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Sample records for major molecular responses

  1. The significance of early, major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the imatinib era.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2011-08-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have dramatically changed the management and the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Imatinib is recognized as gold standard first-line therapy and impressive clinical and cytogenetic responses are obtained in the majority of chronic phase patients treated with this drug. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) tool is used to monitor molecular residual disease, but practical issues are associated to measurement of molecular responses. Several evidences have now proved that molecular responses have prognostic significance: patients who achieve early molecular response are more likely to obtain durable cytogenetic response and to present less rate of disease progression. While some reports indicated that achieving major molecular response (MMR) represents the most important endpoint associated to best outcome, some other reports indicated that achievement of MMR does not improve the greatest clinical benefit brought by complete cytogenetic response. In this review, we discuss on the role of molecular monitoring, the significance of early response and its correlation with outcome, the significance of major and complete molecular response, the emphasized value of a stable molecular response, the early identification of resistance presenting with increased molecular level.

  2. Molecular signatures of major depression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-05-04

    Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10(-14), odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease.

  3. Molecular Signatures of Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual’s somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10−42, odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29–1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10−14, odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81–0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  4. Delayed cytogenetic and major molecular responses associated to increased BMI at baseline in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Loglisci, Giuseppina; Salaroli, Adriano; Serrao, Alessandra; Mancini, Marco; Diverio, Daniela; Latagliata, Roberto; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-06-01

    Obesity, measured as body mass index (BMI), has been identified as a possible risk factor for several solid tumors as well as for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). To date, no correlations have been reported in this latter disease between BMI at baseline and response to targeted therapies. We refer here on the impact of BMI on clinical response in 339 chronic phase (CP) CML patients treated with imatinib and 35 CP-CML patients treated frontline with nilotinib. If compared to patients with low BMI (<18.5-25), patients with increased BMI (>25-40) at diagnosis who received imatinib showed a significantly longer median time to achieve complete cytogenetic response (6.8 months vs 3.3 months, p=0.001), a reduced rate of major molecular response (77% vs 58%, p=0.01) which was also achieved in a longer median time (29 months compared to 14 months, p=0.01). Conversely, no differences were revealed with respect to BMI in patients treated frontline with nilotinib and also patients with increased BMI obtained rapidly CCyR and MMR with an incidence similar to that of underweight/normal weight patients. These results suggest that CML patients with increased weight at baseline should be followed and carefully monitored if treated with standard dose imatinib frontline for a possible early switch.

  5. VHSV G glycoprotein major determinants implicated in triggering the host type I IFN antiviral response as DNA vaccine molecular adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Valtanen, P; Ortega-Villaizan, M; Chico, V; Gomez-Casado, E; Coll, J M; Estepa, A

    2014-10-14

    We have recently identified the two major determinants of the glycoprotein G of the viral hemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (gpGVHSV), peptides p31 and p33 implicated in triggering the host type I IFN antiviral response associated to these rhabdoviral antigens. With the aim to investigate the properties of these viral glycoprotein regions as DNA molecular adjuvants, their corresponding cDNA sequences were cloned into a plasmid (pMCV1.4) flanked by the signal peptide and transmembrane sequences of gpGVHSV. In addition, a plasmid construct encoding both sequences p31 and p33 (pMCV1.4-p31+p33) was also designed. In vitro transitory cell transfection assays showed that these VHSV gpG regions were able to induce the expression of type I IFN stimulated genes as well as to confer resistance to the infection with a different fish rhabdovirus, the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). In vivo, zebrafish intramuscular injection of only 1μg of the construct pMCV1.4-p31+p33 conferred fish protection against SVCV lethal challenge up to 45 days post-immunization. Moreover, pMCV1.4-p31+p33 construct was assayed for molecular adjuvantcity's for a DNA vaccine against SVCV based in the surface antigen of this virus (pAE6-GSVCV). The results showed that the co-injection of the SVCV DNA vaccine and the molecular adjuvant allowed (i) a ten-fold reduction in the dose of pAE6-Gsvcv without compromising its efficacy (ii) an increase in the duration of protection, and (iii) an increase in the survival rate. To our knowledge, this is the first report in which specific IFN-inducing regions from a viral gpG are used to design more-efficient and cost-effective viral vaccines, as well as to improve our knowledge on how to stimulate the innate immune system.

  6. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of Submergence Response Identifies Subtol6 as a Major Submergence Tolerance Locus in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Malachy T.; Proctor, Christopher A.; Dou, Yongchao; Schmitz, Aaron J.; Phansak, Piyaporn; Kruger, Greg R.; Zhang, Chi; Walia, Harkamal

    2015-01-01

    Maize is highly sensitive to short term flooding and submergence. Early season flooding reduces germination, survival and growth rate of maize seedlings. We aimed to discover genetic variation for submergence tolerance in maize and elucidate the genetic basis of submergence tolerance through transcriptional profiling and linkage analysis of contrasting genotypes. A diverse set of maize nested association mapping (NAM) founder lines were screened, and two highly tolerant (Mo18W and M162W) and sensitive (B97 and B73) genotypes were identified. Tolerant lines exhibited delayed senescence and lower oxidative stress levels compared to sensitive lines. Transcriptome analysis was performed on these inbreds to provide genome level insights into the molecular responses to submergence. Tolerant lines had higher transcript abundance of several fermentation-related genes and an unannotated Pyrophosphate-Dependent Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase gene during submergence. A coexpression network enriched for CBF (C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR: C-REPEAT/DRE BINDING FACTOR) genes, was induced by submergence in all four inbreds, but was more activated in the tolerant Mo18W. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Mo18W and B73 was screened for submergence tolerance. A major QTL named Subtol6 was mapped to chromosome 6 that explains 22% of the phenotypic variation within the RIL population. We identified two candidate genes (HEMOGLOBIN2 and RAV1) underlying Subtol6 based on contrasting expression patterns observed in B73 and Mo18W. Sources of tolerance identified in this study (Subtol6) can be useful to increase survival rate during flooding events that are predicted to increase in frequency with climate change. PMID:25806518

  7. Association of HLA-DR1 with the allergic response to the major mugwort pollen allergen: molecular background

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mugwort pollen allergens represent the main cause of pollinosis in late summer. The major allergen, Art v 1, contains only one single immunodominant, solely HLA-DR-restricted T cell epitope (Art v 125-36). The frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 is highly increased in mugwort-allergic individuals and HLA-DR1 serves as restriction element for Art v 125-36. However, Art v 125-36 also binds to HLA-DR4 with high affinity and DR1-restricted Art v 125-36 -specific T cell receptors can be activated by HLA-DR4 molecules. To understand the predominance of HLA-DR1 in mugwort allergy in spite of the degeneracy in HLA/peptide-binding and TCR-recognition, we investigated the molecular background of Art v 125-36 /MHC/TCR interactions in the context of HLA-DR1 compared to -DR4. Results The majority of Art v 125-36 -specific T cell lines and clones from HLA-DR1 carrying, mugwort pollen-allergic donors reacted to synthetic and naturally processed Art v 1–peptides when presented by HLA-DR1 or HLA-DR4 expressing antigen presenting cells. However, at limiting peptide concentrations DR1 was more effective in T cell stimulation. In addition, the minimal epitope for 50% of Art v 125-36 -specific T cells was shorter for DR1 than for DR4. In vitro binding assays of Art v 125-36 mutant peptides to isolated DR1- and DR4-molecules indicated similar binding capacities and use of the same register. In silico simulation of Art v 125-36 binding to HLA-DR1 and -DR4 suggested similar binding of the central part of the peptide to either molecule, but a higher flexibility of the N- and C-terminal amino acids and detachment at the C-terminus in HLA-DR1. Conclusions The predominance of HLA-DR1 in the response to Art v 125-36 may be explained by subtle conformation changes of the peptide bound to DR1 compared to DR4. Computer simulation supported our experimental data by demonstrating differences in peptide mobility within the HLA-DR complex that may influence TCR-binding. We suggest that the minor

  8. Identification and molecular characterization of the homogentisate pathway responsible for pyomelanin production, the major melanin constituents in Aeromonas media WS.

    PubMed

    Wang, He; Qiao, Yunqian; Chai, Baozhong; Qiu, Chenxi; Chen, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase), and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species.

  9. Identification and Molecular Characterization of the Homogentisate Pathway Responsible for Pyomelanin Production, the Major Melanin Constituents in Aeromonas media WS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Qiao, Yunqian; Chai, Baozhong; Qiu, Chenxi; Chen, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    The pigmentation of many Aeromonas species has been thought to be due to the production of a L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) based melanin. However, in this study we found that although L-DOPA synthesis occurs in the high-melanin-yielding Aeromonas media strain WS, it plays a minor, if any, role in pigmentation. Instead, the pigmentation of A. media strain WS is due to the production of pyomelanin through HGA (homogentisate). Gene products of phhA (encodes phenylalanine hydroxylase), tyrB and aspC (both encode aromatic amino acid aminotransferase), and hppD (encodes 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase) constitute a linear pathway of converting phenylalanine to HGA and disruption of any one of these genes impairs or blocks pigmentation of A. media strain WS. This HGA biosynthesis pathway is widely distributed in Aeromonas, but HGA is only detectable in the cultures of pigmented Aeromonas species. Heterologous expression of HppD from both pigmented and non-pigmented Aeromonas species in E. coli leads to the production of pyomelanin and thus pigmentation, suggesting that most Aeromonas species have the critical enzymes to produce pyomelanin through HGA. Taken together, we have identified a widely conserved biosynthesis pathway of HGA based pyomelanin in Aeromonas that may be responsible for pigmentation of many Aeromonas species. PMID:25793756

  10. Molecular and biological interaction between major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and luteinizing hormone receptors or beta-adrenergic receptors triggers cellular response in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Solano, A R; Cremaschi, G; Sánchez, M L; Borda, E; Sterin-Borda, L; Podestá, E J

    1988-01-01

    Purified IgG from BALB/c mouse anti-C3H serum exerts positive inotropic and chronotropic effects in C3H mouse atria and induces testosterone synthesis in C3H mouse Leydig cells. The effect depends on IgG concentration and can be abolished by beta-adrenergic-receptor and luteinizing hormone-receptor antagonists. IgG interferes with the binding of dihydroalprenolol and luteinizing hormone. Monoclonal antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class I antigens were active on the Leydig cells of C3H and BALB/c mice. There was a parallelism between the effect of each individual monoclonal antibody with specificity for a particular haplotype and the response of the target cell from the strains carrying such haplotypes. These antibodies could precipitate the soluble luteinizing hormone-receptor complex. The results suggested that bound hormone triggers the association of major histocompatibility class I antigen with the receptor, thereby activating the respective target cells. PMID:2839829

  11. Complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response as surrogate outcomes for overall survival in first-line treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia: a case study for technology appraisal on the basis of surrogate outcomes evidence.

    PubMed

    Oriana, Ciani; Martin, Hoyle; Toby, Pavey; Chris, Cooper; Ruth, Garside; Claudius, Rudin; Rod, Taylor

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence assessed dasatinib, nilotinib, and standard-dose imatinib as first-line treatment of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Licensing of these alternative treatments was based on randomized controlled trials assessing complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) and major molecular response (MMR) at 12 months as primary end points. We use this case study to illustrate the validation of CCyR and MMR as surrogate outcomes for overall survival in CML and how this evidence was used to inform National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's recommendation on the public funding of these first-line treatments for CML. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the association between CCyR and MMR at 12 months and overall survival in patients with chronic phase CML. We estimated life expectancy by extrapolating long-term survival from the weighted overall survival stratified according to the achievement of CCyR and MMR. Five studies provided data on the observational association between CCyR or MMR and overall survival. Based on the pooled association between CCyR and MMR and overall survival, our modeling showed comparable predicted mean duration of survival (21-23 years) following first-line treatment with imatinib, dasatinib, or nilotinib. This case study illustrates the consideration of surrogate outcome evidence in health technology assessment. Although it is often recommended that the acceptance of surrogate outcomes be based on randomized controlled trial data demonstrating an association between the treatment effect on both the surrogate outcome and the final outcome, this case study shows that policymakers may be willing to accept a lower level of evidence (i.e., observational association). Copyright © 2013, International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kiyohara, Chikako; Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2009-03-01

    Major depressive disorder causes significant morbidity, affecting people's ability to work, function in relationships, and engage in social activities. Moreover, major depressive disorder increases the risk of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and death by completed suicide. There is evidence that chronic stress can cause major depressive disorder. As for genetic factors, only minor susceptibility genes have been reliably identified. The serotonin system provides a logical source of susceptibility genes for depression, because this system is the target of selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor drugs that are effective in treating depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter (5-HTT) has received particular attention because it is involved in the reuptake of serotonin at brain synapses. One common polymorphic variant of the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), which affects the promoter of the 5-HTT gene, causes reduced uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin into the presynaptic cells in the brain. The authors discussed the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and major depressive disorder, with special emphasis on the 5-HTTTLPR polymorphism. As the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder, the 5-HTT gene may be a candidate for a major depressive disorder susceptibility gene. As major depressive disorder is a multifactorial disease, an improved understanding of the interplay of environmental and genetic polymorphisms at multiple loci may help identify individuals who are at increased risk for major depressive disorder. Hopefully, in the future we will be able to screen for major depressive disorder susceptibility by using specific biomarkers.

  13. A Response to "BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists," from the Perspective of the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major Program at Kenyon College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonczewski, Joan L.; Marusak, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Council completed a major study of undergraduate biology education, "BIO 2010-Transforming Undergraduate Education For Future Research Biologists (BIO 2010)," funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the National Institutes of Health. The "BIO 2010" report recommends that biology pedagogy should use an…

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Neuronal Responsivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-10

    O-A187 061 MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL RESPONSIVITY(U) / VERMONT UNIV BURLINGTON COIL OF MEDICINE V EHRLICH 7 UwKL7RS1S1 IS1 JUL 87 RFOSR-TR-87...The grant was awarded to support the organization of a scientific conference entitled: "Molecular Mechanisms of Neuronal Responsivity." This...from the University of New York, on: "Synaptic Transmission and Neuronal Integration." It should be mentioned that this presentation emerged as a most

  15. Major rectus abdominis hematoma complicating low molecular weight heparin therapy.

    PubMed

    Di Ascenzo, Leonardo; Cassin, Matteo; Driussi, Mauro; Moretti, Michele; Pecoraro, Rosa; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi

    2008-07-01

    The use of low molecular weight heparin sometimes leads to major life threatening complications, such as acute abdominal haemorrhages. We report two cases of major haematoma of rectus abdominis. Computed tomography was very helpful to confirm the diagnosis in these cases.

  16. Contraction of Online Response to Major Events

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation—the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  17. Contraction of online response to major events.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users.

  18. The effect of the additional cytogenetic abnormalities on major molecular response and BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in long-term follow-up chronic myeloid leukemia patients, a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Savasoglu, Kaan; Payzin, Kadriye Bahriye; Ozdemirkiran, Fusun; Subasioglu, Asli; Yilmaz, Asu Fergun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between additional chromosomal aberrations (ACAs) with major molecular response (MMR) and BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations in the long-term follow-up of the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease. The study design was cross-sectional observational and used the CML patients' data of Izmir Ataturk Education and Research Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) test results from 89 CML patients' and pyrosequencing analysis results from 17 patients' were set up for comparison analysis. The chi-square test was used in statistical analysis of the experimental data. There were no statistically significant correlations between ACAs and MMR (p = .361, p > .05) groups or BCR-ABL KD mutations (p = .576, p > .05) groups observed in the study. This study has revealed that MMR and BCR-ABL KD mutations did not correlate with ACAs.

  19. An altered peripheral IL6 response in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Olah, Zita; Korade, Zeljka; Garbett, Krassimira A.; Shelton, Richard C.; Mirnics, Karoly

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent major psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 17%. Recent evidence suggests MDD is not only a brain dysfunction, but a systemic disease affecting the whole body. Central and peripheral inflammatory changes seem to be a centerpiece of MDD pathology: a subset of patients show elevated blood cytokine and chemokine levels that partially normalize with symptom improvement over the course of antidepressant treatment. As this inflammatory process in MDD is poorly understood, we hypothesized that the peripheral tissues of MDD patients will respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, resulting in an aberrant transcriptional response to elevated proinflammatory cytokines. To test this, we used MDD patient- and control-derived dermal fibroblast cultures to investigate their response to an acute treatment with IL6, IL1β, TNFα, or vehicle. Following RNA isolation and subsequent cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative expression level of several families of inflammation-responsive genes. Our results showed comparable expression of the tested genes between MDD patients and controls at baseline. In contrast, MDD patient fibroblasts had a diminished transcriptional response to IL6 in all the gene sets tested (oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and lipid metabolism). We also found a significant increase in baseline and IL6 stimulated transcript levels of the IL6 receptor gene. This IL6 receptor transcript increase in MDD fibroblasts was accompanied by an IL6 stimulated increase in induction of SOCS3, which dampens IL6 receptor signaling. Altogether our results demonstrate that there is an altered transcriptional response to IL6 in MDD, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. Ultimately we hope that these studies will lead to validation of novel MDD drug targets focused on normalizing the altered IL6 response in

  20. An altered peripheral IL6 response in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Money, Kelli M; Olah, Zita; Korade, Zeljka; Garbett, Krassimira A; Shelton, Richard C; Mirnics, Karoly

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent major psychiatric disorders with a lifetime prevalence of 17%. Recent evidence suggests MDD is not only a brain dysfunction, but a systemic disease affecting the whole body. Central and peripheral inflammatory changes seem to be a centerpiece of MDD pathology: a subset of patients show elevated blood cytokine and chemokine levels that partially normalize with symptom improvement over the course of anti-depressant treatment. As this inflammatory process in MDD is poorly understood, we hypothesized that the peripheral tissues of MDD patients will respond differently to inflammatory stimuli, resulting in an aberrant transcriptional response to elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines. To test this, we used MDD patient- and control-derived dermal fibroblast cultures to investigate their response to an acute treatment with IL6, IL1β, TNFα, or vehicle. Following RNA isolation and subsequent cDNA synthesis, quantitative PCR was used to determine the relative expression level of several families of inflammation-responsive genes. Our results showed comparable expression of the tested genes between MDD patients and controls at baseline. In contrast, MDD patient fibroblasts had a diminished transcriptional response to IL6 in all the gene sets tested (oxidative stress response, mitochondrial function, and lipid metabolism). We also found a significant increase in baseline and IL6 stimulated transcript levels of the IL6 receptor gene. This IL6 receptor transcript increase in MDD fibroblasts was accompanied by an IL6 stimulated increase in induction of SOCS3, which dampens IL6 receptor signaling. Altogether our results demonstrate that there is an altered transcriptional response to IL6 in MDD, which may represent one of the molecular mechanisms contributing to disease pathophysiology. Ultimately we hope that these studies will lead to validation of novel MDD drug targets focused on normalizing the altered IL6 response in

  1. Molecular, Functional, and Structural Imaging of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Yunqi; Zhu, Yuankai; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Caiyun; Zhang, Hong; Hayashi, Takuya; Tian, Mei

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, correlating with genetic susceptibility and environmental risk factors. Molecular, functional, and structural imaging approaches have been increasingly used to detect neurobiological changes, analyze neurochemical correlates, and parse pathophysiological mechanisms underlying MDD. We reviewed recent neuroimaging publications on MDD in terms of molecular, functional, and structural alterations as detected mainly by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Altered structure and function of brain regions involved in the cognitive control of affective state have been demonstrated. An abnormal default mode network, as revealed by resting-state functional MRI, is likely associated with aberrant metabolic and serotonergic function revealed by radionuclide imaging. Further multi-modal investigations are essential to clarify the characteristics of the cortical network and serotonergic system associated with behavioral and genetic variations in MDD.

  2. Response to major earthquakes affecting Gemini twins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, Michiel; Rogers, Rolando; Rippa, Mathew; Perez, Gabriel; Montes, Vanessa; Moreno, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Both Gemini telescopes, in Hawaii and Chile, are located in highly seismic active areas. That means that the seismic protection is included in the structural design of the telescope, instruments and auxiliary structure. We will describe the specific design features to reduce permanent damage in case of major earthquakes. At this moment both telescopes have been affected by big earthquakes in 2006 and 2015 respectively. There is an opportunity to compare the original design to the effects that are caused by these earthquakes and analyze their effectiveness. The paper describes the way the telescopes responded to these events, the damage that was caused, how we recovered from it, the modifications we have done to avoid some of this damage in future occasions, and lessons learned to face this type of events. Finally we will cover on how we pretend to upgrade the limited monitoring tools we currently have in place to measure the impact of earthquakes.

  3. The inflammatory cytokines: molecular biomarkers for major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Martin, Charlotte; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Powell, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are pleotropic cell signaling proteins that, in addition to their role as inflammatory mediators, also affect neurotransmitter systems, brain functionality and mood. Here we explore the potential utility of cytokine biomarkers for major depressive disorder. Specifically, we explore how genetic, transcriptomic and proteomic information relating to the cytokines might act as biomarkers, aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment selection processes. We advise future studies to investigate whether cytokine biomarkers might differentiate major depressive disorder patients from other patient groups with overlapping clinical characteristics. Furthermore, we invite future pharmacogenetic studies to investigate whether early antidepressant-induced changes to cytokine mRNA or protein levels precede behavioral changes and act as longer-term predictors of clinical antidepressant response.

  4. The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The defining task for undergraduate departments is the design of a major, including the number and content of courses as well as other requirements. Department members must weigh the desire to produce graduates superbly prepared for further study against the charge that the major requires too large a share of an undergraduate's course options.…

  5. Human immune responses to major human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y N; Kari, B; Gehrz, R C

    1988-01-01

    Sera from both human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-seropositive adults and infants with congenital HCMV infection recognized two major HCMV glycoprotein complexes. However, proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to these complexes varied among seropositive adults and were not detected in any of the infants. Thus, these glycoproteins alone may not be sufficient to develop a subviral HCMV vaccine. Images PMID:2828655

  6. Molecular Aspects of Bone Resorption in β-Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Najmaldin; Abroun, Saeid; Salari, Fatemeh; Rahim, Fakher; Shahjahani, Mohammad; Javad, Mohammadi-Asl

    2015-01-01

    β-thalassemia is the most common single gene disorder worldwide, in which hemoglobin β-chain production is decreased. Today, the life expectancy of thalassemic patients is increased because of a variety of treatment methods; however treatment related complications have also increased. The most common side effect is osteoporosis, which usually occurs in early adulthood as a consequence of increased bone resorption. Increased bone resorption mainly results from factors such as delayed puberty, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, ineffective hematopoiesis as well as hyperplasia of the bone marrow, parathyroid gland dysfunction, toxic effect of iron on osteoblasts, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. These factors disrupt the balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts by interfering with various molecular mechanisms and result in decreased bone density. Given the high prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients and complexity of their development process, the goal of this review is to evaluate the molecular aspects involved in osteopenia and osteoporosis in thalassemic patients, which may be useful for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26199898

  7. Multi-objective evolutionary emergency response optimization for major accidents.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Paraskevi S; Papazoglou, Ioannis A; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Markatos, Nikolaos C

    2010-06-15

    Emergency response planning in case of a major accident (hazardous material event, nuclear accident) is very important for the protection of the public and workers' safety and health. In this context, several protective actions can be performed, such as, evacuation of an area; protection of the population in buildings; and use of personal protective equipment. The best solution is not unique when multiple criteria are taken into consideration (e.g. health consequences, social disruption, economic cost). This paper presents a methodology for multi-objective optimization of emergency response planning in case of a major accident. The emergency policy with regards to protective actions to be implemented is optimized. An evolutionary algorithm has been used as the optimization tool. Case studies demonstrating the methodology and its application in emergency response decision-making in case of accidents related to hazardous materials installations are presented. However, the methodology with appropriate modification is suitable for supporting decisions in assessing emergency response procedures in other cases (nuclear accidents, transportation of hazardous materials) or for land-use planning issues. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Memory immune response: a major challenge in vaccination.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Antonella; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2012-10-01

    Abstract A crucial challenge for vaccine development is to design vaccines that induce a long-lasting protective immune response, i.e., immune memory. The persistence of antigen-specific antibody titers over a protective threshold, and the ability to exibit a 'recall response' to a subsequent encounter with an antigen have long been the only measurable correlates of vaccine take and immune memory development, suffering from the disadvantage of relying on long-term monitoring of the immune response. In the last few years, advances in the technologies for the identification and characterization of the cell subsets and molecular pathways involved in the immune response to vaccination have allowed innovative approaches to the identification of early correlates of immune memory. In this review, we discuss recent data and hypotheses on early correlates of the development of immune memory, with special emphasis on the gene expression signatures that underlie the self-renewal ability of some lymphocyte subsets, and their similarities with gene expression signatures in stem cells.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of inflammation and tissue injury after major trauma-is complement the "bad guy"?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Trauma represents the leading cause of death among young people in industrialized countries. Recent clinical and experimental studies have brought increasing evidence for activation of the innate immune system in contributing to the pathogenesis of trauma-induced sequelae and adverse outcome. As the "first line of defense", the complement system represents a potent effector arm of innate immunity, and has been implicated in mediating the early posttraumatic inflammatory response. Despite its generic beneficial functions, including pathogen elimination and immediate response to danger signals, complement activation may exert detrimental effects after trauma, in terms of mounting an "innocent bystander" attack on host tissue. Posttraumatic ischemia/reperfusion injuries represent the classic entity of complement-mediated tissue damage, adding to the "antigenic load" by exacerbation of local and systemic inflammation and release of toxic mediators. These pathophysiological sequelae have been shown to sustain the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after major trauma, and can ultimately contribute to remote organ injury and death. Numerous experimental models have been designed in recent years with the aim of mimicking the inflammatory reaction after trauma and to allow the testing of new pharmacological approaches, including the emergent concept of site-targeted complement inhibition. The present review provides an overview on the current understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of complement activation after major trauma, with an emphasis of emerging therapeutic concepts which may provide the rationale for a "bench-to-bedside" approach in the design of future pharmacological strategies. PMID:22129197

  10. MAJOR MOLECULAR GENETIC DRIVERS IN SPORADIC PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    ARNOLD, ANDREW

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene, first identified as the source of pathogenic germline mutations in patients with familial endocrinopathies, is found in a substantial fraction of non-familial parathyroid adenomas. PMID:28066056

  11. Pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major accidental trauma.

    PubMed

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Toft, Palle

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major trauma and the timing of final reconstructive surgery. An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to the inflammatory response to trauma were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. The inflammatory response consists of hormonal metabolic and immunological components and the extent correlates with the magnitude of the tissue injury. After trauma and uncomplicated surgery a delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is observed. Trauma patients are, however, often exposed, not only to the trauma, but to several events in the form of initial surgery and later final reconstructive surgery. In this case immune paralysis associated with increased risk of infection might develop. The inflammatory response is normalized 3 weeks following trauma. It has been proposed that the final reconstructive surgery should be postponed until the inflammatory response is normalized. This statement is however not based on clinical trials. Postponement of final reconstructive surgery until the inflammatory is normalized should be based on prospective randomized trials.

  12. Pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major accidental trauma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to describe the pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major trauma and the timing of final reconstructive surgery. Methods An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to the inflammatory response to trauma were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion The inflammatory response consists of hormonal metabolic and immunological components and the extent correlates with the magnitude of the tissue injury. After trauma and uncomplicated surgery a delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is observed. Trauma patients are, however, often exposed, not only to the trauma, but to several events in the form of initial surgery and later final reconstructive surgery. In this case immune paralysis associated with increased risk of infection might develop. The inflammatory response is normalized 3 weeks following trauma. It has been proposed that the final reconstructive surgery should be postponed until the inflammatory response is normalized. This statement is however not based on clinical trials. Conclusion Postponement of final reconstructive surgery until the inflammatory is normalized should be based on prospective randomized trials. PMID:19754938

  13. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 activates the innate immune response of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Warmbold, Christine; Uliczka, Karin; Rus, Fiorentina; Suck, Roland; Petersen, Arnd; Silverman, Neal; Ulmer, Artur J; Heine, Holger; Roeder, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Some allergens with relevant protease activity have the potential to directly interact with host structures. It remains to be elucidated whether this activity is relevant for developing their allergenic properties. The major goal of this study was to elucidate whether allergens with a strong protease activity directly interact with modules of the innate immune system, thereby inducing an immune response. We chose Drosophila melanogaster for our experiments to prevent the results from being influenced by the adaptive immune system and used the armamentarium of methods available for the fly to study the underlying mechanisms. We show that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus major allergen 1 (Der p 1), the major allergen of the house dust mite, efficiently activates various facets of the Drosophila innate-immune system, including both epithelial and systemic responses. These responses depend on the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway via activation of the NF-κB transcription factor Relish. In addition, the major pathogen associated molecular pattern recognizing receptor of the IMD pathway, peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC, was necessary for this response. We showed that Der p 1, which has cysteine protease activity, cleaves the ectodomain of peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC and, thus, activates the IMD pathway to induce a profound immune response. We conclude that the innate immune response to this allergen-mediated proteolytic cleavage represents an ancient type of danger signaling that may be highly relevant for the primary allergenicity of compounds such as Der p 1.

  14. Professionally responsible intrapartum management of patients with major mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Kriste E; Bailey, Kala J; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with major mental disorders present obstetricians with a range of clinical challenges, which are magnified when a psychotic or agitated patient presents in labor and there is limited time for decision making. This article provides the obstetrician with an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making with these patients. We searched for articles related to the intrapartum management of pregnant patients with major mental disorders, using 3 main search components: pregnancy, chronic mental illness, and ethics. No articles were found that addressed the clinical ethical challenges of decision making during the intrapartum period with these patients. We therefore developed an ethical framework with 4 components: the concept of the fetus as a patient; the presumption of decision-making capacity; the concept of assent; and beneficence-based clinical judgment. On the basis of this framework we propose an algorithm to guide professionally responsible decision making that asks 5 questions: (1) Does the patient have the capacity to consent to treatment?; (2) Is there time to attempt restoration of capacity?; (3) Is there an opportunity for substituted judgment?; (4) Is the patient accepting treatment?; (5) Is there an opportunity for active assent?; and (6) coerced clinical management as the least worst alternative. The algorithm is designed to support a deliberative, clinically comprehensive, preventive-ethics approach to guide obstetricians in decision making with this challenging population of patients. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complement activation and interleukin response in major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Kvarnström, A L; Sarbinowski, R T; Bengtson, J-P; Jacobsson, L M; Bengtsson, A L

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether major abdominal surgery leads to complement activation and interleukin response and whether the kind of anaesthesia influence complement activation and the release of inflammatory interleukins. The study design was prospective and randomised. Fifty patients undergoing open major colorectal surgery due to cancer disease or inflammatory bowel disease were studied. Twenty-five patients were given total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil, and 25 patients were given inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl. To determine complement activation (C3a and SC5b-9) and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins (tumour necrosis factor-a (TNF-a)), interleukin-1b (IL-1b), IL-6, IL-8, IL-4 and IL-10), blood samples were drawn preoperatively, 60 minutes after start of surgery, 30 minutes after end of surgery and 24 hours postoperatively. Complement was activated and pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8) and anti-inflammatory interleukins (IL-10) were released during major colorectal surgery. There was no significant difference between TIVA and inhalational anaesthesia regarding complement activation and cytokine release. Major colorectal surgery leads to activation of the complement cascade and the release of both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. There are no significant differences between total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil and inhalational anaesthesia with sevoflurane and fentanyl regarding complement activation and the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukins. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  16. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): molecular pathophysiology and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoyuki; Hattori, Yuichi

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, extensive basic science research has led to a clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the pathophysiology of sepsis. Sepsis is now defined as a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in which there is an identifiable focus of infection. SIRS can be also precipitated by non-infective events such as trauma, pancreatitis, and surgery. As a consequence of an overactive SIRS response, the function of various organ systems may be compromised, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Production and activation of multiple proinflammatory genes are likely to play a key role in the pathogenesis of MODS development. This review article focuses on the molecular mechanisms and components involved in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis. This includes cellular targets of sepsis-inducing bacterial products and their signaling pathways with a major emphasis on transcription factors and new therapeutic approaches to severe sepsis.

  17. Electroconvulsive therapy exerts mainly acute molecular changes in serum of major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Stelzhammer, Viktoria; Guest, Paul C; Rothermundt, Matthias; Sondermann, Carina; Michael, Nikolaus; Schwarz, Emanuel; Rahmoune, Hassan; Bahn, Sabine

    2013-10-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is mainly used to treat medication resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, with a remission rate of up to 90%. However, little is known about the serum molecular changes induced by this treatment. Understanding the mechanisms of action of ECT at the molecular level could lead to identification of response markers and potential new drug targets for more effective antidepressant treatments. We have carried out a pilot study which analysed serum samples of MDD patients who received a series of ECT treatments over 4 weeks. Patients received only ECT treatments over the first two weeks and a combination of ECT and antidepressant drugs (AD) over the subsequent two weeks. Blood serum analyses were carried out using a combination of multiplex Human MAP® immunoassay and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(E)) profiling. This showed that ECT had a predominant acute effect on the levels of serum proteins and small molecules, with changes at the beginning of ECT treatment and after administration of the ECT+AD combination treatment. This suggested a positive interaction between the two types of treatment. Changed molecules included BDNF, CD40L, IL-8, IL-13, EGF, IGF-1, pancreatic polypeptide, SCF, sortilin-1 and others which have already been implicated in MDD pathophysiology. We conclude that ECT appears to exert mainly acute effects on serum molecules.

  18. HDAC6 controls major cell response pathways to cytotoxic accumulation of protein aggregates

    PubMed Central

    Boyault, Cyril; Zhang, Yu; Fritah, Sabrina; Caron, Cécile; Gilquin, Benoit; Kwon, So Hee; Garrido, Carmen; Yao, Tso-Pang; Vourc’h, Claire; Matthias, Patrick; Khochbin, Saadi

    2007-01-01

    A cellular defense mechanism counteracts the deleterious effects of misfolded protein accumulation by eliciting a stress response. The cytoplasmic deacetylase HDAC6 (histone deacetylase 6) was previously shown to be a key element in this response by coordinating the clearance of protein aggregates through aggresome formation and their autophagic degradation. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that HDAC6 is involved in another crucial cell response to the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, and unravel its molecular basis. Indeed, our data show that HDAC6 senses ubiquitinated cellular aggregates and consequently induces the expression of major cellular chaperones by triggering the dissociation of a repressive HDAC6/HSF1 (heat-shock factor 1)/HSP90 (heat-shock protein 90) complex and a subsequent HSF1 activation. HDAC6 therefore appears as a master regulator of the cell protective response to cytotoxic protein aggregate formation. PMID:17785525

  19. Genetic susceptibility for bipolar disorder and response to antidepressants in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tansey, Katherine E; Guipponi, Michel; Domenici, Enrico; Lewis, Glyn; Malafosse, Alain; O'Donovan, Michael; Wendland, Jens R; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of response to antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder (MDD) makes individual treatment outcomes currently unpredictable. It has been suggested that resistance to antidepressant treatment might be due to undiagnosed bipolar disorder or bipolar spectrum features. Here, we investigate the relationship between genetic susceptibility for bipolar disorder and response to treatment with antidepressants in MDD. Polygenic scores indexing risk for bipolar disorder were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Disorder whole genome association study. Linear regressions tested the effect of polygenic risk scores for bipolar disorder on proportional reduction in depression severity in two large samples of individuals with MDD, treated with antidepressants, NEWMEDS (n=1,791) and STAR*D (n=1,107). There was no significant association between polygenic scores for bipolar disorder and response to treatment with antidepressants. Our data indicate that molecular measure of genetic susceptibility to bipolar disorder does not aid in understanding non-response to antidepressants.

  20. The cortisol awakening response and major depression: examining the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Dedovic, Katarina; Ngiam, Janice

    2015-01-01

    A vast body of literature has revealed that dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress axis is associated with etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). There are many ways that the dysregulation of the HPA axis can be assessed: by sampling diurnal basal secretion and/or in response to a stress task, pharmacological challenge, and awakening. Here, we focus on the association between cortisol awakening response (CAR), as one index of HPA axis function, and MDD, given that the nature of this association is particularly unclear. Indeed, in the following selective review, we attempt to reconcile sometimes-divergent evidence of the role of CAR in the pathway to depression. We first examine association of CAR with psychological factors that have been linked with increased vulnerability to develop depression. Then, we summarize the findings regarding the CAR profile in those with current depression, and evaluate evidence for the role of CAR following depression resolution and continued vulnerability. Finally, we showcase longitudinal studies showing the role of CAR in predicting depression onset and recurrence. Overall, the studies reveal an important, but complex, association between CAR and vulnerability to depression. PMID:25999722

  1. Increased Amygdala Response to Shame in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pulcu, Erdem; Lythe, Karen; Elliott, Rebecca; Green, Sophie; Moll, Jorge; Deakin, John F. W.; Zahn, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Proneness to self-blaming moral emotions such as shame and guilt is increased in major depressive disorder (MDD), and may play an important role in vulnerability even after symptoms have subsided. Social psychologists have argued that shame-proneness is relevant for depression vulnerability and is distinct from guilt. Shame depends on the imagined critical perception of others, whereas guilt results from one’s own judgement. The neuroanatomy of shame in MDD is unknown. Using fMRI, we compared 21 participants with MDD remitted from symptoms with no current co-morbid axis-I disorders, and 18 control participants with no personal or family history of MDD. The MDD group exhibited higher activation of the right amygdala and posterior insula for shame relative to guilt (SPM8). This neural difference was observed despite equal levels of rated negative emotional valence and frequencies of induced shame and guilt experience across groups. These same results were found in the medication-free MDD subgroup (N = 15). Increased amygdala and posterior insula activations, known to be related to sensory perception of emotional stimuli, distinguish shame from guilt responses in remitted MDD. People with MDD thus exhibit changes in the neural response to shame after symptoms have subsided. This supports the hypothesis that shame and guilt play at least partly distinct roles in vulnerability to MDD. Shame-induction may be a more sensitive probe of residual amygdala hypersensitivity in MDD compared with facial emotion-evoked responses previously found to normalize on remission. PMID:24497992

  2. Dopaminergic Enhancement of Striatal Response to Reward in Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Admon, Roee; Kaiser, Roselinde H; Dillon, Daniel G; Beltzer, Miranda; Goer, Franziska; Olson, David P; Vitaliano, Gordana; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-04-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by reduced reward-related striatal activation and dysfunctional reward learning, putatively reflecting decreased dopaminergic signaling. The goal of this study was to test whether a pharmacological challenge designed to facilitate dopaminergic transmission can enhance striatal responses to reward and improve reward learning in depressed individuals. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 46 unmedicated depressed participants and 43 healthy control participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a single low dose (50 mg) of the D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride, which is believed to increase dopamine signaling through presynaptic autoreceptor blockade. To investigate the effects of increased dopaminergic transmission on reward-related striatal function and behavior, a monetary incentive delay task (in conjunction with functional MRI) and a probabilistic reward learning task were administered at absorption peaks of amisulpride. Depressed participants selected previously rewarded stimuli less frequently than did control participants, indicating reduced reward learning, but this effect was not modulated by amisulpride. Relative to depressed participants receiving placebo (and control participants receiving amisulpride), depressed participants receiving amisulpride exhibited increased striatal activation and potentiated corticostriatal functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens and the midcingulate cortex in response to monetary rewards. Stronger corticostriatal connectivity in response to rewards predicted better reward learning among depressed individuals receiving amisulpride as well as among control participants receiving placebo. Acute enhancement of dopaminergic transmission potentiated reward-related striatal activation and corticostriatal functional connectivity in depressed individuals but had no behavioral effects. Taken together, the results suggest that targeted pharmacological

  3. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  4. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  5. Recent Molecular Advances on Downstream Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    dos Reis, Sávio Pinho; Lima, Aline Medeiros; de Souza, Cláudia Regina Batista

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses such as extremes of temperature and pH, high salinity and drought, comprise some of the major factors causing extensive losses to crop production worldwide. Understanding how plants respond and adapt at cellular and molecular levels to continuous environmental changes is a pre-requisite for the generation of resistant or tolerant plants to abiotic stresses. In this review we aimed to present the recent advances on mechanisms of downstream plant responses to abiotic stresses and the use of stress-related genes in the development of genetically engineered crops. PMID:22942725

  6. Distinctive molecular responses to ultraviolet radiation between keratinocytes and melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoyun; Kim, Arianna; Nakatani, Masashi; Shen, Yao; Liu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for skin carcinogenesis. To gain new insights into the molecular pathways mediating UVR effects in the skin, we performed comprehensive transcriptomic analyses to identify shared and distinctive molecular responses to UVR between human keratinocytes and melanocytes. Keratinocytes and melanocytes were irradiated with varying doses of UVB (10, 20 and 30 mJ/cm2) then analysed by RNA-Seq at different time points post-UVB radiation (4, 24 and 72 h). Under basal conditions, keratinocytes and melanocytes expressed similar number of genes, although they each expressed a distinctive subset of genes pertaining to their specific cellular identity. Upon UVB radiation, keratinocytes displayed a clear pattern of time- and dose-dependent changes in gene expression that was different from melanocytes. The early UVB-responsive gene set (4 h post-UVR) differed significantly from delayed UVB-responsive gene sets (24 and 72 h). We also identified multiple novel UVB signature genes including PRSS23, SERPINH1, LCE3D and CNFN, which were conserved between melanocyte and keratinocyte lines from different individuals. Taken together, our findings elucidated both common and distinctive molecular features between melanocytes and keratinocytes and uncovered novel UVB signature genes that might be utilized to predict UVB photobiological effects on the skin. PMID:27119462

  7. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    PubMed

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Molecular modeling of responsive polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliazucchi, Mario; Calvo, Ernesto J; Szleifer, Igal

    2010-06-29

    In this perspective, we have shown three different cases of responsive polymers at surfaces where the properties of the surface can be varied in response to cues from the bulk solution or in the presence of an external field. The most important conclusion in all three cases is that the chemical reaction equilibrium, physical interactions and molecular organization are strongly coupled, and it is imperative to consider the global and local changes that occur to the surface structure and properties due to this coupling. In particular acid-base and redox equilibrium are very different in polymer-modified surfaces than in the corresponding bulk solutions. Moreover, the definition of ‘‘apparent redox potentials’’ and ‘‘apparent pKa’’results from the averaging over highly inhomogeneous values,and, therefore, they do not necessarily represent the state of the layer and the local values and their variation are very important for the design of functional surfaces. The very large variation on chemical equilibrium results from the optimization of all the interactions. The picture that emerges is that trying to deduce what the final state of the system is by looking at the individual optimization of each contribution leads to qualitative incorrect assumptions and only the minimization of the complete free energy leads to the proper behavior in these complex systems.In the cases where domain formation is possible in grafted weak polyacid layers charge regulation may lead to regimes of coexistence between aggregates with relatively low fraction of charged polymer segments surrounded by highly stretched chains that have a relatively high fraction of charged groups.Therefore, one can control the state of charge, local electrostatic potential and local pH in all three dimensions with im-portant gradients on length scales of nanometers. For hydrophobic redox polymers we show how the application of an electrode potential can lead to changes in the structure

  9. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  10. Immune response genes controlling responsiveness to major transplantation antigens. Specific major histocompatibility complex-linked defect for antibody responses to class I alloantigens

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, G.W.; Corvalan, J.R.; Licence, D.R.; Howard, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    We have identified two major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked Ir genes that control the antibody response made by rats against class I major alloantigens. We have named these genes Ir-RT1Aa and Ir-RT1Ac. These Ir genes determine responsiveness of the immunized animal in a typical codominant fashion. There is no evidence so far for trans-complementation between low-responder haplotypes. Detailed studies of Ir-RT1Aa indicate that it controls the antibody response to at least two distinct alloantigenic determinants on RT1Aa molecules. These class I molecules thus behave like hapten-carrier conjugates when the response against the carrier is under Ir gene control. Analysis of the origin of alloantibody-forming cells in tetraparental radiation chimeras indicates that Ir-RT1Aa must control the provision of effective help to B cells. In many respects therefore, the properties of Ir-RT1Aa are broadly similar to those described for Ir genes controlling antibody responses to conventional antigens. The existence of apparently conventional Ir genes controlling the antibody response to major alloantigens strongly suggest that the processing of these transmembrane molecules by host antigen-presenting cells is a prerequisite for immune induction, and that it is the MHC of the responder rather than that of the allograft to which T helper cells are restricted in alloimmune responses in vivo.

  11. Foundational concepts and underlying theories for majors in "biochemistry and molecular biology".

    PubMed

    Tansey, John T; Baird, Teaster; Cox, Michael M; Fox, Kristin M; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3) foundational skills that undergraduate majors in biochemistry and molecular biology must understand to complete their major coursework. Using information gained from these workshops, as well as from the ASBMB accreditation working group and the NSF Vision and Change report, the Core Concepts working group has developed a consensus list of learning outcomes and objectives based on five foundational concepts (evolution, matter and energy transformation, homeostasis, information flow, and macromolecular structure and function) that represent the expected conceptual knowledge base for undergraduate degrees in biochemistry and molecular biology. This consensus will aid biochemistry and molecular biology educators in the development of assessment tools for the new ASBMB recommended curriculum.

  12. TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host immune responses in major infectious diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Karmakar, Subhajit; Babu, Santi Prasad Sinha

    2016-01-01

    During the course of evolution, multicellular organisms have been orchestrated with an efficient and versatile immune system to counteract diverse group of pathogenic organisms. Pathogen recognition is considered as the most critical step behind eliciting adequate immune response during an infection. Hitherto Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially the surface ones viz. TLR2 and TLR4 have gained immense importance due to their extreme ability of identifying distinct molecular patterns from invading pathogens. These pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) not only act as innate sensor but also shape and bridge innate and adaptive immune responses. In addition, they also play a pivotal role in regulating the balance between Th1 and Th2 type of response essential for the survivability of the host. In this work, major achievements rather findings made on the typical signalling and immunopathological attributes of TLR2 and TLR4 mediated host response against the major infectious diseases have been reviewed. Infectious diseases like tuberculosis, trypanosomiasis, malaria, and filariasis are still posing myriad threat to mankind. Furthermore, increasing resistance of the causative organisms against available therapeutics is also an emerging problem. Thus, stimulation of host immune response with TLR2 and TLR4 agonist can be the option of choice to treat such diseases in future.

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Macrophage Response to Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Rahat, Michal A.; Bitterman, Haim; Lahat, Nitza

    2011-01-01

    Monocytes and Macrophages (Mo/Mɸ) exhibit great plasticity, as they can shift between different modes of activation and, driven by their immediate microenvironment, perform divergent functions. These include, among others, patrolling their surroundings and maintaining homeostasis (resident Mo/Mɸ), combating invading pathogens and tumor cells (classically activated or M1 Mo/Mɸ), orchestrating wound healing (alternatively activated or M2 Mo/Mɸ), and restoring homeostasis after an inflammatory response (resolution Mɸ). Hypoxia is an important factor in the Mɸ microenvironment, is prevalent in many physiological and pathological conditions, and is interdependent with the inflammatory response. Although Mo/Mɸ have been studied in hypoxia, the mechanisms by which hypoxia influences the different modes of their activation, and how it regulates the shift between them, remain unclear. Here we review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that mediate this hypoxic regulation of Mɸ activation. Much is known about the hypoxic transcriptional regulatory network, which includes the master regulators hypoxia-induced factor-1 and NF-κB, as well as other transcription factors (e.g., AP-1, Erg-1), but we also highlight the role of post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. These mechanisms mediate hypoxic induction of Mɸ pro-angiogenic mediators, suppress M1 Mɸ by post-transcriptionally inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediators, and help shift the classically activated Mɸ into an activation state which approximate the alternatively activated or resolution Mɸ. PMID:22566835

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Placebo Responses In Humans

    PubMed Central

    Peciña, Marta; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous opioid and non-opioid mechanisms [e.g. dopamine (DA), endocannabinoids (eCB)] have been implicated in the formation of placebo analgesic effects, with initial reports dating back three-decades. Besides the perspective that placebo effects confound randomized clinical trials (RCTs), the information so far acquired points to neurobiological systems that when activated by positive expectations and maintained through conditioning and reward learning are capable of inducing physiological changes that lead to the experience of analgesia and improvements in emotional state. Molecular neuroimaging techniques with positron emission tomography (PET) and the selective μ-opioid and D2/3 radiotracers [11C]carfentanil and [11C]raclopride have significantly contributed to our understanding of the neurobiological systems involved in the formation of placebo effects. This line of research has described neural and neurotransmitter networks implicated in placebo responses and provided the technical tools to examine inter-individual differences in the function of placebo responsive mechanisms, and potential surrogates (biomarkers). As a consequence, the formation of biological placebo effects is now being linked to the concept of resiliency mechanisms, partially determined by genetic factors, and uncovered by the cognitive emotional integration of the expectations created by the therapeutic environment and its maintenance through learning mechanisms. Further work needs to extend this research into clinical conditions where the rates of placebo responses are high and its neurobiological mechanisms have been largely unexplored (e.g. mood and anxiety disorders, persistent pain syndromes, or even Parkinson Disease and multiple sclerosis). The delineation of these processes within and across diseases would point to biological targets that have not been contemplated in traditional drug development. PMID:25510510

  15. Is the Ultimate Treatment Response Predictable with Early Response in Major Depressive Episode?

    PubMed Central

    ÇİFTÇİ, Aslı; ULAŞ, Halis; TOPUZOĞLU, Ahmet; TUNCA, Zeliha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction New evidence suggests that the efficacy of antidepressants occurs within the first weeks of treatment and this early response predicts the later response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if the partial response in the first week predicts the response at the end of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder who are treated with either antidepressant medication or electroconvulsive therapy. Methods Inpatients from Dokuz Eylül University Hospital with a major depressive episode, treated with antidepressant medication (n=52) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (n=48), were recruited for the study. The data were retrospectively collected to decide whether a 25% decrease in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score at the first week of treatment predicts a 50% decrease at the third week using validity analysis. In addition, the effects of socio-demographic and clinical variables on the treatment response were assessed. Results A 25% decrease in the HDRS score in the first week of treatment predicted a 50% decrease in the HDRS score in the third week with a 78.3% positive predictive value, 62.1% negative predictive value, 62.1% sensitivity, and 78.3% specificity for antidepressant medications and an 88% positive predictive value, 52.2% negative predictive value, 66.7% sensitivity, and 80% specificity for ECT. The number of previous hospitalizations, comorbid medical illnesses, number of depressive episodes, duration of illness, and duration of the current episode were related to the treatment response. Conclusion Treatment response in the first week predicted the response in the third week with a high specificity and a high positive predictive value. Close monitoring of the response from the first week of treatment may thus help the clinician to predict the subsequent response. PMID:28373802

  16. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  17. Personality, Stressful Life Events, and Treatment Response in Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmash, Eric; Harkness, Kate L.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism or dependency moderated the effect of stressful life events on treatment response. Depressed outpatients (N = 113) were randomized to 16 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal psychotherapy, or antidepressant medication (ADM). Stressful life events were…

  18. Major gene is responsible for anencephaly among Iranian Jews

    SciTech Connect

    Zlotogora, J.

    1995-03-13

    Anencephaly is relatively frequent in Jews originating from Iran, in particular when its incidence is compared to that of open spina bifida in the same population (12 cases of anencephaly out of 14 cases of neural tube defects). The high incidence of this disorder in Iranian Jews, a relatively isolated community with a very high rate of consanguinity, suggests that anencephaly is caused by a major recessive gene. This possibility is supported by the sex ratio among these patients, which was significantly different from that observed for patients with anencephaly in other populations. 10 refs.

  19. Major Radiations in the Evolution of Caviid Rodents: Reconciling Fossils, Ghost Lineages, and Relaxed Molecular Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, María Encarnación; Pol, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Background Caviidae is a diverse group of caviomorph rodents that is broadly distributed in South America and is divided into three highly divergent extant lineages: Caviinae (cavies), Dolichotinae (maras), and Hydrochoerinae (capybaras). The fossil record of Caviidae is only abundant and diverse since the late Miocene. Caviids belongs to Cavioidea sensu stricto (Cavioidea s.s.) that also includes a diverse assemblage of extinct taxa recorded from the late Oligocene to the middle Miocene of South America (“eocardiids”). Results A phylogenetic analysis combining morphological and molecular data is presented here, evaluating the time of diversification of selected nodes based on the calibration of phylogenetic trees with fossil taxa and the use of relaxed molecular clocks. This analysis reveals three major phases of diversification in the evolutionary history of Cavioidea s.s. The first two phases involve two successive radiations of extinct lineages that occurred during the late Oligocene and the early Miocene. The third phase consists of the diversification of Caviidae. The initial split of caviids is dated as middle Miocene by the fossil record. This date falls within the 95% higher probability distribution estimated by the relaxed Bayesian molecular clock, although the mean age estimate ages are 3.5 to 7 Myr older. The initial split of caviids is followed by an obscure period of poor fossil record (refered here as the Mayoan gap) and then by the appearance of highly differentiated modern lineages of caviids, which evidentially occurred at the late Miocene as indicated by both the fossil record and molecular clock estimates. Conclusions The integrated approach used here allowed us identifying the agreements and discrepancies of the fossil record and molecular clock estimates on the timing of the major events in cavioid evolution, revealing evolutionary patterns that would not have been possible to gather using only molecular or paleontological data alone. PMID

  20. Molecular Response Theory in Terms of the Uncertainty Principle.

    PubMed

    Harde, Hermann; Grischkowsky, Daniel

    2015-08-27

    We investigate the time response of molecular transitions by observing the pulse reshaping of femtosecond THz-pulses propagating through polar vapors. By precisely modeling the pulse interaction with the molecular vapors, we derive detailed insight into this time response after an excitation. The measurements, which were performed by applying the powerful technique of THz time domain spectroscopy, are analyzed directly in the time domain or parallel in the frequency domain by Fourier transforming the pulses and comparing them with the molecular response theory. New analyses of the molecular response allow a generalized unification of the basic collision and line-shape theories of Lorentz, van Vleck-Weisskopf, and Debye described by molecular response theory. In addition, they show that the applied THz experimental setup allows the direct observation of the ultimate time response of molecules to an external applied electric field in the presence of molecular collisions. This response is limited by the uncertainty principle and is determined by the inverse spitting frequency between adjacent levels. At the same time, this response reflects the transition time of a rotational transition to switch from one molecular state to another or to form a coherent superposition of states oscillating with the splitting frequency. The presented investigations are also of fundamental importance for the description of the far-wing absorption of greenhouse gases like water vapor, carbon dioxide, or methane, which have a dominant influence on the radiative exchange in the far-infrared.

  1. Adaptive molecular evolution of the Major Histocompatibility Complex genes, DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes are central to vertebrate immune response and are believed to be under balancing selection by pathogens. This hypothesis has been supported by observations of extremely high polymorphism, elevated nonsynonymous to synonymous base pair substitution rates and trans-species polymorphisms at these loci. In equids, the organization and variability of this gene family has been described, however the full extent of diversity and selection is unknown. As selection is not expected to act uniformly on a functional gene, maximum likelihood codon-based models of selection that allow heterogeneity in selection across codon positions can be valuable for examining MHC gene evolution and the molecular basis for species adaptations. Results We investigated the evolution of two class II MHC genes of the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen (ELA), DRA and DQA, in the genus Equus with the addition of novel alleles identified in plains zebra (E. quagga, formerly E. burchelli). We found that both genes exhibited a high degree of polymorphism and inter-specific sharing of allele lineages. To our knowledge, DRA allelic diversity was discovered to be higher than has ever been observed in vertebrates. Evidence was also found to support a duplication of the DQA locus. Selection analyses, evaluated in terms of relative rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations (dN/dS) averaged over the gene region, indicated that the majority of codon sites were conserved and under purifying selection (dN

  2. The Electrical Response to Injury: Molecular Mechanisms and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian; Zhao, Min

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Natural, endogenous electric fields (EFs) and currents arise spontaneously after wounding of many tissues, especially epithelia, and are necessary for normal healing. This wound electrical activity is a long-lasting and regulated response. Enhancing or inhibiting this electrical activity increases or decreases wound healing, respectively. Cells that are responsible for wound closure such as corneal epithelial cells or skin keratinocytes migrate directionally in EFs of physiological magnitude. However, the mechanisms of how the wound electrical response is initiated and regulated remain unclear. Recent Advances: Wound EFs and currents appear to arise by ion channel up-regulation and redistribution, which are perhaps triggered by an intracellular calcium wave or cell depolarization. We discuss the possibility of stimulation of wound healing via pharmacological enhancement of the wound electric signal by stimulation of ion pumping. Critical Issues: Chronic wounds are a major problem in the elderly and diabetic patient. Any strategy to stimulate wound healing in these patients is desirable. Applying electrical stimulation directly is problematic, but pharmacological enhancement of the wound signal may be a promising strategy. Future Directions: Understanding the molecular regulation of wound electric signals may reveal some fundamental mechanisms in wound healing. Manipulating fluxes of ions and electric currents at wounds might offer new approaches to achieve better wound healing and to heal chronic wounds. PMID:24761358

  3. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of Cuc m 2, a major allergen in Cucumis melo

    PubMed Central

    Sankian, Mojtaba; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Varasteh, Abdol-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies reported the clinical features of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity after ingestion of melon. Melon allergy is a common IgE-mediated fruit allergy in Iran. This prompted us to investigate immunochemical and molecular properties of the major allergen in melon fruit, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein with the recombinant allergen, and to determine cross-reactivity of the major allergen with closely-related allergens from other plants displaying clinical cross-reactivity with melon. Methods: Identification and molecular characterization of the major melon allergen were performed using IgE immunoblotting, allergen-specific ELISA, affinity-based purifications, cross-inhibition assays, cloning, and expression of the allergen in Escherichia coli. Results: Melon profilin was identified and isolated as a major IgE-binding component and designated as Cuc m 2. Sequencing corresponding cDNA revealed an open reading frame of 363 bp coding for 131 amino acid residues and two fragments of 171 bp and 383 bps for the 5’and 3’ UTRs, respectively. Significant cross-reactivity was found between melon profilin and Cynodon dactylon, tomato, peach, and grape profilins in cross-inhibition assays. Although the highest degree of amino acid identity was revealed with watermelon profilin, there was no significant cross-reactivity between melon and watermelon profilins. Conclusion: Melon profilin is the major IgE-binding component in melon extract, and the recombinant and natural forms exhibited similar IgE-binding capacities. A part of the fruit-fruit and pollen-fruit cross-reactions could be explained by the presence of this conserved protein; however, sequence homology provides insufficient information to predict IgE cross-reactivity of profilins. PMID:26989709

  4. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  5. Molecular and physiological responses to titanium dioxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    - Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely-used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure. MapMan analyses indicated that while nano-titania up-regulated overall and secondary metabolism in both tissues, metabolic processes under nano-ceria remained mostly unchanged. Gene enrichment analysis indicated that both nanoparticles mainly enriched ontology groups such as responses to stress (abiotic and biotic), and defense responses (pathogens), and responses to endogenous stimuli (hormones). Nano-titania specifically induced genes associated with photosynthesis, whereas nano-ceria induced expression of genes related to activating transcription factors, most notably those belonging to the ethylene responsive element binding protein family. Interestingly, there were also increased numbers of rosette leaves and plant biomass under nano-ceria exposure, but not under nano-titania. Other transcriptomic responses did not clearly relate to responses observed at the organism level. This may b

  6. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, Hans F. Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2007-11-01

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  7. Molecular and immunological characterization of Tri a 36, a low molecular weight glutenin, as a novel major wheat food allergen.

