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Sample records for major myocutaneous island

  1. Crossed pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for recurrent oral cavity cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pancholi, Mayank; Sharma, Sanjay; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral cavity cancers are fairly common and have propensity to recur locally. Since Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is the most widely used first flap for reconstruction, it is exhausted at the earliest and recurrence poses a formidable challenge for reconstructive surgeon. Present study evaluated the feasibility of contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for reconstruction after resection of recurrent tumour. Methods: This was a study of the patients presenting with recurrent oral cavity cancer after exhausted ipsilateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (PMMC) in whom we used contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap (Crossed PMMC Flap) for reconstruction between October 2013 to June 2016. Results: Five patients with recurrence underwent reconstruction with contralateral Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap. In all the flap was successfully used to reconstruct defects involving the entire buccal mucosa and in one patient the flap could be used to reconstruct full thickness resection defect(crossed bipedal PMMC Flap) with ease. Conclusion: Crossed Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap can be used safely and reliably for reconstruction of the buccal mucosal defect and in selected patients even for full thickness cheek defect as folded bipaddle Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

  2. Three-dimensional anatomical vascular distribution in the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Rikimaru, Hideaki; Kiyokawa, Kensuke; Inoue, Youjirou; Tai, Yoshiaki

    2005-04-15

    In head and neck reconstruction, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, located adjacent to the area of reconstruction, is a very useful and easy-to-prepare flap. However, it is reported to have an unstable blood circulation that could result in partial necrosis of the skin island. The current study investigated the detailed three-dimensional vascular network in the flap to establish a method of preparation with a stable circulation. The pectoralis major muscle and the anterior chest skin on 12 sides of eight fresh cadavers were subjected to angiographic procedures in which contrast medium was injected selectively to the internal thoracic artery and the thoracoacromial artery. On another fresh cadaver, resin was injected in the same manner, and a clear specimen of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap was prepared. The pectoralis major muscle consists of two anatomical vascular territories that the choke vessels in the muscle at the level of the fourth costal cartilage divide into cranial and caudal sides. The chest skin area on the caudal side where the skin island of the flap is prepared receives its blood supply from a dense anastomotic network formed by the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal perforating branches. The blood flow in the pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial artery runs through the choke vessels that dilate at the elevation of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, first into the fourth intercostal perforating branches; then to the anastomotic vascular network of the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal perforating branches; and finally to reach the periphery of the skin island.

  3. The supraclavicular artery island and trapezius myocutaneous flaps in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlos A; Fernandes, Rui P

    2014-08-01

    The supraclavicular artery island flap can be readily used to reconstruct defects within the neck, parotid, lateral temporal region, and lower third of the face. Benefits of the supraclavicular flap include good color and texture match, an ease of harvest, and minimal donor site morbidity; there is also no significant post-operative monitoring required. The trapezius muscle serves as a source for multiple myocutaneous flaps of which most are considered to be salvage flaps among head and neck reconstructive surgeons.

  4. [Efficacy of the treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Liu, Y H; Hu, G Q; Zhao, Y

    2016-08-01

    To sum up the efficacy of treatment of pharyngeal fistula through pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion in 20 patients. A retrospective analysis of the therapeutic efficacy in 20 cases of laryngeal and laryngopharyngeal cancer with postoperative pharyngeal fistula, to whom double-deck repairing were operated on through pectoralis major myocutaneous island flap combined with inversion of skin around fistula from January 2010 to December 2013. 20 patients were treated by improved pharyngeal fistula inverting suture of pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with the skin around the pharyngeal fistula. Flap around the fistula were sutured without tension formation. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps were sutured without tension formation covering the inner flanging flap wound. 20 patients were on a nasogastric liquid diet after operation for one week and received antibiotics to prevent infection. Then they all took liquid diet after one week, and had extubation safely later. Stitches were removed 10 more days later. All the twenty patients were recovered successfully, among them, 16 cases recovered in stage Ⅰ and left the hospital 10 days later, 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ and left the hospital 20 days later. All the 4 cases recovered in stage Ⅱ were treated with radiotherapy. Fistulas less than 1 cm occurred near their anastomotic stomas at 7 to 14 days after operation. They were healed well by dressing change and pressure dressing. No recurrence was observed during the six months follow-up. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap combined with fistula local skin inversion is a good way to repair pharyngeal fistula, and it is suitable for the laryngeal and laryngopharynx cancer patients with postoperative throat fistula in an internal diameter larger than 2 cm.

  5. Salvage for pectoralis major myocutaneous flap failure in head and neck reconstruction by microvascular flap.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chen-Ling; Wu, Yi-Chia; Lai, Ching-Hung; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lin, Sin-Daw; Chang, Kao-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicled flap (PMMPF) - the "workhorse" for head and neck reconstruction - is associated with a high incidence of complications in certain cases. This study presents free tissue transfer as an alternative salvage technique after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction. It includes seven consecutive patients who underwent free tissue salvage after PMMPF failure in head and neck reconstruction from January 2008 to September 2010 at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan. Four vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flaps were applied for tongue and mouth floor defects, while three anterolateral thigh (ALT) flaps were used for mouth floor, buccal, and cheek defects. All flaps survived uneventfully, and normal oral feeding was achieved without major complications. Free tissue transfer has several advantages and can be successfully employed in head and neck reconstruction, and it is also a reliable salvage procedure after PMMPF failure in such cases.

