but insects occupy many different visual environments. We created the retinal transcriptome of a nocturnal insect, the cockroach, Periplaneta americana to identify proteins involved in the earliest stages of compound eye phototransduction, and test the hypothesis that different visual environments are reflected in different molecular contributions to function. We assembled five novel mRNAs: two green opsins, one UV opsin, and one each TRP and TRPL ion channel homologs. One green opsin mRNA (pGO1) was 100–1000 times more abundant than the other opsins (pGO2 and pUVO), while pTRPL mRNA was 10 times more abundant than pTRP, estimated by transcriptome analysis or quantitative PCR (qPCR). Electroretinograms were used to record photoreceptor responses. Gene-specific in vivo RNA interference (RNAi) was achieved by injecting long (596–708 bp) double-stranded RNA into head hemolymph, and verified by qPCR. RNAi of the most abundant green opsin reduced both green opsins by more than 97% without affecting UV opsin, and gave a maximal reduction of 75% in ERG amplitude 7 days after injection that persisted for at least 19 days. RNAi of pTRP and pTRPL genes each specifically reduced the corresponding mRNA by 90%. Electroretinogram (ERG) reduction by pTRPL RNAi was slower than for opsin, reaching 75% attenuation by 21 days, without recovery at 29 days. pTRP RNAi attenuated ERG much less; only 30% after 21 days. Combined pTRP plus pTRPL RNAi gave only weak evidence of any cooperative interactions. We conclude that silencing retinal genes by in vivo RNAi using long dsRNA is effective, that visible light transduction in Periplaneta is dominated by pGO1, and that pTRPL plays a major role in cockroach phototransduction. PMID:26257659

  16. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  17. [Expression of cDNA of the Gene for the Capsid Protein VP2 of German Cockroach Densovirus in the Transgenic Strain of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, E N; Martynova, E U; Roshina, N V; Karakozova, M V; Mukha, D V

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster capable of expressing a cDNA fragment corresponding to open reading frame (ORF) of the gene for the German cockroach densonucleosis virus capsid protein VP2 (ORF VP2) in specific tissues and at a certain stage of development depending on the type of chosen driver strains (GAL-UAS system) were obtained. The ORF VP2 transcription was examined at the imago stage after crossing the obtained transgenic Drosophila with the driver line expressing the inducer protein (GAL4) under control of actin promoter (the ORF VP2 expression is induced in all tissues of the first-generation Drosophila). It was demonstrated that the greater part of transcribed foreign RNA was represented by three spliced variants in which RNA fragments either between nucleotides 137 and 353 or between nucleotides 609 and 1925 were excised; the third spliced variant was represented by RNA lacking both introns. Using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique, the proportion of unspliced form relative to spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was assessed. It was shown that the ratio of unspliced form to the identified spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was approximately 1:6. It is suggested that splicing of viral RNA foreign to Drosophila can be a sort of defense mechanism preventing the large-scale production of the capsid protein, potentially hazardous to the host organism.

  18. [Expression of cDNA of the Gene for the Capsid Protein VP2 of German Cockroach Densovirus in the Transgenic Strain of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, E N; Martynova, E U; Roshina, N V; Karakozova, M V; Mukha, D V

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster capable of expressing a cDNA fragment corresponding to open reading frame (ORF) of the gene for the German cockroach densonucleosis virus capsid protein VP2 (ORF VP2) in specific tissues and at a certain stage of development depending on the type of chosen driver strains (GAL-UAS system) were obtained. The ORF VP2 transcription was examined at the imago stage after crossing the obtained transgenic Drosophila with the driver line expressing the inducer protein (GAL4) under control of actin promoter (the ORF VP2 expression is induced in all tissues of the first-generation Drosophila). It was demonstrated that the greater part of transcribed foreign RNA was represented by three spliced variants in which RNA fragments either between nucleotides 137 and 353 or between nucleotides 609 and 1925 were excised; the third spliced variant was represented by RNA lacking both introns. Using the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique, the proportion of unspliced form relative to spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was assessed. It was shown that the ratio of unspliced form to the identified spliced variants of the analyzed RNA was approximately 1:6. It is suggested that splicing of viral RNA foreign to Drosophila can be a sort of defense mechanism preventing the large-scale production of the capsid protein, potentially hazardous to the host organism. PMID:27529987

  19. Specific B-cell Epitope of Per a 1: A Major Allergen of American Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and Anatomical Localization

    PubMed Central

    Sookrung, Nitat; Khetsuphan, Thanyathon; Chaisri, Urai; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Reamtong, Onrapak; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cockroach (CR) is a common source of indoor allergens, and Per a 1 is a major American CR (Periplaneta americana) allergen; however, several attributes of this protein remain unknown. This study identifies a novel specific B cell epitope and anatomical locations of Per a 1.0105. Methods Recombinant Per a 1.0105 (rPer a 1.0105) was used as BALB/c mouse immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb). The MAb specific B cell epitope was identified by determining phage mimotopic peptides and pair-wise alignment of the peptides with the rPer a 1.0105 amino acid sequence. Locations of the Per a 1.0105 in P. americana were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. Results The rPer a 1.0105 (~13 kDa) had 100%, 98% and ≥90% identity to Per a 1.0105, Per a 1.0101, and Cr-PII, respectively. The B-cell epitope of the Per a 1.0105 specific-MAb was located at residues99 QDLLLQLRDKGV110 contained in all 5 Per a 1.01 isoforms and Per a 1.02. The epitope was analogous to the Bla g 1.02 epitope; however, this B-cell epitope was not an IgE inducer. Per a 1.0105 was found in the midgut and intestinal content of American CR but not in the other organs. The amount of the Per a 1 was ~544 ℃g per gram of feces. Conclusions The novel Per a 1 B-cell epitope described in this study is a useful target for allergen quantification in samples; however, the specific MAb can be used as an allergen detection reagent. The MAb based-affinity resin can be made for allergen purification, and the so-purified protein can serve as a standard and diagnostic allergen as well as a therapeutic vaccine component. The finding that the Per a 1 is contained in the midgut and feces is useful to increase yield and purity when preparing this allergen. PMID:24991456

  20. Structures of Two Major Allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, From Cockroaches and Their IgE Binding Epitopes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.; Chan, S; Ong, T; Yit, L; Tiong, Y; Chew, F; Sivaraman, J; Mok, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant allergens from cockroaches are an important cause of asthma to millions of individuals worldwide. Here we report for the first time the structures of two major cockroach allergens, Bla g 4 and Per a 4, that adopt a typical lipocalin fold but with distinct structural features as compared with other known lipocalin allergens. Both Bla g 4 and Per a 4 contain two long-range disulfide bonds linking the N and C termini to a beta-barrel. The C-terminal helix of Bla g 4 is bent and greatly extended toward the N terminus. Bla g 4 is found to be a monomer, whereas Per a 4 exists as a dimer in solution with a novel dimeric interface involving residues from loops at the top and bottom of the beta-barrel. Putative ligand binding sites of both allergens are determined by docking of the juvenile hormone III inside the beta-barrel and found to interact with the ligand using non-conserved residues. Bla g 4 and Per a 4 are found to be cross-reactive in sera IgE binding, at least in the Singaporean Chinese population tested. A major IgE binding epitope unique to Per a 4 is found on the loops at the bottom of the beta-barrel that may aid the development of hypoallergens for immunotherapy.

  1. Susceptibility of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae, Blattidae) to infection by Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Koehler, P G; Patterson, R S; Martin, W R

    1992-08-01

    The susceptibility of American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.); smoky brown cockroaches, P. fuliginosa (Serville); oriental cockroaches, Blatta orientalis L.; German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.); and brownbanded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa (F.), to Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (All strain) was evaluated under laboratory conditions. A 1-ml water suspension containing 500,000 nematodes was placed on filter paper in a petri dish or the pad of a bait station. German, brown-banded, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches died within 1 d after placement in the petri dishes. The relative order for the LT50s were American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than brown-banded = German. All cockroaches actively groomed nematodes from legs and antennae of forced (petri dish) exposure. The LT50s for S. carpocapsae for nonforced (bait station) exposure were significantly greater than those for forced exposure. The LT50s were 3.25, 4.13, 9.86, and 11.38 d for brown-banded, German, oriental, and smoky-brown cockroaches, respectively. The relative order of the LT50s after forced (American greater than oriental greater than smoky-brown greater than German = brown-banded) and nonforced (American greater than smoky-brown greater than oriental greater than German greater than brown-banded) exposure to S. carpocapsae was inversely related to the moisture of their preferred habitats. PMID:1517508

  2. Cockroach allergy and asthma in a 30-year-old man.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, G T; Gold, D R

    1999-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has implicated allergens derived from cockroaches as an important environmental factor that may aggravate asthma in sensitized persons. We present the case of a 30-year-old man with asthma and a cockroach allergy. Allergy skin testing confirmed hypersensitivity to cockroach extract, and a home visit revealed visual evidence of infestation and the presence of Bla g 1 German cockroach allergen in vacuumed dust. As is typical of patients with a cockroach allergy and asthma, multiple factors in addition to cockroach allergen appeared to aggravate the patient's asthma. A multimodality therapeutic regimen, which included medications as well as cleaning of the home, integrated pest management, and professional application of chemical controls, resulted in substantial clinical improvement. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical features of cockroach-allergic asthma are reviewed, and an approach to diagnosis and management is suggested. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10064555

  3. EEK--A Cockroach!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Julien, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Students from thirteen fifth-grade classrooms from six different elementary schools investigate the preferred escape routes of cockroaches. These identified routes of 90-, 120-, 150-, and 180-degrees are the research findings of Paolo Dominici, an Italian scientist. The students used rubber cockroaches and lizards to map out these escape routes.…

  4. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    PubMed

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

  5. Cockroaches in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron; Moseley, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach (MHC) provides an excellent avenue to introduce students to the joys of inquiry-centered learning. MHC's are relatively tame, produce little odor, do not bite, and are easy to handle and breed. Because of these characteristics, they are ideal for classroom activities, science projects, and as pets. They also help…

  6. A cockroach that jumps.

    PubMed

    Picker, Mike; Colville, Jonathan F; Burrows, Malcolm

    2012-06-23

    We report on a newly discovered cockroach (Saltoblattella montistabularis) from South Africa, which jumps and therefore differs from all other extant cockroaches that have a scuttling locomotion. In its natural shrubland habitat, jumping and hopping accounted for 71 per cent of locomotory activity. Jumps are powered by rapid and synchronous extension of the hind legs that are twice the length of the other legs and make up 10 per cent of the body weight. In high-speed images of the best jumps the body was accelerated in 10 ms to a take-off velocity of 2.1 m s(-1) so that the cockroach experienced the equivalent of 23 times gravity while leaping a forward distance of 48 times its body length. Such jumps required 38 µJ of energy, a power output of 3.4 mW and exerted a ground reaction force through both hind legs of 4 mN. The large hind legs have grooved femora into which the tibiae engage fully in advance of a jump, and have resilin, an elastic protein, at the femoro-tibial joint. The extensor tibiae muscles contracted for 224 ms before the hind legs moved, indicating that energy must be stored and then released suddenly in a catapult action to propel a jump. Overall, the jumping mechanisms and anatomical features show remarkable convergence with those of grasshoppers with whom they share their habitat and which they rival in jumping performance.

  7. Cockroaches as Pollinators of Clusia aff. sellowiana (Clusiaceae) on Inselbergs in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Vlasáková, Blanka; Kalinová, Blanka; Gustafsson, Mats H. G.; Teichert, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims A report is made on a new species of Clusia related to C. sellowiana that dominates the vegetation of the Nouragues inselberg in French Guiana. The focus is on the pollination biology and on the remarkable relationship of this plant species to Amazonina platystylata, its cockroach pollinator. This appears to be only the second record of pollination by cockroaches. Methods Pollination ecology was investigated by combining morphological studies, field observations and additional experiments. Floral scent was analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The role of acetoin, the major component of the scent of this species of Clusia, in attracting pollinators was examined in field attraction experiments. The ability of cockroaches to perceive acetoin was investigated by electroantennography (EAG). Key Results The Clusia species studied produces seeds only sexually. Its nocturnal flowers are visited by crickets, ants, moths and cockroaches. A species of cockroach, Amazonina platystylata, is the principal pollinator. The reward for the visit is a liquid secretion produced by tissues at the floral apex and at the base of the ovary. Although the cockroaches have no structures specialized for pollen collection, their body surface is rough enough to retain pollen grains. The cockroaches show significant EAG reactions to floral volatiles and acetoin, suggesting that the floral scent is a factor involved in attracting the cockroaches to the flowers. Conclusions The results suggest that the plant–cockroach interaction may be quite specialized and the plant has probably evolved a specific strategy to attract and reward its cockroach pollinators. Acetoin is a substance involved in the chemical communication of several other cockroach species and it seems plausible that the plant exploits the sensitivity of cockroaches to this compound to attract them to the flowers as part of the pollination syndrome of this species. PMID:18567597

  8. NDEA LANGUAGE INSTITUTE FOR UNDERGRADUATE GERMAN MAJORS (UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, IRVINE, JUNE 23 TO AUGUST 10, 1966). FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINDBERG, JOHN D.

    THE 1966 INSTITUTE HELD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT IRVINE (UCI) FOR UNDERGRADUATE GERMAN MAJORS PREPARING TO TEACH IS DESCRIBED AND EVALUATED IN THIS FINAL REPORT. EACH OF THE FOUR AREAS OF CONCENTRATION--PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION, APPLIED LINGUISTICS, GERMAN CULTURE AND CIVILIZATION, AND GERMAN LANGUAGE SKILLS--IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF ITS…

  9. An Improved Cockroach Swarm Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Obagbuwa, I. C.; Adewumi, A. O.

    2014-01-01

    Hunger component is introduced to the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm to improve its searching ability and population diversity. The original CSO was modelled with three components: chase-swarming, dispersion, and ruthless; additional hunger component which is modelled using partial differential equation (PDE) method is included in this paper. An improved cockroach swarm optimization (ICSO) is proposed in this paper. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on well known benchmarks and compared with the existing CSO, modified cockroach swarm optimization (MCSO), roach infestation optimization RIO, and hungry roach infestation optimization (HRIO). The comparison results show clearly that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms. PMID:24959611

  10. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Wada-Katsumata, Ayako; Silverman, Jules; Schal, Coby

    2013-05-24

    In response to the anthropogenic assault of toxic baits, populations of the German cockroach have rapidly evolved an adaptive behavioral aversion to glucose (a phagostimulant component of baits). We hypothesized that changes in the peripheral gustatory system are responsible for glucose aversion. In both wild-type and glucose-averse (GA) cockroaches, D-fructose and D-glucose stimulated sugar-gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), whereas the deterrent caffeine stimulated bitter-GRNs. In contrast, in GA cockroaches, D-glucose also stimulated bitter-GRNs and suppressed the responses of sugar-GRNs. Thus, D-glucose is processed as both a phagostimulant and deterrent in GA cockroaches, and this newly acquired peripheral taste sensitivity underlies glucose aversion in multiple GA populations. The rapid emergence of this highly adaptive behavior underscores the plasticity of the sensory system to adapt to rapid environmental change.

  11. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Talbott

    This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

  12. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  13. A Cockroach in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlough, Winfield

    1968-01-01

    "Archy and Mehitabel," a collection of 48 newspaper columns by Don Marquis on the aspirations and foibles of man, can be used effectively to spark the interests of today's students. Marquis' delightful dialogue between the humorous and learned cockroach, Archy, and his cliche-ridden but lovable friend, Mehitabel the cat, are written in free verse.…

  14. Comparisons of toxic baits for controlling the cockroach, Blattella germanica: attractiveness and feeding stimulation.

    PubMed

    Durier, V; Rivault, C

    2000-12-01

    Female German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and nymphs (stages 1, 3 and 6) were used to test the attractiveness and the feeding stimulation of several commercial gel formulations of insecticide food baits in laboratory binary choice tests. The four toxic gel baits tested were: 'Avert' (0.05% abamectin=avermectin B1), 'Drax' (33.3% boric acid), 'Goliath' (0.05% fipronil) and 'Maxforce' (2.15% hydramethylnon). The attractiveness of a bait was estimated by the number of cockroaches that chose it first, and by their tendency to change to it secondarily. Feeding stimulation was estimated by the mean duration of feeding bouts and total duration of food intake. Variability of these factors was assessed in relation to age of cockroaches and to age of baits. With a few exceptions, cockroach age did not affect performance in any of these tests. Attractiveness to B. germanica ranked 'Goliath' gel higher than 'Avert', 'Drax' and 'Maxforce' gels, whether or not the active ingredient fipronil was present in 'Goliath' gel. Feeding stimulation ranked 'Avert' and 'Maxforce' gels higher than 'Goliath' gel, and 'Drax' gel was inferior. With ageing up to 3 months, the feeding stimulation power of 'Goliath' and 'Maxforce' gels increased, whereas that of 'Avert' fluctuated. Assuming that all types of bait effectively kill cockroaches once ingested, these results illustrate the importance of behavioural observations on bait efficiency and show that ranking of these different food baits varies in relation to the parameter analysed.

  15. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  16. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356

  17. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics. PMID:24649356

  18. Contribution of anaerobic protozoa and methanogens to hindgut metabolic activities of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed Central

    Gijzen, H J; Barugahare, M

    1992-01-01

    The ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis occurs in high numbers in the hindgut of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and harbors methanogenic bacteria as endosymbionts. The contribution of these hindgut microorganisms to metabolic and developmental processes of P. americana was studied by comparing cultures of cockroaches in which the composition of the hindgut microbial population was altered in various ways. Rearing the insects protozoan free resulted in increased insect generation time, decreased adult body weight, and absence of methane production. After feeding of protozoan-free adult cockroaches with a hindgut suspension containing N. ovalis and methanogens, methane increased to normal values and insect body weight was restored during the development of the second generation of insects. Feeding the protozoan-free cockroaches a hindgut suspension which was made free of N. ovalis resulted in an increase in methane production to only about 20% of the normal methane production level. This suggests that the methanogenic endosymbionts of N. ovalis are the major source of methane production in the hindgut. Inhibition of methanogens by addition of bromoethanesulfonic acid to the drinking water of a normal cockroach culture resulted in a reduction of methane production to about 2% of the normal level. No effects on insect body weight or the number of N. ovalis organisms were observed, but the fermentation pattern in the hindgut was shifted towards a relative increase in propionate levels. Similar results were obtained for in vitro cultures of hindgut microorganisms treated with bromoethanesulfonic acid. The results suggest a major role for hindgut protozoa in cockroach metabolic activities, especially during the insect growth period. The relatively large amounts of methane produced by cockroaches and by other methane-producing xylophagous insects suggest a major contribution by insects to global methane production. PMID:1514803

  19. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana, and the phylogenetic position of termites.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Chen, Ai-Hui; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Hu, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-04-01

    The mitochondrial genomes are one of the most information-rich markers in phylogenetics. The relationships within superorder Dictyoptera have been debated in the literature. However, the closely related termites (Isoptera) are retained as unranked taxon within the order Blattaria (cockroaches). In this work, we sequenced the complete mitogenomes of two cockroaches, reconstructed the molecular phylogeny and attempted to infer the phylogenetic position of termites in Blattaria more reliably. The complete mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the peridomestic American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.) and the domestic German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) are 15,025 and 15,584 bp in size, respectively. The genome shares the gene order and orientation with previously known Blattaria mitogenomes. Most tRNAs could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, but the tRNA-Ser (AGN) of P. americana appears to be missing the dihydrouridine arm. Using nucleotide and amino acid sequences as phylogenetic markers, we proposed that termites should be treated as a superfamily (Termitoidea) of cockroaches. We suggested that Polyphagoidea was the sister group of Termitoidea in Blattaria and supported that the suborder Caelifera is more closely related to the Phasmatodea than to the suborder Ensifera of Orthoptera.

  20. [Contents and deposition of major minerals in tissues and in the whole bodies of growing young bulls German Simmental breed].

    PubMed

    Schwarz, F J; Heindl, U; Kirchgessner, M

    1995-01-01

    54 bulls of the German Simmental breed were fed either on a high energy level (maize silage ad libitum and 1.8 kg concentrate) or on a low energy level (maize silage restrictively and 1.0 kg concentrate). In dependence on feeding intensity a mean daily weight gain of 870 or 1210 g was obtained. Animals were slaughtered with a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 500 kg, 575 kg and 650 kg. Empty body was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards separated into lean, bone and adipose tissues and tendons. Major mineral element content was determined in these tissues as well as in the noncarcass parts. In the lean tissue the mean content (200 kg) of 0.3 g calcium, 10 g phosphorus, 1 g magnesium, 2.3 g sodium and 14.8 g potassium/kg dry matter decreased slightly with rising live mass (200-650 kg). The contents of major mineral elements were much higher in bone tissue. For the fattening period from 200 to 650 kg of live mass mean contents of 151.5 g calcium, 71.3 g phosphorus, 3.2 g magnesium, 5.1 g sodium and 1.1 g potassium per kg DM were analysed. Mineral element content of bone tissue increased with rising live mass as well as animals on low feeding intensity showed a higher mineral content than on high energy level. In all, major mineral element content in fat tissue was very low. In noncarcass parts head and legs calcium and phosphorus had analogous to bone tissue the highest concentration. Hide showed a high content of sodium, whereas organs and digestive tract had a high content of potassium and phosphorus. Total mass of major mineral elements in the different tissues increased above all in the fattening period of 200 to 350 kg. In carcass as well as in empty body, mass of calcium and phosphorus was much higher than magnesium, sodium and potassium. Also animals on low feeding intensity showed a higher mass of major mineral elements in carcass and empty body than animals on high energy feeding intensity. The intensively fed bulls had a mean deposition of 12.7 g calcium, 6.9 g

  1. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT.

  2. Genome-wide linkage and association analysis identifies major gene loci for guttural pouch tympany in Arabian and German warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16-26 Mb and 34-55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64-65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  3. Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis Identifies Major Gene Loci for Guttural Pouch Tympany in Arabian and German Warmblood Horses

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Julia; Ohnesorge, Bernhard; Distl, Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Equine guttural pouch tympany (GPT) is a hereditary condition affecting foals in their first months of life. Complex segregation analyses in Arabian and German warmblood horses showed the involvement of a major gene as very likely. Genome-wide linkage and association analyses including a high density marker set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were performed to map the genomic region harbouring the potential major gene for GPT. A total of 85 Arabian and 373 German warmblood horses were genotyped on the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip. Non-parametric multipoint linkage analyses showed genome-wide significance on horse chromosomes (ECA) 3 for German warmblood at 16–26 Mb and 34–55 Mb and for Arabian on ECA15 at 64–65 Mb. Genome-wide association analyses confirmed the linked regions for both breeds. In Arabian, genome-wide association was detected at 64 Mb within the region with the highest linkage peak on ECA15. For German warmblood, signals for genome-wide association were close to the peak region of linkage at 52 Mb on ECA3. The odds ratio for the SNP with the highest genome-wide association was 0.12 for the Arabian. In conclusion, the refinement of the regions with the Illumina equine SNP50 beadchip is an important step to unravel the responsible mutations for GPT. PMID:22848553

  4. Investigating cockroach allergens: aiming to improve diagnosis and treatment of cockroach allergic patients

    PubMed Central

    Pomés, Anna; Arruda, L. Karla

    2013-01-01

    Cockroach allergy is an important health problem associated with the development of asthma, as a consequence of chronic exposure to low levels of allergens in susceptible individuals. In the last 20 years, progress in understanding the disease has been possible, thanks to the identification and molecular cloning of cockroach allergens and their expression as recombinant proteins. Assays for assessment of environmental allergen exposure have been developed and used to measure Bla g 1 and Bla g 2, as markers of cockroach exposure. IgE antibodies to cockroach extracts and to specific purified allergens have been measured to assess sensitization and analyze association with exposure and disease. With the development of the field of structural biology and the expression of recombinant cockroach allergens, insights into allergen structure, function, epitope mapping and allergen-antibody interactions have provided further understanding of mechanisms of cockroach allergic disease at the molecular level. This information will contribute to develop new approaches to allergen avoidance and to improve diagnosis and therapy of cockroach allergy. PMID:23916425

  5. Cockroaches probably cleaned up after dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces.

  6. Cockroaches Probably Cleaned Up after Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Vršanský, Peter; van de Kamp, Thomas; Azar, Dany; Prokin, Alexander; Vidlička, L'ubomír; Vagovič, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaurs undoubtedly produced huge quantities of excrements. But who cleaned up after them? Dung beetles and flies with rapid development were rare during most of the Mesozoic. Candidates for these duties are extinct cockroaches (Blattulidae), whose temporal range is associated with herbivorous dinosaurs. An opportunity to test this hypothesis arises from coprolites to some extent extruded from an immature cockroach preserved in the amber of Lebanon, studied using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. 1.06% of their volume is filled by particles of wood with smooth edges, in which size distribution directly supports their external pre-digestion. Because fungal pre-processing can be excluded based on the presence of large particles (combined with small total amount of wood) and absence of damages on wood, the likely source of wood are herbivore feces. Smaller particles were broken down biochemically in the cockroach hind gut, which indicates that the recent lignin-decomposing termite and cockroach endosymbionts might have been transferred to the cockroach gut upon feeding on dinosaur feces. PMID:24324610

  7. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Carlos J.; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M.; Vinson, S. Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  8. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%.

  9. Locomotion control of hybrid cockroach robots.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos J; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Zhou, Yan; González, Jorge M; Vinson, S Bradleigh; Liang, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Natural systems retain significant advantages over engineered systems in many aspects, including size and versatility. In this research, we develop a hybrid robotic system using American (Periplaneta americana) and discoid (Blaberus discoidalis) cockroaches that uses the natural locomotion and robustness of the insect. A tethered control system was firstly characterized using American cockroaches, wherein implanted electrodes were used to apply an electrical stimulus to the prothoracic ganglia. Using this approach, larger discoid cockroaches were engineered into a remotely controlled hybrid robotic system. Locomotion control was achieved through electrical stimulation of the prothoracic ganglia, via a remotely operated backpack system and implanted electrodes. The backpack consisted of a microcontroller with integrated transceiver protocol, and a rechargeable battery. The hybrid discoid roach was able to walk, and turn in response to an electrical stimulus to its nervous system with high repeatability of 60%. PMID:25740855

  10. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state.

  11. Self-righting behavior of cockroaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Wohrl, Toni; Lam, Han; Full, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Small insects must be able to right themselves from an upside-down orientation to survive. Previous studies described diverse self-righting strategies in insects. Here, we compare the self-righting behaviors in three cockroach species on a flat, rigid ground to begin to reveal what governs the choice of dominant behaviors. All species self-righted successfully (75 +/- 11 % probability) and quickly (as low as 140 ms and typically within 2 s). The smallest winged American cockroach, which has the most elongate, least flattened body, and longest legs, primarily pushed legs against the ground to roll its body to the side to self-right (relative frequency = 93%). The largest wingless Madagascar hissing cockroach with the shortest legs primarily (84%) hyperextended body to roll to the side and then rubbed its legs on the ground to self-right. The intermediate winged discoid cockroach, which has the least elongate, most flattened body, more often (57%) abducted wings and flexed body to raise center of mass and reduce ground contact and rotated about the wing edges to self-right. We hypothesize that, given morphological and physiological constraints, the gravitational potential energy landscape resulting from the animals' body/appendage-ground interaction governs their dominant behaviors. Our study provides inspiration for robotics, as many current terrestrial robots have rigid, cuboidal bodies which hinder self-righting.

  12. Cockroach homologs of praying mantis peripheral auditory system components.

    PubMed

    Yager, David D

    2005-07-01

    This study identifies the cuticular metathoracic structures in earless cockroaches that are the homologs to the peripheral auditory components in their sister taxon, praying mantids, and defines the nature of the cuticular transition from earless to eared in the Dictyoptera. The single, midline ear of mantids comprises an auditory chamber with complex walls that contain the tympana and chordotonal transduction elements. The corresponding area in cockroaches, between the furcasternum and coxae, has many socketed hairs arranged in discrete fields and the Nerve 7 chordotonal organ, the homolog of the mantis tympanal organ. The Nerve 7 chordotonal organ attaches at the apex of the lateral ventropleurite (LVp), which has the same shape and general structure as an auditory chamber wall. High-speed video shows that when the coxa moves toward the midline, the LVp rotates medially to stimulate socketed hairs, and also moves like a triangular hinge giving the chordotonal organ maximal in-out stimulation. Formation of the mantis auditory chamber from the LVp and adjacent structures would involve only enlargement, a shift toward the midline, and a mild rotation. Almost all proprioceptive function would be lost, which may constitute the major cost of building and maintaining the mantis ear. Isolation from leg movement dictates the position of the mantis ear in the midline and the rigid frame, formed by the cuticular knobs, which protects the chordotonal organs. PMID:15887266

  13. Context-dependent olfactory learning monitored by activities of salivary neurons in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chihiro Sato; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent discrimination learning, a sophisticated form of nonelemental associative learning, has been found in many animals, including insects. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for monitoring this form of nonelemental learning in rigidly restrained insects for investigation of underlying neural mechanisms. We report context-dependent olfactory learning (occasion-setting problem solving) of salivation, which can be monitored as activity changes of salivary neurons in immobilized cockroaches, Periplaneta americana. A group of cockroaches was trained to associate peppermint odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with sucrose solution reward (unconditioned stimulus, US) while vanilla odor was presented alone without pairing with the US under a flickering light condition (1.0 Hz) and also trained to associate vanilla odor with sucrose reward while peppermint odor was presented alone under a steady light condition. After training, the responses of salivary neurons to the rewarded peppermint odor were significantly greater than those to the unrewarded vanilla odor under steady illumination and those to the rewarded vanilla odor was significantly greater than those to the unrewarded peppermint odor in the presence of flickering light. Similar context-dependent responses were observed in another group of cockroaches trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. This study demonstrates context-dependent olfactory learning of salivation for the first time in any vertebrate and invertebrate species, which can be monitored by activity changes of salivary neurons in restrained cockroaches.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. PMID:27045773

  16. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying.

  17. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying. PMID:24877777

  18. Molecular mimicry between cockroach and helminth glutathione S-transferases promotes cross-reactivity and cross-sensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extensive similarities between helminth proteins and allergens are thought to contribute to helminth-driven allergic sensitization. We investigated the molecular and structural similarities between Bla g 5, a major glutathione-S transferase (GST) allergen of cockroaches, and the GST of Wucherer...

  19. Evolutionary convergence and nitrogen metabolism in Blattabacterium strain Bge, primary endosymbiont of the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Maria J; Neef, Alexander; Peretó, Juli; Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Pignatelli, Miguel; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés

    2009-11-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of insects play a central role in upgrading the diet of their hosts. In certain cases, such as aphids and tsetse flies, endosymbionts complement the metabolic capacity of hosts living on nutrient-deficient diets, while the bacteria harbored by omnivorous carpenter ants are involved in nitrogen recycling. In this study, we describe the genome sequence and inferred metabolism of Blattabacterium strain Bge, the primary Flavobacteria endosymbiont of the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanica. Through comparative genomics with other insect endosymbionts and free-living Flavobacteria we reveal that Blattabacterium strain Bge shares the same distribution of functional gene categories only with Blochmannia strains, the primary Gamma-Proteobacteria endosymbiont of carpenter ants. This is a remarkable example of evolutionary convergence during the symbiotic process, involving very distant phylogenetic bacterial taxa within hosts feeding on similar diets. Despite this similarity, different nitrogen economy strategies have emerged in each case. Both bacterial endosymbionts code for urease but display different metabolic functions: Blochmannia strains produce ammonia from dietary urea and then use it as a source of nitrogen, whereas Blattabacterium strain Bge codes for the complete urea cycle that, in combination with urease, produces ammonia as an end product. Not only does the cockroach endosymbiont play an essential role in nutrient supply to the host, but also in the catabolic use of amino acids and nitrogen excretion, as strongly suggested by the stoichiometric analysis of the inferred metabolic network. Here, we explain the metabolic reasons underlying the enigmatic return of cockroaches to the ancestral ammonotelic state. PMID:19911043

  20. Characterization of illegal food items and identification of foodborne pathogens brought into the European Union via two major German airports.

    PubMed

    Beutlich, Janine; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten; Helmuth, Reiner; Jöst, Kristine; Ludwig, Marie-Luise; Hanke, Christine; Bechtold, Dirk; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2015-09-16

    Foods of animal origin brought illegally from third party countries into the European Community pose a risk for the introduction of diseases. This can lead to animal disease outbreaks with significant economic and social costs and subsequent severe trade restrictions. Further, disease outbreaks in humans due to illegally imported foods of animal origin have been described, yet, there are very few studies examining the potential human health impact. Passenger baggage is the most likely route by which illegal products enter a country. Therefore, the volume and geographic origin of foods of animal origin introduced illegally into Germany via the Frankfurt International Airport and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport by passenger luggage were characterized. Further, the occurrence of foodborne zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Brucella spp. and the microbial quality of the foods were analysed by total bacterial count. Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 663 food items were seized from 296 passengers arriving in Germany from 35 different departure countries. The majority of confiscates (51%) originated from Turkey and Russia. A selection of 474 samples was subjected to microbiological analyses. Twenty-three food products tested positive for at least one of the pathogens analysed. The majority of the contaminated foods were meat (33%) or meat products (42%), and milk products (21%). Considering that only a small fraction of arriving passengers is subjected to airport custom controls and only a small number of confiscated foods could be analysed during this study, further investigations are needed to understand the public health risks posed by illegally introduced food items.

  1. Cytotoxicity of a Quinone-containing Cockroach Sex Pheromone in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bennett; Carr, Brian A; Krolikowski, Paul; Chang, Frank N

    2007-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of blattellaquinone (BTQ), a sex pheromone produced by adult female German cockroaches, have been studied using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. 1,4-Benzoquinone (BQ), a toxic chemical implicated in benzene toxicity, was used as a reference compound. Both BQ and BTQ showed comparable toxicity toward A549 cells, with LD50 values estimated to be 14 and 19 microM, respectively. These two compounds increased the formation of an oxidized fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein, but had no effect on the cellular GSSG level. Interestingly, BTQ increased the level of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha and was 4-fold more efficient in depleting cellular GSH content than BQ. Of the five GSH adducts of BTQ isolated, three were identified as mono-GSH conjugates, and the other two were di-conjugates. Mass spectrometric and NMR analyses of the di-conjugates showed that the second GSH molecule displaced the isovaleric acid moiety, potentially via a nucleophilic substitution reaction. The ability of BTQ to conjugate a second GSH molecule without quinone regeneration indicated that it may be a more effective cross-linking agent than BQ. Future experiments may be needed to evaluate the overall safety of BTQ before the commercialization of the compound as a cockroach attractant.

  2. Cockroaches (Blattaria) of Ecuador-checklist and history of research.

    PubMed

    Vidlička, Lubomír

    2013-01-09

    Cockroaches are an understudied group and the total number of described taxa increases every year. The last checklist of Ecuador species was published in 1926. The main aim of this study was to complete a new checklist of cockroach species recorded in Ecuador supplemented with a research history of cockroaches (Blattaria) on the territory of continental Ecuador. In addition, the checklist contains comments on Ecuadorian faunistic records, including the Galápagos Islands. A total of 114 species (105 in continental Ecuador and 18 in Galápagos Islands) belonging to 6 families and 44 genera are listed. Forty species (38.1 %) occur solely in continental Ecuador and five (27.8 %) are endemic on Galápagos Islands. The results indicate that further research on the cockroach fauna of Ecuador as well as determination of museum collections from this territory is needed.

  3. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    PubMed

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-10-23

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls.

  4. On triatomines, cockroaches and haemolymphagy under laboratory conditions: new discoveries

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Pamela; Siñani, Edda; Depickère, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, haematophagy was considered an obligate condition for triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to complete their life cycle. Today, the ability to use haemolymphagy is suggested to represent an important survival strategy for some species, especially those in genus Belminus. As Eratyrus mucronatus and Triatoma boliviana are found with cockroaches in the Blaberinae subfamily in Bolivia, their developmental cycle from egg to adult under a “cockroach diet” was studied. The results suggested that having only cockroach haemolymph as a food source compromised development cycle completion in both species. Compared to a “mouse diet”, the cockroach diet increased: (i) the mortality at each nymphal instar; (ii) the number of feedings needed to molt; (iii) the volume of the maximum food intake; and (iv) the time needed to molt. In conclusion, haemolymph could effectively support survival in the field in both species. Nevertheless, under laboratory conditions, the use of haemolymphagy as a survival strategy in the first developmental stages of these species was not supported, as their mortality was very high. Finally, when Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius stali and Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus species were reared on a cockroach diet under similar conditions, all died rather than feeding on cockroaches. These results are discussed in the context of the ecology of each species. PMID:27706376

  5. Classical olfactory conditioning in the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sakura, Midori; Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2003-12-01

    We established a classical conditioning procedure for the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, by which odors were associated with reward or punishment. Cockroaches underwent differential conditioning trials in which peppermint odor was associated with sucrose solution and vanilla odor was associated with saline solution. Odor preference of cockroaches was tested by allowing them to choose between peppermint and vanilla sources. Cockroaches that had undergone one set of differential conditioning trials exhibited a significantly greater preference for peppermint odor than did untrained cockroaches. Memory formed by three sets of differential conditioning trials, with an inter-trial interval of 5 min, was retained at least 4 days after conditioning. This conditioning procedure was effective even for cockroaches that had been harnessed in plastic tubes. This study shows, for the first time in hemimetaborous insects, that both freely moving and harnessed insects are capable of forming olfactory memory by classical conditioning procedure. This procedure may be useful for future electrophysiological and pharmacological studies aimed at elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying olfactory learning and memory.

  6. How cockroaches exploit tactile boundaries to find new shelters.

    PubMed

    Daltorio, Kathryn A; Mirletz, Brian T; Sterenstein, Andrea; Cheng, Jui Chun; Watson, Adam; Kesavan, Malavika; Bender, John A; Martin, Joshua; Ritzmann, Roy E; Quinn, Roger D

    2015-12-01

    Animals such as cockroaches depend on exploration of unknown environments, and their strategies may inspire robotic approaches. We have previously shown that cockroach behavior, with respect to shelters and the walls of an otherwise empty arena, can be captured with a stochastic state-based algorithm. We call this algorithm RAMBLER, randomized algorithm mimicking biased lone exploration in roaches. In this work, we verified and extended this model by adding a barrier in the previously used arena and conducted more cockroach experiments. In two arena configurations, our simulated model's path length distribution was similar to the experimental distribution (mean experimental path length 3.4 and 3.2 m, mean simulated path length 3.9 and 3.3 m). By analyzing cockroach behavior before, along, and at the end of the barrier, we have generalized RAMBLER to address arbitrarily complex 2D mazes. For biology, this is an abstract behavioral model of a decision-making process in the cockroach brain. For robotics, this is a strategy that may improve exploration for goals, especially in unpredictable environments with non-convex obstacles. Generally, cockroach behavior seems to recommend variability in the absence of planning, and following paths defined by walls. PMID:26495888

  7. Cloning of cockroach allergen, Bla g 4, identifies ligand binding proteins (or calycins) as a cause of IgE antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Arruda, L K; Vailes, L D; Hayden, M L; Benjamin, D C; Chapman, M D

    1995-12-29

    An allergen cloned from a Blattella germanica (German cockroach) cDNA library, encoded a 182-amino acid protein of 20,904 Da. This protein, designated B. germanica allergen 4 (Bla g 4), was expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The prevalence of serum IgE antibody to recombinant Bla g 4 in 73 cockroach allergic patients with asthma ranged from 40% (antigen binding radioimmunoassay) to 60% (plaque immunoassay). Cockroach allergic patients gave positive intradermal skin tests to recombinant Bla g 4 at concentrations of 10(-3)-10(-5) micrograms/ml, whereas non-allergic controls, or cockroach allergic patients with no detectable serum IgE antibody to Bla g 4, gave negative skin tests to 1 microgram/ml. Polymerase chain reaction and Southern analysis identified a 523-base pair DNA encoding Bla g 4 in both B. germanica and Periplaneta americana (American cockroach). However, Northern analysis showed that mRNA encoding Bla g 4 was transcribed in B. germanica but not in P. americana, suggesting that allergen expression was species specific. Sequence similarity searches showed that Bla g 4 was a ligand binding protein or calycin and unexpectedly revealed that this family contained several important allergens: beta-lactoglobulin, from cow milk, and rat and mouse urinary proteins. Although the overall sequence homology between these proteins was low (approximately 20%), macromolecular modeling techniques were used to generate two models of the tertiary structure of Bla g 4, based on comparisons with the x-ray crystal coordinates of bilin binding protein and rodent urinary proteins. The results show that members of the calycin protein family can cause IgE antibody responses by inhalation or ingestion and are associated with asthma and food hypersensitivity. PMID:8537384

  8. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime.