    PubMed

    Baar, Alexandra; Pahr, Sandra; Constantin, Claudia; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Thalhamer, Josef; Giavi, Stavroula; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Ebner, Christof; Mari, Adriano; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-09-15

    Wheat is an essential element in our nutrition but one of the most important food allergen sources. Wheat allergic patients often suffer from severe gastrointestinal and systemic allergic reactions after wheat ingestion. In this study, we report the molecular and immunological characterization of a new major wheat food allergen, Tri a 36. The cDNA coding for a C-terminal fragment of Tri a 36 was isolated by screening a wheat seed cDNA expression library with serum IgE from wheat food-allergic patients. Tri a 36 is a 369-aa protein with a hydrophobic 25-aa N-terminal leader peptide. According to sequence comparison it belongs to the low m.w. glutenin subunits, which can be found in a variety of cereals. The mature allergen contains an N-terminal domain, a repetitive domain that is rich in glutamine and proline residues, and three C-terminal domains with eight cysteine residues contributing to intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds. Recombinant Tri a 36 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as soluble protein. It reacted with IgE Abs of ∼80% of wheat food-allergic patients, showed IgE cross-reactivity with related allergens in rye, barley, oat, spelt, and rice, and induced specific and dose-dependent basophil activation. Even after extensive in vitro gastric and duodenal digestion, Tri a 36 released distinct IgE-reactive fragments and was highly resistant against boiling. Thus, recombinant Tri a 36 is a major wheat food allergen that can be used for the molecular diagnosis of, and for the development of specific immunotherapy strategies against, wheat food allergy.

  8. Molecular basis of transfusion dependent beta-thalassemia major patients in Sabah.

    PubMed

    Teh, Lai Kuan; George, Elizabeth; Lai, Mei I; Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Wong, Lily; Ismail, Patimah

    2014-03-01

    Beta-thalassemia is one of the most prevalent inherited diseases and a public health problem in Malaysia. Malaysia is geographically divided into West and East Malaysia. In Sabah, a state in East Malaysia, there are over 1000 estimated cases of β-thalassemia major patients. Accurate population frequency data of the molecular basis of β-thalassemia major are needed for planning its control in the high-risk population of Sabah. Characterization of β-globin gene defects was done in 252 transfusion dependent β-thalassemia patients incorporating few PCR techniques. The study demonstrates that β-thalassemia mutations inherited are ethnically dependent. It is important to note that 86.9% of transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major patients in Sabah were of the indigenous population and homozygous for a single mutation. The Filipino β(0)-deletion was a unique mutation found in the indigenous population of Sabah. Mutations common in West Malaysia were found in 11 (4.3%) patients. Four rare mutations (Hb Monroe, CD 8/9, CD 123/124/125 and IVS I-2) were also found. This study is informative on the population genetics of β-thalassemia major in Sabah.

  9. A Comparative Survey of the Topographical Distribution of Signature Molecular Lesions in Major Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Steven E.; Toledo, Jon B.; Appleby, Dina H.; Xie, Sharon X.; Wang, Li-San; Baek, Young; Wolk, David A.; Lee, Edward B.; Miller, Bruce L.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the anatomic distributions of major neurodegenerative disease lesions is important to appreciate the differential clinical profiles of these disorders and to serve as neuropathological standards for emerging molecular neuroimaging methods. To address these issues, here we present a comparative survey of the topographical distribution of the defining molecular neuropathological lesions among ten neurodegenerative diseases from a large and uniformly assessed brain collection. Ratings of pathological severity in sixteen brain regions from 671 cases with diverse neurodegenerative diseases were summarized and analyzed. These included: a) amyloid-β and tau lesions in Alzheimer’s disease, b) tau lesions in three other tauopathies including Pick’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration, c) α-synuclein inclusion ratings in four synucleinopathies including Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s disease with dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, and d) TDP-43 lesions in two TDP-43 proteinopathies, including frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with TDP-43 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The data presented graphically and topographically confirm and extend previous pathological anatomic descriptions and statistical comparisons highlight the lesion distributions that either overlap or distinguish the diseases in each molecular disease category. PMID:23881776

  10. MicroRNA expression profile in human macrophages in response to Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Julien; Mkannez, Ghada; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Gustin, Cindy; Attia, Hanène; Sghaier, Rabiaa M; Dellagi, Koussay; Laouini, Dhafer; Renard, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Leishmania (L.) are intracellular protozoan parasites able to survive and replicate in the hostile phagolysosomal environment of infected macrophages. They cause leishmaniasis, a heterogeneous group of worldwide-distributed affections, representing a paradigm of neglected diseases that are mainly embedded in impoverished populations. To establish successful infection and ensure their own survival, Leishmania have developed sophisticated strategies to subvert the host macrophage responses. Despite a wealth of gained crucial information, these strategies still remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), an evolutionarily conserved class of endogenous 22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs, are described to participate in the regulation of almost every cellular process investigated so far. They regulate the expression of target genes both at the levels of mRNA stability and translation; changes in their expression have a profound effect on their target transcripts. We report in this study a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in L. major-infected human primary macrophages of three healthy donors assessed at different time-points post-infection (three to 24 h). We show that expression of 64 out of 365 analyzed miRNAs was consistently deregulated upon infection with the same trends in all donors. Among these, several are known to be induced by TLR-dependent responses. GO enrichment analysis of experimentally validated miRNA-targeted genes revealed that several pathways and molecular functions were disturbed upon parasite infection. Finally, following parasite infection, miR-210 abundance was enhanced in HIF-1α-dependent manner, though it did not contribute to inhibiting anti-apoptotic pathways through pro-apoptotic caspase-3 regulation. Our data suggest that alteration in miRNA levels likely plays an important role in regulating macrophage functions following L. major infection. These results could contribute to better understanding of the dynamics of gene

  11. Molecular Responses of the Spiral Ganglion to Aminoglycosides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Carey D.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are toxic to both the inner ear hair cells and the ganglion cells that give rise to the eighth cranial nerve. According to recent studies, these cells have a repertoire of molecular responses to aminoglycoside exposure that engages multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. The responses appear to involve regulation of ionic homeostasis,…

  12. Molecular Responses of the Spiral Ganglion to Aminoglycosides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balaban, Carey D.

    2005-01-01

    Aminoglycosides are toxic to both the inner ear hair cells and the ganglion cells that give rise to the eighth cranial nerve. According to recent studies, these cells have a repertoire of molecular responses to aminoglycoside exposure that engages multiple neuroprotective mechanisms. The responses appear to involve regulation of ionic homeostasis,…

  13. Practices and exploration on competition of molecular biological detection technology among students in food quality and safety major.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaning; Peng, Yuke; Li, Pengfei; Zhuang, Yingping

    2017-07-08

    With the increasing importance in the application of the molecular biological detection technology in the field of food safety, strengthening education in molecular biology experimental techniques is more necessary for the culture of the students in food quality and safety major. However, molecular biology experiments are not always in curricula of Food quality and safety Majors. This paper introduced a project "competition of molecular biological detection technology for food safety among undergraduate sophomore students in food quality and safety major", students participating in this project needed to learn the fundamental molecular biology experimental techniques such as the principles of molecular biology experiments and genome extraction, PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis analysis, and then design the experiments in groups to identify the meat species in pork and beef products using molecular biological methods. The students should complete the experimental report after basic experiments, write essays and make a presentation after the end of the designed experiments. This project aims to provide another way for food quality and safety majors to improve their knowledge of molecular biology, especially experimental technology, and enhances them to understand the scientific research activities as well as give them a chance to learn how to write a professional thesis. In addition, in line with the principle of an open laboratory, the project is also open to students in other majors in East China University of Science and Technology, in order to enhance students in other majors to understand the fields of molecular biology and food safety. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 45(4):343-350, 2017. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. Molecular and physiological responses of trees to waterlogging stress.

    PubMed

    Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    One major effect of global climate change will be altered precipitation patterns in many regions of the world. This will cause a higher probability of long-term waterlogging in winter/spring and flash floods in summer because of extreme rainfall events. Particularly, trees not adapted at their natural site to such waterlogging stress can be impaired. Despite the enormous economic, ecological and social importance of forest ecosystems, the effect of waterlogging on trees is far less understood than the effect on many crops or the model plant Arabidopsis. There is only a handful of studies available investigating the transcriptome and metabolome of waterlogged trees. Main physiological responses of trees to waterlogging include the stimulation of fermentative pathways and an accelerated glycolytic flux. Many energy-consuming, anabolic processes are slowed down to overcome the energy crisis mediated by waterlogging. A crucial feature of waterlogging tolerance is the steady supply of glycolysis with carbohydrates, particularly in the roots; stress-sensitive trees fail to maintain sufficient carbohydrate availability resulting in the dieback of the stressed tissues. The present review summarizes physiological and molecular features of waterlogging tolerance of trees; the focus is on carbon metabolism in both, leaves and roots of trees.

  15. Proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics in the characterization of the molecular features of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Omics technologies emerged as complementary strategies to genomics in the attempt to understand human illnesses. In general, proteomics technologies emerged earlier than those of metabolomics for major depressive disorder (MDD) research, but both are driven by the identification of proteins and/or metabolites that can delineate a comprehensive characterization of MDD's molecular mechanisms, as well as lead to the identification of biomarker candidates of all types-prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and patient stratification. Also, one can explore protein and metabolite interactomes in order to pinpoint additional molecules associated with the disease that had not been picked up initially. Here, results and methodological aspects of MDD research using proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics are reviewed, focusing on human samples.

  16. A Glimpse to Background and Characteristics of Major Molecular Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md.; Katsuragi, Tetsuo; Sato, Tetsuo; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Recently, biology has become a data intensive science because of huge data sets produced by high throughput molecular biological experiments in diverse areas including the fields of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These huge datasets have paved the way for system-level analysis of the processes and subprocesses of the cell. For system-level understanding, initially the elements of a system are connected based on their mutual relations and a network is formed. Among omics researchers, construction and analysis of biological networks have become highly popular. In this review, we briefly discuss both the biological background and topological properties of major types of omics networks to facilitate a comprehensive understanding and to conceptualize the foundation of network biology. PMID:26491677

  17. Ultrasensitive response motifs: basic amplifiers in molecular signalling networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory circuits underpin integrated cellular responses to perturbations. A recurring set of network motifs serve as the basic building blocks of these molecular signalling networks. This review focuses on ultrasensitive response motifs (URMs) that amplify small percentage changes in the input signal into larger percentage changes in the output response. URMs generally possess a sigmoid input–output relationship that is steeper than the Michaelis–Menten type of response and is often approximated by the Hill function. Six types of URMs can be commonly found in intracellular molecular networks and each has a distinct kinetic mechanism for signal amplification. These URMs are: (i) positive cooperative binding, (ii) homo-multimerization, (iii) multistep signalling, (iv) molecular titration, (v) zero-order covalent modification cycle and (vi) positive feedback. Multiple URMs can be combined to generate highly switch-like responses. Serving as basic signal amplifiers, these URMs are essential for molecular circuits to produce complex nonlinear dynamics, including multistability, robust adaptation and oscillation. These dynamic properties are in turn responsible for higher-level cellular behaviours, such as cell fate determination, homeostasis and biological rhythm. PMID:23615029

  18. Serrated colorectal cancer: Molecular classification, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Murcia, Oscar; Juárez, Miriam; Hernández-Illán, Eva; Egoavil, Cecilia; Giner-Calabuig, Mar; Rodríguez-Soler, María; Jover, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular advances support the existence of an alternative pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis that is based on the hypermethylation of specific DNA regions that silences tumor suppressor genes. This alternative pathway has been called the serrated pathway due to the serrated appearance of tumors in histological analysis. New classifications for colorectal cancer (CRC) were proposed recently based on genetic profiles that show four types of molecular alterations: BRAF gene mutations, KRAS gene mutations, microsatellite instability, and hypermethylation of CpG islands. This review summarizes what is known about the serrated pathway of CRC, including CRC molecular and clinical features, prognosis, and response to chemotherapy. PMID:27053844

  19. Major Ampullate Spider Silk with Indistinguishable Spidroin Dope Conformations Leads to Different Fiber Molecular Structures.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Justine; Lefèvre, Thierry; Auger, Michèle

    2016-08-18

    To plentifully benefit from its properties (mechanical, optical, biological) and its potential to manufacture green materials, the structure of spider silk has to be known accurately. To this aim, the major ampullate (MA) silk of Araneus diadematus (AD) and Nephila clavipes (NC) has been compared quantitatively in the liquid and fiber states using Raman spectromicroscopy. The data show that the spidroin conformations of the two dopes are indistinguishable despite their specific amino acid composition. This result suggests that GlyGlyX and GlyProGlyXX amino acid motifs (X = Leu, Glu, Tyr, Ser, etc.) are conformationally equivalent due to the chain flexibility in the aqueous environment. Species-related sequence specificity is expressed more extensively in the fiber: the β-sheet content is lower and width of the orientation distribution of the carbonyl groups is broader for AD (29% and 58°, respectively) as compared to NC (37% and 51°, respectively). β-Sheet content values are close to the proportion of polyalanine segments, suggesting that β-sheet formation is mainly dictated by the spidroin sequence. The extent of molecular alignment seems to be related to the presence of proline (Pro) that may decrease conformational flexibility and inhibit chain extension and alignment upon drawing. It appears that besides the presence of Pro, secondary structure and molecular orientation contribute to the different mechanical properties of MA threads.

  20. Major Ampullate Spider Silk with Indistinguishable Spidroin Dope Conformations Leads to Different Fiber Molecular Structures

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Justine; Lefèvre, Thierry; Auger, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    To plentifully benefit from its properties (mechanical, optical, biological) and its potential to manufacture green materials, the structure of spider silk has to be known accurately. To this aim, the major ampullate (MA) silk of Araneus diadematus (AD) and Nephila clavipes (NC) has been compared quantitatively in the liquid and fiber states using Raman spectromicroscopy. The data show that the spidroin conformations of the two dopes are indistinguishable despite their specific amino acid composition. This result suggests that GlyGlyX and GlyProGlyXX amino acid motifs (X = Leu, Glu, Tyr, Ser, etc.) are conformationally equivalent due to the chain flexibility in the aqueous environment. Species-related sequence specificity is expressed more extensively in the fiber: the β-sheet content is lower and width of the orientation distribution of the carbonyl groups is broader for AD (29% and 58°, respectively) as compared to NC (37% and 51°, respectively). β-Sheet content values are close to the proportion of polyalanine segments, suggesting that β-sheet formation is mainly dictated by the spidroin sequence. The extent of molecular alignment seems to be related to the presence of proline (Pro) that may decrease conformational flexibility and inhibit chain extension and alignment upon drawing. It appears that besides the presence of Pro, secondary structure and molecular orientation contribute to the different mechanical properties of MA threads. PMID:27548146

  1. HOX genes: Major actors in resistance to selective endocrine response modifiers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kideok; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2016-04-01

    Long term treatment with therapies aimed at blocking the estrogen- (ER) or androgen receptor (AR) action often leads to the development of resistance to selective modulators of the estrogen receptor (SERMs) in ERα-positive breast cancer, or of the androgen receptor (SARMs) in AR-positive prostate cancer. Many underlying molecular events that confer resistance are known, but a unifying theme is yet to be revealed. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such EGFR, ERBB2 and IGF1R are major mediators that can directly alter cellular response to the SERM, tamoxifen, but the mechanisms underlying increased expression of RTKs are not clear. A number of HOX genes and microRNAs and non-coding RNAs residing in the HOX cluster, have been identified as important independent predictors of endocrine resistant breast cancer. Recently, convincing evidence has accumulated that several members belonging to the four different HOX clusters contribute to endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer, but the mechanisms remain obscure. In this article, we have reviewed recent progress in understanding of the functioning of HOX genes and regulation of their expression by hormones. We also discuss, in particular, the contributions of several members of the HOX gene family to endocrine resistant breast cancer.

  2. Major tumor shrinking and persistent molecular remissions after consolidation with bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in patients with autografted myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ladetto, Marco; Pagliano, Gloria; Ferrero, Simone; Cavallo, Federica; Drandi, Daniela; Santo, Loredana; Crippa, Claudia; De Rosa, Luca; Pregno, Patrizia; Grasso, Mariella; Liberati, Anna Marina; Caravita, Tommaso; Pisani, Francesco; Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Callea, Vincenzo; Musto, Pellegrino; Cangialosi, Clotilde; Passera, Roberto; Boccadoro, Mario; Palumbo, Antonio

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE We investigated the effect on minimal residual disease, by qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), of a consolidation regimen that included bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) responding to autologous stem-cell transplantation (auto-SCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients achieving at least very good partial response who had an available molecular marker based on the immunoglobulin heavy-chain rearrangement received four courses of treatment every month: four infusions per month of bortezomib at 1.6 mg/m(2), thalidomide at 200 mg/d, and dexamethasone at 20 mg/d on days 1 to 4, 8 to 11, and 15 to 18. Patients were studied with tumor-clone-specific primers by qualitative nested PCR and RQ-PCR. Results Of 39 patients enrolled, 31 received the four VTD courses. Immunofixation complete responses increased from 15% after auto-SCT to 49% after VTD. Molecular remissions (MRs) were 3% after auto-SCT and 18% after VTD. Median time to maximum response was 3.5 months. So far, no patient in MR has relapsed (median follow-up, 42 months). VTD consolidation induced an additional depletion of 4.14 natural logarithms of tumor burden by RQ-PCR. Patients with a tumor load less than the median value after VTD had outcomes better than those who had tumor loads above the median value after VTD (at median follow-up: progression-free survival, 100% v 57%; P < .001). CONCLUSION To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to document the occurrence of persistent MRs in a proportion of MM patients treated without allogeneic transplantation. Moreover, the major reduction in tumor load recorded by RQ-PCR after VTD suggests that unprecedented levels of tumor cell reduction can be achieved in MM thanks to the new nonchemotherapeutic drugs.

  3. Molecular evidence for precambrian origin of amelogenin, the major protein of vertebrate enamel.

    PubMed

    Delgado, S; Casane, D; Bonnaud, L; Laurin, M; Sire, J Y; Girondot, M

    2001-12-01

    Although molecular dating of cladogenetic events is possible, no molecular method has been described to date the acquisition of various tissues. Taking into account the specificity of the major protein in enamel in formation (amelogenin), we were able to develop such a method for enamel. Indeed, because the amelogenin protein is exclusively involved in enamel formation and mineralization and because it lacks pleiotropic effects, this protein is a good candidate to estimate the date of acquisition of this highly mineralized tissue. We searched DNA banks for similarities between the amelogenin sequence and other sequences. Similarities were found only to exon 2 of SPARC (osteonectin) in two protostomians and in eight deuterostomians, and to exon 2 of three SPARC-related deuterostomian genes (SC1, hevin, and QR1). The other amelogenin exons did not reveal significant similarities to other sequences. In these proteins, exon 2 mainly encodes the peptide signal that plays the essential role in enabling the protein to be ultimately localized in the extracellular matrix. We tested the significance of the exon 2 similarities. The observed values were always significantly higher than the expected randomly generated similarities. This demonstrates a common evolutionary origin of this exon. The phylogenetic analyses of exon 2 sequences indicated that exon 2 was duplicated to amelogenin from an ancestral SPARC sequence in the deuterostomian lineage before the duplication of deuterostomian SPARC and SC1/hevin/QR1. We were able to date the origin of the latter duplication at approximately 630 MYA. Therefore, amelogenin exon 2 was acquired before this date, in the Proterozoic, long before the so-called "Cambrian explosion," the sudden appearance of several bilateralian phyla in the fossil record at the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic transition. This sudden appearance has been often suggested to reflect intensive cladogenesis during this period. However, molecular dating of protostomian

  4. Molecular Weight Effects on the Viscoelastic Response of a Polyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lee M.; Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the viscoelastic performance of an advanced polymer (LaRC -SI) was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short-term isothermal creep and recovery with the creep segments performed under constant load. The tests were conducted at three temperatures below the glass transition temperature of each material with different molecular weight. Through the use of time-aging-time superposition procedures, the material constants, material master curves and aging-related parameters were evaluated at each temperature for a given molecular weight. The time-temperature superposition technique helped to describe the effect of temperature on the timescale of the viscoelastic response of each molecular weight. It was shown that the low molecular weight materials have increased creep compliance and creep compliance rate, and are more sensitive to temperature than the high molecular weight materials. Furthermore, a critical molecular weight transition was observed to occur at a weight-average molecular weight of approximately 25000 g/mol below which, the temperature sensitivity of the time-temperature superposition shift factor increases rapidly.

  5. Purification and molecular cloning of a major allergen from Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Miura, Hironori; Ikeda, Kaori; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji; Shirai, Toshihiro; Kasuya, Shiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2004-05-01

    A heat-stable allergen with a molecular weight of 21 k was purified from larvae of the nematode Anisakis simplex by gel filtration, anion-exchange FPLC and reverse-phase HPLC. When analyzed by immunoblotting and ELISA, seven of eight patient sera reacted to the 21 k allergen, demonstrating that this protein is a major allergen of A. simplex. A full-length cDNA encoding the 21 k allergen was cloned by a combination of 3'RACE and screening of an expression library with DIG-labeled DNA probes. The precursor of the 21 k allergen was judged to be composed of a signal peptide (23 residues) and a mature protein (171 residues). As compared to the N-terminal amino acid sequence (up to the 17th residue) of Ani s 1 previously identified as the major allergen, the 21 k allergen has only one replacement, suggesting that the 21 k allergen belongs to the same protein family of Ani s 1. Although the 21 k allergen was found to have 30-40% sequence identity with Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor domain containing hypothetical proteins of Caenorhabditis elegans, it lacked inhibitory activity against trypsin. The 21 k allergen was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a GST-fusion protein showing reactivity with IgE in patient sera.

  6. Molecular responses of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) chronically exposed to contaminated estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tim D; Davies, Ian M; Wu, Huifeng; Diab, Amer M; Webster, Lynda; Viant, Mark R; Chipman, J Kevin; Leaver, Michael J; George, Stephen G; Moffat, Colin F; Robinson, Craig D

    2014-08-01

    Molecular responses to acute toxicant exposure can be effective biomarkers, however responses to chronic exposure are less well characterised. The aim of this study was to determine chronic molecular responses to environmental mixtures in a controlled laboratory setting, free from the additional variability encountered with environmental sampling of wild organisms. Flounder fish were exposed in mesocosms for seven months to a contaminated estuarine sediment made by mixing material from the Forth (high organics) and Tyne (high metals and tributyltin) estuaries (FT) or a reference sediment from the Ythan estuary (Y). Chemical analyses demonstrated that FT sediment contained significantly higher concentrations of key environmental pollutants (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals) than Y sediment, but that chronically exposed flounder showed a lack of differential accumulation of contaminants, including heavy metals. Biliary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration and erythrocyte DNA damage increased in FT-exposed fish. Transcriptomic and (1)H NMR metabolomic analyses of liver tissues detected small but statistically significant alterations between fish exposed to different sediments. These highlighted perturbance of immune response and apoptotic pathways, but there was a lack of response from traditional biomarker genes. Gene-chemical association annotation enrichment analyses suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were a major class of toxicants affecting the molecular responses of the exposed fish. This demonstrated that molecular responses of sentinel organisms can be detected after chronic mixed toxicant exposure and that these can be informative of key components of the mixture.

  7. Cellular and molecular regulation of innate inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Innate sensing of pathogens by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) plays essential roles in the innate discrimination between self and non-self components, leading to the generation of innate immune defense and inflammatory responses. The initiation, activation and resolution of innate inflammatory response are mediated by a complex network of interactions among the numerous cellular and molecular components of immune and non-immune system. While a controlled and beneficial innate inflammatory response is critical for the elimination of pathogens and maintenance of tissue homeostasis, dysregulated or sustained inflammation leads to pathological conditions such as chronic infection, inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss some of the recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the establishment and regulation of innate immunity and inflammatory responses. PMID:27818489

  8. Molecular genetics of the swine major histocompatibility complex, the SLA complex.

    PubMed

    Lunney, Joan K; Ho, Chak-Sum; Wysocki, Michal; Smith, Douglas M

    2009-03-01

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span approximately 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5Mb, respectively, making the swine MHC the smallest among mammalian MHC so far examined and the only one known to span the centromere. This review summarizes recent updates to the Immuno Polymorphism Database-MHC (IPD-MHC) website (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/mhc/sla/) which serves as the repository for maintaining a list of all SLA recognized genes and their allelic sequences. It reviews the expression of SLA proteins on cell subsets and their role in antigen presentation and regulating immune responses. It concludes by discussing the role of SLA genes in swine models of transplantation, xenotransplantation, cancer and allergy and in swine production traits and responses to infectious disease and vaccines.

  9. Proximity to major roadways is a risk factor for airway hyper-responsiveness in adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Shannon; Wallace, Julie; Nair, Parameswaran

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proximity to major roads is reported to be associated with asthma and airway hyper-responsiveness in children. Similar studies using objective measurements in adults are not available in Canada. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that adult asthmatic patients who live close to major roads and highways in an urban environment are at a risk of moderate to severe airway hyper-responsiveness. METHODS: Airway responsiveness was determined using methacholine bronchial provocation (PC20) tests in a cohort of 2625 patients who attended an outpatient clinic in Hamilton, Ontario. Patient addresses were geocoded in a geographic information system to determine proximity to major roads and highways. Multivariate linear and multinomial regression analyses were used to assess whether proximity to roads was a risk factor for airway hyper-responsiveness as measured by PC20 methacholine. RESULTS: Patients who lived within 200 m of a major road had increased odds (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.85]) of having moderate airway hyper-responsiveness (0.25 mg/mL response (PC20 >16 mg/mL). Spatial analysis also revealed that the majority of patients with severe airway hyper-responsiveness lived within the urban core of the city while those with moderate to mild hyper-responsiveness were also dispersed in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: In an adult population of patients attending an outpatient respiratory clinic in Hamilton, living close to major roadways was associated with an increased risk of moderate airway hyper-responsiveness. This correlation suggests that exposure to traffic emissions may provoke the pathology of airway hyper-responsiveness leading to variable airflow obstruction. PMID:22536577

  10. Molecular cloning of cecropin B responsive endonucleases in Yersinia ruckeri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have previously demonstrated that Yersinia ruckeri resists cecropin B in an inducible manner. In this study, we sought to identify the molecular changes responsible for the inducible cecropin B resistance of Y. ruckeri. Differences in gene expression associated with the inducible resistance were ...

  11. The Distance to an X-Ray Shadowing Molecular Cloud in Ursa Major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Robert A.; Venn, Kim A.; Hiltgen, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    1996-06-01

    We have obtained high-resolution optical spectra toward nine stars in the direction of a high-latitude, intermediate-velocity neutral cloud in Ursa Major in order to ascertain the distance to this complex. This cloud is of interest for several reasons. It is an infrared cirrus cloud, shows a distinct X-ray shadow, and turns out to be one of only three molecular clouds known to be well above the plane of the Galaxy. Interstellar Na I absorption is detected in four of the nine stars, but only the most distant star in our sample (BD +63°985) shows absorption at the velocity of the cloud as determined by the 21 cm and CO observations of Heiles, Reach, & Koo. We use several Fe I and Fe II stellar absorption features to determine the spectral type and luminosity class of the three most distant stars. Using the spectral type- absolute magnitude relationship from Schmidt-Kaler, and making no correction for extinction, we derive a distance to the cloud of d = 355±95 pc, which corresponds to z = 285±75 pc. Estimating the effects of extinction, we find that the true value could be as low as d = 240 pc. This distance puts the cloud beyond the expected extent of the Local Bubble of hot (T ≍ 106 K) gas, showing that the X-ray emission behind this cloud arises in the Galactic halo. The cloud has dimensions ˜15 x SO pc, with a total estimated atomic mass of ˜1600 Msun. The molecular mass of the cloud core, G135.3 + 54.5, is ˜0.1 Msun.

  12. Meta-analysis of molecular imaging of serotonin transporters in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Gryglewski, Gregor; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kranz, Georg S; Cumming, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The success of serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors has lent support to the monoamine theory of major depressive disorder (MDD). This issue has been addressed in a number of molecular imaging studies by positron emission tomography or single-photon emission computed tomography of serotonin reuptake sites (5-HTT) in the brain of patients with MDD, with strikingly disparate conclusions. Our meta-analysis of the 18 such studies, totaling 364 MDD patients free from significant comorbidities or medication and 372 control subjects, revealed reductions in midbrain 5-HTT (Hedges' g=−0.49; 95% CI: (−0.84, −0.14)) and amygdala (Hedges' g=−0.50; 95% CI: (−0.78, −0.22)), which no individual study possessed sufficient power to detect. Only small effect sizes were found in other regions with high binding (thalamus: g=−0.24, striatum: g=−0.32, and brainstem g=−0.22), and no difference in the frontal or cingulate cortex. Age emerged as an important moderator of 5-HTT availability in MDD, with more severe reductions in striatal 5-HTT evident with greater age of the study populations (P<0.01). There was a strong relationship between severity of depression and 5-HTT reductions in the amygdala (P=0.01). Thus, molecular imaging findings indeed reveal widespread reductions of ∼10% in 5-HTT availability in MDD, which may predict altered spatial–temporal dynamics of serotonergic neurotransmission. PMID:24802331

  13. In vivo/In vitro immune responses to L. major isolates from patients with no clinical response to Glucantime

    PubMed Central

    Saberi, Sedigheh; Arjmand, Reza; Soleimanifard, Simindokht; Khamesipour, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Salehi, Mansoor; Varshosaz, Jaleh; Palizban, Abbas Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is a major health problem in some endemic areas of tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) are essential cytokines associated with initiation of Th1 response. The main objective of this study was to evaluate of the type of immune response to L. major isolates from patients with no clinical response to antimonite (Glucantime). Materials and Methods: This experimental study was carried out during 2013–2014. In the current study Leishmania major were isolated from 10 CL patients with a history of at least one course of treatment with Meglumine antimonate (Sb5). The isolates were used to evaluate in vitro and in vivo response to Sb5. J774 murine macrophage cell line was used for in vitro tests and Balb/c mice was used for in vivo studies. IL-12 gene expression was evaluated using Real-time PCR and IFN-γ serum level was quantified using ELISA technique. SPSS (version: 20), analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used for statistical analysis. Results: PCR results confirmed that all 10 isolates were L. major. The mean of IL-12 gene expression in vitro, in vivo and IFN-γ serum levels (pg/ml) after 2 and 3 weeks treatment in vivo, increased significantly following the treatment with Glucantime in the two groups of Balb/c mice infected either with patients' isolates or standard L. major. No significant difference was seen between the patients' isolates and standard species. Conclusions: Although the L. major were isolated from patients with active lesion and no clinical response to Glucantime after at least one courses of Glucantime treatment but in vivo and in vitro immune response of L. major isolates showed no difference between the patients' isolates and standard L. major. PMID:27563636

  14. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.203 Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec... program. Included in this program would be pertinent Federal departments and agencies which might... to this section of the Act. (iii) At the regional level, the Federal Regional Councils shall...

  15. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.203 Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec... program. Included in this program would be pertinent Federal departments and agencies which might... to this section of the Act. (iii) At the regional level, the Federal Regional Councils shall...

  16. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.203 Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec... program. Included in this program would be pertinent Federal departments and agencies which might... to this section of the Act. (iii) At the regional level, the Federal Regional Councils shall...

  17. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Roles and Responsibilities of Federal Government § 22.203 Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec... program. Included in this program would be pertinent Federal departments and agencies which might... to this section of the Act. (iii) At the regional level, the Federal Regional Councils shall...

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the plant heat stress response

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ai-Li; Ding, Yan-Fei; Jiang, Qiong; Zhu, Cheng

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► This review elaborates the response networks of heat stress in plants. ► It elaborates proteins responding to heat stress in special physiological period. ► The proteins and pathways have formed a basic network of the heat stress response. ► Achievements of the various technologies are also combined. -- Abstract: High temperature has become a global concern, which seriously affects the growth and production of plants, particularly crops. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the heat stress response and breeding of heat-tolerant plants is necessary to protect food production and ensure crop safety. This review elaborates on the response networks of heat stress in plants, including the Hsf and Hsp response pathways, the response of ROS and the network of the hormones. In addition, the production of heat stress response elements during particular physiological periods of the plant is described. We also discuss the existing problems and future prospects concerning the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in plants.

  19. Early Biventricular Molecular Responses to an Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Erdal, Cenk; Karakülah, Gökhan; Fermancı, Emel; Kunter, İmge; Silistreli, Erdem; Canda, Tülay; Erdal, Esra; Hepaguslar, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains as one of the most common lethal diseases in the world and therefore it is necessary to understand its effect on molecular basis. Genome-wide microarray analysis provides us to predict potential biomarkers and signaling pathways for this purpose. Objectives: The aim of this study is to understand the molecular basis of the immediate right ventricular cellular response to left ventricular AMI. Material and Methods: A rat model of left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to assess the effect of left ventricular AMI on both the right ventricle as a remote zone and the left ventricle as an ischemic/infarct zone. Microarray technology was applied to detect the gene expression. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathways analysis were done to identify effected pathways and related genes. Results: We found that immune response, cell chemotaxis, inflammation, cytoskeleton organization are significantly deregulated in ischemic zone as early response within 30 min. Unexpectedly, there were several affected signaling pathways such as cell chemotaxis, regulation of endothelial cell proliferation, and regulation of caveolea regulation of anti-apoptosis, regulation of cytoskeleton organization and cell adhesion on the remote zone in the right ventricle. Conclusion: This data demonstrates that there is an immediate molecular response in both ventricles after an AMI. Although the ischemia did not histologically involve the right ventricle; there is a clear molecular response to the infarct in the left ventricle. This provides us new insights to understand molecular mechanisms behind AMI and to find more effective drug targets. PMID:22211093

  20. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  1. Organic Nanofibers Embedding Stimuli-Responsive Threaded Molecular Components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    While most of the studies on molecular machines have been performed in solution, interfacing these supramolecular systems with solid-state nanostructures and materials is very important in view of their utilization in sensing components working by chemical and photonic actuation. Host polymeric materials, and particularly polymer nanofibers, enable the manipulation of the functional molecules constituting molecular machines and provide a way to induce and control the supramolecular organization. Here, we present electrospun nanocomposites embedding a self-assembling rotaxane-type system that is responsive to both optical (UV–vis light) and chemical (acid/base) stimuli. The system includes a molecular axle comprised of a dibenzylammonium recognition site and two azobenzene end groups and a dibenzo[24]crown-8 molecular ring. The dethreading and rethreading of the molecular components in nanofibers induced by exposure to base and acid vapors, as well as the photoisomerization of the azobenzene end groups, occur in a similar manner to what observed in solution. Importantly, however, the nanoscale mechanical function following external chemical stimuli induces a measurable variation of the macroscopic mechanical properties of nanofibers aligned in arrays, whose Young’s modulus is significantly enhanced upon dethreading of the axles from the rings. These composite nanosystems show therefore great potential for application in chemical sensors, photonic actuators, and environmentally responsive materials. PMID:25264943

  2. Organic nanofibers embedding stimuli-responsive threaded molecular components.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Vito; Baroncini, Massimo; Moffa, Maria; Iandolo, Donata; Camposeo, Andrea; Credi, Alberto; Pisignano, Dario

    2014-10-08

    While most of the studies on molecular machines have been performed in solution, interfacing these supramolecular systems with solid-state nanostructures and materials is very important in view of their utilization in sensing components working by chemical and photonic actuation. Host polymeric materials, and particularly polymer nanofibers, enable the manipulation of the functional molecules constituting molecular machines and provide a way to induce and control the supramolecular organization. Here, we present electrospun nanocomposites embedding a self-assembling rotaxane-type system that is responsive to both optical (UV-vis light) and chemical (acid/base) stimuli. The system includes a molecular axle comprised of a dibenzylammonium recognition site and two azobenzene end groups and a dibenzo[24]crown-8 molecular ring. The dethreading and rethreading of the molecular components in nanofibers induced by exposure to base and acid vapors, as well as the photoisomerization of the azobenzene end groups, occur in a similar manner to what observed in solution. Importantly, however, the nanoscale mechanical function following external chemical stimuli induces a measurable variation of the macroscopic mechanical properties of nanofibers aligned in arrays, whose Young's modulus is significantly enhanced upon dethreading of the axles from the rings. These composite nanosystems show therefore great potential for application in chemical sensors, photonic actuators, and environmentally responsive materials.

  3. Overview of major molecular alterations during progression from Barrett's esophagus to esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kalatskaya, Irina

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) develops in the sequential transformation of normal epithelium into metaplastic epithelium, called Barrett's esophagus (BE), then to dysplasia, and finally cancer. BE is a common condition in which normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus is replaced with an intestine-like columnar epithelium, and it is the most prominent risk factor for EAC. This review aims to impartially systemize the knowledge from a large number of publications that describe the molecular and biochemical alterations occurring over this progression sequence. In order to provide an unbiased extraction of the knowledge from the literature, a text-mining methodology was used to select genes that are involved in the BE progression, with the top candidate genes found to be TP53, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, CDH1, GPX3, and NOX5. In addition, sample frequencies across analyzed patient cohorts at each stage of disease progression are summarized. All six genes are altered in the majority of EAC patients, and accumulation of alterations correlates well with the sequential progression of BE to cancer, indicating that the text-mining method is a valid approach for gene prioritization. This review discusses how, besides being cancer drivers, these genes are functionally interconnected and might collectively be considered a central hub of BE progression. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic analysis and genomic organization of major DNA repeats in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, O S; Karlov, G I

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the bioinformatic, molecular genetic, and cytogenetic study of castor bean (Ricinus communis, 2n = 20), which belongs to the monotypic Ricinus genus within the Euphorbiaceae family. Because castor bean chromosomes are small, karyotypic studies are difficult. However, the use of DNA repeats has yielded new prospects for karyotypic research and genome characterization. In the present study, major DNA repeat sequences were identified, characterized and localized on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene chromosomes. Analyses of the nucleotide composition, curvature models, and FISH localization of the rcsat39 repeat suggest that this repeat plays a key role in building heterochromatic arrays in castor bean. Additionally, the rcsat390 sequences were determined to be chromosome-specific repeats located in the pericentromeric region of mitotic chromosome A (pachytene chromosome 1). The localization of rcsat39, rcsat390, 45S and 5S rDNA genes allowed for the development of cytogenetic landmarks for chromosome identification. General questions linked to heterochromatin formation, DNA repeat distribution, and the evolutionary emergence of the genome are discussed. The article may be of interest to biologists studying small genome organization and short monomer DNA repeats.

  5. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  6. Molecular characterization of equine infectious anaemia virus from a major outbreak in southeastern France.

    PubMed

    Gaudaire, D; Lecouturier, F; Ponçon, N; Morilland, E; Laugier, C; Zientara, S; Hans, A

    2017-05-15

    In 2009, a major outbreak of equine infectious anaemia (EIA) was reported in the south-east of France. This outbreak affected three premises located in the Var region where the index case, a 10-year-old mare that exhibited clinical signs consistent with EIA, occurred at a riding school. Overall, more than 250 horses were tested for EIAV (equine infectious anaemia virus) antibodies, using agar gel immunodiffusion test, and 16 horses were positive in three different holdings. Epidemiological survey confirmed that the three premises were related through the purchase/sale of horses and the use of shared or nearby pastures. Molecular characterization of viruses was performed by sequencing the full gag gene sequence (1,400 bp) of the proviral DNAs retrieved from the spleen of infected animals collected post-mortem. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed epidemiological data from the field, as viruses isolated from the three premises were clustering together suggesting a common origin whereas some premises were 50 km apart. Moreover, viruses characterized during this outbreak are different from European strains described so far, underlying the high genetic diversity of EIAV in Europe. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Velocity structure in the Canis Major R1 molecular clouds/sup 1/

    SciTech Connect

    Machnik, D.E.; Hettrick, M.C.; Kutner, M.L.; Dickman, R.L.; Tucker, K.D.

    1980-11-15

    We have mapped CO emission over a 5/sup 0/ x 5/sup 0/ area in the Cains Major OB1/R1 region. Most of the emission is confied to an elliptical region of approximately 90 x 60 pc. Several CO emission peaks appear, many associated with reflection nebulae. While most of the emission falls in the LSR velocity range 10--20 km s/sup -1/, we find some material over the full velocity covered (-30 to +45 km s/sup -1/). There is no simple pattern that would indicate a single expanding shell, but the observations are consistent with the idea that some energetic process, which took place in an initially inhomogeneous cloudy medium, was responsible for the observed morphology of the region. Simple arguments suggest that a supernova explosion is the most likely candidate for this energetic process. The relationship between the process that shaped the clouds and star formation in the region is discussed.

  8. Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Pizzagalli, Diego A; Holmes, Avram J; Dillon, Daniel G; Goetz, Elena L; Birk, Jeffrey L; Bogdan, Ryan; Dougherty, Darin D; Iosifescu, Dan V; Rauch, Scott L; Fava, Maurizio

    2009-06-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by impaired reward processing, possibly due to dysfunction in the basal ganglia. However, few neuroimaging studies of depression have distinguished between anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing. Using functional MRI (fMRI) and a task that dissociates anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing, the authors tested the hypothesis that individuals with major depression would show reduced reward-related responses in basal ganglia structures. A monetary incentive delay task was presented to 30 unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder and 31 healthy comparison subjects during fMRI scanning. Whole-brain analyses focused on neural responses to reward-predicting cues and rewarding outcomes (i.e., monetary gains). Secondary analyses focused on the relationship between anhedonic symptoms and basal ganglia volumes. Relative to comparison subjects, participants with major depression showed significantly weaker responses to gains in the left nucleus accumbens and the caudate bilaterally. Group differences in these regions were specific to rewarding outcomes and did not generalize to neutral or negative outcomes, although relatively reduced responses to monetary penalties in the major depression group emerged in other caudate regions. By contrast, evidence for group differences during reward anticipation was weaker, although participants with major depression showed reduced activation to reward cues in a small sector of the left posterior putamen. In the major depression group, anhedonic symptoms and depression severity were associated with reduced caudate volume bilaterally. These results suggest that basal ganglia dysfunction in major depression may affect the consummatory phase of reward processing. Additionally, morphometric results suggest that anhedonia in major depression is related to caudate volume.

  9. Assessment of the accuracy of the Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) course for interactive training of the response to major incidents and disasters.

    PubMed

    Montán, Kristina Lennquist; Örtenwall, Per; Lennquist, Sten

    2015-01-01

    The benefit of simulation models for interactive training of the response to major incidents and disasters has been increasingly recognized during recent years and a variety of such models have been reported. However, reviews of this literature show that the majority of these reports have been characterized by significant limitations regarding validation of the accuracy of the training related to given objectives. In this study, precourse and postcourse self-assessment surveys related to the specific training objectives, as an established method for curriculum validation, were used to validate the accuracy of a course in Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) developed and organized by an international group of experts under the auspices of the European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery. The studied course was an interactive course, where all trainees acted in their normal roles during two full-day simulation exercises with real time and with simultaneous training of the whole chain of response: scene, transport, the different functions in the hospital, communication, coordination, and command. The key component of the system was a bank of magnetized casualty cards, giving all information normally available as a base for decisions on triage and primary management. All treatments were indicated with attachments on the cards and consumed time and resources as in reality. The trainees' performance was recorded according to prepared protocols and a measurable result of the response could be registered. This study was based on five MRMI courses in four different countries with altogether 235 participants from 23 different countries. In addition to conventional course evaluations and recording of the performance during the 2 exercise days, the trainees' perceived competencies related to the specific objectives of the training for different categories of staff were registered on a floating scale 1-10 in self-assessment protocols immediately before and after the

  10. Leishmania major, the predominant Leishmania species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali.

    PubMed

    Paz, Carlos; Samake, Sibiry; Anderson, Jennifer M; Faye, Ousmane; Traore, Pierre; Tall, Koureishi; Cisse, Moumine; Keita, Somita; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Doumbia, Seydou

    2013-03-01

    Leishmania major is the only species of Leishmania known to cause cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in Mali. We amplified Leishmania DNA stored on archived Giemsa-stained dermal scraping slides obtained from self-referral patients with clinically suspected CL seen in the Center National d'Appui A La Lutte Contre La Maladie (CNAM) in Bamako, Mali, to determine if any other Leishmania species were responsible for CL in Mali and evaluate its geographic distribution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using a Leishmania species-specific primer pair that can amplify DNA from L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, and L. donovani parasites, possible causative agents of CL in Mali. L. major was the only species detected in 41 microscopically confirmed cases of CL from five regions of Mali (Kayes, Koulikoro, Ségou, Mopti, and Tombouctou). These results implicate L. major as the predominant, possibly exclusive species responsible for CL in Mali.

  11. Genetic diversity and molecular evolution of the major human metapneumovirus surface glycoproteins over a decade.

    PubMed

    Papenburg, Jesse; Carbonneau, Julie; Isabel, Sandra; Bergeron, Michel G; Williams, John V; De Serres, Gaston; Hamelin, Marie-Ève; Boivin, Guy

    2013-11-01

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a recently discovered paramyxovirus that is a major cause of respiratory infections worldwide. We aim to describe the molecular evolution of the HMPV F (fusion) and G (attachment) surface glycoproteins because they are targets for vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and antivirals currently in development. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected in children <3 years old with acute respiratory infection in Quebec City during 2001-2010. HMPV-positive samples (n = 163) underwent HMPV-F and -G gene sequencing. Furthermore, HMPV-F (n = 124) and -G (n = 217) sequences were obtained from GenBank and other studies. Evolutionary analyses (phylogenetic reconstruction, sequence identity, detection of recombination and adaptive evolution) were computed. Sequences clustered into 5 genetic lineages (A1, A2a, A2b, B1 and B2). Multiple lineages circulated each year in Quebec City. With the exception of B1, each of the 5 subgroups was the predominant lineage during ≥1 season. The A1 lineage was not detected since 2002-2003 in our local cohort. There was no evidence of inter- or intragenic recombination. HMPV-F was highly conserved, whereas HMPV-G exhibited greater diversity. HMPV-F demonstrated strong evidence of purifying selection, both overall and in an abundance of negatively selected amino acid sites. In contrast, sites under diversifying selection were detected in all HMPV-G lineages (range, 4-15), all of which were located in the ectodomain. Predominant circulating HMPV lineages vary by year. HMPV-F is highly constrained and undergoes significant purifying selection. Given its high genetic variability, we found a modest number of positively selected sites in HMPV-G. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tumor Response to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shuhendler, Adam J.; Ye, Deju; Brewer, Kimberly D.; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Kempen, Paul; Dane Wittrup, K.; Graves, Edward E.; Rutt, Brian; Rao, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine requires measurement of therapeutic efficacy as early as possible, which is optimally achieved by three-dimensional imaging given the heterogeneity of cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can obtain images of both anatomy and cellular responses, if acquired with a molecular imaging contrast agent. The poor sensitivity of MRI has limited the development of activatable molecular MR contrast agents. To overcome this limitation of molecular MRI, a novel implementation of our caspase-3-sensitive nanoaggregation MRI (C-SNAM) contrast agent is reported. C-SNAM is triggered to self-assemble into nanoparticles in apoptotic tumor cells, and effectively amplifies molecular level changes through nanoaggregation, enhancing tissue retention and spin-lattice relaxivity. At one-tenth the current clinical dose of contrast agent, and following a single imaging session, C-SNAM MRI accurately measured the response of tumors to either metronomic chemotherapy or radiation therapy, where the degree of signal enhancement is prognostic of long-term therapeutic efficacy. Importantly, C-SNAM is inert to immune activation, permitting radiation therapy monitoring. PMID:26440059

  13. Differential Impact of LPG-and PG-Deficient Leishmania major Mutants on the Immune Response of Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Asha; Hickerson, Suzanne; Mostrom, Janet; Turco, Salvatore J.; Beverley, Stephen M.; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Leishmania major infection induces robust interleukin-12 (IL12) production in human dendritic cells (hDC), ultimately resulting in Th1-mediated immunity and clinical resolution. The surface of Leishmania parasites is covered in a dense glycocalyx consisting of primarily lipophosphoglycan (LPG) and other phosphoglycan-containing molecules (PGs), making these glycoconjugates the likely pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) responsible for IL12 induction. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we explored the role of parasite glycoconjugates on the hDC IL12 response by generating L. major Friedlin V1 mutants defective in LPG alone, (FV1 lpg1-), or generally deficient for all PGs, (FV1 lpg2-). Infection with metacyclic, infective stage, L. major or purified LPG induced high levels of IL12B subunit gene transcripts in hDCs, which was abrogated with FV1 lpg1- infections. In contrast, hDC infections with FV1 lpg2- displayed increased IL12B expression, suggesting other PG-related/LPG2 dependent molecules may act to dampen the immune response. Global transcriptional profiling comparing WT, FV1 lpg1-, FV1 lpg2- infections revealed that FV1 lpg1- mutants entered hDCs in a silent fashion as indicated by repression of gene expression. Transcription factor binding site analysis suggests that LPG recognition by hDCs induces IL-12 in a signaling cascade resulting in Nuclear Factor κ B (NFκB) and Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) mediated transcription. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that L. major LPG is a major PAMP recognized by hDC to induce IL12-mediated protective immunity and that there is a complex interplay between PG-baring Leishmania surface glycoconjugates that result in modulation of host cellular IL12. PMID:26630499

  14. Stress responses during ageing: molecular pathways regulating protein homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Princz, Andrea; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2015-01-01

    The ageing process is characterized by deterioration of physiological function accompanied by frailty and ageing-associated diseases. The most broadly and well-studied pathways influencing ageing are the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway and the dietary restriction pathway. Recent studies in diverse organisms have also delineated emerging pathways, which collectively or independently contribute to ageing. Among them the proteostatic-stress-response networks, inextricably affect normal ageing by maintaining or restoring protein homeostasis to preserve proper cellular and organismal function. In this chapter, we survey the involvement of heat stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the regulation of longevity, placing emphasis on the cross talk between different response mechanisms and their systemic effects. We further discuss novel insights relevant to the molecular pathways mediating these stress responses that may facilitate the development of innovative interventions targeting age-related pathologies such as diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Molecular modulation of airway epithelial ciliary response to sneezing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke-Qing; Cowan, Andrew T; Lee, Robert J; Goldstein, Natalia; Droguett, Karla; Chen, Bei; Zheng, Chunquan; Villalon, Manuel; Palmer, James N; Kreindler, James L; Cohen, Noam A

    2012-08-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the mechanical force of a sneeze on sinonasal cilia function and determine the molecular mechanism responsible for eliciting the ciliary response to a sneeze. A novel model was developed to deliver a stimulation simulating a sneeze (55 mmHg for 50 ms) at 26°C to the apical surface of mouse and human nasal epithelial cells. Ciliary beating was visualized, and changes in ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were determined. To interrogate the molecular cascades driving sneeze-induced changes of CBF, pharmacologic manipulation of intra- and extracellular calcium, purinergic, PKA, and nitric oxide (NO) signaling were performed. CBF rapidly increases by ≥150% in response to a sneeze, which is dependent on the release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), calcium influx, and PKA activation. Furthermore, apical release of ATP is independent of calcium influx, but calcium influx and subsequent increase in CBF are dependent on the ATP release. Lastly, we observed a blunted ciliary response in surgical specimens derived from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis compared to control patients. Apical ATP release with subsequent calcium mobilization and PKA activation are involved in sinonasal ciliary response to sneezing, which is blunted in patients with upper-airway disease.

  16. Cryptic Diversity within the Major Trypanosomiasis Vector Glossina fuscipes Revealed by Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang-Shik; Darby, Alistair C.; Causse, Sandrine; Kapitano, Berisha; Hall, Martin J. R.; Steen, Keith; Lutumba, Pascal; Madinga, Joules; Torr, Steve J.; Okedi, Loyce M.; Lehane, Michael J.; Donnelly, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes s.l. is responsible for the transmission of approximately 90% of cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. Three G. fuscipes subspecies have been described, primarily based upon subtle differences in the morphology of their genitalia. Here we describe a study conducted across the range of this important vector to determine whether molecular evidence generated from nuclear DNA (microsatellites and gene sequence information), mitochondrial DNA and symbiont DNA support the existence of these taxa as discrete taxonomic units. Principal Findings The nuclear ribosomal Internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) provided support for the three subspecies. However nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data did not support the monophyly of the morphological subspecies G. f. fuscipes or G. f. quanzensis. Instead, the most strongly supported monophyletic group was comprised of flies sampled from Ethiopia. Maternally inherited loci (mtDNA and symbiont) also suggested monophyly of a group from Lake Victoria basin and Tanzania, but this group was not supported by nuclear loci, suggesting different histories of these markers. Microsatellite data confirmed strong structuring across the range of G. fuscipes s.l., and was useful for deriving the interrelationship of closely related populations. Conclusion/Significance We propose that the morphological classification alone is not used to classify populations of G. fuscipes for control purposes. The Ethiopian population, which is scheduled to be the target of a sterile insect release (SIT) programme, was notably discrete. From a programmatic perspective this may be both positive, given that it may reflect limited migration into the area or negative if the high levels of differentiation are also reflected in reproductive isolation between this population and the flies to be used in the release programme. PMID:21858237

  17. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class II alleles in wild tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum).

    PubMed

    Bos, David H; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2005-11-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes are usually among the most polymorphic in vertebrate genomes because of their critical role (antigen presentation) in immune response. Prior to this study, the MHC was poorly characterized in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum), but the congeneric axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is thought to have an unusual MHC. Most notably, axolotl class II genes lack allelic variation and possess a splice variant without a full peptide binding region (PBR). The axolotl is considered immunodeficient, but it is unclear how or to what extent MHC genetics and immunodeficiency are interrelated. To study the evolution of MHC genes in urodele amphibians, we describe for the first time an expressed polymorphic class II gene in wild tiger salamanders. We sequenced the PBR of a class II gene from wild A. tigrinum (n=33) and identified nine distinct alleles. Observed heterozygosity was 73%, and there were a total of 46 polymorphic sites, most of which correspond to amino acid positions that bind peptides. Patterns of nucleotide substitutions exhibit the signature of diversifying selection, but no recombination was detected. Not surprisingly, trans-species evolution of tiger salamander and axolotl class II alleles was apparent. We have no direct data on the immunodeficiency of tiger salamanders, but the levels of polymorphism in our study population should suffice to bind a variety of foreign peptides (unlike axolotls). Our tiger salamander data suggest that the monomorphism and immunodeficiencies associated with axolotl class II genes is a relic of their unique historical demography, not their phylogenetic legacy.

  18. Molecular Responses to Small Regulating Molecules against Huanglongbing Disease.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Federico; Dolan, David; Fileccia, Veronica; Reagan, Russell L; Phu, My; Spann, Timothy M; McCollum, Thomas G; Dandekar, Abhaya M

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. No cure is yet available for this disease and infected trees generally decline after several months. Disease management depends on early detection of symptoms and chemical control of insect vectors. In this work, different combinations of organic compounds were tested for the ability to modulate citrus molecular responses to HLB disease beneficially. Three small-molecule regulating compounds were tested: 1) L-arginine, 2) 6-benzyl-adenine combined with gibberellins, and 3) sucrose combined with atrazine. Each treatment contained K-phite mineral solution and was tested at two different concentrations. Two trials were conducted: one in the greenhouse and the other in the orchard. In the greenhouse study, responses of 42 key genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism, hormone-related pathways, biotic stress responses, and secondary metabolism in treated and untreated mature leaves were analyzed. TGA5 was significantly induced by arginine. Benzyladenine and gibberellins enhanced two important genes involved in biotic stress responses: WRKY54 and WRKY59. Sucrose combined with atrazine mainly upregulated key genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, starch synthase, and α-amylase. Atrazine also affected expression of some key genes involved in systemic acquired resistance such as EDS1, TGA6, WRKY33, and MYC2. Several treatments upregulated HSP82, which might help protect protein folding and integrity. A subset of key genes was chosen as biomarkers for molecular responses to treatments under field conditions. GPT2 was downregulated by all small-molecule treatments. Arginine-induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance included PR1, WRKY70, and EDS1. These molecular data encourage long-term application of treatments that combine these regulating molecules in field trials.