  9. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  10. Suppression pheromone and cockroach rank formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Shu-Chun; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2009-06-01

    Although agonistic behaviors in the male lobster cockroach ( Nauphoeta cinerea) are well known, the formation of an unstable hierarchy has long been a puzzle. In this study, we investigate how the unstable dominance hierarchy in N. cinerea is maintained via a pheromone signaling system. In agonistic interactions, aggressive posture (AP) is an important behavioral index of aggression. This study showed that, during the formation of a governing hierarchy, thousands of nanograms of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B) were released by the AP-adopting dominant in the first encounter fight, then during the early domination period and that this release of 3H-2B was related to rank maintenance, but not to rank establishment. For rank maintenance, 3H-2B functioned as a suppression pheromone, which suppressed the fighting capability of rivals and kept them in a submissive state. During the period of rank maintenance, as the dominant male gradually decreased his 3H-2B release, the fighting ability of the subordinate gradually developed, as shown by the increasing odds of a subordinate adopting an AP (OSAP). The OSAP was negatively correlated with the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant and positively correlated with the number of domination days. The same OSAP could be achieved earlier by reducing the amount of 3H-2B released by the dominant indicates that whether the subordinate adopts an offensive strategy depends on what the dominant is doing.

  11. The bacterial community in the gut of the Cockroach Shelfordella lateralis reflects the close evolutionary relatedness of cockroaches and termites.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Christine; Thompson, Claire L; Brune, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Termites and cockroaches are closely related, with molecular phylogenetic analyses even placing termites within the radiation of cockroaches. The intestinal tract of wood-feeding termites harbors a remarkably diverse microbial community that is essential for the digestion of lignocellulose. However, surprisingly little is known about the gut microbiota of their closest relatives, the omnivorous cockroaches. Here, we present a combined characterization of physiological parameters, metabolic activities, and bacterial microbiota in the gut of Shelfordella lateralis, a representative of the cockroach family Blattidae, the sister group of termites. We compared the bacterial communities within each gut compartment using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and made a 16S rRNA gene clone library of the microbiota in the colon-the dilated part of the hindgut with the highest density and diversity of bacteria. The colonic community was dominated by members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), and some Deltaproteobacteria. Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteres, which are abundant members of termite gut communities, were conspicuously absent. Nevertheless, detailed phylogenetic analysis revealed that many of the clones from the cockroach colon clustered with sequences previously obtained from the termite gut, which indicated that the composition of the bacterial community reflects at least in part the phylogeny of the host.

  12. Species clarification of Ogasawara cockroaches which inhabit Japan.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A

    2015-03-01

    The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter.

  13. Fourier domain OCT imaging of American cockroach nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyszkowska, Joanna; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study we demonstrate results of structural Fourier domain OCT imaging of the nervous system of Periplaneta americana L. (American cockroach). The purpose of this research is to develop an OCT apparatus enabling structural imaging of insect neural system. Secondary purpose of the presented research is to develop methods of the sample preparation and handling during the OCT imaging experiments. We have performed imaging in the abdominal nerve cord excised from the American cockroach. For this purpose we have developed a Fourier domain / spectral OCT system operating at 820 nm wavelength range.

  14. Life history and habitat associations of the broad wood cockroach, Parcoblatta lata (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and other native cockroaches in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2002-06-18

    Wood cockroaches are an important prey of the red-cockaded woodpecker, Picoides borealis, an endangered species inhabiting pine forests in the southern United States. These woodpeckers forage on the boles of live pine trees, but their prey consists of a high proportion of wood cockroaches, Parcoblatta spp., that are more commonly associated with dead plant material. Cockroach population density samples were conducted on live pine trees, dead snags and coarse woody debris on the ground. The studies showed that snags and logs are also important habitats of wood cockroaches in pine forests.

  15. The evaporative function of cockroach hygroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures). The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air (absolutely) and the

  16. The evaporative function of cockroach hygroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Tichy, Harald; Kallina, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Insect hygroreceptors associate as antagonistic pairs of a moist cell and a dry cell together with a cold cell in small cuticular sensilla on the antennae. The mechanisms by which the atmospheric humidity stimulates the hygroreceptive cells remain elusive. Three models for humidity transduction have been proposed in which hygroreceptors operate either as mechanical hygrometers, evaporation detectors or psychrometers. Mechanical hygrometers are assumed to respond to the relative humidity, evaporation detectors to the saturation deficit and psychrometers to the temperature depression (the difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb temperatures). The models refer to different ways of expressing humidity. This also means, however, that at different temperatures these different types of hygroreceptors indicate very different humidity conditions. The present study tested the adequacy of the three models on the cockroach's moist and dry cells by determining whether the specific predictions about the temperature-dependence of the humidity responses are indeed observed. While in previous studies stimulation consisted of rapid step-like humidity changes, here we changed humidity slowly and continuously up and down in a sinusoidal fashion. The low rates of change made it possible to measure instantaneous humidity values based on UV-absorption and to assign these values to the hygroreceptive sensillum. The moist cell fitted neither the mechanical hygrometer nor the evaporation detector model: the temperature dependence of its humidity responses could not be attributed to relative humidity or to saturation deficit, respectively. The psychrometer model, however, was verified by the close relationships of the moist cell's response with the wet-bulb temperature and the dry cell's response with the dry-bulb temperature. Thus, the hygroreceptors respond to evaporation and the resulting cooling due to the wetness or dryness of the air. The drier the ambient air (absolutely) and the

  17. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  18. Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2.

    PubMed

    Woodfolk, Judith A; Glesner, Jill; Wright, Paul W; Kepley, Christopher L; Li, Mi; Himly, Martin; Muehling, Lyndsey M; Gustchina, Alla; Wlodawer, Alexander; Chapman, Martin D; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-29

    Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography. This mutant was still able to induce mast cell release. T-cell responses were assessed by analyzing Th1/Th2 cytokine production and the CD4(+) T-cell phenotype in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. Although T-cell activating capacity was similar for the KKF mutant and Bla g 2 based on CD25 expression, the KKF mutant was a weaker inducer of the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, this mutant induced IL-10 from a non-T-cell source at higher levels that those induced by Bla g 2. Our findings demonstrate that a rational design of site-directed mutagenesis was effective in producing a mutant with only 3 amino acid substitutions that maintained the same fold as wild type Bla g 2. These residues, which were involved in IgE antibody binding, endowed Bla g 2 with a T-cell modulatory capacity. The antigenic analysis of Bla g 2 will be useful for the subsequent development of recombinant allergen vaccines. PMID:26644466

  19. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S.; Benson, Ryan W.; Godoy, Veronica G.

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations.

  20. Nitrogen recycling and nutritional provisioning by Blattabacterium, the cockroach endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Sabree, Zakee L; Kambhampati, Srinivas; Moran, Nancy A

    2009-11-17

    Nitrogen acquisition and assimilation is a primary concern of insects feeding on diets largely composed of plant material. Reclaiming nitrogen from waste products provides a rich reserve for this limited resource, provided that recycling mechanisms are in place. Cockroaches, unlike most terrestrial insects, excrete waste nitrogen within their fat bodies as uric acids, postulated to be a supplement when dietary nitrogen is limited. The fat bodies of most cockroaches are inhabited by Blattabacterium, which are vertically transmitted, Gram-negative bacteria that have been hypothesized to participate in uric acid degradation, nitrogen assimilation, and nutrient provisioning. We have sequenced completely the Blattabacterium genome from Periplaneta americana. Genomic analysis confirms that Blattabacterium is a member of the Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), with its closest known relative being the endosymbiont Sulcia muelleri, which is found in many sap-feeding insects. Metabolic reconstruction indicates that it lacks recognizable uricolytic enzymes, but it can recycle nitrogen from urea and ammonia, which are uric acid degradation products, into glutamate, using urease and glutamate dehydrogenase. Subsequently, Blattabacterium can produce all of the essential amino acids, various vitamins, and other required compounds from a limited palette of metabolic substrates. The ancient association with Blattabacterium has allowed cockroaches to subsist successfully on nitrogen-poor diets and to exploit nitrogenous wastes, capabilities that are critical to the ecological range and global distribution of cockroach species.

  1. Two new types of allergens from the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Long, C; Bai, X; Liu, W; Rong, M; Lai, R; An, S

    2015-12-01

    Periplaneta americana cockroach is an important source of inhalant indoor allergen resource, and there are more than twenty IgE-binding components identified in P. americana, but only nine allergens were characterized. Our knowledge about cockroach allergens remains poor. In this work, two novel allergen proteins Per a 11 (alpha-amylase) and Per a 12 (chitinase) with molecular weight around 55 and 45 kDa, respectively, were purified and characterized from the midgut of cockroaches. Their primary sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and cDNA cloning. Sera from 39 and 30 of 47 (83.0% and 63.8%) patients reacted to Per a 11 and Per a 12 on immunoblots, respectively. The allergenicity of Per a 11 and Per a 12 was further confirmed by competitive ELISA, basophil activation test (BAT), and skin prick test (SPT). They appear to be of importance for the allergic reactions induced by cockroach and have a potential for component-based diagnosis of allergy. PMID:26361742

  2. Nest sanitation through defecation: antifungal properties of wood cockroach feces.

    PubMed

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B; Mead, Kerry; Du Comb, William S; Benson, Ryan W; Godoy, Veronica G

    2013-11-01

    The wood cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus nests as family units inside decayed wood, a substrate known for its high microbial load. We tested the hypothesis that defecation within their nests, a common occurrence in this species, reduces the probability of fungal development. Conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, were incubated with crushed feces and subsequently plated on potato dextrose agar. Relative to controls, the viability of fungal conidia was significantly reduced following incubation with feces and was negatively correlated with incubation time. Although the cockroach's hindgut contained abundant β-1,3-glucanase activity, its feces had no detectable enzymatic function. Hence, these enzymes are unlikely the source of the fungistasis. Instead, the antifungal compound(s) of the feces involved heat-sensitive factor(s) of potential microbial origin. When feces were boiled or when they were subjected to ultraviolet radiation and subsequently incubated with conidia, viability was "rescued" and germination rates were similar to those of controls. Filtration experiments indicate that the fungistatic activity of feces results from chemical interference. Because Cryptocercidae cockroaches have been considered appropriate models to make inferences about the factors fostering the evolution of termite sociality, we suggest that nesting in microbe-rich environments likely selected for the coupling of intranest defecation and feces fungistasis in the common ancestor of wood cockroaches and termites. This might in turn have served as a preadaptation that prevented mycosis as these phylogenetically related taxa diverged and evolved respectively into subsocial and eusocial organizations. PMID:24271031

  3. Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Williford, Anna; Stay, Barbara; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2004-01-01

    Cockroach species show different degrees of maternal contribution to the developing offspring. In this study, we identify a multigene family that encodes water-soluble proteins that are a major component of nutritive "Milk" in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. This gene family is associated with the evolution of a new trait, viviparity, in which the offspring receive nutrition during the gestation period. Twenty-five distinct Milk complementary DNAs were cloned and partially characterized. These complementary DNAs encode 22 distinct Milk peptides, each of length 171 amino acids, including a 16-amino acid signal peptide sequence. Southern blot analysis confirms the presence of multiple copies of Milk genes in D. punctata. Northern analysis indicates tissue- and stage-specific Milk gene expression. Examination of the deduced amino acid sequences identifies the presence of structurally conserved regions diagnostic of the lipocalin protein family. The shared exon/intron structure of one of the Milk loci with lipocalin genes further supports a close evolutionary relationship between these sequences. PMID:15009119

  4. Life history and biology of the invasive Turkestan cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Tina; Rust, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    The Turkestan cockroach, Blatta lateralis (Walker), has become an important invasive species throughout the southwestern United States and has been reported in the southern United States. It is rapidly replacing the oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis (L.), in urban areas of the southwestern United States as the most important peri-domestic species. They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls. On occasion, they will invade dwellings. At 26.7 degrees C, male and female nymphs developed into adults in an average of 222 and 224 d, respectively. Both males and females had five nymphal instars. Adult females deposited up to 25 oothecae. The oothecae averaged 16.8 eggs and 13.9 nymphs emerged per egg capsule, resulting in an 82.7% hatch rate. Adults lived for at least 612 d. Two parameters that might contribute to the success of Turkestan cockroaches compared with oriental cockroaches are that the developmental period of the nymphs of Turkestan cockroaches are shorter and adult female Turkestan cockroaches produce considerably more oothecae than do oriental cockroaches. These may explain the observations by Pest Management Professionals that Turkestan cockroaches are displacing oriental cockroaches in outdoor habitats throughout the southwestern United States.

  5. Multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from cockroaches in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Residents in long-term care facilities and nursing homes have a relative higher risk for infections. The nocturnal and filthy habits of cockroaches may be ideal disseminators of pathogenic microorganisms in these institutions. This study was designed to determine the infestation and vector potential of cockroaches under this institutional environment. Cockroaches were collected from 69 long-term care facilities and nursing homes in Kaohsiung City. Risk factors related to cockroach infestation were determined by questionnaire survey. In addition, bacteria were isolated and identified from the alimentary tract and external surface of these insects. Antibiotic resistances of these microorganisms were then determined. Cockroach infestation was found in 45 (65.2%) institutions and 558 cockroaches (119 Periplaneta americana and 439 Blattella germanica) were collected. A significant association was found between cockroach infestation and indoor environmental sanitation. From 250 adult cockroaches, 38 species of gram-negative bacteria, 20 species of glucose non-fermenter bacilli and 6 species of gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Moreover, antibiotic resistances were found among the bacteria isolated. These findings indicate that cockroaches have the potential in transmitting pathogenic bacteria with multidrug resistances in long-term care facilities and nursing homes.

  6. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function.

  7. Cloning of PaAtg8 and roles of autophagy in adaptation to starvation with respect to the fat body and midgut of the Americana cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Park, Moon Soo; Takeda, Makio

    2014-05-01

    Starvation, in particular amino acid deprivation, induces autophagy in trophocytes (adipocytes), the major component of the fat body cell types, in the larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the fat body of cockroach has two additional cell types: urocytes depositing uric acid in urate vacuoles as a nitrogen resource and mycetocytes harboring an endosymbiont, Blattabacterium cuenoti, which can synthesize amino acids from the metabolites of the stored uric acid. These cells might complement the roles of autophagy in recycling amino acids in the fat body or other organs of cockroaches under starvation. We investigate the presence of autophagy in tissues such as the fat body and midgut of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, under starvation by immunoblotting with antibody against Atg8, a ubiquitin-like protein required for the formation of autophagosomes and by electron microscopy. Corresponding changes in acid phosphatase activity were also investigated as representing lysosome activity. Starvation increased the level of an autophagic marker, Atg8-II, in both the tissues, extensively stimulating the formation of autophagic compartments in trophocytes of the fat body and columnar cells of the midgut for over 2 weeks. Acid phosphatase showed no significant increase in the fat body of the starved cockroaches but was higher in the midgut of the continuously fed animals. Thus, a distinct autophagic mechanism operates in these tissues under starvation of 2 weeks and longer. The late induction of autophagy implies exhaustion of the stored uric acid in the fat body. High activity of acid phosphatase in the midgut of the fed cockroaches might represent enhanced assimilation and not an autophagy-related function. PMID:24696316

  8. Stress-resolved and cockroach-friendly piezoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R.; Lee, H.; Butler, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Yi, J.; Vinson, B.; Liang, H.

    2008-04-01

    We investigate effects of bending stress on piezoelectric properties of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a polymer sensor. The sensor was designed and fabricated into a special size and shape so that it can be attached to small insects, such as the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana) to measure the insects' locomotion. The performance of the sensor is studied using a controlled linear stage to buckle the sensor mimicking the bending of the sensor due to the leg movements of cockroaches. For comparison, a roach robot was used for multi-leg study. Results indicate that buckling motion of the sensor produce an output that is different from regular stretching effect. The sensor-generated charge depends on the localized stress distribution and dipole alignment. This paper discusses the methods of characterization of piezoelectricity useful for insect applications.

  9. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  10. Synanthropic Cockroaches (Blattidae: Periplaneta spp.) Harbor Pathogenic Leptospira in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Bustamante-Rengifo, Javier A; Bonilla, Álvaro; Lehmicke, Anna Joy J; Castillo, Andrés; Astudillo-Hernández, Miryam

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis cases in Colombia are typically linked to peridomestic rodents; however, empirical data suggest that Leptospira-infected patients with no apparent exposure to these reservoirs are common. Cockroaches (Periplaneta spp.) have equal or greater interaction with humans than rodents, yet their potential role as carriers of Leptospira has not been assessed. We determined if pathogenic Leptospira is harbored by Periplaneta spp. in Cali (Colombia) and the variables influencing this relationship. Fifty-nine cockroaches were captured from seven sites and DNA was extracted from the body surface and digestive tract for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction, targeting genes secY and flaB. Logistic regression models and proportion tests showed a higher likelihood for Leptospira to be isolated from body surfaces (P > 0.001) and from individuals inside houses (six times more likely). These findings are the first to demonstrate an association between Periplaneta spp. and Leptospira, suggesting the need to investigate the potential for cockroaches to serve as reservoirs or transport hosts for Leptospira.

  11. Altricial development in subsocial wood-feeding cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Christine A; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Shimada, Keisuke; Saito, Yukari; Arellano, Consuelo; Matsumoto, Tadao

    2008-12-01

    Species in the wood-feeding genus Salganea within the cockroach subfamily Panesthiinae (Blaberidae) typically live in biparental families; their first instars suffer high mortality when removed from adults, and in at least one species, adults are known to feed neonates on oral liquids. In the closely related gregarious wood-feeding genus Panesthia , no parental interaction with offspring is known. We compared the external morphology of first instars of these two genera and found that eye development and cuticular pigmentation at hatching are correlated with social structure. First instars of Panesthia have a dark cuticle and well-developed eyes. First instars of Salganea have a pale, transparent cuticle, and eyes significantly smaller than those of Panesthia relative to adult eye size. The body size of the first-instar of Salganea esakii is significantly smaller than that of Panesthia angustipennis spadica , relative to adult body size (24.0 and 27.4% of adult head-capsule width, respectively), but a more general survey suggests that, overall, neonate size may be similar in the two genera. We compared the first instars of these two taxa of Panesthiinae to those in the biparental, wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus (Cryptocercidae) and discuss how decreased investment in both integumentary and ocular development in subsocial cockroaches parallels that seen in altricial vertebrates.

  12. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand.

  13. German Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kruis, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Gia P; Leifeld, Ludger

    2016-10-01

    Because of its frequency, diverticular disease is a burden on health care systems. Only few formal guidelines covering all aspects of the disease exist. Here, some selected statements from the German guidelines are given. The guidelines include significant recommendations for the diagnosis and management of diverticular disease. Both diagnosis and management depend definitely on clear definitions of the situation of an individual patient. Therefore, a new classification is proposed that is based on earlier suggestions. An internationally established classification would not only enable better patient care but could also lead to studies with comparable results.

  14. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  15. Chow Down! Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Explore Basic Nutrition Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Madagascar hissing cockroach ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") is one of the most exciting and enjoyable animals to incorporate into your science curriculum. Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHCs) do not bite, are easy to handle, produce little odor compared to many terrarium animals, have a fascinating social structure, are easy to breed, teach…

  16. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  17. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  18. Microbial carriage of cockroaches at a tertiary care hospital in ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Donkor, Eric S; Attah, Simon K; Duedu, Kwabena O; Afutu, Emmanuel; Boamah, Isaac; Olu-Taiwo, Michael; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2013-01-01

    Cockroaches are common in the environment of many hospitals in Ghana; however, little is known about their public health risks. To evaluate potential risks, we investigated the external and internal microbial flora of 61 cockroaches from a tertiary hospital in Ghana and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of the common bacterial species. Standard methods were used in all the microbiological investigations and antibiotic susceptibility testing. A rotavirus carriage rate of 19.7% was observed among the cockroaches. Four types of intestinal parasites were carried externally by the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Hookworm (4.9%). Eight nosocomial bacteria were isolated from the cockroaches, and the most prevalent was Klebsiella pneumoniae, which occurred internally in 29.5% of the cockroaches and 26.2% externally. Multiple drug resistance among common bacteria isolated from the cockroaches ranged from 13.8% (Escherichia coli) to 41.1% (Klebsiella pneumoniae). Cockroaches constitute an important reservoir for pathogenic microorganisms, and may be important vectors of multiple resistant nosocomial pathogens in the studied hospital.

  19. The majority of newly diagnosed patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis reach an inactive disease state within the first year of specialised care: data from a German inception cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sengler, Claudia; Niewerth, Martina; Liedmann, Ina; Föll, Dirk; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Ganser, Gerd; Horneff, Gerd; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Minden, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the disease characteristics of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) included in an inception cohort, to analyse how many patients from each JIA category reach an inactive disease state within the first year of specialised care and to determine predictors for attaining inactive disease. Methods Patients with JIA were enrolled in this study at 11 large German paediatric rheumatology units within the first 12 months after diagnosis. Laboratory and clinical parameters such as JIA core criteria and data on the medication used were collected every 3 months. Non-parametric statistical testing was performed for the comparison of the JIA core criteria at follow-up. Generalised linear models were used to analyse differences in the rates at which inactive disease was reached and to determine potential predictors. Results Of the 695 patients with JIA included in this analysis, approximately 75% experienced a period of inactive disease under treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and systemic steroids in most cases with systemic-onset JIA or polyarthritis at least once during the first 12 months in ICON. Significant improvements were observed in all JIA core criteria, in disease activity and in functional status from baseline to the 12-month follow-up. Younger age at onset, a shorter duration between symptom onset and diagnosis and a positive antinuclear antibody status increased the probability of attaining an inactive disease state. Conclusions The 12-month outcome of JIA was good under real-life conditions, with half of the patients having attained inactive disease with contemporary treatments. Since a short duration between symptom onset and diagnosis was correlated to a period of inactive disease, children suspected of having JIA should be transferred to specialised care as soon as possible. PMID:26688748

  20. Gold-nanoparticles ingestion disrupts reproduction and development in the German cockroach.

    PubMed

    Small, Taika; Ochoa-Zapater, M Amparo; Gallello, Gianni; Ribera, Antonio; Romero, Francisco M; Torreblanca, Amparo; Garcerá, M Dolores

    2016-09-15

    The present work shows the effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) orally administered on reproduction and development of the insect Blattella germanica. Newly emerged females were provided with food containing AuNPs (87.44μg/g) of a size between 15 and 30nm (mean 21.8nm), and were allowed to mate with males. Food ingestion, mortality, reproductive parameters (time to ootheca formation and eclosion, ootheca viability and fertility) as well as postembryonic developmental parameters of the first ootheca (nymphal survival and life span) were recorded throughout the experiment. Gold from AuNPs was accumulated by adults of B. germanica with a bioaccumulation factor of 0.1. Ingestion of AuNPs did not disturb the time for ootheca formation nor ootheca eclosion. However, ootheca viability was decreased almost by 25% in AuNPs treated females in comparison to controls. At the same time the number of hatched nymphs was decreased by 32.8% (p<0.001) in AuNP group respect to control one. The postembryonic developmental parameters were also affected by AuNPs treatment, with a 35.8% of decrease (p<0.01) in number of nymphs that moulted to second and third instars and a reduction of their life span. Ingestion of AuNPs causes sublethal effects in B. germanica that compromises life-traits involved in population dynamics. B. germanica is proposed as a model species in nanotoxicological studies for urban environments.

  1. Transcriptional control of behavior: Engrailed knockout changes cockroach escape trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David; Marie, Bruno; Domenici, Paolo; Blagburn, Jonathan M; Bacon, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    The cerci of the cockroach are covered with identified sensory hairs, which detect air movements. The sensory neurons which innervate these hairs synapse with giant interneurons (GIs) in the terminal ganglion which in turn synapse with interneurons and leg motorneurons in thoracic ganglia. This neural circuit mediates the animal's escape behavior. The transcription factor Engrailed (En) is expressed only in the medially born sensory neurons, which suggested it could work as a positional determinant of sensory neuron identity. Previously, we used dsRNA interference to abolish En expression, and found that the axonal arborization and synaptic outputs of an identified En-positive sensory neuron changed so that it came to resemble a nearby En-negative cell, which was itself unaffected. We thus demonstrated directly that En controls synaptic choice, as well as axon projections. Is escape behavior affected as a result of this mis-wiring? We recently showed that adult cockroaches keep each escape unpredictable by running along one of a set of preferred escape trajectories (ETs) at fixed angles from the direction of the threatening stimulus. The probability of selecting a particular ET is influenced by wind direction. In this present study we show that early instar juvenile cockroaches also use those same ETs. En knockout significantly perturbs the animals' perception of posterior wind, altering the choice of ETs to one more appropriate for anterior wind. This is the first time that it has been shown that knockout of a transcription factor controlling synaptic connectivity can alter the perception of a directional stimulus. PMID:19494140

  2. Mite, cat, and cockroach exposure, allergen sensitisation, and asthma in children: a case-control study of three schools

    PubMed Central

    Sporik, R.; Squillace, S.; Ingram, J. M.; Rakes, G.; Honsinger, R.; Platts-Mills, T.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The amount of allergen necessary to sensitise genetically "at risk" children is unclear. The relation between allergen exposure and asthma is also uncertain.
METHODS—To ensure a wide range of allergen exposures the data from case-control studies of asthma in children aged 12-14 years attending three schools in Los Alamos, New Mexico and Central Virginia were combined. Skin prick tests to indoor and outdoor allergens and bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine were assessed in children with and without symptoms of asthma. The concentration of mite, cat, and cockroach allergens in dust from the children's homes was used as a marker of exposure.
RESULTS—Three hundred and thirty two children (157 with asthmatic symptoms and 175 controls) were investigated. One hundred and eighty three were classified as atopic on the basis of allergen skin prick tests and 68 as asthmatic (symptoms plus bronchial responsiveness). The prevalence and degree of sensitisation to mite and cockroach, but not cat, was strongly associated in atopic children with increasing domestic concentrations of these allergens. Asthma was strongly associated with sensitisation to indoor allergens (p<10-6) and weakly to outdoor allergens (p = 0.026). There was an association between current asthma and the concentration of mite allergen amongst atopic children (p = 0.008) but not amongst those who were specifically mite sensitised (p = 0.16).
CONCLUSIONS—The domestic reservoir concentration of mite and cockroach, but not cat, allergen was closely related to the prevalence of sensitisation in atopic children. However, the prevalence of current asthma had a limited relationship to these allergen measurements, suggesting that other factors play a major part in determining which allergic individuals develop asthma.

 PMID:10413718

  3. Physiology of environmental adaptations and resource acquisition in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mullins, Donald E

    2015-01-01

    Cockroaches are a group of insects that evolved early in geological time. Because of their antiquity, they for the most part display generalized behavior and physiology and accordingly have frequently been used as model insects to examine physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved with water balance, nutrition, reproduction, genetics, and insecticide resistance. As a result, a considerable amount of information on these topics is available. However, there is much more to be learned by employing new protocols, microchemical analytical techniques, and molecular biology tools to explore many unanswered questions.

  4. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  5. Gut Bacterial Community of the Xylophagous Cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1-2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis based on the characterized clusters of Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Deltaproteobacteria showed that many OTUs present in both cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance.

  6. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  7. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653

  8. Gut Bacterial Community of the Xylophagous Cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1–2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis based on the characterized clusters of Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Deltaproteobacteria showed that many OTUs present in both cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance. PMID:27054320

  9. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653

  10. Gut Bacterial Community of the Xylophagous Cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes; Llorens, Carlos; Comas, Jaume; Guerrero, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Cryptocercus punctulatus and Parasphaeria boleiriana are two distantly related xylophagous and subsocial cockroaches. Cryptocercus is related to termites. Xylophagous cockroaches and termites are excellent model organisms for studying the symbiotic relationship between the insect and their microbiota. In this study, high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the diversity of metagenomic gut communities of C. punctulatus and P. boleiriana, and thereby to identify possible shifts in symbiont allegiances during cockroaches evolution. Our results revealed that the hindgut prokaryotic communities of both xylophagous cockroaches are dominated by members of four Bacteria phyla: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Other identified phyla were Spirochaetes, Planctomycetes, candidatus Saccharibacteria (formerly TM7), and Acidobacteria, each of which represented 1-2% of the total population detected. Community similarity based on phylogenetic relatedness by unweighted UniFrac analyses indicated that the composition of the bacterial community in the two species was significantly different (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis based on the characterized clusters of Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes, and Deltaproteobacteria showed that many OTUs present in both cockroach species clustered with sequences previously described in termites and other cockroaches, but not with those from other animals or environments. These results suggest that, during their evolution, those cockroaches conserved several bacterial communities from the microbiota of a common ancestor. The ecological stability of those microbial communities may imply the important functional role for the survival of the host of providing nutrients in appropriate quantities and balance. PMID:27054320

  11. Neural Circuit Recording from an Intact Cockroach Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Titlow, Josh S.; Majeed, Zana R.; Hartman, H. Bernard; Burns, Ellen; Cooper, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    The cockroach ventral nerve cord preparation is a tractable system for neuroethology experiments, neural network modeling, and testing the physiological effects of insecticides. This article describes the scope of cockroach sensory modalities that can be used to assay how an insect nervous system responds to environmental perturbations. Emphasis here is on the escape behavior mediated by cerci to giant fiber transmission in Periplaneta americana. This in situ preparation requires only moderate dissecting skill and electrophysiological expertise to generate reproducible recordings of neuronal activity. Peptides or other chemical reagents can then be applied directly to the nervous system in solution with the physiological saline. Insecticides could also be administered prior to dissection and the escape circuit can serve as a proxy for the excitable state of the central nervous system. In this context the assays described herein would also be useful to researchers interested in limb regeneration and the evolution of nervous system development for which P. americana is an established model organism. PMID:24300738

  12. Circadian Regulation of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Cockroach Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Saifullah, A.S.M.; Page, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    In the cockroach, olfactory sensitivity as measured by the amplitude of the electroantennogram (EAG) is regulated by the circadian system. We wished to determine how this rhythm in antennal response was reflected in the activity of individual olfactory receptor neurons. The amplitude of the electroantennogram (EAG) and the activity of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in single olfactory sensilla were recorded simultaneously for 3–5 days in constant darkness from an antenna of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae. Both EAG amplitude and the spike frequency of the ORNs exhibited circadian rhythms with peak amplitude/activity occurring in the subjective day. The phases of the rhythms were dependent on the phase of the prior light cycle and thus were entrainable by light. Ablation of the optic lobes abolished the rhythm in EAG amplitude as has been previously reported. In contrast, the rhythm in ORN response persisted following surgery. These results indicated that a circadian clock outside the optic lobes can regulate the responses of olfactory receptor neurons and further that this modulation of the ORN response is not dependent on the circadian rhythm in EAG amplitude. PMID:19346451

  13. Advanced morphology and behaviour of extinct earwig-like cockroaches (Blattida: Fuziidae fam. nov.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Liang, Jun-Hui; Ren, Dong

    2009-12-01

    We describe the extinct cockroach family Fuziidae fam. nov., represented by Fuzia dadao gen. et sp. nov. from the ?Bathonian (168 Ma) Middle Jurassic sediments of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Males are characterized by unique, long and narrow bodies with a notch on forceps of earwig-like cerci, which attaches to the long external ovipositor during courtship. In a combination with the presence of male tergal glands, it appears the most advanced form of reproduction in the nearly 300 Myr history of long external ovipositor-bearing cockroaches. Its advanced morphology significantly supports attribution of living and fossil cockroaches within a single order Blattida.

  14. Association between copy number variants in 16p11.2 and major depressive disorder in a German case-control sample.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Franziska; Priebe, Lutz; Herms, Stefan; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Meier, Sandra; Moebus, Susanne; Strohmaier, Jana; Groß, Magdalena; Breuer, René; Lange, Christoph; Hoffmann, Per; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Lucae, Susanne; Wolf, Christiane; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Holsboer, Florian; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven

    2012-04-01

    The majority of genetic risk factors for major depressive disorder (MDD) still await identification. Since copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders, the question arises as to whether CNVs also play a role in MDD. We performed a genome-wide CNV study using Illumina's SNP array data from 604 MDD patients and 1,643 controls. Putative CNVs were detected with the CNV algorithms QuantiSNP and PennCNV. CNVs with ≥30 consecutive SNPs and a log Bayes Factor/confidence value of ≥30 were statistically analyzed using PLINK. Further analyses and technical verification were only performed in the case of regions for which CNV calls from both programs showed nominal significance. Set-based tests were used to test whether common variants in the CNV regions showed association in two GWAS datasets of MDD. CNVs from four chromosomal regions were associated with MDD. The following were more frequent in patients than controls: microdeletions in 7p21.3 (P = 0.033) and 18p11.32 (P = 0.030); microduplications in 15q26.3 (P = 0.033); and the combination of microdeletion/duplications in 16p11.2 (P ≤ 0.018). SNPs in CNV region 16p11.2 showed significant association in a set-based test (P = 0.026). Microdeletions/duplications in 16p11.2 are the most promising CNVs, since these affect genes and CNVs in this region have been implicated in other neuropsychiatric disorders. The association finding for common SNPs provides further support for the hypothesis that this region is involved in the development of MDD. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22344817

  15. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  16. Crystal Structure of a Dimerized Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2 Complexed with a Monoclonal Antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mi; Gustchina, Alla; Alexandratos, Jerry; Wlodawer, Alexander; Wünschmann, Sabina; Kepley, Christopher L.; Chapman, Martin D.; Pomes, Anna

    2008-09-03

    The crystal structure of a 1:1 complex between the German cockroach allergen Bla g 2 and the Fab' fragment of a monoclonal antibody 7C11 was solved at 2.8-{angstrom} resolution. Bla g 2 binds to the antibody through four loops that include residues 60-70, 83-86, 98-100, and 129-132. Cation-{pi} interactions exist between Lys-65, Arg-83, and Lys-132 in Bla g 2 and several tyrosines in 7C11. In the complex with Fab', Bla g 2 forms a dimer, which is stabilized by a quasi-four-helix bundle comprised of an {alpha}-helix and a helical turn from each allergen monomer, exhibiting a novel dimerization mode for an aspartic protease. A disulfide bridge between C51a and C113, unique to the aspartic protease family, connects the two helical elements within each Bla g 2 monomer, thus facilitating formation of the bundle. Mutation of these cysteines, as well as the residues Asn-52, Gln-110, and Ile-114, involved in hydrophobic interactions within the bundle, resulted in a protein that did not dimerize. The mutant proteins induced less {beta}-hexosaminidase release from mast cells than the wild-type Bla g 2, suggesting a functional role of dimerization in allergenicity. Because 7C11 shares a binding epitope with IgE, the information gained by analysis of the crystal structure of its complex provided guidance for site-directed mutagenesis of the allergen epitope. We have now identified key residues involved in IgE antibody binding; this information will be useful for the design of vaccines for immunotherapy.

  17. Salinization of groundwater in the North German Basin: results from conjoint investigation of major, trace element and multi-isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, P.; Weise, S. M.; Tesmer, M.; Dulski, P.; Pekdeger, A.; Bayer, U.; Magri, F.

    2008-09-01

    Conjoint consideration of distribution of major, rare earth elements (REE) and Y (combined to REY) and of H, O, C, S, Sr isotopes reveals that four types of groundwater are distinguishable by their chemical composition presented by spider patterns. REY patterns indicate thermo-saline deep water and two types of shallow saline groundwaters. Presence of connate waters is not detectable. Sr isotope ratios distinguish three sources of Sr: fast and slow weathering of biotite and K-feldspar in Pleistocene sediments, respectively, and dissolution of limestones. δ13C(DIC) indicate dissolution of limestone under closed and open system conditions. Numerous samples show δ13C(DIC) > 13‰ which is probably caused by incongruent dissolution of calcite and dolomite. The brines from below 1,000 m represent mixtures of pre-Pleistocene seawater or its evaporation brines and infiltrated post-Pleistocene precipitation. The shallow waters represent mixtures of Pleistocene and Recent precipitation salinized by dissolution of evaporites or by mixing with ascending brines. The distribution of water types is independent on geologic units and lithologies. Even the Tertiary Rupelian aquiclude does not prevent salinization of the upper aquifer.

  18. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  19. [German ophthalmologists and NSDAP

    PubMed

    Rohrbach, Jens Martin

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 40-45 % of all German physicians joined the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) until 1945. Reasons for party membership are manifold and still a matter of debate. Very likely, the extraordinary high representation of medical doctors in the NSDAP was rather a result of active entry than recruitment by the party. There are only few data concerning the willingness of ophthalmologists to become a party member ("Parteigenosse", "Pg"). According to the list of University teachers in Germany ("Hochschullehrerkarte"; Federal Archive, Berlin), the list of the members of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) of 1934 and especially the list of NSDAP-members (Federal Archive, Berlin) the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Directors of German University eye hospitals (chairmen) were members of the NSDAP with a frequency of 23% in 1933 and 48% in 1938 as well as in 1943. The motivation for joining the party was most likely the perspective of acceleration of the academic career. 2. "Only" 30% of the ophthalmologists working in private praxis were "Pg" (until 1945). 3. Both chairmen and ophthalmologists in private praxis were equally hindered to join the NSDAP between May 1st 1933 and May 1st 1937 when the party temporarily stopped registration. 4. The majority of ophthalmologists who joined the NSDAP were born between 1880 and 1900 and thus had taken part in World War I as soldiers or had experienced the times of need after WW I. Only few ophthalmologists succeeded in the NS-hierarchy and probably only one ophthalmologist, Walther Löhlein from Berlin, came in personal contact with Adolf Hitler who was constantly in fear for his sight after his eye injury in October 1918. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offsprings" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from July 14th, 1933 separated ophthalmologists into two parties: those advocating sterilization to a high degree and those recommending sterilization only

  20. Correlation of hyaluronan deposition with infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes in a cockroach-induced murine model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Georgiana; Swaidani, Shadi; Sharma, Manisha; Lauer, Mark E; Hascall, Vincent C; Aronica, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that exhibits airway remodeling with changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The role of the ECM in mediating these changes is poorly understood. Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the ECM, has been implicated in many biological processes in diseases. This study investigates the processes involved in HA synthesis, deposition and localization during the propagation of cockroach-induced asthma. Mice were sensitized and challenged with cockroach antigen, and sacrificed at various time points during an 8-week challenge protocol. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed an increase in total nucleated cells as early as 6 h, which peaked at 6 days. Histopathologic analysis of the lung tissue revealed an influx of inflammatory cells at the peribronchial and perivascular regions starting at 12 h, which peaked at 6 days and persisted to 8 weeks. Eosinophils predominated in the early time points while lymphocytes predominated during the late time points. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data showed that hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) mRNA peaked within 6 h and then declined. HAS2 mRNA also peaked within 6 h but remained elevated throughout the 8-week exposure course. HA levels in lung tissue and BAL increased at 12 h and peaked by 6 and 8 days, respectively. Inflammatory cells and new collagen formation localized in areas of HA deposition. Taken together, these data support a role for HA in the pathogenesis in asthma. PMID:22917573

  1. On predatory wasps and zombie cockroaches: Investigations of "free will" and spontaneous behavior in insects.

    PubMed

    Gal, Ram; Libersat, Frederic

    2010-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that nonhuman organisms, including invertebrates, possess the ability to make non-random choices based purely on ongoing and endogenously-created neuronal processes. We study this precursor of spontaneity in cockroaches stung by A. compressa, a parasitoid wasp that employs cockroaches as a live food supply for its offspring. This wasp uses a neurotoxic venom cocktail to 'hijack' the nervous system of its cockroach prey and manipulate specific features of its decision making process, thereby turning the cockroach into a submissive 'zombie' unable to self-initiate locomotion. We discuss different behavioral and physiological aspects of this venom-induced 'zombified state' and highlight at least one neuronal substrate involved in the regulation of spontaneous behavior in insects. PMID:21057640

  2. Grooming Behavior in American Cockroach is Affected by Novelty and Odor

    PubMed Central

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I.

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor. PMID:25401135

  3. Wasp voodoo rituals, venom-cocktails, and the zombification of cockroach hosts.

    PubMed

    Libersat, Frederic; Gal, Ram

    2014-07-01

    The parasitoid Jewel Wasp uses cockroaches as a live food supply for its developing larvae. The adult wasp uses mechanoreceptors on its stinger to locate the host's cerebral ganglia and injects venom directly into the cockroach's "brain," namely in the subesophageal ganglion and in and around the central complex in the supraesophageal ganglion. As a result, the cockroach first engages in continuous grooming for roughly 30 min. Dopamine identified in the wasp's venom is likely to cause this grooming, as injecting a dopamine-receptor antagonist into the cockroach hemolymph prior to a wasp's sting greatly reduced the venom-induced, excessive grooming. Conversely, injecting a dopamine-receptor agonist into the brain induces excessive grooming in normal cockroaches. A second effect of the head-sting is the induction of a long-lasting lethargic state, during which the cockroach demonstrates a dramatically reduced drive to self-initiate locomotion. Unlike most paralyzing venoms, Ampulex's venom seems to affect the "motivation" of its host to initiate locomotion, rather than affecting the motor centers directly. In fact, the venom specifically increases thresholds for the initiation of walking-related behaviors and, once such behaviors are initiated, affects their maintenance without affecting the walking-pattern generators. Thus, the venom manipulates neuronal centers within the cerebral ganglia that are specifically involved in the initiation and maintenance of walking. We have shown that in stung cockroaches focal injection of an octopaminergic receptor agonist around the central complex area in the brain partially restores walking. Another likely candidate target of the venom is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. Opioid receptor agonists increase startle threshold in control cockroaches and using a bioassay for opioid receptors, we found that the venom blocks opioid-like receptors. This effect is reversed with naloxone, an

  4. Grooming behavior in American cockroach is affected by novelty and odor.

    PubMed

    Zhukovskaya, Marianna I

    2014-01-01

    The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor.

  5. Deterministic Assembly of Complex Bacterial Communities in Guts of Germ-Free Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L; Hofer, Markus J; Brune, Andreas

    2015-12-11

    The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic.

  6. Deterministic Assembly of Complex Bacterial Communities in Guts of Germ-Free Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L; Hofer, Markus J; Brune, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic. PMID:26655763

  7. Deterministic Assembly of Complex Bacterial Communities in Guts of Germ-Free Cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Thompson, Claire L.; Hofer, Markus J.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of termites plays important roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocellulose. However, the factors shaping the microbial community structure remain poorly understood. Because termites cannot be raised under axenic conditions, we established the closely related cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a germ-free model to study microbial community assembly and host-microbe interactions. In this study, we determined the composition of the bacterial assemblages in cockroaches inoculated with the gut microbiota of termites and mice using pyrosequencing analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Although the composition of the xenobiotic communities was influenced by the lineages present in the foreign inocula, their structure resembled that of conventional cockroaches. Bacterial taxa abundant in conventional cockroaches but rare in the foreign inocula, such as Dysgonomonas and Parabacteroides spp., were selectively enriched in the xenobiotic communities. Donor-specific taxa, such as endomicrobia or spirochete lineages restricted to the gut microbiota of termites, however, either were unable to colonize germ-free cockroaches or formed only small populations. The exposure of xenobiotic cockroaches to conventional adults restored their normal microbiota, which indicated that autochthonous lineages outcompete foreign ones. Our results provide experimental proof that the assembly of a complex gut microbiota in insects is deterministic. PMID:26655763

  8. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-15

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations.

  9. OCT detection of neural activity in American cockroach nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczyńska, Iwona; Wyszkowska, Joanna; Bukowska, Danuta; Ruminski, Daniel; Karnowski, Karol; Stankiewicz, Maria; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2013-03-01

    We show results of a project which focuses on detection of activity in neural tissue with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) methods. Experiments were performed in neural cords dissected from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.). Functional OCT imaging was performed with ultrahigh resolution spectral / Fourier domain OCT system (axial resolution 2.5 μm). Electrical stimulation (voltage pulses) was applied to the sensory cercal nerve of the neural cord. Optical detection of functional activation of the sample was performed in the connective between the terminal abdominal ganglion and the fifth abdominal ganglion. Functional OCT data were collected over time with the OCT beam illuminating selected single point in the connectives (i.e. OCT M-scans were acquired). Phase changes of the OCT signal were analyzed to visualize occurrence of activation in the neural cord. Electrophysiology recordings (microelectrode method) were also performed as a reference method to demonstrate electrical response of the sample to stimulation.

  10. Octopaminergic agonists for the cockroach neuronal octopamine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Morimoto, Masako; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2003-01-01

    The compounds 1-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione and 2-(2,6-diethylphenyl)imidazolidine showed the almost same activity as octopamine in stimulating adenylate cyclase of cockroach thoracic nervous system among 70 octopamine agonists, suggesting that only these compounds are full octopamine agonists and other compounds are partial octopamine agonists. The quantitative structure-activity relationship of a set of 22 octopamine agonists against receptor 2 in cockroach nervous tissue, was analyzed using receptor surface modeling. Three-dimensional energetics descriptors were calculated from receptor surface model/ligand interaction and these three-dimensional descriptors were used in quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis. A receptor surface model was generated using some subset of the most active structures and the results provided useful information in the characterization and differentiation of octopaminergic receptor. Abbreviation: AEA arylethanolamine AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine APAT 2-(α-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline BPAT 2-(β-phenylethylamino)-2-thiazoline CAO 2-(3-chlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DCAO 2-(3,5-dichlorobenzylamino)-2-oxazoline DET5 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)-5-methylthiazolidine DET6 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)thiazine EGTA ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid GFA genetic function approximation G/PLS genetic partial least squares IND 2-aminomethyl-2-indanol LAH lithium aluminum hydride MCSG maximum common subgroup MCT6 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenylimino)thiazine OA octopamine PLS partial least squares QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationship SBAT 2-(substituted benzylamino)-2-thiazoline SD the sum of squared deviations of the dependent variable values from their mean SPIT 3-(substituted phenyl)imidazolidine-2-thione THI 2-amino-1-(2-thiazoyl)ethanol TMS tetramethyl silane PMID:15841226

  11. The neuropeptide SIFamide in the brain of three cockroach species.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Andreas; Neupert, Susanne; Schendzielorz, Julia; Predel, Reinhard; Stengl, Monika

    2016-05-01

    The sequence as well as the distribution pattern of SIFamide in the brain of different insects is highly conserved. As a general rule, at least four prominent SIFamide-immunoreactive somata occur in the pars intercerebralis. They arborize throughout the brain and the ventral nerve cord. Whereas SIFamide is implicated in mating and sleep regulation in Drosophila, other functions of this peptide remain largely unknown. To determine whether SIFamide plays a role in the circadian system of cockroaches, we studied SIFamide in Rhyparobia (= Leucophaea) maderae (Blaberidae), Periplaneta americana (Blattidae), and Therea petiveriana (Polyphagidae). Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed identical SIFamide sequences (TYRKPPFNGSIFamide) in the three species. In addition to four large immunoreactive cells in the pars intercerebralis (group 1), smaller SIFamide-immunoreactive somata were detected in the pars intercerebralis (group 2), in the superior median protocerebrum (group 3), and in the lateral protocerebrum (group 4). Additional cells in the optic lobe (group 5) and posterior protocerebrum (group 6) were stained only in P. americana. Almost the entire protocerebrum was filled with a beaded network of SIFamide-immunoreactive processes that especially strongly invaded the upper unit of the central body. Double-label experiments did not confirm colocalizations with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or the circadian coupling peptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF). In contrast to locusts, colocalization of SIFamide and histamine immunoreactivity occurred not in group 1, but in group 4 cells. Because the accessory medulla displayed SIFamide immunoreactivity and injections of SIFamide delayed locomotor activity rhythms circadian time-dependently, SIFamide plays a role in the circadian system of cockroaches. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1337-1360, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The German drought monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor. Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  13. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  14. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOLOGICAL INFECTIONS OF THE AMERICAN COCKROACHES IN PAVEH CITY, KERMANSHAH PROVINCE

    PubMed Central

    Sayyad, Sirvan; Vahabi, Ahmad; Vahabi, Boshra; Sayyadi, Mahnaz; Sahne, Shahnaz Haji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, are the most important pests in hospitals and dwelling environments. They are mechanical vectors of some bacterial pathogens. Goal: The present investigation was carried out in Ghods hospital and 5 dwelling localities of Paveh city to evaluate bacterial infestations of American cockroaches in this region of Iran. Methods: The samples were randomly collected from hospital environments and toilets and kitchens of the dwelling localities from December-March 2012 and July-September 2013. The samples were captured using sterile test tubes and sterile hand gloves. Results: Totally, 98 cockroaches were collected from hospital (45.9%) and dwelling (54.1%) environments. Eight groups of bacteria including: Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Serratia spp., Entrobacter spp. and Escherichia coli were extracted. Conclusions: The findings of the present study revealed that the American cockroaches are very important in transmission of some bacterial pathogens, so health education and using the effective control methods to elimination and reduction of cockroaches are necessary. PMID:27047261

  16. Involvement of the opioid system in the hypokinetic state induced in cockroaches by a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Gavra, Tali; Libersat, Frederic

    2011-03-01

    The parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa stings and injects venom into the cockroach brain to induce a long-lasting hypokinetic state. This state is characterized by decreased responsiveness to aversive stimuli, suggesting the manipulation of a neuromodulatory system in the cockroach's central nervous system. A likely candidate is the opioid system, which is known to affect responsiveness to stimuli in insects. To explore this possibility, we injected cockroaches with different opioid receptor agonists or antagonists before they were stung by a wasp and tested the escape behavior of these cockroaches to electric foot shocks. Antagonists significantly decreased the startle threshold in stung individuals, whereas agonists led to an increased startle threshold in controls. Yet, neither agonists nor antagonists had any effect on grooming. To further characterize the interaction between the venom and opioid receptors, we used an antenna-heart preparation. In un-stung individuals external application of crude venom completely inhibits antenna-heart contractions. In stung individuals the antenna-heart showed no contractions. Although acetylcholine restored contractions, the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone was unable to antagonize the venom inhibition. These results suggest that the venom of A. compressa might contribute to the manipulation of cockroach behavior by affecting the opioid system.

  17. Octopamine partially restores walking in hypokinetic cockroaches stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lior Ann; Glusman, Jose Gustavo; Libersat, Frederic

    2007-12-01

    When stung by the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa, cockroaches Periplaneta americana enter a hypokinetic state that is characterized by little, if any, spontaneous locomotor activity. In the present study we investigate the effect of an octopamine receptor agonist and an antagonist on the locomotor behavior of stung and control cockroaches. We show that in cockroaches stung by a wasp the octopamine receptor agonist chlordimeform induces a significant increase in spontaneous walking. In good agreement, in control individuals an octopamine receptor antagonist significantly reduces walking activity. Adipokinetic hormone I (AKH-I) promotes spontaneous walking in controls but does not do so in stung individuals, which suggests that the venom effect is most probably not mediated by AKH-I. Dopamine receptor agonists or antagonists had no significant effect on the spontaneous walking of stung or control cockroaches, respectively. The effect of the octopamine receptor agonist was maximal when injected into the brain, suggesting that the wasp venom interferes with octopaminergic modulation of walking initiation in central structures of the cockroach brain. PMID:18055629

  18. Intersegmental coupling and recovery from perturbations in freely running cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Couzin-Fuchs, Einat; Kiemel, Tim; Gal, Omer; Ayali, Amir; Holmes, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Cockroaches are remarkably stable runners, exhibiting rapid recovery from external perturbations. To uncover the mechanisms behind this important behavioral trait, we recorded leg kinematics of freely running animals in both undisturbed and perturbed trials. Functional coupling underlying inter-leg coordination was monitored before and during localized perturbations, which were applied to single legs via magnetic impulses. The resulting transient effects on all legs and the recovery times to normal pre-perturbation kinematics were studied. We estimated coupling architecture and strength by fitting experimental data to a six-leg-unit phase oscillator model. Using maximum-likelihood techniques, we found that a network with nearest-neighbor inter-leg coupling best fitted the data and that, although coupling strengths vary among preparations, the overall inputs entering each leg are approximately balanced and consistent. Simulations of models with different coupling strengths encountering perturbations suggest that the coupling schemes estimated from our experiments allow animals relatively fast and uniform recoveries from perturbations. PMID:25609786

  19. A Checklist of Iranian Cockroaches (Blattodea) with Description of Polyphaga sp as a New Species in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches are of vital importance medically and hygienically. They are able to contaminate foods and act as vectors of pathogenic agents such as bacteria, protozoa, and parasites to human environment either mechanically or through their digestive system. Cockroaches belong to the phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, and order Blattodea or Blattaria. To date, over 4,500 cockroach species have been reported from different parts of the world. We overviewed the documents involved Iranian cockroaches to up-to-date checklist of cockroach species distributed in various provinces of Iran. Methods: An extensive literature review was performed in 2013 on Iranian handbooks, reports and published data available since 1986 to obtain a comprehensive list of Iranian cockroaches. Furthermore, in an entomological survey in Tehran, cockroach specimens were collected and identified based on morphological and the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene (mt-DNA COII) characteristics. Results: Morphological characterization revealed presence of an un-described species very similar to Polyphaga aegyptiaca, P. indica and somehow to Pycnoscelus surinamensis, however, supplementary molecular analysis revealed the species was associated with Polyphaga of Corydiidae (Polyphagidae). With regards to the report of the un-described species, the cockroach fauna of Iran includes three families, 14 genera, and 26 species. Conclusion: Some species has not been collected or reported recently and also many geographical regions of the country have not been studied yet, hence a systematic research is required to reveal the real cockroach list of the country. Geographical distributions, nomination changes, and synonyms of cockroach species are presented. PMID:26623428

  20. Methanogenic bacteria as endosymbionts of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis in the cockroach hindgut.

    PubMed Central

    Gijzen, H J; Broers, C A; Barughare, M; Stumm, C K

    1991-01-01

    Production of methane in the hindgut of the cockroach Periplaneta americana was found to vary, depending on the feeding regimen. Methane production was positively correlated with the numbers of the ciliate Nyctotherus ovalis living in the cockroach hindgut. Defaunation of the cockroaches by means of low concentrations of metronidazole (Flagyl) resulted in a quick drop of methane production. Addition of the methanogenic substrates acetate and formate to isolated hindguts stimulated methane production. Inside the ciliate cells, autofluorescing bacteria could be demonstrated which were presumed to be methanogens. Electron microscopy revealed that the bacteria resembled Methanobrevibacter and that they were closely associated with organelles which contained infolded membranes and which were presumably hydrogenosomes. Images PMID:1908205

  1. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model

    PubMed Central

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L.; Schauer, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604

  2. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L; Schauer, Christine; Brune, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success. PMID:26637604

  3. Oxygen Affects Gut Bacterial Colonization and Metabolic Activities in a Gnotobiotic Cockroach Model.

    PubMed

    Tegtmeier, Dorothee; Thompson, Claire L; Schauer, Christine; Brune, Andreas

    2015-12-04

    The gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches represents complex metabolic networks of many diverse microbial populations. The distinct microenvironmental conditions within the gut and possible interactions among the microorganisms make it essential to investigate how far the metabolic properties of pure cultures reflect their activities in their natural environment. We established the cockroach Shelfordella lateralis as a gnotobiotic model and inoculated germfree nymphs with two bacterial strains isolated from the guts of conventional cockroaches. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that both strains specifically colonized the germfree hindgut. In diassociated cockroaches, the facultatively anaerobic strain EbSL (a new species of Enterobacteriaceae) always outnumbered the obligately anaerobic strain FuSL (a close relative of Fusobacterium varium), irrespective of the sequence of inoculation, which showed that precolonization by facultatively anaerobic bacteria does not necessarily favor colonization by obligate anaerobes. Comparison of the fermentation products of the cultures formed in vitro with those accumulated in situ indicated that the gut environment strongly affected the metabolic activities of both strains. The pure cultures formed the typical products of mixed-acid or butyrate fermentation, whereas the guts of gnotobiotic cockroaches accumulated mostly lactate and acetate. Similar shifts toward more-oxidized products were observed when the pure cultures were exposed to oxygen, which corroborated the strong effects of oxygen on the metabolic fluxes previously observed in termite guts. Oxygen microsensor profiles of the guts of germfree, gnotobiotic, and conventional cockroaches indicated that both gut tissue and microbiota contribute to oxygen consumption and suggest that the oxygen status influences the colonization success.

  4. Folding wings like a cockroach: a review of transverse wing folding ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania).

    PubMed

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S; Balhoff, James P; Yoder, Matthew J; Deans, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves.

  5. Folding Wings like a Cockroach: A Review of Transverse Wing Folding Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae: Afrevania and Trissevania)

    PubMed Central

    Mikó, István; Copeland, Robert S.; Balhoff, James P.; Yoder, Matthew J.; Deans, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    We revise two relatively rare ensign wasp genera, whose species are restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa: Afrevania and Trissevania. Afrevania longipetiolata sp. nov., Trissevania heatherae sp. nov., T. hugoi sp. nov., T. mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. slideri sp. nov. are described, males and females of T. anemotis and Afrevania leroyi are redescribed, and an identification key for Trissevaniini is provided. We argue that Trissevania mrimaensis sp. nov. and T. heatherae sp. nov. populations are vulnerable, given their limited distributions and threats from mining activities in Kenya. We hypothesize that these taxa together comprise a monophyletic lineage, Trissevaniini, tr. nov., the members of which share the ability to fold their fore wings along two intersecting fold lines. Although wing folding of this type has been described for the hind wing of some insects four-plane wing folding of the fore wing has never been documented. The wing folding mechanism and the pattern of wing folds of Trissevaniini is shared only with some cockroach species (Blattodea). It is an interesting coincidence that all evaniids are predators of cockroach eggs. The major wing fold lines of Trissevaniini likely are not homologous to any known longitudinal anatomical structures on the wings of other Evaniidae. Members of the new tribe share the presence of a coupling mechanism between the fore wing and the mesosoma that is composed of a setal patch on the mesosoma and the retinaculum of the fore wing. While the setal patch is an evolutionary novelty, the retinaculum, which originally evolved to facilitate fore and hind wing coupling in Hymenoptera, exemplifies morphological exaptation. We also refine and clarify the Semantic Phenotype approach used in previous taxonomic revisions and explore the consequences of merging new with existing data. The way that semantic statements are formulated can evolve in parallel, alongside improvements to the ontologies themselves. PMID:24787704

  6. Diversity of Trypanosomatids in Cockroaches and the Description of Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Kostygov, Alexei; Havlová, Jolana; Grybchuk-Ieremenko, Anastasiia; Ševčíková, Tereza; Lukeš, Julius; Ševčík, Jan; Votýpka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we surveyed six species of cockroaches, two synanthropic (i.e. ecologically associated with humans) and four wild, for intestinal trypanosomatid infections. Only the wild cockroach species were found to be infected, with flagellates of the genus Herpetomonas. Two distinct genotypes were documented, one of which was described as a new species, Herpetomonas tarakana sp. n. We also propose a revision of the genus Herpetomonas and creation of a new subfamily, Phytomonadinae, to include Herpetomonas, Phytomonas, and a newly described genus Lafontella n. gen. (type species Lafontella mariadeanei comb. n.), which can be distinguished from others by morphological and molecular traits.

  7. An annotated checklist and key to the Bulgarian cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P

    2016-08-23

    An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented.

  8. Wind spectra and the response of the cercal system in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Rinberg, D; Davidowitz, H

    2003-12-01

    Experiments on the cercal wind-sensing system of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, showed that the firing rate of the interneurons coding wind information depends on the bandwidth of random noise wind stimuli. The firing rate was shown to increase with decreases in the stimulus bandwidth, and be independent of changes in the total power of the stimulus with constant spectral composition. A detailed analysis of ethologically relevant stimulus parameters is presented. A phenomenological model of these relationships and their relevance to wind-mediated cockroach behavior is proposed.

  9. An annotated checklist and key to the Bulgarian cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Hristov, Georgi H; Chobanov, Dragan P

    2016-01-01

    An annotated checklist of the Bulgarian species of cockroaches is prepared based on a full published scientific record and own unpublished data. According to the current state of knowledge the Bulgarian cockroach fauna includes 17 species and subspecies. One synonymization is established-Phyllodromica marginata erythronota Br. v. W., syn. n. = Ph. marginata. Two species (Capraiellus tamaninii and Supella longipalpa) are recorded for the first time for this country and other three (Ectobius punctatissimus, Phyllodromica subaptera and Phyllodromica pallida) are eliminated from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. The list is complemented with maps and full locality data and a dichotomic identification key for the studied taxa is presented. PMID:27615847

  10. Headstart German Program. Cumulative Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary lists the vocabulary words used in the ten modules of the German Headstart program. It is a German-English and English-German glossary. The module number in which each word first occurs is given. (AMH)

  11. Habitat selection and coexistence of invasive cockroach species (Dictyoptera) in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Stéphane; Rivault, Colette

    2006-01-01

    Selection of habitat has a profound influence on interactions among species and the assembly of ecological communities. We investigated habitat preferences to understand how different cockroach species coexist in sugar-cane fields on Réunion island. Cockroach populations belonging to a guild of seven species were surveyed during one annual cycle in eight sugar-cane fields that differed by several environmental factors, in order to investigate ecological features of cockroach species and their patterns of coexistence. Structure variations of the cockroach communities were analyzed at the field scale, at the sample unit scale, and according to variations of environmental conditions related to the annual sugar-cane growth cycle. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to elucidate relationships between species diversity, population abundance and environmental characteristics. The examination of partitioning at different spatial and temporal scales evidenced that each species occupied a particular type of habitat. The main factors influencing spatial habitat selection were at the sample unit scale: presence of ants, edge effect, soil moisture and granulometry, at the field scale: irrigation, annual rainfall, altitude and age of the field. Although a pair of species shared the same type of habitat, annual population peaks of each species did not coincide in time. This suggests that resource partitioning is based both on ecological factors and interspecific competition. Factors enhancing cockroach coexistence and factors favoring population outbursts are discussed as well as specific invasive capacities of these cockroaches and the role of the cockroach community in the sugar-cane trophic web.

  12. Biocontrol of the Brown-Banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae), with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    PubMed Central

    Sharififard, Mona; Mossadegh, Mohammad Saeed; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Latifi, Seyed Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formulations of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. under laboratory and field conditions. Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml−1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs using different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer. Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough pathogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in-water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sunflower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses. Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising alternative for cockroach control. PMID:27308292

  13. Teaching about the Income Statement and Balance Sheet in a Beginning Business German Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolf, Uwe

    A review of business German textbooks reveals that few give significant attention to accounting terminology. Both German majors and business majors enrolled in business German need to be introduced to the balance sheet and income statement. It is possible to devote one or two class sessions to accounting by limiting content to a minimal but solid…

  14. 3-Hydroxy-2-butanone and the first encounter fight in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Rong; Chen, Shu-Chun; Chen, Ying-Ru; Ho, Hsiao-Yung

    2006-06-01

    Although agonistic behavior in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea, has been known for more than 40 years, this is the first study to directly collect and quantify the emitted pheromones. In the present study, emitted volatile pheromones were collected from each male pair for 60 min during the first encounter fight and identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The major compound collected was 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (3H-2B). The strength of the attack by the dominant male was classified into three categories from weakest (C) to strongest (A). Of the 92 pairs, eight (8.7%) showed no agonistic interactions, and the amount of 3H-2B collected was 121.8±37.7 ng/male pair. In the five pairs (5.4%) displaying attack strength C, the amount of 3H-2B collected was 689.6±273.7 ng/male pair, and the attack duration was 9.6±2.4 min. In the 53 pairs (57.6%) showing attack strength B, the corresponding values were 5396.2±449.0 ng/male pair and 22.7±1.6 min, while those for the 26 pairs (28.3%) showing attack strength A were 7910.4±1120.6 ng/male pair and 24.9±2.9 min. For both attack strengths A and B, a linear relationship was found between the amount of 3H-2B collected and attack duration, suggesting that the longer the duration of the attack, the more 3H-2B was emitted. In addition, the rate of 3H-2B emission for attack strength A was significantly higher than that for attack strength B. Using Vaseline-coating, we demonstrated that, in the first encounter fight, the 3H-2B was emitted by the dominant male.

  15. Structural data on hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides from Cryptocercus punctulatus and Therea petiveriana: how do they fit into the phylogeny of cockroaches?

    PubMed Central

    Gäde, G.; Grandcolas, P.; Kellner, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptides from the corpora cardiaca of the cockroaches Cryptocercus punctulatus and Therea petiveriana were structurally analysed to gather phylogenetic information independent from that provided by morphoanatomical data. Isolation of the peptides by liquid chromatography and structural elucidation by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry revealed an identical octapeptide for both species: pGlu-Leu-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp-NH2. This peptide, denoted Tem-HrTH, was previously found in tenebrionid beetles and in the cockroach Polyphaga aegyptiaca. Using this information for phylogenetic analysis yielded a peptide tree that supports the previous morphoanatomical data and thus places the woodroach Cryptocercus inside the cockroach subfamily Polyphaginae.

  16. Neuroprotection of luteolin against methylmercury-induced toxicity in lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Rosemberg, Denis B; Souza, Diogo O; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-03-01

    Luteolin (3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound found in foods of plant origin and has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, there is dearth of information on the beneficial effects of luteolin on methylmercury (MeHg), a long-established neurotoxic compound in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effect of luteolin on MeHg-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits, using lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as an alternative and complementary animal model. The insects were exposed for 35 consecutive days to either MeHg alone (0.05 mg/g feed) or in combination with luteolin at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/g feed. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel arena and subsequently, biochemical analyses were carried out using the cockroaches' heads. Luteolin supplementation dose-dependently reversed the MeHg-induced locomotor deficits and enhanced the exploratory profiles of MeHg-exposed cockroaches as confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Luteolin reversed the MeHg-induced acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition, decreased dichlorofluorescein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels, but increased total thiol level and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the treated cockroaches. In conclusion, luteolin prevented oxidative stress indices and neurobehavioral deficits in a Nauphoeta cinerea model of MeHg toxicity.

  17. Home Sweet Home: How to Build a Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Habitat out of Recycled Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar hissing cockroaches (MHC) are amazing insects that can be an integral part of an effective science learning and teaching environment. MHCs have a fascinating social structure. They make excellent pets, teach students how to properly care for animals, and their large size adds to their "wow" factor. These characteristics make them unique…

  18. Diet shapes the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cobas, Ana Elena; Maiques, Elisa; Angelova, Alexandra; Carrasco, Purificación; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The gut microbiota of insects contributes positively to the physiology of its host mainly by participating in food digestion, protecting against pathogens, or provisioning vitamins or amino acids, but the dynamics of this complex ecosystem is not well understood so far. In this study, we have characterized the gut microbiota of the omnivorous cockroach Blattella germanica by pyrosequencing the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S rRNA gene of the whole bacterial community. Three diets differing in the protein content (0, 24 and 50%) were tested at two time points in lab-reared individuals. In addition, the gut microbiota of wild adult cockroaches was also analyzed. In contrast to the high microbial richness described on the studied samples, only few species are shared by wild and lab-reared cockroaches, constituting the bacterial core in the gut of B. germanica. Overall, we found that the gut microbiota of B. germanica is highly dynamic as the bacterial composition was reassembled in a diet-specific manner over a short time span, with no-protein diet promoting high diversity, although the highest diversity was found in the wild cockroaches analyzed. We discuss how the flexibility of the gut microbiota is probably due to its omnivorous life style and varied diets.

  19. Macrostylopyga gen. nov., a new genus of cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N; Anichkin, Alexandr E; Thinh, Nguyen Van

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macrostylopyga gen. nov. and two species (M. grandis sp. nov. and M. bidupi sp. nov.) are described. A detailed morphological description with special attention to the male genitalic structures is provided. Some aspects of the evolution of wingless cockroaches are briefly discussed.

  20. Serine phosphorylation of CAPA pyrokinin in cockroaches-a taxon-specific posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    In insects, posttranslational modifications of neuropeptides are largely restricted to C- and N-terminal amino acids. The most common modifications, N-terminal pyroglutamate formation and C-terminal α-amidation, may prevent a fast degradation of these messenger molecules. This is particularly important for peptide hormones. Other common posttranslational modifications of proteins such as glycosylation and phosphorylation seem to be very rare in insect neuropeptides. To check this assumption, we used a computer algorithm to search an extensive data set of MALDI-TOF mass spectra from cockroach tissues for ion signal patterns indicating peptide phosphorylation. The results verify that phosphorylation is indeed very rare. However, a candidate was found and experimentally verified as phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin (GGGGpSGETSGMWFGPRL-NH2) in the cockroach Lamproblatta albipalpus (Blattidae, Lamproblattinae). Tandem mass spectrometry revealed the phosphorylation site as Ser(5). Phosphorylated CAPA pyrokinin was then also detected in most other cockroach lineages (e.g. Blaberidae, Polyphagidae) but not in closely related blattid species such as Periplaneta americana. This is remarkable since the sequence of CAPA pyrokinin is identical in Lamproblatta and Periplaneta. A consensus sequence of CAPA pyrokinins of cockroaches revealed a conserved motif that suggests phosphorylation by a Four-jointed/FAM20C related kinase.

  1. Oxygen-induced plasticity in tracheal morphology and discontinuous gas exchange cycles in cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Bartrim, Hamish; Matthews, Philip G D; Lemon, Sussan; White, Craig R

    2014-12-01

    The function and mechanism underlying discontinuous gas exchange in terrestrial arthropods continues to be debated. Three adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolutionary origin or maintenance of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), which may have evolved to reduce respiratory water loss, facilitate gas exchange in high CO2 and low O2 micro-environments, or to ameliorate potential damage as a result of oversupply of O2. None of these hypotheses have unequivocal support, and several non-adaptive hypotheses have also been proposed. In the present study, we reared cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea in selected levels of O2 throughout development, and examined how this affected growth rate, tracheal morphology and patterns of gas exchange. O2 level in the rearing environment caused significant changes in tracheal morphology and the exhibition of DGCs, but the direction of these effects was inconsistent with all three adaptive hypotheses: water loss was not associated with DGC length, cockroaches grew fastest in hyperoxia, and DGCs exhibited by cockroaches reared in normoxia were shorter than those exhibited by cockroaches reared in hypoxia or hyperoxia.

  2. Some Guides to Discovery About Elm Trees, Owls, Cockroaches, Earthworms, Cement and Concrete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    The introduction emphasizes the need for environmental and conservation education, and advocates an inquiry approach. Outdoor resources available to every school are listed. Detailed suggestions are made for investigating cement and concrete, cockroaches, earthworms, elm trees, and owls. In each case general background information and a list of…

  3. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S PULMONARY FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cockroaches, pesticide use, and children's pulmonary function in an arid community

    Erik Svendsen1, Mary Ross1, Melissa Gonzales2, Debra Walsh1, Scott Rhoney1, Gina Terrill1, Lucas Neas1
    1US EPA, Chapel Hill, NC; 2University of New Mexico

    The El Paso Children's He...

  4. Neuroprotection of luteolin against methylmercury-induced toxicity in lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Rosemberg, Denis B; Souza, Diogo O; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-03-01

    Luteolin (3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound found in foods of plant origin and has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, there is dearth of information on the beneficial effects of luteolin on methylmercury (MeHg), a long-established neurotoxic compound in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effect of luteolin on MeHg-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits, using lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as an alternative and complementary animal model. The insects were exposed for 35 consecutive days to either MeHg alone (0.05 mg/g feed) or in combination with luteolin at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/g feed. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel arena and subsequently, biochemical analyses were carried out using the cockroaches' heads. Luteolin supplementation dose-dependently reversed the MeHg-induced locomotor deficits and enhanced the exploratory profiles of MeHg-exposed cockroaches as confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Luteolin reversed the MeHg-induced acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition, decreased dichlorofluorescein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels, but increased total thiol level and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the treated cockroaches. In conclusion, luteolin prevented oxidative stress indices and neurobehavioral deficits in a Nauphoeta cinerea model of MeHg toxicity. PMID:26905302

  5. Repeatedly High Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Cockroach Sensitization Among Inner-city Children

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Lovinsky-Desir, Stephanie; Perzanowski, Matthew; Liu, Xinhua; Maher, Christina; Gil, Eric; Torrone, David; Sjodin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposures to traffic-related air pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been associated with the development and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited evidence on whether these pollutants are associated with the development of cockroach sensitization, a strong risk factor for urban asthma. We hypothesized that repeatedly high PAH exposure during childhood would be associated with increased risk of new cockroach sensitization. Methods As part of the research being conducted by the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study in New York, a spot urine sample was collected from children at age 5 years (2003–2008) and again at age 9–10 years (2008–2012; n=248) and analyzed for 10 PAH metabolites. Repeatedly high PAH (High-High) exposure was defined as measures above median for age 5 PAH metabolites at both time points. Child blood samples at age 5 and 9 years were analyzed for total, anti-cockroach, mouse, dust mite, cat and dog IgE. Relative risks (RR) were estimated with multivariable modified Poisson regression. Results Individual PAH metabolite levels, except for 1-naphthol (1-OH-NAP), increased by 10– 60% from age 5 to age 9–10. The prevalence of cockroach sensitization increased from 17.6% (33/188) at age 5 to 33.0% (62/188) at 9 years (p=0.001). After controlling for potential covariates including cockroach sensitization at age 5 in regression analyses, positive associations were found between repeatedly high exposure (High-High) to 1-OH-NAP, 3-hydroxyphenanthrene (3-OH-PHEN), or 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PYR) and cockroach sensitization at age 9 (p-values <0.05). Compared to Low-Low exposure, the relative risk (RR) [95% CI] with repeatedly high exposure was 1.83 [1.06–3.17] for 1-OH-NAP, 1.54 [1.06–2.23] for 3-OH-PHEN, and 1.59 [1.04–2.43] for 1-OH-PYR. Conclusions Repeatedly high levels of urinary PAH metabolites during childhood may increase likelihood of

  6. A neuromechanical simulation of insect walking and transition to turning of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis.

    PubMed

    Szczecinski, Nicholas S; Brown, Amy E; Bender, John A; Quinn, Roger D; Ritzmann, Roy E

    2014-02-01

    A neuromechanical simulation of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis was developed to explore changes in locomotion when the animal transitions from walking straight to turning. The simulation was based upon the biological data taken from three sources. Neural circuitry was adapted from the extensive literature primarily obtained from the studies of neural connections within thoracic ganglia of stick insect and adapted to cockroach. The 3D joint kinematic data on straight, forward walking for cockroach were taken from a paper that describes these movements in all joints simultaneously as the cockroach walked on an oiled-plate tether (Bender et al. in PloS one 5(10):1-15, 2010b). Joint kinematics for turning were only available for some leg joints (Mu and Ritzmann in J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 191(11):1037-54, 2005) and thus had to be obtained using the methods that were applied for straight walking by Bender et al. (PloS one 5(10):1-15, 2010b). Once walking, inside turning, and outside turning were characterized, phase and amplitude changes for each joint of each leg were quantified. Apparent reflex reversals and joint activity changes were used to modify sensory coupling pathways between the CPG at each joint of the simulation. Oiled-plate experiments in simulation produced tarsus trajectories in stance similar to those seen in the animal. Simulations including forces that would be experienced if the insect was walking freely (i.e., weight support and friction) again produced similar results. These data were not considered during the design of the simulation, suggesting that the simulation captures some key underlying the principles of walking, turning, and transitioning in the cockroach. In addition, since the nervous system was modeled with realistic neuron models, biologically plausible reflex reversals are simulated, motivating future neurobiological research.

  7. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  8. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot

    PubMed Central

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300–800 ms by compressing their body 40–60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s−1, despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion—“body-friction legged crawling” with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  9. Study of Fourier transform infrared spectra of cockroach nervous tissue and chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadage, Vijay H.; Kulkarni, Gauri R.; Bhoraskar, Sudha V.

    2012-03-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is a very sensitive tool which is capable of providing strong insight on structural and functional changes in lipids and proteins induced by laser radiation. In the present work cockroach nervous tissue and chitin from tibia region are irradiated with Nd: YAG laser (λ= 1064 nm, Power =150mW) via fiber optics (Numerical aperture=0.22, diameter = 8 μ). Nd: YAG laser exposure time is varied from 10 sec to 50 sec for nervous tissue and chitin. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra Red spectra) of cockroach nervous tissue and chitin are compared before and after laser irradiation. The FTIR spectrum of non irradiated cockroach nervous tissue shows clearly the peaks due to O-H (Carboxylic acid), C=O (Amide I), C=C (Aromatic), N=0 (Nitro), C-H (Alkenes), CH (Aromatics). FTIR Spectra of non irradiated cockroach chitin clearly shows O-H (Carboxylic acid), C=O (Carbonyl stretch), C=C (Aromatic), N=O (Nitro), C-O, (anhydrides), C-H (Alkenes stretch) group. FTIR spectra of laser radiated nervous tissue from cockroach tibia and chitin shows significant changes in transmittance for O-H, C=O, C=C, C-H, N=O, C-O and C-H groups. The percentage transmittance increases for O-H, C=C group for exposure time 10sec, 40sec and 50 sec for nervous tissue. The percentage transmittance increases for O-H, C=C group for exposure time 10sec, 20sec, 30sec and 40 sec for chitin. The study shows clearly that FTIR spectroscopy of nervous tissue can reveal the interactions between infrared laser light and nervous tissue.

  10. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces. PMID:26858443

  11. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  12. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    PubMed

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  13. Cockroaches traverse crevices, crawl rapidly in confined spaces, and inspire a soft, legged robot.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Kaushik; Full, Robert J

    2016-02-23

    Jointed exoskeletons permit rapid appendage-driven locomotion but retain the soft-bodied, shape-changing ability to explore confined environments. We challenged cockroaches with horizontal crevices smaller than a quarter of their standing body height. Cockroaches rapidly traversed crevices in 300-800 ms by compressing their body 40-60%. High-speed videography revealed crevice negotiation to be a complex, discontinuous maneuver. After traversing horizontal crevices to enter a vertically confined space, cockroaches crawled at velocities approaching 60 cm⋅s(-1), despite body compression and postural changes. Running velocity, stride length, and stride period only decreased at the smallest crevice height (4 mm), whereas slipping and the probability of zigzag paths increased. To explain confined-space running performance limits, we altered ceiling and ground friction. Increased ceiling friction decreased velocity by decreasing stride length and increasing slipping. Increased ground friction resulted in velocity and stride length attaining a maximum at intermediate friction levels. These data support a model of an unexplored mode of locomotion--"body-friction legged crawling" with body drag, friction-dominated leg thrust, but no media flow as in air, water, or sand. To define the limits of body compression in confined spaces, we conducted dynamic compressive cycle tests on living animals. Exoskeletal strength allowed cockroaches to withstand forces 300 times body weight when traversing the smallest crevices and up to nearly 900 times body weight without injury. Cockroach exoskeletons provided biological inspiration for the manufacture of an origami-style, soft, legged robot that can locomote rapidly in both open and confined spaces.

  14. The 3 C's for College German: Communication, Culture, and Commerce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Kreimhilde I. R.