  19. Molecular Responses to Small Regulating Molecules against Huanglongbing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Federico; Dolan, David; Fileccia, Veronica; Reagan, Russell L.; Phu, My; Spann, Timothy M.; McCollum, Thomas G.; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening) is the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide. No cure is yet available for this disease and infected trees generally decline after several months. Disease management depends on early detection of symptoms and chemical control of insect vectors. In this work, different combinations of organic compounds were tested for the ability to modulate citrus molecular responses to HLB disease beneficially. Three small-molecule regulating compounds were tested: 1) L-arginine, 2) 6-benzyl-adenine combined with gibberellins, and 3) sucrose combined with atrazine. Each treatment contained K-phite mineral solution and was tested at two different concentrations. Two trials were conducted: one in the greenhouse and the other in the orchard. In the greenhouse study, responses of 42 key genes involved in sugar and starch metabolism, hormone-related pathways, biotic stress responses, and secondary metabolism in treated and untreated mature leaves were analyzed. TGA5 was significantly induced by arginine. Benzyladenine and gibberellins enhanced two important genes involved in biotic stress responses: WRKY54 and WRKY59. Sucrose combined with atrazine mainly upregulated key genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as sucrose-phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, starch synthase, and α-amylase. Atrazine also affected expression of some key genes involved in systemic acquired resistance such as EDS1, TGA6, WRKY33, and MYC2. Several treatments upregulated HSP82, which might help protect protein folding and integrity. A subset of key genes was chosen as biomarkers for molecular responses to treatments under field conditions. GPT2 was downregulated by all small-molecule treatments. Arginine-induced genes involved in systemic acquired resistance included PR1, WRKY70, and EDS1. These molecular data encourage long-term application of treatments that combine these regulating molecules in field trials. PMID:27459099

  20. Family business: multiple members of major phytohormone classes orchestrate plant stress responses.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Glauser, Gaetan

    2010-09-10

    Low-molecular-weight compounds such as jasmonic, abscisic and salicylic acids are commonly thought to be regulators of plant stress responses. However, it is becoming clear that these molecules, often referred to as phytohormones, are only a part of bigger groups of compounds with biological activity. We propose that the concept of "hormone families" may help to better understand plant physiological responses by taking into account not only the alleged main regulators, but also their precursors, conjugates and catabolites. Novel approaches to profile potentially active compounds in plants are discussed.

  1. A Unique Large-Scale Undergraduate Research Experience in Molecular Systems Biology for Non-Mathematics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappler, Ulrike; Rowland, Susan L.; Pedwell, Rhianna K.

    2017-01-01

    Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring…

  2. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  3. Student Response to a Partial Inversion of an Organic Chemistry Course for Non-Chemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Kathleen S.; Brookes, David T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the student response to a two-year transformation of a one-semester organic chemistry course for nonchemistry majors. The transformed course adopted a peer led team learning approach and incorporated case studies. Student attitudes toward the course transformation were assessed throughout the semester, and adjustments to the methods were…

  4. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  5. Mesocosm Community Response Sensitivities to Specific Conductivity Comprised of Different Major Ions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional toxicity test assays have been used to evaluate the relative sensitivity to different major ion mixtures as a proxy for understanding what the response of aquatic species growing in their natural environment would be during exposure to specific conductivity stress ema...

  6. Mesocosm Community Response Sensitivities to Specific Conductivity Comprised of Different Major Ions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional toxicity test assays have been used to evaluate the relative sensitivity to different major ion mixtures as a proxy for understanding what the response of aquatic species growing in their natural environment would be during exposure to specific conductivity stress ema...

  7. Ethnic Majority/Minority Status: Children's Interactions and Affective Responses to Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrary, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of classroom ethnic majority/minority status on third-, fifth-, and seventh-grade children's responses (N=118)while listening to and discussing the music of a Latin salsa artist, African-American rhythm and blues artist, and a European-American folk artist. Investigates the students' artist and music preferences. (CMK)

  8. Student Response to a Partial Inversion of an Organic Chemistry Course for Non-Chemistry Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Kathleen S.; Brookes, David T.

    2015-01-01

    We report the student response to a two-year transformation of a one-semester organic chemistry course for nonchemistry majors. The transformed course adopted a peer led team learning approach and incorporated case studies. Student attitudes toward the course transformation were assessed throughout the semester, and adjustments to the methods were…

  9. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report. Major structure response (Project IV). Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. J.; Johnson, J. J.; Lo, T. Y.

    1981-05-01

    Task of the Major Structure Response Project within the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was to develop detailed finite element models of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant's containment building and auxiliary-fuel-turbine (AFT) complex. The resulting models served as input to the seismic methodology analysis chain.

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  11. Adaptation to environmental temperature is a major determinant of molecular evolutionary rates in archaea.

    PubMed

    Groussin, Mathieu; Gouy, Manolo

    2011-09-01

    Methods to infer the ancestral conditions of life are commonly based on geological and paleontological analyses. Recently, several studies used genome sequences to gain information about past ecological conditions taking advantage of the property that the G+C and amino acid contents of bacterial and archaeal ribosomal DNA genes and proteins, respectively, are strongly influenced by the environmental temperature. The adaptation to optimal growth temperature (OGT) since the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) over the universal tree of life was examined, and it was concluded that LUCA was likely to have been a mesophilic organism and that a parallel adaptation to high temperature occurred independently along the two lineages leading to the ancestors of Bacteria on one side and of Archaea and Eukarya on the other side. Here, we focus on Archaea to gain a precise view of the adaptation to OGT over time in this domain. It has been often proposed on the basis of indirect evidence that the last archaeal common ancestor was a hyperthermophilic organism. Moreover, many results showed the influence of environmental temperature on the evolutionary dynamics of archaeal genomes: Thermophilic organisms generally display lower evolutionary rates than mesophiles. However, to our knowledge, no study tried to explain the differences of evolutionary rates for the entire archaeal domain and to investigate the evolution of substitution rates over time. A comprehensive archaeal phylogeny and a non homogeneous model of the molecular evolutionary process allowed us to estimate ancestral base and amino acid compositions and OGTs at each internal node of the archaeal phylogenetic tree. The last archaeal common ancestor is predicted to have been hyperthermophilic and adaptations to cooler environments can be observed for extant mesophilic species. Furthermore, mesophilic species present both long branches and high variation of nucleotide and amino acid compositions since the last archaeal

  12. Shear Viscous Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Fluids that exhibit Newtonian response at the macroscale can display interesting deviations at the nanoscale caused by internal fluid microstructure or conformational entropy reduction near an adjacent solid boundary. Such deviations signal the breakdown of the continuum and isotropic fluid approximations at molecular length scales. These effects are particularly pronounced near the interface separating a liquid film from a supporting solid substrate where molecular layering in the fluid can result in inhomogeneity in the shear viscosity. Here we describe ellipsometric measurements of the surface deformation of non-volatile liquid nanofilms subject to a constant interfacial shear stress. For simple Newtonian response, the slope of the deformation can be used to extract the value of the shear viscosity in ultrathin films, which in our experiments range from 2 - 200 nm in thickness. For complex films, we observe deviations from linear deformation which require augmentation of the analytic model normally used to describe the viscous response. These findings may be helpful for improved parametrization of the shear response of supported free surface films as well as course grained models for nanofluidic applications. Support from the Fred and Jean Felberg and Winifred and Robert Gardner Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. The molecular structural features controlling stickiness in cooked rice, a major palatability determinant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; Prakash, Sangeeta; Nicholson, Timothy M.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2017-03-01

    The stickiness of cooked rice is important for eating quality and consumer acceptance. The first molecular understanding of stickiness is obtained from leaching and molecular structural characteristics during cooking. Starch is a highly branched glucose polymer. We find (i) the molecular size of leached amylopectin is 30 times smaller than that of native amylopectin while (ii) that of leached amylose is 5 times smaller than that of native amylose, (iii) the chain-length distribution (CLD: the number of monomer units in a chain on the branched polymer) of leached amylopectin is similar to native amylopectin while (iv) the CLD of leached amylose is much narrower than that of the native amylose, and (v) mainly amylopectin, not amylose, leaches out of the granule and rice kernel during cooking. Stickiness is found to increase with decreasing amylose content in the whole grain, and, in the leachate, with increasing total amount of amylopectin, the proportion of short amylopectin chains, and amylopectin molecular size. Molecular adhesion mechanisms are put forward to explain this result. This molecular structural mechanism provides a new tool for rice breeders to select cultivars with desirable palatability by quantifying the components and molecular structure of leached starch.

  14. The molecular structural features controlling stickiness in cooked rice, a major palatability determinant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fitzgerald, Melissa A; Prakash, Sangeeta; Nicholson, Timothy M; Gilbert, Robert G

    2017-03-06

    The stickiness of cooked rice is important for eating quality and consumer acceptance. The first molecular understanding of stickiness is obtained from leaching and molecular structural characteristics during cooking. Starch is a highly branched glucose polymer. We find (i) the molecular size of leached amylopectin is 30 times smaller than that of native amylopectin while (ii) that of leached amylose is 5 times smaller than that of native amylose, (iii) the chain-length distribution (CLD: the number of monomer units in a chain on the branched polymer) of leached amylopectin is similar to native amylopectin while (iv) the CLD of leached amylose is much narrower than that of the native amylose, and (v) mainly amylopectin, not amylose, leaches out of the granule and rice kernel during cooking. Stickiness is found to increase with decreasing amylose content in the whole grain, and, in the leachate, with increasing total amount of amylopectin, the proportion of short amylopectin chains, and amylopectin molecular size. Molecular adhesion mechanisms are put forward to explain this result. This molecular structural mechanism provides a new tool for rice breeders to select cultivars with desirable palatability by quantifying the components and molecular structure of leached starch.

  15. The molecular structural features controlling stickiness in cooked rice, a major palatability determinant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyan; Fitzgerald, Melissa A.; Prakash, Sangeeta; Nicholson, Timothy M.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    The stickiness of cooked rice is important for eating quality and consumer acceptance. The first molecular understanding of stickiness is obtained from leaching and molecular structural characteristics during cooking. Starch is a highly branched glucose polymer. We find (i) the molecular size of leached amylopectin is 30 times smaller than that of native amylopectin while (ii) that of leached amylose is 5 times smaller than that of native amylose, (iii) the chain-length distribution (CLD: the number of monomer units in a chain on the branched polymer) of leached amylopectin is similar to native amylopectin while (iv) the CLD of leached amylose is much narrower than that of the native amylose, and (v) mainly amylopectin, not amylose, leaches out of the granule and rice kernel during cooking. Stickiness is found to increase with decreasing amylose content in the whole grain, and, in the leachate, with increasing total amount of amylopectin, the proportion of short amylopectin chains, and amylopectin molecular size. Molecular adhesion mechanisms are put forward to explain this result. This molecular structural mechanism provides a new tool for rice breeders to select cultivars with desirable palatability by quantifying the components and molecular structure of leached starch. PMID:28262830

  16. Presence of early stage cancer does not impair the early protein metabolic response to major surgery.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Klimberg, V Suzanne; Allasia, Arianna; Deutz, Nicolaas Ep

    2017-06-01

    Combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction is a common major surgical procedure in women with breast cancer and in those with a family history of breast cancer. As this large surgical procedure induces muscle protein loss, a preserved anabolic response to nutrition is warranted for optimal recovery. It is unclear whether the presence of early stage cancer negatively affects the protein metabolic response to major surgery as this would mandate perioperative nutritional support. In nine women with early stage (Stage II) breast malignancy and nine healthy women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer undergoing the same large surgical procedure, we examined whether surgery influences the catabolic response to overnight fasting and the anabolic response to nutrition differently. Prior to and within 24 h after combined bilateral mastectomy and reconstruction surgery, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown rates were assessed after overnight fasting and after meal intake by stable isotope methodology to enable the calculation of net protein catabolism in the post-absorptive state and net protein anabolic response to a meal. Major surgery resulted in an up-regulation of post-absorptive protein synthesis and breakdown rates (P < 0.001) and lower net protein catabolism (P < 0.05) and was associated with insulin resistance and increased systemic inflammation (P < 0.01). Net anabolic response to the meal was reduced after surgery (P < 0.05) but higher in cancer (P < 0.05) indicative of a more preserved meal efficiency. The significant relationship between net protein anabolism and the amount of amino acids available in the circulation (R(2)  = 0.85, P < 0.001) was independent of the presence of non-cachectic early stage breast cancer or surgery. The presence of early stage breast cancer does not enhance the normal catabolic response to major surgery or further attenuates the anabolic response to meal intake within 24 h after

  17. Molecular signatures of differential responses to exercise trainings during rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Gregory, Chris; Ye, Fan; Harafuji, Naoe; Lott, Donovan; Lai, San-Huei; Mathur, Sunita; Scarborough, Mark; Gibbs, Parker; Baligand, Celine; Vandenborne, Krista

    2017-01-01

    The loss and recovery of muscle mass and function following injury and during rehabilitation varies among individuals. While recent expression profiling studies have illustrated transcriptomic responses to muscle disuse and remodeling, how these changes contribute to the physiological responses are not clear. In this study, we quantified the effects of immobilization and subsequent rehabilitation training on muscle size and identified molecular pathways associated with muscle responsiveness in an orthopaedic patient cohort study. The injured leg of 16 individuals with ankle injury was immobilized for a minimum of 4 weeks, followed by a 6-week rehabilitation program. The maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of the medial gastrocnemius muscle of the immobilized and control legs were determined by T1-weighted axial MRI images. Genome-wide mRNA profiling data were used to identify molecular signatures that distinguish the patients who responded to immobilization and rehabilitation and those who were considered minimal responders. RESULTS: Using 6% change as the threshold to define responsiveness, a greater degree of changes in muscle size was noted in high responders (−14.9 ± 3.6%) compared to low responders (0.1 ± 0.0%) during immobilization. In addition, a greater degree of changes in muscle size was observed in high responders (20.5 ± 3.2%) compared to low responders (2.5 ± 0.9%) at 6-week rehabilitation. Microarray analysis showed a higher number of genes differentially expressed in the responders compared to low responders in general; with more expression changes observed at the acute stage of rehabilitation in both groups. Pathways analysis revealed top molecular pathways differentially affected in the groups, including genes involved in mitochondrial function, protein turn over, integrin signaling and inflammation. This study confirmed the extent of muscle atrophy due to immobilization and recovery by exercise training is associated with distinct remodeling

  18. Plant Responses to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stress: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ben Rejeb, Ines; Pastor, Victoria; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly confronted to both abiotic and biotic stresses that seriously reduce their productivity. Plant responses to these stresses are complex and involve numerous physiological, molecular, and cellular adaptations. Recent evidence shows that a combination of abiotic and biotic stress can have a positive effect on plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress. Such an interaction between both types of stress points to a crosstalk between their respective signaling pathways. This crosstalk may be synergistic and/or antagonistic and include among others the involvement of phytohormones, transcription factors, kinase cascades, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In certain cases, such crosstalk can lead to a cross-tolerance and enhancement of a plant’s resistance against pathogens. This review aims at giving an insight into cross-tolerance between abiotic and biotic stress, focusing on the molecular level and regulatory pathways. PMID:27135514

  19. Plant Responses to Simultaneous Biotic and Abiotic Stress: Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rejeb, Ines Ben; Pastor, Victoria; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2014-10-15

    Plants are constantly confronted to both abiotic and biotic stresses that seriously reduce their productivity. Plant responses to these stresses are complex and involve numerous physiological, molecular, and cellular adaptations. Recent evidence shows that a combination of abiotic and biotic stress can have a positive effect on plant performance by reducing the susceptibility to biotic stress. Such an interaction between both types of stress points to a crosstalk between their respective signaling pathways. This crosstalk may be synergistic and/or antagonistic and include among others the involvement of phytohormones, transcription factors, kinase cascades, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In certain cases, such crosstalk can lead to a cross-tolerance and enhancement of a plant's resistance against pathogens. This review aims at giving an insight into cross-tolerance between abiotic and biotic stress, focusing on the molecular level and regulatory pathways.

  20. UV radiation in marine ectotherms: molecular effects and responses.

    PubMed

    Dahms, Hans-U; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2010-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced cellular and molecular damage in marine ectotherms (invertebrates and fish). UVR impairs sperm motility, reduces fertilization, and causes embryo malformation that in turn affects recruitment and therefore the sustainability of natural populations. The direct molecular effects of UVR are mediated by absorption of certain wavelengths by specific macromolecules and the dissipation of the absorbed energy via photochemical reactions. Most organisms have defense mechanisms that either prevent UVR-induced damage, or mechanisms that repair the damage. Photoprotective pigments, antioxidant defense compounds, and cell cycle development genes are some of the molecules involved in UVR defense. Photoenzymatic repair and nucleotide excision repair are the two primary DNA repair systems in marine ectotherms. We anticipate that toxicogenomic studies will gain importance in UVR research because they can elucidate the primary processes involved in UVR damage and the cellular response to this damage.

  1. Molecular responses of Frankia sp. strain QA3 to naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ethan; Tang, Yang; Chu, Feixia; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-04-01

    The Frankia-actinorhizal plant symbiosis plays a significant role in plant colonization in soils contaminated with heavy metals and toxic aromatic hydrocarbons. The molecular response of Frankia upon exposure to soil contaminants is not well understood. To address this issue, we subjected Frankia sp. strain QA3 to naphthalene stress and showed that it could grow on naphthalene as a sole carbon source. Bioinformatic analysis of the Frankia QA3 genome identified a potential operon for aromatic compound degradation as well as several ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Under naphthalene stress, the expression of these genes was upregulated. Proteome analysis showed a differential protein profile for cells under naphthalene stress. Several protein spots were analyzed and used to identify proteins involved in stress response, metabolism, and energy production, including a lignostilbene dioxygenase. These results provide a model for understanding the molecular response of Frankia to common soil pollutants, which may be required for survival and proliferation of the bacterium and their hosts in polluted environments.

  2. The Major Yolk Protein Vitellogenin Interferes with the Anti-Plasmodium Response in the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Rono, Martin K.; Whitten, Miranda M. A.; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Levashina, Elena A.; Marois, Eric

    2010-01-01

    When taking a blood meal on a person infected with malaria, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major vector of human malaria, acquire nutrients that will activate egg development (oogenesis) in their ovaries. Simultaneously, they infect themselves with the malaria parasite. On traversing the mosquito midgut epithelium, invading Plasmodium ookinetes are met with a potent innate immune response predominantly controlled by mosquito blood cells. Whether the concomitant processes of mosquito reproduction and immunity affect each other remains controversial. Here, we show that proteins that deliver nutrients to maturing mosquito oocytes interfere with the antiparasitic response. Lipophorin (Lp) and vitellogenin (Vg), two nutrient transport proteins, reduce the parasite-killing efficiency of the antiparasitic factor TEP1. In the absence of either nutrient transport protein, TEP1 binding to the ookinete surface becomes more efficient. We also show that Lp is required for the normal expression of Vg, and for later Plasmodium development at the oocyst stage. Furthermore, our results uncover an inhibitory role of the Cactus/REL1/REL2 signaling cassette in the expression of Vg, but not of Lp. We reveal molecular links that connect reproduction and immunity at several levels and provide a molecular basis for a long-suspected trade-off between these two processes. PMID:20652016

  3. Solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978-1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Frances; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Akasofu, Syun I.

    1989-01-01

    The solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms observed in the August 1978-December 1979 period were studied using a full complement of solar wind plasma and field data from ISEE 3. It was found that, of the ten major storms observed, seven were initiated by active region flares, and three were associated with prominence eruptions in solar quiet regions. Nine of the storms were associated with interplanetary shocks. However, a comparison of the solar events' characteristics and those of the resulting interplanetary shocks indicated that standard solar parameters did not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU.

  4. Solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978-1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Frances; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Akasofu, Syun I.

    1989-01-01

    The solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms observed in the August 1978-December 1979 period were studied using a full complement of solar wind plasma and field data from ISEE 3. It was found that, of the ten major storms observed, seven were initiated by active region flares, and three were associated with prominence eruptions in solar quiet regions. Nine of the storms were associated with interplanetary shocks. However, a comparison of the solar events' characteristics and those of the resulting interplanetary shocks indicated that standard solar parameters did not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU.

  5. Plasmonic polymers with strong chiroptical response for sensing molecular chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Dawei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Rong-Yao; Tian, Xiaorui; Ji, Yinglu; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Luming; Wei, Hong; Wu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman ``fingerprint'' information for identifying the molecular identity but also the CD signatures for (i) resolving the enantiomeric pairs of cysteine molecules at a small quantity level, and (ii) quantifying the enantiomeric purity of the chiral analytes. Chiral analyses by chiroptically responsive plasmonic polymers may find important applications in bioscience and biomedicine.We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman ``fingerprint

  6. Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Song-Eun; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Rho, Dae-Young; Kim, Do-Hoon; Huh, Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method. Methods Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later. Results There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups. Conclusion These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA. PMID:27081384

  7. MOLECULAR GENETICS OF THE SWINE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX, THE SLA COMPLEX

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The swine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) complex is one of the most gene-dense regions in the swine genome. It consists of three major gene clusters, the SLA class I, class III and class II regions, that span ~1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 Mb, respectively, making the swi...

  8. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to cognitive behavioral therapy in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Junya; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Miyata, Jun; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Takemura, Ariyoshi; Tei, Shisei; Sugihara, Genichi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Inoue, Kazuomi; Murai, Toshiya

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is widely used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Although improved response prediction could facilitate the development of individualized treatment plans, few studies have investigated whether underlying brain structure is related to CBT response in MDD. Ten MDD patients who received individual CBT were studied in this study. We investigated the relationship between the regional gray matter (GM) volume and subsequent responses to CBT using voxel-based morphometry. The degree of improvement in depressive symptoms was positively correlated with GM volume in the caudal portion of the anterior cingulate cortex. The sample size was small, and the effects of medication on the results could not be excluded. Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex is a key structure whose volume can be used to predict responses to CBT and is thus a potential prognostic marker in MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. From climate change to molecular response: redox proteomics of ozone-induced responses in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ozone (O3) causes significant agricultural losses with soybean being highly sensitive to this oxidant. Here we assess the effect of elevated seasonal O3 exposure on the total and redox proteomes of soybean. To understand the molecular responses to O3 exposure, soybean grown at the Soybean Free Air C...

  10. DNA methylation and clinical response to antidepressant medication in major depressive disorder: A review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Lisoway, Amanda J; Zai, Clement C; Tiwari, Arun K; Kennedy, James L

    2017-01-04

    Antidepressant medications are the most common treatment for major depression and related disorders. Pharmacogenetic studies have demonstrated that response to these medications is associated with genetic variation. While these studies have been invaluable they have yet to explain why a significant number of patients do not respond to their initial medication. The epigenetic modification known as DNA methylation has recently been studied in the context of antidepressant treatment response. As such, the purpose of this article is to review the advances made in the relatively new field of pharmaco-epigenetics of antidepressant response. We included all published articles examining DNA methylation in association with antidepressant treatment response in Major Depressive Disorder from April 2006 to June 2016 using the PubMed, Medline, PsychInfo and Web of Science databases. At the present time, although original articles are limited, epigenetic modifications of SLC6A4, BDNF, and IL11 genes are showing promising results as biomarkers for prediction of antidepressant response. However, research methods and results are heterogeneous and additional studies are required before results are generalizable. At the end of this review we provide recommendations for study design and analytic approaches.

  11. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  12. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  13. Foundational Concepts and Underlying Theories for Majors in "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, John T.; Baird, Teaster, Jr.; Cox, Michael M.; Fox, Kristin M.; Knight, Jennifer; Sears, Duane; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members and science educators from around the country that focused on identifying: 1) core principles of biochemistry and molecular biology, 2) essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics, and 3)…

  14. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  15. Pretreatment platelet 5-HT concentration predicts the short-term response to paroxetine in major depression. Grupo de Trastornos Afectivos.

    PubMed

    Figueras, G; Pérez, V; San Martino, O; Alvarez, E; Artigas, F

    1999-08-15

    A previous retrospective study revealed that a high pretreatment platelet serotonin (5-HT) concentration was associated with a low response to serotonergic antidepressants in drug-free major depressives. We have examined such a relationship in depressive patients treated with paroxetine. Seventy-four drug-free major depressives (DSM-IV) were admitted to the study. Clinical ratings were performed and blood was drawn prior to the initiation of treatment and after 4 weeks of paroxetine (20 mg/day). The concentrations of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and tryptophan were determined in plasma and blood. Paroxetine treatment reduced platelet 5-HT to 17% of baseline after 4 weeks of treatment. Responder patients had a pretreatment platelet 5-HT concentration 22% lower than nonresponders (p < .035). Admission HAMD scores, plasma paroxetine concentration, or platelet 5-HT concentration at endpoint did not differ between responders and nonresponders. Yet, the response rate was 11% in patients with high pretreatment platelet 5-HT (> 900 ng/10(9) platelets) and 50% in those below that value (p < .004). These findings support that depressed patients with a high pretreatment platelet 5-HT concentration have a poor therapeutic outcome after treatment with a standard paroxetine dose. These differences may be related to the existence of molecular differences in the 5-HT transporter.

  16. Observed maternal responses to adolescent behaviour predict the onset of major depression.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Orli S; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B; Yap, Marie B H; Simmons, Julian G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2011-05-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed regarding relations between parental responses to adolescent affective behaviours and the development of depression: the elicitation of parental negativity and the suppression of parental aggression. This study aimed to investigate the boundary conditions under which these two mechanisms operate in relation to the prospective prediction of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) onset in adolescence. A community sample of 159 adolescents (aged 11-13 years) with no history of MDD completed a family interaction assessment with their mothers, and were followed-up with a diagnostic interview 2-3 years later. Results showed that onset of MDD was prospectively predicted by the elicitation of maternal aggression in response to adolescent aggression (in girls only) and maternal dysphoria in response to adolescent aggression, as well as the suppression of maternal aggression and dysphoria in response to adolescent dysphoria. Thus, support was obtained for both the elicitation of negativity mechanism in relation to maternal responses to adolescents' aggressive behaviours, and the suppression of aggression mechanisms in relation to maternal responses to adolescents' dysphoric behaviours. Mothers' responses to adolescents' aggressive and dysphoric behaviours may differentially influence the risk of MDD onset for adolescents over time.

  17. Individual Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Responses Associated with Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C.; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD. PMID:26880358

  18. Using biomarkers to predict treatment response in major depressive disorder: evidence from past and present studies.

    PubMed

    Thase, Michael E

    2014-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous condition with a variable response to a wide range of treatments. Despite intensive efforts, no biomarker has been identified to date that can reliably predict response or non-response to any form of treatment, nor has one been identified that can be used to identify those at high risk of developing treatment-resistant depression (ie, non-response to a sequence of treatments delivered for adequate duration and intensity). This manuscript reviews some past areas of research that have proved informative, such as studies using indexes of hypercortisolism or sleep disturbance, and more recent research findings using measures of inflammation and different indicators of regional cortical activation to predict treatment response. It is concluded that, although no method has yet been demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate to be applied in clinical practice, progress has been made. It thus seems likely that--at some point in the not-too-distant future--it will be possible to prospectively identify, at least for some MDD patients, the likelihood of response or non-response to cognitive therapy or various antidepressant medications.

  19. Individual Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Responses Associated with Major Depressive Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Masaya; Suzuki, Hideo; Savitz, Jonathan; Drevets, Wayne C; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2016-02-16

    Abnormal reward-related responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) have been reported for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. However, variability exists in the reported results, which could be due to heterogeneity in neuropathology of depression. To parse the heterogeneity of MDD we investigated variation of NAcc responses to gain and loss anticipations using fMRI. We found NAcc responses to monetary gain and loss were significantly variable across subjects in both MDD and healthy control (HC) groups. The variations were seen as a hyperactive response subtype that showed elevated activation to the anticipation of both gain and loss, an intermediate response with greater activation to gain than loss, and a suppressed-activity with reduced activation to both gain and loss compared to a non-monetary condition. While these response variability were seen in both MDD and HC subjects, specific symptoms were significantly associated with the right NAcc variation in MDD. Both the hyper- and suppressed-activity subtypes of MDD patients had severe suicidal ideation and anhedonia symptoms. The intermediate subjects had less severity in these symptoms. These results suggest that differing propensities in reward responsiveness in the NAcc may affect the development of specific symptoms in MDD.

  20. Performance indicators for initial regional medical response to major incidents: a possible quality control tool.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Heléne; Vikström, Tore; Jonson, Carl-Oscar

    2012-12-17

    Timely decisions concerning mobilization and allocation of resources and distribution of casualties are crucial in medical management of major incidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate documented initial regional medical responses to major incidents by applying a set of 11 measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control and test the feasibility of the indicators. Retrospective data were collected from documentation from regional medical command and control at major incidents that occurred in two Swedish County Councils. Each incident was assigned to one of nine different categories and 11 measurable performance indicators for initial regional medical command and control were systematically applied. Two-way analysis of variance with one observation per cell was used for statistical analysis and the post hoc Tukey test was used for pairwise comparisons. The set of indicators for regional medical command and control could be applied in 102 of the 130 major incidents (78%), but 36 incidents had to be excluded due to incomplete documentation. The indicators were not applicable as a set for 28 incidents (21.5%) due to different characteristics and time frames. Based on the indicators studied in 66 major incidents, the results demonstrate that the regional medical management performed according to the standard in the early phases (1-10 min after alert), but there were weaknesses in the secondary phase (10-30 min after alert). The significantly lowest scores were found for Indicator 8 (formulate general guidelines for response) and Indicator 10 (decide whether or not resources in own organization are adequate). Measurable performance indicators for regional medical command and control can be applied to incidents that directly or indirectly involve casualties provided there is sufficient documentation available. Measurable performance indicators can enhance follow- up and be used as a structured quality control tool as well as constitute

  1. Molecular characterization of a human immunoglobulin G4 antibody specific for the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Flicker, S; Steinberger, P; Eibensteiner, P B; Lebecque, S; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    2008-02-01

    Allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies induced by specific immunotherapy are thought to represent a protective immune response. Objective Our aim was the molecular characterization of a human IgG4 antibody (BAB5) specific for the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 that was derived from an immunotherapy-treated patient. The cDNA coding for BAB5 was obtained by reverse transcriptase-PCR from the BAB5-producing cell line, compared with the germ line sequences and was expressed as a soluble antibody fragment in Escherichia coli. The epitope specificity and cross-reactivity of BAB5 were investigated with recombinant and synthetic Bet v 1 fragments and Bet v 1 homologous allergens from pollen. The ability of BAB5 to block allergic patients IgE was determined by competition experiments and sandwich ELISA. BAB5 is an affinity-matured Bet v 1-specific IgG4 antibody that reacts exclusively with Bet v 1 but not with Bet v 1-related allergens. Unlike an earlier-described monoclonal IgG1-blocking antibody, BAB1, which had been isolated from the same patient, BAB5 did not block allergic patients' IgE reactivity to Bet v 1. Our study demonstrates that not all allergen-specific IgG antibodies inhibit IgE recognition of allergens and can contribute to the success of immunotherapy. The epitope specificity and affinity of IgG antibodies but not their isotype are decisive for their protective activity.

  2. Molecular Architecture of the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Binding Site of Ly49 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Deng,L.; Cho, S.; Malchiodi, E.; Kerzic, M.; Dam, J.; Mariuzza, R.

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the detection and destruction of virally infected and tumor cells during innate immune responses. The highly polymorphic Ly49 family of NK receptors regulates NK cell function by sensing major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules on target cells. Despite the determination of two Ly49-MHC-I complex structures, the molecular features of Ly49 receptors that confer specificity for particular MHC-I alleles have not been identified. To understand the functional architecture of Ly49-binding sites, we determined the crystal structures of Ly49C and Ly49G and completed refinement of the Ly49C-H-2Kb complex. This information, combined with mutational analysis of Ly49A, permitted a structure-based classification of Ly49s that we used to dissect the binding site into three distinct regions, each having different roles in MHC recognition. One region, located at the center of the binding site, has a similar structure across the Ly49 family and mediates conserved interactions with MHC-I that contribute most to binding. However, the preference of individual Ly49s for particular MHC-I molecules is governed by two regions that flank the central region and are structurally more variable. One of the flanking regions divides Ly49s into those that recognize both H-2D and H-2K versus only H-2D ligands, whereas the other discriminates among H-2D or H-2K alleles. The modular design of Ly49-binding sites provides a framework for predicting the MHC-binding specificity of Ly49s that have not been characterized experimentally.

  3. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and thiosulfate are the major low-molecular-weight thiols in halobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Gerald L.; Javor, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Six representative species of extremely halophilic bacteria were found to contain approximately millimolar concentrations of gamma-glutamylcysteine in the absence of significant glutathione. Thiosulfate also accumulated in the halobacteria, apparently as a major product of cysteine oxidation.

  4. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and thiosulfate are the major low-molecular-weight thiols in halobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, Gerald L.; Javor, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Six representative species of extremely halophilic bacteria were found to contain approximately millimolar concentrations of gamma-glutamylcysteine in the absence of significant glutathione. Thiosulfate also accumulated in the halobacteria, apparently as a major product of cysteine oxidation.

  5. Sex, college major, and attribution of responsibility in empathic responding to persons with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Turner, Castellano

    2004-10-01

    This investigation studied the influence of sex, college major, and attributed responsibility on college students' empathic responding towards persons infected with HIV. We hypothesized that (1) women would score higher on empathy than men; (2) nursing and psychology majors would score higher on empathy than business and computer science majors; and (3) participants would score higher on empathy towards a target who contracted HIV through blood transfusion (presented as a Nonresponsible target) rather than through unprotected sex (presented as a Responsible target). Two hundred and fifty-eight undergraduate students (110 male, 148 female) attending a large urban university in the northeast filled out an anonymous demographic questionnaire, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index of Davis (1983), and an Empathy Reaction Scale that was developed by the authors. Results indicated a higher mean Empathy Reaction score from nursing and psychology students as compared to business and computer science students. There was no difference in Empathy Reaction scores between men and women. A higher Empathy Reaction score was found among participants who had read a diary from the target portrayed as Nonresponsible, as opposed to those who read a diary from the target portrayed as Responsible.

  6. Molecular polarizability of water from local dielectric response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaochuan; Lu, Deyu

    2017-08-01

    We propose a fully ab initio theory to compute the electron density response under the perturbation in the local field. This method is based on our recently developed local dielectric response theory [Phys. Rev. B 92, 241107(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.241107], which provides a rigorous theoretical framework to treat local electronic excitations in both finite and extended systems beyond the commonly employed dipole approximation. We have applied this method to study the electronic part of the molecular polarizability of water in ice I h and liquid water. Our results reveal that the crystal field of the hydrogen-bond network has strong anisotropic effects, which significantly enhance the out-of-plane component and suppress the in-plane component perpendicular to the bisector direction. The contribution from the charge transfer is equally important, which increases the isotropic molecular polarizability by 5 -6 %. Our study provides insights into the dielectric properties of water, which form the basis to understand electronic excitations in water and to develop accurate polarizable force fields of water.

  7. Molecular polarizability of water from local dielectric response theory

    DOE PAGES

    Ge, Xiaochuan; Lu, Deyu

    2017-08-08

    Here, we propose a fully ab initio theory to compute the electron density response under the perturbation in the local field. This method is based on our recently developed local dielectric response theory [Phys. Rev. B 92, 241107(R), 2015], which provides a rigorous theoretical framework to treat local electronic excitations in both nite and extended systems beyond the commonly employed dipole approximation. We have applied this method to study the electronic part of the molecular polarizability of water in ice Ih and liquid water. Our results reveal that the crystal field of the hydrogen-bond network has strong anisotropic effects, whichmore » significantly enhance the out-of-plane component and suppress the in-plane component perpendicular to the bisector direction. The contribution from the charge transfer is equally important, which increases the isotropic molecular polarizability by 5-6%. Our study provides new insights into the dielectric properties of water, which form the basis to understand electronic excitations in water and to develop accurate polarizable force fields of water.« less

  8. Regulation of the molecular response to oxygen limitations in plants.

    PubMed

    Licausi, Francesco

    2011-05-01

    The oxygen availability to plant tissues can vary strongly in time and space. To endure short- or long-term oxygen deprivation, plants evolved a series of metabolic and morphological adaptations that have been extensively studied. However, our knowledge of the molecular regulation of these processes is not as well understood. In this review, the recent findings on the molecular effectors that regulate the response of higher plants to oxygen deficiency are discussed. Although no direct oxygen sensor has been discovered in plants so far, mechanisms that perceive low-oxygen derived signals have been reported, involving different sets of transcription factors (TFs). The ERF (Ethylene Responsive Factor) family especially appears to play a crucial role in the determination of survival to reduced oxygen availability in Arabidopsis and rice. This class of TFs displays a broad range of targets, being involved in both the metabolic reprogramming and the morphological adaptations exploited by plants when subjected to low-oxygen conditions. © 2010 The Author. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Plasmonic polymers with strong chiroptical response for sensing molecular chirality.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dawei; Wang, Peng; Wang, Rong-Yao; Tian, Xiaorui; Ji, Yinglu; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Luming; Wei, Hong; Wu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-28

    We report on the chiroptical transfer and amplification effect observed in plasmonic polymers consisting of achiral gold nanorod monomers linked by cysteine chiral molecules in an end-to-end fashion. A new strategy for controlling the hot spots based circular dichroism (CD)-active sites in plasmonic polymers was developed to realize tailored and reproducible chiroptical activity in a controlled way. We showed that by regulating the bond angles between adjacent nanorods and the degree of polymerization in the linear plasmonic polymer, weak molecular chirality in the ultraviolet spectral region can be amplified by more than two orders of magnitude via the induced CD response in the visible/near infrared region. We demonstrate that this plasmonic polymer can be used to provide not only the Raman "fingerprint" information for identifying the molecular identity but also the CD signatures for (i) resolving the enantiomeric pairs of cysteine molecules at a small quantity level, and (ii) quantifying the enantiomeric purity of the chiral analytes. Chiral analyses by chiroptically responsive plasmonic polymers may find important applications in bioscience and biomedicine.

  10. Cellular stress response pathways and ageing: intricate molecular relationships.

    PubMed

    Kourtis, Nikos; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2011-05-17

    Ageing is driven by the inexorable and stochastic accumulation of damage in biomolecules vital for proper cellular function. Although this process is fundamentally haphazard and uncontrollable, senescent decline and ageing is broadly influenced by genetic and extrinsic factors. Numerous gene mutations and treatments have been shown to extend the lifespan of diverse organisms ranging from the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae to primates. It is becoming increasingly apparent that most such interventions ultimately interface with cellular stress response mechanisms, suggesting that longevity is intimately related to the ability of the organism to effectively cope with both intrinsic and extrinsic stress. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that link ageing to main stress response pathways, and mediate age-related changes in the effectiveness of the response to stress. We also discuss how each pathway contributes to modulate the ageing process. A better understanding of the dynamics and reciprocal interplay between stress responses and ageing is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies that exploit endogenous stress combat pathways against age-associated pathologies.

  11. Specific molecular signatures predict decitabine response in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Meldi, Kristen; Qin, Tingting; Buchi, Francesca; Droin, Nathalie; Sotzen, Jason; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Masala, Erico; Allione, Bernardino; Gioia, Daniela; Poloni, Antonella; Lunghi, Monia; Solary, Eric; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Santini, Valeria; Figueroa, Maria E

    2015-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) are characterized by mutations in genes encoding epigenetic modifiers and aberrant DNA methylation. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DMTis) are used to treat these disorders, but response is highly variable, with few means to predict which patients will benefit. Here, we examined baseline differences in mutations, DNA methylation, and gene expression in 40 CMML patients who were responsive or resistant to decitabine (DAC) in order to develop a molecular means of predicting response at diagnosis. While somatic mutations did not differentiate responders from nonresponders, we identified 167 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of DNA at baseline that distinguished responders from nonresponders using next-generation sequencing. These DMRs were primarily localized to nonpromoter regions and overlapped with distal regulatory enhancers. Using the methylation profiles, we developed an epigenetic classifier that accurately predicted DAC response at the time of diagnosis. Transcriptional analysis revealed differences in gene expression at diagnosis between responders and nonresponders. In responders, the upregulated genes included those that are associated with the cell cycle, potentially contributing to effective DAC incorporation. Treatment with CXCL4 and CXCL7, which were overexpressed in nonresponders, blocked DAC effects in isolated normal CD34+ and primary CMML cells, suggesting that their upregulation contributes to primary DAC resistance.

  12. Deficits in sustaining reward responses in subsyndromal and syndromal major depression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-hua; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Ling-zhi; Huang, Jia; Cheung, Eric F C; Gong, Qi-yong; Gollan, Jackie K

    2011-06-01

    Preliminary findings suggest a reduction in capacity to sustain reward responses in major depression. However, relatively little is known about the stability of reward learning over time and the effect of stress on reward responses in depressed individuals. This study aimed to evaluate sustained behaviour to maximize reward in the context of known reinforcement contingencies and to evaluate the extent to which stress influences such behaviour in clinically depressed patients (n=43), subsyndromally depressed individuals (n=43), and healthy controls (n=44). A probabilistic reward learning task with contingencies known to participants was used to evaluate the change of reward response over time in both 'stress' and 'non-stress' conditions. Stress was induced by salient negative feedback during the task performance. Questionnaires capturing subjective affect were also administered to all participants after completion of the task. Response bias to the stimulus signaling greater reward decreased significantly over time in both subsyndromally and clinically depressed participants, but not in healthy controls. Healthy controls demonstrated a trend of dysfunctional reward processing under the stress condition. Moreover, in the stress condition, the deficit in sustaining behaviour to maximize reward was associated with subjective rating of pleasure in participants with either subsyndromal depression or major depression. These findings suggest that individuals with depression have difficulty sustaining behaviour during a known reinforcement schedule. Participants with anhedonic symptoms are even less likely to sustain behaviour to maximize reward under stress.

  13. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  14. Effects of Deeper Molecular Responses on Outcomes in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients in Chronic Phase Treated With Imatinib Mesylate.

    PubMed

    Kaygusuz Atagunduz, Isik; Toptas, Tayfur; Deniz, Rabia; Kara, Osman; Eser, Ali; Sezgin, Aslıhan; Ozgumus, Toluy; Gecgel, Fatma; Firatli Tuglular, Tulin

    2017-02-01

    The prognostic significance of complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) is well defined in patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib as first-line therapy. However, the effect on outcomes of obtaining molecular response itself and the depth of it is not clear. In this study we aimed to determine the frequency of complete molecular response (CMR) during long-term follow-up and the clinical significance of CMR on patient outcomes and survival. We retrospectively evaluated the files of 178 chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients using imatinib therapy. Forty-seven patients with missing data were excluded from the study and the assessment was done in 131 patients. CMR was defined as undetectable BCR-ABL transcripts using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with a sensitivity level of ≥ 10(4) in 2 consecutive analyses at least 3 months apart. Cytogenetic and molecular monitoring during treatment was performed according to the European LeukemiaNet recommendations criteria. Our primary objective was to analyze the association of deeper molecular response with differences in progression-free survival (PFS). Eighty-eight patients (67%) achieved CMR at any time in a median of 65 months of follow-up. The rate of CMR was higher in patients who achieved CCyR at 12 months and major molecular response (MMR) at 18 months. Fewer events occurred in the CMR group than the MMR group (26.1% vs. 50.0%). Overall survival was not different in both groups. CMR was associated with longer PFS with borderline significance. Prolonged imatinib therapy helps to achieve a deeper molecular response in the long-term. Achieving deeper molecular response at any time positively affects maintaining the cytogenetic and molecular responses, and decreases the transformation to accelerated and/or blastic phase. The slight prolongation in PFS did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical depressive symptoms as a predictor of treatment response to exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, Chad D; Tu, Jian; Carmody, Thomas J; Greer, Tracy L; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2016-08-01

    Effective treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will require the development of alternative treatments and the ability for clinicians to match patients with the treatment likely to produce the greatest effect. We examined atypical depression subtype as a predictor of treatment response to aerobic exercise augmentation in persons with non-remitted MDD. Our results revealed a small-to-moderate effect, particularly in a group assigned to high-dose exercise (semi-partial eta-squared =0.0335, p=0.0735), indicating that those with atypical depression tended to have larger treatment response to exercise. Through this hypothesis-generating analysis, we indicate the need for research to examine depression subtype, along with other demographic, clinical and biological factors as predictors of treatment response to exercise.

  16. Hopelessness as a predictor of non-response to fluoxetine in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I; Petersen, Timothy; Homberger, Caitlin H; Green, Cassandra H; Smith, Juliana; Alpert, Jonathan E; Fava, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to study hopelessness as a predictor of response to fluoxetine in outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The degree of hopelessness was assessed during the baseline visit with the use of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) in 312 patients with MDD (56.1% women; 39.8 +/- 10.3 years of age) who entered an 8-week, 20-mg, fixed-dose, open trial of fluoxetine. With the use of a logistic regression we tested whether BHS scores at baseline predicted clinical response, controlling for the severity of depression as reflected by the total score on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D-17). With the use of a multiple regression we also tested whether BHS scores at baseline predicted HAM-D-17 scores at endpoint, controlling for HAM-D-17 scores at baseline. After controlling for depression severity at baseline, a greater degree of hopelessness was found to significantly increase the risk of non-response to fluoxetine (p = 0.0413), as well as the risk of greater endpoint depression severity (p = 0.0305). Hopelessness appeared to be associated with poorer response to treatment with fluoxetine in MDD, and this was independent of depression severity. Similar studies involving treatment with higher doses of fluoxetine and for greater duration as well as a placebo comparator arm are needed to further explore the relationship between hopelessness, placebo response and drug response.

  17. Reward Responsiveness Varies by Smoking Status in Women with a History of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Janes, Amy C; Pedrelli, Paola; Whitton, Alexis E; Pechtel, Pia; Douglas, Samuel; Martinson, Max A; Huz, Ilana; Fava, Maurizio; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Evins, A Eden

    2015-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and nicotine dependence are highly comorbid, with studies showing that ~50% of individuals with MDD smoke. The link between these disorders persists even after the clinical symptoms of depression subside, as indicated by high levels of nicotine dependence among individuals with remitted depression (rMDD). Recent evidence indicates that individuals with rMDD show blunted responses to reward as measured by a probabilistic reward task (PRT), which assesses the ability to modify behavior as a function of reward history. Given nicotine's ability to enhance reward responsiveness, individuals with rMDD might smoke to address this persistent reward deficit. However, it is unclear whether smokers with rMDD show enhanced reward responsiveness relative to rMDD individuals who do not smoke. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated reward responsiveness on the PRT in four groups (N=198): individuals with and without rMDD who were or were not nicotine dependent. As hypothesized, rMDD nonsmokers had lower reward responsiveness relative to both control nonsmokers and rMDD smokers; conversely, smokers with rMDD showed behavioral patterns comparable to those without a history of depression. Given nicotine's ability to enhance reward sensitivity, it is possible that nicotine normalizes the otherwise blunted reward responsiveness in individuals with rMDD. Therapies aimed at enhancing this reward-based deficit may be beneficial in the treatment of both nicotine dependence and MDD.

  18. Gene expression biomarkers of response to citalopram treatment in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mamdani, F; Berlim, M T; Beaulieu, M-M; Labbe, A; Merette, C; Turecki, G

    2011-01-01

    There is significant variability in antidepressant treatment outcome, with ∼30–40% of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) not presenting with adequate response even following several trials. To identify potential biomarkers of response, we investigated peripheral gene expression patterns of response to antidepressant treatment in MDD. We did this using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2 microarrays in blood samples, from untreated individuals with MDD (N=63) ascertained at a community outpatient clinic, pre and post 8-week treatment with citalopram, and used a regression model to assess the impact of gene expression differences on antidepressant response. We carried out technical validation of significant probesets by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and conducted central nervous system follow-up of the most significant result in post-mortem brain samples from 15 subjects who died during a current MDD episode and 11 sudden-death controls. A total of 32 probesets were differentially expressed according to response to citalopram treatment following false discovery rate correction. Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) was the most significant differentially expressed gene and its expression was upregulated by citalopram treatment in individuals who responded to treatment. We found these results to be concordant with our observation of decreased expression of IRF7 in the prefrontal cortex of MDDs with negative toxicological evidence for antidepressant treatment at the time of death. These findings point to IRF7 as a gene of interest in studies investigating genomic factors associated with antidepressant response. PMID:22832429

  19. Reward Responsiveness Varies by Smoking Status in Women with a History of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Amy C; Pedrelli, Paola; Whitton, Alexis E; Pechtel, Pia; Douglas, Samuel; Martinson, Max A; Huz, Ilana; Fava, Maurizio; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Evins, A Eden

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and nicotine dependence are highly comorbid, with studies showing that ~50% of individuals with MDD smoke. The link between these disorders persists even after the clinical symptoms of depression subside, as indicated by high levels of nicotine dependence among individuals with remitted depression (rMDD). Recent evidence indicates that individuals with rMDD show blunted responses to reward as measured by a probabilistic reward task (PRT), which assesses the ability to modify behavior as a function of reward history. Given nicotine's ability to enhance reward responsiveness, individuals with rMDD might smoke to address this persistent reward deficit. However, it is unclear whether smokers with rMDD show enhanced reward responsiveness relative to rMDD individuals who do not smoke. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated reward responsiveness on the PRT in four groups (N=198): individuals with and without rMDD who were or were not nicotine dependent. As hypothesized, rMDD nonsmokers had lower reward responsiveness relative to both control nonsmokers and rMDD smokers; conversely, smokers with rMDD showed behavioral patterns comparable to those without a history of depression. Given nicotine's ability to enhance reward sensitivity, it is possible that nicotine normalizes the otherwise blunted reward responsiveness in individuals with rMDD. Therapies aimed at enhancing this reward-based deficit may be beneficial in the treatment of both nicotine dependence and MDD. PMID:25662839

  20. First molecular detection of Leishmania major within naturally infected Phlebotomus salehi from a zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis focus in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, K; Fakoorziba, M R; Jalali, M; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D

    2012-03-01

    Human cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major notifiable public health problem in many parts of Iran. It is often caused by the zooflagellate parasite Leishmania major which is mainly transmitted by the bites of female phlebotomine sandflies belonging to the genus Phlebotomus (Diptera: Psychodidae). The annual incidence of CL in Fars province, southern Iran, was about 108-144 in 2007. The leishmanial infections of wild sandflies that may act as vectors were thus investigated at an endemic focus in this province. In all 330 female Phlebotomus sandflies were screened for the detection of Leishmania-specific kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. A two stage nested PCR protocol was used to establish the identity of Leishmania major species in naturally infected sandflies. The L. major kDNA was detected in 18 (5.5%) individual sandflies which belonged to four different Phlebotomus species (Phlebotomus papatasi, Phlebotomus salehi, Phlebotomus sergenti and P. major group). For the first time, one naturally infected P. salehi specimen contained the kDNA of the protozoan parasite, L. major, with a main band of 560 base pairs identified using the nested PCR method. It seems most likely therefore that P. salehi is potentially a rare sylvatic vector of L. major parasites in parts of this province. This is the first combined morphological and molecular studies of P. salehi in Iran.

  1. Sympathetic skin response following painful electrical stimulation is increased in major depression.

    PubMed

    Boettger, Michael Karl; Greiner, Wolf; Rachow, Tobias; Brühl, Christiane; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder have repeatedly been described to exhibit increased thresholds upon experimentally applied pain stimuli to the skin as compared to respective controls. Since the sensory-discriminative component of stimulus perception, e.g. for warmth, cold and vibration, appears to be unaltered in depression, higher central nervous centres have been assumed to cause this phenomenon. To date, hardly any attention has been paid to the efferent components of the noxious reflex loop. Here, we aimed to assess the autonomic reaction upon a painful stimulus and to examine whether this is likewise reduced in major depression. For this purpose, sympathetic skin response was obtained from 22 patients with major depression and 20 matched controls. To induce sympathetic skin responses, we applied either noxious electrical stimuli (12 and 18 mA) or innocuous acoustic stimuli (85 dB SPL). Pain intensity was rated using a numeric analogue scale. In contrast to our a priori hypothesis patients showed shorter latencies and higher amplitudes of skin potentials upon noxious stimulation, i.e. a stronger sympathetic response. Intriguingly, the noxious stimuli were still perceived less painful in the patient group. Pain perception weakly correlated with disease severity. From these data, we conclude that despite the diminished pain perception, the autonomic reflex loop following noxious stimulation is not affected in patients with major depressive disorder, and that the increase in sympathetic outflow is not directly related to the perceived pain as in controls, but might rather be attributed to the autonomic dysfunction known for the disease.

  2. The Hasford Score May Predict Molecular Response in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients: A Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jaźwiec, Bożena; Haus, Olga; Urbaniak-Kujda, Donata; Kapelko-Słowik, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Tomasz; Lonc, Tomasz; Sawicki, Mateusz; Mędraś, Ewa; Kaczmar-Dybko, Agnieszka; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    The Sokal, Hasford, and EUTOS scores were established in different treatment eras of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). None of them was reported to predict molecular response. In this single center study we tried to reevaluate the usefulness of three main scores in TKI era. The study group included 88 CML patients in first chronic phase treated initially with standard imatinib dose. All of them achieved major molecular response (MMR) in time points defined by European LeukemiaNet (ELN). 42 patients lost MMR in a median time of 47 months and we found a significant difference in MMR maintenance between intermediate-risk (IR) and low-risk (LR) patients assessed by Hasford score. All 42 patients were switched to second-generation TKI (2G-TKI) treatment. At 18 months of 2G-TKI therapy we have still found a significant difference in BCR-ABL transcript levels and MMR rate between IR and LR groups. We did not find any of the described differences discriminating patients by Sokal or EUTOS score. In this retrospective single center analysis we found Hasford score to be useful in predicting molecular response in first chronic phase of CML patients. PMID:27818567

  3. An in vitro model for infection with Leishmania major that mimics the immune response in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Soares, M B; David, J R; Titus, R G

    1997-01-01

    By using a primary in vitro response specific for Leishmania major, normal T cells from resistant CBA/CaH-T6J and susceptible BALB/c mice commit to a Th1 and a Th2 response, respectively. Since commitment occurred, we measured the production of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and nitric oxide in the first 7 days of the response to identify factors that are critical for Th1 and Th2 development. While cells from resistant CBA mice produced more IFN-gamma, IL-10, and nitric oxide, cells from susceptible BALB/c mice produced more IL-1alpha, IL-5, PGE2, and TGF-beta. Although substantial amounts of IL-12 were detected, IL-12 did not associate with either Th1 or Th2 development. We did not anticipate that cells from resistant CBA mice would make more IL-10 in vitro. However, this also occurred in vivo since CBA mice produced substantial amounts of IL-10 following infection with L. major. Moreover, adding anti-IL-10 to primary in vitro responses enhanced production of IFN-gamma and nitric oxide by cells from CBA and BALB/c mice. Therefore, IL-10 cannot be regarded as a cytokine that associates with susceptibility to infection with L. major. Finally, the data presented here suggest that a collection of factors that can be produced by accessory cells influence Th commitment (e.g., IL-1, PGE2, and TGF-beta favor Th2 development). PMID:9199457

  4. Molecular characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA genes and transcripts in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Nepomuceno-Mejía, Tomás; Rojas-Sánchez, Saúl; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Padilla-Mejía, Norma E; Figueroa-Angulo, Elisa; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic 5S rRNA, synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit. Most organisms contain hundreds of 5S rRNA genes organized into tandem arrays. However, the genome of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major contains only 11 copies of the 5S rRNA gene, which are interspersed and associated with other Pol III-transcribed genes. Here we report that, in general, the number and order of the 5S rRNA genes is conserved between different species of Leishmania. While in most organisms 5S rRNA genes are normally associated with the nucleolus, combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and indirect immunofluorescence experiments showed that 5S rRNA genes are mainly located at the nuclear periphery in L. major. Similarly, the tandemly repeated 5S rRNA genes in Trypanosoma cruzi are dispersed throughout the nucleus. In contrast, 5S rRNA transcripts in L. major were localized within the nucleolus, and scattered throughout the cytoplasm, where mature ribosomes are located. Unlike other rRNA species, stable antisense RNA complementary to 5S rRNA is not detected in L. major.

  5. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  6. WRKY Transcription Factors: Molecular Regulation and Stress Responses in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Ujjal J.; Jeena, Gajendra S.; Shukla, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitat have to face multiple stresses simultaneously. Evolutionary adaptation of developmental, physiological, and biochemical parameters give advantage over a single window of stress but not multiple. On the other hand transcription factors like WRKY can regulate diverse responses through a complicated network of genes. So molecular orchestration of WRKYs in plant may provide the most anticipated outcome of simultaneous multiple responses. Activation or repression through W-box and W-box like sequences is regulated at transcriptional, translational, and domain level. Because of the tight regulation involved in specific recognition and binding of WRKYs to downstream promoters, they have become promising candidate for crop improvement. Epigenetic, retrograde and proteasome mediated regulation enable WRKYs to attain the dynamic cellular homeostatic reprograming. Overexpression of several WRKYs face the paradox of having several beneficial affects but with some unwanted traits. These overexpression-associated undesirable phenotypes need to be identified and removed for proper growth, development and yeild. Taken together, we have highlighted the diverse regulation and multiple stress response of WRKYs in plants along with the future prospects in this field of research. PMID:27375634

  7. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  8. Platelet thromboxane A2 secretion in patients with major depression responsive to electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Erica C; Guo, Ying; Lawson, Kathryn C; Manatunga, Amita K; Auyeung, S Freda; McDonald, William M; Rushing, Natasha; Brown, Angelo R; Gilles, Natalie; Emery, Milburn; Bonsall, Robert; Porquez, Jocelyn; Stowe, Zachary; Nemeroff, Charles B; Musselman, Dominique L

    2008-04-01

    To determine a) whether clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with decreased platelet activation in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and b) if any medical/demographic characteristics predict response to ECT or changes in platelet activation. Increased platelet activation may underlie the increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with MDD. Before their first and sixth ECT treatments, study patients (n = 44) completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to assess the severity of depressive symptoms. Activity of the platelet thromboxane (TBX) A(2) pathway was assessed by measuring the morning spot urinary concentrations of 11-dehydroxy-thromboxane B(2) (11-D-TBX B(2)), a major metabolite of platelet-derived TBX A(2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that improvement on the BDI was significantly more likely in patients without a history of hypertension (p = .02) and in patients who were prescribed a greater number of "platelet-altering" medications (p = .03). During a course of ECT, a decrease in urinary 11-D-TBX B(2) was significantly more likely to occur in ECT nonresponders (p = .01) and younger patients (p = .02). Clinical response to ECT coadministered may not be associated with decreases in platelet-derived TBX. Future studies will confirm which somatic "antidepression" treatments offer optimal thrombovascular benefits for depressed patients with multiple risk factors for, or clinically evident, cerebral disease or CAD.

  9. Detection, Characterization, and Molecular Typing of Human Mycoplasma spp. from Major Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, Mirihan A.; Yassin, Aymen S.; Essam, Tamer M.; Hamouda, Hayam M.; Amin, Magdy A.

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture. PMID:25506614

  10. Detection, characterization, and molecular typing of human Mycoplasma spp. from major hospitals in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Metwally, Mirihan A; Yassin, Aymen S; Essam, Tamer M; Hamouda, Hayam M; Amin, Magdy A

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture.

  11. Major versus minor groove DNA binding of a bisarginylporphyrin hybrid molecule: A molecular mechanics investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresh, Nohad; Perrée-fauvet, Martine

    1999-03-01

    On the basis of theoretical computations, we have recently synthesised [Perrée-Fauvet, M. and Gresh, N., Tetrahedron Lett., 36 (1995) 4227] a bisarginyl conjugate of a tricationic porphyrin (BAP), designed to target, in the major groove of DNA, the d(GGC GCC)2 sequence which is part of the primary binding site of the HIV-1 retrovirus site [Wain-Hobson, S. et al., Cell, 40 (1985) 9]. In the theoretical model, the chromophore intercalates at the central d(CpG)2 step and each of the arginyl arms targets O6/N7belonging to guanine bases flanking the intercalation site. Recent IR and UV-visible spectroscopic studies have confirmed the essential features of these theoretical predictions [Mohammadi, S. et al., Biochemistry, 37 (1998) 6165]. In the present study, we compare the energies of competing intercalation modes of BAP to several double-stranded oligonucleotides, according to whether one, two or three N- methylpyridinium rings project into the major groove. Correspondingly, three minor groove binding modes were considered, the arginyl arms now targeting N3, O2 sites belonging to the purine or pyrimidine bases flanking the intercalation site. This investigation has shown that: (i) in both the major and minor grooves, the best-bound complexes have the three N-methylpyridinium rings in the groove opposite to that of the phenyl group bearing the arginyl arms; (ii) major groove binding is preferred over minor groove binding by a significant energy (29 kcal/mol); and (iii) the best-bound sequence in the major groove is d(GGC GCC)2 with two successive guanines upstream from the intercalation. On the other hand, due to the flexibility of the arginyl arms, other GC-rich sequences have close binding energies, two of them being less stable than it by less than 8 kcal/mol. These results serve as the basis for the design of derivatives of BAP with enhanced sequence selectivities in the major groove.

  12. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    PubMed

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Evolution of the Major Hepatitis C Genotypes Correlates with Clinical Response to Interferon Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) require significantly different durations of therapy and achieve substantially different sustained virologic response rates to interferon-based therapies, depending on the HCV genotype with which they are infected. There currently exists no systematic framework that explains these genotype-specific response rates. Since humans are the only known natural hosts for HCV–a virus that is at least hundreds of years old–one possibility is that over the time frame of this relationship, HCV accumulated adaptive mutations that confer increasing resistance to the human immune system. Given that interferon therapy functions by triggering an immune response, we hypothesized that clinical response rates are a reflection of viral evolutionary adaptations to the immune system. Methods and Findings We have performed the first phylogenetic analysis to include all available full-length HCV genomic sequences (n = 345). This resulted in a new cladogram of HCV. This tree establishes for the first time the relative evolutionary ages of the major HCV genotypes. The outcome data from prospective clinical trials that studied interferon and ribavirin therapy was then mapped onto this new tree. This mapping revealed a correlation between genotype-specific responses to therapy and respective genotype age. This correlation allows us to predict that genotypes 5 and 6, for which there currently are no published prospective trials, will likely have intermediate response rates, similar to genotype 3. Ancestral protein sequence reconstruction was also performed, which identified the HCV proteins E2 and NS5A as potential determinants of genotype-specific clinical outcome. Biochemical studies have independently identified these same two proteins as having genotype-specific abilities to inhibit the innate immune factor double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Conclusion An evolutionary analysis of all available HCV

  14. Molecular mechanism of the differential photoelectric response of bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.P.; Yoo, S.K.; Song, L.; El-Sayed, M.A.

    1997-04-24

    In order to determine the molecular origin of the differential photocurrent from bacteriorhodopsin (bR), the photoelectric response of bR film deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass electrode under CW excitation is compared with that under pulsed laser excitation at different pH and with opposite membrane orientation with respect to the ITO electrode surface. The characteristics (sign and magnitude) of the dominant component of the differential photocurrent (appearing on the millisecond time scale) are found to correlate with the process of proton release into, or uptake from, the aqueous solution during the photocycle under different experimental conditions. This suggests that the differential current results mainly from the change in the H{sup +} concentration at the bR-ITO electrode interface. 27 refs., 2 figs.

  15. A molecular simulation study on salt response of polyelectrolyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antila, Hanne; van Tassel, Paul; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-03-01

    In aqueous solutions, oppositely charged polymers, polyelectrolytes (PEs) form complexes which are known to be sensitive to added salt with responses ranging from shrinking to full destabilization of the complex. As a specific application of PE complexes, the complex formation of DNA with polycations has been demonstrated to be an effective means of transfecting genetic material in gene therapy. We use all-atom molecular dynamics and coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effect of excess salt on DNA-polycation complex stability. The detailed all-atom simulations demonstrate the mechanism of polycation and ion species specific salt-driven dissociation involving charge reversal. More generally, other possible mechanisms of salt driven dissociation exist as well. The coarse grained approach, which describes the PE complex as oppositely charged, rigid rods and ions as hard spheres, provides a more complete understanding of PE interactions in salt, and suggests possible mechanisms leading to repulsion between the oppositely charged polyelectrolytes.

  16. Molecular responses of radiation-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Xiao, Lei; Ainiwaer, Aimudula; Wang, Yunlian; Wu, Ge; Mao, Rui; Yang, Ying; Bao, Yongxing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular responses involved in radiation‑induced liver damage (RILD). Sprague‑Dawley rats (6‑weeks‑old) were irradiated once at a dose of 20 Gy to the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. The rats were then sacrificed 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after irradiation and rats, which were not exposed to irradiation were used as controls. Weight measurements and blood was obtained from the rats and liver tissues were collected for histological and apoptotic analysis. Immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of mRNAs and proteins, respectively. The serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were increased significantly in the RILD rats. Histological investigation revealed the proliferation of collagen and the formation of fibrotic tissue 12 weeks after irradiation. Apoptotic cells were observed predominantly 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation. The immunohistochemistry, RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis all revealed the same pattern of changes in the expression levels of the molecules assessed. The expression levels of transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB65, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) and Smad7 and connective tissue growth factor were increased during the recovery period following irradiation up to 12 weeks. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α, Smad7 and Smad4 were only increased during the early phase (first 4 weeks) of recovery following irradiation. In the RILD rat model, the molecular responses indicated that the TGF‑β1/Smads and NF‑κB65 signaling pathways are involved in the mechanism of RILD recovery.

  17. Early Symptom Improvement as a Predictor of Response to Extended Release Quetiapine in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Roger S.; Gorwood, Philip; Thase, Michael E.; Liss, Charlie; Desai, Dhaval; Chen, Ji; Bauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this post-hoc analysis was to determine whether early symptom improvement with extended release quetiapine (quetiapine XR) may predict treatment outcome in patients with major depressive disorder. Data were from 6, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of quetiapine XR (2 fixed-dose and 2 flexible-dose monotherapy and 2 adjunct studies) in adult patients with major depressive disorder. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Score (CGI-S) were assessed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, and 6. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) was assessed at baseline and week 6. The MADRS improvement at week 2 (15%, 20%, 25%, 30%) was used to predict response and remission, based on MADRS (50% improvement; total score ≤ 12) or HAM-D (50% improvement; total score ≤ 7). The CGI-S improvement (1 point) at week 2 was used to predict final outcome (CGI-S score ≤ 2). The predictive value for early improvement with quetiapine XR was found to be “very strong” (Yule’s Q coefficient, a combined measure of sensitivity and specificity) using 30% MADRS improvement as the threshold. This was relatively comparable for response and remission and for fixed-dose, flexible-dose, and adjunct studies. This was also observed for placebo. Exceptions were: adjunct studies (where predictivity was lower for ongoing antidepressant/placebo), and for remission (predictivity for remission appeared lower than for response with placebo). In conclusion, outcome at week 6 with quetiapine XR for a major depressive episode could be predicted by 30% improvement after 2 weeks, a finding that could give doctors confidence to continue treatment and may facilitate adherence in patients. PMID:26474010

  18. U.S. Geological Survey disaster response and the International Charter for space and major disasters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stryker, Timothy S.; Jones, Brenda K.

    2010-01-01

    In 1999, an international consortium of space agencies conceived and approved a mechanism to provide satellite information in support of worldwide disaster relief. This group came to be known as the 'International Charter?Space and Major Disasters' and has become an important resource for the use of satellite data to evaluate and provide support for response to natural and man-made disasters. From the Charter's formative days in 1999, its membership has grown to 10 space organizations managing more than 20 earth-observing satellites.

  19. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain

    PubMed Central

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice. PMID:28422959

  20. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain.

    PubMed

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; López-Blanch, Laura; Burguera, Demian; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Irimia, Manuel; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice.

  1. Molecular diversity at the major cluster of disease resistance genes in cultivated and wild Lactuca spp.

    PubMed

    Sicard, D; Woo, S S; Arroyo-Garcia, R; Ochoa, O; Nguyen, D; Korol, A; Nevo, E; Michelmore, R

    1999-08-01

    Diversity was analyzed in wild and cultivated Lactuca germplasm using molecular markers derived from resistance genes of the NBS-LRR type. Three molecular markers, one microsatellite marker and two SCAR markers that amplified LRR-encoding regions, were developed from sequences of resistance gene homologs at the main resistance gene cluster in lettuce. Variation for these markers were assessed in germplasm including accessions of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. and three wild Lactuca spp., L. serriola L., L. saligna and L. virosa L. Diversity was also studied within and between natural populations of L. serriola from Israel and California; the former is close to the center of diversity for Lactuca spp. while the latter is an area of more recent colonization. Large numbers of haplotypes were detected indicating the presence of numerous resistance genes in wild species. The diversity in haplotypes provided evidence for gene duplication and unequal crossing-over during the evolution of this cluster of resistance genes. However, there was no evidence for duplications and deletions within the LRR-encoding regions studied. The three markers were highly correlated with resistance phenotypes in L. sativa. They were able to discriminate between accessions that had previously been shown to be resistant to all known isolates of Bremia lactucae. Therefore, these markers will be highly informative for the establishment of core collections and marker-aided selection. A hierarchical analysis of the population structure of L. serriola showed that countries, as well as locations, were significantly differentiated. These differences may reflect local founder effects and/or divergent selection.

  2. Personality predicts spatial responses to food manipulations in free-ranging great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Thijs; Matthysen, Erik

    2010-04-23

    Personality differences measured under standardized lab-conditions are assumed to reflect differences in the way individuals cope with spatio-temporal changes in their natural environment, but few studies have examined how these are expressed in the field. We tested whether exploratory behaviour in a novel environment predicts how free-living individual great tits (Parus major) react to a change in food supply. We temporarily removed food at feeding stations during two summers and recorded the behavioural response of juvenile birds to these food manipulations using radio-tracking. When challenged by an abrupt change in food supply, fast-exploring individuals more rapidly switched to different foraging areas at longer distances from the feeder. This study is the first to show that personality traits predict the spatial response to experimentally induced changes in their natural environment.

  3. Effects of Psoraleae fructus and its major component psoralen on Th2 response in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hualiang; Wang, Limin; Xu, Changqing; Li, Bei; Luo, Qingli; Wu, Jinfeng; Lv, Yubao; Wang, Genfa; Dong, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of Psoraleae fructus (PF) on Th2 responses in a rat model of asthma in vivo and psoralen, a major constituent in PF, on Th2 responses in vitro. A rat model of asthma was established by sensitization and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Airway hyperresponsiveness was detected by direct airway resistance analysis. Lung tissues were examined for cell infiltration and mucus hypersecretion. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assessed for cytokine levels. In vitro study, Th2 cytokine production was evaluated in the culture supernatant of D10.G4.1 (D10 cells) followed by the determination of cell viability, meanwhile Th2 transcription factor GATA-3 expression in D10 cells was also determined. The oral administration of PF significantly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to aerosolized methacholine and decreased IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the BALF. Histological studies showed that PF markedly inhibited inflammatory infiltration and mucus secretion in the lung tissues. In vitro study, psoralen significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 by ConA-stimulated D10 cells without inhibitory effect on cell viability. Furthermore, GATA-3 protein expression was also markedly reduced by psoralen. This study demonstrated that PF exhibited inhibitory effects on hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a rat model of asthma, which was associated with the suppression of Th2 response. Psoralen, a major constituent of PF, has immunomodulatory properties on Th2 response in vitro, which indicated that psoralen might be a critical component of PF for its therapeutic effects.

  4. Polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes are associated with susceptibility to major depression and antidepressant response

    PubMed Central

    Dong, C; Maestre-Mesa, J; Licinio, J

    2009-01-01

    There are clinical parallels between the nature and course of depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) and those of inflammatory disorders. However, the characterization of a possible immune system dysregulation in MDD has been challenging. Emerging data support the role of T-cell dysfunction. Here we report the association of MDD and antidepressant response to genes important in the modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune functions in Mexican Americans with major depression. Specifically, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two genes critical for T-cell function are associated with susceptibility to MDD: PSMB4 (proteasome β4 subunit), important for antigen processing, and TBX21 (T bet), critical for differentiation. Our analyses revealed a significant combined allele dose-effect: individuals who had one, two and three risk alleles were 2.3, 3.2 and 9.8 times more likely to have the diagnosis of MDD, respectively. We found associations of several SNPs and antidepressant response; those genes support the role of T cell (CD3E, PRKCH, PSMD9 and STAT3) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (UCN3) functions in treatment response. We also describe in MDD increased levels of CXCL10/IP-10, which decreased in response to antidepressants. This further suggests predominance of type 1 T-cell activity in MDD. T-cell function variations that we describe here may account for 47.8% of the attributable risk in Mexican Americans with moderate MDD. Immune function genes are highly variable; therefore, different genes might be implicated in distinct population groups. PMID:18504423

  5. Molecular characterization of human skin response to diphencyprone at peak and resolution phases: therapeutic insights.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Nicholas; Suárez-Fariñas, Mayte; Fuentes-Duculan, Judilyn; Gilleaudeau, Patricia; Sullivan-Whalen, Mary; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Cueto, Inna; Mitsui, Hiroshi; Krueger, James G

    2014-10-01

    Diphencyprone (DPCP) is a hapten that induces delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. It is used as an immune-modulating therapeutic, but its molecular effects in human skin are largely unknown. We studied cellular and molecular characteristics of a recall response to 0.04% DPCP at 3-day (peak) and 14-day (resolution) time points using immune markers, reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), and gene array approaches. A peak response showed modulation of ∼7,500 mRNA transcripts, with high expression of cytokines that define all major effector T-cell subsets. Concomitant increases in T-cell and CD11c+ dendritic cell (DC) infiltrates were measured. The resolution reaction was characterized by unexpectedly high levels of T cells and mature (DC-lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein positive (DC-LAMP+)) DCs, but with marked decreases in expression of IL-2, IFNγ, and other T cell-derived cytokines. However, negative immune regulators such as IDO1 that were high in peak reactions, continued to have high expression in resolution reactions. In the resolution reaction, ∼1,500 mRNA transcripts were significantly different from placebo-treated skin. These data suggest that the response to DPCP evolves from an inflammatory/effector peak at day 3 to a more regulated immune response after 14 days. This model system could be useful for further dissection of mechanisms of immune activation or negative immune regulation in human skin.

  6. Perception, signaling and molecular basis of oviposition-mediated plant responses.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Eggs deposited on plants by herbivorous insects represent a threat as they develop into feeding larvae. Plants are not a passive substrate and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to detect eggs and induce direct and indirect defenses. Recent years have seen exciting development in molecular aspects of egg-induced responses. Some egg-associated elicitors have been identified, and signaling pathways and egg-induced expression profiles are being uncovered. Depending on the mode of oviposition, both the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid pathways seem to play a role in the induction of defense responses. An emerging concept is that eggs are recognized like microbial pathogens and innate immune responses are triggered. In addition, some eggs contain elicitors that induce highly specific defenses in plants. Examples of egg-induced suppression of defense or, on the contrary, egg-induced resistance highlight the complexity of plant-egg interactions in an on-going arms race between herbivores and their hosts. A major challenge is to identify plant receptors for egg-associated elicitors, to assess the specificity of these elicitors and to identify molecular components that underlie various responses to oviposition.

  7. Response to hydroxyurea in beta thalassemia major and intermedia: experience in western India.

    PubMed

    Italia, Khushnooma Y; Jijina, Farah J; Merchant, Rashid; Panjwani, Sangeeta; Nadkarni, Anita H; Sawant, Pratibha M; Nair, Sona B; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Colah, Roshan B

    2009-09-01

    The clinical and hematological response to hydroxyurea was evaluated in beta thalassemia patients in western India with variable clinical severity and correlated with genetic factors. Seventy-nine patients-[38-beta thalassemia intermedia-(group I), 41-beta thalassemia major-(group II)] on hydroxyurea therapy were followed-up for 20-24months. Among the frequently transfused patients in group I, 58% became transfusion independent and 16% showed a 50% reduction in transfusions after therapy which correlated with a higher mean fold increase in HbF and gamma mRNA expression levels. Forty-one percent of patients in group I had associated alpha-thalassemia and 72.7% were XmnI (+/+). beta thalassemia chromosomes among the responders of group I (41%) were linked to haplotype (- + + - + + - - +) as against haplotype (+ - - - - - - - +) being more common among the non-responders. Response was not linked to the beta thalassemia mutations. Thirty-two percent of group II patients showed a 50% reduction in their transfusion requirements after therapy which also correlated with a higher mean fold increase in HbF and gamma mRNA expression levels. A significant decrease in serum ferritin was seen in both groups. 19% of patients could not tolerate the drug. In group I, clinical response to hydroxyurea was better in patients with alpha-thalassemia, XmnI (+/+) and a higher mean fold increase in gamma mRNA expression. In group II, only one-third of patients showed a partial response.

  8. Inorganic nitrogen form: a major player in wheat and Arabidopsis responses to elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Asensio, José S; Bloom, Arnold J

    2017-05-01

    Critical for predicting the future of primary productivity is a better understanding of plant responses to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. This review considers recent results on the role of the inorganic nitrogen (N) forms nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) in determining the responses of wheat and Arabidopsis to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Here, we identify four key issues: (i) the possibility that different plant species respond similarly to elevated CO2 if one accounts for the N form that they are using; (ii) the major influence that plant-soil N interactions have on plant responses to elevated CO2; (iii) the observation that elevated CO2 may favor the uptake of one N form over others; and (iv) the finding that plants receiving NH4+ nutrition respond more positively to elevated CO2 than those receiving NO3- nutrition because elevated CO2 inhibits the assimilation of NO3- in shoots of C3 plants. We conclude that the form and amount of N available to plants from the rhizosphere and plant preferences for the different N forms are essential for predicting plant responses to elevated CO2. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Identifying Predictors, Moderators, and Mediators of Antidepressant Response in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroimaging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Mary L.; Chase, Henry W.; Sheline, Yvette I.; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R.C.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. Method In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. Results The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Conclusions Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:25640931

  10. Leukocyte telomere length predicts SSRI response in major depressive disorder: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Hough, Christina M; Bersani, F Saverio; Mellon, Synthia H; Epel, Elissa S; Reus, Victor I; Lindqvist, Daniel; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Rosser, Rebecca; Burke, Heather; Coetzee, John; Nelson, J Craig; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Wolkowitz, Owen M

    2016-07-01

    Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may be associated with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Short LTL has previously been associated with poor response to psychiatric medications in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but no studies have prospectively assessed the relationship of LTL to SSRI response in MDD. We assessed pre-treatment LTL, depression severity (using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS]), and self-reported positive and negative affect in 27 healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD. Subjects then underwent open-label treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant for eight weeks, after which clinical ratings were repeated. Analyses were corrected for age, sex and BMI. "Non-responders" to treatment (HDRS improvement <50%) had significantly shorter pre-treatment LTL, compared to "Responders" (p=0.037). Further, shorter pre-treatment LTL was associated with less improvement in negative affect (p<0.010) but not with changes in positive affect (p=0.356). This preliminary study is the first to assess the relationship between LTL and SSRI response in MDD and among the first to prospectively assess its relationship to treatment outcome in any psychiatric illness. Our data suggest that short LTL may serve as a vulnerability index of poorer response to SSRI treatment, but this needs examination in larger samples.

  11. The Antidepressant Treatment Response Index as a Predictor of Reboxetine Treatment Outcome in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Caudill, Marissa M; Hunter, Aimee M; Cook, Ian A; Leuchter, Andrew F

    2015-10-01

    Biomarkers to predict clinical outcomes early during the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) could reduce suffering and improve outcomes. A quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) biomarker, the Antidepressant Treatment Response (ATR) index, has been associated with outcomes of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in patients with MDD. Here, we report the results of a post hoc analysis initiated to evaluate whether the ATR index may also be associated with reboxetine treatment outcome, given that its putative mechanism of action is via norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (NRI). Twenty-five adults with MDD underwent qEEG studies during open-label treatment with reboxetine at doses of 8 to 10 mg daily for 8 weeks. The ATR index calculated after 1 week of reboxetine treatment was significantly associated with overall Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) improvement at week 8 (r=0.605, P=.001), even after controlling for baseline depression severity (P=.002). The ATR index predicted response (≥50% reduction in HAM-D) with 70.6% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity, and remission (final HAM-D≤7) with 87.5% sensitivity and 64.7% specificity. These results suggest that the ATR index may be a useful biomarker of clinical response during NRI treatment of adults with MDD. Future studies are warranted to investigate further the potential utility of the ATR index as a predictor of noradrenergic antidepressant treatment response.

  12. HPA-Axis Hormone Modulation of Stress Response Circuitry Activity in Women with Remitted Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Holsen, Laura M.; Lancaster, Katie; Klibanski, Anne; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Cherkerzian, Sara; Buka, Stephen; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of clinical and basic research indicate significant links between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hormone dynamics and major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent neuroimaging studies of MDD highlight abnormalities in stress response circuitry regions which play a role in the regulation of the HPA-axes. However, there is a dearth of research examining these systems in parallel, especially as related to potential trait characteristics. The current study addresses this gap by investigating neural responses to a mild visual stress challenge with real-time assessment of adrenal hormones in women with MDD in remission and controls. 15 women with recurrent MDD in remission (rMDD) and 15 healthy control women were scanned on a 3T Siemens MR scanner while viewing neutral and negative (stress-evoking) stimuli. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after scanning for measurement of HPA-axis hormone levels. Compared to controls, rMDD women demonstrated higher anxiety ratings, increased cortisol levels, and hyperactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, p<0.05, FWE-corrected in response to the stress challenge. Among rMDD women, amygdala activation was negatively related to cortisol changes and positively associated with duration of remission. Findings presented here provide evidence for differential effects of altered HPA-axis hormone dynamics on hyperactivity in stress response circuitry regions elicited by a well-validated stress paradigm in women with recurrent MDD in remission. PMID:23891965

  13. The alignment between phenotypic plasticity, the major axis of genetic variation and the response to selection

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Martin I.; Yarlett, Kylie; Reger, Julia; Carter, Mauricio J.; Beckerman, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce more than one phenotype in order to match the environment. Recent theory proposes that the major axis of genetic variation in a phenotypically plastic population can align with the direction of selection. Therefore, theory predicts that plasticity directly aids adaptation by increasing genetic variation in the direction favoured by selection and reflected in plasticity. We evaluated this theory in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, facing predation risk from two contrasting size-selective predators. We estimated plasticity in several life-history traits, the G matrix of these traits, the selection gradients on reproduction and survival, and the predicted responses to selection. Using these data, we tested whether the genetic lines of least resistance and the predicted response to selection aligned with plasticity. We found predator environment-specific G matrices, but shared genetic architecture across environments resulted in more constraint in the G matrix than in the plasticity of the traits, sometimes preventing alignment of the two. However, as the importance of survival selection increased, the difference between environments in their predicted response to selection increased and resulted in closer alignment between the plasticity and the predicted selection response. Therefore, plasticity may indeed aid adaptation to new environments. PMID:26423845

  14. The alignment between phenotypic plasticity, the major axis of genetic variation and the response to selection.

    PubMed

    Lind, Martin I; Yarlett, Kylie; Reger, Julia; Carter, Mauricio J; Beckerman, Andrew P

    2015-10-07

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce more than one phenotype in order to match the environment. Recent theory proposes that the major axis of genetic variation in a phenotypically plastic population can align with the direction of selection. Therefore, theory predicts that plasticity directly aids adaptation by increasing genetic variation in the direction favoured by selection and reflected in plasticity. We evaluated this theory in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia pulex, facing predation risk from two contrasting size-selective predators. We estimated plasticity in several life-history traits, the G matrix of these traits, the selection gradients on reproduction and survival, and the predicted responses to selection. Using these data, we tested whether the genetic lines of least resistance and the predicted response to selection aligned with plasticity. We found predator environment-specific G matrices, but shared genetic architecture across environments resulted in more constraint in the G matrix than in the plasticity of the traits, sometimes preventing alignment of the two. However, as the importance of survival selection increased, the difference between environments in their predicted response to selection increased and resulted in closer alignment between the plasticity and the predicted selection response. Therefore, plasticity may indeed aid adaptation to new environments.

  15. HLA-DR and HLA-DP genotypes and immunoglobulin E responses to common major allergens.

    PubMed

    Young, R P; Dekker, J W; Wordsworth, B P; Schou, C; Pile, K D; Matthiesen, F; Rosenberg, W M; Bell, J I; Hopkin, J M; Cookson, W O

    1994-05-01

    In order to test for human histocompatibility leucocyte antigens (HLA) class II restriction of IgE responses, 431 subjects from 83 families were genotyped at the HLA-DR and HLA-DP loci and serotyped for IgE responses to six major allergens from common aero-allergen sources. A possible excess of HLA-DR1 was found in subjects who were responsive to Fel d I compared with those who were not (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2, P = 0.002), and a possible excess of HLA-DR4 was found in subjects responsive to Alt a I (OR = 1.9, P = 0.006). Increased sharing of HLA-DR/DP haplotypes was seen in sibling pairs responding to both allergens. Der p I, Der p II, Phl p V and Can f I were not associated with any definite excess of HLA-DR alleles. No significant correlations were seen with HLA-DP genotype and reactivity to any of the allergens. The results suggest class II HLA restriction is insufficient to account for individual differences in reactivity to common allergens.

  16. HPA-axis hormone modulation of stress response circuitry activity in women with remitted major depression.

    PubMed

    Holsen, L M; Lancaster, K; Klibanski, A; Whitfield-Gabrieli, S; Cherkerzian, S; Buka, S; Goldstein, J M

    2013-10-10

    Decades of clinical and basic research indicate significant links between altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis hormone dynamics and major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent neuroimaging studies of MDD highlight abnormalities in stress response circuitry regions which play a role in the regulation of the HPA-axes. However, there is a dearth of research examining these systems in parallel, especially as related to potential trait characteristics. The current study addresses this gap by investigating neural responses to a mild visual stress challenge with real-time assessment of adrenal hormones in women with MDD in remission and controls. Fifteen women with recurrent MDD in remission (rMDD) and 15 healthy control women were scanned on a 3T Siemens MR scanner while viewing neutral and negative (stress-evoking) stimuli. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and after scanning for the measurement of HPA-axis hormone levels. Compared to controls, rMDD women demonstrated higher anxiety ratings, increased cortisol levels, and hyperactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, p<0.05, family-wise error (FWE)-corrected in response to the stress challenge. Among rMDD women, amygdala activation was negatively related to cortisol changes and positively associated with the duration of remission. Findings presented here provide evidence for differential effects of altered HPA-axis hormone dynamics on hyperactivity in stress response circuitry regions elicited by a well-validated stress paradigm in women with recurrent MDD in remission.

  17. Identifying predictors, moderators, and mediators of antidepressant response in major depressive disorder: neuroimaging approaches.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Mary L; Chase, Henry W; Sheline, Yvette I; Etkin, Amit; Almeida, Jorge R C; Deckersbach, Thilo; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in neuroscience and treatment development, no widely accepted biomarkers are available to inform diagnostics or identify preferred treatments for individuals with major depressive disorder. In this critical review, the authors examine the extent to which multimodal neuroimaging techniques can identify biomarkers reflecting key pathophysiologic processes in depression and whether such biomarkers may act as predictors, moderators, and mediators of treatment response that might facilitate development of personalized treatments based on a better understanding of these processes. The authors first highlight the most consistent findings from neuroimaging studies using different techniques in depression, including structural and functional abnormalities in two parallel neural circuits: serotonergically modulated implicit emotion regulation circuitry, centered on the amygdala and different regions in the medial prefrontal cortex; and dopaminergically modulated reward neural circuitry, centered on the ventral striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. They then describe key findings from the relatively small number of studies indicating that specific measures of regional function and, to a lesser extent, structure in these neural circuits predict treatment response in depression. Limitations of existing studies include small sample sizes, use of only one neuroimaging modality, and a focus on identifying predictors rather than moderators and mediators of differential treatment response. By addressing these limitations and, most importantly, capitalizing on the benefits of multimodal neuroimaging, future studies can yield moderators and mediators of treatment response in depression to facilitate significant improvements in shorter- and longer-term clinical and functional outcomes.

  18. Growth condition dependency is the major cause of non-responsiveness upon genetic perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Saman; Holstege, Frank C. P.

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the role and interplay between individual proteins in biological processes is often performed by assessing the functional consequences of gene inactivation or removal. Depending on the sensitivity of the assay used for determining phenotype, between 66% (growth) and 53% (gene expression) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains show no defect when analyzed under a single condition. Although it is well known that this non-responsive behavior is caused by different types of redundancy mechanisms or by growth condition/cell type dependency, it is not known what the relative contribution of these different causes is. Understanding the underlying causes of and their relative contribution to non-responsive behavior upon genetic perturbation is extremely important for designing efficient strategies aimed at elucidating gene function and unraveling complex cellular systems. Here, we provide a systematic classification of the underlying causes of and their relative contribution to non-responsive behavior upon gene deletion. The overall contribution of redundancy to non-responsive behavior is estimated at 29%, of which approximately 17% is due to homology-based redundancy and 12% is due to pathway-based redundancy. The major determinant of non-responsiveness is condition dependency (71%). For approximately 14% of protein complexes, just-in-time assembly can be put forward as a potential mechanistic explanation for how proteins can be regulated in a condition dependent manner. Taken together, the results underscore the large contribution of growth condition requirement to non-responsive behavior, which needs to be taken into account for strategies aimed at determining gene function. The classification provided here, can also be further harnessed in systematic analyses of complex cellular systems. PMID:28257504

  19. Gender and Personality Differences in Response to Social Stressors in Great Tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Esther; van Oers, Kees

    2015-01-01

    In response to stressors, animals can increase the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, resulting in elevated glucocorticoid concentrations. An increase in glucocorticoids results in an increase in heterophils and a decrease in lymphocytes, which ratio (H/L-ratio) is an indicator of stress in birds. The physiological response to a stressor can depend on individual characteristics, like dominance rank, sex and personality. Although the isolated effects of these characteristics on the response to a stressor have been well studied, little is known about the response in relation to a combination of these characteristics. In this study we investigate the relationship between social stress, dominance rank, sex and exploratory behaviour as a validated operational measure of personality in great tits (Parus major). Great tits show consistent individual differences in behaviour and physiology in response to stressors, and exploratory behaviour can be classified as fast or slow exploring. We group-housed four birds, two fast and two slow explorers, of the same sex that were previously singly housed, in an aviary and compared the H/L-ratio, lymphocyte and heterophil count before and after group housing. After experiencing the social context all birds increased their H/L-ratio and heterophil count. Females showed a stronger increase in H/L-ratio and heterophil count than males, which seemed to be related to a higher number of agonistic interactions compared to males. Dominance rank and exploration type did not affect the H/L-ratio or heterophil count. Contrary to our expectations, all birds increased their lymphocyte count. However, this increase was slower for fast than for slow explorers. Our study suggests that personality and sex related differences, but not dominance rank, are associated with changes in an individual's physiological response due to a social context.

  20. Escitalopram--translating molecular properties into clinical benefit: reviewing the evidence in major depression.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Brian; Taylor, David

    2010-08-01

    The majority of currently marketed drugs contain a mixture of enantiomers; however, recent evidence suggests that individual enantiomers can have pharmacological properties that differ importantly from enantiomer mixtures. Escitalopram, the S-enantiomer of citalopram, displays markedly different pharmacological activity to the R-enantiomer. This review aims to evaluate whether these differences confer any significant clinical advantage for escitalopram over either citalopram or other frequently used antidepressants. Searches were conducted using PubMed and EMBASE (up to January 2009). Abstracts of the retrieved studies were reviewed independently by both authors for inclusion. Only those studies relating to depression or major depressive disorder were included. The search identified over 250 citations, of which 21 studies and 18 pooled or meta-analyses studies were deemed suitable for inclusion. These studies reveal that escitalopram has some efficacy advantage over citalopram and paroxetine, but no consistent advantage over other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Escitalopram has at least comparable efficacy to available serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine XR and duloxetine, and may offer some tolerability advantages over these agents. This review suggests that the mechanistic advantages of escitalopram over citalopram translate into clinical efficacy advantages. Escitalopram may have a favourable benefit-risk ratio compared with citalopram and possibly with several other antidepressant agents.

  1. Hydrophobic tendencies of polar groups as a major force in molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Chalikian, Tigran V

    2003-12-01

    Proteins and nucleic acids are able to adopt their native conformation and perform their biological role only in the presence of water with which they actively interact in a mutually modifying way. Traditionally, hydrophobic effect has been considered to be the major factor stabilizing biopolymeric structures. However, solvent reorganization around polar groups is an event thermodynamically more unfavorable than solvent reorganization around nonpolar groups. Consequently, burial of polar groups with formation of complementary solute-solute hydrogen bonds out of contact with water is an energetically favorable process that also provides a major force driving macromolecular association and folding. In contrast to nonpolar groups, polar groups may form their complementary intra- or intersolute hydrogen bonds out of contact with water only provided that an appropriate solute structure has been formed with properly positioned hydrogen bond donors and acceptors. Formation of such structures is disfavored entropically and may not be possible due to steric reasons. However, the interior of a folded protein, alpha-helices and beta-sheets, double helical nucleic acid structures, and protein-ligand interfaces all provide rigid matrices where polar groups may form their complementary hydrogen bonds. For these structures, the inward drive of polar groups represents a considerable stabilizing factor. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 70: 492-496, 2003

  2. Glucose-responsive insulin by molecular and physical design.

    PubMed

    Bakh, Naveed A; Cortinas, Abel B; Weiss, Michael A; Langer, Robert S; Anderson, Daniel G; Gu, Zhen; Dutta, Sanjoy; Strano, Michael S

    2017-09-22

    The concept of a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) has been a recent objective of diabetes technology. The idea behind the GRI is to create a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration or dosing relative to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. From the perspective of the medicinal chemist, the GRI is also important as a generalized model of a potentially new generation of therapeutics that adjust potency in response to a critical therapeutic marker. The aim of this Perspective is to highlight emerging concepts, including mathematical modelling and the molecular engineering of insulin itself and its potency, towards a viable GRI. We briefly outline some of the most important recent progress toward this goal and also provide a forward-looking viewpoint, which asks if there are new approaches that could spur innovation in this area as well as to encourage synthetic chemists and chemical engineers to address the challenges and promises offered by this therapeutic approach.

  3. Glucose-responsive insulin by molecular and physical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakh, Naveed A.; Cortinas, Abel B.; Weiss, Michael A.; Langer, Robert S.; Anderson, Daniel G.; Gu, Zhen; Dutta, Sanjoy; Strano, Michael S.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of a glucose-responsive insulin (GRI) has been a recent objective of diabetes technology. The idea behind the GRI is to create a therapeutic that modulates its potency, concentration or dosing relative to a patient's dynamic glucose concentration, thereby approximating aspects of a normally functioning pancreas. From the perspective of the medicinal chemist, the GRI is also important as a generalized model of a potentially new generation of therapeutics that adjust potency in response to a critical therapeutic marker. The aim of this Perspective is to highlight emerging concepts, including mathematical modelling and the molecular engineering of insulin itself and its potency, towards a viable GRI. We briefly outline some of the most important recent progress toward this goal and also provide a forward-looking viewpoint, which asks if there are new approaches that could spur innovation in this area as well as to encourage synthetic chemists and chemical engineers to address the challenges and promises offered by this therapeutic approach.

  4. Response to antidepressants in major depressive disorder with melancholic features: the CRESCEND study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su-Jin; Stewart, Robert; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2013-01-10

    This study aimed to determine whether major depressive disorders with melancholic and without melancholic features differ with respect to their responses to treatment with antidepressants. From a nationwide sample of 18 hospitals in South Korea, 559 presenting patients with major depressive disorder were recruited. The DSM-IV based Structured Clinical Interview was administered for confirmatory diagnoses and depression subtypes with/without melancholic features. After baseline evaluation, they received naturalistic clinician-determined antidepressant interventions. Assessment scales for evaluating depression (HAMD), anxiety (HAMA), global severity (CGI-s), and functioning (SOFAS) were administered at baseline and re-evaluated at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks later. At baseline, the 243 (43.5%) participants with melancholic features were more likely to have a previous history of depression, and had higher HAMA and lower SOFAS scores. After adjustment for baseline status, participants with melancholic features were more likely to achieve and to experience shorter times to CGI-s remission and associated with an enhanced global symptomatic remission with any antidepressant treatment. They were more likely to achieve and to experience shorter times to CGI-s remission and this difference was strongest in those receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants treatment. The study was observational, and the treatment modality was naturalistic. These findings suggest a faster and more evident global response to pharmacotherapy in melancholia compared to other depressive syndromes, particularly where SSRI agents are used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain grey matter volume alterations associated with antidepressant response in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Xu, Xin; Luo, Qiang; Luo, Ya; Chen, Ying; Lui, Su; Wu, Min; Zhu, Hongyan; Kemp, Graham J; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-09-05

    Not all patients with major depressive disorder respond to adequate pharmacological therapy. Psychoradiological studies have reported that antidepressant responders and nonresponders show different alterations in brain grey matter, but the findings are inconsistent. The present study reports a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometric studies of patients with major depressive disorder, both antidepressant responders and nonresponders, using the anisotropic effect size version of Seed-based D Mapping to identify brain regions correlated to clinical response. A systematic search was conducted up to June 2016 to identify studies focussing on antidepressant response. In responders across 9 datasets grey matter volume (GMV) was significantly higher in the left inferior frontal gyrus and insula, while GMV was significantly lower in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). In nonresponders across 5 datasets GMV was significantly lower in the bilateral ACC, median cingulate cortex (MCC) and right SFG. Conjunction analysis confirmed significant differences in the bilateral ACC and right SFG, where GMV was significantly lower in nonresponders but higher in responders. The current study adds to psychoradiology, an evolving subspecialty of radiology mainly for psychiatry and clinical psychology.

  6. Molecular signatures of transgenerational response to ocean acidification in a species of reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunter, Celia; Welch, Megan J.; Ryu, Taewoo; Zhang, Huoming; Berumen, Michael L.; Nilsson, Göran E.; Munday, Philip L.; Ravasi, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    The impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems will depend on species capacity to adapt. Recent studies show that the behaviour of reef fishes is impaired at projected CO 2 levels; however, individual variation exists that might promote adaptation. Here, we show a clear signature of parental sensitivity to high CO 2 in the brain molecular phenotype of juvenile spiny damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, primarily driven by circadian rhythm genes. Offspring of CO 2-tolerant and CO 2-sensitive parents were reared at near-future CO 2 (754 μatm) or present-day control levels (414 μatm). By integrating 33 brain transcriptomes and proteomes with a de novo assembled genome we investigate the molecular responses of the fish brain to increased CO 2 and the expression of parental tolerance to high CO 2 in the offspring molecular phenotype. Exposure to high CO 2 resulted in differential regulation of 173 and 62 genes and 109 and 68 proteins in the tolerant and sensitive groups, respectively. Importantly, the majority of differences between offspring of tolerant and sensitive parents occurred in high CO 2 conditions. This transgenerational molecular signature suggests that individual variation in CO 2 sensitivity could facilitate adaptation of fish populations to ocean acidification.

  7. Cooperative genomic alteration network reveals molecular classification across 12 major cancer types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyi; Deng, Yulan; Zhang, Yong; Ping, Yanyan; Zhao, Hongying; Pang, Lin; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Li; Xu, Chaohan; Xiao, Yun; Li, Xia

    2017-01-25

    The accumulation of somatic genomic alterations that enables cells to gradually acquire growth advantage contributes to tumor development. This has the important implication of the widespread existence of cooperative genomic alterations in the accumulation process. Here, we proposed a computational method HCOC that simultaneously consider genetic context and downstream functional effects on cancer hallmarks to uncover somatic cooperative events in human cancers. Applying our method to 12 TCGA cancer types, we totally identified 1199 cooperative events with high heterogeneity across human cancers, and then constructed a pan-cancer cooperative alteration network. These cooperative events are associated with genomic alterations of some high-confident cancer drivers, and can trigger the dysfunction of hallmark associated pathways in a co-defect way rather than single alterations. We found that these cooperative events can be used to produce a prognostic classification that can provide complementary information with tissue-of-origin. In a further case study of glioblastoma, using 23 cooperative events identified, we stratified patients into molecularly relevant subtypes with a prognostic significance independent of the Glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (GCIMP). In summary, our method can be effectively used to discover cancer-driving cooperative events that can be valuable clinical markers for patient stratification.

  8. Cooperative genomic alteration network reveals molecular classification across 12 major cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongyi; Deng, Yulan; Zhang, Yong; Ping, Yanyan; Zhao, Hongying; Pang, Lin; Zhang, Xinxin; Wang, Li; Xu, Chaohan; Xiao, Yun; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of somatic genomic alterations that enables cells to gradually acquire growth advantage contributes to tumor development. This has the important implication of the widespread existence of cooperative genomic alterations in the accumulation process. Here, we proposed a computational method HCOC that simultaneously consider genetic context and downstream functional effects on cancer hallmarks to uncover somatic cooperative events in human cancers. Applying our method to 12 TCGA cancer types, we totally identified 1199 cooperative events with high heterogeneity across human cancers, and then constructed a pan-cancer cooperative alteration network. These cooperative events are associated with genomic alterations of some high-confident cancer drivers, and can trigger the dysfunction of hallmark associated pathways in a co-defect way rather than single alterations. We found that these cooperative events can be used to produce a prognostic classification that can provide complementary information with tissue-of-origin. In a further case study of glioblastoma, using 23 cooperative events identified, we stratified patients into molecularly relevant subtypes with a prognostic significance independent of the Glioma-CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (GCIMP). In summary, our method can be effectively used to discover cancer-driving cooperative events that can be valuable clinical markers for patient stratification. PMID:27899621

  9. Transcriptome characterization by RNA sequencing identifies a major molecular and clinical subdivision in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Jares, Pedro; Rico, Daniel; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Martínez-Trillos, Alejandra; Villamor, Neus; Ecker, Simone; González-Pérez, Abel; Knowles, David G.; Monlong, Jean; Johnson, Rory; Quesada, Victor; Djebali, Sarah; Papasaikas, Panagiotis; López-Guerra, Mónica; Colomer, Dolors; Royo, Cristina; Cazorla, Maite; Pinyol, Magda; Clot, Guillem; Aymerich, Marta; Rozman, Maria; Kulis, Marta; Tamborero, David; Gouin, Anaïs; Blanc, Julie; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Puente, Xose S.; Pisano, David G.; Martin-Subero, José Ignacio; López-Bigas, Nuria; López-Guillermo, Armando; Valencia, Alfonso; López-Otín, Carlos; Campo, Elías; Guigó, Roderic

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has heterogeneous clinical and biological behavior. Whole-genome and -exome sequencing has contributed to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of the disease, but the underlying transcriptional profile is still poorly understood. We have performed deep RNA sequencing in different subpopulations of normal B-lymphocytes and CLL cells from a cohort of 98 patients, and characterized the CLL transcriptional landscape with unprecedented resolution. We detected thousands of transcriptional elements differentially expressed between the CLL and normal B cells, including protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs, and pseudogenes. Transposable elements are globally derepressed in CLL cells. In addition, two thousand genes—most of which are not differentially expressed—exhibit CLL-specific splicing patterns. Genes involved in metabolic pathways showed higher expression in CLL, while genes related to spliceosome, proteasome, and ribosome were among the most down-regulated in CLL. Clustering of the CLL samples according to RNA-seq derived gene expression levels unveiled two robust molecular subgroups, C1 and C2. C1/C2 subgroups and the mutational status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) region were the only independent variables in predicting time to treatment in a multivariate analysis with main clinico-biological features. This subdivision was validated in an independent cohort of patients monitored through DNA microarrays. Further analysis shows that B-cell receptor (BCR) activation in the microenvironment of the lymph node may be at the origin of the C1/C2 differences. PMID:24265505

  10. Murine immune response induced by Leishmania major during the implantation of paraffin tablets.

    PubMed

    Reis, Maria Letícia Costa; Ferreira, Vanessa Martins; Zhang, Xia; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Mosser, David M; Tafuri, Wagner Luiz

    2010-11-01

    We carried out a model of chronic inflammation using a subcutaneous paraffin tablet in mice experimentally infected with Leishmania major. It was previously reported that the parasite load following paraffin implantation occurred at a peak of 21 days in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. At the present study, we have investigated what cytokines and chemokines are directly related to the parasite load in C57BL/6 mice. All mice were divided in four groups: mice implanted with paraffin tablets; mice experimentally infected with L. major; mice implanted with paraffin tablets and experimentally infected with L. major; and mice submitted only to the surgery were used for the Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) controls. Fragments of skin tissue and the tissue surrounding the paraffin tablets (inflammatory capsule) were collected for histopathology and RT-PCR studies. By 21 days, a diffuse chronic inflammatory reaction was mainly observed in the deep dermis where macrophages parasitized with Leishmania amastigotes were also found. RT-PCR analysis has shown that BALB/c mice showed strong IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression than controls with very little expression of IFN-γ. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA was found in higher levels in C57BL/6 animals. Moreover, in C57BL/6 mice the expression of chemokines mRNA of CCL3/MIP-1α was more highly expressed than CCL2/MCP-1. We conclude that the Th1 immune response C57BL/6 did not change to a Th2 response, even though C57BL/6 animals presented higher parasitism than BALB/c mice 21 days after infection and paraffin implantation.

  11. Murine immune response induced by Leishmania major during the implantation of paraffin tablets

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Maria Letícia Costa; Ferreira, Vanessa Martins; Zhang, Xia; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Mosser, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We carried out a model of chronic inflammation using a subcutaneous paraffin tablet in mice experimentally infected with Leishmania major. It was previously reported that the parasite load following paraffin implantation occurred at a peak of 21 days in both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. At the present study, we have investigated what cytokines and chemokines are directly related to the parasite load in C57BL/6 mice. All mice were divided in four groups: mice implanted with paraffin tablets; mice experimentally infected with L. major; mice implanted with paraffin tablets and experimentally infected with L. major; and mice submitted only to the surgery were used for the Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) controls. Fragments of skin tissue and the tissue surrounding the paraffin tablets (inflammatory capsule) were collected for histopathology and RT-PCR studies. By 21 days, a diffuse chronic inflammatory reaction was mainly observed in the deep dermis where macrophages parasitized with Leishmania amastigotes were also found. RT-PCR analysis has shown that BALB/c mice showed strong IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression than controls with very little expression of IFN-γ. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA was found in higher levels in C57BL/6 animals. Moreover, in C57BL/6 mice the expression of chemokines mRNA of CCL3/MIP-1α was more highly expressed than CCL2/MCP-1. We conclude that the Th1 immune response C57BL/6 did not change to a Th2 response, even though C57BL/6 animals presented higher parasitism than BALB/c mice 21 days after infection and paraffin implantation. PMID:20857143

  12. Molecular taxonomy of major neuronal classes in the adult mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Sugino, Ken; Hempel, Chris M; Miller, Mark N; Hattox, Alexis M; Shapiro, Peter; Wu, Caizi; Huang, Z Josh; Nelson, Sacha B

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the neuronal cell types that comprise the mammalian forebrain is a central unsolved problem in neuroscience. Global gene expression profiles offer a potentially unbiased way to assess functional relationships between neurons. Here, we carried out microarray analysis of 12 populations of neurons in the adult mouse forebrain. Five of these populations were chosen from cingulate cortex and included several subtypes of GABAergic interneurons and pyramidal neurons. The remaining seven were derived from the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus. Using these expression profiles, we were able to construct a taxonomic tree that reflected the expected major relationships between these populations, such as the distinction between cortical interneurons and projection neurons. The taxonomic tree indicated highly heterogeneous gene expression even within a single region. This dataset should be useful for the classification of unknown neuronal subtypes, the investigation of specifically expressed genes and the genetic manipulation of specific neuronal circuit elements.

  13. Molecular characterization of major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-I) from squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Pascalis, Hervé; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Fendel, Rolf; Lavergne, Anne; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class 1 in squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus). We cloned, sequenced and characterized two alleles and the cDNA of the coding region of MHC class 1 in these New World monkeys. Phylogenetic analyses showed that these sequences are related to HLA class 1 genes ( HLA-A and HLA-G). The structure and organization of one of the two identified clones was similar to that of a class 1 MHC gene ( HLA-A2). All the exon/intron splice acceptor/donor sites are conserved and their locations correspond to the HLA-A2 gene. The sequences of the newly described cDNAs reveal that they code for the characteristic class 1 MHC proteins, with all the features thought necessary for cell surface expression. Typical sequences for the leader peptide, alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were found.

  14. A broad molecular phylogeny of ciliates: identification of major evolutionary trends and radiations within the phylum.

    PubMed Central

    Baroin-Tourancheau, A; Delgado, P; Perasso, R; Adoutte, A

    1992-01-01

    The cellular architecture of ciliates is one of the most complex known within eukaryotes. Detailed systematic schemes have thus been constructed through extensive comparative morphological and ultrastructural analysis of the ciliature and of its internal cytoskeletal derivatives (the infraciliature), as well as of the architecture of the oral apparatus. In recent years, a consensus was reached in which the phylum was divided in eight classes as defined by Lynn and Corliss [Lynn, D. H. & Corliss, J. O. (1991) in Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates: Protozoa (Wiley-Liss, New York), Vol. 1, pp. 333-467]. By comparing partial sequences of the large subunit rRNA molecule, and by using both distance-matrix and maximum-parsimony-tree construction methods (checked by boot-strapping), we examine the phylogenetic relationships of 22 species belonging to seven of these eight classes. At low taxonomic levels, the traditional grouping of the species is generally confirmed. At higher taxonomic levels, the branching pattern of these seven classes is resolved in several deeply separated major branches. Surprisingly, the first emerging one contains the heterotrichs and is strongly associated with a karyorelictid but deeply separated from hypotrichs. The litostomes, the oligohymenophorans, and the hypotrichs separate later in a bush-like topology hindering the resolution of their order of diversification. These results show a much more ancient origin of heterotrichs than was classically assumed, indicating that asymmetric, abundantly ciliated oral apparatuses do not correspond to "highly evolved" traits as previously thought. They also suggest the occurrence of a major radiative explosion in the evolutionary history of the ciliates, yielding five of the eight classes of the phylum. These classes appear to differ essentially according to the cytoskeletal architecture used to shape and sustain the cellular cortex (a process of essential adaptative and morphogenetic importance in

  15. Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Böhme, Carsten; Petrowski, Katja

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has focussed extensively on the distinction of HPA-axis functioning between patient groups and healthy volunteers, with relatively little emphasis on a direct comparison of patient groups. The current study's aim was to analyse differences in the cortisol stress response as a function of primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). A total of n=30 PD (mean age±SD: 36.07±12.56), n=23 PTSD (41.22±10.17), n=18 MDD patients (39.00±14.93) and n=47 healthy control (HC) individuals (35.51±13.15) participated in this study. All the study participants were female. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used for reliable laboratory stress induction. Blood sampling accompanied the TSST for cortisol and ACTH assessment. Panic-related, PTSD-specific questionnaires and the Beck Depression Inventory II were handed out for the characterisation of the study groups. Repeated measure ANCOVAs were conducted to test for main effects of time or group and for interaction effects. Regression analyses were conducted to take comorbid depression into account. 26.7% of the PD patients, 43.5% of the PTSD patients, 72.2% of the MDD patients and 80.6% of the HC participants showed a cortisol stress response upon the TSST. ANCOVA revealed a cortisol hypo-responsiveness both in PD and PTSD patients, while no significant group differences were seen in the ACTH concentrations. Additional analyses showed no impact of comorbid depressiveness on the cortisol stress response. MDD patients did not differ in the hormonal stress response neither compared to the HC participants nor to the PD and PTSD patients. Our main findings provide evidence of a dissociation between the cortisol and ACTH concentrations in response to the TSST in PTSD and in PD patients, independent of comorbid depression. Our results further support overall research findings of a cortisol hypo-responsiveness in PD patients. A hypo-response

  16. Dissociable cortico-striatal connectivity abnormalities in major depression in response to monetary gains and penalties

    PubMed Central

    Admon, Roee; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Holmes, Avram J.; Bogdan, Ryan; Kumar, Poornima; Dougherty, Darin D.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Mischoulon, David; Fava, Maurizio; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) are characterized by maladaptive responses to both positive and negative outcomes, which have been linked to localized abnormal activations in cortical and striatal brain regions. However, the exact neural circuitry implicated in such abnormalities remains largely unexplored. Methods In this study 26 unmedicated adults with MDD and 29 matched healthy controls completed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analyses probed group differences in connectivity separately in response to positive and negative outcomes (i.e., monetary gains and penalties). Results Relative to controls, MDD subjects displayed decreased connectivity between the caudate and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in response to monetary gains, yet increased connectivity between the caudate and a different, more rostral, dACC sub-region in response to monetary penalties. Moreover, exploratory analyses of 14 MDD patients who completed a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial after the baseline fMRI scans indicated that a more normative pattern of cortico-striatal connectivity pre-treatment was associated with more symptoms improvement 12 weeks later. Conclusions These results identify the caudate as a region with dissociable incentive-dependent dACC connectivity abnormalities in MDD, and provide initial evidence that cortico-striatal circuitry may play a role in MDD treatment response. Given the role of cortico-striatal circuitry in encoding action-outcome contingencies, such dysregulated connectivity may relate to the prominent disruptions in goal-directed behavior that characterize MDD. PMID:25055809

  17. Reduced left precentral regional responses in patients with major depressive disorder and history of suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Noa; Mikawa, Wakako; Tsujimoto, Emi; Adachi, Toru; Niwa, Atsushi; Ono, Hisae; Shirakawa, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed frontal and temporal functional abnormalities in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of suicidal behavior. However, it is unknown whether multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signal changes among individuals with MDD are associated with a history of suicide attempts and a diathesis for suicidal behavior (impulsivity, hopelessness, and aggression). Therefore, we aimed to explore frontotemporal hemodynamic responses in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts using 52-channel NIRS. We recruited 30 patients with MDD and a history of suicidal behavior (suicide attempters; SAs), 38 patient controls without suicidal behavior (non-attempters; NAs), and 40 healthy controls (HCs) matched by age, gender ratio, and estimated IQ. Regional hemodynamic responses during a verbal fluency task (VFT) were monitored using NIRS. Our results showed that severities of depression, impulsivity, aggression, and hopelessness were similar between SAs and NAs. Both patient groups had significantly reduced activation compared with HCs in the bilateral frontotemporal regions. Post hoc analyses revealed that SAs exhibited a smaller hemodynamic response in the left precentral gyrus than NAs and HCs. Furthermore, the reduced response in the left inferior frontal gyrus was negatively correlated with impulsivity level and hemodynamic responses in the right middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with hopelessness and aggression in SAs but not in NAs and HCs. Our findings suggest that MDD patients with a history of suicide attempts demonstrate patterns of VFT-induced NIRS signal changes different from those demonstrated by individuals without a history of suicidal behaviors, even in cases where clinical symptoms are similar. NIRS has a relatively high time resolution, which may help visually differentiate SAs from NAs.

  18. Translational Identification of Transcriptional Signatures of Major Depression and Antidepressant Response.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Mylène; Bergon, Aurélie; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Consoloni, Julia-Lou; Fernandez-Nunez, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Marie-Noëlle; El-Hage, Wissam; Belzeaux, Raoul; Belzung, Catherine; Ibrahim, El Chérif

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent mental illness whose therapy management remains uncertain, with more than 20% of patients who do not achieve response to antidepressants. Therefore, identification of reliable biomarkers to predict response to treatment will greatly improve MDD patient medical care. Due to the inaccessibility and lack of brain tissues from living MDD patients to study depression, researches using animal models have been useful in improving sensitivity and specificity of identifying biomarkers. In the current study, we used the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model and correlated stress-induced depressive-like behavior (n = 8 unstressed vs. 8 stressed mice) as well as the fluoxetine-induced recovery (n = 8 stressed and fluoxetine-treated mice vs. 8 unstressed and fluoxetine-treated mice) with transcriptional signatures obtained by genome-wide microarray profiling from whole blood, dentate gyrus (DG), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hierarchical clustering and rank-rank hypergeometric overlap (RRHO) procedures allowed us to identify gene transcripts with variations that correlate with behavioral profiles. As a translational validation, some of those transcripts were assayed by RT-qPCR with blood samples from 10 severe major depressive episode (MDE) patients and 10 healthy controls over the course of 30 weeks and four visits. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed candidate trait biomarkers (ARHGEF1, CMAS, IGHMBP2, PABPN1 and TBC1D10C), whereas univariate linear regression analyses uncovered candidates state biomarkers (CENPO, FUS and NUBP1), as well as prediction biomarkers predictive of antidepressant response (CENPO, NUBP1). These data suggest that such a translational approach may offer new leads for clinically valid panels of biomarkers for MDD.