    The existing German curriculum should be updated to include career-oriented, career-related language courses, especially in German commercial language, since West Germany is one of the world's most important trading countries and the United States is a major trading partner. Language fluency alone is not sufficient for employment in international…

  15. Physicochemical conditions, metabolites and community structure of the bacterial microbiota in the gut of wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eugen; Lampert, Niclas; Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Brune, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    While the gut microbiota of termites and its role in symbiotic digestion have been studied for decades, little is known about the bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of the distantly related wood-feeding cockroaches (Blaberidae: Panesthiinae). Here, we show that physicochemical gut conditions and microbial fermentation products in the gut of Panesthia angustipennis resemble that of other cockroaches. Microsensor measurements confirmed that all gut compartments were anoxic at the center and had a slightly acidic to neutral pH and a negative redox potential. While acetate dominated in all compartments, lactate and hydrogen accumulated only in the crop. The high, hydrogen-limited rates of methane emission from living cockroaches were in agreement with the restriction of F420-fluorescent methanogens to the hindgut. The gut microbiota of both P. angustipennis and Salganea esakii differed strongly between compartments, with the highest density and diversity in the hindgut, but similarities between homologous compartments of both cockroaches indicated a specificity of the microbiota for their respective habitats. While some lineages were most closely related to the gut microbiota of omnivorous cockroaches and wood- or litter-feeding termites, others have been encountered also in vertebrates, reinforcing the hypothesis that strong environmental selection drives community structure in the cockroach gut.

  16. Virtual institution to boost German cardiology research.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Emma

    2012-02-01

    The German government has promised many millions over the next 5 years for a "virtual" cardiology institution linking up researchers in seven major centres. Emma Wilkinson speaks to two of those involved in the project about what it hopes to achieve

  17. Sauerbraten, Rotkappchen und Goethe: The Quiz Show as an Introduction to German Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Diane

    1980-01-01

    Proposes an adaptation of the quiz-show format for classroom use, discussing a set of rules and sample questions designed for beginning and intermediate German students. Presents questions based on German life and culture which are especially selected to encourage participation from students majoring in subjects other than German. (MES)

  18. The Decline of German Language and Culture in the North American Heartland, 1890-1923.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnell, Jerrold B.

    Although German influences in North America were prominent in the decades just before and after 1900, the advent of World War I marked a major decline in the ethnic identity and bilingualism of German-Americans. Specifically, the German communities in Ontario and the Prairie Provinces in Canada and the Midwest and Great Lakes States in the United…

  19. [The effect of piracetam on the behavior of Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches in an open field].

    PubMed

    Inozemtsev, A N; Tselkova, N V; Bernuĭ, L Kh; Zhuzhikov, D P; Tushmalova, N A

    1998-01-01

    For 30 min the behaviour of 164 male cockroaches was studied in an "open field" analog. At the 31st min the electrical light was switched on and the examination was continued for 10 min. It was found out that the insects placed in the "open field" and subjected to a sudden illumination behaved in a similar way. After the initial freezing a sharp increase in the motor activity was observed with subsequent habituation. Per os administration of 200-400 mg/kg of piracetam (a solution of 5 mg of the drug and 500 mg of honey in 5 ml of water) did not change the freezing period but accelerated habituation and decreased the locomotion augmentation caused by the light. The obtained data suggest that piracetam improves memory and non-associative learning and exerts a stress-protective effect on cockroaches. PMID:9644806

  20. Characterization of the Juvenile Hormone Pathway in the Viviparous Cockroach, Diploptera punctata

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Juan; Marchal, Elisabeth; Hult, Ekaterina F.; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormones (JHs) are key regulators of insect development and reproduction. The JH biosynthetic pathway is known to involve 13 discrete enzymatic steps. In the present study, we have characterized the JH biosynthetic pathway in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. The effect of exogenous JH precursors on JH biosynthesis was also determined. Based on sequence similarity, orthologs for the genes directly involved in the pathway were cloned, and their spatial and temporal transcript profiles were determined. The effect of shutting down the JH pathway in adult female cockroaches was studied by knocking down genes encoding HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) and Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT). As a result, oocyte development slowed as a consequence of reduction in JH biosynthesis. Oocyte length, fat body transcription of Vg and ovarian vitellin content significantly decreased. In addition, silencing HMGR and JHAMT resulted in a decrease in the transcript levels of other genes in the pathway. PMID:25706877

  1. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana.

  2. "I Go to Get Away from the Cockroaches:" Educentricity and the Politics of Education in Prisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Talking to young men in an Irish prison we discover that cockroaches are a day to day fact of life. We discuss how best to deal with them and someone says that while in [name of prison] he used to put his socks over the bottom of his jeans so that they wouldn't be able to run up his trousers while he was asleep. Someone else tells me he used to…

  3. Afro-Asian cockroach from Chiapas amber and the lost Tertiary American entomofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Cifuentes-Ruiz, Paulina; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Čiampor, Fedor; Vega, Francisco J.

    2011-10-01

    Cockroach genera with synanthropic species (Blattella, Ectobius, Supella, Periplaneta, Diploptera and ?Blatta), as well as other insects such as honeybees, although natively limited to certain continents nowadays, had circumtropic distribution in the past. The ease of their reintroduction into their former range suggests a post-Early Miocene environmental stress which led to the extinction of cosmopolitan Tertiary entomofauna in the Americas, whilst in Eurasia, Africa and Australia this fauna survived. This phenomenon is demonstrated here on a low diversity (10 spp.) living cockroach genus Supella, which is peculiar for the circumtropical synanthropic brownbanded cockroach S. longipalpa and also for its exclusively free-living cavicolous species restricted to Africa. S. (Nemosupella) miocenica sp. nov. from the Miocene amber of Chiapas in Mexico is a sister species to the living S. mirabilis from the Lower Guinea forests and adjacent savannas. The difference is restricted to the shape of the central macula on the pronotum, and size, which may indicate the around-Miocene origin of the living, extremely polymorphic Supella species and possibly also the isochronic invasion into the Americas. The species also has a number of characteristics of the Asian (and possibly also Australian) uniform genus Allacta (falling within the generic variability of Supella) suggesting Supella is a direct ancestor of the former. The present species is the first significant evidence for incomplete hiati between well defined cockroach genera — a result of the extensive fossil record of the group. The reported specimen is covered by a mycelium of a parasitic fungus Cordyceps or Entomophthora.

  4. Neuromechanical response of musculo-skeletal structures in cockroaches during rapid running on rough terrain.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, S; Full, R J

    2008-02-01

    A musculo-skeletal structure can stabilize rapid locomotion using neural and/or mechanical feedback. Neural feedback results in an altered feedforward activation pattern, whereas mechanical feedback using visco-elastic structures does not require a change in the neural motor code. We selected musculo-skeletal structures in the cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis) because their single motor neuron innervation allows the simplest possible characterization of activation. We ran cockroaches over a track with randomized blocks of heights up to three times the animal's ;hip' (1.5 cm), while recording muscle action potentials (MAPs) from a set of putative control musculo-skeletal structures (femoral extensors 178 and 179). Animals experienced significant perturbations in body pitch, roll and yaw, but reduced speed by less than 20%. Surprisingly, we discovered no significant difference in the distribution of the number of MAPs, the interspike interval, burst phase or interburst period between flat and rough terrain trials. During a few very large perturbations or when a single leg failed to make contact throughout stance, neural feedback was detectable as a phase shift of the central rhythm and alteration of MAP number. System level responses of appendages were consistent with a dominant role of mechanical feedback. Duty factors and gait phases did not change for cockroaches running on flat versus rough terrain. Cockroaches did not use a follow-the-leader gait requiring compensatory corrections on a step-by-step basis. Arthropods appear to simplify control on rough terrain by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds and distributed mechanical feedback to stabilize the body. PMID:18203999

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  6. Descending influences on escape behavior and motor pattern in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, P L; Ritzmann, R E

    2001-10-01

    The escape behavior of the cockroach is a ballistic behavior with well characterized kinematics. The circuitry known to control the behavior lies in the thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, and abdominal nerve cord. Some evidence suggests inputs may occur from the brain or suboesophageal ganglion. We tested this notion by decapitating cockroaches, removing all descending inputs, and evoking escape responses. The decapitated cockroaches exhibited directionally appropriate escape turns. However, there was a front-to-back gradient of change: the front legs moved little if at all, the middle legs moved in the proper direction but with reduced excursion, and the rear legs moved normally. The same pattern was seen when only inputs from the brain were removed, the suboesophageal ganglion remaining intact and connected to the thoracic ganglia. Electromyogram (EMG) analysis showed that the loss of or reduction in excursion was accompanied by a loss of or reduction in fast motor neuron activity. The loss of fast motor neuron activity was also observed in a reduced preparation in which descending neural signals were reversibly blocked via an isotonic sucrose solution superfusing the neck connectives, indicating that the changes seen were not due to trauma. Our data demonstrate that while the thoracic circuitry is sufficient to produce directional escape, lesion or blockage of the connective affects the excitability of components of the escape circuitry. Because of the rapidity of the escape response, such effects are likely due to the elimination of tonic descending inputs. PMID:11536194

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  8. Pushing versus pulling: division of labour between tarsal attachment pads in cockroaches

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but ‘friction pads’, mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion. PMID:18331984

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  10. Composition of the Cockroach Gut Microbiome in the Presence of Parasitic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Cláudia S L; Ozawa, Sota; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-09-29

    Cockroaches are parasitized by thelastomatid nematodes, which live in an obligate manner in their hindgut and interact with the resident microbial community. In the present study, a composition analysis was performed on the gut microbiome of Periplaneta fuliginosa and P. americana to investigate natural and artificial infection by thelastomatid nematodes. Nine libraries of the 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 region were prepared for pyrosequencing. We examined the complete gut microbiome (fore-, mid-, and hindgut) of lab-reared P. fuliginosa naturally infected with the parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculatum and those that were nematode-free, and complemented our study by characterizing the hindgut microbial communities of lab-reared P. americana naturally infected with Hammerschmidtiella diesingi and Thelastoma bulhoesi, artificially infected with L. appendiculatum, and those that were nematode-free. Our results revealed that the fore- and midgut of naturally infected and nematode-free P. fuliginosa have close microbial communities, which is in contrast with hindgut communities; the hindgut communities of both cockroaches exhibit higher microbial diversities in the presence of their natural parasites and marked differences were observed in the abundance of the most representative taxa, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results have provided basic information and encourage further studies on multitrophic interactions in the cockroach gut as well as the thelastomatid nematodes that play a role in this environment.

  11. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans', an intracellular bacterial pathogen of the cockroach Blatta orientalis (Insecta: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Thomas, Vincent; Goy, Genevieve; Venditti, Danielle; Radek, Renate; Greub, Gilbert

    2007-04-01

    The genus Rickettsiella comprises various intracellular bacterial pathogens of arthropods, exhibiting a chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Species may be divided into two main groups, the R. popilliae-R. grylli group and the R. chironomi group. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene showed that two Rickettsiella species, one from each group, belong in reality to two distantly related lineages, the gamma-Proteobacteria (R. grylli) and the Chlamydiales ('Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', a pathogen of terrestrial isopods). In the present work, the 16S rDNA sequence of another Rickettsiella-like species, causing abdominal swelling to its cockroach host Blatta orientalis, was determined and phylogenetic analysis performed. Identical 16S rDNA sequences of 1495 nucleotides were obtained from fat body and ovary tissues of both healthy and diseased cockroach individuals. The sequence shared only 73% of similarity with R. grylli, but 82-87% with most Chlamydiales, and even 96.3% with 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the affiliation of the cockroach pathogen within the order Chlamydiales, and based on ultrastructural characteristics and genetic analyses, we propose its inclusion in the 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia' as a distinct taxon, 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans'. These results extend our knowledge of the phylogenetic diversity of the Chlamydiales.

  12. Cockroach fauna in the Ogasawara Chain Islands of Japan and analysis of their habitats.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriyuki; Kishimoto, Toshio; Uchida, Akihiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean

    2013-03-01

    A survey of cockroach fauna was carried out on the 3 inhabited islands of the Ogasawara chain island of Japan, namely, Chichijima island, Hahajima island and Iwo island. Seven species, namely, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758), Periplaneta australasiae (Fabricius, 1775), Blattella lituricollis (Walker, 1868), Onychostylus vilis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Opisthoplatia orientalis (Burmeister, 1838), were collected on Chichijima island. Four species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, O. vilis and P. surinamensis were collected on Hahajima island and 6 species, namely, P. americana, P. australasiae, B. lituricollis, O. vilis, P. surinamensis and Neostylopyga rhombifolia were collected on Iwo island. This is the first record of N. rhombifolia and Onychostylus orientalis on the Ogasawara chain islands. Our study increases the recorded taxon of cockroaches on the Ogasawara from 3 families, 5 genera 10 species to 4 families, 7 genera, 12 species. A list of the cockroach species on Ogasawara islands reported to date as well as a key for their identification is also presented. Periplaneta americana and P. australasiae, being the dominant species, together with S. longipalpa, were collected mostly in the indoor environment, indicating their preference for this habitat. Pycnoscelus surinamensis, which is considered as an outdoor insect has been found in semi-household environments such as greenhouse and shed, indicating their new adaptation to the changing environment.

  13. Functional symbiosis and communication in microbial ecosystems. The case of wood-eating termites and cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-09-01

    Animal hosts typically have strong specificity for microbial symbionts and their functions. The symbiotic relationships have enhanced the limited metabolic networks of most eukaryotes by contributing several prokaryotic metabolic capabilities, such as methanogenesis, chemolithoautotrophy, nitrogen assimilation, etc. This review will examine the characteristics that determine bacterial "fidelity" to certain groups of animals (e.g., xylophagous insects, such as termites and cockroaches) over generations and throughout evolution. The hindgut bacteria of wood-feeding termites and cockroaches belong to several phyla, including Proteobacteria, especially Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Spirochetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria, as detected by 16S rRNA. Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocelluloses assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. Although the community structures differ between the hosts (termites and cockroaches), with changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, the composition of the bacterial community could reflect at least in part the host evolution in that the microbiota may derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor. Therefore, factors other than host phylogeny, such as diet could have had strong influence in shaping the bacterial community structure.

  14. Composition of the Cockroach Gut Microbiome in the Presence of Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, Cláudia S. L.; Ozawa, Sota; Hasegawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are parasitized by thelastomatid nematodes, which live in an obligate manner in their hindgut and interact with the resident microbial community. In the present study, a composition analysis was performed on the gut microbiome of Periplaneta fuliginosa and P. americana to investigate natural and artificial infection by thelastomatid nematodes. Nine libraries of the 16S rRNA gene V3–V4 region were prepared for pyrosequencing. We examined the complete gut microbiome (fore-, mid-, and hindgut) of lab-reared P. fuliginosa naturally infected with the parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculatum and those that were nematode-free, and complemented our study by characterizing the hindgut microbial communities of lab-reared P. americana naturally infected with Hammerschmidtiella diesingi and Thelastoma bulhoesi, artificially infected with L. appendiculatum, and those that were nematode-free. Our results revealed that the fore- and midgut of naturally infected and nematode-free P. fuliginosa have close microbial communities, which is in contrast with hindgut communities; the hindgut communities of both cockroaches exhibit higher microbial diversities in the presence of their natural parasites and marked differences were observed in the abundance of the most representative taxa, namely Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Our results have provided basic information and encourage further studies on multitrophic interactions in the cockroach gut as well as the thelastomatid nematodes that play a role in this environment. PMID:27524304

  15. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  16. Cockroaches that exchange respiratory gases discontinuously survive food and water restriction.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic rate and respiratory gas exchange patterns vary significantly both between and within species, even after a number of biotic and abiotic factors are taken into account. This suggests that such variation is of evolutionary importance, but the life history implications of this variation remain relatively poorly characterized. In the present study, we examine the effect of metabolic variation on starvation and desiccation resistance in the speckled cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. We also compare the starvation and desiccation resistance of individuals that exchange respiratory gases continuously with those that breathe discontinuously. We show that metabolic rate has no effect on survival during food and water restriction, but cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) live longer than those that do not and those provisioned with water lived longer than those that were not. This finding represents the first demonstration that DGCs confer a fitness benefit, and supports the oldest hypothesis for the evolution of DGCs (which suggests that DGCs arose or are maintained to reduce respiratory water loss) as we also reveal reduced water loss (both respiratory and total) in cockroaches exhibiting discontinuous gas exchange.

  17. Pushing versus pulling: division of labour between tarsal attachment pads in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Christofer J; Federle, Walter

    2008-06-01

    Adhesive organs on the legs of arthropods and vertebrates are strongly direction dependent, making contact only when pulled towards the body but detaching when pushed away from it. Here we show that the two types of attachment pads found in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea), tarsal euplantulae and pretarsal arolium, serve fundamentally different functions. Video recordings of vertical climbing revealed that euplantulae are almost exclusively engaged with the substrate when legs are pushing, whereas arolia make contact when pulling. Thus, upward-climbing cockroaches used front leg arolia and hind leg euplantulae, whereas hind leg arolia and front leg euplantulae were engaged during downward climbing. Single-leg friction force measurements showed that the arolium and euplantulae have an opposite direction dependence. Euplantulae achieved maximum friction when pushed distally, whereas arolium forces were maximal during proximal pulls. This direction dependence was not explained by the variation of shear stress but by different contact areas during pushing or pulling. The changes in contact area result from the arrangement of the flexible tarsal chain, tending to detach the arolium when pushing and to peel off euplantulae when in tension. Our results suggest that the euplantulae in cockroaches are not adhesive organs but 'friction pads', mainly providing the necessary traction during locomotion.

  18. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in farmed cockroaches and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zeng, Hui; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal insects have been widely used to cure human diseases for ages. Nevertheless, knowledge about the toxic chemicals accumulated in medicinal insects and their effects on human health was insufficient. In the present study, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nine halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) were determined in farmed medicinal cockroaches to address this issue. Total concentrations of PAHs in young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults ranged from 162 to 1025, 252 to 967, and 267 to 1168 ng/g, respectively. Levels of the sum of HPAHs varied from 0.84 to 9.17, 1.86 to 5.21, and 1.01 to 8.60 ng/g for young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults, respectively. The daily intake and excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were calculated for people who take cockroach-related drugs. Our results indicated that females and children have slightly higher exposure levels from the perspectives of gender and age, respectively. The estimated excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were both lower than the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk with the medicinal cockroach consumption.

  19. Effect of shear forces and ageing on the compliance of adhesive pads in adult cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanmin; Robinson, Adam; Viney, Christine; Federle, Walter

    2015-09-01

    The flexibility of insect adhesive pads is crucial for their ability to attach on rough surfaces. Here, we used transparent substrates with micropillars to test in adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) whether and how the stiffness of smooth adhesive pads changes when shear forces are applied, and whether the insect's age has any influence. We found that during pulls towards the body, the pad's ability to conform to the surface microstructures was improved in comparison to a contact without shear, suggesting that shear forces make the pad more compliant. The mechanism underlying this shear-dependent increase in compliance is still unclear. The effect was not explained by viscoelastic creep, changes in normal pressure, or shear-induced pad rolling, which brings new areas of cuticle into surface contact. Adhesive pads were significantly stiffer in older cockroaches. Stiffness increased most rapidly in cockroaches aged between 2.5 and 4 months. This increase is probably based on wear and repair of the delicate adhesive cuticle. Recent wear (visualised by Methylene Blue staining) was not age dependent, whereas permanent damage (visible as brown scars) accumulated with age, reducing the pads' flexibility.

  20. When males whistle at females: complex FM acoustic signals in cockroaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Aubin, Thierry

    2006-10-01

    Male cockroaches of the species Elliptorhina chopardi expel air through a pair of modified abdominal spiracles during courtship. This air expulsion simultaneously produces air and substrate-borne vibrations. We described and compared in details these two types of vibrations. Our analysis of the air-borne signals shows that males can produce three categories of signals with distinct temporal and frequency parameters. “Pure whistles” consist of two independent harmonic series fast frequency modulated with independent harmonics that can cross each other. “Noisy whistles” also possess two independent voices but include a noisy broad-band frequency part in the middle. Hiss sounds are more noise-like, being made of a broad-band frequency spectrum. All three call types are unusually high in dominant frequency (>5 kHz) for cockroaches. The substrate-borne signals are categorised similarly. Some harmonics of the substrate-borne signals were filtered out, however, making the acoustic energy centered on fewer frequency bands. Our analysis shows that cockroach signals are complex, with fast frequency modulations and two distinct voices. These results also readdress the question of what system could potentially receive and decode the information contained within such complex sounds.

  1. Functional symbiosis and communication in microbial ecosystems. The case of wood-eating termites and cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-09-01

    Animal hosts typically have strong specificity for microbial symbionts and their functions. The symbiotic relationships have enhanced the limited metabolic networks of most eukaryotes by contributing several prokaryotic metabolic capabilities, such as methanogenesis, chemolithoautotrophy, nitrogen assimilation, etc. This review will examine the characteristics that determine bacterial "fidelity" to certain groups of animals (e.g., xylophagous insects, such as termites and cockroaches) over generations and throughout evolution. The hindgut bacteria of wood-feeding termites and cockroaches belong to several phyla, including Proteobacteria, especially Deltaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, Spirochetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria, as detected by 16S rRNA. Termites effectively feed on many types of lignocelluloses assisted by their gut microbial symbionts. Although the community structures differ between the hosts (termites and cockroaches), with changes in the relative abundances of particular bacterial taxa, the composition of the bacterial community could reflect at least in part the host evolution in that the microbiota may derive from the microbiota of a common ancestor. Therefore, factors other than host phylogeny, such as diet could have had strong influence in shaping the bacterial community structure. PMID:27036743

  2. Repellent activity of essential oils against cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattidae, Blattellidae, and Blaberidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Wongsinkongman, Prapai; Boonruad, Thidarat; Bansiddhi, Jaree; Chavalittumrong, Pranee; Komalamisra, Narumon; Siriyasatien, Padet; Mulla, Mir S

    2007-07-01

    Seven commercial essential oils extracted from the plant species Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf., Citrus hystrix DC., Curcuma longa L., Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers., Piper nigrum L., Psidium guajava L. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe, and naphthalene as a control, were evaluated for repellent activity against the three cockroach species Periplaneta americana (L.), Blattella germanica (L.) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) under laboratory conditions. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency over other candidate essential oils and naphthalene. The essential oil of Citrus hystrix exhibited complete repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica, and also showed the highest repellency (among the essential oils tested) of about 87.5% against N. rhombifolia under laboratory conditions. In the field, Citrus hystrix essential oil formulated as a 20% active ingredient in ethanol and some additives provided satisfactory repellency of up to 86% reduction in cockroaches, mostly P. americana and N. rhombifolia with a residual effect lasting a week after treatment. Citrus hystrix essential oil has good potential for being used as a cockroach repellent. Further improvements in efficacy and residual activity may be realized with appropriate formulations. PMID:17883004

  3. Parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in farmed cockroaches and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Lin; Wang, Yan-Bing; Zeng, Hui; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal insects have been widely used to cure human diseases for ages. Nevertheless, knowledge about the toxic chemicals accumulated in medicinal insects and their effects on human health was insufficient. In the present study, sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nine halogenated PAHs (HPAHs) were determined in farmed medicinal cockroaches to address this issue. Total concentrations of PAHs in young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults ranged from 162 to 1025, 252 to 967, and 267 to 1168 ng/g, respectively. Levels of the sum of HPAHs varied from 0.84 to 9.17, 1.86 to 5.21, and 1.01 to 8.60 ng/g for young nymphs, old nymphs, and adults, respectively. The daily intake and excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were calculated for people who take cockroach-related drugs. Our results indicated that females and children have slightly higher exposure levels from the perspectives of gender and age, respectively. The estimated excess cancer risk of PAHs and HPAHs were both lower than the priority risk level (10(-4)), indicating a low potential carcinogenic risk with the medicinal cockroach consumption. PMID:25450942

  4. Computational optimization for S-type biological systems: cockroach genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shinq-Jen; Wu, Cheng-Tao

    2013-10-01

    S-type biological systems (S-systems) are demonstrated to be universal approximations of continuous biological systems. S-systems are easy to be generalized to large systems. The systems are identified through data-driven identification techniques (cluster-based algorithms or computational methods). However, S-systems' identification is challenging because multiple attractors exist in such highly nonlinear systems. Moreover, in some biological systems the interactive effect cannot be neglected even the interaction order is small. Therefore, learning should be focused on increasing the gap between the true and redundant interaction. In addition, a wide searching space is necessary because no prior information is provided. The used technologies should have the ability to achieve convergence enhancement and diversity preservation. Cockroaches live in nearly all habitats and survive for more than 300 million years. In this paper, we mimic cockroaches' competitive swarm behavior and integrated it with advanced evolutionary operations. The proposed cockroach genetic algorithm (CGA) possesses strong snatching-food ability to rush forward to a target and high migration ability to escape from local minimum. CGA was tested with three small-scale systems, a twenty-state medium-scale system and a thirty-state large-scale system. A wide search space ([0,100] for rate constants and [-100,100] for kinetic orders) with random or bad initial starts are used to show the high exploration performance.

  5. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  6. Women in German Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Elke

    This course description outlines the general and specific objectives for a course on "Women in German Literature," which investigates the changing literary and social roles of women from the beginning of the 19th Century to the present: women as seen by man, by another woman and in introspection. This course description was successfully used in a…

  7. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  8. An Introduction to Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambacher, Robert

    At Millersville University (Pennsylvania), business German is taught in the German section in a two-semester introduction at the sophomore level, a junior-level advanced course, and a senior-level translation course. These four courses are augmented by introductions to business and economics, both taught in English outside the German section.…

  9. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain.

  10. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  11. Brain-Computer Interface Controlled Cyborg: Establishing a Functional Information Transfer Pathway from Human Brain to Cockroach Brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangye; Zhang, Dingguo

    2016-01-01

    An all-chain-wireless brain-to-brain system (BTBS), which enabled motion control of a cyborg cockroach via human brain, was developed in this work. Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) based brain-computer interface (BCI) was used in this system for recognizing human motion intention and an optimization algorithm was proposed in SSVEP to improve online performance of the BCI. The cyborg cockroach was developed by surgically integrating a portable microstimulator that could generate invasive electrical nerve stimulation. Through Bluetooth communication, specific electrical pulse trains could be triggered from the microstimulator by BCI commands and were sent through the antenna nerve to stimulate the brain of cockroach. Serial experiments were designed and conducted to test overall performance of the BTBS with six human subjects and three cockroaches. The experimental results showed that the online classification accuracy of three-mode BCI increased from 72.86% to 78.56% by 5.70% using the optimization algorithm and the mean response accuracy of the cyborgs using this system reached 89.5%. Moreover, the results also showed that the cyborg could be navigated by the human brain to complete walking along an S-shape track with the success rate of about 20%, suggesting the proposed BTBS established a feasible functional information transfer pathway from the human brain to the cockroach brain. PMID:26982717

  12. A Study in West German Stabilization Policy, 1956-1974. German Studies Notes. First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Manfred J. M.

    The dominant driving force of past movements in West German output and prices is investigated and a review of government policy undertaken to stabilize these movements is presented. Three alternative impulse hypotheses are tested: the monetary, the fiscal, and the foreign impulse hypothesis. The major results of the tests are that: (1) monetary…

  13. The Identity of the German City As a Symbol of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajdu, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the pattern formed by Germany's towns and cities, with some remarks on the changes in that pattern since 1945, and the major influences that have shaped the appearance and structure of the German city. The role of the motor car and the new low-density suburb are noted. (EJS)

  14. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  15. Sensory arsenal on the stinger of the parasitoid jewel wasp and its possible role in identifying cockroach brains.

    PubMed

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive 'zombie'. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp's stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach's head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4-5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%-2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey. PMID:24586962

  16. Psychohistory before Hitler: early military analyses of German national psychology.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, J W

    1988-04-01

    As part of a grandiose post-World War I psychological project to predict the behavior of nations, the U.S. Military Intelligence Division (MID) utilized racial and social psychological theories to explain an alleged problematic German national character. Though unsuccessful, this project has major significance in the history of psychohistory. For the newly discovered MID files reveal that ideas, attitudes, and biases many psychohistorians subsequently identified as manifestations of a peculiar German national character had previously been held by American officers and reputable psychologists. What American analysts would, in 1940, view as symptoms of a maladjusted German mind, their predecessors had, in 1920, considered valid scientific concepts.

  17. Nervous System of Periplaneta americana Cockroach as a Model in Toxinological Studies: A Short Historical and Actual View.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, Maria; Dąbrowski, Marcin; de Lima, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Nervous system of Periplaneta americana cockroach is used in a wide range of pharmacological studies, including electrophysiological techniques. This paper presents its role as a preparation in the development of toxinological studies in the following electrophysiological methods: double-oil-gap technique on isolated giant axon, patch-clamp on DUM (dorsal unpaired median) neurons, microelectrode technique in situ conditions on axon in connective and DUM neurons in ganglion, and single-fiber oil-gap technique on last abdominal ganglion synapse. At the end the application of cockroach synaptosomal preparation is mentioned. PMID:22666245

  18. Medicalized social hygiene? Tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This archive-based study investigates tuberculosis policy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from the 1940s to the 1960s. The focus is on the sanatorium as the major site of treatment and on BCG vaccination as the major preventive tool. The article tests and accepts the thesis that the GDR's guiding health paradigm is best described by the term "medicalized social hygiene." The article finds that methods of both treatment and prevention were characterized less by radical change and innovation than by tradition and pragmatism at least until the mid-1950s. Thus, "forced institutionalization" of "asocial" patients continued after 1945. Yet the health ministry long hesitated to make BCG vaccination obligatory. The German past, the Cold War context of German-German rivalry, and medical and popular attitudes toward vaccination, TB, and TB patients are considered as possible explanations for the mix of continuity and change in TB policy. PMID:23241911

  19. Intracellular freezing and survival in the freeze tolerant alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata.

    PubMed

    Worland, M R; Wharton, D A; Byars, S G

    2004-01-01

    The alpine cockroach Celatoblatta quinquemaculata is common at altitudes of around 1500 m on the Rock and Pillar range of Central Otago, New Zealand where it experiences freezing conditions in the winter. The cockroach is freeze tolerant, but only to c. -9 degrees C. The cause of death at temperatures below this is unknown but likely to be due to osmotic damage to cells (shrinkage). This study compared the effect of different ice nucleation temperatures (-2 and -4 degrees C) on the viability of three types of cockroach tissue (midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body cells) and cooling to three different temperatures (-5, -8, -12 degrees C). Two types of observations were made (i) cryomicroscope observations of ice formation and cell shrinkage (ii) cell integrity (viability) using vital stains. Cell viability decreased with lower treatment temperatures but ice nucleation temperature had no significant effect. Cryomicroscope observations showed that ice spread through tissue faster at -4 than -2 degrees C and that intracellular freezing only occurred when nucleated at -4 degrees C. From temperature records during cooling, it was observed that when freezing occurred, latent heat immediately increased the insect's body temperature close to its melting point (c. -0.3 degrees C). This "rebound" temperature was independent of nucleation temperature. Some tissues were more vulnerable to damage than others. As the gut is thought to be the site of freezing, it is significant that this tissue was the most robust. The ecological importance of the effect of nucleation temperature on survival of whole animals under field conditions is discussed.

  20. Aerobic Bacterial Community of American Cockroach Periplaneta americana,a Step toward Finding Suitable Paratransgenesis Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Sanaz; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hashemi-Aghdam, Saedeh Sadat; Hajikhani, Sara; Oshaghi, Ghazaleh; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cockroaches mechanically spread pathogenic agents, however, little is known about their gut microbiota. Identification of midgut microbial community helps targeting novel biological control strategies such as paratransgenesis. Here the bacterial microbiota of Periplaneta americana midgut, were identified and evaluated for finding proper paratransgenesis candidate. Methods: Midgut of specimens were dissected and cultivated in different media. The bacterial isolates were then identified using the phenotypic and 16S-rRNA sequencing methods. Results: The analytical profile index (API) kit showed presence of 11 bacterial species including: Escherichia coli, Shigella flexineri, Citrobacter freundii, E. vulneris, Enterobacter cloacae, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Y. intermedia, Leclericia adecarboxylata, Klebsiella oxytoca, K. planticola, and Rahnella aquatilis in the cockroach midguts. The first three species are potentially symbiotic whereas others are transient. The conventional plating method revealed presence of only four isolates of Salmonella, E. coli, and Proteus which in three cases mismatched with API and 16S-rRNA genotyping. The API correctly identified the four isolates as Shigella flexneri, Citrobacter freundii, and E. coli (n= 2). 16S-rRNA sequence analysis confirmed the API results; however the C. freundii sequence was identical with C. murliniae indicating lack of genetic variation in the gene between these two closely related species. Conclusion: A low number of potentially symbiotic bacteria were found in the American cockroach midguts. Among them Enterobacter cloacae is a potential candidate for paratransgenesis approach whereas other bacteria are pathogens and are not useful for the approach. Data analysis showed that identification levels increase from the conventional to API and to genotyping respectively. PMID:26114142

  1. Functional Interaction of Cockroach Allergens and Mannose Receptor (CD206) in Human Circulating Fibrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ying-Ming; Hsu, Shih-Chang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Feng; Plunkett, Beverly; Huang, Shau-Ku; Gao, Pei-Song

    2013-01-01

    Background The innate pattern recognition C-type-lectin receptors (CLRs), including mannose receptor (MRC1; CD206), have been suggested to functionally interact with allergens and are critical in controlling immune response. Fibrocytes have been considered to play a role in allergic asthma. Here we sought to investigate the functional interaction of cockroach allergens with CD206 in fibrocytes. Methods Profiling of N-linked glycans from natural purified cockroach allergen Bla g 2 was accomplished by MALDI-MS. The binding activity of cockroach allergens to CD206 was determined by solid-phase binding assays. Levels of CD206 expression on human fibrocytes and CD206 mediated signaling and cytokine production in Bla g 2 treated fibrocytes were determined. Results Profiling of N-linked glycans from Bla g 2 revealed a predominance of small, mannose-terminated glycans with and without fucose. Significant binding of Bla g 2 to CD206 was observed, which was inhibited by yeast mannan (a known CD206 ligand), free mannose, and a blocking antibody (anti-hMR). Flow cytometric analyses of human fibrocytes (CD45+ and collagen-1+) showed selective expression of CD206 on fibrocytes. Functionally, a concentration-dependent uptake of FITC labeled Bla g 2 by fibrocytes was observed, but was significantly inhibited by anti-hMR. Bla g 2 can stimulate up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB/p65), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), ERK, and JNK in cultured fibrocytes. This increased secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-6 and activation of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK was significantly inhibited by the addition of either mannan or mannose. Furthermore, Bla g 2 induced increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 production was also inhibited by the use of NF-kB, ERK, and JNK inhibitors. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the existence of a functional cockroach allergen-CD206 axis in human fibrocytes, suggesting a role

  2. Paleocene origin of the cockroach families Blaberidae and Corydiidae: Evidence from Amur River region of Russia.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; Vidlička, L'Ubomír; Barna, Peter; Bugdaeva, Eugenia; Markevich, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Morphna paleo sp. n., the earliest winged representative of any living cockroach genus and the earliest representative of the family Blaberidae, is described from the Danian Arkhara-Boguchan coal mine in the Amur River region (Russian Far East). The branched Sc and A suggest Ectobiidae (=Blattellidae) probably is not the ancestral family because Blaberidae were derived directly from the extinct family Mesoblattindae. The associated Danian locality Belaya Gora yielded Ergaula stonebut sp. n., the earliest record of the family Corydiidae. Both species belong to genera codominant in the Messel locality, thus validating their dominance in early Cenozoic assemblages. PMID:26097937

  3. Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida) parasitizing the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), in Alabama and Florida with recognition of Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. parasitizing ectobiid cockroaches in India.

    PubMed

    Clopton, Richard E

    2015-02-01

    Tomaculocystis corpulenta n. gen., n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinorida: Septatorina: Gregarinidae) is described from populations of the little yellow cockroach, Cariblatta lutea (Blattodea: Ectobiidae), established in laboratory culture from samples collected in Alabama and Florida. Tomaculocystis n. gen. are differentiated from other members of Gregarina by a markedly elliptoid gametocyst inside a persistent, lomentiform hyaline epicyst; developmental organization and growth of the spore tubes from gametocyst surface tumidi; and dehiscence by extrusion of non-chain forming oocysts through spore tubes that barely extend beyond the epicyst wall. Gregarina cylindrosa, Gregarina discocephala, and Gregarina mukundai are recognized as members of Tomaculocystis, and G. cylindrosa is recognized as the senior synonym of G. discocephala. Thus, Tomaculocystis cylindrosa n. comb. and Tomaculocystis mukundai n. comb. are formed. Species of Tomaculocystis are distinguished based on gamont deutomerite and oocyst shape and size. The oocysts of T. corpulenta are broadly dolioform, lack 4 polar knobs, and possess distinct, unique polar plates. Oocysts of all other known species in the genus are more oblong in shape, possess 4 polar knobs, and lack the distinct polar plates observed in the oocysts of T. corpulenta. Host utilization and geographic distribution among gregarine genera parasitizing the cockroach family Ectobiidae reveal a pattern of host-parasite specificity linking gregarine genera with ectobiidid subfamilies. Overall patterns suggest a hypothesis of European endemicy for Gamocystis, but hypotheses for the origin and radiation of Tomaculocystis or species of Gregarina infecting cockroaches are confounded by the cosmopolitan spread of pest cockroach species among humans.

  4. Mechanical properties of the cuticles of three cockroach species that differ in their wind-evoked escape behavior

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The structural and material properties of insect cuticle remain largely unexplored, even though they comprise the majority (approximately 80%) of animals. Insect cuticle serves many functions, including protection against predatory attacks, which is especially beneficial to species failing to employ effective running escape responses. Despite recent advances in our understanding of insect escape behaviors and the biomechanics of insect cuticle, there are limited studies on the protective qualities of cuticle to extreme mechanical stresses and strains imposed by predatory attacks, and how these qualities vary between species employing different escape responses. Blattarians (cockroaches) provide an appropriate model system for such studies. Wind-evoked running escape responses are strong in Periplaneta americana, weak in Blaberus craniifer and absent in Gromphodorhina portentosa, putting the latter two species at greater risk of being struck by a predator. We hypothesized that the exoskeletons in these two larger species could provide more protection from predatory strikes relative to the exoskeleton of P. americana. We quantified the protective qualities of the exoskeletons by measuring the puncture resistance, tensile strength, strain energy storage, and peak strain in fresh samples of thoracic and abdominal cuticles from these three species. We found a continuum in puncture resistance, tensile strength, and strain energy storage between the three species, which were greatest in G. portentosa, moderate in B. craniifer, and smallest in P. americana. Histological measurements of total cuticle thickness followed this same pattern. However, peak strain followed a different trend between species. The comparisons in the material properties drawn between the cuticles of G. portentosa, B. craniifer, and P. americana demonstrate parallels between cuticular biomechanics and predator running escape responses. PMID:25101230

  5. Acute Oral Ethanol Exposure Triggers Asthma In Cockroach Allergen–Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Jacqueline C.; Kim, Jiyoun; Beal, Dominic R.; Vaickus, Louis J.; Craciun, Florin L.; Remick, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma may be triggered by multiple mediators, including allergen-IgE cross-linking and non-IgE mechanisms. Several clinical studies have shown acute ethanol consumption exacerbates asthma, yet no animal model exists to study this process. We developed a model of ethanol-triggered asthma in allergen-sensitized mice to evaluate the mechanisms of ethanol inducing asthma-like responses. Outbred mice were exposed to cockroach allergens on Days 0 and 14; and on Day 21, mice received ethanol by oral gavage. Tracer studies confirmed alcohol aspiration did not occur. Within 30 minutes, alcohol induced degranulation of over 74% of mast cells, and multiple parameters of asthma-like pulmonary inflammation were triggered. Ethanol-gavaged mice had a fivefold increased production of eotaxin-2 (534 pg/mL) and a sevenfold increase in bronchoalveolar eosinophils (70,080 cells). Ethanol induced a 10-fold increase in IL-13, from 84 pg/mL in sensitized mice to 845 pg/mL in ethanol-gavaged sensitized mice. In cockroach allergen–sensitized mice, ethanol triggered asthma-like changes in respiratory physiology and a significant fivefold increase in airway mucin production. Importantly, none of these asthmatic exacerbations were observed in normal mice gavaged with ethanol. Cromolyn sodium effectively stabilized mast cells, yet increased mucin production and bronchoalveolar eosinophil recruitment. Together, these data show a single oral alcohol exposure will trigger asthma-like pulmonary inflammation in allergen-sensitized mice, providing a novel asthma model. PMID:22796441

  6. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres.