  19. Translational Identification of Transcriptional Signatures of Major Depression and Antidepressant Response

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Mylène; Bergon, Aurélie; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Leman, Samuel; Consoloni, Julia-Lou; Fernandez-Nunez, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Marie-Noëlle; El-Hage, Wissam; Belzeaux, Raoul; Belzung, Catherine; Ibrahim, El Chérif

    2017-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent mental illness whose therapy management remains uncertain, with more than 20% of patients who do not achieve response to antidepressants. Therefore, identification of reliable biomarkers to predict response to treatment will greatly improve MDD patient medical care. Due to the inaccessibility and lack of brain tissues from living MDD patients to study depression, researches using animal models have been useful in improving sensitivity and specificity of identifying biomarkers. In the current study, we used the unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model and correlated stress-induced depressive-like behavior (n = 8 unstressed vs. 8 stressed mice) as well as the fluoxetine-induced recovery (n = 8 stressed and fluoxetine-treated mice vs. 8 unstressed and fluoxetine-treated mice) with transcriptional signatures obtained by genome-wide microarray profiling from whole blood, dentate gyrus (DG), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hierarchical clustering and rank-rank hypergeometric overlap (RRHO) procedures allowed us to identify gene transcripts with variations that correlate with behavioral profiles. As a translational validation, some of those transcripts were assayed by RT-qPCR with blood samples from 10 severe major depressive episode (MDE) patients and 10 healthy controls over the course of 30 weeks and four visits. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed candidate trait biomarkers (ARHGEF1, CMAS, IGHMBP2, PABPN1 and TBC1D10C), whereas univariate linear regression analyses uncovered candidates state biomarkers (CENPO, FUS and NUBP1), as well as prediction biomarkers predictive of antidepressant response (CENPO, NUBP1). These data suggest that such a translational approach may offer new leads for clinically valid panels of biomarkers for MDD. PMID:28848385

  20. pH response and molecular recognition in a low molecular weight peptide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lange, Stefanie C; Unsleber, Jan; Drücker, Patrick; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Waller, Mark P; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2015-01-14

    In this article we report the preparation and characterization of a peptide-based hydrogel, which possesses characteristic rheological properties, is pH responsive and can be functionalized at its thiol function. The tripeptide N-(fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl)-L-Cys(acetamidomethyl)-L-His-L-Cys-OH 1 forms stable supramolecular aggregates in water leading to hydrogels above 1.5 wt%. Rheological analysis of the hydrogel revealed visco-elastic and shear thinning properties of samples containing 1.5 wt% of peptide 1. The hydrogel reversibly responds to pH changes. Below and above pH 6, electrostatic repulsion of the peptide results in a weakening of the three-dimensional gel network. Based on atomic force microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, it is proposed that the peptide assembles into nanostructures that tend to entangle at higher concentrations in water. The development of functional materials based on the peptide assemblies was possible via thiol-ene-click chemistry of the free thiol function at the C-terminal cysteine unit. As a proof of concept, the functionalization with adamantyl units to give 1-Ad was shown by molecular recognition of β-cyclodextrin vesicles. These vesicles were used as supramolecular cross-linkers of the assemblies of peptide 1 mixed with peptide 1-Ad leading to gel networks at a reduced peptide concentration.

  1. Prediction of SSRI treatment response in major depression based on serotonin transporter interplay between median raphe nucleus and projection areas.

    PubMed

    Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kranz, Georg S; Haeusler, Daniela; Akimova, Elena; Savli, Markus; Hahn, Andreas; Mitterhauser, Markus; Spindelegger, Christoph; Philippe, Cecile; Fink, Martin; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Karanikas, Georgios; Kasper, Siegfried

    2012-11-01

    Recent mathematical models suggest restored serotonergic burst-firing to underlie the antidepressant effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), resulting from down-regulated serotonin transporters (SERT) in terminal regions. This mechanism possibly depends on the interregional balance between SERTs in the raphe nuclei and in terminal regions before treatment. To evaluate these hypotheses on a systems level in humans in vivo, we investigated SERT availability and occupancy longitudinally in patients with major depressive disorder using positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioligand [11C]DASB. Measurements were performed before and after a single oral dose, as well as after three weeks (mean 24.73±3.3 days) of continuous oral treatment with either escitalopram (10 mg/day) or citalopram (20 mg/day). Data were analyzed using voxel-wise linear regression and ANOVA to evaluate SERT binding, occupancy and binding ratios (SERT binding of the entire brain compared to SERT binding in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei) in relation to treatment outcome. Regression analysis revealed that treatment response was predicted by pre-treatment SERT binding ratios, i.e., SERT binding in key regions of depression including bilateral habenula, amygdala-hippocampus complex and subgenual cingulate cortex in relation to SERT binding in the median but not dorsal raphe nucleus (p<0.05 FDR-corrected). Similar results were observed in the direct comparison of responders and non-responders. Our data provide a first proof-of-concept for recent modeling studies and further underlie the importance of the habenula and subgenual cingulate cortex in the etiology of and recovery from major depression. These findings may indicate a promising molecular predictor of treatment response and stimulate new treatment approaches based on regional differences in SERT binding.

  2. Molecular analysis and genomic organization of major DNA satellites in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa.

  3. Molecular Analysis and Genomic Organization of Major DNA Satellites in Banana (Musa spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Čížková, Jana; Hřibová, Eva; Humplíková, Lenka; Christelová, Pavla; Suchánková, Pavla; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Satellite DNA sequences consist of tandemly arranged repetitive units up to thousands nucleotides long in head-to-tail orientation. The evolutionary processes by which satellites arise and evolve include unequal crossing over, gene conversion, transposition and extra chromosomal circular DNA formation. Large blocks of satellite DNA are often observed in heterochromatic regions of chromosomes and are a typical component of centromeric and telomeric regions. Satellite-rich loci may show specific banding patterns and facilitate chromosome identification and analysis of structural chromosome changes. Unlike many other genomes, nuclear genomes of banana (Musa spp.) are poor in satellite DNA and the information on this class of DNA remains limited. The banana cultivars are seed sterile clones originating mostly from natural intra-specific crosses within M. acuminata (A genome) and inter-specific crosses between M. acuminata and M. balbisiana (B genome). Previous studies revealed the closely related nature of the A and B genomes, including similarities in repetitive DNA. In this study we focused on two main banana DNA satellites, which were previously identified in silico. Their genomic organization and molecular diversity was analyzed in a set of nineteen Musa accessions, including representatives of A, B and S (M. schizocarpa) genomes and their inter-specific hybrids. The two DNA satellites showed a high level of sequence conservation within, and a high homology between Musa species. FISH with probes for the satellite DNA sequences, rRNA genes and a single-copy BAC clone 2G17 resulted in characteristic chromosome banding patterns in M. acuminata and M. balbisiana which may aid in determining genomic constitution in interspecific hybrids. In addition to improving the knowledge on Musa satellite DNA, our study increases the number of cytogenetic markers and the number of individual chromosomes, which can be identified in Musa. PMID:23372772

  4. Responses of plant seedlings to hypergravity: cellular and molecular aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoson, T.; Yoshioka, R.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Takeba, G.

    Hypergravity produced by centrifugation has been used to analyze the responses of plant seedlings to gravity stimulus. Elongation growth of stem organs is suppressed by hypergravity, which can be recognized as a way for plants to resist gravitational force. The mechanisms inducing growth suppression under hypergravity conditions were analyzed at cellular and molecular levels. When growth was suppressed by hypergravity, a decrease in the cell wall extensibility was brought about in various plants. Hypergravity also induced a cell wall thickening and an increase in the molecular mass of the certain hemicellulosic polysaccharides. Both a decrease in the activities hydrolyzing such polysaccharides and an increase in the apoplast pH were involved in such changes in the cell wall constituents. Thus, the cell wall metabolism is greatly modified under hypergravity conditions, which causes a decrease in the cell wall extensibility, thereby inhibiting elongation growth in stem organs. On the other hand, to identify genes involved in hypergravity-induced growth suppression, changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment were analyzed in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by differential display method. Sixty-two genes were expressed differentially: expression levels of 39 genes increased, whereas those of 23 genes decreased under hypergravity conditions. The expression of these genes was further analyzed using RT-PCR. One of genes upregulated by hypergravity encoded hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes a reaction producing mevalonic acid, a key precursor of hormones such as gibberellic acid and abscisic acid. The expression of HMGR gene increased within several hours after hypergravity treatment. Also, compactin, an inhibitor of HMGR activity, prevented hypergravity-induced growth suppression, suggesting that HMGR is involved in suppression of Arabidopsis hypocotyl growth by hypergravity. In addition, hypergravity increased the expression levels of CCR1 and

  5. Effects of acute cortisol administration on response inhibition in patients with major depression and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Nicole; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Fernando, Silvia Carvalho; Terfehr, Kirsten; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-10-30

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have repeatedly been shown to impair hippocampus-mediated, declarative memory retrieval and prefrontal cortex-based working memory in healthy subjects. However, recent experimental studies indicated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) lack these impairing effects. These missing effects have been suggested to result from dysfunctional brain GC receptors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether response inhibition, an executive function relying on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex, would be impaired after cortisol administration in patients with MDD. In a placebo-controlled, double blind crossover study, 50 inpatients with MDD and 54 healthy control participants conducted an emotional go/no-go task consisting of human face stimuli (fearful, happy, and neutral) after receiving a dose of 10 mg hydrocortisone and after placebo. GC administration had an enhancing effect on inhibitory performance in healthy control participants, indicated by faster responses, while no GC effect was revealed for the patients group. Moreover, patients showed an overall worse performance than healthy participants. In conclusion, this study further supports the hypothesis of impaired central glucocorticoid receptor function in MDD patients. Regarding the importance of inhibitory functioning for daily living, further studies are needed to examine the impact of glucocorticoids on response inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpersonal impacts mediate the association between personality and treatment response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Quilty, Lena C; Bagby, R Michael

    2016-07-01

    Personality, as characterized by the Five-Factor Model, predicts response to psychotherapy for depression. To explain how personality impacts treatment response, the present study investigated patient and therapist interpersonal processes in treatment sessions as an explanatory pathway. A clinical trial was conducted in which 103 outpatients (mean age: 41.17 years, 65% female) with primary major depressive disorder completed 16-20 weeks of cognitive-behavioral or interpersonal therapy. Before treatment, patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory to assess personality domains (neuroticism, extraversion, openness-to-experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). After 3 and 13 weeks, patient interpersonal behavior was rated by the therapist and vice versa to determine levels of patient and therapist communal and agentic behaviors. Depression levels were measured before and after treatment. Structural equation modeling supported that patients' interpersonal behavior during therapy mediated the associations between pretreatment personality and depression treatment outcome. Specifically, extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism (inverse) predicted higher levels of patient communion throughout treatment, which was in turn associated with improved treatment outcomes. Furthermore, patient agreeableness was inversely associated with agency throughout treatment, which was linked to poorer treatment response. Therapist interpersonal behavior was not a significant mediator. Results suggest that patient interpersonal behavior during treatment may be one way that patient personality impacts clinical outcomes in depression. Results underscore the clinical utility of Five-Factor Model domains in treatment process and outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Olfactory Responses to Stimulus Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-26

    addition, the recent molecular cloning of the olfactory neuron-specific G- protein, Golf, from rat olfactory epithelium (25), has prompted a re-evaluation... molecular cloning of a G-protein that is exclusively expressed within olfactory neurons (25) prompted a re-evaluation of the molecular identities of...Fritsch, E.F. and Maniatis, T. (1989) Plasmid vectors. In Molecular Cloning : A Laboratory Manual, pp. 1.1-1.110. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold

  8. Molecular characterization of an adaptive response to alkylating agents in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Karen A.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Hatch, Amy; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Owens, Rebecca A.; Doyle, Sean; Jones, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive response to alkylating agents based upon the conformational change of a methylphosphotriester (MPT) DNA repair protein to a transcriptional activator has been demonstrated in a number of bacterial species, but this mechanism appears largely absent from eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus elicits an adaptive response to sub-lethal doses of the mono-functional alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We have identified genes that encode MPT and O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) DNA repair proteins; deletions of either of these genes abolish the adaptive response and sensitize the organism to MNNG. In vitro DNA repair assays confirm the ability of MPT and AGT to repair methylphosphotriester and O6-methylguanine lesions respectively. In eukaryotes, the MPT protein is confined to a select group of fungal species, some of which are major mammalian and plant pathogens. The evolutionary origin of the adaptive response is bacterial and rooted within the Firmicutes phylum. Inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer between Firmicutes and Ascomycete ancestors introduced the adaptive response into the Fungal kingdom. Our data constitute the first detailed characterization of the molecular mechanism of the adaptive response in a lower eukaryote and has applications for development of novel fungal therapeutics targeting this DNA repair system. PMID:22669901

  9. Major intercontinentally distributed sequence types of Kingella kingae and development of a rapid molecular typing tool.

    PubMed

    Basmaci, Romain; Bidet, Philippe; Yagupsky, Pablo; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Balashova, Nataliya V; Doit, Catherine; Bonacorsi, Stéphane

    2014-11-01

    Although Kingella kingae is the most common etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children, is a frequent cause of bacteremia in those younger than 4 years, and has been involved in clusters of invasive infections among daycare center attendees, the population structure of the species has not been systematically studied. Using multilocus sequence typing, we investigated the genetic diversity of the largest intercontinental collection of K. kingae strains to date. To facilitate typing of bacterial isolates, we developed a novel genotyping tool that targets the DNA uptake sequence (DUS). Among 324 strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers and patients from Israel, Europe, North America, and Australia with various invasive forms of the disease from 1960 to 2013, we identified 64 sequence types (STs) and 12 ST complexes (STcs). Five predominant STcs, comprising 72.2% of all strains, were distributed intercontinentally. ST-6 was the most frequent, showing a worldwide distribution, and appeared genotypically isolated by exhibiting few neighboring STs, suggesting an optimal fitness. ST-14 and ST-23 appeared to be the oldest groups of bacteria, while ST-25 probably emerged more recently from the highly evolutive ST-23. Using the DUS typing method, randomly chosen isolates were correctly classified to one of the major STcs. The comprehensive description of K. kingae evolution would help to detect new emerging clones and decipher virulence and fitness mechanisms. The rapid and reproducible DUS typing method may serve in the initial investigation of K. kingae outbreaks.

  10. Major Intercontinentally Distributed Sequence Types of Kingella kingae and Development of a Rapid Molecular Typing Tool

    PubMed Central

    Basmaci, Romain; Bidet, Philippe; Yagupsky, Pablo; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Balashova, Nataliya V.; Doit, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although Kingella kingae is the most common etiology of osteoarticular infections in young children, is a frequent cause of bacteremia in those younger than 4 years, and has been involved in clusters of invasive infections among daycare center attendees, the population structure of the species has not been systematically studied. Using multilocus sequence typing, we investigated the genetic diversity of the largest intercontinental collection of K. kingae strains to date. To facilitate typing of bacterial isolates, we developed a novel genotyping tool that targets the DNA uptake sequence (DUS). Among 324 strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers and patients from Israel, Europe, North America, and Australia with various invasive forms of the disease from 1960 to 2013, we identified 64 sequence types (STs) and 12 ST complexes (STcs). Five predominant STcs, comprising 72.2% of all strains, were distributed intercontinentally. ST-6 was the most frequent, showing a worldwide distribution, and appeared genotypically isolated by exhibiting few neighboring STs, suggesting an optimal fitness. ST-14 and ST-23 appeared to be the oldest groups of bacteria, while ST-25 probably emerged more recently from the highly evolutive ST-23. Using the DUS typing method, randomly chosen isolates were correctly classified to one of the major STcs. The comprehensive description of K. kingae evolution would help to detect new emerging clones and decipher virulence and fitness mechanisms. The rapid and reproducible DUS typing method may serve in the initial investigation of K. kingae outbreaks. PMID:25143574

  11. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus collected from a Major Hospital in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Bazzoun, Dana A; Harastani, Houda H; Shehabi, Asem A; Tokajian, Sima T

    2014-04-15

    Over the past decade methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been recognized as a major cause of healthcare associated infections. Recently, however, epidemiology of this pathogen has changed drastically with the emergence of new clones in the community. Efficient epidemiological typing methods are essential to monitor and limit the occurrence and spread of epidemic clones. A total of sixty S. aureus isolates were collected from the Jordan University hospital in Amman-Jordan. All isolates were characterized using Staphylococcus protein A (spa) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Samples were tested for their susceptibility patterns against seven antimicrobial agents and for their potential to form biofilms. spa typing showed that spa type t044 was the most common representing 28% of the isolates studied and 38% of the MRSA population. PFGE revealed fourty-six pulsotypes among the sixty tested isolates clustering similar spa types together. The predominant resistance was detected against levofloxacin, chloramphenicol and clindamycin. One MSSA isolate typed as spa t955 showed biofilm formation potential through protein deposition.. The study results are based on one hospital, but the findings of this and other studies conducted in the region indicate that there is an urgent need for standardized surveillances combined with the application of well-validated typing methods to assess the occurrence of MRSA and to control its spread.

  12. Tracking molecular evolution of photosynthesis by characterization of a major photosynthesis gene cluster from Heliobacillus mobilis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J; Inoue, K; Bauer, C E

    1998-12-08

    A DNA sequence has been obtained for a 35.6-kb genomic segment from Heliobacillus mobilis that contains a major cluster of photosynthesis genes. A total of 30 ORFs were identified, 20 of which encode enzymes for bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis, reaction-center (RC) apoprotein, and cytochromes for cyclic electron transport. Donor side electron-transfer components to the RC include a putative RC-associated cytochrome c553 and a unique four-large-subunit cytochrome bc complex consisting of Rieske Fe-S protein (encoded by petC), cytochrome b6 (petB), subunit IV (petD), and a diheme cytochrome c (petX). Phylogenetic analysis of various photosynthesis gene products indicates a consistent grouping of oxygenic lineages that are distinct and descendent from anoxygenic lineages. In addition, H. mobilis was placed as the closest relative to cyanobacteria, which form a monophyletic origin to chloroplast-based photosynthetic lineages. The consensus of the photosynthesis gene trees also indicates that purple bacteria are the earliest emerging photosynthetic lineage. Our analysis also indicates that an ancient gene-duplication event giving rise to the paralogous bchI and bchD genes predates the divergence of all photosynthetic groups. In addition, our analysis of gene duplication of the photosystem I and photosystem II core polypeptides supports a "heterologous fusion model" for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  13. Molecular characterization of the Pb recombination hotspot in the mouse major histocompatibility complex class II region.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Taku; Yoshino, Masayasu; Mizuno, Ken-Ichi; Lindahl, Kirsten Fischer; Koide, Tsuyoshi; Gaudieri, Silvana; Gojobori, Takashi; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2002-08-01

    In the mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region, meiotic recombination breakpoints are clustered in four specific sites known as hotspots. Here we reveal the primary structure of a hotspot near the Pb gene. A total of 12 crossover points were found to be confined to a 15-kb DNA segment of the Pb pseudogene. Moreover, the crossover points are concentrated in a 341-bp segment, which includes a part of exon 4 and intron 4 of the Pb gene. All four MHC hotspots appear to be located within genes or at the 3' end of genes, contrasting with characterized hotspots in budding yeast, which are mostly located at the 5'-promoter regions of genes. The Pb hotspot has several consensus motifs, an octamer transcription factor-binding sequence, the B-motif-like transcription factor-binding sequence, and tandem repeats of tetramer sequence-all of which are shared by the other three hotspots. Systematic analysis of the public database demonstrated that the full motif set occurs rarely in the nucleotide sequence of the entire MHC class II region. All results suggest that the motif set has an indispensable role in determining their site specificity.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Expression of a New Major Allergen, Ani s 14, from Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Kakemoto, Seiko; Shimakura, Kuniyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Anisakis simplex is a representative parasite infecting marine animals. When third stage larvae of A. simplex infecting fish and squids are ingested by humans, individuals previously sensitized by this parasite may experience IgE-mediated allergic reactions. So far, as many as 13 kinds of proteins (Ani s 1-13) have been identified as A. simplex allergens but several more unknown allergens are suggested to exist. In this study, therefore, chemiluminescent immunoscreening of an expression cDNA library constructed from the third stage larvae was conducted to identify a new allergen. As a result, an IgE-positive clone coding for a 23.5 kDa protein (named Ani s 14) composed of 217 amino acid residues was isolated. The regions 4-147 and 34-123 of Ani s 14 share 31% identity with the region 796-940 of Ani s 7 and 32% identity with the region 2-91 of Ani s 12, respectively. Recombinant Ani s 14 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as a His-tagged protein and shown to be IgE reactive to 14 (54%) of 26 sera from Anisakis-allergic patients. In conclusion, Ani s 14 is a new major allergen of A. simplex that is specific to Anisakis-allergic patients.

  15. Molecular analysis of a major soluble egg protein in the scleractinian coral Favites chinensis.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Shuzo; Nakano, Yoshikatsu; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins were extracted from eggs of the scleractinian coral Favites chinensis, and analyzed using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two major proteins, named FcEP-1 and 2, were detected, and two partial amino acid sequences of FcEP-1 were determined. A cDNA encoding FcEP-1 was identified, using reverse transcription PCR with degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed based on the amino acid sequences, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Upon translation of the cDNA, FcEP-1 was predicted to consist of 648 amino acids, and the protein sequence exhibited similarity to vertebrate and invertebrate vitellogenins. FcEP-1 transcripts were already present approximately 6 months before spawning, when the size of oocytes was approximately 1/60 of the mature egg, and could be detected throughout the vitellogenic period. These observations suggest that detection of FcEP-1 transcripts may be useful to monitor the vitellogenic activity in F. chinensis.

  16. Isolation and molecular characterization of a major hemolymph serpin from the triatomine, Panstrongylus megistus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease kills 2.5 thousand people per year of 15 million persons infected in Latin America. The disease is caused by the protozoan, Trypanosome cruzi, and vectored by triatomine insects, including Panstrongylus megistus, an important vector in Brazil. Medicines treating Chagas disease have unpleasant side effects and may be ineffective, therefore, alternative control techniques are required. Knowledge of the T. cruzi interactions with the triatomine host needs extending and new targets/strategies for control identified. Serine and cysteine peptidases play vital roles in protozoan life cycles including invasion and entry of T. cruzi into host cells. Peptidase inhibitors are, therefore, promising targets for disease control. Methods SDS PAGE and chromatograpy detected and isolated a P. megistus serpin which was peptide sequenced by mass spectrometry. A full amino acid sequence was obtained from the cDNA and compared with other insect serpins. Reverse transcription PCR analysis measured serpin transcripts of P. megistus tissues with and without T. cruzi infection. Serpin homology modeling used the Swiss Model and Swiss-PDB viewer programmes. Results The P. megistus serpin (PMSRP1) has a ca. 40 kDa molecular mass with 404 amino acid residues. A reactive site loop contains a highly conserved hinge region but, based on sequence alignment, the normal cleavage site for serine proteases at P1-P1′ was translocated to the putative position P4′-P5′. A small peptide obtained corresponded to the C-terminal 40 amino acid region. The secondary structure of PMSRP1 indicated nine α-helices and three β-sheets, similar to other serpins. PMSRP1 transcripts occurred in all tested tissues but were highest in the fat body and hemocytes. Levels of mRNA encoding PMSRP1 were significantly modulated in the hemocytes and stomach by T. cruzi infection indicating a role for PMSRP1 in the parasite interactions with P. megistus. Conclusions For the first time, a

  17. Global temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Hibino, T.; Mehta, S. K.; Gray, L.; Mitchell, D.; Anstey, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global temperature responses to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 are investigated using nine currently available reanalysis data sets (JRA-55, MERRA, ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25, ERA-40, NCEP-1, NCEP-2, and 20CR). Multiple linear regression is applied to the zonal and monthly mean time series of temperature for two periods, 1979-2009 (for eight reanalysis data sets) and 1958-2001 (for four reanalysis data sets), by considering explanatory factors of seasonal harmonics, linear trends, Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, solar cycle, and El Niño Southern Oscillation. The residuals are used to define the volcanic signals for the three eruptions separately, and common and different responses among the older and newer reanalysis data sets are highlighted for each eruption. In response to the Mount Pinatubo eruption, most reanalysis data sets show strong warming signals (up to 2-3 K for 1-year average) in the tropical lower stratosphere and weak cooling signals (down to -1 K) in the subtropical upper troposphere. For the El Chichón eruption, warming signals in the tropical lower stratosphere are somewhat smaller than those for the Mount Pinatubo eruption. The response to the Mount Agung eruption is asymmetric about the equator with strong warming in the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude upper troposphere to lower stratosphere. Comparison of the results from several different reanalysis data sets confirms the atmospheric temperature response to these major eruptions qualitatively, but also shows quantitative differences even among the most recent reanalysis data sets. The consistencies and differences among different reanalysis data sets provide a measure of the confidence and uncertainty in our current understanding of the volcanic response. The results of this intercomparison study may be useful for validation of climate model responses to volcanic forcing and for assessing proposed geoengineering by stratospheric

  18. Comparative analysis of resistant and susceptible macrophage gene expression response to Leishmania major parasite.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Imen; Rabhi, Sameh; Ben-Othman, Rym; Aniba, Mohamed Radhouane; Trentin, Bernadette; Piquemal, David; Regnault, Béatrice; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia

    2013-10-22

    Leishmania are obligated intracellular pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in macrophages. The outcome of infection depends largely on parasite pathogenicity and virulence but also on the activation status and genetic background of macrophages. Animal models are essential for a better understanding of pathogenesis of different microbes including Leishmania. Here we compared the transcriptional signatures of resistant (C57BL/6) and susceptible (BALB/c) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages in response to Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes infection.Microarray results were first analyzed for significant pathways using the Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The analysis revealed that a large set of the shared genes is involved in the immune response and that difference in the expression level of some chemokines and chemokine receptors could partially explain differences in resistance. We next focused on up-regulated genes unique to either BALB/c or C57BL/6 derived macrophages and identified, using KEGG database, signal transduction pathways among the most relevant pathways unique to both susceptible and resistant derived macrophages. Indeed, genes unique to C57BL/6 BMdMs were associated with target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway while a range of genes unique to BALB/c BMdMs, belong to p53 signaling pathway. We next investigated whether, in a given mice strain derived macrophages, the different up-regulated unique genes could be coordinately regulated. Using GeneMapp Cytoscape, we showed that the induced genes unique to BALB/c or C57BL/6 BMdMs are interconnected. Finally, we examined whether the induced pathways unique to BALB/c derived macrophages interfere with the ones unique to C57BL/6 derived macrophages. Protein-protein interaction analysis using String database highlights the existence of a cross-talk between p53 and mTOR signaling pathways respectively specific to susceptible and resistant BMdMs. Taken together our

  19. Comparative analysis of resistant and susceptible macrophage gene expression response to Leishmania major parasite

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania are obligated intracellular pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in macrophages. The outcome of infection depends largely on parasite pathogenicity and virulence but also on the activation status and genetic background of macrophages. Animal models are essential for a better understanding of pathogenesis of different microbes including Leishmania. Results Here we compared the transcriptional signatures of resistant (C57BL/6) and susceptible (BALB/c) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages in response to Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes infection. Microarray results were first analyzed for significant pathways using the Kyoto Encylopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The analysis revealed that a large set of the shared genes is involved in the immune response and that difference in the expression level of some chemokines and chemokine receptors could partially explain differences in resistance. We next focused on up-regulated genes unique to either BALB/c or C57BL/6 derived macrophages and identified, using KEGG database, signal transduction pathways among the most relevant pathways unique to both susceptible and resistant derived macrophages. Indeed, genes unique to C57BL/6 BMdMs were associated with target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway while a range of genes unique to BALB/c BMdMs, belong to p53 signaling pathway. We next investigated whether, in a given mice strain derived macrophages, the different up-regulated unique genes could be coordinately regulated. Using GeneMapp Cytoscape, we showed that the induced genes unique to BALB/c or C57BL/6 BMdMs are interconnected. Finally, we examined whether the induced pathways unique to BALB/c derived macrophages interfere with the ones unique to C57BL/6 derived macrophages. Protein-protein interaction analysis using String database highlights the existence of a cross-talk between p53 and mTOR signaling pathways respectively specific to susceptible and resistant BMd

  20. Molecular Cytogenetics in Digenean Parasites: Linked and Unlinked Major and 5S rDNAs, B Chromosomes and Karyotype Diversification.

    PubMed

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pasantes, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Digenetic trematodes are the largest group of internal metazoan parasites, but their chromosomes are poorly studied. Although chromosome numbers and/or karyotypes are known for about 300 of the 18,000 described species, molecular cytogenetic knowledge is mostly limited to the mapping of telomeric sequences and/or of major rDNA clusters in 9 species. In this work we mapped major and 5S rDNA clusters and telomeric sequences in chromosomes of Bucephalus minimus, B. australis, Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Bucephaloidea), Monascus filiformis (Gymnophalloidea), Parorchis acanthus (Echinostomatoidea), Cryptocotyle lingua (Opisthorchioidea), Cercaria longicaudata, Monorchis parvus (Monorchioidea), Diphterostomum brusinae, and Bacciger bacciger (Microphalloidea). Whilst single major and minor rDNA clusters were mapped to different chromosome pairs in B. minimus and P. acanthus, overlapping signals were detected on a single chromosome pair in the remaining taxa. FISH experiments using major rDNA and telomeric probes clearly demonstrated the presence of highly stretched NORs in most of the digenean taxa analyzed. B chromosomes were detected in the B. bacciger samples hosted by Ruditapes decussatus. Although the cercariae specimens obtained from Donax trunculus, Tellina tenuis, and R. decussatus were in agreement with B. bacciger, their karyotypes showed striking morphological differences in agreement with the proposed assignation of these cercariae to different species of the genus Bacciger. Results are discussed in comparison with previous data on digenean chromosomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. A rest-activity biomarker to predict response to SSRIs in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    McCall, W Vaughn

    2015-05-01

    Most adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will not experience a remission with the first antidepressant trial. No practical biomarkers presently exist to predict responsiveness to antidepressants. Herein we report pilot data for a rest-activity biomarker of antidepressant response. Fifty-eight medication-free adults with MDD underwent a week-long collection of actigraphic data before beginning a 9 week open label trial of fluoxetine, coupled with blinded randomized assignment to eszopiclone/placebo. Depression severity was repeatedly measured with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). Baseline actigraphic data was analyzed with functional data analysis to create smoothed 24-h curves of activity. The time of the lowest point of activity (the bathyphase) was calculated for each patient, as well the mean difference between bedtime and the bathyphase (BBD). At the end of treatment, patients were characterized as treatment responders (50% reduction in HRSD) or non-responders, and receiver operating curves were calculated to find the optimal cut point of the BBD for prediction of treatment response. The best cut point for BBD was at 260.2 min, resulting in an effect size of 1.45, and with a positive predictive value of 0.75 and a negative predictive value of 0.88. We conclude that actigraphically-determined measures of rest-activity patterns show promise as potential biomarker predictors of antidepressant response. However, this conclusion is based upon a small number of patients who received only one choice of antidepressant, for a single trial. Replication with a larger sample is needed.

  2. Shock response of nanoporous Cu--A molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fengpeng

    2015-06-01

    Shock response of porous materials can be of crucial significance for shock physics and bears many practical applications in materials synthesis and engineering. Molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate shock response of nanoporous metal materials, including elastic-plastic deformation, Hugoniot states, shock-induced melting, partial or complete void collapse, hotspot formation, nanojetting, and vaporization. A model nanoporous Cu with cylindrical voids and a high porosity under shocking is established to investigate such physical properties as velocity, temperature, density, stress and von Mises stress at different stages of compression and release. The elastic-plastic and overtaking shocks are observed at different shock strengths. A modified power-law P- α model is proposed to describe the Hugoniot states. The Grüneisen equation of state is validated. Shock-induced melting shows no clear signs of bulk premelting or superheating. Void collapse via plastic flow nucleated from voids, and the exact processes are shock strength dependent. With increasing shock strengths, void collapse transits from the ``geometrical'' mode (collapse of a void is dominated by crystallography and void geometry and can be different from that of one another) to ``hydrodynamic'' mode (collapse of a void is similar to one another). The collapse may be achieved predominantly by plastic flows along the {111} slip planes, by way of alternating compression and tension zones, by means of transverse flows, via forward and transverse flows, or through forward nano-jetting. The internal jetting induces pronounced shock front roughening, leading to internal hotspot formation and sizable high speed jets on atomically flat free surfaces. P. O. Box 919-401, Mianyang, 621900, Sichuan, PRC.

  3. Quantitative Molecular Detection of 19 Major Pathogens in the Interdental Biofilm of Periodontally Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrouel, Florence; Viennot, Stéphane; Santamaria, Julie; Veber, Philippe; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18–35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important

  4. Molecular evolution of the HoxA cluster in the three major gnathostome lineages

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-hua; Amemiya, Chris; Dewar, Ken; Kim, Chang-Bae; Ruddle, Frank H.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2002-01-01

    . Our data did not yield evidence supporting this prediction. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cis-sequence conservation after Hox cluster duplication are more consistent with being the outcome of adaptive modification rather than passive mechanisms that erode redundancy created by the duplication event. These results support the view that genome duplications may provide a mechanism whereby master control genes undergo radical modifications conducive to major alterations in body plan. Such genomic revolutions may contribute significantly to the evolutionary process. PMID:11943847

  5. Molecular evolution of the HoxA cluster in the three major gnathostome lineages.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chi-hua; Amemiya, Chris; Dewar, Ken; Kim, Chang-Bae; Ruddle, Frank H; Wagner, Günter P

    2002-04-16

    data did not yield evidence supporting this prediction. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cis-sequence conservation after Hox cluster duplication are more consistent with being the outcome of adaptive modification rather than passive mechanisms that erode redundancy created by the duplication event. These results support the view that genome duplications may provide a mechanism whereby master control genes undergo radical modifications conducive to major alterations in body plan. Such genomic revolutions may contribute significantly to the evolutionary process.

  6. Major histocompatibility complex alleles, sexual responsivity, and unfaithfulness in romantic couples.

    PubMed

    Garver-Apgar, Christine E; Gangestad, Steven W; Thornhill, Randy; Miller, Robert D; Olp, Jon J

    2006-10-01

    Preferences for mates that possess genes dissimilar to one's own at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a polymorphic group of loci associated with the immune system, have been found in mice, birds, fish, and humans. These preferences may help individuals choose genetically compatible mates and may adaptively function to prevent inbreeding or to increase heterozygosity and thereby immunocompetence of offspring. MHC-dissimilar mate preferences may influence the psychology of sexual attraction. We investigated whether MHC similarity among romantically involved couples (N= 48) predicted aspects of their sexual relationship. All women in our sample normally ovulated, and alleles at three MHC loci were typed for each person. As the proportion of MHC alleles couples shared increased, women's sexual responsivity to their partners decreased, their number of extrapair sexual partners increased, and their attraction to men other than their primary partners increased, particularly during the fertile phase of their cycles.

  7. The Domestication Syndrome Genes Responsible for the Major Changes in Plant Form in the Triticeae Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Shun; Salomon, Björn; Komatsuda, Takao

    2011-01-01

    The process of crop domestication began 10,000 years ago in the transition of early humans from hunter/gatherers to pastoralists/farmers. Recent research has revealed the identity of some of the main genes responsible for domestication. Two of the major domestication events in barley were (i) the failure of the spike to disarticulate and (ii) the six-rowed spike. The former mutation increased grain yield by preventing grain loss after maturity, while the latter resulted in an up to 3-fold increase in yield potential. Here we provide an overview of the disarticulation systems and inflorescence characteristics, along with the genes underlying these traits, occurring in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:21389058

  8. Biochemical and molecular responses to water stress in resurrection plants.

    PubMed

    Bernacchia, Giovanni; Furini, Antonella

    2004-06-01

    A small group of angiosperms, known as resurrection plants, can tolerate extreme dehydration. They survive in arid environments because they are able to dehydrate, remain quiescent during long periods of drought, and then resurrect upon rehydration. Dehydration induces the expression of a large number of transcripts in resurrection plants. Gene products with a putative protective function such as LEA proteins have been identified; they are expressed at high levels in the cytoplasm or in chloroplasts upon dehydration and/or ABA treatment of vegetative tissue. An increase in sugar concentration is usually observed at the onset of desiccation in vegetative tissue of resurrection plants. These sugars may be effective in osmotic adjustment or they may stabilize membrane structures and proteins. Regulatory genes such as a protein translation initiation factor, homeodomain-leucine zipper genes and a gene probably working as a regulatory RNA have been isolated and characterized. The knowledge of the biochemical and molecular responses that occur during the onset of drought may help to improve water stress tolerance in plants of agronomic importance.

  9. Managing partial response or nonresponse: switching, augmentation, and combination strategies for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I

    2009-01-01

    Despite the multitude of agents approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, approximately 50% of patients experience no response to treatment with a first-line antidepressant. Clinicians have 4 broad pharmacologic strategies to choose from for treating antidepressant nonresponders: increasing the dose of the antidepressant, switching to a different antidepressant, augmenting the treatment regimen with a nonantidepressant agent, and combining the original antidepressant with a second antidepressant. To date, the most comprehensively studied treatment strategy for nonresponse or partial response to antidepressants is augmentation with atypical antipsychotic agents, including aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. However, augmentation or combination with other agents such as mirtazapine, mianserin, and omega-3 fatty acids is also supported by considerable efficacy data. Lithium, desipramine, triiodothyronine, and modafinil have mixed data. While more studies are needed, agents such as bupropion, desipramine, mecamylamine, and testosterone look promising. Switching antidepressants, especially to the newer agents, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion, mirtazapine, and venlafaxine, is also supported by considerable efficacy data. Clinicians should carefully reevaluate patients with major depressive disorder who are nonresponders to treatment, particularly those who have had several adequate trials. When choosing the best treatment strategy for antidepressant nonresponders, clinicians should take into account the efficacy and tolerability of treatment as well as patient preference and treatment history. Finally, the risk of potential loss of partial therapeutic benefit from the first-line antidepressant, as well as the risk of withdrawal symptoms, should be taken into account when considering switching antidepressants, while the risk of drug interactions and poor adherence should be taken into account when considering

  10. Relationship of Ketamine’s Plasma Metabolites with Response, Diagnosis, and Side Effects in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Brutsche, Nancy; Laje, Gonzalo; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Vattem Venkata, Swarajya L.; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Moaddel, Ruin; Wainer, Irving W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects lasting as long as 1 week in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression (BD). Ketamine is extensively metabolized. This study examined the relationship between ketamine metabolites and response, diagnosis, and psychotomimetic symptoms in MDD and BD patients. Methods Following a 40-minute ketamine infusion (.5 mg/kg), plasma samples were collected at 40, 80, 110, and 230 minutes and day 1 postinfusion in 67 patients currently experiencing a major depressive episode (MDD, n = 45; BD, n = 22). Concentrations of ketamine, norketamine (NK), dehydronorketamine (DHNK), six hydroxynorketamine metabolites (HNK), and hydroxyketamine (HK) were measured. Plasma concentrations were analyzed by diagnostic group and correlated with patients’ depressive, psychotic, and dissociative symptoms. The relationship between cytochrome P450 gene polymorphisms and metabolites, response, and diagnosis was also examined. Results Ketamine, NK, DHNK, four of six HNKs, and HK were present during the first 230 minutes postinfusion. Patients with BD had higher plasma concentrations of DHNK, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK, (2S,6R;2R,6S)-HNK, and (2S,5S;2R,5R)-HNK than patients with MDD, who, in turn, had higher concentrations of (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HK. Higher (2S,5S;2R,5R)-HNK concentrations were associated with nonresponse to ketamine in BD patients. Dehydronorketamine, HNK4c, and HNK4f levels were significantly negatively correlated with psychotic and dissociative symptoms at 40 minutes. No relationship was found between cytochrome P450 genes and any of the parameters examined. Conclusions A diagnostic difference was observed in the metabolism and disposition of ketamine. Concentrations of (2S,5S;2R,5R)-HNK were related to nonresponse to ketamine in BD. Some hydroxylated metabolites of ketamine correlated with psychotic and dissociative symptoms. PMID:22516044

  11. A unique large-scale undergraduate research experience in molecular systems biology for non-mathematics majors.

    PubMed

    Kappler, Ulrike; Rowland, Susan L; Pedwell, Rhianna K

    2016-12-28

    Systems biology is frequently taught with an emphasis on mathematical modeling approaches. This focus effectively excludes most biology, biochemistry, and molecular biology students, who are not mathematics majors. The mathematical focus can also present a misleading picture of systems biology, which is a multi-disciplinary pursuit requiring collaboration between biochemists, bioinformaticians, and mathematicians. This article describes an authentic large-scale undergraduate research experience (ALURE) in systems biology that incorporates proteomics, bacterial genomics, and bioinformatics in the one exercise. This project is designed to engage students who have a basic grounding in protein chemistry and metabolism and no mathematical modeling skills. The pedagogy around the research experience is designed to help students attack complex datasets and use their emergent metabolic knowledge to make meaning from large amounts of raw data. On completing the ALURE, participants reported a significant increase in their confidence around analyzing large datasets, while the majority of the cohort reported good or great gains in a variety of skills including "analysing data for patterns" and "conducting database or internet searches." An environmental scan shows that this ALURE is the only undergraduate-level system-biology research project offered on a large-scale in Australia; this speaks to the perceived difficulty of implementing such an opportunity for students. We argue however, that based on the student feedback, allowing undergraduate students to complete a systems-biology project is both feasible and desirable, even if the students are not maths and computing majors. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016.

  12. Broadly targeted CD8+ T cell responses restricted by major histocompatibility complex E

    DOE PAGES

    Hansen, Scott G.; Wu, Helen L.; Burwits, Benjamin J.; ...

    2016-02-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-E is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed, nonclassical, MHC-Ib molecule with limited polymorphism primarily involved in regulation of NK cell reactivity via interaction with NKG2/CD94 receptors. We found that vaccination of rhesus macaques with Rh157.5/.4 gene-deleted rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors uniquely diverts MHC-E function to presentation of highly diverse peptide epitopes to CD8α/β+ T cells, approximately 4 distinct epitopes per 100 amino acids, in all tested protein antigens. Computational structural analysis revealed that a relatively stable, open binding groove in MHC-E attains broad peptide binding specificity by imposing a similar backbone configuration on bound peptides with fewmore » restrictions based on amino acid side chains. Since MHC-E is up-regulated on cells infected with HIV/SIV and other persistent viruses to evade NK cell activity, MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cell responses have the potential to exploit pathogen immune evasion adaptations, a capability that might endow these unconventional responses with superior efficacy.« less

  13. Broadly targeted CD8+ T cell responses restricted by major histocompatibility complex E

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Scott G.; Wu, Helen L.; Burwits, Benjamin J.; Hughes, Colette M.; Hammond, Katherine B.; Ventura, Abigail B.; Reed, Jason S.; Gilbride, Roxanne M.; Ainslie, Emily; Morrow, David W.; Ford, Julia C.; Selseth, Andrea N.; Pathak, Reesab; Malouli, Daniel; Legasse, Alfred W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Nelson, Jay A.; Gillespie, Geraldine M.; Walters, Lucy C.; Brackenridge, Simon; Sharpe, Hannah R.; Lopez, Cesar Augusto; Fruh, Klaus; Korber, Bette Tina; McMichael, Andrew J.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram; Sacha, Jonah B.; Picker, Louis J.

    2016-02-12

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-E is a highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed, nonclassical, MHC-Ib molecule with limited polymorphism primarily involved in regulation of NK cell reactivity via interaction with NKG2/CD94 receptors. We found that vaccination of rhesus macaques with Rh157.5/.4 gene-deleted rhesus Cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vectors uniquely diverts MHC-E function to presentation of highly diverse peptide epitopes to CD8α/β+ T cells, approximately 4 distinct epitopes per 100 amino acids, in all tested protein antigens. Computational structural analysis revealed that a relatively stable, open binding groove in MHC-E attains broad peptide binding specificity by imposing a similar backbone configuration on bound peptides with few restrictions based on amino acid side chains. Since MHC-E is up-regulated on cells infected with HIV/SIV and other persistent viruses to evade NK cell activity, MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cell responses have the potential to exploit pathogen immune evasion adaptations, a capability that might endow these unconventional responses with superior efficacy.

  14. EEG biomarkers in major depressive disorder: discriminative power and prediction of treatment response.

    PubMed

    Olbrich, Sebastian; Arns, Martijn

    2013-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) has high population prevalence and is associated with substantial impact on quality of life, not least due to an unsatisfactory time span of sometimes several weeks from initiation of treatment to clinical response. Therefore extensive research focused on the identification of cost-effective and widely available electroencephalogram (EEG)-based biomarkers that not only allow distinguishing between patients and healthy controls but also have predictive value for treatment response for a variety of treatments. In this comprehensive overview on EEG research on MDD, biomarkers that are either assessed at baseline or during the early course of treatment and are helpful in discriminating patients from healthy controls and assist in predicting treatment outcome are reviewed, covering recent decades up to now. Reviewed markers include quantitative EEG (QEEG) measures, connectivity measures, EEG vigilance-based measures, sleep-EEG-related measures and event-related potentials (ERPs). Further, the value and limitations of these different markers are discussed. Finally, the need for integrated models of brain function and the necessity for standardized procedures in EEG biomarker research are highlighted to enhance future research in this field.

  15. Serum Cytokine Levels in Major Depressive Disorder and Its Role in Antidepressant Response

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Woojae; Lim, Shinn-Won; Woo, Hye In; Park, Jin Hong; Shim, Sanghong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cytokines have been reported to have key roles in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, much less is known about cytokines in MDD and antidepressant treatment due to the diversity of cytokines and the heterogeneity of depression. We investigated the levels of cytokines in patients with MDD compared with healthy subjects and their associations with antidepressant response. Methods We investigated the changes of several cytokines (eotaxin, sCD40L, IL-8, MCP-1alpha, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma and MIP-1alpha) by Luminex assay in 66 patients with MDD and 22 healthy controls. The antidepressant response was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Results We found the levels of sCD40L (p=0.001), IL-8 (p=0.004) and MCP-1 (p=0.03) of healthy controls were significantly higher than those of depressive patients. However, the level of eotaxin and TNF-alpha were not associated with MDD. In addition, we found the level of MCP-1 was significantly changed after antidepressant treatment (p=0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest the roles of cytokines in MDD are complex, and could vary according to the individual characteristics of each patient. Further studies regarding the relationship between cytokines and MDD will be required. PMID:27909456

  16. Cerebellar volume change in response to electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Nolte, Henrike M; Hirjak, Dusan; Palm, Elisa; Hofer, Stefan; Stieltjes, Bram; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Sambataro, Fabio; Wolf, Robert C; Thomann, Philipp A

    2017-02-06

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is remarkably effective in severe major depressive disorder (MDD). Growing evidence has accumulated for brain structural and functional changes in response to ECT, primarily within cortico-limbic regions that have been considered in current neurobiological models of MDD. Despite increasing evidence for important cerebellar contributions to affective, cognitive and attentional processes, investigations on cerebellar effects of ECT in depression are yet lacking. In this study, using cerebellum-optimized voxel-based analysis methods, we investigated cerebellar volume in 12 MDD patients who received right-sided unilateral ECT. 16 healthy controls (HC) were included. Structural MRI data was acquired before and after ECT and controls were scanned once. Baseline structural differences in MDD compared to HC were located within the "cognitive cerebellum" and remained unchanged with intervention. ECT led to gray matter volume increase of left cerebellar area VIIa crus I, a region ascribed to the "affective/limbic cerebellum". The effects of ECT on cerebellar structure correlated with overall symptom relief. These findings provide preliminary evidence that structural change of the cerebellum in response to ECT may be related to the treatment's antidepressant effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Oxidative stress and glutathione response in tissue cultures from persons with major depression.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sara A; Korade, Željka; Shelton, Richard C

    2012-10-01

    There is evidence that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased peripheral markers of oxidative stress. To explore oxidation and antioxidant response in MDD, we assayed human dermal fibroblast cultures derived from skin biopsies of age-, race-, and sex-matched individuals in depressed and normal control groups (n = 16 each group), cultured in glucose and galactose conditions, for relative protein carbonylation (a measure of oxidative stress), glutathione reductase (GR) expression, and total glutathione concentration. In control-group fibroblasts, galactose induced a significant increase from the glucose condition in both protein carbonylation and GR. The cells from the MDD group showed total protein carbonylation and GR expression in the glucose condition that was significantly higher than control cells in glucose and equivalent to controls in galactose. There was a small decrease in protein carbonylation in MDD cells from glucose to galactose and no significant change in GR. There was no difference in total glutathione among any of the groups. Increased protein carbonylation and GR expression, cellular responses to oxidative stress induced by galactose in control fibroblasts, are present in fibroblasts derived from MDD patients and are not explainable by reduced GR or total glutathione in the depressed patients. These studies support the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of MDD. Further confirmation of these findings could lead to the development of novel antioxidant approaches for the treatment of depression.

  18. Innate Immune Responses Activated in Arabidopsis Roots by Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Yves A.; Danna, Cristian H.; Clay, Nicole K.; Songnuan, Wisuwat; Simon, Matthew D.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that roots are the organs most subject to microbial interactions, very little is known about the response of roots to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). By monitoring transcriptional activation of β-glucuronidase reporters and MAMP-elicited callose deposition, we show that three MAMPs, the flagellar peptide Flg22, peptidoglycan, and chitin, trigger a strong tissue-specific response in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, either at the elongation zone for Flg22 and peptidoglycan or in the mature parts of the roots for chitin. Ethylene signaling, the 4-methoxy-indole-3-ylmethylglucosinolate biosynthetic pathway, and the PEN2 myrosinase, but not salicylic acid or jasmonic acid signaling, play major roles in this MAMP response. We also show that Flg22 induces the cytochrome P450 CYP71A12-dependent exudation of the phytoalexin camalexin by Arabidopsis roots. The phytotoxin coronatine, an Ile-jasmonic acid mimic produced by Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, suppresses MAMP-activated responses in the roots. This suppression requires the E3 ubiquitin ligase COI1 as well as the transcription factor JIN1/MYC2 but does not rely on salicylic acid–jasmonic acid antagonism. These experiments demonstrate the presence of highly orchestrated and tissue-specific MAMP responses in roots and potential pathogen-encoded mechanisms to block these MAMP-elicited signaling pathways. PMID:20348432

  19. Effect of serotonin receptor 2A gene polymorphism on mirtazapine response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Rhee-Hun; Choi, Myoung-Jin; Paik, Jong-Woo; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Lee, Min-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The 5-HTR2A gene is a candidate gene for influencing the clinical response to treatment with antidepressants. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the -1438A/G polymorphism of the 5-HTR2A gene and the response to mirtazapine in a Korean population with major depressive disorder. Mirtazapine was administered for eight weeks to the 101 patients who completed the study, during which we evaluated the clinical outcome using repeated-measures ANCOVA. A main effect of genotype or an effect of genotype-time interactions on the decrease in HAMD score during the eight-week follow-up was not found, which suggests that the 5-HTR2A -1438A/G polymorphism does not affect the clinical outcome to mirtazapine administration. However, significant effects of genotype and allele carriers on the decrease in the sleep score over the eight weeks were found (genotype: F = 4.093, p = 0.017; allele: F = 4.371, p = 0.037), whereas no effect of genotype-time interactions on the decrease in the HAMD score over the eight-week follow-up was found. These observations suggest that the -1438A/G polymorphism on the sleep improvement at each time period revealed significant differences in the sleep scores after two weeks of mirtazapine administration. The sleep scores were lower for carriers of the A+ allele than of the A- allele after two weeks of mirtazapine administration (p = 0.041), which means that the -1438GG genotype is associated with less improvement in sleep, and suggests that the effect of mirtazapine on improving the sleep quality differs with the 5-HTR2A -1438A/G polymorphism within two weeks of mirtazapine treatment. In conclusion, although the -1438A/G polymorphism affects the sleep improvement resulting from the administration of mirtazapine to Korean patients with major depressive disorder, our results do not support the hypothesis that this polymorphism of the 5-HTR2A gene is involved in the therapeutic response to mirtazapine.

  20. Numerical and Functional Responses of Forest Bats to a Major Insect Pest in Pine Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances. We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests. PMID:25285523

  1. Frontoparietal Activation During Response Inhibition Predicts Remission to Antidepressants in Patients With Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Gyurak, Anett; Patenaude, Brian; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Williams, Leanne M; Etkin, Amit

    2016-02-15

    Despite cognitive function impairment in depression, its relationship to treatment outcome is not well understood. Here, we examined whether pretreatment activation of cortical circuitry during test of cognitive functions predicts outcomes for three commonly used antidepressants. Eighty medication-free outpatients with major depression and 34 matched healthy controls were included as participants in the International Study to Predict Optimized Treatment in Depression (iSPOT-D) trial. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants completed three tasks that assessed core domains of cognitive functions: response inhibition (Go/NoGo), selective attention (oddball), and selective working memory updating (1-back). Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 arms: escitalopram, sertraline (serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors [SSRI]), or venlafaxine-extended release (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]) therapy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were repeated after 8 weeks of treatment, and remission was assessed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during inhibitory "no go" responses was a general predictor of remission, with remitters having the same pretreatment activation as control participants and nonremitters hypoactivating relative to controls. Posttreatment dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation was reduced in both remitters and controls but not in nonremitters. By contrast, inferior parietal activation differentially predicted remission between SSRI and SNRI medications, with SSRI remitters showing greater pretreatment activation than SSRI nonremitters and the SNRI group showing the opposite pattern. Intact activation in the frontoparietal network during response inhibition, a core cognitive function, predicts remission with antidepressant treatment, particularly for SSRIs, and may be a potential substrate of the clinical effect of treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Numerical and functional responses of forest bats to a major insect pest in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Charbonnier, Yohan; Barbaro, Luc; Theillout, Amandine; Jactel, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Global change is expected to modify the frequency and magnitude of defoliating insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Bats are increasingly acknowledged as effective biocontrol agents for pest insect populations. However, a better understanding is required of whether and how bat communities contribute to the resilience of forests to man- and climate-driven biotic disturbances.We studied the responses of forest insectivorous bats to a major pine defoliator, the pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa, which is currently expanding its range in response to global warming [corrected]. We used pheromone traps and ultrasound bat recorders to estimate the abundance and activity of moths and predatory bats along the edge of infested pine stands. We used synthetic pheromone to evaluate the effects of experimentally increased moth availability on bat foraging activity. We also evaluated the top-down regulation of moth population by estimating T. pityocampa larval colonies abundance on the same edges the following winter. We observed a close spatio-temporal matching between emergent moths and foraging bats, with bat activity significantly increasing with moth abundance. The foraging activity of some bat species was significantly higher near pheromone lures, i.e. in areas of expected increased prey availability. Furthermore moth reproductive success significantly decreased with increasing bat activity during the flight period of adult moths. These findings suggest that bats, at least in condition of low prey density, exhibit numerical and functional responses to a specific and abundant prey, which may ultimately result in an effective top-down regulation of the population of the prey. These observations are consistent with bats being useful agents for the biocontrol of insect pest populations in plantation forests.

  3. Resting leukocyte telomerase activity is elevated in major depression and predicts treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Wolkowitz, OM; Mellon, SH; Epel, ES; Lin, J; Reus, VI; Rosser, R; Burke, H; Compagnone, M; Nelson, JC; Dhabhar, FS; Blackburn, EH

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that cap linear DNA strands, protecting DNA from damage. When telomeres critically shorten, cells become susceptible to senescence and apoptosis. Telomerase, a cellular ribonucleoprotein enzyme, rebuilds the length of telomeres and promotes cellular viability. Leukocyte telomeres are reportedly shortened in major depression, but telomerase activity in depression has not been previously reported. Further, there are no published reports of the effects of antidepressants on telomerase activity or on the relationship between telomerase activity and antidepressant response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomerase activity was assessed in 20 medication-free depressed individuals and 18 controls. In total, 16 of the depressed individuals were then treated with sertraline in an open-label manner for 8 weeks, and PBMC telomerase activity was reassessed in 15 of these individuals after treatment. Pre- and post-treatment symptom severity was rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. All analyses were corrected for age and sex. Pretreatment telomerase activity was significantly elevated in the depressed individuals compared with the controls (P = 0.007) and was directly correlated with depression ratings (P< 0.05) across all subjects. In the depressed group, individuals with relatively lower pretreatment telomerase activity and with relatively greater increase in telomerase activity during treatment, showed superior antidepressant responses (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively). This is the first report characterizing telomerase activity in depressed individuals. PBMC telomerase activity might reflect a novel aspect of depressive pathophysiology and might represent a novel biomarker of antidepressant responsiveness. PMID:21242992

  4. Psychobiological Responses to Preferred and Prescribed Intensity Exercise in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jacob D; Ellingson, Laura D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-11-01

    Exercise acutely improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown whether benefits differ depending on whether exercise intensity is self-selected or prescribed. This study aimed to compare psychological and biological responses to preferred and prescribed steady-state exercise intensities to a patient-selected preferred intensity. Female adults (N = 24, age = 38.6 ± 14.0 yr) diagnosed with MDD completed four 30-min sessions of cycling exercise at three prescribed intensities (RPE of 11, 13, and 15) and one session with a self-selected intensity (preferred). Order was randomized and counterbalanced. Depressed mood (DM) was evaluated before, 10 min, and 30 min postexercise using the Profile of Mood States. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was measured before and within 10 min postexercise. Changes in BDNF and DM for the preferred session were compared with the following prescribed sessions: 1) performed at the most similar intensity (matched on RPE; closest) and 2) with the greatest improvement in DM (greatest). Compared with the preferred session, improvement in DM was significantly larger after the greatest session (30 min postexercise: -11.8 ± 7.4 vs -3.4 ± 4.8), and the BDNF response was significantly greater after the closest session (5.4 ± 6.9 vs -1.4 ± 9.8 ng·mL). Permitting patients to select their own exercise intensity did not maximize improvements in mood. Further, preferred intensity exercise was also associated with a smaller BDNF response. Overall, the results suggest that exercise undertaken to improve mood should be prescribed on an individual basis in MDD and not necessarily based on the patient's preferred intensity. Clinicians, psychologists, and other practitioners should consider providing clear exercise intensity recommendations for symptom management in depression rather than allowing patients to self-select their intensity.