    PubMed

    David, Izhak; Holmes, Philip; Ayali, Amir

    2016-09-15

    Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks' architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity). Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system.

  7. Endogenous rhythm and pattern-generating circuit interactions in cockroach motor centres

    PubMed Central

    David, Izhak; Holmes, Philip

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks’ architecture and interactions. Data analyses included phase relations, latencies between and overlaps of rhythmic bursts, spike frequencies, and the dependence of these parameters on cycle frequency. We found that, overall, ipsilateral connections are stronger than contralateral ones. Our findings revealed asymmetries in connectivity among the different ganglia, in which meta-to-mesothoracic ascending coupling is stronger than meso-to-metathoracic descending coupling. Within-ganglion coupling between the metathoracic hemiganglia is stronger than that in the mesothoracic ganglion. We also report differences in the role and mode of operation of homologue network units (manifested by levator and depressor nerve activity). Many observed characteristics are similar to those exhibited by intact animals, suggesting a dominant role for feedforward control in cockroach locomotion. Based on these data we posit a connectivity scheme among components of the locomotion pattern generating system. PMID:27422902

  8. Subsocial Cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea Mate Indiscriminately with Kin Despite High Costs of Inbreeding

    PubMed Central

    Bouchebti, Sofia; Durier, Virginie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Rivault, Colette; Lihoreau, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Many animals have evolved strategies to reduce risks of inbreeding and its deleterious effects on the progeny. In social arthropods, such as the eusocial ants and bees, inbreeding avoidance is typically achieved by the dispersal of breeders from their native colony. However studies in presocial insects suggest that kin discrimination during mate choice may be a more common mechanism in socially simpler species with no reproductive division of labour. Here we examined this possibility in the subsocial cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a model species for research in sexual selection, where males establish dominance hierarchies to access females and control breeding territories. When given a binary choice between a sibling male and a non-sibling male that had the opportunity to establish a hierarchy prior to the tests, females mated preferentially with the dominant male, irrespective of kinship or body size. Despite the lack of kin discrimination during mate choice, inbred-mated females incurred significant fitness costs, producing 20% less offspring than outbred-mated females. We discuss how the social mating system of this territorial cockroach may naturally limit the probability of siblings to encounter and reproduce, without the need for evolving active inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, such as kin recognition. PMID:27655156

  9. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jonathan C.; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1–4 V) and current (50–150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6–25.6 cm; 3.9–5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10–25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain. PMID:26308337

  10. Incidence of bacteria of public health interest carried by cockroaches in different food-related environments.

    PubMed

    García, F; Notario, M J; Cabanás, J M; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteria of public health interest transmitted by cockroaches in different food-related environments. From April to November, cockroaches were trapped in 11 buildings in different urban areas of Western Andalusia (Spain): three hotels, four grocery stores, a catering establishment, a food-industry plant, a health center, and a care home. The presence of a number of bacterial species, including Salmonella, in these food-related environments was confirmed; these species included microorganisms listed in European Union regulations, such as Salmonella spp., Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter spp.), and Escherichia coli. A wide variety of species were isolated, some belonging to different genera that have a significant impact on public health and hygiene, such as Enterobacter and Klebsiella. To ensure adequate elimination of these microorganisms in food-related environments, the control of vectors such as Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and Blatta orientalis, together with a thorough review of hygiene strategies, appears to be fundamental. It is clearly essential to compare the results of hygiene regulations implemented in food-related environments.

  11. Interbreeding among deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Beeren, Christoph; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Xia, Joyce; Burke, Griffin; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2015-02-01

    DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (<=0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%-4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations.

  12. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  13. Interbreeding among deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    PubMed Central

    von Beeren, Christoph; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Xia, Joyce; Burke, Griffin; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (≤0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%–4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations. PMID:25656854

  14. Effective Stimulus Parameters for Directed Locomotion in Madagascar Hissing Cockroach Biobot.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jonathan C; Herrera, María; Bustamante, Mauricio; Shingiro, Aristide; Bowen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Swarms of insects instrumented with wireless electronic backpacks have previously been proposed for potential use in search and rescue operations. Before deploying such biobot swarms, an effective long-term neural-electric stimulus interface must be established, and the locomotion response to various stimuli quantified. To this end, we studied a variety of pulse types (mono- vs. bipolar; voltage- vs. current-controlled) and shapes (amplitude, frequency, duration) to parameters that are most effective for evoking locomotion along a desired path in the Madagascar hissing cockroach (G. portentosa) in response to antennal and cercal stimulation. We identified bipolar, 2 V, 50 Hz, 0.5 s voltage controlled pulses as being optimal for evoking forward motion and turns in the expected contraversive direction without habituation in ≈50% of test subjects, a substantial increase over ≈10% success rates previously reported. Larger amplitudes for voltage (1-4 V) and current (50-150 μA) pulses generally evoked larger forward walking (15.6-25.6 cm; 3.9-5.6 cm/s) but smaller concomitant turning responses (149 to 80.0 deg; 62.8 to 41.2 deg/s). Thus, the radius of curvature of the initial turn-then-run locomotor response (≈10-25 cm) could be controlled in a graded manner by varying the stimulus amplitude. These findings could be used to help optimize stimulus protocols for swarms of cockroach biobots navigating unknown terrain.

  15. Social Interactions and the Circadian Rhythm in Locomotor Activity in the Cockroach Leucophaea maderae

    PubMed Central

    Knadler, Joseph J.; Page, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of social interactions in entrainment has not been extensively studied in the invertebrates. Leucophaea maderae is a gregarious species of cockroach that exhibits extensive social interactions. Social interactions associated with copulation between the sexes have been shown to be regulated by the circadian system. We show here that social interactions between males are also under circadian control. We examined the question of whether or not these rhythmic social contacts could function as zeitgebers capable of regulating circadian phase and period. Animals initially in phase that were housed as groups or pairs of single sex or mixed sex in constant darkness for 2–7 weeks were found to drift out of phase. Their behavior was not significantly different from individual animals maintained in isolation. Further, animals that were initially out of phase by 12 hours housed as groups or pairs were not significantly different in phase from animals that were isolated. The results show that the circadian clocks of cockroaches are remarkably insensitive to the extensive social interactions that occur between individuals. PMID:19360487

  16. Differential control of temporal and spatial aspects of cockroach leg coordination.

    PubMed

    Couzin-Fuchs, E; Gal, O; Holmes, P; Ayali, A

    2015-08-01

    Ensembles of neuronal networks and sensory pathways participate in controlling the kinematic and dynamic parameters of animal movement necessary to achieve motor coordination. Determining the relative contribution of proprioceptive feedback is essential for understanding how animals sustain stable, coordinated locomotion in complex natural environments. Here, we focus on the role of chordotonal organs (COs), proprioceptors found in insect legs, in the spatial and temporal regulation of walking. We compare gait parameters of intact cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) and sensory-impaired ones, injected with pymetrozine, a chemical previously shown to abolish CO function in locusts. We verify that afferent CO activity in pymetrozine-treated cockroaches is inhibited, and analyze the effect of this sensory deprivation on inter-leg coordination. We find significant changes in tarsi placement and leg path trajectories after pymetrozine treatment. Leg touchdown accuracy, measured from relative tarsi positions of adjacent legs, is reduced in treated animals. Interestingly, despite poorer spatial coordination in both stance and swing, temporal properties of the gait remain largely the same as in the intact preparations, apart from changes in ipsilateral phase differences between front and middle legs. These findings provide insights into the role of COs in insect gait control and establish pymetrozine as a useful tool for further studies of insect locomotion. PMID:26086675

  17. Coordinated ventilation and spiracle activity produce unidirectional airflow in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Erica C; McHenry, Matthew J; Bradley, Timothy J

    2013-12-01

    Insects exchange respiratory gases via an extensive network of tracheal vessels that open to the surface of the body through spiracular valves. Although gas exchange is known to increase with the opening of these spiracles, it is not clear how this event relates to gas flow through the tracheal system. We examined the relationship between respiratory airflow and spiracle activity in a ventilating insect, the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa, to better understand the complexity of insect respiratory function. Using simultaneous video recordings of multiple spiracular valves, we found that abdominal spiracles open and close in unison during periods of ventilation. Additionally, independent recordings of CO2 release from the abdominal and thoracic regions and observations of hyperoxic tracer gas movement indicate that air is drawn into the thoracic spiracles and expelled from the abdominal spiracles. Our video recordings suggest that this unidirectional flow is driven by abdominal contractions that occur when the abdominal spiracles open. The spiracles then close as the abdomen relaxes and fills with air from the thorax. Therefore, the respiratory system of the hissing cockroach functions as a unidirectional pump through the coordinated action of the spiracles and abdominal musculature. This mechanism may be employed by a broad diversity of large insects that respire by active ventilation. PMID:24031063

  18. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. PMID:26470187

  19. The cockroach Blattella germanica obtains nitrogen from uric acid through a metabolic pathway shared with its bacterial endosymbiont.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Navarrete, Rafael; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors; Belles, Xavier; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo; Peretó, Juli

    2014-07-01

    Uric acid stored in the fat body of cockroaches is a nitrogen reservoir mobilized in times of scarcity. The discovery of urease in Blattabacterium cuenoti, the primary endosymbiont of cockroaches, suggests that the endosymbiont may participate in cockroach nitrogen economy. However, bacterial urease may only be one piece in the entire nitrogen recycling process from insect uric acid. Thus, in addition to the uricolytic pathway to urea, there must be glutamine synthetase assimilating the released ammonia by the urease reaction to enable the stored nitrogen to be metabolically usable. None of the Blattabacterium genomes sequenced to date possess genes encoding for those enzymes. To test the host's contribution to the process, we have sequenced and analysed Blattella germanica transcriptomes from the fat body. We identified transcripts corresponding to all genes necessary for the synthesis of uric acid and its catabolism to urea, as well as for the synthesis of glutamine, asparagine, proline and glycine, i.e. the amino acids required by the endosymbiont. We also explored the changes in gene expression with different dietary protein levels. It appears that the ability to use uric acid as a nitrogen reservoir emerged in cockroaches after its age-old symbiotic association with bacteria.

  20. Cockroaches of genus Muzoa: morphology of the male genital sclerites and description of one new species (Dictyoptera, Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Nyctiborinae)

    PubMed Central

    Vélez-Bravo, Andrés H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The male genital sclerites of cockroaches of genus Muzoa Hebard 1921 are described for first time and the new species Muzoa curtalata sp. n. is described and ilustrated. A dichotomous key to identify the species of genus Muzoa is given. PMID:23794828

  1. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia.

  2. Synoptic revision of Blabericola (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida: Blabericolidae) parasitizing blaberid cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae), with comments on delineating gregarine species boundaries.

    PubMed

    Clopton, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Complete synoptic redescriptions, including complete morphometric data for all life cycle stages, species recognition characters, and differential comparisons are presented for the 4 gregarine species comprising Blabericola . Blabericola cubensis ( Peregrine, 1970 ), Blabericola haasi (Geus, 1969), Blabericola migrator ( Clopton, 1995 ), and Blabericola princisi ( Peregrine, 1970 ) are redescribed from their type hosts, i.e., the discoid cockroach Blaberus discoidalis , the lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea , the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa , and the Bolivian cockroach Blaberus boliviensis , respectively. These gregarine species descriptions are stabilized through deposition of extensive new voucher collections. Species of Blabericola are distinguished by differences in relative metric ratios, morphology of oocysts, and by relative metric ratios of mature gamonts in association. This work is discussed as a model for morphological species descriptions in the Eugregarinorida including the 6 principles for morphological gregarine species descriptions, i.e., a centroid and population variation approach, adequate sample size, partitioning developmental variation and sexual dimorphism, recognition and minimization of fixation and physiological artifacts to eliminate false morphotypes, and comparative data sets across multiple life cycle stages.

  3. Headstart German Program. Module 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the seventh module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 2 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use all the services of a German post-office, such as…

  4. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, L; Jorgensen, J; Haselton, A; Pitt, A; Rudner, R; Margulis, L

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  5. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  6. Distribution of Thelastomatoid Nematodes (Nematoda: Oxyurida) in Endemic and Introduced Cockroaches on the Galápagos Island Archipelago, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, Devinn; Carreno, Ramon A; Herrera, Henri

    2015-08-01

    The thelastomatoid pinworm fauna (Nematoda: Oxyurida: Thelastomatoidea) was surveyed in 3 endemic species and 6 introduced species of cockroach hosts (Insecta: Blattaria) in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. A total of 658 host specimens were examined from preserved collections that had been collected between 1966 and 2003 from 7 islands in the archipelago. Eight species of pinworms were identified from these cockroach hosts, including the dominant species Cephalobellus ovumglutinosus and a Severianoia sp. as well as Leidynema appendiculata, Hammerschmidtiella diesingi, an unidentified Cephalobellus species resembling Cephalobellus magalhaesi, an unidentified Protrellus species closely resembling Protrellus shamimi, and an undescribed Blattophila sp. Five new host records are identified for C. ovumglutinosus including the endemic Galápagos cockroaches Chorisoneura carpenteri, Ischnoptera snodgrassii, and Ischnoptera santacruzensis. These endemics were also infected with an undescribed Blatticola sp. Other species recorded resemble known pinworms from other hosts around the world. Prevalence between islands and between host species was variable, but total prevalence for individual pinworm species was consistently low (<10%). A single host specimen examined was infected with more than 1 pinworm species; otherwise only a single species was observed in each infected host. At least 1 introduced pinworm species carried to the islands via invasive cockroach hosts was present in endemic host species, but several globally widespread introduced pinworm species were absent from endemic cockroaches. Santa Cruz was inhabited by the greatest number of pinworm species, likely due to a higher rate of invasive host introduction. This survey, the first from this region, showed that the distribution and transmission of pinworms in the Galápagos Islands is complex and may provide future models of invertebrate dispersal and speciation in an ecosystem already rich with examples of

  7. Sensory Arsenal on the Stinger of the Parasitoid Jewel Wasp and Its Possible Role in Identifying Cockroach Brains

    PubMed Central

    Gal, Ram; Kaiser, Maayan; Haspel, Gal; Libersat, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The parasitoid jewel wasp uses cockroaches as live food supply for its developing larva. To this end, the adult wasp stings a cockroach and injects venom directly inside its brain, turning the prey into a submissive ‘zombie’. Here, we characterize the sensory arsenal on the wasp’s stinger that enables the wasp to identify the brain target inside the cockroach’s head. An electron microscopy study of the stinger reveals (a) cuticular depressions innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron, which are presumably campaniform sensilla; and (b) dome-shaped structures innervated by a single mechanosensory neuron and 4–5 chemosensory neurons, which are presumably contact-chemoreceptive sensilla. Extracellular electrophysiological recordings from stinger afferents show increased firing rate in response to mechanical stimulation with agarose. This response is direction-selective and depends upon the concentration (density) of the agarose, such that the most robust response is evoked when the stinger is stimulated in the distal-to-proximal direction (concomitant with the penetration during the natural stinging behavior) and penetrating into relatively hard (0.75%–2.5%) agarose pellets. Accordingly, wasps demonstrate a normal stinging behavior when presented with cockroaches in which the brain was replaced with a hard (2.5%) agarose pellet. Conversely, wasps demonstrate a prolonged stinging behavior when the cockroach brain was either removed or replaced by a soft (0.5%) agarose pellet, or when stinger sensory organs were ablated prior to stinging. We conclude that the parasitoid jewel wasp uses at least mechanosensory inputs from its stinger to identify the brain within the head capsule of the cockroach prey. PMID:24586962

  8. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, L; Jorgensen, J; Haselton, A; Pitt, A; Rudner, R; Margulis, L

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus. PMID:11762374

  9. [Haeckel: a German Darwinian?].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    German biologist Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) is often considered the most renowned Darwinian in his country since, as early as 1862, he declared that he accepted the conclusions Darwin had reached three years before in On the Origin of Species, and afterwards, he continuously proclaimed himself a supporter of the English naturalist and championed the evolutionary theory. Nevertheless, if we examine carefully his books, in particular his General Morphology (1866), we can see that he carries on a tradition very far from Darwin's thoughts. In spite of his acceptance of the idea of natural selection, that he establishes as an argument for materialism, he adopts, indeed, a conception of evolution that is, in some respects, rather close to Lamarck's views. He is, thus, a good example of the ambiguities of the reception of Darwinism in Germany in the second part of the 19th century. PMID:19281944

  10. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  11. The German Drought Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas; Zink, Matthias; Pommerencke, Julia; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture droughts reduce the amount of water available to plant growth potentially leading e.g. to crop failure or increased forest fire risk. The threat of human livelihoods in developing countries and large economic losses in developed ones are severe consequences of these events. Monitoring the current state of soil water content allows to improve water management to mitigate the associated damages. Since summer 2014, the German Drought Monitor (GDM, available at: www.ufz.de/droughtmonitor) has been established using an operational hydrological modeling system, which consists of 3 steps: (1) the daily download of meteorological forcing data, consistency check and interpolation of this data, (2) running the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM; Samaniego et al. 2010) and saving the state variables at the end of the model run as restart-file for the next days run, and (3) calculation of the soil moisture index (SMI, Samaniego et al. 2013, JHM) and visualization of the drought data. The hydrological model mHM was used to generate daily soil moisture fields for the period 1954-2013 over the entire area of Germany at a high spatial resolution of 4 x 4 km². The model requires daily precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration as forcing. A three-layer soil scheme was used to model the soil moisture dynamics over the entire root zone depth. Based on the 60 year simulation of soil moisture, the frequency distributions have been calculated for each grid cell to derive the soil moisture index. In this beta version, we do a monthly online update of the SMI. Furthermore, a trend analysis of drought events for 69 German subregions since 1954 was conducted. It showed that for most parts of Germany, the frequency of abnormally dry conditions increased while the stronger drought situations with SMI<0.2 decreased at the same time. For the coming year, a stakeholder consultation is planned. The aim is to clarify for whom a drought monitor would be useful, what

  12. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    SciTech Connect

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. )

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

  14. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    PubMed

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens. PMID:24781916

  15. [Cockroaches and co. The role of health pests as allergen source].

    PubMed

    Raulf, M; Sander, I; Gonnissen, D; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T

    2014-05-01

    In most of the cases health pests are carriers of pathogens or parasites which have a negative impact on human health or affect the health of other mammals. What is lesser known is that they can also act as allergens. Most of the health pests in this sense belong to the arthropods, such as cockroaches (Blattaria), mosquitos (Culiciformia), lice (Pediculus humanus corporis), fleas (Siphonaptera) and ticks (Argasidae). In the group of vertebrates rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus), house mice (Mus musculus) and pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are also classified as health pests. Also storage pests which are not carriers of pathogens can induce secondary infestation with hygiene pests or molds and have an underestimated impact on human health. In this article selected examples of health pests and also storage pests as an allergen source are described, taking into account the sensitization prevalence and identified single allergens.

  16. Light-mimicking cockroaches indicate Tertiary origin of recent terrestrial luminescence.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter; Chorvát, Dušan; Fritzsche, Ingo; Hain, Miroslav; Ševčík, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature of the communication and defence of marine organisms, but this phenomenon is highly restricted in the terrestrial biota. Here, we present a geographical distribution of only the third order of luminescent insects--luminescent cockroaches, with all 13 known and/or herein reported new living species (based on deposited specimens). We show that, for the first time, photo-characteristics of three examined species are nearly identical with those of toxic luminescent click beetles, which they mimic. These observations are the evidence for the mimicry by light--a new type of defensive, batesian and interordinal mimicry. Our analysis surprisingly reveals an evolutionary novelty of all living luminescent insects, while in the sea (and possibly in the soil) luminescence is present also phylogenetically in very primitive organisms.

  17. Discontinuous gas exchange exhibition is a heritable trait in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, N G; Matthews, P G D; White, C R

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of insect respiratory gas exchange has long been an area of interest. In particular, the reason why insects from at least five orders exhibit patterns of gas exchange that include regular periods of spiracular closure has been the source of much controversy. Three adaptive hypotheses propose that these discontinuous gas-exchange cycles (DGCs) evolved to either limit water loss across respiratory surfaces, facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. It is possible that DGCs evolved independently multiple times and for different reasons, but for DGCs to be a plausible target for natural selection, they must be heritable and confer a fitness benefit. In a previous study of cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea, we demonstrated that DGCs are repeatable and extend survival under food and water restriction. Here, we show for the first time that DGCs are heritable, suggesting that they are a plausible target for natural selection.

  18. Light-mimicking cockroaches indicate Tertiary origin of recent terrestrial luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Chorvát, Dušan; Fritzsche, Ingo; Hain, Miroslav; Ševčík, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Bioluminescence is a common feature of the communication and defence of marine organisms, but this phenomenon is highly restricted in the terrestrial biota. Here, we present a geographical distribution of only the third order of luminescent insects—luminescent cockroaches, with all 13 known and/or herein reported new living species (based on deposited specimens). We show that, for the first time, photo-characteristics of three examined species are nearly identical with those of toxic luminescent click beetles, which they mimic. These observations are the evidence for the mimicry by light—a new type of defensive, Batesian and interordinal mimicry. Our analysis surprisingly reveals an evolutionary novelty of all living luminescent insects, while in the sea (and possibly in the soil) luminescence is present also phylogenetically in very primitive organisms.

  19. Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Ozdal, Murat; Ozdal, Ozlem Gur; Alguri, Omer Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5% , 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments. PMID:27281995

  20. The Optic Lobes Regulate Circadian Rhythms of Olfactory Learning and Memory in the Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, Alexander J; Page, Terry L

    2016-04-01

    The cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, can be trained in an associative olfactory memory task by either classical or operant conditioning. When trained by classical conditioning, memory formation is regulated by a circadian clock, but once the memory is formed, it can be recalled at any circadian time. In contrast, when trained via operant conditioning, animals can learn the task at any circadian phase, but the ability to recall the long-term memory is tied to the phase of training. The optic lobes of the cockroach contain a circadian clock that drives circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, mating behavior, sensitivity of the compound eye to light, and the sensitivity of olfactory receptors in the antennae. To evaluate the role of the optic lobes in regulating learning and memory processes, the authors examined the effects of surgical ablation of the optic lobes on memory formation in classical conditioning and memory recall following operant conditioning. The effect of optic lobe ablation was to "rescue" the deficit in memory acquisition at a time the animals normally cannot learn and "rescue" the animal's ability to recall a memory formed by operant conditioning at a phase where memory was not normally expressed. The results suggested that the optic lobe pacemaker regulates these processes through inhibition at "inappropriate" times of day. As a pharmacological test of this hypothesis, the authors showed that injections of fipronil, an antagonist of GABA and glutamate-activated chloride channels, had the same effects as optic lobe ablation on memory formation and recall. The data suggest that the optic lobes contain the circadian clock(s) that regulate learning and memory processes via inhibition of neural processes in the brain. PMID:26714872

  1. Block of two subtypes of sodium channels in cockroach neurons by indoxacarb insecticides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xilong; Ikeda, Tomoko; Salgado, Vincent L; Yeh, Jay Z; Narahashi, Toshio

    2005-06-01

    Indoxacarb, a novel insecticide, and its decarbomethoxyllated metabolite, DCJW, are known to block voltage-gated Na(+) channels in insects and mammals, but the mechanism of block is not yet well understood. The present study was undertaken to characterize the action of indoxacarb and DCJW on cockroach Na(+) channels. Na(+) currents were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique from neurons acutely dissociated from thoracic ganglia of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana L. Two types of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na(+) currents were observed, with different voltage dependencies of channel inactivation. Type-I Na(+) currents were inactivated at more negative potentials than type-II Na(+) currents. As a result, these two types of Na(+) channels responded to indoxacarb compounds differentially. At a holding potential of -100 mV, type-I Na(+) currents were inhibited reversibly by 1 microM indoxacarb and irreversibly by 1 microM DCJW in a voltage-dependent manner, whereas type-II Na(+) currents were not affected by either of the compound. However, type-II Na(+) currents were inhibited by indoxacarb or DCJW at more depolarizing membrane potentials, ranging from -60 to -40 mV. The slow inactivation curves of type-I and type-II Na(+) channels were significantly shifted in the hyperpolarizing direction by indoxacarb and DCJW, suggesting that these compounds have high affinities for the inactivated state of the Na(+) channels. It was concluded that the differential blocking actions of indoxacarb insecticides on type-I and type-II Na(+) currents resulted from their different voltage dependence of Na(+) channel inactivation. The irreversible nature of DCJW block may be partially responsible for its potent action in insects.

  2. The Optic Lobes Regulate Circadian Rhythms of Olfactory Learning and Memory in the Cockroach.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, Alexander J; Page, Terry L

    2016-04-01

    The cockroach, Leucophaea maderae, can be trained in an associative olfactory memory task by either classical or operant conditioning. When trained by classical conditioning, memory formation is regulated by a circadian clock, but once the memory is formed, it can be recalled at any circadian time. In contrast, when trained via operant conditioning, animals can learn the task at any circadian phase, but the ability to recall the long-term memory is tied to the phase of training. The optic lobes of the cockroach contain a circadian clock that drives circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, mating behavior, sensitivity of the compound eye to light, and the sensitivity of olfactory receptors in the antennae. To evaluate the role of the optic lobes in regulating learning and memory processes, the authors examined the effects of surgical ablation of the optic lobes on memory formation in classical conditioning and memory recall following operant conditioning. The effect of optic lobe ablation was to "rescue" the deficit in memory acquisition at a time the animals normally cannot learn and "rescue" the animal's ability to recall a memory formed by operant conditioning at a phase where memory was not normally expressed. The results suggested that the optic lobe pacemaker regulates these processes through inhibition at "inappropriate" times of day. As a pharmacological test of this hypothesis, the authors showed that injections of fipronil, an antagonist of GABA and glutamate-activated chloride channels, had the same effects as optic lobe ablation on memory formation and recall. The data suggest that the optic lobes contain the circadian clock(s) that regulate learning and memory processes via inhibition of neural processes in the brain.

  3. Deteriorated housing contributes to high cockroach allergen levels in inner-city households.

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A; Chew, Ginger R; Garfinkel, Robin S

    2002-01-01

    The high prevalence of childhood asthma in low-income, inner-city populations is not fully understood but has been at least partly attributed to the disproportionate exposures associated with socioeconomic disadvantage. The contribution of indoor allergens to asthma is well documented, but links between socioeconomic disadvantage and indoor allergen levels are not clear. We investigated levels of cockroach allergens (Bla g 2) in a sample of 132 Dominican or African American low-income households with young children in northern Manhattan in New York City (40% were receiving public assistance) to determine whether the distribution of allergens is a function of housing deterioration. Deterioration was measured by the presence and number of physical housing problems (holes in the ceilings and walls, water damage, etc.). More than 50% of the sample had two or more types of housing dilapidation, and 67% of the sample reported cockroach sightings in their homes. Samples of dust were collected from kitchen and bedroom surfaces. We hypothesized that the greater the dilapidation, the higher the allergen levels, independent of income, sociocultural factors, and pest-control methods. In addition, we hypothesized that the homes of families characterized by frequent moves (23.5%) would have higher allergen levels than more stable families. Results showed significant positive associations between housing deterioration and allergen levels in kitchens, after adjusting for income and ethnicity, with independent effects of residential stability (p< 0.05). Bedroom allergen levels were associated with housing instability (p < 0.01) and ethnicity (p< 0.01). Findings demonstrated that indoor household allergen levels are related to degree of household disrepair, after adjusting for individual family attributes, suggesting that social-structural aspects of housing may be appropriate targets for public health interventions designed to reduce allergen exposure. PMID:11929744

  4. German Letters and World Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durr, Volker

    1977-01-01

    Reminds us that the concept of World Literature as literary study contributing to the humanistic goal of universal tolerance was first expressed by Goethe, and indicates several ways of teaching German literature with that goal in mind. (Editor)

  5. Mark Twain and "The Awful German Language."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedderich, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes Mark Twain's 1869 essay "The Awful German Language" in terms of Twain's comments on morphological, syntactical, lexical, and phonological features of German. The topic is presented in the context of Twain's German language learning experience. Relevance of the article for German language instruction today is also described. (Author/VWL)

  6. Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

    1989-07-01

    The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

  7. Women as Leaders of Higher Education Institutions: A British-German Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara; Kehm, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the vast majority of countries women are a significant minority in senior academic positions, and as of 2013 only 17% of vice chancellors (VCs) of UK universities and 12% of German Universities were women. This paper discusses findings from a study consisting of interviews with eight female VCs of British and German higher education…

  8. The Seminar for Freshmen as a Platform for Raising Student Awareness of Austrian (and German) Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosellini, Jay Julian

    2012-01-01

    Small German programs need to reach out to first-year students in order to expand the pool of potential majors and minors and to increase program visibility on campus. This article demonstrates how an interdisciplinary Seminar for Freshmen on Vienna and Berlin can be used to introduce students to the study of the German-speaking world by comparing…

  9. Classifying the bacterial gut microbiota of termites and cockroaches: A curated phylogenetic reference database (DictDb).

    PubMed

    Mikaelyan, Aram; Köhler, Tim; Lampert, Niclas; Rohland, Jeffrey; Boga, Hamadi; Meuser, Katja; Brune, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Recent developments in sequencing technology have given rise to a large number of studies that assess bacterial diversity and community structure in termite and cockroach guts based on large amplicon libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Although these studies have revealed important ecological and evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota, classification of the short sequence reads is limited by the taxonomic depth and resolution of the reference databases used in the respective studies. Here, we present a curated reference database for accurate taxonomic analysis of the bacterial gut microbiota of dictyopteran insects. The Dictyopteran gut microbiota reference Database (DictDb) is based on the Silva database but was significantly expanded by the addition of clones from 11 mostly unexplored termite and cockroach groups, which increased the inventory of bacterial sequences from dictyopteran guts by 26%. The taxonomic depth and resolution of DictDb was significantly improved by a general revision of the taxonomic guide tree for all important lineages, including a detailed phylogenetic analysis of the Treponema and Alistipes complexes, the Fibrobacteres, and the TG3 phylum. The performance of this first documented version of DictDb (v. 3.0) using the revised taxonomic guide tree in the classification of short-read libraries obtained from termites and cockroaches was highly superior to that of the current Silva and RDP databases. DictDb uses an informative nomenclature that is consistent with the literature also for clades of uncultured bacteria and provides an invaluable tool for anyone exploring the gut community structure of termites and cockroaches.

  10. Larvae of the parasitoid wasp Ampulex compressa sanitize their host, the American cockroach, with a blend of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Herzner, Gudrun; Schlecht, Anja; Dollhofer, Veronika; Parzefall, Christopher; Harrar, Klaus; Kreuzer, Andreas; Pilsl, Ludwig; Ruther, Joachim

    2013-01-22

    Food resources contaminated with spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms pose severe problems to all higher organisms. Here, we describe a food-hygienic strategy of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa. The wasp larvae develop on and inside the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, a host that can harbor various putrefactive microbes, as well as human and insect pathogens. From P. americana, we isolated the Gram-negative bacterium Serratia marcescens, which is a potent entomopathogen that can rapidly kill insect larvae. It is also known as a food contaminant and as an opportunistic human pathogen. Using behavioral observations and chemical analyses, we demonstrated that A. compressa larvae impregnate their cockroach hosts from inside with large amounts of an oral secretion containing a blend of γ-lactones and isocoumarins with (R)-(-)-mellein [(R)-(-)-3,4-diydro-8-hydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin] and micromolide [(4R,9Z)-octadec-9-en-4-olide] as dominant components. We fractionated hexane extracts of the secretion and investigated the antimicrobial properties of the fraction containing the lactones and isocoumarins, as well as of synthetic (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide, against S. marcescens and a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus hyicus, in broth microdilution assays. The test fraction inhibited growth of both tested bacteria. The activity of the fraction against S. marcescens was explained by (R)-(-)-mellein alone, and the activity against S. hyicus was explained by the combined action of (R)-(-)-mellein and micromolide. Our data suggest that the specific combination of antimicrobials in the larval secretion provides an effective frontline defense against the unpredictable spectrum of microbes that A. compressa larvae may encounter during their development inside their cockroach hosts.

  11. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies. PMID:26200914

  12. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J.; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera—and stem-mantises—would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies. PMID:26200914

  13. Phylogeny of Dictyoptera: Dating the Origin of Cockroaches, Praying Mantises and Termites with Molecular Data and Controlled Fossil Evidence.

    PubMed

    Legendre, Frédéric; Nel, André; Svenson, Gavin J; Robillard, Tony; Pellens, Roseli; Grandcolas, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origin and diversification of organisms requires a good phylogenetic estimate of their age and diversification rates. This estimate can be difficult to obtain when samples are limited and fossil records are disputed, as in Dictyoptera. To choose among competing hypotheses of origin for dictyopteran suborders, we root a phylogenetic analysis (~800 taxa, 10 kbp) within a large selection of outgroups and calibrate datings with fossils attributed to lineages with clear synapomorphies. We find the following topology: (mantises, (other cockroaches, (Cryptocercidae, termites)). Our datings suggest that crown-Dictyoptera-and stem-mantises-would date back to the Late Carboniferous (~ 300 Mya), a result compatible with the oldest putative fossil of stem-dictyoptera. Crown-mantises, however, would be much more recent (~ 200 Mya; Triassic/Jurassic boundary). This pattern (i.e., old origin and more recent diversification) suggests a scenario of replacement in carnivory among polyneopterous insects. The most recent common ancestor of (cockroaches + termites) would date back to the Permian (~275 Mya), which contradicts the hypothesis of a Devonian origin of cockroaches. Stem-termites would date back to the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, which refutes a Triassic origin. We suggest directions in extant and extinct species sampling to sharpen this chronological framework and dictyopteran evolutionary studies.

  14. Making German-American Connections through Culture Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheryl

    1998-01-01

    Describes 12 German-American projects designed for high school students of German, including a biography of a German-American; video presentation on German immigration; oral report on German ancestors; Amish, Pennsylvania Dutch, and Mennonites; German inscriptions on cemetery headstones; interview with a German-speaking immigrant; immigration…

  15. A legal framework for biobanking: the German experience.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jürgen; Paslack, Rainer; Robienski, Jürgen; Cooper, David N; Goebel, Jürgen W; Krawczak, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Although biobanks are vital for modern medical research, serious concerns have been raised about the legal basis and framework of such endeavours. This led the German 'Telematics Platform for Medical Research Networks' ('Telematikplattform für Medizinische Forschungsnetze', TMF) to initiate a project in 2004 that was designed to place German biobanks on a sound legal footing. This project involved the planning, writing and evaluation of an expert report that addresses in great detail the legal issues concerning property rights, medical professional regulations, general liability insurance, resource continuity and research secrecy. Here, we provide a brief summary of the major results of this project.

  16. Mesozoic Rifting in the German North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, R.; Jähne, F.; Arfai, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Graben is the southernmost expressions of the Mesozoic North Sea rift system that includes the Viking Graben, Moray Firth-Witch Ground grabens and the Horda-Egersund half graben. In the southern North Sea the Central Graben extends across the Dutch and the German exclusive economic zones. The structure of the Central Graben in German territorial waters was mapped in great detail in 2D and 3D seismic data and the stratigraphy has been constraint by borehole data. We provide a detailed review of the rifting activity in the German North Sea sector both in time and space and the link between rifting and salt movement. Major rifting activity started in the Central Graben during the Late Triassic and peaked during the Late Jurassic when extensive rift grabens formed, further influenced by halokinetic movements. First subsidence in the Central Graben area appears in the Early Triassic. This is documented by thickness variations in the sedimentary strata from the Triassic to the Jurassic. Remarkably thick sediments were deposited during the Late Triassic along the eastern border fault of the Central Graben and in the Late Jurassic sediments accumulated along graben-wide extensional faults and in rim-synclines of salt-structures. A basin inversion commenced in the Late Cretaceous resulting in an erosion of wide portions of Lower Cretaceous rocks or even complete removal in some parts. The area to the east of the Central Graben faced a completely different evolution. In this area major rifting activity initiated already in the Early to Middle Triassic. This is evident from huge packages of Middle Buntsandstein to Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) sediments in the Horn Graben. Jurassic doming, forming the Mid-North Sea High, resulted in almost complete erosion of Lower and Middle Jurassic sediments in the central German North Sea. Sedimentation continued during the Early and Late Cretaceous. The Glückstadt Graben, which is a structure located farther east has a

  17. German scientific sounding rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, O.

    The German scientific sounding rocket program covers four disciplines: astronomy, aeronomy, magnetosphere, material science. In each of these disciplines there are ongoing projects (e.g., INTERZODIAK, STRAFAM, MAP-WINE, CAESAR, TEXUS). The scientific and technical aspects of these projects will be described. Emphasis will be given to some late technical achievements of DFVLR's Mobile Rocket Base (MORABA) giving support to most of the rocket campaigns. DFVLR-PT is authorized to act as management agency in order to perform and to coordinate German space activities of which the sounding rocket program forms a small part. A brief description of the organization will be given.

  18. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  19. Headstart German Program. Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the fifth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. Each of the 3 units in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to enable the student to use and understand: (1) courtesy expressions; (2) time…

  20. Headstart German Program. Cultural Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…

  1. Headstart German Program. Module 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This is the ninth module of 10 in the German Headstart program. The single unit in the module contains objectives, exercises, and a self-evaluation quiz. In addition, there are several supplementary exercises and self-evaluations. The objective of this module is to familiarize the student with some of the terminology used by military personnel in…

  2. Authentic Video in Intermediate German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutcavage, Charles

    1992-01-01

    Assorted techniques are offered for introducing authentic German video into the intermediate language curriculum. Television commercials, weather forecasts, and news programs are described as tools for enhancing listening comprehension and expanding students' cultural awareness. Various preparatory activities and follow-up assignments are…

  3. The German Hypersonics Technology Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczera, Heribert; Hauck, Helmuth

    1992-12-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for the German development effort toward a technological basis for the development of the reference aerospaceplane two-stage-to-orbit configuration, Saenger. Attention is being given to alternative flight test vehicles, airframe/propulsion system integration methods, and airbreathing propulsion components. European community collaboration is emphasized.

  4. Cyclic gas exchange in the giant burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros: effect of oxygen tension and temperature.

    PubMed

    Woodman, James D; Cooper, Paul D; Haritos, Victoria S

    2007-05-01

    The giant burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, is endemic to north-eastern Australia and excavates a permanent burrow up to 1m deep into soil. Using flow-through respirometry, we investigated gas exchange and water loss at three different oxygen tensions (21%, 10% and 2% at 20 degrees C) and temperatures (10, 20 and 30 degrees C at 21% oxygen). M. rhinoceros employ cyclic gas exchange (CGE) making the species by far the largest insect known to engage in discontinuous ventilation. CGE featured rhythmic bursts of CO(2) dispersed among inter-burst periods of reduced output. CGE was most commonly observed at 20 degrees C and degraded at <10% oxygen. Mild hypoxia (10% oxygen) resulted in a lengthening of the burst period by approximately two-fold; this result is complementary to oxygen consumption data that suggests that the burst period is important in oxygen uptake. When exposed to severe hypoxia (2% oxygen), CGE was degraded to a more erratic continuous pattern. Also, during severe hypoxia, total water loss increased significantly, although CO(2) release was maintained at the same level as in 21% oxygen. During CGE, an increase in temperature from 10 to 20 degrees C caused both water loss and CO(2) output to double; from 20 to 30 degrees C, CO(2) output again doubled but water loss increased by only 31%.