  5. Genetic variability at HPA axis in major depression and clinical response to antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Papiol, Sergi; Arias, Bárbara; Gastó, Cristóbal; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Catalán, Rosa; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2007-12-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been observed in major depression. Normalization of HPA axis has been suggested to play a role in the mechanisms of action of antidepressants. Our aim was to investigate the influence of genetic variants in CRHR1, CRHR2, CRH-BP and FKBP5 genes on both the vulnerability for depression and the response to antidepressant treatment. The sample consisted of 159 depressive outpatients and 96 healthy controls of Spanish origin. Patients were assessed for clinical features including, among others, age of onset, seasonality or suicidal behavior. The episode was treated with citalopram and followed along 12 weeks. Severity of symptoms was evaluated at the inclusion and then monthly along the follow-up using a 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Score (HDRS). SNPs were assayed using Applied Biosystems SNaP-Shot and TaqMan technology. rs110402, in CRHR1 gene, was associated with an increased risk to present a seasonal pattern and an early age of onset of the first depressive episode. Allele G carriers of rs2270007 of CRHR2 gene, showed a worse overall response to citalopram along time of follow-up (Genotype effect F=7.45, P=0.007). G allele carriers showed 2.93 increased risk (95% CI [1.24-6.90]) for non-responding at 4th week to citalopram treatment (chi(2)=7.59, df=1, P=0.006). On the light of the moderate sample size, associations based on the mentioned polymorphisms need to be considered with caution and require further replication studies in other samples. Variability at genes encoding proteins with a pivotal role in HPA axis regulation seems to influence i) the expression of severity variables of the depressive spectrum including early age of onset or a seasonal pattern and ii) the interindividual variation in clinical response to SSRI antidepressants.

  6. C5orf42 is the major gene responsible for OFD syndrome type VI.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Estelle; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Reversade, Bruno; Khartoufi, Nadia El; Devisme, Louise; Holder, Muriel; Ansart-Franquet, Hélène; Avila, Magali; Lacombe, Didier; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Kaori, Irahara; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi; Le Merrer, Martine; Martinovic, Jelena; Noël, Catherine; Shboul, Mohammad; Ho, Lena; Güven, Yeliz; Razavi, Ferechté; Burglen, Lydie; Gigot, Nadège; Darmency-Stamboul, Véronique; Thevenon, Julien; Aral, Bernard; Kayserili, Hülya; Huet, Frédéric; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Le Caignec, Cédric; Franco, Brunella; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Faivre, Laurence; Attié-Bitach, Tania

    2014-03-01

    Oral-facial-digital syndrome type VI (OFD VI) is a recessive ciliopathy defined by two diagnostic criteria: molar tooth sign (MTS) and one or more of the following: (1) tongue hamartoma (s) and/or additional frenula and/or upper lip notch; (2) mesoaxial polydactyly of one or more hands or feet; (3) hypothalamic hamartoma. Because of the MTS, OFD VI belongs to the "Joubert syndrome related disorders". Its genetic aetiology remains largely unknown although mutations in the TMEM216 gene, responsible for Joubert (JBS2) and Meckel-Gruber (MKS2) syndromes, have been reported in two OFD VI patients. To explore the molecular cause(s) of OFD VI syndrome, we used an exome sequencing strategy in six unrelated families followed by Sanger sequencing. We identified a total of 14 novel mutations in the C5orf42 gene in 9/11 families with positive OFD VI diagnostic criteria including a severe fetal case with microphthalmia, cerebellar hypoplasia, corpus callosum agenesis, polydactyly and skeletal dysplasia. C5orf42 mutations have already been reported in Joubert syndrome confirming that OFD VI and JBS are allelic disorders, thus enhancing our knowledge of the complex, highly heterogeneous nature of ciliopathies.

  7. Molecular basis for AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein interaction and the control of auxin response repression

    PubMed Central

    Korasick, David A.; Westfall, Corey S.; Lee, Soon Goo; Nanao, Max H.; Dumas, Renaud; Hagen, Gretchen; Guilfoyle, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2014-01-01

    In plants, the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factor family regulates gene expression in response to auxin. In the absence of auxin, ARF transcription factors are repressed by interaction with AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins. Although the C termini of ARF and Aux/IAA proteins facilitate their homo- and heterooligomerization, the molecular basis for this interaction remained undefined. The crystal structure of the C-terminal interaction domain of Arabidopsis ARF7 reveals a Phox and Bem1p (PB1) domain that provides both positive and negative electrostatic interfaces for directional protein interaction. Mutation of interface residues in the ARF7 PB1 domain yields monomeric protein and abolishes interaction with both itself and IAA17. Expression of a stabilized Aux/IAA protein (i.e., IAA16) bearing PB1 mutations in Arabidopsis suggests a multimerization requirement for ARF protein repression, leading to a refined auxin-signaling model. PMID:24706860

  8. Nramp5 Is a Major Transporter Responsible for Manganese and Cadmium Uptake in Rice[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Akimasa; Yamaji, Naoki; Yokosho, Kengo; Ma, Jian Feng

    2012-01-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa) is able to accumulate high concentrations of Mn without showing toxicity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying Mn uptake are unknown. Here, we report that a member of the Nramp (for the Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Protein) family, Nramp5, is involved in Mn uptake and subsequently the accumulation of high concentrations of Mn in rice. Nramp5 was constitutively expressed in the roots and encodes a plasma membrane–localized protein. Nramp5 was polarly localized at the distal side of both exodermis and endodermis cells. Knockout of Nramp5 resulted in a significant reduction in growth and grain yield, especially when grown at low Mn concentrations. This growth reduction could be partially rescued by supplying high concentrations of Mn but not by the addition of Fe. Mineral analysis showed that the concentration of Mn and Cd in both the roots and shoots was lower in the knockout line than in wild-type rice. A short-term uptake experiment revealed that the knockout line lost the ability to take up Mn and Cd. Taken together, Nramp5 is a major transporter of Mn and Cd and is responsible for the transport of Mn and Cd from the external solution to root cells. PMID:22589467

  9. Molecular and physiological responses to abiotic stress in forest trees and their relevance to tree improvement.

    PubMed

    Harfouche, Antoine; Meilan, Richard; Altman, Arie

    2014-11-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity and cold, are the major environmental stresses that adversely affect tree growth and, thus, forest productivity, and play a major role in determining the geographic distribution of tree species. Tree responses and tolerance to abiotic stress are complex biological processes that are best analyzed at a systems level using genetic, genomic, metabolomic and phenomic approaches. This will expedite the dissection of stress-sensing and signaling networks to further support efficient genetic improvement programs. Enormous genetic diversity for stress tolerance exists within some forest-tree species, and due to advances in sequencing technologies the molecular genetic basis for this diversity has been rapidly unfolding in recent years. In addition, the use of emerging phenotyping technologies extends the suite of traits that can be measured and will provide us with a better understanding of stress tolerance. The elucidation of abiotic stress-tolerance mechanisms will allow for effective pyramiding of multiple tolerances in a single tree through genetic engineering. Here we review recent progress in the dissection of the molecular basis of abiotic stress tolerance in forest trees, with special emphasis on Populus, Pinus, Picea, Eucalyptus and Quercus spp. We also outline practices that will enable the deployment of trees engineered for abiotic stress tolerance to land owners. Finally, recommendations for future work are discussed.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Responsive Semi-Fluorinated Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint

    2010-03-01

    Responsive polymeric thin films with controlled surface energies, dielectric constants and structure are critical for a variety of emerging nano and micro-scale technologies including fluidics, electro-optical devices and biotechnology. Introducing nanometer sized fluorinated segments offers a means to tune the polymer properties while significantly enhancing chemical and thermal stability. The interfacial structure and dynamics of multiblock semi fluorinated copolymers at their liquid/vapor interface and at interfaces with water and protonated alkanes has been studied using explicit atom molecular dynamic simulations. For semifluorinated diblocks H3C(CH2)n-1(CF2)m-1CF3 of varying fluorine content, fluorinated groups proliferate and reside longer at the liquid/vapor interface as expected for the lower surface tension components. Aqueous interfaces of these diblocks are sharp and well defined with an enhanced density of protonated groups owing to their reduced hydrophobicity in comparison to fluorinated groups. The enhancement increases with temperature. Protonated alkanes are found to be mutually miscible with the semifluorinated diblock copolymers. Similar surface behavior is observed in semifluorinated multiblock copolymers of the form H-[(CH2)n (CF2)n]m-F where m varies from 3 to 48 with nxm=48. The fluorine enhancement at the liquid-vapor interface depends on both the temperature and block length, with the longest blocks showing the greatest enhancement. Due to mutual phobicity of protonated and fluorinated groups, nm-scale fluorine and hydrogen rich regions occur at the surfaces of these materials, with sizes that also depend on block length and temperature. Work in collaboration with Dvora Perahia and Gary S. Grest.

  11. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Discrete molecular states in the brain accompany changing responses to a vocal signal

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shu; Replogle, Kirstin L.; Hasadsri, Linda; Imai, Brian S.; Yau, Peter M.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Southey, Bruce R.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Clayton, David F.

    2009-01-01

    New experiences can trigger changes in gene expression in the brain. To understand this phenomenon better, we studied zebra finches hearing playbacks of birdsong. Earlier research had shown that initial playbacks of a novel song transiently increase the ZENK (ZIF-268, EGR1, NGFIA, KROX-24) mRNA in the auditory forebrain, but the response selectively habituates after repetition of the stimulus. Here, using DNA microarray analysis, we show that novel song exposure induces rapid changes in thousands of RNAs, with even more RNAs decreasing than increasing. Habituation training leads to the emergence of a different gene expression profile a day later, accompanied by loss of essentially all of the rapid “novel” molecular responses. The novel molecular profile is characterized by increases in genes involved in transcription and RNA processing and decreases in ion channels and putative noncoding RNAs. The “habituated” profile is dominated by changes in genes for mitochondrial proteins. A parallel proteomic analysis [2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and sequencing by mass spectrometry] also detected changes in mitochondrial proteins, and direct enzyme assay demonstrated changes in both complexes I and IV in the habituated state. Thus a natural experience, in this case hearing the sound of birdsong, can lead to major shifts in energetics and macromolecular metabolism in higher centers in the brain. PMID:19541599

  13. Systems biology meets stress ecology: linking molecular and organismal stress responses in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Connon, Richard; Hooper, Helen L; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Maund, Steve J; Hill, Christopher J; Bouetard, Anthony; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to ibuprofen. Results Our findings reveal intriguing similarities in the mode of action of ibuprofen between vertebrates and invertebrates, and they suggest that ibuprofen has a targeted impact on reproduction at the molecular, organismal, and population level in daphnids. Microarray expression and temporal real-time quantitative PCR profiles of key genes suggest early ibuprofen interruption of crustacean eicosanoid metabolism, which appears to disrupt signal transduction affecting juvenile hormone metabolism and oogenesis. Conclusion Combining molecular and organismal stress responses provides a guide to possible chronic consequences of environmental stress for population health. This could improve current environmental risk assessment by providing an early indication of the need for higher tier testing. Our study demonstrates the advantages of a systems approach to stress ecology, in which Daphnia will probably play a major role. PMID:18291039

  14. Molecular diversity of sunflower populations maintained as genetic resources is affected by multiplication processes and breeding for major traits.

    PubMed

    Mangin, Brigitte; Pouilly, Nicolas; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Langlade, Nicolas B; Vincourt, Patrick; Vear, Felicity; Muños, Stéphane

    2017-06-01

    SNP genotyping of 114 cultivated sunflower populations showed that the multiplication process and the main traits selected during breeding of sunflower cultivars drove molecular diversity of the populations. The molecular diversity in a set of 114 cultivated sunflower populations was studied by single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. These populations were chosen as representative of the 400 entries in the INRA collection received or developed between 1962 and 2011 and made up of land races, open-pollinated varieties, and breeding pools. Mean allele number varied from 1.07 to 1.90. Intra-population variability was slightly reduced according to the number of multiplications since entry but some entries were probably largely homozygous when received. A principal component analysis was used to study inter-population variability. The first 3 axes accounted for 17% of total intra-population variability. The first axis was significantly correlated with seed oil content, more closely than just the distinction between oil and confectionary types. The second axis was related to the presence or absence of restorer genes and the third axis to flowering date and possibly to adaptation to different climates. Our results provide arguments highlighting the effect of the maintenance process on the within population genetic variability as well as on the impact of breeding for major agronomic traits on the between population variability of the collection. Propositions are made to improve sunflower population maintenance procedures to keep maximum genetic variability for future breeding.

  15. Diagnosing major depression in the elderly: evidence for response bias in standardized diagnostic interviews?

    PubMed

    Knäuper, B; Wittchen, H U

    1994-01-01

    Recent epidemiological and family genetic studies in different countries using standardized diagnostic interviews for mental disorders have rather consistently demonstrated considerably lower current (e.g. ECA Study: 0.9%) and lifetime (1.4%) prevalence estimates of Major Depression in the elderly (older than 65 years of age) as compared to younger age groups (e.g. 30-44 years: 1 year, 3.9%; lifetime, 7.5%). Some investigators have questioned the validity of these data and suggested alternative interpretations. One possibility is that the complex standardized symptoms and clinical probe questions, and the required judgmental process inherent in diagnostic interviews exceed the cognitive capacity of older adults. This may result in systematic response bias. This paper examines the degree to which the lower prevalence estimates of depression in the elderly are biased due to specific characteristics of the assessment strategy. Analyses of epidemiologic data from the Munich Follow-up Study (MFS), based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, demonstrate that (1) older respondents report lifetime depressive symptoms with the same frequency as younger respondents. The additional probe questions designed to identify the degree to which symptoms were caused by factors other than psychological revealed that (2) the elderly more often attribute such symptoms to physical illnesses or conditions. This results in (3) the exclusion of the reported symptoms as a basis for diagnosing depression. A laboratory study demonstrated that "working memory capacity" was a good predictor of this response behavior, indicating that the complexity of the formalized questions exceeds the cognitive capacity of the elderly. Attributing symptoms to a physical illness or condition might be a heuristic strategy to simplify complex recall and judgment processes; the resulting answer is plausible but incorrect. We recommend that the symptom and probe questions of standardized diagnostic interviews be

  16. ADAM10 Is the Major Sheddase Responsible for the Release of Membrane-associated Meprin A*

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Christian; Haun, Randy S.; Ludwig, Andreas; Shah, Sudhir V.; Kaushal, Gur P.

    2014-01-01

    Meprin A, composed of α and β subunits, is a membrane-bound metalloproteinase in renal proximal tubules. Meprin A plays an important role in tubular epithelial cell injury during acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study demonstrated that during ischemia-reperfusion-induced AKI, meprin A was shed from proximal tubule membranes, as evident from its redistribution toward the basolateral side, proteolytic processing in the membranes, and excretion in the urine. To identify the proteolytic enzyme responsible for shedding of meprin A, we generated stable HEK cell lines expressing meprin β alone and both meprin α and meprin β for the expression of meprin A. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin stimulated ectodomain shedding of meprin β and meprin A. Among the inhibitors of various proteases, the broad spectrum inhibitor of the ADAM family of proteases, tumor necrosis factor-α protease inhibitor (TAPI-1), was most effective in preventing constitutive, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, and ionomycin-stimulated shedding of meprin β and meprin A in the medium of both transfectants. The use of differential inhibitors for ADAM10 and ADAM17 indicated that ADAM10 inhibition is sufficient to block shedding. In agreement with these results, small interfering RNA to ADAM10 but not to ADAM9 or ADAM17 inhibited meprin β and meprin A shedding. Furthermore, overexpression of ADAM10 resulted in enhanced shedding of meprin β from both transfectants. Our studies demonstrate that ADAM10 is the major ADAM metalloproteinase responsible for the constitutive and stimulated shedding of meprin β and meprin A. These studies further suggest that inhibiting ADAM 10 activity could be of therapeutic benefit in AKI. PMID:24662289

  17. The nature of placebo response in clinical studies of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I; Østergaard, Søren D; Iovieno, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    To review factors influencing placebo response and clinical trial outcome in depression, and suggest ways to optimize trial success in mood disorders. PubMed searches were conducted by cross-referencing the terms depression, depressive with placebo, clinical trial, and clinical trials for studies published in English between 1970 and September 2013. Relevant abstracts were identified in PubMed, including clinical trials, quantitative studies, and qualitative research. We obtained and reviewed relevant articles and utilized their information to synthesize the present review. Included articles were grouped in the following areas of relevance: (1) biological validity of illness, (2) baseline severity of illness, (3) chronicity of the index episode of depression, (4) age of participants, (5) medical and psychiatric comorbidity, (6) probability of receiving placebo, (7) use of prospective treatment phases (lead-in) (8) dosing schedule, (9) trial duration, (10) frequency of follow-up assessments, and (11) study outcome measure. Several key elements emerge as critical to the ultimate success of a clinical trial, including the probability of receiving placebo, study duration, dosing schedule, visit frequency, the use of blinded lead-in phases, the use of centralized raters, illness severity and duration, and comorbid anxiety. Our increasing understanding of the placebo response in clinical trials of major depressive disorder lends to a, gradually, more predictable phenomenon and, hopefully, to one that becomes lesser in magnitude and variability. Several elements have emerged that seem to play a critical role in trial success, gradually reshaping the design of clinical, translational, as well as mechanistic studies in depression. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Brain arousal regulation as response predictor for antidepressant therapy in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Frank M.; Sander, Christian; Dietz, Marie-Elisa; Nowak, Claudia; Schröder, Thomas; Mergl, Roland; Schönknecht, Peter; Himmerich, Hubertus; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    A tonically high level of brain arousal and its hyperstable regulation is supposed to be a pathogenic factor in major depression. Preclinical studies indicate that most antidepressants may counteract this dysregulation. Therefore, it was hypothesized that responders to antidepressants show a) a high level of EEG-vigilance (an indicator of brain arousal) and b) a more stable EEG-vigilance regulation than non-responders. In 65 unmedicated depressed patients 15-min resting-state EEGs were recorded off medication (baseline). In 57 patients an additional EEG was recorded 14 ± 1 days following onset of antidepressant treatment (T1). Response was defined as a ≥50% HAMD-17-improvement after 28 ± 1 days of treatment (T2), resulting in 29 responders and 36 non-responders. Brain arousal was assessed using the Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig (VIGALL 2.1). At baseline responders and non-responders differed in distribution of overall EEG-vigilance stages (F2,133 = 4.780, p = 0.009), with responders showing significantly more high vigilance stage A and less low vigilance stage B. The 15-minutes Time-course of EEG-vigilance did not differ significantly between groups. Exploratory analyses revealed that responders showed a stronger decline in EEG-vigilance levels from baseline to T1 than non-responders (F2,130 = 4.978, p = 0.005). Higher brain arousal level in responders to antidepressants supports the concept that dysregulation of brain arousal is a possible predictor of treatment response in affective disorders. PMID:28345662

  19. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  20. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  1. Habenula responses to potential and actual loss in major depression: preliminary evidence for lateralized dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Furman, Daniella J; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-05-01

    The habenula has been implicated in predicting negative events and in responding to unexpected negative outcomes. Animal models of depression have supported the hypothesis that perturbations in habenula activity contribute to the pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), a psychiatric illness characterized by abnormalities in responding to negative feedback and by pessimism in evaluating the likelihood of future events. No research to date, however, has examined human habenula responses to potential and experienced negative outcomes in MDD. In this study, depressed and healthy control participants performed a probabilistic guessing task for monetary rewards and penalties during high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of the habenula. In healthy adults, we observed a pattern of habenula activation consistent with its hypothesized role in predicting future losses and responding to suboptimal outcomes. In contrast, in depressed participants the left habenula was not activated significantly during the prediction or experience of monetary penalty. Complementing this group difference, attenuated habenula activation to negative feedback in control participants was associated with levels of shame and rumination. The results of this study suggest that depressed individuals are characterized by dysfunction in a neural system involved in generating expectations and comparing expectations with objective outcomes.

  2. Neural Network Based Response Prediction of rTMS in Major Depressive Disorder Using QEEG Cordance

    PubMed Central

    Ozekes, Serhat; Gultekin, Selahattin; Tarhan, Nevzat; Hizli Sayar, Gokben; Bayram, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective The combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-pharmacological form of therapy for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), and electroencephalogram (EEG) is a valuable tool for investigating the functional connectivity in the brain. This study aims to explore whether pre-treating frontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance is associated with response to rTMS treatment among MDD patients by using an artificial intelligence approach, artificial neural network (ANN). Methods The artificial neural network using pre-treatment cordance of frontal QEEG classification was carried out to identify responder or non-responder to rTMS treatment among 55 MDD subjects. The classification performance was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation. Results The ANN classification identified responders to rTMS treatment with a sensitivity of 93.33%, and its overall accuracy reached to 89.09%. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) value for responder detection using 6, 8 and 10 fold cross validation were 0.917, 0.823 and 0.894 respectively. Conclusion Potential utility of ANN approach method can be used as a clinical tool in administering rTMS therapy to a targeted group of subjects suffering from MDD. This methodology is more potentially useful to the clinician as prediction is possible using EEG data collected before this treatment process is initiated. It is worth using feature selection algorithms to raise the sensitivity and accuracy values. PMID:25670947

  3. Healthy-year equivalents in major joint replacement. Can patients provide meaningful responses?

    PubMed

    Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary A; Arshinoff, Rena; Bell, Mary; Williams, Jack Ivan; Naylor, C David

    2002-01-01

    Healthy-years equivalents (HYEs) have been proposed as an evaluative measure with advantages over quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The main purpose was to assess the feasibility of eliciting HYEs from patients who have undergone major joint replacement; a secondary objective was to examine relationships with postsurgical health status. Pre- and postsurgical reports of perceived comorbidity and current arthritic burden were obtained from 194 patients, using a comorbidity checklist, summary scores from the Western Ontario/McMaster Osteoarthritis Questionnaire (WOMAC), summary scores derived from six Likert scales, and holistic utility scores for the same attributes. After surgery, HYEs for the full across-time health profile were also elicited. All measures of arthritic burden were sensitive to pre/postsurgical changes (p = .0001), and comorbidity scores were stable. Two HYE subgroups emerged. An HYE-invariant subgroup ascribed full HYEs to their profiles, while reporting higher Likert (t = 2.1309; p = .0344) and utility (s = 4.1504; p = .0001) scores for their postsurgical health state. An HYE-variant subgroup reported HYEs that were weakly but significantly (p < .009) correlated with Likert (r = .30), utility (rs = .25), and comorbidity (r = -.26) scores for their postsurgical state. Our results indicate that patients can understand the HYE assessment procedures and provide interpretable responses. However, a significant proportion reports invariant HYEs that could inflate estimates of the overall mean HYE. Further exploration of the HYEs reported by different clinical and attitudinal populations is needed before widespread adoption of this measure.

  4. Increased cortisol awakening response was associated with time to recurrence of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hardeveld, Florian; Spijker, Jan; Vreeburg, Sophie A; Graaf, Ron De; Hendriks, Sanne M; Licht, Carmilla M M; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2014-12-01

    Although HPA-axis activity has been studied extensively in relation to depression, there is no consensus whether HPA-axis parameters predicts major depressive disorder (MDD) recurrence. We investigated whether HPA-axis parameters (cortisol awakening response (CAR), the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and evening cortisol) predict time to recurrence in remitted subjects with a history of MDD and whether childhood trauma and life events interact with HPA-axis parameters in increasing the risk for recurrence. Data were derived from 549 subjects with a lifetime diagnosis of MDD in remission for at least six months preceding the baseline assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Subjects were followed up with two interviews over the course of four years to assess recurrence. DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews were used to assess time to recurrence of MDD. Seven salivary cortisol samples collected at baseline with information on CAR, evening cortisol and the DST. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox regression analysis, adjusted for covariates. A higher CAR was associated with time to recurrence of MDD (HR=1.03, 95%CI 1.003-1.060, p=0.03) whereas evening cortisol and DST were not. No interactions between HPA-axis parameters and stress-related factors were found. Our data support previous studies reporting that subjects with a higher CAR are more vulnerable to recurrence of MDD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cruzipain, a major Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, conditions the host immune response in favor of parasite.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Laura; Guiñazú, Natalia; Stempin, Cinthia; Fretes, Ricardo; Cerbán, Fabio; Gea, Susana

    2002-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that humoral immune response to cruzipain, a major antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas' disease. In the present study, the spleen cell phenotype and the cytokine profile induced by cruzipain in immunized mice were analyzed. The results showed that cruzipain increases the number of spleen cells with large size and granularity. Splenocyte populations with CD19(+), Mac-1(+), Gr-1(+) and CD11c(+) positive surface markers significantly increased in immune mice compared to controls ones. Histological study revealed the presence of high number of megacariocyte and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, indicating extramedullary hemopoiesis in spleens of immune mice. The finding of high levels of IL-4, IL5 and IL-10 and low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in supernatants of immune cells stimulated with cruzipain indicates a preferential activation of T2 type cells in immune animals. To investigate the role of innate immunity cells, the classical and alternative metabolic pathways of spleen macrophages from immune mice stimulated by cruzipain were also studied. The results showed an increase of urea associated with a decrease of nitrite levels, suggesting that cruzipain up-regulates the arginase way. Therefore, cruzipain leads to T2 type cytokine profile which may enhance the arginase via in the macrophages promoting a susceptible mechanism to infection. Thus, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, cruzipain could be used by the parasite to spread inside the host.

  6. Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Bian, Difei; Xia, Yufeng; Gong, Zhunan; Tan, Qian; Chen, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-β(1) levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P = 0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P = 0.0057 for wound healing speed, and P = 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly).

  7. Innate immune response of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita infected with oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces invadans.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Manoj K; Pradhan, Pravata K; Sood, Neeraj; Chaudhary, Dharmendra K; Verma, Dev K; Debnath, Chandan; Sahoo, Lopamudra; Chauhan, U K; Punia, Peyush; Jena, Joy K

    2014-08-01

    The fish pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a fish disease of international significance and reportable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In spite of the current and potential impact of A. invadans infection on fisheries and aquaculture sectors of the world, very little is known about the host-A. invadans interactions. In the present study, following experimental infection with A. invadans in one of the Indian major carps, Labeo rohita, sequential changes in various innate immune parameters were monitored. The results indicated that at early stages of infection, no significant changes in any of the studied innate immune parameters were observed. However, at the advanced stages of infection from 6 to 12 days post infection (dpi), the respiratory burst and alternate complement activity were significantly higher whereas lysozyme, antiproteases and α-2 macroglobulin values were significantly lower than the control group and also from the infected group at earlier stages of infection. Since, the possibility of vaccination of fish against A. invadans appears remote due to difficulties in eliciting a specific antibody response, the information generated in the present study could be useful for developing strategies for improving resistance to A. invadans infection by stimulating the innate immunity through immunomodulation.

  8. Changes in interleukin-6 levels during electroconvulsive therapy may reflect the therapeutic response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Järventausta, K; Sorri, A; Kampman, O; Björkqvist, M; Tuohimaa, K; Hämäläinen, M; Moilanen, E; Leinonen, E; Peltola, J; Lehtimäki, K

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been reported to be elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD) but decreased by antidepressive medication. IL-6 levels are markedly elevated both after epileptic seizures and single electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) session, but long-term changes in IL-6 levels after ECT have not been studied. The correlation between immediate and long-term changes in proinflammatory cytokines and outcome after ECT was investigated. Thirty patients suffering from MDD participated in the study. IL-6, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) levels were examined at baseline and at 2 and 4 h after the first, fifth and the last ECT sessions. The response to ECT was measured with Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). ECT repeatedly caused an increase in IL-6 levels at the 4-h time point. However, the baseline IL-6 levels decreased among remitters, but not among non-remitters, towards the end of ECT. IL-1β levels were mostly below detectable level, and IL-1Ra levels did not change during and after ECT. ECT has distinct acute and long-term effects on IL-6 levels. Interestingly, the long-term effect of ECT on IL-6 seems to correlate with outcome, providing further evidence of the mechanism of action of ECT and supporting the inflammation theory in MDD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Aida; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Merino, Francisco J; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-01-01

    The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country. In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013-January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed. Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability observed in other molecular surveys. BIV was

  10. Molecular basis of the core regulatory network in ABA responses: sensing, signaling and transport.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Taishi; Nakashima, Kazuo; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kuromori, Takashi; Tanokura, Masaru; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2010-11-01

    ABA is a major phytohormone that regulates a broad range of plant traits and is especially important for adaptation to environmental conditions. Our understanding of the molecular basis of ABA responses in plants improved dramatically in 2009 and 2010, banner years for ABA research. There are three major components; PYR/PYL/ RCAR (an ABA receptor), type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C; a negative regulator) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2; a positive regulator), and they offer a double negative regulatory system, [PYR/PYL/RCAR-| PP2C-| SnRK2]. In the absence of ABA, PP2C inactivates SnRK2 by direct dephosphorylation. In response to environmental or developmental cues, ABA promotes the interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR and PP2C, resulting in PP2C inhibition and SnRK2 activation. This signaling complex can work in both the nucleus and cytosol, as it has been shown that SnRK2 phosphorylates basic-domain leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors or membrane proteins. Several structural analyses of PYR/PYL/RCAR have provided the mechanistic basis for this 'core signaling' model, by elucidating the mechanism of ABA binding of receptors, or the 'gate-latch-lock' mechanism of interaction with PP2C in inhibiting activity. On the other hand, intercellular ABA transport had remained a major issue, as had intracellular ABA signaling. Recently, two plasma membrane-type ABC transporters were identified and shed light on the influx/efflux system of ABA, resolving how ABA is transported from cell to cell in plants. Our knowledge of ABA responses in plants has been greatly expanded from intracellular signaling to intercellular transport of ABA.

  11. Molecular response properties in equation of motion coupled cluster theory: A time-dependent perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coriani, Sonia; Pawłowski, Filip; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Molecular response properties for ground and excited states and for transitions between these states are defined by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a molecular system in a field of a time-periodic perturbation. In equation of motion coupled cluster (EOM-CC) theory, molecular response properties are commonly obtained by replacing, in configuration interaction (CI) molecular response property expressions, the energies and eigenstates of the CI eigenvalue equation with the energies and eigenstates of the EOM-CC eigenvalue equation. We show here that EOM-CC molecular response properties are identical to the molecular response properties that are obtained in the coupled cluster-configuration interaction (CC-CI) model, where the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved using an exponential (coupled cluster) parametrization to describe the unperturbed system and a linear (configuration interaction) parametrization to describe the time evolution of the unperturbed system. The equivalence between EOM-CC and CC-CI molecular response properties only holds when the CI molecular response property expressions—from which the EOM-CC expressions are derived—are determined using projection and not using the variational principle. In a previous article [F. Pawłowski, J. Olsen, and P. Jørgensen, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 114109 (2015)], it was stated that the equivalence between EOM-CC and CC-CI molecular response properties only held for a linear response function, whereas quadratic and higher order response functions were mistakenly said to differ in the two approaches. Proving the general equivalence between EOM-CC and CC-CI molecular response properties is a challenging task, that is undertaken in this article. Proving this equivalence not only corrects the previous incorrect statement but also first and foremost leads to a new, time-dependent, perspective for understanding the basic assumptions on which the EOM-CC molecular response property expressions

  12. Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prachi; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    In field conditions, plants are often simultaneously exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses resulting in substantial yield loss. Plants have evolved various physiological and molecular adaptations to protect themselves under stress combinations. Emerging evidences suggest that plant responses to a combination of stresses are unique from individual stress responses. In addition, plants exhibit shared responses which are common to individual stresses and stress combination. In this review, we provide an update on the current understanding of both unique and shared responses. Specific focus of this review is on heat–drought stress as a major abiotic stress combination and, drought–pathogen and heat–pathogen as examples of abiotic–biotic stress combinations. We also comprehend the current understanding of molecular mechanisms of cross talk in relation to shared and unique molecular responses for plant survival under stress combinations. Thus, the knowledge of shared responses of plants from individual stress studies and stress combinations can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance. PMID:26442037

  13. Modelling Predictors of Molecular Response to Frontline Imatinib for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Fred; Adelson, David; White, Deborah; Hughes, Timothy; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2017-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has become increasingly difficult in recent years due to the variety of treatment options available and challenge deciding on the most appropriate treatment strategy for an individual patient. To facilitate the treatment strategy decision, disease assessment should involve molecular response to initial treatment for an individual patient. Patients predicted not to achieve major molecular response (MMR) at 24 months to frontline imatinib may be better treated with alternative frontline therapies, such as nilotinib or dasatinib. The aims of this study were to i) understand the clinical prediction ‘rules’ for predicting MMR at 24 months for CML patients treated with imatinib using clinical, molecular, and cell count observations (predictive factors collected at diagnosis and categorised based on available knowledge) and ii) develop a predictive model for CML treatment management. This predictive model was developed, based on CML patients undergoing imatinib therapy enrolled in the TIDEL II clinical trial with an experimentally identified achieving MMR group and non-achieving MMR group, by addressing the challenge as a machine learning problem. The recommended model was validated externally using an independent data set from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Saudi Arabia. Principle Findings The common prognostic scores yielded similar sensitivity performance in testing and validation datasets and are therefore good predictors of the positive group. The G-mean and F-score values in our models outperformed the common prognostic scores in testing and validation datasets and are therefore good predictors for both the positive and negative groups. Furthermore, a high PPV above 65% indicated that our models are appropriate for making decisions at diagnosis and pre-therapy. Study limitations include that prior knowledge may change based on varying expert opinions; hence, representing

  14. Molecular phenology in plants: in natura systems biology for the comprehensive understanding of seasonal responses under natural environments.

    PubMed

    Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Phenology refers to the study of seasonal schedules of organisms. Molecular phenology is defined here as the study of the seasonal patterns of organisms captured by molecular biology techniques. The history of molecular phenology is reviewed briefly in relation to advances in the quantification technology of gene expression. High-resolution molecular phenology (HMP) data have enabled us to study phenology with an approach of in natura systems biology. I review recent analyses of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), a temperature-responsive repressor of flowering, along the six steps in the typical flow of in natura systems biology. The extensive studies of the regulation of FLC have made this example a successful case in which a comprehensive understanding of gene functions has been progressing. The FLC-mediated long-term memory of past temperatures creates time lags with other seasonal signals, such as photoperiod and short-term temperature. Major signals that control flowering time have a phase lag between them under natural conditions, and hypothetical phase lag calendars are proposed as mechanisms of season detection in plants. Transcriptomic HMP brings a novel strategy to the study of molecular phenology, because it provides a comprehensive representation of plant functions. I discuss future perspectives of molecular phenology from the standpoints of molecular biology, evolutionary biology and ecology.

  15. Carrington 2? Estimated response of the magnetosphere to a major outburst'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, R.; Reiff, P. H.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    On July 23, 2012, a major CME outburst on the far side of the Sun was observed by STEREO A [Russell et al, 2013]. Because of its intensity and by the fact that it included a significant flux of SEP's, it has been hailed as "Carrington 2" by some, warning that, had that CME been heading towards the Earth, it might have caused a major space weather event. We then used our neural network algorithm to use the solar wind and IMF parameters measured in situ by STEREO A to infer what the geoeffectiveness of that storm might have been. We presently show three of our neural network models on our realtime prediction site: http://mms.rice.edu/realtime/forecast.html. The three models use different base functions, trained by a solar cycle worth of solar wind input and geomagnetic response data. One model uses the "Boyle Index" (BI) as the base transfer function (which includes Bz and velocity but not density). The "Ram" function includes the Boyle Index plus a pressure term. The "Newell" function uses the Newell formula which does include density. Statistically, each of them is good for either a one-hour or three-hour prediction to better than one unit in Kp. (Another talk will show the relative success of each as a realtime predictor). STEREO density data were not available for this event, so we chose as a density proxy the density from a similar event in April 2001. Running this "C2" event through our neural network predictors showed that, in fact, this would have been an exceptional (but perhaps not devastating) event. The BI prediction resulted in a Kp of 8+, a Dst of less than -300 nT, but an AE index of only 1000 nT. Using the "Ram" code, the Kp prediction increased to almost 9+, with Dst again below -300 nT and AE of 1200 nT. Results of a range of possible assumptions about the density structure will be shown.

  16. Addition of sargramostim (GM-CSF) to imatinib results in major cytogenetic response in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Connor, Rebecca F; Hurd, David; Pettenati, Mark J; Koty, Patrick; Molnár, István

    2006-10-01

    Imatinib mesylate, an inhibitor of BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase, has remarkable activity in chronic myeloid leukemia resulting in an 87% major cytogenetic response. We describe a woman who failed to achieve any cytogenetic response after 2.5 years of imatinib, 400mg daily. When daily sargramostim (GM-CSF) 100 microg/m2 was added, cytogenetic studies revealed a gradual increase in percentage of normal cells from start, 4, 9, and 15 months at 0%, 10%, 55%, and 85%, respectively. She became transfusion independent after starting GM-CSF. The addition of GM-CSF to imatinib resulted in a clinical benefit and a major cytogenetic response in this patient.

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells help protective immunity to Leishmania major infection despite suppressed T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Wânia F; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Guillermo, Landi V Costilla; Vellozo, Natália S; Montalvão, Fabrício; Dosreis, George A; Lopes, Marcela F

    2011-12-01

    Th1/Th2 cytokines play a key role in immune responses to Leishmania major by controlling macrophage activation for NO production and parasite killing. MDSCs, including myeloid precursors and immature monocytes, produce NO and suppress T cell responses in tumor immunity. We hypothesized that NO-producing MDSCs could help immunity to L. major infection. Gr1(hi)(Ly6C(hi)) CD11b(hi) MDSCs elicited by L. major infection suppressed polyclonal and antigen-specific T cell proliferation. Moreover, L. major-induced MDSCs killed intracellular parasites in a NO-dependent manner and reduced parasite burden in vivo. By contrast, treatment with ATRA, which induces MDSCs to differentiate into macrophages, increased development of lesions, parasite load, and T cell proliferation in draining LNs. Altogether, these results indicate that NO-producing MDSCs help protective immunity to L. major infection, despite suppressed T cell proliferation.

  18. Molecular Detection of Leishmania major and L. turanica in Phlebotomus papatasi and First Natural Infection of P. salehi to L. major in North-East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rafizadeh, Sayena; Saraei, Mehrzad; Abaei, Mohammad Reza; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Peymani, Amir; Naserpour-Farivar, Taghi; Bakhshi, Hassan; Rassi, Yavar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis is an important public health disease in many developing countries as well in Iran. The main objective of this study was to investigate on leishmania infection of wild caught sand flies in an endemic focus of disease in Esfarayen district, north east of Iran. Methods: Sand flies were collected by sticky papers and mounted in a drop of Puri’s medium for species identification. Polymerase chain reaction techniques of kDNA, ITS1-rDNA, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism were used for identification of DNA of Leishmania parasites within infected sand flies. Results: Among the collected female sand flies, two species of Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus salehi were found naturally infected with Leishmania major. Furthermore, mixed infection of Leishmania turanica and L. major was observed in one specimen of P. papatasi. Sequence analysis revealed two parasite ITS1 haplotypes including three L. major with accession numbers: KJ425408, KJ425407, KM056403 and one L. turanica. (KJ425406). The haplotype of L. major was identical (100%) to several L. major sequences deposited in GenBank, including isolates from Iran, (Gen Bank accession nos.AY573187, KC505421, KJ194178) and Uzbekistan (Accession no.FN677357). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first detection of L. major within wild caught P. salehi in northeast of Iran. PMID:27308272

  19. Titin isoform switching is a major cardiac adaptive response in hibernating grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Wu, Yiming; Granzier, Henk

    2008-07-01

    The hibernation phenomenon captures biological as well as clinical interests to understand how organs adapt. Here we studied how hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) tolerate extremely low heart rates without developing cardiac chamber dilation. We evaluated cardiac filling function in unanesthetized grizzly bears by echocardiography during the active and hibernating period. Because both collagen and titin are involved in altering diastolic function, we investigated both in the myocardium of active and hibernating grizzly bears. Heart rates were reduced from 84 beats/min in active bears to 19 beats/min in hibernating bears. Diastolic volume, stroke volume, and left ventricular ejection fraction were not different. However, left ventricular muscle mass was significantly lower (300 +/- 12 compared with 402 +/- 14 g; P = 0.003) in the hibernating bears, and as a result the diastolic volume-to-left ventricular muscle mass ratio was significantly greater. Early ventricular filling deceleration times (106.4 +/- 14 compared with 143.2 +/- 20 ms; P = 0.002) were shorter during hibernation, suggesting increased ventricular stiffness. Restrictive pulmonary venous flow patterns supported this conclusion. Collagen type I and III comparisons did not reveal differences between the two groups of bears. In contrast, the expression of titin was altered by a significant upregulation of the stiffer N2B isoform at the expense of the more compliant N2BA isoform. The mean ratio of N2BA to N2B titin was 0.73 +/- 0.07 in the active bears and decreased to 0.42 +/- 0.03 (P = 0.006) in the hibernating bears. The upregulation of stiff N2B cardiac titin is a likely explanation for the increased ventricular stiffness that was revealed by echocardiography, and we propose that it plays a role in preventing chamber dilation in hibernating grizzly bears. Thus our work identified changes in the alternative splicing of cardiac titin as a major adaptive response in hibernating grizzly

  20. Prefrontal brain responsiveness to negative stimuli distinguishes familial risk for major depression from acute disorder.

    PubMed

    Opel, Nils; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Meinert, Susanne; Bürger, Christian; Plümpe, Leonie; Alferink, Judith; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-09-01

    Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD. We investigated differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to aversive stimuli between acute MDD and familial risk for the disorder in healthy first-degree relatives of acutely depressed patients with MDD (HC-FH+), healthy age- and sex-matched controls without any family history of depression (HC-FH-), and acutely depressed patients with MDD with (MDD-FH+) and without a family history of depression (MDD-FH-) during a frequently used emotional face-matching paradigm. Analyses of task-specific network connectivity were conducted in terms of psychophysiological interactions (PPI). The present analysis included a total of 100 participants: 25 HC-FH+, 25 HC-FH-, 25 MDD-FH+ and 25 MDD-FH-. Patients with MDD exhibited significantly increased activation in the medial OFC to negative stimuli irrespective of familial risk status, whereas healthy participants at familial risk and patients with MDD alike showed significant hypoactivation in the DLPFC compared with healthy participants without familial risk. The PPI analyses revealed significantly enhanced task-specific coupling between the medial OFC and differing cortical areas in individuals with acute MDD and those with familial risk for the disorder. The main limitation of our study is its cross-sectional design. Whereas hypoactivation during negative emotion processing in the DLPFC appears as a common feature in both healthy high-risk individuals and

  1. On the composite response of the MLT to major sudden stratospheric warming events with elevated stratopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limpasuvan, Varavut; Orsolini, Yvan J.; Chandran, Amal; Garcia, Rolando R.; Smith, Anne K.

    2016-05-01

    Based on a climate-chemistry model (constrained by reanalyses below ~50 km), the zonal-mean composite response of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) to major sudden stratospheric warming events with elevated stratopauses demonstrates the role of planetary waves (PWs) in driving the mean circulation in the presence of gravity waves (GWs), helping the polar vortex recover and communicating the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) impact across the equator. With the SSW onset, strong westward PW drag appears above 80 km primarily from the dissipation of wave number 1 perturbations with westward period of 5-12 days, generated from below by the unstable westward polar stratospheric jet that develops as a result of the SSW. The filtering effect of this jet also allows eastward propagating GWs to saturate in the winter MLT, providing eastward drag that promotes winter polar mesospheric cooling. The dominant PW forcing translates to a net westward drag above the eastward mesospheric jet, which initiates downwelling over the winter pole. As the eastward polar stratospheric jet returns, this westward PW drag persists above 80 km and acts synergistically with the return of westward GW drag to drive a stronger polar downwelling that warms the pole adiabatically and helps reform the stratopause at an elevated altitude. With the polar wind reversal during the SSW onset, the westward drag by the quasi-stationary PW in the winter stratosphere drives an anomalous equatorial upwelling and cooling that enhance tropical stratospheric ozone. Along with equatorial wind anomalies, this ozone enhancement subsequently amplifies the migrating semidiurnal tide amplitude in the winter midlatitudes.

  2. Neurochemical correlates of rapid treatment response to electroconvulsive therapy in patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Njau, Stephanie; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Espinoza, Randall; Leaver, Amber M.; Vasavada, Megha; Marquina, Antonio; Woods, Roger P.; Narr, Katherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective brain stimulation treatment for severe depression. Identifying neurochemical changes linked with ECT may point to biomarkers and predictors of successful treatment response. Methods We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to measure longitudinal changes in glutamate/glutamine (Glx), creatine (Cre), choline (Cho) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the dorsal (dACC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and bilateral hippocampus in patients receiving ECT scanned at baseline, after the second ECT session and after the ECT treatment series. Patients were compared with demographically similar controls at baseline. Controls were assessed twice to establish normative values and variance. Results We included 50 patients (mean age 43.78 ± 14 yr) and 33 controls (mean age 39.33 ± 12 yr) in our study. Patients underwent a mean of 9 ± 4.1 sessions of ECT. At baseline, patients showed reduced Glx in the sgACC, reduced NAA in the left hippocampus and increased Glx in the left hippocampus relative to controls. ECT was associated with significant increases in Cre in the dACC and sgACC and decreases in NAA in the dACC and right hippocampus. Lower NAA levels in the dACC at baseline predicted reductions in depressive symptoms. Both ECT and symptom improvement were associated with decreased Glx in the left hippocampus and increased Glx in the sgACC. Limitations Attrition and clinical heterogeneity may have masked more subtle findings. Conclusion ECT elicits robust effects on brain chemistry, impacting Cre, NAA and Glx, which suggests restorative and neurotrophic processes. Differential effects of Glx in the sgACC and hippocampus, which approach control values with treatment, may reflect previously implicated underactive cortical and overactive subcortical limbic circuitry in patients with major depression. NAA levels at baseline are predictive of therapeutic outcome and could inform future

  3. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity.

  4. Childhood maltreatment and differential treatment response and recurrence in adult major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Kate L; Bagby, R Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2012-06-01

    A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Participants included 203 adult outpatients with MDD (129 women; age 18-60). The design was a 16-week single-center randomized, open label trial of interpersonal psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or antidepressant medication, with a 12-month naturalistic follow-up, conducted at a university psychiatry center in Canada. The main outcome measure was Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores at treatment end point. Childhood maltreatment was assessed at the completion of treatment using an interview-based contextual measure of childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Multiple imputation was adopted to estimate missing values. Patients with severe maltreatment were significantly less likely to respond to interpersonal psychotherapy than to cognitive-behavioral therapy or medication (OR = 3.61), whereas no differences among treatments were found in those with no history of maltreatment (ORs < 1.50). Furthermore, maltreatment significantly predicted a shorter time to recurrence over follow-up across treatment conditions (OR = 3.04). These findings were replicated in the sample with complete case data. Patients with a history of childhood abuse may benefit more from antidepressant medication or cognitive-behavioral therapy than from interpersonal psychotherapy. However, these patients remain vulnerable to recurrence regardless of treatment modality.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS Enables the Rapid Identification of the Major Molecular Types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Firacative, Carolina; Trilles, Luciana; Meyer, Wieland

    2012-01-01

    Background The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. Methodology Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. Results The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. Conclusions MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this species complex in the

  6. Determining molecular responses to environmental change in soybeans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the global climate changes, plants will be challenged by environmental stresses that are more extreme and more frequent. The average yield loss due to environmental stresses is currently estimated to be more than 50% for major crop species and is the major limitation to world food production. The...

  7. A mitochondrial genome phylogeny of termites (Blattodea: Termitoidae): robust support for interfamilial relationships and molecular synapomorphies define major clades.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Lo, Nathan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Svenson, Gavin J; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-10-01

    Despite their ecological significance as decomposers and their evolutionary significance as the most speciose eusocial insect group outside the Hymenoptera, termite (Blattodea: Termitoidae or Isoptera) evolutionary relationships have yet to be well resolved. Previous morphological and molecular analyses strongly conflict at the family level and are marked by poor support for backbone nodes. A mitochondrial (mt) genome phylogeny of termites was produced to test relationships between the recognised termite families, improve nodal support and test the phylogenetic utility of rare genomic changes found in the termite mt genome. Complete mt genomes were sequenced for 7 of the 9 extant termite families with additional representatives of each of the two most speciose families Rhinotermitidae (3 of 7 subfamilies) and Termitidae (3 of 8 subfamilies). The mt genome of the well supported sister-group of termites, the subsocial cockroach Cryptocercus, was also sequenced. A highly supported tree of termite relationships was produced by all analytical methods and data treatment approaches, however the relationship of the termites+Cryptocercus clade to other cockroach lineages was highly affected by the strong nucleotide compositional bias found in termites relative to other dictyopterans. The phylogeny supports previously proposed suprafamilial termite lineages, the Euisoptera and Neoisoptera, a later derived Kalotermitidae as sister group of the Neoisoptera and a monophyletic clade of dampwood (Stolotermitidae, Archotermopsidae) and harvester termites (Hodotermitidae). In contrast to previous termite phylogenetic studies, nodal supports were very high for family-level relationships within termites. Two rare genomic changes in the mt genome control region were found to be molecular synapomorphies for major clades. An elongated stem-loop structure defined the clade Polyphagidae + (Cryptocercus+termites), and a further series of compensatory base changes in this stem-loop is

  8. Kavain, the Major Constituent of the Anxiolytic Kava Extract, Potentiates GABAA Receptors: Functional Characteristics and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Han Chow; Christensen, Emilie T. H.; Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Hartiadi, Leonny Y.; Ramzan, Iqbal; Jensen, Anders A.; Absalom, Nathan L.; Chebib, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the pepper plant kava (Piper methysticum) are effective in alleviating anxiety in clinical trials. Despite the long-standing therapeutic interest in kava, the molecular target(s) of the pharmacologically active constituents, kavalactones have not been established. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are assumed to be the in vivo molecular target of kavalactones based on data from binding assays, but evidence in support of a direct interaction between kavalactones and GABAARs is scarce and equivocal. In this study, we characterised the functional properties of the major anxiolytic kavalactone, kavain at human recombinant α1β2, β2γ2L, αxβ2γ2L (x = 1, 2, 3 and 5), α1βxγ2L (x = 1, 2 and 3) and α4β2δ GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. We found that kavain positively modulated all receptors regardless of the subunit composition, but the degree of enhancement was greater at α4β2δ than at α1β2γ2L GABAARs. The modulatory effect of kavain was unaffected by flumazenil, indicating that kavain did not enhance GABAARs via the classical benzodiazepine binding site. The β3N265M point mutation which has been previously shown to profoundly decrease anaesthetic sensitivity, also diminished kavain-mediated potentiation. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the functional characteristics of a single kavalactone at distinct GABAAR subtypes, and presents the first experimental evidence in support of a direct interaction between a kavalactone and GABAARs. PMID:27332705

  9. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plant to moderately elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert D; Morris, Wayne L; Ducreux, Laurence J M; Morris, Jenny A; Usman, Muhammad; Verrall, Susan R; Fuller, John; Simpson, Craig G; Zhang, Runxuan; Hedley, Pete E; Taylor, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Although significant work has been undertaken regarding the response of model and crop plants to heat shock during the acclimatory phase, few studies have examined the steady-state response to the mild heat stress encountered in temperate agriculture. In the present work, we therefore exposed tuberizing potato plants to mildly elevated temperatures (30/20 °C, day/night) for up to 5 weeks and compared tuber yield, physiological and biochemical responses, and leaf and tuber metabolomes and transcriptomes with plants grown under optimal conditions (22/16 °C). Growth at elevated temperature reduced tuber yield despite an increase in net foliar photosynthesis. This was associated with major shifts in leaf and tuber metabolite profiles, a significant decrease in leaf glutathione redox state and decreased starch synthesis in tubers. Furthermore, growth at elevated temperature had a profound impact on leaf and tuber transcript expression with large numbers of transcripts displaying a rhythmic oscillation at the higher growth temperature. RT-PCR revealed perturbation in the expression of circadian clock transcripts including StSP6A, previously identified as a tuberization signal. Our data indicate that potato plants grown at moderately elevated temperatures do not exhibit classic symptoms of abiotic stress but that tuber development responds via a diversity of biochemical and molecular signals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. From Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0616 TITLE: From Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a... Breast to Bone: Tracking Gene Expression Changes Responsible for Breast Cancer Metastasis in a Humanized Mouse Model with Molecular Imaging 5b. GRANT... Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer -related death in women worldwide, and metastasis is responsible for the majority of these deaths. Triple

  11. USGS Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.

    2009-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. FEMA’s partnership with the USGS began in 1999 when the agency established USGS as its executive agent for the acquisition and coordination of aerial and satellite remote sensing data. Understanding the terrain affords FEMA the vital perspective needed to effectively respond to the devastation many disasters leave behind. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members space agencies, to information on their methodology in disaster response, and to data from the satellites they operate. Such access enhances the USGS’ ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided over 75 images to the US in support of Hurricane

  12. Maximizing the dielectric response of molecular thin films via quantum chemical design.

    PubMed

    Heitzer, Henry M; Marks, Tobin J; Ratner, Mark A

    2014-12-23

    Developing high-capacitance organic gate dielectrics is critical for advances in electronic circuitry based on unconventional semiconductors. While high-dielectric constant molecular substances are known, the mechanism of dielectric response and the fundamental chemical design principles are not well understood. Using a plane-wave density functional theory formalism, we show that it is possible to map the atomic-scale dielectric profiles of molecule-based materials while capturing important bulk characteristics. For molecular films, this approach reveals how basic materials properties such as surface coverage density, molecular tilt angle, and π-system planarity can dramatically influence dielectric response. Additionally, relatively modest molecular backbone and substituent variations can be employed to substantially enhance film dielectric response. For dense surface coverages and proper molecular alignment, conjugated hydrocarbon chains can achieve dielectric constants of >8.0, more than 3 times that of analogous saturated chains, ∼2.5. However, this conjugation-related dielectric enhancement depends on proper molecular orientation and planarization, with enhancements up to 60% for proper molecular alignment with the applied field and an additional 30% for conformations such as coplanarity in extended π-systems. Conjugation length is not the only determinant of dielectric response, and appended polarizable high-Z substituents can increase molecular film response more than 2-fold, affording estimated capacitances of >9.0 μF/cm2. However, in large π-systems, polar substituent effects are substantially attenuated.

  13. Molecular responses to moderate endurance exercise in skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined alterations in skeletal-muscle growth and atrophy-related molecular events after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise. Muscle biopsies were obtained from 10 men (23 +/- 1 yr, body mass 80 +/- 2 kg, and VO(2peak) 45 +/- 1 ml x kg'¹ x min'¹) immediately (0 hr) and...

  14. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Integrating responsible conduct of research education into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Tamara L

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a requirement for directed responsible conduct in research (RCR) education has become a priority in the United States and elsewhere. In the US, both the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation require RCR education for all students who are financially supported by federal awards. The guidelines produced by these agencies offer useful templates for the introduction of RCR materials into courses worldwide. Many academic programs already offer courses or workshops in RCR for their graduate students and for undergraduate science majors and/or researchers. Introducing RCR into undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula is another, highly practical way that students can be exposed to these important topics. In fact, a strong argument can be made for integrating RCR into laboratory courses because these classes often introduce students to a scientific environment like that they might encounter in their careers after graduation. This article focuses on general strategies for incorporating explicit RCR education into biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory coursework using the topics suggested by NIH as a starting point.

  16. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  17. Innate Immune Responses and Antioxidant/Oxidant Imbalance Are Major Determinants of Human Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Monisha; Coronado, Yun A.; Vallejo, Cecilia K.; Petersen, John R.; Ejilemele, Adetoun; Nuñez, Sonia; Zago, Maria Paola; Spratt, Heidi; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2013-01-01

    Background We investigated the pathological and diagnostic role of selected markers of inflammation, oxidant/antioxidant status, and cellular injury in human Chagas disease. Methods Seropositive/chagasic subjects characterized as clinically-symptomatic or clinically-asymptomatic (n = 116), seronegative/cardiac subjects (n = 102), and seronegative/healthy subjects (n = 45) were analyzed for peripheral blood biomarkers. Results Seropositive/chagasic subjects exhibited an increase in sera or plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO, 2.8-fold), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, 56%), nitrite (5.7-fold), lipid peroxides (LPO, 12–17-fold) and malondialdehyde (MDA, 4–6-fold); and a decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD, 52%) and glutathione (GSH, 75%) contents. Correlation analysis identified a significant (p<0.001) linear relationship between inflammatory markers (AOPP/nitrite: r = 0.877), inflammation and antioxidant/oxidant status (AOPP/glutathione peroxidase (GPX): r = 0.902, AOPP/GSH: r = 0.806, Nitrite/GPX: 0.773, Nitrite/LPO: 0.805, MDA/MPO: 0.718), and antioxidant/oxidant levels (GPX/MDA: r = 0.768) in chagasic subjects. Of these, MPO, LPO and nitrite biomarkers were highly specific and sensitive for distinguishing seropositive/chagasic subjects from seronegative/healthy controls (p<0.001, training and fitting AUC/ROC >0.95). The MPO (r = 0.664) and LPO (r = 0.841) levels were also correlated with clinical disease state in chagasic subjects (p<0.001). Seronegative/cardiac subjects exhibited up to 77% decline in SOD, 3–5-fold increase in LPO and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels, and statistically insignificant change in MPO, AOPP, MDA, GPX, GSH, and creatine kinase (CK) levels. Conclusions The interlinked effects of innate immune responses and antioxidant/oxidant imbalance are major determinants of human Chagas disease. The MPO, LPO and nitrite are excellent biomarkers for diagnosing seropositive

  18. Prefrontal brain responsiveness to negative stimuli distinguishes familial risk for major depression from acute disorder

    PubMed Central

    Opel, Nils; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Zaremba, Dario; Meinert, Susanne; Bürger, Christian; Plümpe, Leonie; Alferink, Judith; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald; Zwanzger, Peter; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Background Identifying reliable trait markers of familial risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) is a challenge in translational psychiatric research. In individuals with acute MDD, dysfunctional connectivity patterns of prefrontal areas have been shown repeatedly. However, it has been unclear in which neuronal networks functional alterations in individuals at familial risk for MDD might be present and to what extent they resemble findings previously reported in those with acute MDD. Methods We investigated differences in blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) response of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to aversive stimuli between acute MDD and familial risk for the disorder in healthy first-degree relatives of acutely depressed patients with MDD (HC-FH+), healthy age- and sex-matched controls without any family history of depression (HC-FH−), and acutely depressed patients with MDD with (MDD-FH+) and without a family history of depression (MDD-FH−) during a frequently used emotional face-matching paradigm. Analyses of task-specific network connectivity were conducted in terms of psychophysiological interactions (PPI). Results The present analysis included a total of 100 participants: 25 HC-FH+, 25 HC-FH−, 25 MDD-FH+ and 25 MDD-FH−. Patients with MDD exhibited significantly increased activation in the medial OFC to negative stimuli irrespective of familial risk status, whereas healthy participants at familial risk and patients with MDD alike showed significant hypoactivation in the DLPFC compared with healthy participants without familial risk. The PPI analyses revealed significantly enhanced task-specific coupling between the medial OFC and differing cortical areas in individuals with acute MDD and those with familial risk for the disorder. Limitations The main limitation of our study is its cross-sectional design. Conclusion Whereas hypoactivation during negative emotion processing in the DLPFC appears as

  19. Genomic, RNAseq, and Molecular Modeling Evidence Suggests That the Major Allergen Domain in Insects Evolved from a Homodimeric Origin

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Thomas A.; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E.; Mueller, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects. PMID:24253356

  20. Genomic, RNAseq, and molecular modeling evidence suggests that the major allergen domain in insects evolved from a homodimeric origin.

    PubMed

    Randall, Thomas A; Perera, Lalith; London, Robert E; Mueller, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    The major allergen domain (MA) is widely distributed in insects. The crystal structure of a single Bla g 1 MA revealed a novel protein fold in which the fundamental structure was a duplex of two subsequences (monomers), which had diverged over time. This suggested that the evolutionary origin of the MA structure may have been a homodimer of this smaller subsequence. Using publicly available genomic data, the distribution of the basic unit of this class of proteins was determined to better understand its evolutionary history. The duplication and divergence is examined at three distinct levels of resolution: 1) within the orders Diptera and Hymenoptera, 2) within one genus Drosophila, and 3) within one species Aedes aegypti. Within the family Culicidae, we have found two separate occurrences of monomers as independent genes. The organization of the gene family in A. aegypti shows a common evolutionary origin for its monomer and several closely related MAs. Molecular modeling of the A. aegypti monomer with the unique Bla g 1 fold confirms the distant evolutionary relationship and supports the feasibility of homodimer formation from a single monomer. RNAseq data for A. aegypti confirms that the monomer is expressed in the mosquito similar to other A. aegypti MAs after a blood meal. Together, these data support the contention that the detected monomer shares similar functional characteristics to related MAs in other insects. An extensive search for this domain outside of Insecta confirms that the MAs are restricted to insects.

  1. Molecular Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Symptomatic Individuals Attending Two Major Public Hospitals in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-01-01

    Background The flagellate protozoan Giardia duodenalis is an enteric parasite causing human giardiasis, a major gastrointestinal disease of global distribution affecting both developing and industrialised countries. In Spain, sporadic cases of giardiasis have been regularly identified, particularly in pediatric and immigrant populations. However, there is limited information on the genetic variability of circulating G. duodenalis isolates in the country. Methods In this longitudinal molecular epidemiological study we report the diversity and frequency of the G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages identified in 199 stool samples collected from 184 individual with symptoms compatible with giardiasis presenting to two major public hospitals in Madrid for the period December 2013–January 2015. G. duodenalis cysts were initially detected by conventional microscopy and/or immunochomatography on stool samples. Confirmation of the infection was performed by direct immunofluorescence and real-time PCR methods. G. duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multi-locus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes of the parasite. Sociodemographic and clinical features of patients infected with G. duodenalis were also analysed. Principal findings Of 188 confirmed positive samples from 178 giardiasis cases a total of 124 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully typed at the GDH and/or the BG loci, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages BIV (62.1%), AII (15.3%), BIII (4.0%), AI (0.8%), and AIII (0.8%). Additionally, 6.5% of the isolates were only characterised at the assemblage level, being all of them assigned to assemblage B. Discordant genotype results AII/AIII or BIII/BIV were also observed in 10.5% of DNA isolates. A large number of multi-locus genotypes were identified in G. duodenalis assemblage B, but not assemblage A, isolates at both the GDH and BG loci, confirming the high degree of genetic variability

  2. Dealing with the Challenges of Teaching Molecular Biophysics to Biochemistry Majors through an Heuristics-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The main distinction between the overlapping fields of molecular biophysics and biochemistry resides in their different approaches to the same problems. Molecular biophysics makes more use of physical techniques and focuses on quantitative data. This difference encounters two difficult pedagogical challenges when teaching molecular biophysics to…

  3. Dealing with the Challenges of Teaching Molecular Biophysics to Biochemistry Majors through an Heuristics-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2002-01-01

    The main distinction between the overlapping fields of molecular biophysics and biochemistry resides in their different approaches to the same problems. Molecular biophysics makes more use of physical techniques and focuses on quantitative data. This difference encounters two difficult pedagogical challenges when teaching molecular biophysics to…

  4. Molecular communications between plant heat shock responses and disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2012-08-01

    As sessile, plants are continuously exposed to potential dangers including various abiotic stresses and pathogen attack. Although most studies focus on plant responses under an ideal condition to a specific stimulus, plants in nature must cope with a variety of stimuli at the same time. This indicates that it is critical for plants to fine-control distinct signaling pathways temporally and spatially for simultaneous and effective responses to various stresses. Global warming is currently a big issue threatening the future of humans. Reponses to high temperature affect many physiological processes in plants including growth and disease resistance, resulting in decrease of crop yield. Although plant heat stress and defense responses share important mediators such as calcium ions and heat shock proteins, it is thought that high temperature generally suppresses plant immunity. We therefore specifically discuss on interactions between plant heat and defense responses in this review hopefully for an integrated understanding of these responses in plants.

  5. Molecular Targeted Therapy in Modern Oncology: Imaging Assessment of Treatment Response and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Jagannathan, Jyothi P.; Shinagare, Atul B.

    2017-01-01

    Oncology is a rapidly evolving field with a shift toward personalized cancer treatment. The use of therapies targeted to the molecular features of individual tumors and the tumor microenvironment has become much more common. In this review, anti-angiogenic and other molecular targeted therapies are discussed, with a focus on typical and atypical response patterns and imaging manifestations of drug toxicities. PMID:28096716

  6. DOD Major Automated Information Systems: Improvements Can Be Made in Reporting Critical Changes and Clarifying Leadership Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Leadership Responsibility Report to Congressional Committees March 2016 GAO-16-336 United States Government Accountability Office United...States Government Accountability Office Highlights of GAO-16-336, a report to congressional committees March 2016 DOD MAJOR AUTOMATED...Therefore, users of the Dashboard are unaware that AT&L is the responsible organization and, thus, public accountability of the MAIS programs is decreased

  7. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J; O’Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways. PMID:27308403

  8. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Kevin J; O'Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanisms responsible for light-stress response in Mythimna separata (Walker)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yun; Gong, ZhongJun; Wu, RenHai; Miao, Jin; Jiang, YueLi; Li, Tong; Wu, XiaoBo; Wu, YuQing

    2017-01-01

    Light is an important environmental signal for most insects. The Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata, is a serious pest of cereal crops worldwide, and is highly sensitive to light signals during its developmental and reproductive stages. However, molecular biological studies of its response to light stress are scarce, and related genomic information is not available. In this study, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptomes of M. separata exposed to four different light conditions: dark, white light (WL), UV light (UVL) and yellow light (YL). A total of 46,327 unigenes with an average size of 571 base pairs (bp) were obtained, among which 24,344 (52.55%) matched to public databases. The numbers of genes differentially expressed between dark vs WL, dark vs UVL, dark vs YL, and UVL vs YL were 12,012, 12,950, 14,855, and 13,504, respectively. These results suggest that light exposure altered gene expression patterns in M. separata. Putative genes involved in phototransduction-fly, phototransduction, circadian rhythm-fly, olfactory transduction, and taste transduction were identified. This study thus identified a series of candidate genes and pathways potentially related to light stress in M. separata. PMID:28345615

  10. Transcriptome analysis of molecular mechanisms responsible for light-stress response in Mythimna separata (Walker).

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun; Gong, ZhongJun; Wu, RenHai; Miao, Jin; Jiang, YueLi; Li, Tong; Wu, XiaoBo; Wu, YuQing

    2017-03-27

    Light is an important environmental signal for most insects. The Oriental Armyworm, Mythimna separata, is a serious pest of cereal crops worldwide, and is highly sensitive to light signals during its developmental and reproductive stages. However, molecular biological studies of its response to light stress are scarce, and related genomic information is not available. In this study, we sequenced and de novo assembled the transcriptomes of M. separata exposed to four different light conditions: dark, white light (WL), UV light (UVL) and yellow light (YL). A total of 46,327 unigenes with an average size of 571 base pairs (bp) were obtained, among which 24,344 (52.55%) matched to public databases. The numbers of genes differentially expressed between dark vs WL, dark vs UVL, dark vs YL, and UVL vs YL were 12,012, 12,950, 14,855, and 13,504, respectively. These results suggest that light exposure altered gene expression patterns in M. separata. Putative genes involved in phototransduction-fly, phototransduction, circadian rhythm-fly, olfactory transduction, and taste transduction were identified. This study thus identified a series of candidate genes and pathways potentially related to light stress in M. separata.

  11. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    PubMed

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  12. Qualitative differences in the early immune response to live and killed Leishmania major: Implications for vaccination strategies against Leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-04-28

    Recovery from natural or deliberate infection with Leishmania major leads to the development of lifelong immunity against rechallenge infections. In contrast, vaccination with killed parasites or defined leishmanial antigens generally induces only short-term protection. The reasons for this difference are currently not known but may be related to differences in the quality of the early immune responses to live and killed parasites. Here, we report that live and killed L. major parasites elicit comparable early inflammatory response as evidenced by influx and/or proliferation of cells in the draining lymph nodes (dLNs). In contrast, the early cytokine responses were qualitatively different. Cells from mice inoculated with killed parasites produced significantly more antigen-specific IL-4 and less IFN-gamma than those from mice injected with live parasites. Inclusion of CpG ODN into killed parasite preparations changed the early response to killed parasites from IL-4 to a predominantly IFN-gamma response, resulting in better protection following secondary high dose virulent L. major challenge. Interestingly, CpG-mediated enhancement of killed parasites-induced protection was short-lived and waned after 12 weeks. Taken together, these results suggest that the nature of primary immunity induced by killed and live parasites are qualitatively different and that these differences may account for the differential protection seen in mice following vaccination with live and killed parasites. They further suggest that modulating the early response with an appropriate adjuvant could enhance efficacy of killed parasite vaccines.

  13. Blocking Junctional Adhesion Molecule C Enhances Dendritic Cell Migration and Boosts the Immune Responses against Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Ballet, Romain; Emre, Yalin; Jemelin, Stéphane; Charmoy, Mélanie; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Imhof, Beat A.

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1) response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2) response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response. PMID:25474593

  14. Drought stress response in wheat: physiological and molecular analysis of resistant and sensitive genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rampino, Patrizia; Pataleo, Stefano; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Perrotta, Carla

    2006-12-01

    Water deficit is a severe environmental stress and the major constraint on plant productivity with an evident effect on plant growth. The aim of this work was to study Triticum and Aegilops seedlings differing in their response to drought stress at the physiological and molecular levels. The identification of resistant and sensitive genotypes was firstly based on the relative water content (RWC) measurement. Further characterization of genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress was performed at the physiological level by determination of RWC, water loss rate (WLR) and free proline content after different hours of dehydration. Modification in the expression level of five dehydrin (DHN) genes was also analysed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five cDNAs coding for different DHNs were identified and characterized. These genes are not expressed in the well-watered plants, but only in the stressed plants. Four of these cDNAs are related to novel DHN sequences. The results obtained clearly indicate a relation between the expression of these genes and tissue water content. In particular, in the resistant genotypes the expression of DHN genes is initiated even though tissue hydration levels are still high, indicating also in wheat the involvement of these proteins in water retention.

  15. Molecular mechanisms responsible for hydrate anti-agglomerant performance.

    PubMed

    Phan, Anh; Bui, Tai; Acosta, Erick; Krishnamurthy, Pushkala; Striolo, Alberto

    2016-09-28

    Steered and equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations were employed to study the coalescence of a sI hydrate particle and a water droplet within a hydrocarbon mixture. The size of both the hydrate particle and the water droplet is comparable to that of the aqueous core in reverse micelles. The simulations were repeated in the presence of various quaternary ammonium chloride surfactants. We investigated the effects due to different groups on the quaternary head group (e.g. methyl vs. butyl groups), as well as different hydrophobic tail lengths (e.g. n-hexadecyl vs. n-dodecyl tails) on the surfactants' ability to prevent coalescence. Visual inspection of sequences of simulation snapshots indicates that when the water droplet is not covered by surfactants it is more likely to approach the hydrate particle, penetrate the protective surfactant film, reach the hydrate surface, and coalesce with the hydrate than when surfactants are present on both surfaces. Force-distance profiles obtained from steered molecular dynamics simulations and free energy profiles obtained from umbrella sampling suggest that surfactants with butyl tripods on the quaternary head group and hydrophobic tails with size similar to the solvent molecules can act as effective anti-agglomerants. These results qualitatively agree with macroscopic experimental observations. The simulation results provide additional insights, which could be useful in flow assurance applications: the butyl tripod provides adhesion between surfactants and hydrates; when the length of the surfactant tail is compatible with that of the hydrocarbon in the liquid phase a protective film can form on the hydrate; however, once a molecularly thin chain of water molecules forms through the anti-agglomerant film, connecting the water droplet and the hydrate, water flows to the hydrate and coalescence is inevitable.

  16. Designing and Cloning Molecular Constructs to Knock Out N-Acetylglucosamine Phosphatidylinositol De-N-Acetylase (GPI12) Gene in Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER)

    PubMed Central

    GHASEMI NEJAD ALMANI, Pooya; SHARIFI, Iraj; KAZEMI, Bahram; BABAEI, Zahra; BANDEHPOUR, Mojgan; SALARI, Samira; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leishmaniasis represents a major public health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. At present, there is no efficacious vaccine against the disease and new control methods are needed. One way to access this important goal is to knock out genes of specific macromolecules to evaluate the effect of deletion on the growth, multiplication, pathogenesis and immunity of the parasite. The aim of this study was to design and clone molecular constructs to knock out N-acetylglucosamine phosphatidylinositol de-N-acetylase (GPI12) gene in Leishmania major. Methods: For designing and making molecular constructs, we used pLEXSY-neo2 and pLEXSY-hyg2 vectors. The molecular constructs were cloned in E. coli strain Top10. The molecular constructs were transfected by electroporation into L. major in two stages. Results: The molecular constructs were confirmed by Colony PCR and sequencing. The recombinant strains were isolated by selective antibiotics, after which they were confirmed by PCR, Southern and Western blots. Conclusion: Recombinant parasites were created and examined for subsequent study. With the use of molecular constructs, it was possible to remove and study gene GPI12 and to achieve a live recombinant Leishmania parasite that maintained the original form of the antigenic parasites. This achievement can be used as an experimental model for vaccine development studies. Further investigations are essential to check this model in a suitable host. PMID:28127356

  17. B-1 cells modulate the murine macrophage response to Leishmania major infection.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, Angelica F; Nunes, Marise P; Silva-Junior, Elias B; Leandro, Monique; da Rocha, Juliana Dutra Barbosa; Morrot, Alexandre; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo

    2017-05-26

    To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined using a PGE2 enzyme immunoassay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and the number of lipid bodies was quantified in the cytoplasm of infected macrophages in the presence and absence of B-1 cells. Culturing the cells with selective PGE2-neutralizing drugs inhibited PGE2 production and confirmed the role of this lipid mediator in IL-10 production. In contrast, we demonstrated that B-1 cells derived from IL-10 KO mice did not favor the intracellular growth of L. major. We report that B-1 cells promote the growth of L. major amastigotes inside peritoneal murine macrophages. We demonstrated that the modulatory effect was independent of physical contact between the cells, suggesting that soluble factor(s) were released into the cultures. We demonstrated in our co-culture system that B-1 cells trigger IL-10 production by L. major-infected macrophages. Furthermore, the increased secretion of IL-10 was attributed to the presence of the lipid mediator PGE2 in supernatants of L. major-infected macrophages. The presence of B-1 cells also favors the production of lipid bodies by infected macrophages. In contrast, we failed to obtain the same effect on parasite replication inside L. major-infected macrophages when the B-1 cells were isolated from IL-10 knockout mice. Our results show that elevated levels of PGE2 and IL-10 produced by B-1 cells increase L. major growth, as indicated by the number of parasites in cell cultures.

  18. B-1 cells modulate the murine macrophage response to Leishmania major infection

    PubMed Central

    Arcanjo, Angelica F; Nunes, Marise P; Silva-Junior, Elias B; Leandro, Monique; da Rocha, Juliana Dutra Barbosa; Morrot, Alexandre; Decote-Ricardo, Debora; Freire-de-Lima, Celio Geraldo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the modulatory effect of B-1 cells on murine peritoneal macrophages infected with Leishmania major (L. major) in vitro. METHODS Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c and BALB/c XID mice were infected with L. major and cultured in the presence or absence of B-1 cells obtained from wild-type BALB/c mice. Intracellular amastigotes were counted, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production was quantified in the cellular supernatants using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined using a PGE2 enzyme immunoassay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), and the number of lipid bodies was quantified in the cytoplasm of infected macrophages in the presence and absence of B-1 cells. Culturing the cells with selective PGE2-neutralizing drugs inhibited PGE2 production and confirmed the role of this lipid mediator in IL-10 production. In contrast, we demonstrated that B-1 cells derived from IL-10 KO mice did not favor the intracellular growth of L. major. RESULTS We report that B-1 cells promote the growth of L. major amastigotes inside peritoneal murine macrophages. We demonstrated that the modulatory effect was independent of physical contact between the cells, suggesting that soluble factor(s) were released into the cultures. We demonstrated in our co-culture system that B-1 cells trigger IL-10 production by L. major-infected macrophages. Furthermore, the increased secretion of IL-10 was attributed to the presence of the lipid mediator PGE2 in supernatants of L. major-infected macrophages. The presence of B-1 cells also favors the production of lipid bodies by infected macrophages. In contrast, we failed to obtain the same effect on parasite replication inside L. major-infected macrophages when the B-1 cells were isolated from IL-10 knockout mice. CONCLUSION Our results show that elevated levels of PGE2 and IL-10 produced by B-1 cells increase L. major growth, as indicated by the number of

  19. Calculation of Dielectric Response in Molecular Solids for High Capacitance Organic Dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzer, Henry Matthew

    The dielectric response of a material is critically important in numerous scientific processes spanning the fields of biology, chemistry, materials science, and physics. While important across these fundamental disciplines, it remains difficult to determine theoretically the dielectric environment of a system. With recent advances in nanotechnology, biochemistry, and molecular electronics, it has become necessary to determine the dielectric response in molecular systems that are difficult to measure experimentally, such as nanoscale interfaces, highly disordered biological environments, or molecular materials that are difficult to synthesize. In these scenarios it is highly advantageous to determine the dielectric response through efficient and accurate calculations. A good example of where a theoretical prediction of dielectric response is critical is in the development of high capacitance molecular dielectrics. Molecular dielectrics offer the promise of cheap, flexible, and mass producible electronic devices when used in conjunction with organic semiconducting materials to form Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFETs). To date, molecular dielectrics suffer from poor dielectric properties resulting in low capacitances. A low capacitance dielectric material requires a much larger power source to operate the device in OFETs, leading to modest device performance. Development of better performing dielectric materials has been hindered due to the time it takes to synthesize and fabricate new molecular materials. An accurate and efficient theoretical technique could drastically decrease this time by screening potential dielectric materials and providing design rules for future molecular dielectrics. Here in, the methodology used to calculate dielectric properties of molecular materials is described. The validity of the technique is demonstrated on model systems, capturing the frequency dependence of the dielectric response and achieving quantitative accuracy compared

  20. Beaver (Castor canadensis) responses to major phenolic and neutral compounds in castoreum.

    PubMed

    Schulte, B A; Müller-Schwarze, D; Tang, R; Webster, F X

    1994-12-01

    North American beaver (Castor canadensis) mark their territories with castoreum, a chemically complex secretion from their castor sacs. The phenolic and neutral fractions of castoreum have been shown to elicit specific behavioral responses from beavers in a field setting. Our objective was to identify compounds/mixtures that evoked responses similar to those stimulated by castoreum. We assayed recently identified phenolic compounds, some phenolics that had been determined to be biologically active in previous studies, the neutral compound borneol, and combinations of phenolic compounds, neutral compounds, and the two combined. Biological activity was measured by the elicitation and extent of specific responses and their strength (duration, frequency, and proportion of beavers responding). Generally, single compounds stimulated fewer responses than mixtures. A 26-compound mixture of phenolic and neutral compounds elicited responses in a similar proportion of trials as castoreum. However, responses to castoreum were stronger than to any synthetic sample. Further investigation of different measures of response, namely, elicitation, completeness, and strength, are deemed necessary to fully decipher the design of social odors.

  1. The role of membrane ERα signaling in bone and other major estrogen responsive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, K. L.; Farman, H.; Henning, P.; Lionikaite, V.; Movérare-Skrtic, S.; Wu, J.; Ryberg, H.; Koskela, A.; Gustafsson, J.-Å.; Tuukkanen, J.; Levin, E. R.; Ohlsson, C.; Lagerquist, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling leads to cellular responses in several tissues and in addition to nuclear ERα-mediated effects, membrane ERα (mERα) signaling may be of importance. To elucidate the significance, in vivo, of mERα signaling in multiple estrogen-responsive tissues, we have used female mice lacking the ability to localize ERα to the membrane due to a point mutation in the palmitoylation site (C451A), so called Nuclear-Only-ER (NOER) mice. Interestingly, the role of mERα signaling for the estrogen response was highly tissue-dependent, with trabecular bone in the axial skeleton being strongly dependent (>80% reduction in estrogen response in NOER mice), cortical and trabecular bone in long bones, as well as uterus and thymus being partly dependent (40–70% reduction in estrogen response in NOER mice) and effects on liver weight and total body fat mass being essentially independent of mERα (<35% reduction in estrogen response in NOER mice). In conclusion, mERα signaling is important for the estrogenic response in female mice in a tissue-dependent manner. Increased knowledge regarding membrane initiated ERα actions may provide means to develop new selective estrogen receptor modulators with improved profiles. PMID:27388455

  2. In vivo, on-line monitoring of molecular response to photodynamic therapy: molecular imaging of vascular endothelial growth factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sung K.; Rizvi, Imran; Solban, Nicolas; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2007-02-01

    Cytokines are important messengers in cell-to-cell communications that regulate vital cellular and physiological processes, and play an important role in defining the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response in various diseases. Although current ex vivo biochemical assays for cytokine quantitation are useful, their capabilities for studying dynamic cytokine expression in living systems are limited. Optical molecular imaging technology can help probe the spatiotemporal dynamics of cytokine expression in vivo and in real-time. We developed an in vivo optical molecular imaging strategy for monitoring one of these cytokines, the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). With the imaging strategy, changes in tumoral VEGF concentration following cobalt chloride treatment and photodynamic therapy (PDT) were monitored. This was the first systematic study to test the feasibility of VEGF-targeted molecular imaging, and can potentially set the basis for online monitoring of cytokines that will help develop effective tools for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment planning and monitoring.

  3. Molecular evidence for BDNF- and GABA-related dysfunctions in the amygdala of female subjects with major depression.

    PubMed

    Guilloux, J-P; Douillard-Guilloux, G; Kota, R; Wang, X; Gardier, A M; Martinowich, K; Tseng, G C; Lewis, D A; Sibille, E

    2012-11-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and are more prone to recurring episodes. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that the illness may associate with robust molecular changes in female subjects, and investigated large-scale gene expression in the post-mortem brain of MDD subjects paired with matched controls (n=21 pairs). We focused on the lateral/basolateral/basomedian complex of the amygdala as a neural hub of mood regulation affected in MDD. Among the most robust findings were downregulated transcripts for genes coding for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron-related peptides, including somatostatin (SST), tachykinin, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cortistatin, in a pattern reminiscent to that previously reported in mice with low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Changes were confirmed by quantitative PCR and not explained by demographic, technical or known clinical parameters. BDNF itself was significantly downregulated at the RNA and protein levels in MDD subjects. Investigating putative mechanisms, we show that this core MDD-related gene profile (including SST, NPY, TAC1, RGS4 and CORT) is recapitulated by complementary patterns in mice with constitutive (BDNF-heterozygous) or activity-dependent (exon IV knockout) decreases in BDNF function, with a common effect on SST and NPY. Together, these results provide both direct (low RNA/protein) and indirect (low BDNF-dependent gene pattern) evidence for reduced BDNF function in the amygdala of female subjects with MDD. Supporting studies in mutant mice models suggest a complex mechanism of low constitutive and activity-dependent BDNF function in MDD, particularly affecting SST/NPY-related GABA neurons, thus linking the neurotrophic and GABA hypotheses of depression.

  4. Protein expression profiling identifies molecular targets of quercetin as a major dietary flavonoid in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Uwe; Herzog, Angelika; Kuntz, Sabine; Daniel, Hannelore

    2004-07-01

    A high dietary intake of plant foods is thought to contribute to the prevention of colorectal cancers in humans and flavonoids as part of such a diet are considered to contribute to those protective effects. Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid consumed with a diet rich in onions, tea, and apples. We used HT-29 human colon cancer cells and investigated the effects of quercetin on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation as processes shown to be disregulated during cancer development. To identify the cellular targets of quercetin action, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and proteins altered in expression level after quercetin exposure of cells were identified by mass spectrometry of peptide fragments generated by tryptic digestion. Quercetin inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC(50)-value of 81.2 +/- 6.6 microM. Cell differentiation based on surface expression of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced 4-fold and the activity of the pro-apoptotic effector caspase-3 increased 3-fold. Those effects were associated with the regulation of heat-shock proteins and annexins shown to both play a crucial role in the process of apoptosis. Cytoskeletal caspase substrates were found as regulated as well and various proteins involved in intermediary metabolism and in gene regulation showed altered steady-state expression levels upon quercetin treatment of cells. In conclusion, quercetin alters the levels of a variety of proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Their identification as molecular targets of quercetin may explain the anti-cancer activities of this flavonoid.

  5. Different functioning of prefrontal cortex predicts treatment response after a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Koji; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Oshita, Harumi; Inoue, Ayako; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often resistant to treatment with usual approaches. Patients with MDD have shown hypofunction of the frontotemporal cortex in verbal fluency test (VFT)-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We examined whether the reactions to drug treatment in treatment-naive patients with MDD could be predicted by NIRS outcomes at the initial investigation. All subjects underwent psychological testing to determine levels of anxiety and depression. VFT was used to examine the functioning of the frontotemporal lobes. We administered selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for 12 weeks. Subjects included 28 patients with MDD with response to SSRIs (Response group), 19 with no response (Non-Response group), and 63 age-, sex-, and education years-matched healthy controls (HC). We found in the frontotemporal region that hemodynamic responses were significantly smaller in patients with Response and Non-Response groups than in HC before treatment. We also found in the medial frontal region that hemodynamic responses were significantly larger in patients with Response groups than in patients with Non-Response group before treatment. Patients with MDD scored significantly higher anxiety and depressive states than those in HC on several measures. The Response and Non-Response groups also had higher scores in future denial, threat prediction, self-denial, past denial, and interpersonal threat sections of Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS). According to the stepwise regression analysis, one variable was determined as independent predictors of response: confusion (Post-POMS). The number of patients and healthy controls was relatively small, and we will increase the number of participants in future studies. NIRS has reduced spatial resolution, which confuses the identification of the measurement position when using NIRS alone. Cognitive vulnerabilities are associated with predictors of SSRI treatment response. Different hemodynamic activities in the

  6. Functional analysis of molecular interactions in synthetic auxin response circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lanctot, Amy; Hageman, Amber; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Auxin-regulated transcription pivots on the interaction between the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) repressor proteins and the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcription factors. Recent structural analyses of ARFs and Aux/IAAs have raised questions about the functional complexes driving auxin transcriptional responses. To parse the nature and significance of ARF–DNA and ARF–Aux/IAA interactions, we analyzed structure-guided variants of synthetic auxin response circuits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis revealed that promoter architecture could specify ARF activity and that ARF19 required dimerization at two distinct domains for full transcriptional activation. In addition, monomeric Aux/IAAs were able to repress ARF activity in both yeast and plants. This systematic, quantitative structure-function analysis identified a minimal complex—comprising a single Aux/IAA repressing a pair of dimerized ARFs—sufficient for auxin-induced transcription. PMID:27647902

  7. Stream periphyton responses to mesocosm treatments of equal specific conductance but different major ion contents measured with in situ fluorometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stream mesocosm experiment was designed to compare biotic responses among streams exposed to an equal excess specific conductivity target of 850 µS/cm relative to a control that was set for 200 µS/cm and three treatments comprised of different major ion contents. Each treatment...

  8. Stream periphyton responses to mesocosm treatments of equal specific conductance but different major ion contents measured with in situ fluorometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stream mesocosm experiment was designed to compare biotic responses among streams exposed to an equal excess specific conductivity target of 850 µS/cm relative to a control that was set for 200 µS/cm and three treatments comprised of different major ion contents. Each treatment...

  9. 7 CFR 22.203 - Major responsibilities under title VI, Sec. 603.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Domestic Council will assume responsibility for interdepartmental policy formulation and.... This committee consists of members of the Community Development Committee of the Domestic Council, to... Transportation Policy Development Committee; the Secretaries of Treasury, Commerce, and Labor and the Director...

  10. Major role of local immune responses in antibody formation to factor IX in AAV gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Cao, O; Swalm, B; Dobrzynski, E; Mingozzi, F; Herzog, R W

    2005-10-01

    The risk of an immune response to the coagulation factor IX (F.IX) transgene product is a concern in gene therapy for the X-linked bleeding disorder hemophilia B. In order to investigate the mechanism of F.IX-specific lymphocyte activation in the context of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer to skeletal muscle, we injected AAV-2 vector expressing human F.IX (hF.IX) into outbred immune-competent mice. Systemic hF.IX levels were transiently detected in the circulation, but diminished concomitant with activation of CD4+ T and B cells. ELISPOT assays documented robust responses to hF.IX in the draining lymph nodes of injected muscle by day 14. Formation of inhibitory antibodies to hF.IX was observed over a wide range of vector doses, with increased doses causing stronger immune responses. A prolonged inflammatory reaction in muscle started at 1.5-2 months, but ultimately failed to eliminate transgene expression. By 1.5 months, hF.IX antigen re-emerged in circulation in approximately 70% of animals injected with high vector dose. Hepatic gene transfer elicited only infrequent and weaker immune responses, with higher vector doses causing a reduction in T-cell responses to hF.IX. In summary, the data document substantial influence of target tissue, local antigen presentation, and antigen levels on lymphocyte responses to F.IX.

  11. Variations in Primary Teachers' Responses and Development during Three Major Science In-Service Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Tina; Pell, Anthony; Hingley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on how different types of teachers responded to in-service aimed at developing investigative-based science education (IBSE) in primary schools, and the extent to which they applied their new skills in the classroom. Common items from evaluation questionnaires allowed data to be combined from three major in-service programmes.…

  12. The C-terminal Lysine of Ogg2 DNA Glycosylases is a Major Molecular Determinant for Guanine/8-Oxoguanine Distinction

    SciTech Connect

    Faucher, Frédérick; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie

    2010-08-12

    7,8-Dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a major oxidative lesion found in DNA. The 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylases (Ogg) responsible for the removal of 8-oxoG are divided into three families Ogg1, Ogg2 and AGOG. The Ogg2 members are devoid of the recognition loop used by Ogg1 to discriminate between 8-oxoG and guanine and it was unclear until recently how Ogg2 enzymes recognize the oxidized base. We present here the first crystallographic structure of an Ogg2 member, Methanocaldococcus janischii Ogg, in complex with a DNA duplex containing the 8-oxoG lesion. This structure highlights the crucial role of the C-terminal lysine, strictly conserved in Ogg2, in the recognition of 8-oxoG. The structure also reveals that Ogg2 undergoes a conformational change upon DNA binding similar to that observed in Ogg1 glycosylases. Furthermore, this work provides a structural rationale for the lack of opposite base specificity in this family of enzymes.

  13. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  14. Race, genetic ancestry and response to antidepressant treatment for major depression.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eleanor; Hou, Liping; Maher, Brion S; Woldehawariat, Girma; Kassem, Layla; Akula, Nirmala; Laje, Gonzalo; McMahon, Francis J

    2013-12-01

    The Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) Study revealed poorer antidepressant treatment response among black compared with white participants. This racial disparity persisted even after socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors were taken into account. Some studies have suggested genetic contributions to this disparity, but none have attempted to disentangle race and genetic ancestry. Here we used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to examine independent contributions of race and genetic ancestry to citalopram response. Secondary data analyses included 1877 STAR*D participants who completed an average of 10 weeks of citalopram treatment and provided DNA samples. Participants reported their race as White (n=1464), black (n=299) or other/mixed (n=114). Genetic ancestry was estimated by multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses of about 500 000 SNPs. Ancestry proportions were estimated by STRUCTURE. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of observed and latent predictors of response, defined as change in the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS) score from baseline to exit. Socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors, race, and anxiety significantly predicted response, as previously reported. However, direct effects of race disappeared in all models that included genetic ancestry. Genetic African ancestry predicted lower treatment response in all models. Although socioeconomic and baseline clinical factors drive racial differences in antidepressant response, genetic ancestry, rather than self-reported race, explains a significant fraction of the residual differences. Larger samples would be needed to identify the specific genetic mechanisms that may be involved, but these findings underscore the importance of including more African-American patients in drug trials.

  15. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Citalopram Response in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Garriock, Holly A.; Kraft, Jeffrey B.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Peters, Eric J.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Jenkins, Gregory D.; Reinalda, Megan S.; Slager, Susan L.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Hamilton, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Antidepressant response is likely influenced by genetic constitution, but the actual genes involved have yet to be determined. We have carried out a genome-wide association study to determine if common DNA variation influences antidepressant response. Methods Our sample is derived from Level 1 participants in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, all treated with citalopram. Association for the response phenotype included 883 responders and 608 non- responders. For the remission phenotype, 743 subjects that achieved remission were compared to 608 non-responders. We used a subset of SNPs (n = 430,198) from the Affymetrix 500K and 5.0 Human SNP Arrays, and association analysis was carried out after correcting for population stratification. Results We identified three SNPs associated with response with p-values less than 1 × 10−5 near the UBE3C gene (rs6966038, p = 4.65 × 10−7), another 100kb away from BMP7 (rs6127921, p = 3.45 × 10−6), and a third that is intronic in the RORA gene (rs809736, p = 8.19 × 10−6). These same SNPs were also associated with remission. Thirty-nine additional SNPs are of interest with p-values ≤ 0.0001 for the response and remission phenotypes. Conclusions Although the findings reported here do not meet a genome-wide threshold for significance, the regions identified from this study provide targets for independent replication and novel pathways to investigate mechanisms of antidepressant response. This study was not placebo controlled, making it possible that we are also observing associations to non-specific aspects of drug treatment of depression. PMID:19846067

  16. No major role of common SV2A variation for predisposition or levetiracetam response in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Tate, S K; Kinirons, P; Weale, M E; Cavalleri, G L; Depondt, C; Murphy, K; O'Rourke, D; Doherty, C P; Shianna, K V; Wood, N W; Sander, J W; Delanty, N; Goldstein, D B; Sisodiya, S M

    2009-01-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV), a newer antiepileptic drug (AED) useful for several epilepsy syndromes, binds to SV2A. Identifying genetic variants that influence response to LEV may allow more tailored use of LEV. Obvious candidate genes are SV2A, SV2B and SV2C, which encode the only known binding site, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2), with LEV binding to the SV2A isoform. SV2A is an essential protein as homozygous SV2A knockout mice appear normal at birth but fail to grow, experience severe seizures and die by 3 weeks. We addressed characterising AED response issues in pharmacogenetics and whether variation in these genes associates with response to LEV in two independent cohorts with epilepsy. We also investigated whether variation in these three genes associated with epilepsy predisposition in two larger cohorts of patients with various epilepsy phenotypes. Common genetic variation in SV2A, encoding the actual binding site of LEV, was fully represented in this study whereas SV2B and SV2C were not fully covered. None of the polymorphisms tested in SV2A, SV2B or SV2C influence LEV response or predisposition to epilepsy. We found no association between genetic variation in SV2A, SV2B or SV2C and response to LEV or epilepsy predisposition. We suggest this study design may be used in future pharmacogenetic work examining AED or LEV efficacy. However, different study designs would be needed to examine common variation with minor effect sizes, or rare variation, influencing AED or LEV response or epilepsy predisposition.

  17. Natural Variation of Molecular and Morphological Gibberellin Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Dorota; Kojima, Mikiko; Van Daele, Twiggy; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Although phytohormones such as gibberellins are essential for many conserved aspects of plant physiology and development, plants vary greatly in their responses to these regulatory compounds. Here, we use genetic perturbation of endogenous gibberellin levels to probe the extent of intraspecific variation in gibberellin responses in natural accessions of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We find that these accessions vary greatly in their ability to buffer the effects of overexpression of GA20ox1, encoding a rate-limiting enzyme for gibberellin biosynthesis, with substantial differences in bioactive gibberellin concentrations as well as transcriptomes and growth trajectories. These findings demonstrate a surprising level of flexibility in the wiring of regulatory networks underlying hormone metabolism and signaling. PMID:27879393

  18. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Malki, Karim; Keers, Robert; Tosto, Maria Grazia; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Carboni, Lucia; Domenici, Enrico; Uher, Rudolf; McGuffin, Peter; Schalkwyk, Leonard C

    2014-05-07

    Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of 'reactive' or 'endogenous' subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of 'reactive' and 'endogenous' depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic 'stress' protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model 'reactive' depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of 'endogenous' depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. In the mouse 'reactive' model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the 'endogenous' rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Our results suggest that 'endogenous' and 'reactive' subtypes of depression are associated with largely

  19. The endogenous and reactive depression subtypes revisited: integrative animal and human studies implicate multiple distinct molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) suggested that the presence or absence of stress prior to onset results in either ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes of the disorder, respectively. Several lines of research suggest that the biological underpinnings of ‘reactive’ or ‘endogenous’ subtypes may also differ, resulting in differential response to treatment. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing the gene-expression profiles of three animal models of ‘reactive’ and ‘endogenous’ depression. We then translated these findings to clinical samples using a human post-mortem mRNA study. Methods Affymetrix mouse whole-genome oligonucleotide arrays were used to measure gene expression from hippocampal tissues of 144 mice from the Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) project. The study used four inbred mouse strains and two depressogenic ‘stress’ protocols (maternal separation and Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress) to model ‘reactive’ depression. Stress-related mRNA differences in mouse were compared with a parallel mRNA study using Flinders Sensitive and Resistant rat lines as a model of ‘endogenous’ depression. Convergent genes differentially expressed across the animal studies were used to inform candidate gene selection in a human mRNA post-mortem case control study from the Stanley Brain Consortium. Results In the mouse ‘reactive’ model, the expression of 350 genes changed in response to early stresses and 370 in response to late stresses. A minimal genetic overlap (less than 8.8%) was detected in response to both stress protocols, but 30% of these genes (21) were also differentially regulated in the ‘endogenous’ rat study. This overlap is significantly greater than expected by chance. The VAMP-2 gene, differentially expressed across the rodent studies, was also significantly altered in the human study after correcting for multiple testing. Conclusions Our results suggest

  20. Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chuan-Yaun

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dissection of the roles of the SOD genes in mammalian response to low dose irradiation " was started on 09/01/03 and ended on 08/31/07. The primary objective of the project was to carry out mechanistic studies of the roles of the anti-oxidant SOD genes in mammalian cellular response to low dose ionizing radiation.

  1. Can we eliminate major tornadoes in Tornado Alley? — Response to the Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2014-11-01

    Dahl and Markowski are wrong and misleading to claim that the major tornadoes in USA Tornado Alley are not related to the collisions between northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow. In addition, they use incompressible and inviscid fluid model for atmosphere in their simulations about the interaction between air wind and the wall. Such approach ignores the basic physics and thus cannot reach any meaningful results. As air is compressible, the collision between the wind and wall will compress air, eventually lead the air density to decrease fast with the height and make the air flow stratified. The viscosity will produce wind shear, turbulent eddies and greatly reduce the wind's forwarding speed. Laboratory experiments and the Nature have all shown that hills with height about 300 m will not block winds completely to change the climate, but can effectively reduce the wind speed, weaken the air mass collisions and eliminate the major tornadoes. All these strongly support the theory that building east-west ranged walls of 300 m high and 50 m wide will eliminate major tornado threat in Tornado Alley.

  2. Molecular and biochemical responses of Volvox carteri to oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingappa, U.; Rankin-Gee, E. K.; Lera, M.; Bebour, B.; Marcu, O.

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the intracellular response to environmental stresses is a key aspect to understanding the limits of habitability for life as we know it. A wide range of relevant stressors, from heat shock to radiation, result in the intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are used physiologically as signaling molecules to cause changes in gene expression and metabolism. However, ROS, including superoxide (O2-) and peroxides, are also highly reactive molecules that cause oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA. Here we studied stress response in the multicellular, eukaryotic green alga Volvox carteri, after exposure to heat shock conditions. We show that the ROS response to heat stress is paralleled by changes in photosynthetic metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, and fluctuations in the elemental composition of cells. Metabolism, as measured by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry over two hours of heat stress, showed a linear decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency of Volvox. ROS quantification uncovered an increase in ROS in the culture medium, paralleled by a decrease in ROS within the Volvox colonies, suggesting an export mechanism is utilized to mitigate stress. Enzyme kinetics indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity over the heat stress timecourse. Using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, we show that these changes coincide with cell-specific import/export and intracellular redistribution of transition elements and halides, suggesting that the cellular metallome is also engaged in mediating oxidative stress in Volvox.

  3. Nuclear Cytoplasmic Trafficking of Proteins is a Major Response of Human Fibroblasts to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Baqader, Noor O.; Radulovic, Marko; Crawford, Mark; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    We have used a subcellular spatial razor approach based on LC–MS/MS-based proteomics with SILAC isotope labeling to determine changes in protein abundances in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of human IMR90 fibroblasts subjected to mild oxidative stress. We show that response to mild tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide treatment includes redistribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm of numerous proteins not previously associated with oxidative stress. The 121 proteins with the most significant changes encompass proteins with known functions in a wide variety of subcellular locations and of cellular functional processes (transcription, signal transduction, autophagy, iron metabolism, TCA cycle, ATP synthesis) and are consistent with functional networks that are spatially dispersed across the cell. Both nuclear respiratory factor 2 and the proline regulatory axis appear to contribute to the cellular metabolic response. Proteins involved in iron metabolism or with iron/heme as a cofactor as well as mitochondrial proteins are prominent in the response. Evidence suggesting that nuclear import/export and vesicle-mediated protein transport contribute to the cellular response was obtained. We suggest that measurements of global changes in total cellular protein abundances need to be complemented with measurements of the dynamic subcellular spatial redistribution of proteins to obtain comprehensive pictures of cellular function. PMID:25133973

  4. Nonmusic Majors' Cognitive and Affective Responses to Performance and Programmatic Music Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geringer, John M.; Cassidy, Jane W.; Byo, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Compares the effects of different kinds of visual presentations, and music alone, on university nonmusic students' affective and cognitive responses to music. Separate groups of students listened to classical music excerpts, either by themselves, or with video accompaniment. They rated the music on Likert-type scales and responded to open-ended…

  5. A longitudinal examination of peritraumatic emotional responses and their association with posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder among veterans.

    PubMed

    Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Bovin, Michelle J; Black, Shimrit K; Rosen, Raymond C; Keane, Terence M; Marx, Brian P

    2016-12-05

    Research has revealed a significant association between several peritraumatic emotional responses and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Preliminary research has also linked peritraumatic emotional responses with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The majority of this research has been cross-sectional, thereby making it difficult to determine the extent to which the various peritraumatic emotional responses may increase risk for, or serve as a premorbid marker of, PTSD and MDD. This study examined the longitudinal role of peritraumatic emotional responses on the subsequent development of PTSD and MDD in a sample of US military veterans. Whereas a number of peritraumatic emotional responses were concurrently associated with PTSD, only peritraumatic numbness maintained the association with this diagnosis longitudinally. For MDD, peritraumatic numbness was the only emotional response related to the diagnosis both concurrently and longitudinally. Study findings are a preliminary proof of concept that peritraumatic numbness may serve as a premorbid marker for the development of PTSD and MDD following a traumatic event. Implications of these findings for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of both PTSD and MDD are discussed.

  6. A Cluster Model of Temperament as an Indicator of Antidepressant Response and Symptom Severity in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Kampman, Olli; Illi, Ari; Viikki, Merja; Setälä-Soikkeli, Eija; Leinonen, Esa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Not enough is known about which patients suffering from major depressive disorder benefit from antidepressant drug treatment. Individual temperament is relatively stable over a person's lifespan and is thought to be largely biologically predefined. We assessed how temperament profiles are related to depression and predict the efficacy of antidepressant treatment. Methods We recruited one hundred Finnish outpatients (aged 19 to 72) suffering from major depressive disorder, of whom 86 completed the 6-week study. We assessed their temperament features with the Temperament and Character Inventory and used cluster analysis to determine the patient's temperament profile. We also categorized the patients according to the vegetative symptoms of major depressive disorder. Results There was an association between skewed temperament profile and severity of major depressive disorder, but the temperament profiles alone did not predict antidepressant treatment response. Those with higher baseline vegetative symptoms score had modest treatment response. Our model with baseline Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) vegetative symptoms, age and temperament clusters as explanatory variables explained 20% of the variance in the endpoint MADRS scores. Conclusion The temperament clusters were associated both with severity of depression and antidepressive treatment response of depression. The effect of the temperament profile alone was modest but, combined with vegetative symptoms of depression, their explanatory power was more marked suggesting that there could be an association of these two in the biological basis of MDD. PMID:24605119

  7. Mechanical Response Study of Collagen by means of Molecular Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Veld, Pieter J.

    2005-03-01

    We developed a coarse-grained model to study mechanical behavior of collagen fibrils as a function of their degree of cross-linking. A collagen molecule is represented by Lennard-Jones beads, which intra-molecularly are connected through harmonic springs on both bond length and angle. In this model each bead represents a helical turn in a collagen molecule. Triple-helical collagen molecules, which are 300 nm long, are packed within fibrils in a staggered fashion with an axial spacing of 67 nm in the absence of a load on the tendon. We treat the outer layer or shell different from the core by assuming the shell has the maximum amount of available cross-links. The core has a variable amount of cross-links by allowing cross-link formation and breakage depending on a reaction-type criterion. We study the stress-strain behavior of a single fibril through tensile deformation along the principal axis and a three-point bend perpendicular to the principal axis.

  8. A Molecular Framework for Tunable Functional Response of Programmable Polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Kshitij C.; Joy, Abraham; Tsige, Mesfin

    All-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, using the OPLS force field, were carried out on a library of multifunctional polyesters with peptide-like functional pendant groups. The polyesters are structural peptidomimetics and can be utilized for applications in sensing, and separation, and as biomedical scaffolds. The modular design of the polyesters affords a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic behavior. We used MD to quantify the hydrogen bond dynamics, end-to-end distance, and radii of gyration with changes in side group functionality, concentration, and temperature. We discerned trends for the physical behavior of polyesters with change in nature and ratio of the side groups. We also observed functional assembly for dissimilar polyesters, and correlated the assembly to the affinity of side groups. The trends in physical behavior and dissimilar assembly can be mined for iterative design towards programmatic assembly of the modular multifunctional polyesters under study. This work was made possible by funding from the ACS Petroleum Research Fund (ACS PRF 54801- ND5).

  9. Acoustic response of cemented granular sedimentary rocks: molecular dynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    García, Xavier; Medina, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    The effect of cementation processes on the acoustical properties of sands is studied via molecular dynamics simulation methods. We propose numerical methods where the initial uncemented sand is built by simulating the settling process of sediments. Uncemented samples of different porosity are considered by emulating natural mechanical compaction of sediments due to overburden. Cementation is considered through a particle-based model that captures the underlying physics behind the process. In our simulations, we consider samples with different degrees of compaction and cementing materials with distinct elastic properties. The microstructure of cemented sands is taken into account while adding cement at specific locations within the pores, such as grain-to-grain contacts. Results show that the acoustical properties of cemented sands are strongly dependent on the amount of cement, its stiffness relative to the hosting medium, and its location within the pores. Simulation results are in good correspondence with available experimental data and compare favorably with some theoretical predictions for the sound velocity within a range of cement saturation, porosity, and confining pressure.

  10. Cognitive predictors of treatment response to bupropion and cognitive effects of bupropion in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Guzmán, Ixchel; Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve; Lira-Mandujano, Jennifer; Herrera-Abarca, Jorge; Herrera-Guzmán, Daniel; Montoya-Pérez, Karina; Guardia-Olmos, Joan

    2008-07-15

    Cognitive effects of antidepressants and cognitive predictors of antidepressant treatment response are recent focuses of interest in the neuropsychology of depression. We studied the cognitive predictors of treatment response to bupropion and its neuropsychological effects in patients with major depressive disorder. Twenty subjects meeting the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and a neuropsychological battery. Subjects were medicated with 150 mg/day of bupropion sustained release for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, 12 subjects were classified as responders to treatment and 8 were non-responders. Our findings suggest that low pretreatment measures of visual memory and low levels of mental processing speed are predictive of good response to bupropion. The cognitive effects of bupropion after the treatment showed that patients improved in visual memory measures and in mental processing speed. Our results suggest that cognitive predictors of treatment response to bupropion and cognitive effects of bupropion in patients with major depressive disorder could be closely related. These findings need to be replicated due to the exploratory nature of the present work.

  11. Evaluation of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in molecular subtypes of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Dong, Xiaoqiu; Li, Rongguo; Ma, Xiao; Song, Jian; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The pathological complete response of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer correlates with the prognosis for survival. Tumors may have different prognoses according to their molecular subtypes. This study was performed to evaluate the relevance of the pathological response and prognosis following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. A consecutive series of 88 patients with operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed. Patients were classified into four molecular subtypes based on the immunohistochemistry profile of the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67. The histological response was assessed according to Miller-Payne grading (MPG) and Residual Disease in Breast and Nodes (RDBN). Ten patients (11.4%) achieved a pathological complete response, assessed according to RDBN. The pathological complete response rate was 13.6% according to MPG. Patients with the triple-negative subtype were more likely to achieve a pathological complete response than those with luminal A breast cancer (P=0.03). MPG and RDBN are independent predictors of distant disease-free survival and local recurrence-free survival, but do not predict overall survival. Ki-67, size of invasive carcinoma, lymph nodes, molecular subtypes, MPG, and RDBN are important predictors of distant disease-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and overall survival. MPG and RDBN were similarly related to the patient's prognosis. MPG was more suitable for evaluation of distant disease-free survival, and RDBN was more suitable for evaluation of local recurrence-free survival. Survival following neoadjuvant chemotherapy correlated with the pathological reaction rather than the molecular subtype of breast cancer. The molecular subtype of breast cancer was not correlated with pathological response in patients who did not achieve a pathological complete response.

  12. Decipher the Molecular Response of Plant Single Cell Types to Environmental Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular response of entire plants or organs to environmental stresses suffers from the cellular complexity of the samples used. Specifically, this cellular complexity masks cell-specific responses to environmental stresses and logically leads to the dilution of the molecular changes occurring in each cell type composing the tissue/organ/plant in response to the stress. Therefore, to generate a more accurate picture of these responses, scientists are focusing on plant single cell type approaches. Several cell types are now considered as models such as the pollen, the trichomes, the cotton fiber, various root cell types including the root hair cell, and the guard cell of stomata. Among them, several have been used to characterize plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Lastly, in this review, we are describing the various -omic studies performed on these different plant single cell type models to better understand plant cell response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  13. Decipher the Molecular Response of Plant Single Cell Types to Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the molecular response of entire plants or organs to environmental stresses suffers from the cellular complexity of the samples used. Specifically, this cellular complexity masks cell-specific responses to environmental stresses and logically leads to the dilution of the molecular changes occurring in each cell type composing the tissue/organ/plant in response to the stress. Therefore, to generate a more accurate picture of these responses, scientists are focusing on plant single cell type approaches. Several cell types are now considered as models such as the pollen, the trichomes, the cotton fiber, various root cell types including the root hair cell, and the guard cell of stomata. Among them, several have been used to characterize plant response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this review, we are describing the various -omic studies performed on these different plant single cell type models to better understand plant cell response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:27088086

  14. A New Approach to Teaching Science to Elementary Education Majors in Response to the NGSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, C.; Daniels, L.; McCoy, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) place an equal emphasis on science process skills and science content. The goal is to have K-12 students "doing" science, not just "learning about" science. However, most traditional college science classes for elementary education majors place a much stronger emphasis on science content knowledge with the hands-on portion limited to a once-a-week lab. The two models of instruction are not aligned. The result is that many elementary school teachers are unprepared to offer interactive science with their students. Without additional coaching, many teachers fall back on the format they learned in college - lecture, handouts, homework. If we want teachers to use more hands-on methods in the classroom, these techniques should be taught to elementary education majors when they are in college. Dickinson State University has begun a collaboration between the Teacher Education Department and the Department of Natural Sciences. The physical science course for elementary education majors has been completely redesigned to focus equally on the needed science content and the science process skills emphasized by the NGSS. The format of the course has been adjusted to more closely mirror a traditional K-5 classroom; the course meets for 50 minutes five days a week. A flipped-classroom model has been adopted to ensure no content is lost, and hands-on activities are done almost every day as new concepts are discussed. In order to judge the effectiveness of these changes, a survey tool was administered to determine if there was a shift in the students' perception of science as an active instead of a passive field of study. The survey also measured the students' comfort-level in offering a hands-on learning environment in their future classrooms and their confidence in their ability to effectively teach science concepts to elementary students. Results from the first year of the study will be presented.

  15. Zinc oxide induces the stringent response and major reorientations in the central metabolism of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Luche, Sylvie; Eymard-Vernain, Elise; Diemer, Hélène; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry; Lelong, Cécile

    2016-03-01

    Microorganisms, such as bacteria, are one of the first targets of nanoparticles in the environment. In this study, we tested the effect of two nanoparticles, ZnO and TiO2, with the salt ZnSO4 as the control, on the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis by 2D gel electrophoresis-based proteomics. Despite a significant effect on viability (LD50), TiO2 NPs had no detectable effect on the proteomic pattern, while ZnO NPs and ZnSO4 significantly modified B. subtilis metabolism. These results allowed us to conclude that the effects of ZnO observed in this work were mainly attributable to Zn dissolution in the culture media. Proteomic analysis highlighted twelve modulated proteins related to central metabolism: MetE and MccB (cysteine metabolism), OdhA, AspB, IolD, AnsB, PdhB and YtsJ (Krebs cycle) and XylA, YqjI, Drm and Tal (pentose phosphate pathway). Biochemical assays, such as free sulfhydryl, CoA-SH and malate dehydrogenase assays corroborated the observed central metabolism reorientation and showed that Zn stress induced oxidative stress, probably as a consequence of thiol chelation stress by Zn ions. The other patterns affected by ZnO and ZnSO4 were the stringent response and the general stress response. Nine proteins involved in or controlled by the stringent response showed a modified expression profile in the presence of ZnO NPs or ZnSO4: YwaC, SigH, YtxH, YtzB, TufA, RplJ, RpsB, PdhB and Mbl. An increase in the ppGpp concentration confirmed the involvement of the stringent response during a Zn stress. All these metabolic reorientations in response to Zn stress were probably the result of complex regulatory mechanisms including at least the stringent response via YwaC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced care team response to incidents involving major trauma at night: are helicopters the answer?

    PubMed

    McQueen, Carl; Nutbeam, Tim; Crombie, Nick; Lecky, Fiona; Lawrence, Thomas; Hathaway, Karen; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-07-01

    Challenges exist in how to deliver enhanced care to patients suffering severe injury in geographically remote areas within regionalised trauma networks at night. The physician led Enhanced Care Teams (ECTs) in the West Midlands region of England do not currently utilise helicopters to respond to incidents at night. This study describes this remote trauma workload at night within the regional network in terms of incident location; injury profile and patient care needs and discusses various solutions to the delivery of ECTs to such incidents, including the need for helicopter based platforms. We present a retrospective analysis of incidents involving Major Trauma occurring in the West Midlands Regional Trauma Network in England over a one year period (1st April 2012 until the 31st March 2013). Anonymised patient records from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) for patients that had been conveyed to hospital by ambulance/air ambulance were cross-referenced with the West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust (WMAS) Computer Assisted Dispatch (CAD) archive for the same period. Data were abstracted from the combined dataset relating to injury severity (ISS/ICU admission/death at scene or as inpatient); ECT resource activations/scene attendances; incident location and the need for enhanced level care. A total of 603 incidents involving Major Trauma were identified during night time hours. Enhanced Care Team resources attended scene in 167 cases (27.7%). Of the incidents not attended by an ECT 179 (41.1%) were due to falls and 91 (20.9%) involved a 'Road Traffic Collision'. A total of 36 incidents (6.0% of total at night) occurred in locations identified as being greater than 45min by road from the nearest major trauma centre. In these cases 13 patients had enhanced care needs that could not be addressed at scene by the attending ambulance service personnel. There is limited evidence to support the need for night HEMS operations in the West Midlands

  17. Transcriptomic analysis of molecular responses in Malus domestica 'M26' roots affected by apple replant disease.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Stefan; Bartsch, Melanie; Winkelmann, Traud

    2017-06-01

    Gene expression studies in roots of apple replant disease affected plants suggested defense reactions towards biotic stress to occur which did not lead to adequate responses to the biotic stressors. Apple replant disease (ARD) leads to growth inhibition and fruit yield reduction in replanted populations and results in economic losses for tree nurseries and fruit producers. The etiology is not well understood on a molecular level and causal agents show a great diversity indicating that no definitive cause, which applies to the majority of cases, has been found out yet. Hence, it is pivotal to gain a better understanding of the molecular and physiological reactions of the plant when affected by ARD and later to overcome the disease, for example by developing tolerant rootstocks. For the first time, gene expression was investigated in roots of ARD affected plants employing massive analysis of cDNA ends (MACE) and RT-qPCR. In reaction to ARD, genes in secondary metabolite production as well as plant defense, regulatory and signaling genes were upregulated whereas for several genes involved in primary metabolism lower expression was detected. For internal verification of MACE data, candidate genes were tested via RT-qPCR and a strong positive correlation between both datasets was observed. Comparison of apple 'M26' roots cultivated in ARD soil or γ-irradiated ARD soil suggests that typical defense reactions towards biotic stress take place in ARD affected plants but they did not allow responding to the biotic stressors attack adequately, leading to the observed growth depressions in ARD variants.