  5. Orcokinins contribute to the regulation of vitellogenin transcription in the cockroach Blattella germanica.

    PubMed

    Ons, Sheila; Bellés, Xavier; Maestro, José L

    2015-11-01

    Orcokinins (OKs) are neuropeptides that were first identified in crustacean through their myotropic activity. In insects, the OK gene gives rise to two mRNAs coding for two different families of conserved mature neuropeptides: OKA and OKB. Although OKs are conserved in many insect species, its physiological role in this animal class is not fully understood. Until now prothoracicotropic, regulatory of light entrainment to the circadian clock and "awakening" activities have been reported for these peptides in different insect species. Here we report the identification of OKA and OKB precursors in the cockroach Blattella germanica. OKA mRNA was detected in brain, whereas OKB mRNA was detected both in brain and midgut. In vivo silencing of OK precursors suggests the involvement of OK gene products in the regulation of vitellogenin expression in the fat body, an action that appears to be independent of juvenile hormone. This is the first time that a function of this kind has been reported for OKs. PMID:26462930

  6. Multiple evolutionary origins of Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches driven by climate change in the Neogene.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-24

    Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species.

  7. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter V; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  8. Physiological Costs of Repetitive Courtship Displays in Cockroaches Handicap Locomotor Performance.

    PubMed

    Mowles, Sophie L; Jepson, Natalie M

    2015-01-01

    Courtship displays are typically thought to have evolved via female choice, whereby females select mates based on the characteristics of a display that is expected to honestly reflect some aspect of the male's quality. Honesty is typically enforced by mechanistic costs and constraints that limit the level at which a display can be performed. It is becoming increasingly apparent that these costs may be energetic costs involved in the production of dynamic, often repetitive displays. A female attending to such a display may thus be assessing the physical fitness of a male as an index of his quality. Such assessment would provide information on his current physical quality as well as his ability to carry out other demanding activities, qualities with which a choosy female should want to provision her offspring. In the current study we use courtship interactions in the Cuban burrowing cockroach, Byrsotria fumigata to directly test whether courtship is associated with a signaler's performance capacity. Males that had produced courtship displays achieved significantly lower speeds and distances in locomotor trials than non-courting control males. We also found that females mated more readily with males that produced a more vigorous display. Thus, males of this species have developed a strategy where they produce a demanding courtship display, while females choose males based on their ability to produce this display. Courtship displays in many taxa often involve dynamic repetitive actions and as such, signals of stamina in courtship may be more widespread than previously thought.

  9. Mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Matthew R.; De Vita, Raffaella; Twigg, Jeffrey N.; Socha, John J.

    2011-09-01

    Insects breathe using an extensive network of flexible air-filled tubes. In some species, the rapid collapse and reinflation of these tubes is used to drive convective airflow, a system that may have bio-inspired engineering applications. The mechanical behavior of these tracheal tubes is critical to understanding how they function in this deformation process. Here, we performed quasi-static tensile tests on ring sections of the main thoracic tracheal trunks from the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) to determine the tracheal mechanical properties in the radial direction. The experimental findings indicate that the stress-strain relationships of these tracheal tubes exhibit some nonlinearities. The elastic modulus of the linear region of the stress-strain curves tubes was found to be 1660 ± 512 MPa. The ultimate tensile strength, ultimate strain and toughness were found to be 23.7 ± 7.33 MPa, 2.0 ± 0.7% and 0.207 ± 0.153 MJ m-3, respectively. This study is the first experimental quantification of insect tracheal tissue, and represents a necessary step toward understanding the mechanical role of tracheal tubes in insect respiration.

  10. Variation in the mechanical properties of tracheal tubes in the American cockroach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Winston R.; Webster, Matthew R.; Socha, John J.; De Vita, Raffaella

    2014-05-01

    The insect cuticle serves the protective role of skin and the supportive role of the skeleton while being lightweight and flexible to facilitate flight. The smart design of the cuticle confers camouflage, thermo-regulation, communication, self-cleaning, and anti-wetting properties to insects. The mechanical behavior of the internal cuticle of the insect in tracheae remains largely unexplored due to their small size. In order to characterize the material properties of insect tracheae and understand their role during insect respiration, we conducted tensile tests on ring sections of tracheal tubes of American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). A total of 33 ring specimens collected from 14 tracheae from the upper thorax of the insects were successfully tested. The ultimate tensile strength (22.6 ± 13.3 MPa), ultimate strain (1.57 ± 0.68%), elastic modulus (1740 ± 840 MPa), and toughness (0.175 ± 0.156 MJ m-3) were measured. We examined the high variance in mechanical properties statistically and demonstrated that ring sections excised from the same trachea exhibit comparable mechanical properties. Our results will form the basis for future studies aimed at determining the structure-function relationship of insect tracheal tubes, ultimately inspiring the design of multi-functional materials and structures.

  11. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  12. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter V.; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S.; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred.

  13. Structure of tracheae and the functional implications for collapse in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Webster, Matthew R; Socha, John J; Teresi, Luciano; Nardinocchi, Paola; De Vita, Raffaella

    2015-12-01

    The tracheal tubes of insects are complex and heterogeneous composites with a microstructural organization that affects their function as pumps, valves, or static conduits within the respiratory system. In this study, we examined the microstructure of the primary thoracic tracheae of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The organization of the taenidia, which represents the primary source of structural reinforcement of the tracheae, was analyzed. We found that the taenidia were more disorganized in the regions of highest curvature of the tracheal tube. We also used a simple finite element model to explore the effect of cross-sectional shape and distribution of taenidia on the collapsibility of the tracheae. The eccentricity of the tracheal cross-section had a stronger effect on the collapse properties than did the distribution of taenidia. The combination of the macro-scale geometry, meso-scale heterogeneity, and microscale organization likely enables rhythmic tracheal compression during respiration, ultimately driving oxygen-rich air to cells and tissues throughout the insect body. The material design principles of these natural composites could potentially aid in the development of new bio-inspired microfluidic systems based on the differential collapse of tracheae-like networks.

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of cellulolytic enzyme genes from representative lineages of termites and a related cockroach.

    PubMed

    Todaka, Nemuri; Inoue, Tetsushi; Saita, Kanako; Ohkuma, Moriya; Nalepa, Christine A; Lenz, Michael; Kudo, Toshiaki; Moriya, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between xylophagous termites and the protists resident in their hindguts is a textbook example of symbiosis. The essential steps of lignocellulose degradation handled by these protists allow the host termites to thrive on a wood diet. There has never been a comprehensive analysis of lignocellulose degradation by protists, however, as it has proven difficult to establish these symbionts in pure culture. The trends in lignocellulose degradation during the evolution of the host lineage are also largely unknown. To clarify these points without any cultivation technique, we performed meta-expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of cDNA libraries originating from symbiotic protistan communities in four termite species and a wood-feeding cockroach. Our results reveal the establishment of a degradation system with multiple enzymes at the ancestral stage of termite-protistan symbiosis, especially GHF5 and 7. According to our phylogenetic analyses, the enzymes comprising the protistan lignocellulose degradation system are coded not only by genes innate to the protists, but also genes acquired by the protists via lateral transfer from bacteria. This gives us a fresh perspective from which to understand the evolutionary dynamics of symbiosis.

  15. Multiple evolutionary origins of Australian soil-burrowing cockroaches driven by climate change in the Neogene.

    PubMed

    Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2016-02-24

    Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species. PMID:26888035

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Toxicity of Insecticide Formulations from Different Classes against American Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattidae)

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Ruhma; Manzoor, Farkhanda; Adalat, Rooma; Abdul-Sattar, Abida; Syed, Azka

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate the insecticidal efficacy of four different classes of insecticides: pyrethroids, organophosphates, phenyl-pyrazoles and neo-nicotenoids. One representative chemical from each class was selected to compare the toxicity: deltamethrin from pyrethroids, Dichlorovinyl Dimethyl Phosphate (DDVP) from organophosphates, fipronil from phenyl-pyrazoles and imidacloprid from neo-nicotenoids. The objective of this study was to determine which of these insecticides were most effective against American cockroach. Methods: These insecticides were tested for their LC50 values against Periplaneta americana under topical bioassay method, using different concentrations for each chemical. Results: Fipronil 2.5% EC was highly effective at all concentrations applied, while DDVP 50% EC was least toxic amongst all. One way analysis of variance confirmed significant differences between mortality of P. americana and different concentrations applied (P< 0.05). Conclusion: Locality differentiation is an important factor in determining the range of resistance between various localities, as all three localities behaved differently in terms of their levels of resistance. PMID:25629062

  17. Immobilizing and lethal effects of spider venoms on the cockroach and the common mealbeetle.

    PubMed

    Friedel, T; Nentwig, W

    1989-01-01

    Immobilizing and lethal effects of the venoms obtained from six spider species (Brachypelma albopilosum, Atrax robustus, Cupiennius salei, Selenops mexicanus, Tegenaria atrica, Argiope bruennichi) were tested on Blatta orientalis (cockroach) and Tenebrio molitor (common mealbeetle). The immobilizing effects were quantified by measuring insect locomotor activity in circle arenas observed over 72 hr after venom injection. Both insect species showed cramps, quivering and jerking of the limbs as well as flaccid paralysis after venom injection. Through relative toxicity of the venoms tested is the same in T. molitor and B. orientalis, T. molitor is absolutely less sensitive to spider venoms. The effects on locomotor activity show time characteristics specific for each venom. A dependence of the venom paralyzing effects on insect locomotor activity, low intensity of the initial excitatory phase of the venom effects and partial recovery of the insects was found with A. bruennichi and T. atrica venom. The maximal venom yields of A. bruennichi and S. mexicanus are not lethal to B. orientalis, indicating that the mere immobilizing effects of spider venoms are far more crucial to prey capture than their lethal effects. The contribution of a variety of differently acting neurotoxic components in spider venoms to the observed venom effects on insects and the significance of the venoms in spider nutrition, hunting behaviour and ecology are discussed. PMID:2728023

  18. Origin of origami cockroach reveals long-lasting (11 Ma) phenotype instability following viviparity.

    PubMed

    Vršanský, Peter V; Šmídová, Lucia; Valaška, Daniel; Barna, Peter; Vidlička, Ľubomír; Takáč, Peter; Pavlik, Lubomir; Kúdelová, Tatiana; Karim, Talia S; Zelagin, David; Smith, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Viviparity evolved in bacteria, plants, ˃141 vertebrate lineages (ichthyosaurs, lizards, fishes, mammals, and others), and in 11 of 44 insect orders. Live-birth cockroaches preserved with brood sac (3D recovered two times optically) included Diploptera vladimir, Diploptera savba, Diploptera gemini spp.n., D. sp.1-2, and Stegoblatta irmgardgroehni from Green River, Colorado; Quilchena, Republic; McAbee, Canada; and Baltic amber, Russia (49, 54, and 45 Ma). They evolved from rare and newly evolved Blaberidae; they radiated circumtropically, later expanded into SE Asia, and have now spread to Hawaii and the SE USA. Association of autapomorphic characters that allow for passive and active protections from parasitic insects (unique wing origami pleating identical with its egg case-attacking wasp) suggest a response to high parasitic loads. Synchronized with global reorganization of the biota, morphotype destabilization in roaches lasted approximately 11-22 Ma, including both the adaptation of novel characters and the reduction of others. Thus, while viviparity can be disadvantageous, in association with new Bauplans and/or behaviors, it can contribute to the evolution of taxa with viviparous representatives that are slightly selectively preferred. PMID:27614456

  19. Structure of tracheae and the functional implications for collapse in the American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Webster, Matthew R; Socha, John J; Teresi, Luciano; Nardinocchi, Paola; De Vita, Raffaella

    2015-12-01

    The tracheal tubes of insects are complex and heterogeneous composites with a microstructural organization that affects their function as pumps, valves, or static conduits within the respiratory system. In this study, we examined the microstructure of the primary thoracic tracheae of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) using a combination of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The organization of the taenidia, which represents the primary source of structural reinforcement of the tracheae, was analyzed. We found that the taenidia were more disorganized in the regions of highest curvature of the tracheal tube. We also used a simple finite element model to explore the effect of cross-sectional shape and distribution of taenidia on the collapsibility of the tracheae. The eccentricity of the tracheal cross-section had a stronger effect on the collapse properties than did the distribution of taenidia. The combination of the macro-scale geometry, meso-scale heterogeneity, and microscale organization likely enables rhythmic tracheal compression during respiration, ultimately driving oxygen-rich air to cells and tissues throughout the insect body. The material design principles of these natural composites could potentially aid in the development of new bio-inspired microfluidic systems based on the differential collapse of tracheae-like networks. PMID:26584154

  20. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology.

  1. The German Statutory Health Insurance Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassen, Manfred

    1993-01-01

    Describes the German health insurance system which is mandatory for nearly all German citizens. Explains that, along with pension, accident, and unemployment insurance, health insurance is one of four pillars of the German national social security system. Asserts that controlling costs while maintaining high health care standards is a national…

  2. Open Syllable Lengthening in West Germanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahiri, Aditi; Dresher, B. Elan

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to show that open syllable lengthening (OSL) was part of the grammar of the West Germanic languages: Middle English, Middle Dutch, and Middle High German. Claims that all three languages endeavored to maintain and maximize the Germanic foot, and OSL contributed in different ways to do so. (Author/VWL)

  3. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Orthoptera: Blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum), when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. We did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. Our results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr was lost by defecation.

  4. Bioelimination of /sup 51/Cr and /sup 85/Sr by cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa (orthoptera: blaberidae), as affected by mites, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi (parasitiformes: laelapidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Schowalter, T.D.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1982-03-01

    The rates of Chromium-51 and Strontium-85 assimilation and bioelimination by the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa (Schaum) are described when the symbiotic mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi Till, was present or removed. Mite-infested cockroaches had significantly higher rates of /sup 51/Cr elimination relative to mite-free cockroaches, implying more rapid gut clearance times. The authors did not find a significant mite effect on /sup 85/Sr elimination by the host, but mite effects could have been masked by the apparently unique process of nutrient assimilation and elimination by G. portentosa. Conventional models of radioactive tracer bioelimination predict a rapid initial loss of tracer due to gut clearance, followed by a slower loss due to excretion of assimilated tracer. The results indicated that assimilated /sup 85/Sr was eliminated earlier than unassimilated /sup 85/Sr, which was lost by defecation.

  5. Dictionary of surfactants English/German and German/English

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary is supplement to the monograph ''Surfactants in Consumer Products'' edited by Professor Dr. J. Falbe. It comprises approximately 3.200 keywords of the chemistry, technology and applications of surfactants in English/German and German/English. In the monograph the physical-chemical principles of action of the surfactants, their production and their application in laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and cleaning agents as well as in cosmetics and toiletries are discussed. The technological aspects of application and formulation along with those of production and manufacturing processes are illustrated. Ecological and toxicological questions are probed in depth. Finally, important economic data concerning this branch of industry as well as an attempt to provide a perspective with regard to the future of the surfactant market round out the picture.

  6. [German Urological Associations under National Socialism].

    PubMed

    Krischel, M; Moll, F; Fangerau, H

    2011-09-01

    The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (German Urological Association), established in 1907, was a German-Austrian medical society in which Jewish physicians held important positions. When the Nazis seized power in 1933, the Austrian Hans Rubritius was president of the society. The non-German presidency and the exclusion of Jewish colleagues from the professional society and medical practice led to a halt of the society's activities. At the same time in the mid 1930s, German urologists founded the Gesellschaft Reichsdeutscher Urologen (Association of Reichs-German Urologists) whose members aligned themselves with Nazi health policies and in turn received professional and personal benefits.

  7. Competition in the German pharmacy market: an empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmaceutical products are an important component of expenditure on public health insurance in the Federal Republic of Germany. For years, German policy makers have regulated public pharmacies in order to limit the increase in costs. One reform has followed another, main objective being to increase competition in the pharmacy market. It is generally assumed that an increase in competition would reduce healthcare costs. However, there is a lack of empirical proof of a stronger orientation of German public pharmacies towards competition thus far. Methods This paper analyses the self-perceptions of owners of German public pharmacies and their orientation towards competition in the pharmacy markets. It is based on a cross-sectional survey (N = 289) and distinguishes between successful and less successful pharmacies, the location of the pharmacies (e.g. West German States and East German States) and the gender of the pharmacy owner. The data are analysed descriptively by survey items and employing bivariate and structural equation modelling. Results The analysis reveals that the majority of owners of public pharmacies in Germany do not currently perceive very strong competitive pressure in the market. However, the innovativeness of the pharmacist is confirmed as most relevant for net revenue development and the profit margin. Some differences occur between regions, e.g. public pharmacies in West Germany have a significantly higher profit margin. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the German healthcare reforms aimed at increasing the competition between public pharmacies in Germany have not been completely successful. Many owners of public pharmacies disregard instruments of active customer-orientated management (such as customer loyalty or an offensive position and economies of scale), which could give them a competitive advantage. However, it is clear that those pharmacists who strive for systematic and innovative management and adopt an

  8. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach) following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1) the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2) the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds. Leg Regrowth Results First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05) than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance). Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs. Neurophysiology Results Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement. Summary It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content. PMID:26824931

  9. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  10. Cockroaches and flies in mechanical transmission of medical important parasites in Khaldyia Village, El-Fayoum, Governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T; Gneidy, Morsy Rateb

    2012-04-01

    The role of non-blood sucking insects in dissemination of human parasites was investigated in Khaldyia Village, Al-Fayoum Governorate over during the summer of 2011. A total of 278 American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), and 508 house flies Musca domestica var. vicina were collected. The insects were collected indoors and outdoors. Flies were abundant in defecation areas and around houses. The recovered zoonotic parasites identified were cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Cryptosporidium parvum and Balantidium coli, and eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Anchylostoma deodunale, Enterobius vermicularis, and Trichuris trichura as well as larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:22662605

  11. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services. PMID:11066999

  12. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  13. Instantaneous kinematic phase reflects neuromechanical response to lateral perturbations of running cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Revzen, Shai; Burden, Samuel A; Moore, Talia Y; Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Full, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Instantaneous kinematic phase calculation allows the development of reduced-order oscillator models useful in generating hypotheses of neuromechanical control. When perturbed, changes in instantaneous kinematic phase and frequency of rhythmic movements can provide details of movement and evidence for neural feedback to a system-level neural oscillator with a time resolution not possible with traditional approaches. We elicited an escape response in cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) that ran onto a movable cart accelerated laterally with respect to the animals' motion causing a perturbation. The specific impulse imposed on animals (0.50 [Formula: see text] 0.04 m s[Formula: see text]; mean, SD) was nearly twice their forward speed (0.25 [Formula: see text] 0.06 m s[Formula: see text]. Instantaneous residual phase computed from kinematic phase remained constant for 110 ms after the onset of perturbation, but then decreased representing a decrease in stride frequency. Results from direct muscle action potential recordings supported kinematic phase results in showing that recovery begins with self-stabilizing mechanical feedback followed by neural feedback to an abstracted neural oscillator or central pattern generator. Trials fell into two classes of forward velocity changes, while exhibiting statistically indistinguishable frequency changes. Animals pulled away from the side with front and hind legs of the tripod in stance recovered heading within 300 ms, whereas animals that only had a middle leg of the tripod resisting the pull did not recover within this period. Animals with eight or more legs might be more robust to lateral perturbations than hexapods.

  14. Environmental exposure to cockroach allergens: analysis with monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Pollart, S M; Smith, T F; Morris, E C; Gelber, L E; Platts-Mills, T A; Chapman, M D

    1991-02-01

    Quantitative two-site monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based enzyme-linked immunoassays for two cockroach (CR) allergens, Bla g I and Bla g II, have been developed and used to measure allergen levels in house-dust samples. Dust collected from the CR-infested homes of two patients with asthma from Charlottesville, Va., demonstrated wide variation in the levels of Bla g I, depending on the location of dust collection. Dust from kitchen floors and cabinets contained 50-fold more allergen (mean, 10,755 U/gm of dust) than dust from bedrooms and upholstered furniture (mean, 204 U/gm). One hundred forty-five dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and living rooms of 22 children with asthma and 16 control subjects without asthma living in Atlanta, Ga. Twenty-seven of the 38 homes (17/22 children with asthma; 10/16 control subjects) had detectable Bla g I (4 to 1340 U/gm of dust). Bla g II levels were assayed in 40 kitchen, bedroom, and living room samples from homes in Wilmington, Del. Highest levels of Bla g II were detected in kitchen-floor dust (300 U/gm of dust). Additionally, approximately 20% of homes with no visual evidence of CR infestation had significant levels of Bla g II in at least one dust sample (greater than 4 U/gm of dust). Our results demonstrate that CR may be an occult allergen in homes. The kitchen appears to be the primary site of CR-allergen accumulation, but significant CR-allergen levels can also be found at other sites in the home. The MAb-based assays can be used for quantitation of environmental exposure to CR allergens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Neural responses from the wind-sensitive interneuron population in four cockroach species.

    PubMed

    McGorry, Clare A; Newman, Caroline N; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D

    2014-07-01

    The wind-sensitive insect cercal sensory system is involved in important behaviors including predator detection and initiating terrestrial escape responses as well as flight maintenance. However, not all insects possessing a cercal system exhibit these behaviors. In cockroaches, wind evokes strong terrestrial escape responses in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, but only weak escape responses in Blaberus craniifer and no escape responses in Gromphadorhina portentosa. Both P. americana and B. craniifer possesses pink flight muscles correlated with flight ability while B. germanica possesses white flight muscles that cannot support flight and G. portentosa lacks wings. These different behavioral combinations could correlate with differences in sensory processing of wind information by the cercal system. In this study, we focused on the wind-sensitive interneurons (WSIs) since they provide input to the premotor/motor neurons that influence terrestrial escape and flight behavior. Using extracellular recordings, we characterized the responses from the WSI population by generating stimulus-response (S-R) curves and examining spike firing rates. Using cluster analysis, we also examined the activity of individual units (four per species, though not necessarily homologous) comprising the population response in each species. Our main results were: (1) all four species possessed ascending WSIs in the abdominal connectives; (2) wind elicited the weakest WSI responses (lowest spike counts and spike rates) in G. portentosa; (3) wind elicited WSI responses in B. craniifer that were greater than P. americana or B. germanica; (4) the activity of four individual units comprising the WSI population response in each species was similar across species.

  16. Nonlinear cable properties of the giant axon of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Segev, I; Parnas, I

    1985-05-01

    The steady state nonlinear properties of the giant axon membrane of the cockroach Periplaneta americana were studied by means of intracellular electrodes. The resistivity of this membrane markedly decreases in response to small subthreshold depolarizations. The specific slope resistance is reduced by twofold at 5 mV depolarization and by a factor of 14 at 20 mV depolarization. As a result, the spatial decay, V(X), of depolarizing potentials is enhanced when compared with the passive (exponential) decay. This enhancement is maximal at a distance of 1-1.5 mm from a point of subthreshold (0-20 mV) depolarizing perturbation. At that distance, the difference between the actual potential and the potential expected in the passive axon is approximately 30%. The effects of membrane rectification on V(X) were analyzed quantitatively with a novel derivation based on Cole's theorem, which enables one to calculate V(X) directly from the input current-voltage (I0-V) relation of a long axon. It is shown that when the experimental I0-V curve is replotted as (I0Rin)-1 against V (where Rin is the input resistance at the resting potential), the integral between any two potentials (V1 greater than V2) on this curve is the distance, in units of the resting space constant, over which V1 attenuates to V2. Excellent agreement was found between the experimental V(X) and the predicted value based solely on the input I0-V relation. The results demonstrate that the rectifying properties of the giant axon membrane must be taken into account when the electrotonic spread of even small subthreshold potentials is studied, and that, in the steady state, this behavior can be extracted from measurements at a single point. The effect of rectification on synaptic efficacy is also discussed.

  17. Neural responses from the wind-sensitive interneuron population in four cockroach species

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Clare A.; Newman, Caroline N.; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The wind-sensitive insect cercal sensory system is involved in important behaviors including predator detection and initiating terrestrial escape responses as well as flight maintenance. However, not all insects possessing a cercal system exhibit these behaviors. In cockroaches, wind evokes strong terrestrial escape responses in Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica, but only weak escape responses in Blaberus craniifer and no escape responses in Gromphadorhina portentosa. Both P. americana and Blab. craniifer possesses pink flight muscles correlated with flight ability while Blat. germanica possesses white flight muscles that cannot support flight and G. portentosa lacks wings. These different behavioral combinations could correlate with differences in sensory processing of wind information by the cercal system. In this study, we focused on the wind-sensitive interneurons (WSIs) since they provide input to the premotor/motor neurons that influence terrestrial escape and flight behavior. Using extracellular recordings, we characterized the responses from the WSI population by generating stimulus-response (S-R) curves and examining spike firing rates. Using cluster analysis, we also examined the activity of individual units (four per species, though not necessarily homologous) comprising the population response in each species. Our main results were: 1) all four species possessed ascending WSIs in the abdominal connectives; 2) wind elicited the weakest WSI responses (lowest spike counts and spike rates) in G. portentosa; 3) wind elicited WSI responses in Blab. craniifer that were greater than P. americana or Blat. germanica; 4) the activity of four individual units comprising the WSI population response in each species was similar across species. PMID:24879967

  18. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine's actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of "dopaminergic" neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory formation

  19. Functional analysis of Scr during embryonic and post-embryonic development in the cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hrycaj, Steven; Chesebro, John; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2010-05-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana represents a basal insect lineage that undergoes the ancestral hemimetabolous mode of development. Here, we examine the embryonic and post-embryonic functions of the hox gene Scr in Periplaneta as a way of better understanding the roles of this gene in the evolution of insect body plans. During embryogenesis, Scr function is strictly limited to the head with no role in the prothorax. This indicates that the ancestral embryonic function of Scr was likely restricted to the head, and that the posterior expansion of expression in the T1 legs may have preceded any apparent gain of function during evolution. In addition, Scr plays a pivotal role in the formation of the dorsal ridge, a structure that separates the head and thorax in all insects. This is evidenced by the presence of a supernumerary segment that occurs between the labial and T1 segments of RNAiScr first nymphs and is attributed to an alteration in engrailed (en) expression. The fact that similar Scr phenotypes are observed in Tribolium but not in Drosophila or Oncopeltus reveals the presence of lineage-specific variation in the genetic architecture that controls the formation of the dorsal ridge. In direct contrast to the embryonic roles, Scr has no function in the head region during post-embryogenesis in Periplaneta, and instead, strictly acts to provide identity to the T1 segment. Furthermore, the strongest Periplaneta RNAiScr phenotypes develop ectopic wing-like tissue that originates from the posterior region of the prothoracic segment. This finding provides a novel insight into the current debate on the morphological origin of insect wings.

  20. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes), detoxification (37 genes) and oxidative stress response (16 genes) were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase) were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments. PMID:27153200

  1. Deutsche Feste. Sitten und Brauche mit Liedern Gedichten Ratseln. (German Festivities. Habits and Customs Using Songs and Stories).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawrysz, Ilse, Ed.

    This teacher's guide of supplemental cultural materials includes descriptions of major celebrations and cultural activities of the German people. The text includes songs, poems, and stories about the New Year, carnival, springtime, Easter, fall festivals, and Christmas, as well as a traditional German wedding. (TR)

  2. Pharmacological characterization of the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: evidence for a distinct dopamine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, G.L.; Gole, J.W.D.; Notman, H.J.; Downer, R.G.H.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine increases cyclic AMP production in crude membrane preparations of cockroach brain with plateaus in cyclic AMP production occurring between 1-10 ..mu..M and 10 mM. Maximal production of cyclic AMP is 2.25 fold greater than that of control values. Octopamine also increases cyclic AMP production with a Ka of 1.4 ..mu..M and maximal production 3.5 fold greater than that of control. 5-Hydroxytryptamine does not increase cyclic AMP production. The effects of octopamine and dopamine are fully additive. The vertebrate dopamine agonists ADTN and epinine stimulate the dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (AC) with Ka values of 4.5 and 0.6 ..mu..M respectively and with maximal effectiveness 1.7 fold greater than that of control. The selective D/sub 2/-dopamine agonist LY-171555 stimulates cyclic AMP production to a similar extent with a Ka of 50 ..mu..M. Other dopamine agonists have no stimulatory effects. With the exception of mianserin, /sup 3/H-piflutixol is displaced from brain membranes by dopamine antagonists with an order of potency similar to that observed for the inhibition of dopamine-sensitive AC. The results indicate that the octopamine- and dopamine-sensitive AC in cockroach brain can be distinguished pharmacologically and the dopamine receptors coupled to AC have pharmacological characteristics distinct from vertebrate D/sup 1/- and D/sup 2/-dopamine receptors. 33 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Look at That!: Using Madagascar Hissing Cockroaches to Develop and Enhance the Scientific Inquiry Skill of Observation in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students can develop and enhance their observation skills by participating in teacher-guided scientific inquiry (NRC 1996) activities where they observe animals that tend to act in known, predictable ways. Madagascar hissing cockroaches ("Gromphadorhina portentosa") are one such animal. This article presents beginning, intermediate,…

  4. A natural fungal infection of a sylvatic cockroach with Metarhizium blattodeae sp. nov., a member of the M. flavoviride species complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild, forest-dwelling cockroach from the subfamily Ectobiidae (order Blattodea) in a nature reserve in Cavalcante, in the state of Goias, Brazil, was found to be infected by a new, genetically distinct species in the Metarhizium flavoviride species complex that we describe here as Metarhizium blat...

  5. The Working Group for Equal Opportunities (AKC) of the German Physical Society (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Hanna

    2009-04-01

    The Working Group for Equal Opportunities (AKC) of the German Physical Society was founded 10 years ago. Its major task is to advocate for the interests of female physicists in the German Physical Society and society in general. The AKC strives for: better frameworks and structures for women in physics, equal opportunities for male and female physicists, increased numbers of female physicists in leading positions in academia and industry, and the promotion of young female physicists.

  6. [Anglicisms in the German medical vocabulary].

    PubMed

    Schleyer, F

    1985-01-01

    In view of an ever-increasing infiltration of the German medical vocabulary by Britishisms and Americanisms, a linguistic attempt was made to categorize this phraseology as follows: more or less incorporated terminology, "internationalized" terms, identical translations, unnecessary use of English expressions instead of German synonyms, borrowing from the English with an alteration of the original meaning, and German neologisms on the basis of English vocabular material. Specimens from all these categories are enumerated.

  7. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  8. Cadmium exposure from food: the German LExUKon project.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Markus A; Lindtner, Oliver; Blume, Katrin; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Schneider, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium is a very toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II) with about 20 000 participants (15 371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was generated. Cadmium concentrations in food were compiled from the German food monitoring programme, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature, covering the years from 1993 to 2008, and were multiplied with consumption data to obtain estimates of cadmium intake from food. Consumption-weighted mean cadmium concentrations per main food group were highest for cereals, followed by oily seeds & fruits, and vegetables. Due to both high consumption and considerable occurrence of cadmium, cereals and vegetables contributed most to the intake of the general public, followed by the main groups beverages, fruits & nuts, and dairy products (including milk). Cadmium intake from food was estimated to be 1.46 and 2.35 µg kg(-1) bw week(-1) for average and high-end consumers, respectively. This corresponds to 58% for average and 95% for high-end consumers, respectively, of a reference value derived from a recent health risk evaluation performed by EFSA, using the benchmark approach. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification and some foods not considered due to lacking occurrence data. In conclusion, the estimated cadmium intake of the German population from food is still close to health-based reference values. Further efforts to reduce cadmium intake are required. PMID:24645975

  9. Response dynamics and directional properties of nonspiking local interneurons in the cockroach cercal system.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Y; Arima, T; Okuma, J; Hasegawa, Y

    1993-06-01

    The response properties and directional receptive fields of nonspiking local interneurons in the cercal system of the cockroach are described. Wind-evoked responses were recorded intracellularly, and then analyzed by means of the Wiener kernel method in which a Gaussian white noise signal was used as a stimulus. Cross-correlation between the response and the white noise signal produced first- (linear) and second-order (nonlinear) kernels that were used to define input-output characteristics of the interneurons. Three sets of interneurons were distinguished on the basis of kernel analysis. First, responses in interneurons 101, 107, 111, and 203 were characterized predominantly by a differentiating first-order kernel, which suggests a linear relationship to the stimulus. The amplitude and waveform of the kernel changed with the change in stimulus angle, indicating that these four cells are directionally sensitive. Second, responses in interneurons 102 and 103 were also directionally sensitive but highly nonlinear. The first-order kernel was biphasic, whereas the second-order kernel had an elongated depolarizing peak on the diagonal. The response dynamics were accounted for by a cascade of two filters, a linear band-pass filter and a static nonlinear filter, in which the nonlinearity is a signal compression (or a rectification). Third, responses in interneurons 104 and 201 consist largely of the second-order nonlinear component. The second-order kernel, which had an elongated depolarizing peak or a hyperpolarizing valley on the diagonal, did not show any directional preference. The second-order nonlinearity was dynamic, and could be modeled by a band-pass linear filter-static nonlinearity-low-pass linear filter cascade, where the static nonlinearity is a full-wave rectification. The band-pass filter would simply reflect the mechanical property of cercal hair sensilla, whereas the low-pass filter represents the transfer at synapses between the cercal afferents and the

  10. Strategic 3-hydroxy-2-butanone release in the dominant male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Chun; Yang, Rou-Ling; Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Chou, Szu-Ying; Kou, Rong

    2007-11-01

    In the lobster cockroach Nauphoete cinerea, the dominant subordinate hierarchy formed via the agonistic interactions is unstable, and changes in rank order are common. Our previous results showed that in the first encounter fight during initial rank formation, microgram levels of 3H-2B are released by the aggressive posture (AP)-adopting dominant male. In the present study, the pattern of daily pheromone (3H-2B) release during the domination period and on the day of rank switch, rank duration, and rank switch frequency were investigated in three-male groups and six-male groups to examine the effect of higher frequency of agonistic encounters. The results showed that, in the three-male groups (50-day observation period), daily 3H-2B release rate was not constant, but fluctuated, the average duration of dominant rank was 16.6 ± 2.0 days, rank switch occurred in 58.8% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/50 days) was 1.4 ± 0.2. For the six-male groups (30-day observation period), the daily 3H-2B release rate also fluctuated, but the duration of dominant rank was significantly shorter at 4.2 ± 0.6 days, rank switch occurred in 100% of groups, and the frequency of rank switching (average number of rank switches/group/30 days) was significantly higher at 6.9 ± 0.6. The results for both sets of male groups showed that as a new rank formed (either on the first encounter day or on the day of rank switching), the dominant status was significantly associated with a higher 3H-2B release rate. In the animal kingdom, fighting usually involves communication or the exchange of signals, and the results of this study indicated that the fluctuating daily 3H-2B release rate adopted by the dominants is a kind of strategic release and the 3H-2B release rate is a signal used to determine dominance.

  11. Creating Germans Abroad: White Education and the Colonial Condition in German Southwest Africa, 1894-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walther, Daniel Joseph

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of German colonial supporters and authorities, appropriate white education in the settler colony of Southwest Africa (SWA) was essential for maintaining German hegemony in the territory. In order to reach this objective, the German colonial administration in SWA, with assistance from pedagogues and institutions in Germany,…

  12. Deutschunterricht und deutsche Hochlautung (German Instruction and the High German Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelz, Heinrich P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the questions of which pronunciation model should be used in German courses and how closely students should be expected to duplicate it. After a short history of efforts to standardize German, it is suggested that the new "Aussprache Duden" is a good basis for teaching pronunciation. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  13. The German-Spanish connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. J.

    1980-04-01

    Cooperation between West Germany and Spain in the field of observational astronomy is discussed, with particular attention given to the newly operational German-Spanish Astronomical Center atop Calar Alto, Spain. The history of German and Spanish observational astronomy is briefly indicated as motivation for the joint venture, and the construction of the Calar Alto observatory, a branch of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, is outlined. The Center's instruments consist of the operational 1.2-m reflector employing an aplanatic Ritchey-Chretien system and a two-element field corrector, the 2.2-m reflector again with a Ritchey-Chretien optical system with field corrector however using a four-mirror coude arrangement, and a 3.5-m reflector under construction. Current objects of research include the bipolar H II region S 106, and extragalactic objects such as BL Lac objects, quasars and active galaxies. Organizational and operational aspects of the Center and the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy are also outlined.

  14. The First Suggestopedia German Course in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gassner-Roberts, Sigrid

    An account of personal experiences and experiments with a suggestopedic German course taught at the University of Adelaide in Australia is presented. Summaries of the students' background and of their continuous achievements in the German class are provided. The class was conducted primarily according to the "Manual of Classroom Procedures Based…

  15. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  16. The Role of German in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Juergen

    This historical overview of German studies in Japan, dating from the birth of modern Japan in the 1870's to the present time, includes commentary on the nature and scope of existing language programs. The importance of German idealism--reflected in the philosophy of Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Marx--on Japanese culture is noted.…

  17. Language History for Teaching and Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information about the history of the German language and makes pertinent suggestions for teaching German as a Foreign Language. The reasoning for such an approach is presented, along with supportive new empirical data and a related professional directive. A selected survey of historical, explanatory points from the literature…

  18. Authentic Materials for the Business German Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denk, Walter Josef; Karottki, Hartmut

    A discussion of authentic instructional materials for the business German classroom examines the reasons for using such materials, and focuses on reading strategies to be used with authentic German texts. Authentic materials' advantages include their communicative function, their intended use by a real audience, and their specific form. It is…

  19. Facebook Used in a German Film Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leier, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Looking for a way to make German language study more relevant and to step out of the conventional classroom setting, I introduced Facebook (FB) as a learning platform to my intermediate German students at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. The students took part in a film competition. A FB group was created and the films were uploaded. The…

  20. Microcomputer Software for Teaching German: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Lisa

    This report examines the strengths and weaknesses of the following 12 microcomputer programs: (1) Language Teacher Series: TRS-80; (2) Language Teacher Series: Atari; (3) Apfeldeutsch; (4) Author I; (5) Dasher; (6) The Definite Article; (7) Flashcard; (8) German Packages I, II, and III; (9) German Vocabulary Builder; (10) The Linguist; (11)…

  1. RESEARCH IN GERMAN-ENGLISH MECHANICAL TRANSLATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEHMANN, W.P.; TOSH, L.W.

    UNDER CONTRACT WITH THE AIR FORCE, THE LINGUISTICS RESEARCH CENTER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS CONDUCTED A RESEARCH PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A GERMAN-ENGLISH SYNTACTIC TRANSLATION SYSTEM FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL TEXTS. MORE SPECIFICALLY, THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO (1) WRITE A GERMAN-ENGLISH TRANSFER GRAMMAR THAT WOULD LINK THE LINGUISTIC…

  2. German Rap Music in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on German rap artists and bands and discusses how to implement the music in various classroom situations at all levels. Highlights some of the available material on German rap music and provides information on how to locate rap texts, information, and other material via the Internet and other sources. (Author/VWL)

  3. Deutsch in Australien (German in Australia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1975-01-01

    German studies have expanded in the last 25 years in Australia. In 1974 the Goethe Institute conducted developmental conferences for German teachers, in cooperation with Australian universities and school authorities. Twelve universities have fully developed Germanistic Institutes. The Australian government has subsidized increasing numbers of…

  4. Teaching German Culture: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Maruta L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a college course on German culture in which the criterion for the inclusion of any topic in the syllabus is its mention--preferably recurrent--in the German press. Additional emphasis is placed upon the historical background of the current events. Classes are a combination of films, lectures, discussions, and student reports. (SED)

  5. German-Speaking People of Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information which will enable an American to communicate effectively with German-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and Germanic culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Austria,…

  6. The Hypermetric Line in Germanic Alliterative Verse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    My dissertation undertakes a complete study of the stress patterns, syntactic construction, and rhetorical style of hypermetric verse in Germanic alliterative poetry. This project allows me to fill a gap in the study of Germanic meter while simultaneously investigating the connection between metrical and literary scholarship. Hypermetric meter…

  7. 4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF NORTHWEST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  8. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD BUILDING T-8100. BUNKER, BUILDING T-8104, IN FOREGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  9. 8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST END OF GERMAN VILLAGE LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  10. 9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF BRICKWORK ON SOUTHEAST SIDE OF GERMAN VILLAGE. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, German Village, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  11. Swiss Themes in Three "Pluricentric" German Language Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Bettina

    2003-01-01

    Examines three current textbooks for German as a foreign language with regard to their coverage of Switzerland as a German-speaking nation. Concludes by suggesting that pluricentric German language textbooks for beginners are rare. (Author/VWL)

  12. Major Advisor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatwin, Marshall

    This paper describes a computer program, Major Advisor (MA), which helps students identify college majors. Used in conjunction with career counseling and advising, MA provides information to students who are developing their educational plans. The program matches students' personal preferences and the requirements/characteristics of 130 common…

  13. On cockroaches of the subfamily Epilamprinae (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae) from South India and Sri Lanka, with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Anisyutkin, Leonid N

    2014-08-08

    The new genus Indoapterolampra, gen. nov. and two new species (I. rugosiuscula sp. nov. and Morphna lucida sp. nov.) are described. Rhabdoblatta praecipua (Walker, 1868) is removed from the synonymy with 'Polyzosteria' terranea Walker, 1868. The latter species is considered Epilamprinae gen. sp. The lectotype of Phoraspis (Thorax) porcellana Saussure, 1862 is designated. A key for the genera of Epilamprinae from South India and Sri Lanka is provided. Detailed morphological descriptions of the studied taxa are given. The structure of the male genitalia of I. rugosiuscula sp. nov., M. lucida sp. nov., M. plana (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865), M. decolyi (Bolivar, 1897) and R. praecipua and that of the female genital complex of M. decolyi, P. (T.) porcellana and Phlebonotus anomalus (Saussure, 1863) are described for the first time. Some aspects of the cockroach evolution are briefly discussed. 

  14. Excystation signals do not isolate gregarine gene pools: experimental excystation of Blabericola migrator among 11 species of cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Steele, Shelby M; Clopton, Debra T; Clopton, Richard E

    2012-10-01

    An experimental excystation assay was used to test the potential species isolating effects of excystation signaling among gregarines. Oocysts of a single gregarine species, Blabericola migrator , were tested for activation, excystation, and sporozoite motility by using intestinal extracts from 11 species of cockroaches representing a cohesive phylogeny of 7 genera, 3 subfamilies, and 2 families of Blattodea. Sporozoite activation, excystation, and motility were observed for all excystation assay replications using intestinal fluid from blaberid hosts, but delayed activation or excystation was observed for all assay replications using intestinal fluid from hosts in the family Blattidae. The results illustrate a trend toward a generalized excystation signal among gregarines that is conserved across the host clade at a subfamily or family level but that is unlikely to play a significant role as a species-isolating mechanism among sibling gregarine species.

  15. A taxonomic report on the cockroach genus Haplosymploce Hanitsch from China including one new species (Blattodea: Ectobiidae: Blattellinae).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach genus Haplosymploce Hanitsch is recorded from China for the first time with two species: H. andamanica (Princis, 1951) from Yunnan which was originally recorded from Andaman, and H. aurantiaca sp. n. from Hainan, a phototactic species remarkable by the orangish yellow cerci, it is very likely to be a wood-feeding species and thus, along with the genus, stands out among Ectobiidae (=Blattellidae). Male of both and female of H. aurantiaca sp. n. are described, illustrated and photographed; the female genitalia of the new species show a high degree of asymmetry. Photos of H. aurantiaca sp. n. in the wild are provided, as well as a key to the males of 8 out of 11 known species worldwide. PMID:27395541

  16. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  17. [Intonational phonology of Basel German (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pilch, H

    1977-01-01

    This paper attempts a new departure both in German dialectology and in phonemic analysis: (i) It is based on an open corpus of spontaneous, colloquial speech. (ii) The segmentals (phonemes and clusters) are integrated into the hierarchy of supra-segmentals (syllable types, shape types, intonation contours). (iii) Phonemic variability is recognized within the dialect. Its major isoglosses are restated in terms of phoneme correlations. (iv) Certain unstressed words do occur in isolation. (v) Vowel length is recognized as redundant, but the difference between the dental /t/ and the alveolar /ţ/ is distinctive. (vi) The inventories of stressed and unstressed vowels differ radically, the unstressed suffixes containing the vowels /i e/ only. (vii) The peripheral status is analyzed of the aspirates (other than /kh/), of the affricates /ţs kchi/, and of the lenis /t s eta/, but none of these phonemes is limited to loanwords. (viii) The fusion is analyzed of adjacent stops in initial k- and ţ-clusters. PMID:594157

  18. [The boycott against German scientists and the German language after World War I].

    PubMed

    Reinbothe, R

    2013-12-01

    After the First World War, the Allied academies of sciences staged a boycott against German scientists and the German language. The objective of the boycott was to prevent the re-establishment of the prewar dominance of German scientists, the German language and German publications in the area of international scientific cooperation. Therefore the Allies excluded German scientists and the German language from international associations, congresses and publications, while they created new international scientific organizations under their leadership. Medical associations and congresses were also affected, e. g. congresses on surgery, ophthalmology and tuberculosis. Allied physicians replaced the "International Anti-Tuberculosis Association" founded in Berlin in 1902 with the "Union Internationale contre la Tuberculose"/"International Union against Tuberculosis", founded in Paris in 1920. Only French and English were used as the official languages of the new scientific organizations, just as in the League of Nations. The boycott was based on the fact that the German scientists had denied German war guilt and war crimes and glorified German militarism in a manifesto "To The Civilized World!" in 1914. The boycott first started in 1919 and had to be abolished in 1926, when Germany became a member of the League of Nations. Many German and foreign physicians as well as other scientists protested against the boycott. Some German scientists and institutions even staged a counter-boycott impeding the resumption of international collaboration. The boycott entailed an enduring decline of German as an international scientific language. After the Second World War scientists of the victorious Western Powers implemented a complete reorganization of the international scientific arena, based on the same organizational structures and language restrictions they had built up in 1919/1920. At the same time scientists from the U.S.A. staged an active language and publication policy, in

  19. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  20. Modeling the German energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihrig, D. F.

    2003-04-01

    It would be helpful in political discussions to get quickly and transparent assessments of the consequences of political actions on the energy market of a national economy. Computer models of any national energy market normally are written using a computer high language. But such a tool could not be transparent and the integration of actual data is complex. For this reason a transparent model concerning the German energy market was written to calculate the impact of alternative strategies of energy supply. The end energy consumption will be recorded in 4 sectors (households, low consumer, industries, traffic) and 4 service arrays (room heating, process heat, mechanical energy and light) specified for primary energy sources. To assess the primary energy requirement it is necessary to deal with more than 125 end primary energy consumption data each year. The model is based on data of the study-group of energy balances at the VDEW (Organization of German energy supplier). The data sets of the years 1993 and 1997 to 2001 are available. It is possible to define over 20 years objectives on higher energy saving in the most service arrays of each end energy consumption sector. The effects on CO2-emission of several strategies of energy saving will be calculated including commercial data and socioeconomic aspects (investment, foreign trade, energy prizes, jobs etc.). It is possible to modeling regional energy markets, too. This tool allows to assess the local impact of new strategies of energy supply on the regional economics. Of course regional calculations work with lower precision because several data have to be estimated. The model calculates over 40 years. It's possible to have a time lag and to calculate the time after realizing the objectives. The typical phases of realizing social objectives are modeled. The model is written using the tabular calculation program EXCEL. This makes the model very transparent. It is not necessary to be a computer programmer to

  1. Imidacloprid and thiacloprid neonicotinoids bind more favourably to cockroach than to honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: insights from computational studies.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Balaji; Graton, Jérôme; Laurent, Adèle D; Alamiddine, Zakaria; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Lebreton, Jacques; Coqueret, Olivier; Olivier, Christophe; Thany, Steeve H; Le Questel, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-01

    The binding interactions of two neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMI) and thiacloprid (THI) with the extracellular domains of cockroach and honeybee α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits in an homomeric receptor have been studied through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding mode predicted for the two neonicotinoids is validated through the good agreement observed between the theoretical results with the crystal structures of the corresponding complexes with Ac-AChBP, the recognized structural surrogate for insects nAChR extracellular ligand binding domain. The binding site of the two insect α6 receptors differs by only one residue of loop D, a serine residue (Ser83) in cockroach being replaced by a lysine residue (Lys108) in honeybee. The docking results show very close interactions for the two neonicotinoids with both α6 nAChR models, in correspondence to the trends observed in the experimental neonicotinoid-Ac-AChBP complexes. However, the docking parameters (scores and energies) are not significantly different between the two insect α6 nAChRs to draw clear conclusions. The MD results bring distinct trends. The analysis of the average interaction energies in the two insects α6 nAChRs shows indeed better affinity of neonicotinoids bound to α6 cockroach compared to honeybee nAChR. This preference is explained by tighter contacts with aromatic residues (Trp and Tyr) of the binding pocket. Interestingly, the non-conserved residue Lys108 of loop D of α6 honeybee nAChR interacts through van der Waals contacts with neonicotinoids, which appear more favourable than the direct or water mediated hydrogen-bond interaction between the OH group of Ser83 of α6 cockroach nAChR and the electronegative terminal group of the two neonicotinoids (nitro in IMI and cyano in THI). Finally, in both insects nAChRs, THI is consistently found to bind more favourably than IMI. PMID:25424654

  2. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4(+) or CD8(+) cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3(DTR) mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma. PMID:27633092

  3. [Effect of population density on enzymatic activity of antioxidative and phenol oxidase systems of imagoes and nymphs of the marble cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea].

    PubMed

    Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.

  4. The role of the cerebral ganglia in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation of cockroaches stung by the parasitoid jewel wasp.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Maayan; Libersat, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    The jewel wasp stings cockroaches and injects venom into their cerebral ganglia, namely the subesophageal ganglion (SOG) and supraesophageal ganglion (SupOG). The venom induces a long-term hypokinetic state, during which the stung cockroach shows little or no spontaneous walking. It was shown that venom injection to the SOG reduces neuronal activity, thereby suggesting a similar effect of venom injection in the SupOG. Paradoxically, SupOG-ablated cockroaches show increased spontaneous walking in comparison with control. Yet most of the venom in the SupOG of cockroaches is primarily concentrated in and around the central complex (CX). Thus the venom could chiefly decrease activity in the CX to contribute to the hypokinetic state. Our first aim was to resolve this discrepancy by using a combination of behavioral and neuropharmacological tools. Our results show that the CX is necessary for the initiation of spontaneous walking, and that focal injection of procaine to the CX is sufficient to induce the decrease in spontaneous walking. Furthermore, it was shown that artificial venom injection to the SOG decreases walking. Hence our second aim was to test the interactions between the SupOG and SOG in the venom-induced behavioral manipulation. We show that, in the absence of the inhibitory control of the SupOG on walking initiation, injection of venom in the SOG alone by the wasp is sufficient to induce the hypokinetic state. To summarize, we show that venom injection to either the SOG or the CX of the SupOG is, by itself, sufficient to decrease walking.

  5. Adenovirus-mediated Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells reduces airway inflammation in ovalbumin and cockroach-induced asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojin; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Shin, Dasom; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Hyunil; Moon, Junghee; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3 is a master regulator of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) function and is also a suppressor of SKP2 and HER2/ErbB2. There are an increasing number of reports describing the functions of Foxp3 in cell types other than Tregs. In this context, we evaluated the functions of Foxp3 in ovalbumin- and cockroach-induced asthma models. Foxp3-EGFP-expressing adenovirus or EGFP control adenovirus was administered intratracheally (i.t.), followed by challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) or cockroach extract to induce asthma. Th2 cytokine and immune cell profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), as well as serum IgE levels, were analyzed. Histological analyses were also conducted to demonstrate the effects of Foxp3 expression on airway remodeling, goblet cell hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the lung. Adenoviral Foxp3 was expressed only in lung epithelial cells, and not in CD4+ or CD8+ cells. BALF from Foxp3 gene-delivered mice showed significantly reduced numbers of total immune cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in response to cockroach allergen or OVA. In addition, Foxp3 expression in the lung reduced the levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE in BALF and serum, respectively. Moreover, histopathological analysis also showed that Foxp3 expression substantially inhibited eosinophil infiltration into the airways, goblet cell hyperplasia and smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. Furthermore, when Tregs were depleted by diphtheria toxin in Foxp3DTR mice, the anti-asthmatic functions of Foxp3 were not altered in OVA-challenged asthma models. In this study, our results suggest that Foxp3 expression in lung epithelial cells, and not in Tregs, inhibited OVA- and cockroach extract-induced asthma. PMID:27633092

  6. Brain-midgut cross-talk and autocrine metabolastat via the sNPF/CCAP negative feed-back loop in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Mikani, Azam; Watari, Yasuhiko; Takeda, Makio

    2015-12-01

    Immunohistochemical reactivities against short neuropeptide F (sNPF-ir) and crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP-ir) were detected in both the brain-subesophageal ganglion (Br-SOG) and midgut epithelial cells of the male American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Four weeks of starvation increased the number of sNPF-ir cells and decreased the CCAP-ir cells in the Br-SOG, whereas refeeding reversed these effects. The contents of sNPF in the Br-SOG, midgut and hemolymph titer decreased in response to an injection of CCAP into the hemocoel of normally fed male cockroaches, while CCAP titers/contents decreased in response to an injection of sNPF. The results of a double-labeling experiment demonstrated that sNPF-ir co-existed in CCAP-ir cells in the pars intercerebralis (PI), dorsolateral region of protocerebrum (DL), deutocerebrum (De) and SOG. sNPF-ir and CCAP-ir were also colocalized in the midgut. sNPF and CCAP are neuropeptides and midgut factors that interact with each other. Since the two peptides are known to be secreted by identical cells that affect each other, this constitutes autocrine negative feedback regulation for a quick response to food accessibility/inaccessibility. These peptides not only constitute the switch in the digestive mechanism but also couple digestive adaptation with behavior. A CCAP injection suppressed locomotor activity when cockroaches were starved, whereas sNPF activated it when they were fed.

  7. The evolution of soil-burrowing cockroaches (Blattaria: Blaberidae) from wood-burrowing ancestors following an invasion of the latter from Asia into Australia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Kiyoto; Lo, Nathan; Rose, Harley A; Matsumoto, Tadao

    2003-06-22

    Morphologically similar cockroaches in the subfamilies Panesthiinae and Geoscapheinae (Blattaria: Blaberidae) display contrasting feeding habits, behaviour and biogeographical distributions. Panesthiinae, found throughout Asia and Australia, all live in and feed on decaying wood that they burrow into. Geoscapheinae are restricted to Australia and construct and live in burrows in the soil, where they feed on dry leaves taken from the surface. A lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships among these cockroaches hinders an understanding of the factors that have shaped the evolution of their diverse lifestyles and biogeography. To address this issue, we sequenced three genes from representatives of nine of the 10 genera in the two subfamilies, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The well-supported topology revealed the Panesthiinae to be paraphyletic with respect to the Geoscapheinae. Soil-burrowing cockroaches appear to have evolved from a lineage of wood burrowers that invaded Australia from the north some time after the merging of the Asian and Australian tectonic plates ca. 20 Myr ago. The main factor promoting the evolution of soil burrowing is likely to have been one of the periods of strong aridity that Australia has experienced since the Miocene period.

  8. The evolution of soil-burrowing cockroaches (Blattaria: Blaberidae) from wood-burrowing ancestors following an invasion of the latter from Asia into Australia.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Kiyoto; Lo, Nathan; Rose, Harley A; Matsumoto, Tadao

    2003-06-22

    Morphologically similar cockroaches in the subfamilies Panesthiinae and Geoscapheinae (Blattaria: Blaberidae) display contrasting feeding habits, behaviour and biogeographical distributions. Panesthiinae, found throughout Asia and Australia, all live in and feed on decaying wood that they burrow into. Geoscapheinae are restricted to Australia and construct and live in burrows in the soil, where they feed on dry leaves taken from the surface. A lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships among these cockroaches hinders an understanding of the factors that have shaped the evolution of their diverse lifestyles and biogeography. To address this issue, we sequenced three genes from representatives of nine of the 10 genera in the two subfamilies, and performed phylogenetic analyses. The well-supported topology revealed the Panesthiinae to be paraphyletic with respect to the Geoscapheinae. Soil-burrowing cockroaches appear to have evolved from a lineage of wood burrowers that invaded Australia from the north some time after the merging of the Asian and Australian tectonic plates ca. 20 Myr ago. The main factor promoting the evolution of soil burrowing is likely to have been one of the periods of strong aridity that Australia has experienced since the Miocene period. PMID:12816644

  9. Social versus individual behaviour: a comparative approach to thermal behaviour of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) and the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana L.).

    PubMed

    Grodzicki, Przemysław; Caputa, Michał

    2005-03-01

    To study the relationship between the individual and social thermoregulatory behaviour, we used honeybee workers and American cockroaches. Single insects or groups of 10-20 individuals were placed in a temperature gradient chamber, and their thermal preference was recorded for 48 h under natural summer photoperiod. Single bees showed diurnal changes in selected ambient temperature, which culminated at 14:00 reaching 34+/-2 degrees C, and then slowly decreased, reaching a nocturnal minimum of 28+/-2 degrees C at 04:00. In contrast, the zenith of temperature selected by groups of bees (31+/-1 degrees C) was reached at 04:00 and the nadir (29+/-2 degrees C) was recorded at 14:00. Groups of bees clustered together during the night time, and dispersed during intense day time activity. Such changes were absent in groups of cockroaches. Cockroaches selected an ambient temperature of 30+/-1 degrees C both during day and night. In conclusion, there is a striking analogy in the diurnal thermal behaviour between a colony of bees and mammals. During their nychthemeral rest phase, both of them select higher temperatures than during the activity phase and, simultaneously, they reduce their overall surface area of heat loss to conserve metabolic heat. Therefore, the colony behaves as a homeothermic superorganism. In contrast, a single bee, isolated from the colony, utilizes a heterothermic strategy to save energy for a morning warm up. PMID:15749114

  10. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals.

  11. First German Astronomy Ambassadors Fly On SOFIA

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two German educators, Wolfgang Vieser and Jörg Trebs, were the first to represent their country as SOFIA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors. They flew aboard the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared...

  12. The German Physical Society Under National Socialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dieter; Walker, Mark

    2004-12-01

    The history of the German Physical Society from 1933 to 1945 is not the same as a comprehensive history of physics under Adolf Hitler, but it does reflect important aspects of physicists' work and life during the Third Reich.

  13. German physicists pleased as Excellence Initiative extended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-08-01

    Germany's federal and state governments have agreed to fund a third round of the so-called Excellence Initiative programme, which was inaugurated 10 years ago to promote world-class research at German universities.

  14. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  15. USA: German in the Changing Landscape of Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlock, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies recent indicators of the state of German Studies in the United States with special attention to postsecondary enrollments in German. It additionally reviews challenges to the postsecondary teaching of German as they manifest themselves both locally and nationally, including the positioning of German Studies in the life of…

  16. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  17. Selected List of German Reference Books for Secondary School Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, John R., Comp.

    Compiled with secondary school teachers of German in mind who are asked to recommend books for a school library, this 52-item annotated bibliography lists encyclopedias, dictionaries (German-English, English-German, all-German, and specialty dictionaries), the Duden series, grammars, histories, travel books, anthologies (poetry, prose, and drama),…

  18. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  19. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  20. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  1. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. German-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the German word is listed first followed by the English word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  2. German Basic Course. Cumulative Word List: Lessons 1-92. English-German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This glossary contains all the words and idioms in the nine volumes of the elementary and intermediate phases of a basic course in German. In each entry the English word is listed first followed by the German word and the number of the lesson in which the word first appeared. (AMH)

  3. Do Lemmas Speak German? A Verb Position Effect in German Structural Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Franklin; Baumann, Michael; Pappert, Sandra; Fitz, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Lexicalized theories of syntax often assume that verb-structure regularities are mediated by lemmas, which abstract over variation in verb tense and aspect. German syntax seems to challenge this assumption, because verb position depends on tense and aspect. To examine how German speakers link these elements, a structural priming study was…

  4. Development of sandwich ELISA for detection and quantification of invertebrate major allergen tropomyosin by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Lu, Ying; Ushio, Hideki; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Muscle protein tropomyosins of invertebrates are major allergens responsible for wide spread allergic reactions against invertebrates such as shellfish and insects. In order to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for detection and quantification of the invertebrate pan-allergen tropomyosin, a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb), CE7B2, was produced. We have successfully established a sandwich ELISA for measuring invertebrate tropomyosin concentrations in food and food materials. The sandwich ELISA system using the MAb CE7B2 is a useful tool to detect and quantify levels of tropomyosin in food. The method is also helpful to detect mite and cockroach tropomyosins, the important indoor allergens.

  5. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  6. Why Do First-Year Students of German Lose Motivation during their First Year at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera

    2013-01-01

    This article explores motivational changes of first-year students enrolled on German degree courses at two major UK universities. It reports on the qualitative data obtained by a longitudinal mixed-methods study, and focuses on the interplay between students' motivation and the higher education learning environment. In particular, the article…

  7. Demographically Induced Variation in Students' Beliefs about Learning and Studying German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Monika

    1995-01-01

    Examines how the demographic values of foreign travel, previous foreign-language learning, major field of study, and other factors affect students' beliefs about the study of German. The article focuses on student-perceived improvement in the four skills and cultural knowledge, student motivation, and the expected contributions of teachers and…

  8. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  9. Inheritance and diversification of symbiotic trichonymphid flagellates from a common ancestor of termites and the cockroach Cryptocercus.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Moriya; Noda, Satoko; Hongoh, Yuichi; Nalepa, Christine A; Inoue, Tetsushi

    2009-01-22

    Cryptocercus cockroaches and lower termites harbour obligate, diverse and unique symbiotic cellulolytic flagellates in their hindgut that are considered critical in the development of social behaviour in their hosts. However, there has been controversy concerning the origin of these symbiotic flagellates. Here, molecular sequences encoding small subunit rRNA and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified in the symbiotic flagellates of the order Trichonymphida (phylum Parabasalia) in the gut of Cryptocercus punctulatus and compared phylogenetically to the corresponding species in termites. In each of the monophyletic lineages that represent family-level groups in Trichonymphida, the symbionts of Cryptocercus were robustly sister to those of termites. Together with the recent evidence for the sister-group relationship of the host insects, this first comprehensive study comparing symbiont molecular phylogeny strongly suggests that a set of symbiotic flagellates representative of extant diversity was already established in an ancestor common to Cryptocercus and termites, was vertically transmitted to their offspring, and subsequently became diversified to distinct levels, depending on both the host and the symbiont lineages.

  10. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Natalie G.; Matthews, Philip G. D.; White, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams) of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier) (speckled cockroaches) to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration). We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness. PMID:23259052

  11. Neural responses from the filiform receptor neuron afferents of the wind-sensitive cercal system in three cockroach species.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anne C K; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D

    2014-09-01

    The wind-sensitive insect cercal system is involved in many important behaviors, such as initiating terrestrial escape responses and providing sensory feedback during flight. The occurrence of these behaviors vary in cockroach species Periplaneta americana (strong terrestrial response and flight), Blaberus craniifer (weak terrestrial response and flight), and Gromphodorhina portentosa (no terrestrial response and no flight). A previous study focusing on wind-sensitive interneuron (WSI) responses demonstrated that variations in sensory processing of wind information accompany these behavioral differences. In this study, we recorded extracellularly from the cercal nerve to characterize filiform afferent population responses to different wind velocities to investigate how sensory processing differs across these species at the initial encoding of wind. We compared these results and responses from the WSI population to examine information transfer at the first synapse. Our main results were: (1) G. portentosa had the weakest responses of the three species over the stimulus duration and possessed the smallest cerci with the least filiform hair receptors of the three species; (2) B. craniifer filiform responses were similar to or greater than P. americana responses even though B. craniifer possessed smaller cerci with less filiform hair receptors than P. americana; (3) the greater filiform afferent responses in B. craniifer, including a larger amplitude second positive peak compared to the other two species, suggest more synchronous activity between filiform afferents in this species; (4) the transfer of information at the first synapse appears to be similar in both P. americana and G. portentosa, but different in B. craniifer.

  12. Completely preserved cockroaches of the family Mesoblattinidae from the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, NE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dandan; Ren, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Although cockroaches were the dominant insects in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic insect assemblages, their general morphology was extremely conservative. One of the most common of them, the Jurassic-Cretaceous family Mesoblattinidae, is described here for the first time on the basis of completely preserved specimens. Ninety-two specimens of Perlucipecta aurea gen. et sp. n. reveal details of head, mandible, male tergal glands and terminal hook; cercal, leg and antennal sensilla. Its congener, P. vrsanskyi is described from the same sediments of the Yixian Formation (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous). The forewing venation variability of P. aurea, analysed for the first time in this family is nearly identical (CV = 6.23 %) with variability of two species of family Blattulidae that occur at the same locality (CV = 6.22 %; 5.72 %). The transitional nature of morphological characters represented by asymmetry between left and right wings (simple/branched forewing SC and hind wing M) in P. aurea documents the phylogenetic relation between the families Mesoblattinidae and Ectobiidae

  13. Neural responses from the filiform receptor neuron afferents of the wind-sensitive cercal system in three cockroach species

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Anne C.K.; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The wind-sensitive insect cercal system is involved in many important behaviors, such as initiating terrestrial escape responses and providing sensory feedback during flight. The occurrence of these behaviors vary in cockroach species Periplaneta americana (strong terrestrial response and flight), Blaberus craniifer (weak terrestrial response and flight), and Gromphodorhina portentosa (no terrestrial response and no flight). A previous study focusing on wind-sensitive interneuron (WSI) responses demonstrated that variations in sensory processing of wind information accompany these behavioral differences. In this study, we recorded extracellurlarly from the cercal nerve to characterize filiform afferent population responses to different wind velocities to investigate how sensory processing differs across these species at the initial encoding of wind. We compared these results and responses from the WSI population to examine information transfer at the first synapse. Our main results were: 1) G portentosa had the weakest responses of the three species over the stimulus duration and possessed the smallest cerci with the least filiform hair receptors of the three species; 2) B. craniifer filiform responses were similar to or greater than P. americana responses even though B. craniifer possessed smaller cerci with less filiform hair receptors than P. americana; 3) the greater filiform afferent responses in B. craniifer, including a larger amplitude second positive peak compared to the other two species, suggest more synchronous activity between filiform afferents in this species; 4) the transfer of information at the first synapse appears to be similar in both P. americana and G. portentosa, but different in B. craniifer. PMID:25046275

  14. Profit efficiency and ownership of German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Herr, Annika; Schmitz, Hendrik; Augurzky, Boris

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the cost and profit efficiency of German hospitals and their variation with ownership type. It is motivated by the empirical finding that private (for-profit) hospitals - having been shown to be less cost efficient in the past - on average earn higher profits than public hospitals. We conduct a Stochastic Frontier Analysis on a multifaceted administrative German data set combined with the balance sheets of 541 hospitals of the years 2002-2006. The results show no significant differences in cost efficiency but higher profit efficiency of private than of publicly owned hospitals.

  15. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  16. Is German long-term care insurance a model for the United States?

    PubMed

    Schunk, M V; Estes, C L

    2001-01-01

    German long-term care insurance, implemented in 1995, significantly extends the coverage of care-related risks. Given the similarities of German and U.S. institutional features, the German social insurance approach has been put forward as a possible model for long-term care in the United States. Using a political economy framework, the authors conducted a policy analysis that compares the main shortfalls of long-term care (LTC) provision in the United States and Germany, examines the responses provided by LTC insurance in Germany, and relates them to broader trends and proposals for change in welfare policy in both countries. German LTC insurance includes a high degree of consumer direction and compensation and protection for informal caregivers; it supports the extension of community-based services. Its shortfalls include the continued split between health and LTC insurance. In both countries, decentralization and institutional and financial fragmentation are some of the characteristics responsible for the failure to promote egalitarian social policy and substantially expand social protection to family- and care-related risks. The German LTC program is a good model for the United States. With a social insurance approach to LTC, costs are spread across the largest possible risk pool. Major goals that can be reached with such a program include establishment of universal entitlements to LTC benefits, consumer choice, and equitability and uniformity. PMID:11562009

  17. German and Ukrainian Phonological Isomorphs. Typology: Germanic and Slavic Languages. German-Ukraine-Slavic Contrasting Correspondence Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    The works of many scholars on Germanic and Slavic Languages do not really try to contrast the two biggest Indo-European language families, but analyse them seperately, as any close comparison seem to be unconvincible. In many works, we find some parts that usually would deal with loan words/borrowings/barbarisms. And, yet, we noticed that there…

  18. Spatio-temporal distribution of floating objects in the German Bight (North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Martin; Hinojosa, Iván A.; Joschko, Tanja; Gutow, Lars

    2011-04-01

    Floating objects facilitate the dispersal of marine and terrestrial species but also represent a major environmental hazard in the case of anthropogenic plastic litter. They can be found throughout the world's oceans but information on their abundance and the spatio-temporal dynamics is scarce for many regions of the world. This information, however, is essential to evaluate the ecological role of floating objects. Herein, we report the results from a ship-based visual survey on the abundance and composition of flotsam in the German Bight (North Sea) during the years 2006 to 2008. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of floating objects and to relate spatio-temporal density variations to environmental conditions. Three major flotsam categories were identified: buoyant seaweed (mainly fucoid brown algae), natural wood and anthropogenic debris. Densities of these floating objects in the German Bight were similar to those reported from other coastal regions of the world. Temporal variations in flotsam densities are probably the result of seasonal growth cycles of seaweeds and fluctuating river runoff (wood). Higher abundances were often found in areas where coastal fronts and eddies develop during calm weather conditions. Accordingly, flotsam densities were often higher in the inner German Bight than in areas farther offshore. Import of floating objects and retention times in the German Bight are influenced by wind force and direction. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of floating objects is of coastal origin or introduced into the German Bight from western source areas such as the British Channel. Rapid transport of floating objects through the German Bight is driven by strong westerly winds and likely facilitates dispersal of associated organisms and gene flow among distant populations.

  19. Dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergen concentrations in homes of asthmatic children in the northeastern United States: impact of socioeconomic factors and population density.

    PubMed Central

    Leaderer, Brian P; Belanger, Kathleen; Triche, Elizabeth; Holford, Theodore; Gold, Diane R; Kim, Young; Jankun, Thomas; Ren, Ping; McSharry Je, Jean-ellen; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Chapman, Martin D; Bracken, Michael B

    2002-01-01

    Home exposures to aeroallergens are an important environmental factor in allergic sensitization and in the development and exacerbation of asthma. We assessed variations in home concentrations of dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens in dust collected in the main living areas of asthmatics' homes by family income, mother's education, dwelling type, population density, household population density, and ethnicity in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts. Dust samples were collected at the time of home interview in 999 homes as part of an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of 1,002 infants and their asthmatic siblings. The analysis employed lower and upper cut points for group 1 dust mite (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10 microg/g), cockroach (> or = 1.0 U/g and > or = 4.0 U/g), cat (> or = 1.0 microg/g and > or = 8.0 ug/g), and dog (> or = 2.0 microg/g and > or = 10.0 microg/g) allergens. Subject residences were geocoded to assess population density from the U.S. Census, and multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding. The portion of homes at the lower cut point for dust mite, cockroach, cat, and dog allergens were 46.9%, 24.9%, 42.2%, and 35.6%, respectively; the upper cut point for each of the allergens was reached in 22.4%, 13.4%, 21.0%, and 22.9% of the homes, respectively. In all, 86.0% of the homes had at least one allergen at the lower cut point, and 58.0% had at least one allergen at the upper cut point. Forty-nine percent of the homes had two or more allergens at the lower cut point, and 19.7% had two or more allergens at the upper cut point. Higher education of the mother, higher household income, living in a single-family home in a less densely populated area with fewer people per room, and being a white household were associated with elevated dust mite, cat, and dog allergens and low cockroach allergen. In contrast, low income, living in a multifamily home in a high population density area with a higher occupancy

  20. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species.

  1. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species. PMID:27547307

  2. 1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OBLIQUE VIEW OF BUNKER LOOKING NORTHWEST. GERMAN VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Dugway Proving Ground, German-Japanese Village, Observation Bunker, South of Stark Road, in WWII Incendiary Test Area, Dugway, Tooele County, UT

  3. The German Investigation of the Accident at Meopham (England)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann; Hertel, Heinrich; Thalau, Karl

    1932-01-01

    This report is a recounting of the German investigation of the crash of a commercial Junkers F 13 ge in England. The English report is examined and compared with the German interpretation of the accident.

  4. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-09-14

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided.

  5. Young Germans Assist the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeier, Claus

    Participation by West German youth in international assistance to developing nations is examined. International assistance is interpreted to include public, private, and religious programs and projects involved in technical advancement, food distribution, agricultural development, health improvement, and natural resource development in other…

  6. The Medieval German University: Transformation and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinges, Rainer Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of the university system within the Holy Roman Empire, especially in Germany, explaining that the University of Prague in 1348 was the Empire's first university. Reports that after the University of Prague, the new university type, or the "German type," developed by combining types of universities in Bologna and Paris.…

  7. Is German Necessary? Nein, Says One University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    When the University of Southern California announced that it would shutter its tiny German department, the outcry was out of proportion to the handful of faculty members and students directly affected by the move. In addition to students who advertised their dismay on Facebook and faculty members who complained that their efforts to bolster the…

  8. Roots and Rogues in German Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Nigel

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the proper characterization of subject omission at a particular stage in German child language. It focuses on post-verbal null subjects in finite clauses, here termed Rogues. It is argued that the statistically significant presence of Rogues, in conjunction with their distinct developmental profile, speaks against a…

  9. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  10. A Receptive Perspective for Introductory German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovik, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that additional attention to the sequencing of the grammatical structures needed for receptive comprehension might alleviate the problems associated with first-year German textbooks. The simple past tense, word order, and the indefinite pronoun "man" are used to illustrate the concept of a receptive grammar. (14 references) (Author/CK)

  11. The German Interlinguistics Society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Riain, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Describes the German interlinguistics society Gesellschaft fur Interlinguistik (GIL), which was founded to bring together interlinguistics and esperantology scholars. Highlights GIL's principal fields of activity and discusses its role in the fields of international linguistic communication, language planning, esperantolgy, and the teaching of…

  12. "Jaja" in Spoken German: Managing Knowledge Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Golato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In line with the other contributions to this issue on teaching pragmatics, this paper provides teachers of German with a two-day lesson plan for integrating authentic spoken language and its associated cultural background into their teaching. Specifically, the paper discusses how "jaja" and its phonetic variants are systematically used…

  13. Deutschunterricht Durch Handeln (Teaching German through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level German lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, instructions…

  14. West German Teachers on Today's Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, elementary and secondary teachers in West Germany were surveyed concerning the treatment of social themes in school curricula. As in a similar survey conducted in the United States, West German respondents indicated that every theme surveyed was important, with nuclear disarmament and environmental pollution clearly considered the most…

  15. Content, Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Zongyi

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to extend and deepen the conversation concerning the knowledge-based approach to curriculum espoused by Michael Young in his 2013 "JCS" paper through revisiting the structure of the disciplines thinking of Joseph Schwab and German "Didaktik." It argues that curriculum making requires a theory of knowledge…

  16. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  17. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Anna; Nevo, Baruch

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a comprehensive yet detailed account of the current giftedness and gifted education situation in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. It is concerned with four main research questions: (1) How is "giftedness" defined in German-speaking countries? (2) How are gifted children identified? (3)…

  18. Anglo-German Perceptions of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowka, Detlef

    1989-01-01

    Comments on the selective nature of the Thatcher government's interest in and enthusiasm for features of the West German education system. Compares Great Britain's and West Germany's systems with regard to student assessment, compulsory curriculum, school-leaving qualifications, vocational education, and centralization of authority. Contains 32…

  19. Voice Modulations in German Ironic Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharrer, Lisa; Christmann, Ursula; Knoll, Monja

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that in different languages ironic speech is acoustically modulated compared to literal speech, and these modulations are assumed to aid the listener in the comprehension process by acting as cues that mark utterances as ironic. The present study was conducted to identify paraverbal features of German "ironic criticism"…

  20. [Jean-Martin Charcot in German neurology].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H C; Hartung, H-P; Kieseier, B C

    2004-02-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893), well known as the founder of modern neurology, was the most celebrated neurologist in the nineteenth century. His international success stemmed not only from mastery descriptions of various neurological disorders but also from his many contacts with scientists all over the world. The aim of this article is to review Charcot's ambivalent relationship to German neuropsychiatry of the time and to examine the German reception of his personality and work. Wilhelm Erb, Ludwig Hirt, Ernst von Leyden, Max Nonne, Adolph Strümpell, and other German physicians cultivated -to varying degrees - professional contacts with Charcot and, based on the fascination of his personality and significance of his work, were long and intensively influenced by the Salpêtrière school. The extent of their admiration became apparent in 1882 by the award of an honorary doctorate to Charcot by the University of Würzburg. Along with increasingly severe criticism of Charcot's research on hysteria and hypnosis, most German neuropsychiatrists became estranged, without neglecting his importance to the development of neurology in Germany.

  1. Hyphenated Compounds in West German Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Helga H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the types of hyphenated compound nouns (which fill the need for naming new things and expressing new ideas) found in German newspapers and journals. Observes in what particular types of compounds the hyphen is most frequently used and why there is an upsurge in their use. (SED)

  2. Germans, History, and the Nazi Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anne P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses opposite findings of researchers concerning the amount of time given to the study of Hitler and the Third Reich in German Secondary Schools. Considers the relationship among scholarly work on the Nazi era, influences of the work on secondary school teachers, impact of curriculum reform, and effects of government educational…

  3. The German Toyshop: An Interdisciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemczura, Mary Ann; Clayton, Joe A.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a project combining the disciplines of German and technology education by giving students an opportunity to learn technical vocabulary and design and create wooden toys to increase students' awareness of international business and global economy and the necessity of communicating ideas with people in other countries. (Author/CB)

  4. Introduction to German Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roig, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Describes a course, taught in English, entitled "Introduction to German Culture," which was designed to meet the needs of students who have visited or plan to visit Germany and want to take a course in its contemporary culture, politics, and social problems. (SED)

  5. Friendship Preferences among German and Turkish Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jugert, Philipp; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This study examined changes in and predictors of preference for same-ethnic friendships among German (N = 106) and Turkish (N = 45) preadolescents (M age = 10.4 years) during their 1st year in an ethnically heterogeneous school. Drawing on the contact hypothesis, it examined the relation between children's attitudes and their preference for…

  6. Dengue antibody prevalence in German travelers.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Ole; Lauschke, Annekathrin; Frank, Christina; Shu, Pei-Yun; Niedrig, Matthias; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Stark, Klaus; Jelinek, Tomas

    2005-05-01

    We studied 2,259 German citizens after they returned from dengue-endemic countries from 1996 to 2004. Serotype-specific dengue antibodies indicated acute infections in 51 (4.7%) travelers with recent fever and 13 (1.1%) travelers with no recent fever, depending largely on destination and epidemic activity in the countries visited.

  7. Processability Theory and German Case Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baten, Kristof

    2011-01-01

    This article represents the first attempt to formulate a hypothetical sequence for German case acquisition by Dutch-speaking learners on the basis of Processability Theory (PT). It will be argued that case forms emerge corresponding to a development from lexical over phrasal to interphrasal morphemes. This development, however, is subject to a…

  8. COCKROACHES, PESTICIDE USE, AND CHILDREN'S LUNG FUNCTION IN AN ARID COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The El Paso Children's Health Study examined environmental risk factors for allergy and asthma among fourth and fifth grade schoolchildren living in a major United States-Mexico border city. While the principal focus of the study was the adverse health effects of exposures to mo...

  9. Topical Bibliography in Theoretical and Applied German Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerd K., Comp.