  18. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  19. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Céline; Novaes, Evandro; Kirst, Matias; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-02

    In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance of biomass growth during the

  20. Monoterpene-induced molecular responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Godard, Kimberley-Ann; White, Richard; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2008-06-01

    Terpenoid volatiles mediate various forms of chemical communications of plants with other organisms. In this paper we demonstrate that exposure of intact Arabidopsis thaliana plants to monoterpene volatiles results in substantial changes of the plant transcriptome and induction of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) accumulation. We used a heterologous pinII::GUS reporter system to test monoterpenes for their potential to induce a response in A. thaliana. Plants showed increased pinII-promoter activity upon exposure to different monoterpene volatiles, similar to the response induced by MeJA, mechanical wounding, or insect feeding. Microarray gene expression profiling indicated induced changes in the abundance of several hundred transcripts in wild-type plants upon either exposure to myrcene volatiles or exposure to a blend of ocimene volatiles consisting of (E)-beta-ocimene, (Z)-beta-ocimene, and allo-ocimene. Many of the monoterpene-induced transcripts are annotated as either transcription factors or as stress or defense genes including several steps in the octadecanoid pathway. Metabolite analysis showed that exposure of Arabidopsis for 2h to myrcene or ocimene induced increased tissue levels of MeJA. Octadecanoid biosynthesis (aoc) and signaling (coi1) mutants showed some reduced ocimene-induction of gene expression.

  1. Protective response to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice requires antigen processing in the absence of DM.

    PubMed

    Kamala, Tirumalai; Nanda, Navreet K

    2009-04-15

    Protection from the parasite Leishmania major is mediated by CD4 T cells. BALB/c mice are susceptible to L. major and show a nonprotective immunodominant CD4 T cell response to Leishmania homolog of activated receptor for c-kinase (LACK) 158-173. Host genes that underlie BALB/c susceptibility to L. major infections are poorly defined. DM, a nonclassical MHC class II molecule, due to its peptide editing properties has been shown to 1) edit the repertoire of peptides displayed by APC, and 2) focus the display of epitopes by APC to the immunodominant ones. We tested the hypothesis that deficiency of DM, by causing presentation of a different array of epitopes by infected APC than that presented by DM-sufficient APC, may change the course of L. major infection in the susceptible BALB/c mice. We show herein that unlike their susceptible wild-type counterparts, BALB/c mice deficient in DM are protected from infections with L. major. Furthermore, DM-deficient mice fail to display the immunodominant LACK 158-173 on infected APC. In its place, infected DM(-/-) hosts show elicitation of CD4 T cells specific for newer epitopes not presented by wild-type L. major-infected APC. Protection of BALB/c DM(-/-) mice is dependent on IFN-gamma. DM is thus a host susceptibility gene in BALB/c mice, and Ag processing in the absence of DM results in elicitation of a protective T cell response against L. major infections. This report suggests a novel mechanism to trigger host resistance against pathogens.

  2. Amygdala responses to quetiapine XR and citalopram treatment in major depression: the role of 5-HTTLPR-S/Lg polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Rajamannar; Burgess, Ashley; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Cortese, Filomeno; Clark, Darren; Kemp, Anne; Goodyear, Bradley; Macqueen, Glenda; Bech-Hansen, N Torben; Foster, Jane; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2016-03-01

    Genotype and drug pharmacology may contribute to variations in brain response to antidepressants. We examined the impact of two antidepressants with differential actions on serotonin transporter and the 5-HHTLPR-S/Lg polymorphisms on amygdala responses in major depressive disorder (MDD). Caucasians with MDD were given either citalopram or quetiapine extended release for 8 weeks. Patients were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR. Clinical efficacy was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. fMRI responses to negative emotional faces were acquired at baseline, week 1 and week 8. The outcome measure was change in amygdala responses at week 8. Citalopram had no effect on amygdala responses in MDD patients with S/Lg alleles at weeks 1 and 8 compared with baseline, whereas it induced changes in amygdala responses in LL homozygotes. By contrast, quetiapine decreased amygdala responses at both time points in S/Lg carriers, and changes in amygdala responses at week 8 correlated with a reduction in depression scores. The small number of LL homozygotes in quetiapine group was a limitation. Efficacy of both treatments was comparable. These preliminary data suggest that pharmacological mechanisms and genetics need to be considered in the development of neuroimaging markers for the evaluation of antidepressant treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Observed response of the earth`s lower thermosphere to a major geomagnetic storm

    SciTech Connect

    Salah, J.E.; Deng, W.; Clark, R.R.

    1996-03-01

    The authors report on observations from Millstone Hill radar of the response of the thermosphere to a geomagnetic storm in early June 1991. The radar was on line to study this interaction. They observed winds of 100 to 150 m/s in the zonal and meridonal components at altitudes near 110 km. The general daily tidal pattern seemed to persist, but the amplitudes were much enhanced due to the storm.

  4. Marine molluscs in environmental monitoring. I. Cellular and molecular responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Vladimir; Abelson, Avigdor; Fishelson, Lev; Feldstein, Tamar; Rosenfeld, Michael; Mokady, Ofer

    2003-10-01

    levels of biological organization—the molecular and cellular level—the parameters measured may have the capacity not only for biomonitoring environmental quality, but also for early warning.

  5. Thermal response in crystalline Ibeta cellulose: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Bergenstråhle, Malin; Berglund, Lars A; Mazeau, Karim

    2007-08-02

    The influence of temperature on structure and properties of the cellulose Ibeta crystal was studied by molecular dynamics simulations with the GROMOS 45a4 force-field. At 300 K, the modeled crystal agreed reasonably with several sets of experimental data, including crystal density, corresponding packing and crystal unit cell dimensions, chain conformation parameters, hydrogen bonds, Young's modulus, and thermal expansion coefficient at room temperature. At high-temperature (500 K), the cellulose chains remained in sheets, despite differences in the fine details compared to the room-temperature structure. The density decreased while the a and b cell parameters expanded by 7.4% and 6%, respectively, and the c parameter (chain axis) slightly contracted by 0.5%. Cell angles alpha and beta divided into two populations. The hydroxymethyl groups mainly adopted the gt orientation, and the hydrogen-bonding pattern thereby changed. One intrachain hydrogen bond, O2'H2'...O6, disappeared and consequently the Young's modulus decreased by 25%. A transition pathway between the low- and high-temperature structures has been proposed, with an initial step being an increased intersheet separation, which allowed every second cellulose chain to rotate around its helix axis by about 30 degrees . Second, all hydroxymethyl groups changed their orientations, from tg to gg (rotated chains) and from tg to gt (non-rotated chains). When temperature was further increased, the rotated chains returned to their original orientation and their hydroxymethyl groups again changed their conformation, from gg to gt. A transition temperature of about 450 K was suggested; however, the transition seems to be more gradual than sudden. The simulated data on temperature-induced changes in crystal unit cell dimensions and the hydrogen-bonding pattern also compared well with experimental results.

  6. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young; Hwang, Meeyul; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jeon, Jae-Pil

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  7. Low-affinity CD4+ T cells are major responders in the primary immune response.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ryan J; Andargachew, Rakieb; Martinez, Hunter A; Evavold, Brian D

    2016-12-15

    A robust primary immune response has been correlated with the precursor number of antigen-specific T cells, as identified using peptide MHCII tetramers. However, these tetramers identify only the highest-affinity T cells. Here we show the entire CD4+ T-cell repertoire, inclusive of low-affinity T cells missed by tetramers, using a T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling reporter and micropipette assay to quantify naive precursors and expanded populations. In vivo limiting dilution assays reveal hundreds more precursor T cells than previously thought, with higher-affinity tetramer-positive T cells, comprising only 5-30% of the total antigen-specific naive repertoire. Lower-affinity T cells maintain their predominance as the primary immune response progresses, with no enhancement of survival of T cells with high-affinity TCRs. These findings demonstrate that affinity for antigen does not control CD4+ T-cell entry into the primary immune response, as a diverse range in affinity is maintained from precursor through peak of T-cell expansion.

  8. Low-affinity CD4+ T cells are major responders in the primary immune response

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ryan J.; Andargachew, Rakieb; Martinez, Hunter A.; Evavold, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    A robust primary immune response has been correlated with the precursor number of antigen-specific T cells, as identified using peptide MHCII tetramers. However, these tetramers identify only the highest-affinity T cells. Here we show the entire CD4+ T-cell repertoire, inclusive of low-affinity T cells missed by tetramers, using a T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling reporter and micropipette assay to quantify naive precursors and expanded populations. In vivo limiting dilution assays reveal hundreds more precursor T cells than previously thought, with higher-affinity tetramer-positive T cells, comprising only 5–30% of the total antigen-specific naive repertoire. Lower-affinity T cells maintain their predominance as the primary immune response progresses, with no enhancement of survival of T cells with high-affinity TCRs. These findings demonstrate that affinity for antigen does not control CD4+ T-cell entry into the primary immune response, as a diverse range in affinity is maintained from precursor through peak of T-cell expansion. PMID:27976744

  9. Characterizations of Three Major Cysteine Sensors of Keap1 in Stress Response.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryota; Suzuki, Takafumi; Hiramoto, Keiichiro; Asami, Soichiro; Naganuma, Eriko; Suda, Hiromi; Iso, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Hirotaka; Morita, Masanobu; Baird, Liam; Furusawa, Yuki; Negishi, Takaaki; Ichinose, Masakazu; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2015-11-02

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a central role in cytoprotection against electrophilic/oxidative stresses. Although Cys151, Cys273, and Cys288 of Keap1 are major sensor cysteine residues for detecting these stresses, it has not been technically feasible to evaluate the functionality of Cys273 or Cys288, since Keap1 mutants that harbor substitutions in these residues and maintain the ability to repress Nrf2 accumulation do not exist. To overcome this problem, we systematically introduced amino acid substitutions into Cys273/Cys288 and finally identified Cys273Trp and Cys288Glu mutations that do not affect Keap1's ability to repress Nrf2 accumulation. Utilizing these Keap1 mutants, we generated stable murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines and knock-in mouse lines. Our analyses with the MEFs and peritoneal macrophages from the knock-in mice revealed that three major cysteine residues, Cys151, Cys273, and Cys288, individually and/or redundantly act as sensors. Based on the functional necessity of these three cysteine residues, we categorized chemical inducers of Nrf2 into four classes. Class I and II utilizes Cys151 and Cys288, respectively, while class III requires all three residues (Cys151/Cys273/Cys288), while class IV inducers function independently of all three of these cysteine residues. This study thus demonstrates that Keap1 utilizes multiple cysteine residues specifically and/or collaboratively as sensors for the detection of a wide range of environmental stresses.

  10. River responses to the 2010 major eruption of the Merapi volcano, central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gob, Frédéric; Gautier, Emmanuèle; Virmoux, Clément; Grancher, Delphine; Tamisier, Vincent; Primanda, Kiki Widyaputra; Wibowo, Sandy Budi; Sarrazin, Caroline; de Belizal, Edouard; Ville, Anouk; Lavigne, Franck

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the fluvial readjustment of a Javanese river impacted by the major eruption of the Merapi volcano (Indonesia) in October and November 2010. The basin of the Opak River, located on the southern flank of the Merapi, was subject to substantial sediment input related to massive pyroclastic deposits that were remobilized by numerous lahars during the year after the eruption. Two study sites were equipped in order to evaluate the morphodynamic evolution of the riverbed of the Opak River. Topographic surveys, bedload particle marking, and suspended sediment sampling revealed an important sediment mobilization during efficient flash floods. Surprisingly, no bed aggradation related to the progradation of a sediment wave was observed. Two years after the eruptive event, marked bed incision was observed. The Opak River readjustment differs from that of other fluvial systems affected by massive eruptions in two ways. Firstly, local population extracted the sand and blocks injected by the eruption as they represent a valuable economic resource. Secondly, several dams trapped the major part of the sediment load remobilized by lahars.

  11. Personality and Differential Treatment Response in Major Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bagby, R Michael; Quilty, Lena C; Segal, Zindel V; McBride, Carolina C; Kennedy, Sidney H; Costa, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    Objective Effective treatments for major depressive disorder exist, yet some patients fail to respond, or achieve only partial response. One approach to optimizing treatment success is to identify which patients are more likely to respond best to which treatments. The objective of this investigation was to determine if patient personality characteristics are predictive of response to either cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) or pharmacotherapy (PHT). Method Depressed patients completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures the higher-order domain and lower-order facet traits of the Five-Factor Model of Personality, and were randomized to receive either CBT or PHT. Result Four personality traits—the higher-order domain neuroticism and 3 lower-order facet traits: trust, straightforwardness, and tendermindedness—were able to distinguish a differential response rate to CBT, compared with PHT. Conclusion The assessment of patient dimensional personality traits can assist in the selection and optimization of treatment response for depressed patients. PMID:18616856

  12. Molecular Structure of Physiologically-Responsive Hydrogels Controls Diffusive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Daniel A.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Polymeric networks and the ensuing hydrogels of methacrylic acid and N-vinyl pyrrolidone were successfully synthesized using a UV-initiated free radical polymerization and characterized to assess their applicability as carriers for directed drug delivery. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed shifts in peak absorbances that indicated the presence of hydrogen bonding complexes between functional groups, while SEM imaging showed that the different comonomers affect the surface morphology of the microparticles. Dynamic pH swelling studies demonstrated the pH responsiveness of the carriers in gastric and intestinal conditions and revealed that systems containing higher concentrations of methacrylic acid experienced the highest degree of hydrogen bonding complexation in gastric conditions. The presence of NVP in the systems enhanced swelling. Equilibrium swelling studies revealed that the mesh size was sufficiently large to allow drug diffusion across the networks. PMID:19016502

  13. Molecular profile of major growth factors in lumbar intervertebral disc herniation: Correlation with patient clinical and epidemiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Alexandros; Soufla, Giannoula; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Katonis, Pavlos; Pasku, Dritan; Vakis, Antonis; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    The involvement of growth factors (GFs) in the pathogenesis of lumbar intervertebral disc (ID) herniation and the spontaneous resorption of herniated ID fragments remains only partially elucidated. A simultaneous assessment of the transcript levels of numerous GFs and their association with clinical and epidemiological profiles of human ID herniation would provide valuable insight into the biology and clinical course of the disease. In the present study, we examined simultaneously the transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1), basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (bFGF2), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms and receptors, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1) in herniated and control ID specimens and investigated their correlation with the clinicopathological profiles of patients suffering from symptomatic lumbar ID herniation. GF mRNA expression levels were determined by RT-qPCR in 63 surgical specimens from lumbar herniated discs and 10 control ID specimens. Multiple positive correlations were observed between the transcript levels of the GFs examined in the ID herniation group. VEGF mRNA expression was significantly increased in the protruding compared with the extruded discs. Intense and acute pain significantly upregulated the PDGF transcript levels. Significant negative correlations were observed between the patient body mass index and the transcript levels of VEGF and PDGF receptors. Our findings support the hypothesis of the involvement of GFs in the natural history of ID herniation. GFs synergistically act in herniated IDs. Increased VEGF expression possibly induces the neovascularization process in the earliest stages of ID herniation. PDGF‑C and ‑D play a role in the acute phase of radiculopathy in a metabolic response for tissue healing. A molecular effect, in addition to the biomechanical effect of obesity in the

  14. Molecular response to toxic diatom-derived aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria

    2014-04-04

    Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world's oceans and represent a major food source for zooplankton and benthic filter-feeders. However, their beneficial role in sustaining marine food webs has been challenged after the discovery that they produce secondary metabolites, such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), which negatively affect the reproductive success of many invertebrates. Here, we report the effects of two common diatom PUAs, heptadienal and octadienal, which have never been tested before at the molecular level, using the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, as a model organism. We show that both PUAs are able to induce teratogenesis (i.e., malformations), as already reported for decadienal, the better-studied PUA of this group. Moreover, post-recovery experiments show that embryos can recover after treatment with all three PUAs, indicating that negative effects depend both on PUA concentrations and the exposure time of the embryos to these metabolites. We also identify the time range during which PUAs exert the greatest effect on sea urchin embryogenesis. Finally, we report the expression levels of thirty one genes (having a key role in a broad range of functional responses, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxification processes) in order to identify the common targets affected by PUAs and their correlation with morphological abnormalities. This study opens new perspectives for understanding how marine organisms afford protection from environmental toxicants through an integrated network of genes.

  15. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Antitumor Immune Response Activation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Markov, O. V.; Mironova, N. L.; Vlasov, V. V.; Zenkova, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the initiation and regulation of the antitumor immune response. Already , DC-based antitumor vaccines have been thoroughly explored both in animal tumor models and in clinical trials. DC-based vaccines are commonly produced from DC progenitors isolated from peripheral blood or bone marrow by culturing in the presence of cytokines, followed by loading the DCs with tumor-specific antigens, such as DNA, RNA, viral vectors, or a tumor cell lysate. However, the efficacy of DC-based vaccines remains low. Undoubtedly, a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which DCs function would allow us to enhance the antitumor efficacy of DC-based vaccines in clinical applications. This review describes the origin and major subsets of mouse and human DCs, as well as the differences between them. The cellular mechanisms of presentation and cross-presentation of exogenous antigens by DCs to T cells are described. We discuss intracellular antigen processing in DCs, cross-dressing, and the acquisition of the antigen cross-presentation function. A particular section in the review describes the mechanisms of tumor escape from immune surveillance through the suppression of DCs functions. PMID:27795841

  16. Molecular Response to Toxic Diatom-Derived Aldehydes in the Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G.; Ruocco, Nadia; Costantini, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms are dominant photosynthetic organisms in the world’s oceans and represent a major food source for zooplankton and benthic filter-feeders. However, their beneficial role in sustaining marine food webs has been challenged after the discovery that they produce secondary metabolites, such as polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), which negatively affect the reproductive success of many invertebrates. Here, we report the effects of two common diatom PUAs, heptadienal and octadienal, which have never been tested before at the molecular level, using the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, as a model organism. We show that both PUAs are able to induce teratogenesis (i.e., malformations), as already reported for decadienal, the better-studied PUA of this group. Moreover, post-recovery experiments show that embryos can recover after treatment with all three PUAs, indicating that negative effects depend both on PUA concentrations and the exposure time of the embryos to these metabolites. We also identify the time range during which PUAs exert the greatest effect on sea urchin embryogenesis. Finally, we report the expression levels of thirty one genes (having a key role in a broad range of functional responses, such as stress, development, differentiation, skeletogenesis and detoxification processes) in order to identify the common targets affected by PUAs and their correlation with morphological abnormalities. This study opens new perspectives for understanding how marine organisms afford protection from environmental toxicants through an integrated network of genes. PMID:24714125

  17. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Benevenuto, Rafael Fonseca; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Vilperte, Vinicius; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; van Rensburg, Peet Jansen; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2017-01-01

    Some genetically modified (GM) plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA) analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses. PMID:28245233

  18. Molecular responses of genetically modified maize to abiotic stresses as determined through proteomic and metabolomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Benevenuto, Rafael Fonseca; Agapito-Tenfen, Sarah Zanon; Vilperte, Vinicius; Wikmark, Odd-Gunnar; van Rensburg, Peet Jansen; Nodari, Rubens Onofre

    2017-01-01

    Some genetically modified (GM) plants have transgenes that confer tolerance to abiotic stressors. Meanwhile, other transgenes may interact with abiotic stressors, causing pleiotropic effects that will affect the plant physiology. Thus, physiological alteration might have an impact on the product safety. However, routine risk assessment (RA) analyses do not evaluate the response of GM plants exposed to different environmental conditions. Therefore, we here present a proteome profile of herbicide-tolerant maize, including the levels of phytohormones and related compounds, compared to its near-isogenic non-GM variety under drought and herbicide stresses. Twenty differentially abundant proteins were detected between GM and non-GM hybrids under different water deficiency conditions and herbicide sprays. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that most of these proteins are assigned to energetic/carbohydrate metabolic processes. Among phytohormones and related compounds, different levels of ABA, CA, JA, MeJA and SA were detected in the maize varieties and stress conditions analysed. In pathway and proteome analyses, environment was found to be the major source of variation followed by the genetic transformation factor. Nonetheless, differences were detected in the levels of JA, MeJA and CA and in the abundance of 11 proteins when comparing the GM plant and its non-GM near-isogenic variety under the same environmental conditions. Thus, these findings do support molecular studies in GM plants Risk Assessment analyses.

  19. Antibody response to sheep red blood cells in major histocompatibility (B) complex aneuploid line of chickens.

    PubMed

    LePage, K T; Bloom, S E; Taylor, R L

    1996-03-01

    An integral part of the immune response is the production of antibodies specific for different antigenic challenges. Genes of the MHC encode products that regulate immunity. This study utilized the FCT-15 line of chickens, which is aneuploid for the chromosome containing the ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) and the MHC or B complex to determine whether an antibody response to SRBC would vary as a function of B complex gene dose. Mating of trisomic parents (B15B15B15) animals produced progeny having either a disomic (B15B15), trisomic (B15B15B15), or tetrasomic (B15B15B15B15) B complex dosage. The number of B/rDNA chromosomes, and thus the B complex dosage was determined by feather pulp nucleolar typing of chicks at hatch. A 5% SRBC antigenic challenge, which induces a T cell-dependent antibody response, was injected at 6 wk of age. Samples taken prior to SRBC injection as well as 5, 8, and 12 d postinjection were assayed for total and mercaptoethanol-resistant antibody. Peak antibody titers (log2), day of peak titer and rate of titer decline were calculated using a quadratic equation for each bird. Differences among the three B complex dosages were evaluated by analysis of variance. Antibody titers rose from 5 to 8 d postinjection and declined thereafter without significant differences among the three B complex doses. Calculations from the quadratic equations showed that B complex dose affected neither peak antibody titer nor day of peak titer. However, trisomic and tetrasomic animals had significantly more rapid rates of decline from the maximum titer. In aneuploid chickens, changes in antigen processing, antigen presentation, or persistence of processed antigen may maintain levels of antibody production found in disomic chickens and explain the more rapid decline of titer.

  20. Variations in riboflavin binding by human plasma: identification of immunoglobulins as the major proteins responsible

    SciTech Connect

    Innis, W.S.; McCormick, D.B.; Merrill, A.H. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Riboflavin binding by plasma proteins from healthy human subjects was examined by equilibrium dialysis using a physiological concentration of (2-14C)riboflavin (0.04 microM). Binding ranged from 0.080 to 0.917 pmole of riboflavin/mg of protein (with a mean +/- SD of 0.274 +/- 0.206), which corresponded to 4.14 to 49.4 pmole/ml of plasma (15.5 +/- 11.0) (N = 34). Males and females yielded similar results. Upon fractionation of plasma by gel filtration, the major riboflavin-binding components eluted with albumin and gamma-globulins. Albumin was purified and found to bind riboflavin only very weakly (Kd = 3.8 to 10.4 mM), although FMN and photochemical degradation products (e.g., lumiflavine and lumichrome) were more tightly bound. Binding in the gamma-globulin fraction was attributed to IgG and IGA because the binding protein(s) and immunoglobulins copurified using various methods were removed by treatment of plasma with protein A-agarose, and were coincident upon immunoelectrophoresis followed by autoradiography to detect (2-14C)riboflavin. Differences among the plasma samples correlated with the binding recovered with the immunoglobulins. Binding was not directly related to the total IgG or IgA levels of subjects. Hence, it appears that the binding is due to a subfraction of these proteins. These findings suggest that riboflavin-binding immunoglobulins are a major cause of variations in riboflavin binding in human circulation, and may therefore affect the utilization of this micronutrient.

  1. A review of major factors influencing plant responses to recreation impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, Fred R.

    1986-09-01

    This article reviews some of the more important factors found to influence the susceptibility of plants to trampling impacts associated with recreational use of natural areas. A three-way interaction mediates plant responses to impacts: plant x environment x stress level(s). Plant responses vary in part according to the genetic constitution of the plant, life and growth form, the adaptive flexibility of the plant, and anatomical differences inherent to growth habit and morphology. Other factors that influence plant sensitivities to impacts are the habitat environments in which plants grow, since a number of conditions such as moisture excesses or deficiencies, nitrogen or oxygen starvation, late frosts, etc., cause physiological injury and may increase plant sensitivity to impacts. Among the environmental factors that may increase or lessen plant sensitivities to impacts are soil moisture levels, canopy density, elevation, aspect, microclimate, soil drainage, texture, fertility and productivity. Seasonal influences also bear consideration since environmental changes and phonological and physiological events are mediated by time of year. Stresses are caused by both direct and indirect forms of impact and vary according to season of use, frequency and amount of use, and the type of activity. These interactions are further complicated by evidence that inter- and intraspecific competition, antagonism, and commensalism may influence differences in the sensitivity of plant communities to impacts.

  2. Medical response to a major radiologic emergency: a primer for medical and public health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wolbarst, Anthony B; Wiley, Albert L; Nemhauser, Jeffrey B; Christensen, Doran M; Hendee, William R

    2010-03-01

    There are several types of serious nuclear or radiologic emergencies that would require a specialized medical response. Four scenarios of great public health, economic, and psychologic impact are the detonation of a nuclear weapon, the meltdown of a nuclear reactor, the explosion of a large radiologic dispersal device ("dirty bomb"), or the surreptitious placement of a radiation exposure device in a public area of high population density. With any of these, medical facilities that remain functional may have to deal with large numbers of ill, wounded, and probably contaminated people. Special care and/or handling will be needed for those with trauma, blast injuries, or thermal burns as well as significant radiation exposures or contamination. In addition, radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists will be called on to perform a number of diverse and critically important tasks, including advising political and public health leaders, interfacing with the media, managing essential resources, and, of course, providing medical care. This article describes the medical responses needed following a radiologic or nuclear incident, including the symptoms of and specific treatments for acute radiation syndrome and other early health effects. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.09090330/-/DC1. (c) RSNA, 2010

  3. Major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and response to treatment in hepatitis C patients in Egypt.

    PubMed

    MM, Bassiony; A, Yousef; U, Youssef; GM, Salah El-Deen; M, Abdelghani; H, Al-Gohari; E, Fouad; MM, El-Shafaey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder in hepatitis C virus patients before and after treatment and to investigate the relationship between major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and treatment response. A total of 116 consecutive hepatitis C virus patients from hepatitis C virus treatment center in Zagazig city, Egypt, were included in the study and divided into treated group (N = 58) and untreated group (N = 58). All hepatitis C virus patients were screened for major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using hospital anxiety and depression scale, and those who screened positive were interviewed to confirm the diagnosis of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder using DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. These measures were done at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment or observation. At baseline, 3.5% and 12.1% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment 37.9% of hepatitis C virus patients (treated group) had major depressive disorder and 46.6% had generalized anxiety disorder. There was a significant statistical difference between hospital anxiety and depression scale scores for depression (3.3 ± 2.3 vs. 6.4 ± 3.2, t = 9.6, p = 0.001) and for anxiety (4.6 ± 2.4 vs. 7.3 ± 3.0, t = 10.2, p = 0.001) before and after treatment. There was also significant statistical difference between treated group and untreated group regarding hospital anxiety and depression scale scores after treatment and observation (depression, treated group 6.4 ± 3.2 vs. untreated group 4.0 ± 2.4, t = 3.7, p = 0.001; anxiety, treated group 7.3 ± 3.0 vs. untreated group 4.5 ± 2.3, t = 4.4, p = 0.001). There was no association between major depressive disorder

  4. Transferability of molecular markers from major legumes to Lathyrus spp. for their application in mapping and diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno Felipe; Trindade Leitão, Susana; Caminero, Constantino; Torres, Ana Maria; Rubiales, Diego; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2014-01-01

    Lathyrus cicera L. (chickling pea) and L. sativus L. (grass pea) have great potential among grain legumes due to their adaptability to inauspicious environments, high protein content and resistance to serious diseases. Nevertheless, due to its past underused, further activities are required to exploit this potential and to capitalise on the advances in molecular biology that enable improved Lathyrus spp. breeding programmes. In this study we evaluated the transferability of molecular markers developed for closely related legume species to Lathyrus spp. (Medicago truncatula, pea, lentil, faba bean and lupin) and tested the application of those new molecular tools on Lathyrus mapping and diversity studies. Genomic and expressed sequence tag microsatellite, intron-targeted amplified polymorphic, resistance gene analogue and defence-related gene markers were tested. In total 128 (27.7 %) and 132 (28.6 %) molecular markers were successfully cross-amplified, respectively in L. cicera and L. sativus. In total, the efficiency of transferability from genomic microsatellites was 5 %, and from gene-based markers, 55 %. For L. cicera, three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and one derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker based on the cross-amplified markers were also developed. Nine of those molecular markers were suitable for mapping in a L. cicera recombinant inbred line population. From the 17 molecular markers tested for diversity analysis, six (35 %) in L. cicera and seven (41 %) in L. sativus were polymorphic and discriminate well all the L. sativus accessions. Additionally, L. cicera accessions were clearly distinguished from L. sativus accessions. This work revealed a high number of transferable molecular markers to be used in current genomic studies in Lathyrus spp. Although their usefulness was higher on diversity studies, they represent the first steps for future comparative mapping involving these species.

  5. Comparative transcriptome and lipidome analyses reveal molecular systems underlying chilling response in chilling-tolerant sorghums

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling temperatures are a major constraint for temperate cultivation of tropical-origin crops, including the cereal crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench). Northern Chinese sorghums have adapted to early-season chilling, but molecular mechanisms of chilling tolerance are unknown. We used RNA ...

  6. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters. Experts` determination of structural response issues

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, R.J.; Harper, F.T.; Brown, T.D.; Gregory, J.J.; Payne, A.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Murfin, W.; Amos, C.N.

    1992-03-01

    In support of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) assessment of the risk from severe accidents at commercial nuclear power plants in the US reported in NUREG-1150, the Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SAARP) has completed a revised calculation of the risk to the general public from severe accidents at five nuclear power plants: Surry, Sequoyah, Zion, Peach Bottom, and Grand Gulf. The emphasis in this risk analysis was not on determining a ``so-called`` point estimate of risk. Rather, it was to determine the distribution of risk, and to discover the uncertainties that account for the breadth of this distribution. Off-site risk initiation by events, both internal to the power station and external to the power station were assessed. Much of the important input to the logic models was generated by expert panels. This document presents the distributions and the rationale supporting the distributions for the questions posed to the Structural Response Panel.

  7. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    PubMed

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  8. The associations of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica aspects by focusing their morphological and molecular features on clinical appearances in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Spotin, Adel; Rouhani, Soheila; Parvizi, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has various phenotypic aspects consisting of polymorphic amastigotes with different genetic ranges. Samples were collected from suspected patients of Khuzestan province. Prepared smears were stained, scaled, and measured using ocular micrometer. The Cyt b, ITS-rDNA, and microsatellite genes of Leishmania were amplified and Leishmania species were identified by molecular analyses. Of 150 examined suspected patients, 102 were identified to Leishmania species (90 L. major, nine L. tropica, and three unidentified). The amastigotes of 90 L. major had regular and different irregular shapes within three clinical lesions with no and/or low genetic diversity. Three haplotypes of Cyt b of L. major were found but no variation was observed using ITS-rDNA gene. Interesting findings were that all nine L. tropica had regular amastigote shapes with more genetic variations, also a patient which had coinfection of L. major, L. tropica, and Crithidia. At least two L. major and L. tropica were identified in suspected patients of the regions. Different irregular amastigotes' shapes of L. major can be explained by various reservoir hosts and vectors. In contrast, more molecular variations in L. tropica could be justified by genetic characters. Unidentified Leishmania could be mixed pathogens or nonpathogens with mammals' Leishmania or Crithidia.

  9. Bovine leukemia virus: a major silent threat to proper immune responses in cattle.

    PubMed

    Frie, Meredith C; Coussens, Paul M

    2015-02-15

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection is widespread in the US dairy industry and the majority of producers do not actively try to manage or reduce BLV incidence within their herds. However, BLV is estimated to cost the dairy industry hundreds of millions of dollars annually and this is likely a conservative estimate. BLV is not thought to cause animal distress or serious pathology unless infection progresses to leukemia or lymphoma. However, a wealth of research supports the notion that BLV infection causes widespread abnormal immune function. BLV infection can impact cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system and alter proper functioning of uninfected cells. Despite strong evidence of abnormal immune signaling and functioning, little research has investigated the large-scale effects of BLV infection on host immunity and resistance to other infectious diseases. This review focuses on mechanisms of immune suppression associated with BLV infection, specifically aberrant signaling, proliferation and apoptosis, and the implications of switching from BLV latency to activation. In addition, this review will highlight underdeveloped areas of research relating to BLV infection and how it causes immune suppression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H

    2012-02-21

    The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17β-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions.

  11. Predictors of Longitudinal Outcomes after Unstable Response to Acute Phase Cognitive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT (C-CT), double-blinded fluoxetine or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (≥6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (≥35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT. PMID:25985046

  12. Molecular keys unlock the mysteries of variable survival responses of blue crabs to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Geoffrey W; Eggleston, David B; Noga, Edward J

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia is a major stressor in coastal ecosystems, yet generalizing its impacts on fish and shellfish populations across hypoxic events is difficult due to variability among individuals in their history of exposure to hypoxia and related abiotic variables, and subsequent behavioral and survival responses. Although aquatic animals have diverse physiological responses to cope with hypoxia, we know little about how inter-individual variation in physiological state affects survival and behavioral decisions under hypoxic conditions. Laboratory experiments coupled with molecular techniques determined how extrinsic factors (e.g., water body and temperature) and respiratory physiology (hemocyanin concentration and structure) affected survival and behavior of adult blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) exposed to different levels of hypoxia over a 30-h time period. Nearly 100% of crabs survived the 1.3 mg dissolved oxygen (DO) l(-1) treatment (18.4% air saturation), suggesting that adult blue crabs are tolerant of severe hypoxia. Probability of survival decreased with increasing hypoxic exposure time, lower DO, and increasing temperature. Individual-level differences in survival correlated with water body and crab size. Crabs collected from the oligo/mesohaline and hypoxic Neuse River Estuary (NRE), North Carolina, USA survived hypoxic exposures longer than crabs from the euhaline and normoxic Bogue and Back Sounds, North Carolina. Furthermore, small NRE crabs survived longer than large NRE crabs. Hemocyanin (Hcy) concentration did not explain these individual-level differences, however, hypoxia-tolerant crabs had Hcy structures indicative of a high-O(2)-affinity form of Hcy, suggesting Hcy "quality" (i.e., structure) may be more important for hypoxia survival than Hcy "quantity" (i.e., concentration). The geographic differences in survival we observed also highlight the importance of carefully selecting experimental animals when planning to extrapolate results to the population

  13. An International Comparison of the Instigation and Design of Health Registers in the Epidemiological Response to Major Environmental Health Incidents.

    PubMed

    Behbod, Behrooz; Leonardi, Giovanni; Motreff, Yvon; Beck, Charles R; Yzermans, Joris; Lebret, Erik; Muravov, Oleg I; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy Funk; Lauriola, Paolo; Close, Rebecca; Crabbe, Helen; Pirard, Philippe

    Epidemiological preparedness is vital in providing relevant, transparent, and timely intelligence for the management, mitigation, and prevention of public health impacts following major environmental health incidents. A register is a set of records containing systematically collected, standardized data about individual people. Planning for a register of people affected by or exposed to an incident is one of the evolving tools in the public health preparedness and response arsenal. We compared and contrasted the instigation and design of health registers in the epidemiological response to major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Consultation with experts from the 5 nations, supplemented with a review of gray and peer-reviewed scientific literature to identify examples where registers have been used. Populations affected by or at risk from major environmental health incidents in England, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United States. Nations were compared with respect to the (1) types of major incidents in their remit for considering a register; (2) arrangements for triggering a register; (3) approaches to design of register; (4) arrangements for register implementation; (5) uses of registers; and (6) examples of follow-up studies. Health registers have played a key role in the effective public health response to major environmental incidents, including sudden chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear, as well as natural, more prolonged incidents. Value has been demonstrated in the early and rapid deployment of health registers, enabling the capture of a representative population. The decision to establish a health register must ideally be confirmed immediately or soon after the incident using a set of agreed criteria. The establishment of protocols for the instigation, design, and implementation of health registers is recommended as part of preparedness activities. Key stakeholders must be

  14. Evidence of major genes affecting stress response in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, R L; Rexroad, C E; Silverstein, J T; Janss, L L G; Weber, G M

    2009-11-01

    As a first step toward the genetic mapping of QTL affecting stress response variation in rainbow trout, we performed complex segregation analyses (CSA) fitting mixed inheritance models of plasma cortisol by using Bayesian methods in large full-sib families of rainbow trout. To date, no studies have been conducted to determine the mode of inheritance of stress response as measured by plasma cortisol response when using a crowding stress paradigm and CSA in rainbow trout. The main objective of this study was to determine the mode of inheritance of plasma cortisol after a crowding stress. The results from fitting mixed inheritance models with Bayesian CSA suggest that 1 or more major genes with dominant cortisol-decreasing alleles and small additive genetic effects of a large number of independent genes likely underlie the genetic variation of plasma cortisol in the rainbow trout families evaluated. Plasma cortisol is genetically determined, with heritabilities of 0.22 to 0.39. Furthermore, a major gene with an additive effect of -42 ng/mL (approximately 1.0 genetic SD) is segregating in this rainbow trout broodstock population. These findings provide a basis for designing and executing genome-wide linkage studies to identify QTL for stress response in rainbow trout broodstock and markers for selective breeding.

  15. The FLC-like gene BvFL1 is not a major regulator of vernalization response in biennial beets.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian H; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Bork, Bettina; Schechert, Axel; Müller, Andreas E

    2014-01-01

    Many plant species in temperate climate regions require vernalization over winter to initiate flowering. Flowering Locus C (FLC) and FLC-like genes are key regulators of vernalization requirement and growth habit in winter-annual and perennial Brassicaceae. In the biennial crop species Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris in the evolutionarily distant Caryophyllales clade of core eudicots growth habit and bolting time are controlled by the vernalization and photoperiod response gene BTC1 and the downstream BvFT1-BvFT2 module. B. vulgaris also contains a vernalization-responsive FLC homolog (BvFL1). Here, to further elucidate the regulation of vernalization response and growth habit in beet, we functionally characterized BvFL1 by RNAi and over-expression in transgenic plants. BvFL1 RNAi neither eliminated the requirement for vernalization of biennial beets nor had a major effect on bolting time after vernalization. Over-expression of BvFL1 resulted in a moderate late-bolting phenotype, with bolting after vernalization being delayed by approximately 1 week. By contrast, RNAi-induced down-regulation of the BvFT1-BvFT2 module led to a strong delay in bolting after vernalization by several weeks. The data demonstrate for the first time that an FLC homolog does not play a major role in the control of vernalization response in a dicot species outside the Brassicaceae.

  16. The FLC-like gene BvFL1 is not a major regulator of vernalization response in biennial beets

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Sebastian H.; Weyens, Guy; Lefèbvre, Marc; Bork, Bettina; Schechert, Axel; Müller, Andreas E.

    2014-01-01

    Many plant species in temperate climate regions require vernalization over winter to initiate flowering. Flowering Locus C (FLC) and FLC-like genes are key regulators of vernalization requirement and growth habit in winter-annual and perennial Brassicaceae. In the biennial crop species Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris in the evolutionarily distant Caryophyllales clade of core eudicots growth habit and bolting time are controlled by the vernalization and photoperiod response gene BTC1 and the downstream BvFT1-BvFT2 module. B. vulgaris also contains a vernalization-responsive FLC homolog (BvFL1). Here, to further elucidate the regulation of vernalization response and growth habit in beet, we functionally characterized BvFL1 by RNAi and over-expression in transgenic plants. BvFL1 RNAi neither eliminated the requirement for vernalization of biennial beets nor had a major effect on bolting time after vernalization. Over-expression of BvFL1 resulted in a moderate late-bolting phenotype, with bolting after vernalization being delayed by approximately 1 week. By contrast, RNAi-induced down-regulation of the BvFT1-BvFT2 module led to a strong delay in bolting after vernalization by several weeks. The data demonstrate for the first time that an FLC homolog does not play a major role in the control of vernalization response in a dicot species outside the Brassicaceae. PMID:24782884

  17. Heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) as a major target of the antibody response in patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Kakeya, H; Udono, H; Maesaki, S; Sasaki, E; Kawamura, S; Hossain, M A; Yamamoto, Y; Sawai, T; Fukuda, M; Mitsutake, K; Miyazaki, Y; Tomono, K; Tashiro, T; Nakayama, E; Kohno, S

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans causes infection in individuals with defective T cell function, such as AIDS, as well as without underlying disease. It has been suggested that humoral as well as cellular immunity might play an important role in the immune response to C. neoformans infection. We have recently shown, using immunoblotting, that the 70-kD hsp family of C. neoformans was the major target molecule of the humoral response in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis. In this study we also used immunoblotting to define the antibody responses in the sera of 24 patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis: 21 proven and three suspected diagnoses. Anti-C. neoformans hsp70 antibody was detected in 16 of 24 (66.7%) patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. Fourteen of 17 (82.3%) patients with high antigen titres (≥ 1:8) and two of seven (28.6%) patients with low titres (≤ 1:4) had detectable levels of anti-hsp70 antibody. Sera from patients positive for anti-hsp70 antibody showed high titres in the Eiken latex agglutination test for the detection of serum cryptococcal antigen. Our results indicate that the 70-kD hsp family from C. neoformans appears to be a major target molecule of the humoral response, not only in murine pulmonary cryptococcosis, but also in human patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis. PMID:10193422

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells alter macrophage immune responses to Leishmania major infection in both susceptible and resistance mice.

    PubMed

    Dameshghi, Safura; Zavaran-Hosseini, Ahmad; Soudi, Sara; Shirazi, Fatemeh Jalali; Nojehdehi, Shahrzad; Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2016-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attracted to inflammation site and switch immune system to modulate inflammatory responses. This ability makes MSCs the best candidate cells for stem cell therapy of infection diseases. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) on macrophages in Leishmania (L.) major infection. Macrophages and MSCs were isolated from both susceptible (BALB/c) and resistance (C57BL/6) strains. After co-culture of AD-MSCs with macrophages using a transwell system, we assessed MSCs-educated macrophage responses to L. major infection. Our results indicated suppression in levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) of MSCs co-cultured macrophages in response to L. major infection. To clarify the effects of this suppression on inflammatory conditions, TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was calculated, indicating an increase in TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in MSCs co-cultured groups. The higher TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was observed in BALB/c macrophages co-cultured with BALB/c MSCs. Nitric oxide (NO) assay presented a significant reduction in the supernatant of all MSCs co-cultured groups compared to control. We observed a significant reduction in phagocytosis of MSCs co-cultured groups in response to L. major infection without any significant differences in the phagocytic index. In conclusion, our results represented a new spectrum of immunomodulation induced by MSCs co-cultured with macrophages in response to L. major infection. The magnitude of immunoregulation was different between BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains. Our findings also showed that MSCs exerted potential effect of M1 polarization due to unequal decrease in levels of TNF-α and IL-10 when we considered TNF-α and IL-10as representatives of M1 and M2 phenotypes, respectively. Induction of inflammatory cytokine milieu and reduction in level of IL-10 provides a new hope for stem cell therapy of leishmaniasis in susceptible models.

  19. Linear sea-level response to abrupt ocean warming of major West Antarctic ice basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengel, M.; Feldmann, J.; Levermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's contribution to global sea-level rise has recently been increasing. Whether its ice discharge will become unstable and decouple from anthropogenic forcing or increase linearly with the warming of the surrounding ocean is of fundamental importance. Under unabated greenhouse-gas emissions, ocean models indicate an abrupt intrusion of warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity below West Antarctica's Filchner-Ronne ice shelf within the next two centuries. The ice basin's retrograde bed slope would allow for an unstable ice-sheet retreat, but the buttressing of the large ice shelf and the narrow glacier troughs tend to inhibit such instability. It is unclear whether future ice loss will be dominated by ice instability or anthropogenic forcing. Here we show in regional and continental-scale ice-sheet simulations, which are capable of resolving unstable grounding-line retreat, that the sea-level response of the Filchner-Ronne ice basin is not dominated by ice instability and follows the strength of the forcing quasi-linearly. We find that the ice loss reduces after each pulse of projected warm water intrusion. The long-term sea-level contribution is approximately proportional to the total shelf-ice melt. Although the local instabilities might dominate the ice loss for weak oceanic warming, we find that the upper limit of ice discharge from the region is determined by the forcing and not by the marine ice-sheet instability.

  20. Time for initial response to steroids is a major prognostic factor in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, Marina; Moscaritolo, Eleonora; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Massella, Laura; Emma, Francesco

    2010-06-01

    To identify early prognostic factors for idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in childhood. A retrospective analysis of 103 patients with INS at onset, all treated in a single center with the same induction protocol, was conducted. Minimum length of follow-up was 2 years; median length of follow-up was 43 months. Survival data were assessed with Cox-Mantel analysis. Predictive values were estimated with receiver operating characteristic curves. The median time of response to steroid therapy was 7 days. A significant association was found between the interval from onset of steroid therapy to remission and the risk of relapsing within 3 months after steroid therapy discontinuation (P < .0001). A similar association was found between the time to achieve remission and the risk of developing frequent relapsing or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (P < .0001), the prescription of maintenance steroid therapy (P < .003), and the prescription of all other non-steroid drugs (P < .0001) during follow-up. Patients with non-relapsing and infrequent relapsing nephrotic syndrome had a median time to achieve remission <7 days; in patients with frequent relapsing and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome, this median was >7 days. The interval from onset of steroid therapy to remission is an accurate early prognostic factor in INS. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cathepsin B in Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Mediators of the Th1 Immune Response during Leishmania major Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Leal, Iris J.; Röger, Bianca; Schwarz, Angela; Schirmeister, Tanja; Reinheckel, Thomas; Lutz, Manfred B.; Moll, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb) and L (Ctsl) play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and macrophages (BMM) from Ctsb−/− and Ctsl−/− mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb−/− BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT) and Ctsl−/− BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb−/− mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb−/− BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl−/− counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression. PMID:25255101

  2. Apparent Eruptive Response of Cascades and Alaska-Aleutian Arc Volcanoes to Major Deglaciations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, A. T.; Sisson, T. W.; Bacon, C. R.; Ferguson, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Precise argon ages of Pleistocene eruptive products from Cascades and Alaska-Aleutian arc volcanoes cluster in time following major deglaciations. Compilation of edifice-volume-weighted dates for over 700 lavas from 16 volcanoes are compared to marine oxygen isotope stages (MIS 2-8) of Bassinot et al. (1994, EPSL, v. 126, p. 91-108) and interpreted temperatures from the Vostok ice core (Petit et al., 1999, Nature, v. 399, p. 429-436). To assess relative time-volume relationships we weight the distribution of ages measured at each volcano by its total edifice volume. The abundance of ages scales with the number of mapped eruptive units, and may differ substantially from the true eruptive output. The distribution is also weighted inversely by the number of dates to account for centers with more or fewer dates. Stacked probability density functions yield significant peaks after MIS 6 and MIS 8. Veniaminof, Emmons Lake, Westdahl, Redoubt (Alaska-Aleutian arc), and Adams and Crater Lake (Cascades arc) have apparent eruptive episodes 135-110 ka (early MIS 5), coinciding with rapid warming of the oceans following the MIS 6 glacial. Veniaminof began growing at 250 ka (end MIS 8) and erupted more than 200 km3 of lava in MIS 7. Emmons Lake, Adams, Rainier, and Glacier Peak also have apparent growth peaks (abundant dated units) following MIS 8. Apparent correlation of eruptive episodes with deglaciations may result from depressurization of magmatic systems due to ice retreat resulting in enhanced decompression melting and/or diminished compressive stress on crustal magma reservoirs, poor preservation of lava sequences during glacial maxima, or coincidence. Next steps in this study include (1) more rigorous assessment of eruptive volumes of dated map units, (2) refining ice volume estimates during MIS 2, 6, and 8 at various centers by dating ice marginal lava flows and tuyas and by mapping moraines at selected volcanoes, (3) re-analyzing sequences previously dated by K/Ar to

  3. Mornings with Art, lessons learned: feedback regulation, restriction threshold biology, and redundancy govern molecular stress responses.

    PubMed

    Bey, Erik A; Wuerzberger-Davis, Shelly M; Pink, John J; Yang, Chin-Rang; Araki, Shinako; Reinicke, Kathryn E; Bentle, Melissa S; Dong, Ying; Cataldo, Eva; Criswell, Tracy L; Wagner, Mark W; Li, Longshan; Gao, Jinming; Boothman, David A

    2006-12-01

    Work from the laboratory of Dr. Arthur B. Pardee has highlighted basic principles that govern cellular and molecular biological processes in living cells. Among the most important governing principles in cellular and molecular responses are: (i) threshold "restriction" responses, wherein a level of response is reached and a "point of no return" is achieved; (ii) feedback regulation; and (iii) redundancy. Lessons learned from the molecular biology of cellular stress responses in mammalian cancer versus normal cells after ionizing radiation (IR) or chemotherapeutic agent exposures reveal similar instances of these guiding principles in mammalian cells. Among these are the: (i) induction of cell death responses by beta-lapachone (beta-lap), a naphthoquinone anti-tumor agent that kills cancer cells via an NQO1 (i.e., X-ray-inducible protein-3, xip3)-dependent mechanism; (ii) induction of secretory clusterin (sCLU) in response to TGF-beta1 exposure, and the ability of induced sCLU protein to down-regulate TGF-beta1 signaling; and (iii) induction of DNA mismatch repair-dependent G(2) cell cycle checkpoint responses after exposure to alkylating agents. We have learned these lessons and now adopted strategies to exploit them for improved therapy. These examples will be discussed and compared to the pioneering findings of researchers in the Pardee laboratory over the years. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Species specificity and augmentation of responses to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules in human CD4 transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Murine T cell responses to human class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules were shown to be a minimum of 20-70-fold lower than responses to allogeneic molecules. Transgenic mice expressing slightly below normal (75-95%) or very high (250-380%) cell surface levels of human CD4 were utilized to determine whether this was due to a species-specific interaction between murine CD4 and class II molecules. Human CD4 was shown to function in signal transduction events in murine T cells based on the ability of anti-human CD4 antibody to synergize with suboptimal doses of anti-murine CD3 antibody in stimulating T cell proliferation. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, T cell responses to human class II molecules were enhanced up to threefold, whereas allogeneic responses were unaltered. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were enhanced at least 10-fold, whereas allogeneic responses were between one and three times the level of normal responses. The relatively greater enhancement of the response to human class II molecules in both lines argues for a preferential interaction between human CD4 and human class II molecules. In mice expressing lower levels of human CD4, responses to human class II molecules were blocked by antibodies to CD4 of either species, indicating participation by both molecules. In mice expressing high levels of human CD4, responses to both human and murine class II molecules were almost completely blocked with anti-human CD4 antibody, whereas anti-murine CD4 antibody had no effect. However, anti-murine CD4 continued to synergize with anti-CD3 in stimulating T cell proliferation in these mice. Thus, overexpression of human CD4 selectively impaired the ability of murine CD4 to assist in the process of antigen recognition. The ability of human CD4 to support a strong allogeneic response under these conditions indicates that this molecule can interact with murine class II molecules to a

  5. Activation of Protein Kinase A in Mature Osteoblasts Promotes a Major Bone Anabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Tascau, Liana; Gardner, Thomas; Anan, Hussein; Yongpravat, Charlie; Cardozo, Christopher P; Bauman, William A; Lee, Francis Y; Oh, Daniel S; Tawfeek, Hesham A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) regulates osteoblast cell function in vitro and is activated by important bone mass modulating agents. We determined whether PKA activation in osteoblasts is sufficient to mediate a bone anabolic response. Thus, a mouse model conditionally expressing a constitutively active PKA (CA-PKA) in osteoblasts (CA-PKA-OB mouse) was developed by crossing a 2.3-kb α1 (I)-collagen promoter-Cre mouse with a floxed-CA-PKA mouse. Primary osteoblasts from the CA-PKA-OB mice exhibited higher basal PKA activity than those from control mice. Microcomputed tomographic analysis revealed that CA-PKA-OB female mice had an 8.6-fold increase in femoral but only 1.16-fold increase in lumbar 5 vertebral bone volume/total volume. Femur cortical thickness and volume were also higher in the CA-PKA-OB mice. In contrast, alterations in many femoral microcomputed tomographic parameters in male CA-PKA-OB mice were modest. Interestingly, the 3-dimensional structure model index was substantially lower both in femur and lumbar 5 of male and female CA-PKA-OB mice, reflecting an increase in the plate to rod-like structure ratio. In agreement, femurs from female CA-PKA-OB mice had greater load to failure and were stiffer compared with those of control mice. Furthermore, the CA-PKA-OB mice had higher levels of serum bone turnover markers and increased osteoblast and osteoclast numbers per total tissue area compared with control animals. In summary, constitutive activation of PKA in osteoblasts is sufficient to increase bone mass and favorably modify bone architecture and improve mechanical properties. PKA activation in mature osteoblasts is, therefore, an important target for designing anabolic drugs for treating diseases with bone loss.

  6. Major Barriers Responsible for Malnutrition in Hemodialysis Patients: Challenges to Optimal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Mazloom, Zohreh; Jafari, Peyman; Ayatollahi, Maryam; Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutritional barriers may contribute to malnutrition in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Higher rates of morbidity and mortality rates have been reported in malnourished HD patients. These patients are faced with different challenges affecting their nutritional status. Objectives: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify most important barriers responsible for malnutrition in HD patients. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected 255 of 800 stable HD patients from three HD centers with an age range of 18-85 years, who had been on hemodialysis for at least three months without any acute illness. Each patient was interviewed to evaluate malnutrition [subjective global assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS)], and potential medical, behavioral and socioeconomic barriers. Body composition of patients was checked through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Routine clinical markers of malnutrition such as serum albumin and total protein were measured using standard automated techniques. Binary logistic regression model was used to find the association between nutritional markers and potential barriers. Results: Patients with higher SGA had lower knowledge about general nutrition [odds ratio (OR), 1.3], potassium (OR, 1.89), difficulty chewing (OR, 1.16), and shopping (OR, 1.16). Those with greater MIS scores had poor appetite (OR, 1.3), depression (OR, 1.21), and difficulty with cooking (OR, 1.15). Lower BCM (body cell mass) was associated with poor appetite (OR, 0.92) and needed help for cooking (OR, 0.88). Patients with higher BFMI (body fat mass index) had insufficient general nutrition (OR, 1.15), and protein (OR, 1.27) knowledge, and needed help for shopping (OR, 1.14). Moreover, patients with higher SGA scores were those with older age and longer duration of HD. Conclusions: Three medical barriers (poor appetite, depression and difficulty chewing), one behavioral barrier (poor total nutrition, protein, and potassium knowledge

  7. Molecular subtypes of metastatic colorectal cancer are associated with patient response to irinotecan-based therapies.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, M; Mollevi, C; Bibeau, F; Vie, N; Selves, J; Emile, J-F; Roger, P; Gongora, C; Robert, J; Tubiana-Mathieu, N; Ychou, M; Martineau, P

    2017-05-01

    Currently, metastatic colorectal cancer is treated as a homogeneous disease and only RAS mutational status has been approved as a negative predictive factor in patients treated with cetuximab. The aim of this study was to evaluate if recently identified molecular subtypes of colon cancer are associated with response of metastatic patients to first-line therapy. We collected and analysed 143 samples of human colorectal tumours with complete clinical annotations, including the response to treatment. Gene expression profiling was used to classify patients in three to six classes using four different molecular classifications. Correlations between molecular subtypes, response to treatment, progression-free and overall survival were analysed. We first demonstrated that the four previously described molecular classifications of colorectal cancer defined in non-metastatic patients also correctly classify stage IV patients. One of the classifications is strongly associated with response to FOLFIRI (P=0.003), but not to FOLFOX (P=0.911) and FOLFIRI + Bevacizumab (P=0.190). In particular, we identify a molecular subtype representing 28% of the patients that shows an exceptionally high response rate to FOLFIRI (87.5%). These patients have a two-fold longer overall survival (40.1 months) when treated with FOLFIRI, as first-line regimen, instead of FOLFOX (18.6 months). Our results demonstrate the interest of molecular classifications to develop tailored therapies for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and a strong impact of the first-line regimen on the overall survival of some patients. This however remains to be confirmed in a large prospective clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Time Domains of the Hypoxic Ventilatory Response and Their Molecular Basis

    PubMed Central

    Pamenter, Matthew E.; Powell, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Ventilatory responses to hypoxia vary widely depending on the pattern and length of hypoxic exposure. Acute, prolonged, or intermittent hypoxic episodes can increase or decrease breathing for seconds to years, both during the hypoxic stimulus, and also after its removal. These myriad effects are the result of a complicated web of molecular interactions that underlie plasticity in the respiratory control reflex circuits and ultimately control the physiology of breathing in hypoxia. Since the time domains of the physiological hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) were identified, considerable research effort has gone toward elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these varied responses. This research has begun to describe complicated and plastic interactions in the relay circuits between the peripheral chemoreceptors and the ventilatory control circuits within the central nervous system. Intriguingly, many of these molecular pathways seem to share key components between the different time domains, suggesting that varied physiological HVRs are the result of specific modifications to overlapping pathways. This review highlights what has been discovered regarding the cell and molecular level control of the time domains of the HVR, and highlights key areas where further research is required. Understanding the molecular control of ventilation in hypoxia has important implications for basic physiology and is emerging as an important component of several clinical fields. PMID:27347896