    This bibliography of 1860 books and articles is intended to provide researchers, instructors, and students of applied German linguistics, as well as school and college teachers of German, with background material on a variety of topics in the field of applied German linguistics which can be of service in the preparation of instructional materials…

  10. 78 FR 62307 - German-American Day, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9035 of October 4, 2013 German-American Day, 2013 By the President of the... German-American Day, we celebrate the vibrant threads of German heritage woven into our national...

  11. German Round the Corner: Die Whyte Avenue in Edmonton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicke, Mariele; Wicke, Rainer E.

    This compilation of interviews and photographs is the result of a German class project entitled Whyte Avenue. The project was carried out by fifth and sixth grade students who were attending an after-school German course in Edmonton, Alberta. The course introduced students to the German language and culture by exposing them to native German…

  12. The German Teacher Trainers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to identify the interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs of German teacher trainers' in Turkey. It is a descriptive survey and the population of the study consists of German teacher trainers who have worked in the seven regions of Turkey during the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample comprises 52 German teacher trainers chosen…

  13. Teaching Business German Basics on the Second Year Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwood, Heidi M.

    Most college curricula in business German are oriented to third- and fourth-year German students. Development of a course in introductory business German designed for the second year of language instruction required careful selection of materials and activities. Texts were selected for their comprehensibility for students with no business…

  14. Teaching German-Americana with Assistance from the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Robert J.; Hoyt, Giles R.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the World Wide Web can assist in teaching about German-Americana in German-language instruction, and discusses some basic Web page uses to find and organize literary texts, syllabi, course outlines, images and realia, and information about people, organizations, events, and places. Some of the most useful German-American resources are…

  15. Agonist actions of clothianidin on synaptic and extrasynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on cockroach sixth abdominal ganglion.

    PubMed

    Thany, Steeve H

    2009-11-01

    Clothianidin is new neonicotinoid insecticide acting selectively on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Its effects on nAChRs expressed on cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses and DUM neurons have been studied using mannitol-gap and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Bath-application of clothianidin-induced dose-dependent depolarizations of cockroach cercal afferent/giant interneuron synapses which were not reversed after wash-out suggesting a strong desensitization of postsynaptic interneurons at the 6th abdominal ganglion (A6). Clothinidin activity on the nerve preparation was characterized by an increased firing rate of action potentials which then ceased when the depolarization reached a peak. Clothianidin responses were insensitive to all muscarinic antagonists tested but were blocked by co-application of specific nicotinic antagonists methyllicaconitine, alpha-bungarotoxin and d-tubocurarine. In a second round of experiment, clothianidin actions were tested on DUM neurons isolated from the A6. There was a strong desensitization of nAChRs which was not affected by muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine and atropine, but was reduced with nicotinic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin. In addition, clothianidin-induced currents were completely blocked by methyllicaconitine suggesting that (1) clothianidin acted as a specific agonist of nAChR subtypes and (2) a small proportion of receptors blocked by MLA was insensitive to alpha-bungarotoxin. Moreover, because clothianidin currents were blocked by d-tubocurarine and mecamylamine, we provided that clothianidin was an agonist of both nAChRs: imidacloprid-sensitive nAChR1 and -insensitive nAChR2 subtypes. PMID:19583978

  16. Locomotion- and mechanics-mediated tactile sensing: antenna reconfiguration simplifies control during high-speed navigation in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Demir, Alican; Lee, Jusuk; Cowan, Noah J; Full, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Animals can expend energy to acquire sensory information by emitting signals and/or moving sensory structures. We propose that the energy from locomotion itself could permit control of a sensor, whereby animals use the energy from movement to reconfigure a passive sensor. We investigated high-speed, antenna-mediated tactile navigation in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. We discovered that the passive antennal flagellum can assume two principal mechanical states, such that the tip is either projecting backward or forward. Using a combination of behavioral and robotic experiments, we demonstrate that a switch in the antenna's state is mediated via the passive interactions between the sensor and its environment, and this switch strongly influences wall-tracking control. When the tip of the antenna is projected backward, the animals maintain greater body-to-wall distance with fewer body collisions and less leg-wall contact than when the tip is projecting forward. We hypothesized that distally pointing mechanosensory hairs at the tip of the antenna mediate the switch in state by interlocking with asperities in the wall surface. To test this hypothesis, we performed laser ablation of chemo-mechanosensory hairs and added artificial hairs to a robotic antenna. In both the natural and artificial systems, the presence of hairs categorically increased an antenna's probability of switching state. Antennal hairs, once thought to only play a role in sensing, are sufficient for mechanically reconfiguring the state of the entire antenna when coupled with forward motion. We show that the synergy between antennal mechanics, locomotion and the environment simplifies tactile sensing.

  17. Effects of altering flow and odor information on plume tracking behavior in walking cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.).

    PubMed

    Willis, Mark A; Avondet, Jennifer L; Finnell, Andrew S

    2008-07-01

    Animals using odor plumes to locate resources are activated to track these plumes by the presence of an attractive odor, and typically steer toward the source using directional cues from the flowing air or water bearing the odor. We challenged freely walking virgin male cockroaches, Periplaneta americana, to track plumes of airborne female pheromone and then video-recorded and analyzed their responses as the odor plume and wind were independently manipulated. Plume tracking males that experienced the total loss of directional air flow halfway to the odor source showed little change in their performance, and 100% were able to quickly locate the pheromone source. By contrast, males experiencing a sudden loss of odor while tracking a plume rapidly changed their behavior; often turning downwind and retracing their steps to the release point, or walking in loops, but rarely moving upwind to the previous location of the source. In a subsequent experiment, in order to determine whether a memory of the previously experienced wind direction could provide the directional information necessary to locate an odor source, we challenged males to track plumes in zero wind after pre-exposing them to: (1) wind and pheromone, (2) wind only, and (3) neither wind nor pheromone. These were compared to males tracking a wind-borne pheromone plume, in which case, all males were able to locate the pheromone source. Our results show that males require the detection of wind and pheromone simultaneously during plume tracking in order to quickly and efficiently locate the odor source. These results are consistent with those reported from flying moths tracking wind-borne pheromone plumes, and suggest that the control system underlying this behavior requires ongoing simultaneous experience with wind and odor information during the performance of the behavior to operate efficiently. PMID:18587126

  18. Sensory processing within cockroach antenna enables rapid implementation of feedback control for high-speed running maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Sponberg, Simon N; Miller, John P; Full, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Animals are remarkably stable during high-speed maneuvers. As the speed of locomotion increases, neural bandwidth and processing delays can limit the ability to achieve and maintain stable control. Processing the information of sensory stimuli into a control signal within the sensor itself could enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during high-speed locomotion. Here, we show that processing in antennal afferents is sufficient to act as the control signal for a fast sensorimotor loop. American cockroaches Periplaneta americana use their antennae to mediate escape running by tracking vertical surfaces such as walls. A control theoretic model of wall following predicts that stable control is possible if the animal can compute wall position (P) and velocity, its derivative (D). Previous whole-nerve recordings from the antenna during simulated turning experiments demonstrated a population response consistent with P and D encoding, and suggested that the response was synchronized with the timing of a turn executed while wall following. Here, we record extracellularly from individual mechanoreceptors distributed along the antenna and show that these receptors encode D and have distinct latencies and filtering properties. The summed output of these receptors can be used as a control signal for rapid steering maneuvers. The D encoding within the antenna in addition to the temporal filtering properties and P dependence of the population of afferents support a sensory-encoding notion from control theory. Our findings support the notion that peripheral sensory processing can enable rapid implementation of whole-body feedback control during rapid running maneuvers.

  19. Identification and characterization of the NMDA receptor and its role in regulating reproduction in the cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juan; Hult, Ekaterina F; Marchal, Elisabeth; Tobe, Stephen S

    2015-04-01

    The NMDA receptor (NMDAR) plays important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and in the regulation of reproduction in mammals. NMDAR in insects comprises two subunits, NR1 and NR2. In this study, we identified two NR1 paralogs and eleven NR2 alternatively spliced variants in the cockroach Diploptera punctata. This is the first report of NR1 paralogs in insects. The tissue distributions and expression profiles of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 in different tissues were also investigated. Previous studies have demonstrated NMDA-stimulated biosynthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata through the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) in Diploptera punctata. However, our data show that the transcript levels of DpNR1A, DpNR1B and DpNR2 were low in the corpora allata. MK-801, a high-affinity antagonist of NMDAR, did not show any effect on JH biosynthesis in vitro. In addition, neither partial knockdown of DpNR2 nor in vivo treatment with a physiologically relevant dose of MK-801 resulted in any significant change in JH biosynthesis or basal oocyte growth. Injection of animals with a high dose of MK-801 (30 µg per animal per injection), which paralyzed the animals for 4-5 h, resulted in a significant decrease in JH biosynthesis on days 4 and 5. However, the reproductive events during the first gonadotrophic cycle in female D. punctata were unaffected. Thus, NMDAR does not appear to play important roles in the regulation of JH biosynthesis or mediate reproduction of female D. punctata.

  20. Locomotion- and mechanics-mediated tactile sensing: antenna reconfiguration simplifies control during high-speed navigation in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; Demir, Alican; Lee, Jusuk; Cowan, Noah J; Full, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Animals can expend energy to acquire sensory information by emitting signals and/or moving sensory structures. We propose that the energy from locomotion itself could permit control of a sensor, whereby animals use the energy from movement to reconfigure a passive sensor. We investigated high-speed, antenna-mediated tactile navigation in the cockroach Periplaneta americana. We discovered that the passive antennal flagellum can assume two principal mechanical states, such that the tip is either projecting backward or forward. Using a combination of behavioral and robotic experiments, we demonstrate that a switch in the antenna's state is mediated via the passive interactions between the sensor and its environment, and this switch strongly influences wall-tracking control. When the tip of the antenna is projected backward, the animals maintain greater body-to-wall distance with fewer body collisions and less leg-wall contact than when the tip is projecting forward. We hypothesized that distally pointing mechanosensory hairs at the tip of the antenna mediate the switch in state by interlocking with asperities in the wall surface. To test this hypothesis, we performed laser ablation of chemo-mechanosensory hairs and added artificial hairs to a robotic antenna. In both the natural and artificial systems, the presence of hairs categorically increased an antenna's probability of switching state. Antennal hairs, once thought to only play a role in sensing, are sufficient for mechanically reconfiguring the state of the entire antenna when coupled with forward motion. We show that the synergy between antennal mechanics, locomotion and the environment simplifies tactile sensing. PMID:24307709

  1. High-fat diet promotes lung fibrosis and attenuates airway eosinophilia after exposure to cockroach allergen in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiao Na; Greenberg, Yana; Hosseinkhani, M. Reza; Long, Eric K.; Bahaie, Nooshin S.; Rao, Amrita; Ha, Sung Gil; Rao, Savita P.; Bernlohr, David A.; Sriramarao, P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for asthma but the mechanistic basis for this association is not well understood. In the current study, the impact of obesity on lung inflammatory responses after allergen exposure was investigated. C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal diet (ND) after weaning were sensitized and challenged with cockroach allergen (CRA). Airway inflammation was assessed based on inflammatory cell recruitment, measurement of lung Th1-Th2 cytokines, chemokines, eicosanoids, and other proinflammatory mediators as well as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). CRA-challenged mice fed a HFD exhibited significantly decreased allergen-induced airway eosinophilia along with reduced lung IL-5, IL-13, LTC4, CCL11, and CCL2 levels as well as reduced mucus secretion and smooth muscle mass compared to ND fed mice. However, allergen-challenged HFD fed mice demonstrated significantly increased PAI-1 and reduced PGE2 levels in the lung relative to corresponding ND fed mice. Interestingly, saline-exposed HFD fed mice demonstrated elevated baseline levels of TGF-α1, arginase-1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and lung collagen expression associated with decreased lung function compared to corresponding ND fed mice. These studies indicate that a HFD inhibits airway eosinophilia while altering levels of PAI-1 and PGE2 in response to CRA in mice. Further, a HFD can lead to the development of lung fibrosis even in the absence of allergen exposure which could be due to innate elevated levels of specific profibrotic factors, potentially affecting lung function during asthma. PMID:24102347

  2. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  3. Explanatory models of addictive behaviour among native German, Russian-German, and Turkish youth.

    PubMed

    Penka, S; Heimann, H; Heinz, A; Schouler-Ocak, M

    2008-01-01

    In Germany, the public system of addiction treatment is used less by migrants with addictive disorders than by their non-migrant counterparts. To date, the literature has focused primarily on language, sociocultural factors, and residence status when discussing access barriers to this part of the health care system. However, little attention has been paid to cultural differences in explanatory models of addictive behaviour. This is surprising when we consider the important role played by popular knowledge in a population's perceptions of and responses to illnesses, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. In the present study, we examined explanatory models of addictive behaviour and of mental disorders in 124 native German und Russian-German youth and compared these models to those observed in an earlier study of 144 German and Turkish youth. We employed the free listing technique German and to compile the terms that participating subjects used to describe addictive behaviour. Subsequently, we examined how a subset of our study population assigned these terms to the respective disorders by means of the pile sort method. Although the explanatory models used by the German and Russian-German youth in our study were surprisingly similar, those employed by Turkish youth did not make any fundamental distinction between illegal and legal drugs (e.g. alcohol and nicotine). German and Russian-German youth regarded eating disorders as "embarrassing" or "disgraceful", but Turkish youth did not. Unlike our German and Russian-German subjects, the Turkish youth did not classify eating disorders as being addictive in nature. Moreover, medical concepts crucial to a proper understanding of dependence disorders (e.g. the term "physical dependence") were characterised by almost half of our Turkish subjects as useless in describing addictions. These findings show that it is impossible to translate medical or everyday concepts of disease and treatment properly into a different

  4. Contact solid-phase microextraction with uncoated glass and polydimethylsiloxane-coated fibers versus solvent sampling for the determination of hydrocarbons in adhesion secretions of Madagascar hissing cockroaches Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Blattodea) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Molecular profiles of adhesion secretions of Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach, Blattodea) were investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with particular focus on a comprehensive analysis of linear and branched hydrocarbons. For this purpose, secretions from the tarsi (feet), possibly contributing to adhesion on smooth surfaces, and control samples taken from the tibiae (lower legs), which contain general cuticular hydrocarbons that are supposed to be not involved in the biological adhesion function, were analyzed and their molecular fingerprints compared. A major analytical difficulty in such a study constitutes the representative, spatially controlled, precise and reproducible sampling from a living insect as well as the minute quantities of insect secretions on both tarsi and tibiae. Thus, three different in vivo sampling methods were compared in terms of sampling reproducibility and extraction efficiency by replicate measurement of samples from tarsi and tibiae. While contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber showed higher peak intensities, a self-made uncoated glass fiber had the best repeatability in contact-SPME sampling. Chromatographic profiles of these two contact-SPME sampling methods were statistically not significantly different. Inter-individual variances were larger than potentially existing minor differences in molecular patterns of distinct sampling methods. Sampling by solvent extraction was time consuming, showed lower sensitivities and was less reproducible. In general, sampling by contact-SPME with a cheap glass fiber turned out to be a viable alternative to PDMS-SPME sampling. Hydrocarbon patterns of the tarsal adhesion secretions were qualitatively similar to those of epicuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the tibiae. However, hydrocarbons were in general less abundant in tarsal secretions than secretions from tibiae.

  5. Isolation and identification of two novel attractant compounds from Chinese cockroach (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker) by combination of HSCCC, NMR and CD techniques.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wu, Xiaodan; Wu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hextane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1.5:1:1.5:1, v/v/v/v) was applied to the isolation and purification of attractants from Chinese cockroach, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. Two new attractants with attractant activity towards the male insects were obtained from the extract sample in a one-step separation. Their purities were determined by HPLC. Subsequent MS, NMR and CD analyses have led to the characterization of (R)-3-ethyl-6,8-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (1) and (R)-6,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisochromen-1-one (2), two novel isocumarin type attractants. Based on these results, it is concluded that HSCCC is a viable separation method option for purifying insect attractants, while effectively maintaining the attracting activity of the isolates. This is the first attempt to apply counter-current chromatography technique to separate attractants from Chinese cockroach.

  6. The effects of huwentoxin-I on the voltage-gated sodium channels of rat hippocampal and cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meichi; Rong, Mingqiang; Xiao, Yucheng; Liang, Songping

    2012-03-01

    Huwentoxin-I (HWTX-I) is a 33-residue peptide isolated from the venom of Ornithoctonus huwena and could inhibit TTX-sensitive voltage-gated sodium channels and N-type calcium channels in mammalian dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. However, the effects of HWTX-I on mammalian central neuronal and insect sodium channel subtypes remain unknown. In this study, we found that HWTX-I potently inhibited sodium channels in rat hippocampal and cockroach dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons with the IC(50) values of 66.1±5.2 and 4.80±0.58nM, respectively. Taken together with our previous work on DRG neurons (IC(50)≈55nM), the order of sodium channel sensitivity to HWTX-I inhibition was insect central DUM≫mammalian peripheral>mammalian central neurons. HWTX-I exhibited no effect on the steady-state activation and inactivation of sodium channels in rat hippocampal and cockroach DUM neurons. PMID:22094230

  7. Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanchari; Coussens, Nathan P; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Srikanth, Jandhyam; Yagi, Koichiro J; Gray, James S S; Tobe, Stephen S; Stay, Barbara; Chavas, Leonard M G; Ramaswamy, Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Macromolecular crystals for X-ray diffraction studies are typically grown in vitro from pure and homogeneous samples; however, there are examples of protein crystals that have been identified in vivo. Recent developments in micro-crystallography techniques and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers have allowed the determination of several protein structures from crystals grown in cellulo. Here, an atomic resolution (1.2 Å) crystal structure is reported of heterogeneous milk proteins grown inside a living organism in their functional niche. These in vivo-grown crystals were isolated from the midgut of an embryo within the only known viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. The milk proteins crystallized in space group P1, and a structure was determined by anomalous dispersion from the native S atoms. The data revealed glycosylated proteins that adopt a lipocalin fold, bind lipids and organize to form a tightly packed crystalline lattice. A single crystal is estimated to contain more than three times the energy of an equivalent mass of dairy milk. This unique storage form of nourishment for developing embryos allows access to a constant supply of complete nutrients. Notably, the crystalline cockroach-milk proteins are highly heterogeneous with respect to amino-acid sequence, glycosylation and bound fatty-acid composition. These data present a unique example of protein heterogeneity within a single in vivo-grown crystal of a natural protein in its native environment at atomic resolution. PMID:27437115

  8. Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sanchari; Coussens, Nathan P.; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Srikanth, Jandhyam; Yagi, Koichiro J.; Gray, James S. S.; Tobe, Stephen S.; Stay, Barbara; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Ramaswamy, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Macromolecular crystals for X-ray diffraction studies are typically grown in vitro from pure and homogeneous samples; however, there are examples of protein crystals that have been identified in vivo. Recent developments in micro-crystallography techniques and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers have allowed the determination of several protein structures from crystals grown in cellulo. Here, an atomic resolution (1.2 Å) crystal structure is reported of heterogeneous milk proteins grown inside a living organism in their functional niche. These in vivo-grown crystals were isolated from the midgut of an embryo within the only known viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. The milk proteins crystallized in space group P1, and a structure was determined by anomalous dispersion from the native S atoms. The data revealed glycosylated proteins that adopt a lipocalin fold, bind lipids and organize to form a tightly packed crystalline lattice. A single crystal is estimated to contain more than three times the energy of an equivalent mass of dairy milk. This unique storage form of nourishment for developing embryos allows access to a constant supply of complete nutrients. Notably, the crystalline cockroach-milk proteins are highly heterogeneous with respect to amino-acid sequence, glycosylation and bound fatty-acid composition. These data present a unique example of protein heterogeneity within a single in vivo-grown crystal of a natural protein in its native environment at atomic resolution. PMID:27437115

  9. A sodium channel mutation identified in Aedes aegypti selectively reduces cockroach sodium channel sensitivity to type I, but not type II pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaonong; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Dong, Ke

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. Numerous point mutations in sodium channel genes have been identified in pyrethroid-resistant insect species, and many have been confirmed to reduce or abolish sensitivity of channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to pyrethroids. Recently, several novel mutations were reported in sodium channel genes of pyrethroid-resistant Aedes mosquito populations. One of the mutations is a phenylalanine (F) to cysteine (C) change in segment 6 of domain III (IIIS6) of the Aedes mosquito sodium channel. Curiously, a previous study showed that alanine substitution of this F did not alter the action of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, on a cockroach sodium channel. In this study, we changed this F to C in a pyrethroid-sensitive cockroach sodium channel and examined mutant channel sensitivity to permethrin as well as five other type I or type II pyrethroids in Xenopus oocytes. Interestingly, the F to C mutation drastically reduced channel sensitivity to three type I pyrethroids, permethrin, NRDC 157 (a deltamethrin analogue lacking the α-cyano group) and bioresemthrin, but not to three type II pyrethroids, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and cyhalothrin. These results confirm the involvement of the F to C mutation in permethrin resistance, and raise the possibility that rotation of type I and type II pyrethroids might be considered in the control of insect pest populations where this particular mutation is present.

  10. An important role of a pyrethroid-sensing residue F1519 in the action of the N-alkylamide insecticide BTG 502 on the cockroach sodium channel

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yuzhe; Khambay, Bhupinder

    2011-01-01

    Deltamethrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, and BTG 502, an alkylamide insecticide, target voltage-gated sodium channels. Deltamethrin binds to a unique receptor site and causes prolonged opening of sodium channels by inhibiting deactivation and inactivation. Previous 22Na+ influx and receptor binding assays using mouse brain synaptoneurosomes showed that BTG 502 antagonized the binding and action of batrachotoxin (BTX), a site 2 sodium channel neurotoxin. However, the effect of BTG 502 has not been examined directly on sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of BTG 502 on wild-type and mutant cockroach sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Toxin competition experiments confirmed that BTG 502 antagonizes the action of BTX and possibly shares a common receptor site with BTX. However, unlike BTX which causes persistent activation of sodium channels, BTG 502 reduces the amplitude of peak sodium current. A previous study showed that BTG 502 was more toxic to pyrethroid-resistant house flies possessing a super-kdr (knockdown resistance) mechanism than to pyrethroid-susceptible house flies. However, we found that the cockroach sodium channels carrying the equivalent super-kdr mutations (M918T and L1014F) were not more sensitive to BTG 502 than the wild-type channel. Instead, a kdr mutation, F1519I, which reduces pyrethroid binding, abolished the action of BTG 502. These results provide evidence the actions of alkylamide and pyrethroid insecticides require a common sodium channel residue. PMID:21426938

  11. Structure of a heterogeneous, glycosylated, lipid-bound, in vivo-grown protein crystal at atomic resolution from the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sanchari; Coussens, Nathan P; Gallat, François-Xavier; Sathyanarayanan, Nitish; Srikanth, Jandhyam; Yagi, Koichiro J; Gray, James S S; Tobe, Stephen S; Stay, Barbara; Chavas, Leonard M G; Ramaswamy, Subramanian

    2016-07-01

    Macromolecular crystals for X-ray diffraction studies are typically grown in vitro from pure and homogeneous samples; however, there are examples of protein crystals that have been identified in vivo. Recent developments in micro-crystallography techniques and the advent of X-ray free-electron lasers have allowed the determination of several protein structures from crystals grown in cellulo. Here, an atomic resolution (1.2 Å) crystal structure is reported of heterogeneous milk proteins grown inside a living organism in their functional niche. These in vivo-grown crystals were isolated from the midgut of an embryo within the only known viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata. The milk proteins crystallized in space group P1, and a structure was determined by anomalous dispersion from the native S atoms. The data revealed glycosylated proteins that adopt a lipocalin fold, bind lipids and organize to form a tightly packed crystalline lattice. A single crystal is estimated to contain more than three times the energy of an equivalent mass of dairy milk. This unique storage form of nourishment for developing embryos allows access to a constant supply of complete nutrients. Notably, the crystalline cockroach-milk proteins are highly heterogeneous with respect to amino-acid sequence, glycosylation and bound fatty-acid composition. These data present a unique example of protein heterogeneity within a single in vivo-grown crystal of a natural protein in its native environment at atomic resolution.

  12. Internal psychosomatic medicine within the German Diagnosis Related Groups System

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Zimmer, Christoph; Wilhelm, Ruth; Klein, Walter; Krause-Wichmann, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    A model calculation was used to assess whether the G-DRG version 1.0 sufficiently represents integrated internal psychosomatic treatment of patients with psychosomatic disorders in relation to diagnosis and resource consumption. The DRGs of the Major Diagnostic Category "Mental Diseases" of the German DRG calculation sample 1.0 (diagnoses, procedures, cost weights) were analyzed. In a division of psychosomatic medicine within a general internal department, proceeds regarding 241 patients treated between 01 Jan and 31 Dec 2002, calculated according to the G-DRG version 1.0, were compared to the costs accrued. The G-DRG version 1.0 includes 7 DRGs of psychosomatic disorders in internal medicine (excluding disorders due to substance abuse). Assuming a base rate of € 2,900, the total proceeds of the G-DRG Version 1.0 exceeded the costs (+ € 57,971 /year). PMID:19742057

  13. Biotope map of the German Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Kerstin S; Darr, Alexander; Zettler, Michael L; Friedland, René; Tauber, Franz; von Weber, Mario; Voss, Joachim

    2015-07-15

    Full-coverage maps on the distribution of marine biotopes are a necessary basis for Nature Conservation and Marine Spatial Planning. Yet biotope maps do not exist in many regions. We are generating the first full-coverage biotope map for the German Baltic Sea according to the HELCOM Underwater biotope and habitat classification system (HUB). Species distribution modelling is applied to create full-coverage spatial information of biological features. The results of biomass modelling of twelve target taxa and presence/absence modelling of three target taxa enabled the identification of biological levels up to HUB level 6. Environmental data on bathymetry, light penetration depth and substrate are used to identify habitat levels. HUB biotope levels were combined with HUB habitat levels to create a biotope map. Altogether, 68 HUB biotopes are identified in the German Baltic Sea. The new biotope map combining substrate characteristics and biological communities will facilitate marine management in the area.

  14. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  15. Imported dengue virus infections in German tourists.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, T F; Jäger, G; Gilch, S

    1995-10-01

    Dengue viruses (DEN) are increasingly becoming endemic and epidemic in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study, 17 serologically confirmed clinical cases of DEN infection diagnosed in German tourists over the period from May 1993 until May 1994 are presented. Thirteen out of 17 (76.5%) infections occurred in southeast Asia (Thailand 58.9%), and 4/17 (23.5%) in Central and South America. All sera screened by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIFA) were positive for anti-DEN IgM. Acute infection was confirmed by demonstrating anti-DEN IgM using a "mu-capture assay". Sixteen out of 17 (94.1%) of patients presenting with fever upon admission were positive for anti-DEN IgG, with titres of > or = 128 in the IIFA. This report indicates the rising significance of DEN as a travel-associated infection in German tourists.

  16. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  17. Analysis of Stresses in German Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, Wilhelm

    1923-01-01

    This report contains an account of the origin of the views and fundamental principles underlying the construction of German airplanes during the war. The report contains a detailed discussion of the aerodynamic principles and their use in determining the strength of airplanes, the analysis of the strength qualities of materials and in the construction, the calculated strength of air flows and a description of tests made in determining the strength of airplanes.

  18. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  19. High temperature behavior of zirconium germanates

    SciTech Connect

    Utkin, A.V.; Baklanova, N.I.; Vasilyeva, I.G.

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature behavior of zirconium germanates ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ up to 2300 °C has been studied using the original photoemission thermal analysis technique with the comprehensive physicochemical study of solid and gaseous intermediate and final products. The two-stage process of incongruent sublimation of GeO₂ was established and the phase boundary of the homogeneity range for ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ were deduced from the thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy studies. A high tendency to sintering of the final ZrO₂ product is discussed. - Graphical abstract: The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂ and occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. Highlights: •Thermal behavior of ZrGeO₄ and Zr₃GeO₈ was studied using the original thermal analysis technique in wide temperature range. •The decomposition occurs via two stages with the formation of intermediate ZrO₂-rich solid solution. •The decomposition of zirconium germanates leads to the formation of gaseous GeO₂ and solid sintered ZrO₂. •The temperature of decomposition is strongly depended on the total gas pressure.

  20. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies.

  1. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists with…

  2. Review of Recent Research (1998-2012) in German for Academic Purposes (GAP) in Comparison with English for Academic Purposes (EAP): Cross-Influences, Synergies and Implications for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaworska, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    This state-of-the-art review reports on the major studies conducted in the field of "Deutsch als Wissenschaftssprache" (academic German) since the late 1990s. To begin with, the current position of German as a language of academic communication nationally and internationally will be discussed, focusing especially on the challenges posed…

  3. Programmed Death-1 Antibody Blocks Therapeutic Effects of T-Regulatory Cells in Cockroach Antigen-Induced Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Halvor S.; Yagita, Hideo; Shao, Zhifei; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that the adoptive transfer of T-regulatory cells (Tregs) isolated from lung and spleen tissue of green fluorescent protein–transgenic mice reversed airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation. Because Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) is a pivotal receptor regulating effector T-cell activation by Tregs, we evaluated whether PD-1 is involved in the therapeutic effect of naturally occurring Tregs (NTregs) and inducible Tregs (iTregs) in cockroach (CRA)-sensitized and challenged mice. The CD4+CD25+ NTregs and CD4+CD25− iTregs isolated from the lungs and spleens of BALB/c mice were adoptively transferred into CRA-sensitized and CRA-challenged mice with and without anti–PD-1 antibody (100 μg/mice). The CD4+CD25+ T cells in the lung were phenotyped after adoptive transfer. Concentrations of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured using ELISA. The NTregs and iTregs from either lung or spleen tissue reversed airway hyperresponsiveness for at least 4 wk. However, the therapeutic effect was blocked by administering the anti–PD-1 antibody. The administration of Tregs-recipient mice with anti–PD-1 antibody significantly decreased cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 expression, with low concentrations of Forkhead-winged transcriptional factor box 3 (Foxp3) mRNA transcripts in lung CD4+CD25+ T cells. These mice had substantially higher concentrations of BALF IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but significantly decreased levels of BALF IL-10. Adoptive therapy recipients without the anti–PD-1 antibody exhibited high levels of CTLA-4 expression and Foxp3 transcripts in lung CD4+CD25+ T cells, with a significant decrease in BALF IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 concentrations and a substantial increase in BALF IL-10 concentrations. These data suggest that the reversal of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation by Tregs is mediated in part by PD-1, because other costimulatory molecules (e.g., inducible costimulatory

  4. Ludwig Franz Benedikt Biermann: the doyen of German post-war astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielebinski, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Ludwig Biermann was a major figure in theoretical astrophysics in Germany in the twentieth century. His work on stellar interiors, comets and magnetic fields advanced our knowledge. He also predicted the existence and the nature of the solar wind. His predictions were vindicated by space probes. Ludwig Biermann also was an important figure behind the scenes working on the revival of German astronomy after the demise of WWII. For his work he earned important national and international honors.

  5. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  6. Optical Properties of Tm(3+) Ions in Alkali Germanate Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Barnes, Norman P.; Reichle, Donald J.; Jiang, Shibin

    2006-01-01

    Tm-doped alkali germanate glass is investigated for use as a laser material. Spectroscopic investigations of bulk Tm-doped germanate glass are reported for the absorption, emission and luminescence decay. Tm:germanate shows promise as a fiber laser when pumped with 0.792 m diodes because of low phonon energies. Spectroscopic analysis indicates low nonradiative quenching and pulsed laser performance studies confirm this prediction by showing a quantum efficiency of 1.69.

  7. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  8. Calibration Tests of a German Log Rodmeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottard, Elmo J.; Stillman, Everette R.

    1949-01-01

    A German log rodmeter of the pitot static type was calibrated in Langley tank no. 1 at speeds up to 34 knots and angles of yaw from 0 deg to plus or minus 10 3/4 degrees. The dynamic head approximated the theoretical head at 0 degrees yaw but decreased as the yaw was increased. The static head was negative and in general became more negative with increasing speed and yaw. Cavitation occurred at speeds above 31 knots at 0 deg yaw and 21 knots at 10 3/4 deg yaw.

  9. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  10. [Poet-physicians in German literature].

    PubMed

    Perels, C

    1991-12-17

    Starting with standards arising from the relationship between medicine and art in classical antiquity, biblical tradition and teutonic-pagan antiquity, this article roams through german literature from the Middle Ages up to the 20th century, from Hildegard of Bingen to Gottfried Benn and Alfred Döblin, guided by the question, how strongly medical knowledge and medical practise are reflected in the poetry of writing physicians. Individual dispositions and epoque-specific features are discussed. Special attention is given to Paul Fleming and Angelus Silesius, Albrecht von Haller and Friedrich Schiller, romanticism and Georg Büchner. PMID:1754781

  11. Hanau licenses voided by German state court

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    On July 21, the Higher Administrative Court in the German state of Hesse declared illegal three of the first four partial construction licenses for the plutonium section of the Siemens fuel fabrication complex at Hanau. The licenses were issued in the late 1980s by the former Christian Democrat administration of Hesse, but final licensing of the plant - now 90 percent complete - has been held up by the Social Democrat/Green Party coalition government that is now in power. The court ruling came as a result of four cases, and a so-called urgent application, initiated by antinuclear groups in the area.

  12. A simple route to synthesize manganese germanate nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.Z. Yang, Y.; Yuan, C.Z.; Duan Taike; Zhang Qianfeng

    2011-06-15

    Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple route using germanium dioxide and manganese acetate as the source materials. X-ray diffraction observation shows that the nanorods are composed of orthorhombic and monoclinic manganese germanate phases. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations display that the manganese germanate nanorods have flat tips with the length of longer than 10 micrometers and diameter of 60-350 nm, respectively. The role of the growth conditions on the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods shows that the proper selection and combination of the growth conditions are the key factor for controlling the formation of the manganese germanate nanorods. The photoluminescence spectrum of the manganese germanate nanorods exhibits four fluorescence emission peaks centered at 422 nm, 472 nm, 487 nm and 530 nm showing the application potential for the optical devices. - Research Highlights: {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods have been synthesized by simple hydrothermal process. {yields} The formation of manganese germanate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields} Manganese germanate nanorods exhibit good PL emission ability for optical device.

  13. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Childhood Immunization Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine - English Schutzimpfung gegen Haemophilus Influenzae Typ b (Hib) - Deutsch (German) PDF Immunization Action ...

  14. Umweltverschmutzung. German Ecology Packet: Resource Units and Materials for German Classes at All Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Julie; And Others

    Supplementary resource materials for use in upper level secondary school German classes are presented in this text. Teachers who are seeking new content and are willing to adapt these instructional materials on ecology in Germany will find three self-contained units on: The Plight of the Polar Bear, Polluted Swimming Pools in Germany, and Dead…

  15. East German Children's and Adolescents' Friendship and Moral Reasoning before and after German Reunification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Keller, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Few studies so far have investigated whether abrupt social changes in a society affect the development of friendship and moral reasoning. In this study, 2 cohorts of 188 East German children and adolescents (aged 7, 9, 12, and 15 years) were interviewed in 1990 and 2005. Participants were asked about the importance of close friendship (friendship…

  16. "No-Business-As-Usual German": A Critical Pedagogy of Business German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his "Business German" course. His course sought to narrate a dialectic of agency and institution. He started by asserting a distinction between the intending subject--with its plural desires, interests, and identifications--and the world it acts in, through and upon. This distinction between acting subject and…

  17. Priority-setting, rationing and cost-effectiveness in the German health care system.

    PubMed

    Oduncu, Fuat S

    2013-08-01

    Germany has just started a public debate on priority-setting, rationing and cost-effectiveness due to the cost explosion within the German health care system. To date, the costs for German health care run at 11,6% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP, 278,3 billion €) that represents a significant increase from the 5,9 % levels present in 1970. In response, the German Parliament has enacted several major and minor legal reforms over the last three decades for the sake of cost containment and maintaining stability of the health care system. The Statutory Health Insurance--SHI (Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung--GKV) is based on the fundamental principle of solidarity and provides an ethical and legal framework for implementing equity, comprehensiveness and setting the principles and rules for financing and providing health care services and benefits. Within the SHI system, several major actors can be identified: the Federal Ministry of Health, the 16 state ministries of health, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), the physicians (with their associations) and the hospitals (with their organizations) on the provider side, and the sickness funds with their associations on the purchasers' side. This article reviews the structure and complexities of the German health care system with its major players and participants. The focus will be put on relevant ethical, legal and economic aspects for prioritization, rationalization, rationing and cost-effectiveness of medical benefits and services. In conclusion, this article pleads for open discussion on the challenging subject of priority-setting instead of accepting the implicit and non-transparent rationing of medical services that currently occurs at many different levels within the health care system, as it stands today.

  18. [Measuring quality in the German Guideline Programme in Oncology (GGPO)—methodology and implementation].

    PubMed

    Nothacker, Monika; Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Ina B

    2014-01-01

    The German Guideline Programme in Oncology (GGPO) is a joint initiative between the German Cancer Society, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany and German Cancer Aid. In accordance with the aims of the German National Cancer Plan, the GGPO supports the systematic development of high-quality guidelines. To enhance implementation and evaluation, the suggestion of performance measures (PMs) derived from guideline recommendations following a standardised methodology is obligatory within the GGPO. For this purpose, PM teams are convened representing the multidisciplinary guideline development groups including clinical experts, methodologists and patient representatives as well as those organisations that take an active part in and share responsibility for documentation and quality improvement, i.e., clinical cancer registries, certified cancer centres and, if appropriate, the institution responsible for external quality assurance according to the German Social Code (SGB). The primary selection criteria for PMs include strength of the underlying recommendation (strong, grade A), existing potential for improvement of care and measurability. The premises of data economy and standardised documentation are taken into account. Between May 2008 and July 2014, 12 guidelines with suggestions for 100 PMs have been published. The majority of the suggested performance measures is captured by the specific documentation requirements of the clinical cancer registries and certified cancer centres. This creates a solid basis for an active quality management and re-evaluation of the suggested PMs. In addition, the suspension of measures should be considered if improvement has been achieved on a broad scale and for a longer period in order to concentrate on a quality-oriented, economic documentation.

  19. [Measuring quality in the German Guideline Programme in Oncology (GGPO)—methodology and implementation].

    PubMed

    Nothacker, Monika; Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Ina B

    2014-01-01

    The German Guideline Programme in Oncology (GGPO) is a joint initiative between the German Cancer Society, the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany and German Cancer Aid. In accordance with the aims of the German National Cancer Plan, the GGPO supports the systematic development of high-quality guidelines. To enhance implementation and evaluation, the suggestion of performance measures (PMs) derived from guideline recommendations following a standardised methodology is obligatory within the GGPO. For this purpose, PM teams are convened representing the multidisciplinary guideline development groups including clinical experts, methodologists and patient representatives as well as those organisations that take an active part in and share responsibility for documentation and quality improvement, i.e., clinical cancer registries, certified cancer centres and, if appropriate, the institution responsible for external quality assurance according to the German Social Code (SGB). The primary selection criteria for PMs include strength of the underlying recommendation (strong, grade A), existing potential for improvement of care and measurability. The premises of data economy and standardised documentation are taken into account. Between May 2008 and July 2014, 12 guidelines with suggestions for 100 PMs have been published. The majority of the suggested performance measures is captured by the specific documentation requirements of the clinical cancer registries and certified cancer centres. This creates a solid basis for an active quality management and re-evaluation of the suggested PMs. In addition, the suspension of measures should be considered if improvement has been achieved on a broad scale and for a longer period in order to concentrate on a quality-oriented, economic documentation. PMID:25523845

  20. Le Schwyzertutsch 5e langue nationale? (Is Swiss German a Fifth National Language?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redard, Francoise, Ed.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    These papers on the subject of the Swiss German language examine the status and attitudes of the Swiss German speaker, the reaction of other linguistic communities to Swiss German, and the necessity and/or possibility of learning Swiss German. The following articles are included: (1) "Le 'Schwyzertutsch': ecran ou lien? (Is Swiss German a Screen…