  6. Xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstructs hypopharynx and cervical esophagus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Danhui; Tang, Qinglai; Wang, Shuang; Li, Shisheng; He, Xiangbo; Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Bingbing; Yang, Mi; Yang, Xinming

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore xenogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction. A total of five patients were treated with this surgical method to reconstruct hypopharynx and cervical esophagus in Second Xiangya Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. Four of them had hypopharyngeal carcinoma with laryngeal and cervical esophageal invasion, while the fifth patient with hypopharyngeal cancer had developed scars and atresia after postoperative radiotherapy. The defect length after hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal resection was 6-8 cm, and was repaired by a combination of ADM and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap by our team. Interestingly, the four patients had primary healing and regained their eating function about 2-3 weeks after surgery, the fifth individual suffered from pharyngeal fistula, but recovered after dressing change about 2 months. Postoperative esophageal barium meals revealed that the pharynx and esophagus were unobstructed in all five patients. Xenogeneic ADM in combination with pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for hypopharynx and cervical esophagus reconstruction is a simple, safe and effective method with fewer complications. Nevertheless, according to the defect length of the cervical esophagus, the patients need to strictly follow the medical advice.

  7. The Origins of Deltopectoral Flaps and the Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the origins and history of deltopectoral flaps and the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap.The first published paper on the deltopectoral flap was written by Aymard in 1917. He described raising a medially based fasciocutaneous flap from the shoulder skin, which was then tubed and used for staged nasal reconstruction. Conley introduced the laterally based deltopectoral flap, which was supplied by the lateral thoracic and thoracocranial branches. Bakamjian used a medially based deltopectoral flap for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction; this was an axial flap based medially on the intercostal perforating vessels of the internal mammary artery. Krizek reviewed the literature and stated that Aymard flap was the keystone to the conception and execution of Bakamjian flap. Hueston was the first to combine a skin flap and pectoralis major muscle for repair of the large defects of the chest wall. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps described by Ariyan and Baek are a hybrid of Conley's laterally based deltopectoral flap and Hueston's inclusion of the pectoralis major muscle in the skin flap.When the authors develop what appears to be a new surgical technique, the authors are prone to be excited. However, at such a moment the authors must perform a literature review. In most patients, the authors will realize that the previous authors have already developed a given concept. The authors must not commit plagiarism due to their ignorance or laziness in conducting a literature review.

  8. Pectoralis Major Myofascial Onlay and Myocutaneous Flaps and Pharyngocutaneous Fistula in Salvage Laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Sturm, Joshua J.; Gooding, William E.; Johnson, Jonas T.; Kim, Seungwon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the fistula rate in irradiated patients undergoing salvage laryngectomy, compare the effect of closure type on fistula rate, and examine possible perioperative risk factors that might contribute to an increased fistula rate. Study Design Case series with chart review. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of the University of Pittsburgh head and neck tumor registry and identified 73 patients from 1998 to 2011 who had received prior radiation before total laryngectomy or salvage laryngectomy and who had either primary closure, pectoralis major myofascial flap (PMMF) onlay, or pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC). Results Fistula was more common in patients who underwent initial primary closure (45%) than in patients who had immediate PMMF onlay (10.5%). The fistula rate for patients who underwent immediate PMMC flap was 28.6%, intermediate to primary closure and PMMF flap. Several factors were evaluated for relationship to fistula, but no significant associations were identified. However, patients with fistula tended to have longer inpatient stays and may have been more likely to have a history of cardiovascular or hypoxic disease. Conclusion Pharyngocutaneous fistula is a well-established complication of total laryngectomy, and it is especially a concern in patients with a previous history of radiation. Our retrospective review demonstrates pectoralis major myofascial onlay flap appears to be more effective in reducing the rate of fistula compared to primary closure in these patients. Myocutaneous augmentation flaps, in contrast, have a fairly high fistula rate and may be better replaced with alternative closures such as free flaps. PMID:25132580

  9. Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for the total glossectomy defects: Effect on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gangiti, Kranthi Kumar; Gondi, Jonathan T; Nemade, Hemantkumar; Sampathirao, L M Chandra Sekhara Rao; Raju, K V V N; Rao, T Subramanyeshwar

    2016-07-01

    There is a general notion that, total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation leads to high dependency of tracheostomy and/or feeding tube. The objective of this study is to analyze the quality of life in terms of tube dependency following total glossectomy with a modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) reconstruction and laryngeal suspension. The retrospective study included consecutive patients operated from July 2012 to February 2015 proven advanced Carcinoma of tongue. We analyzed the time to wean off tracheostomy and feeding tube in 56 patients who underwent total glossectomy and a modified technique of PMMC reconstruction. The median time for tracheostomy weaning was 10 days and nasogastric tube was 16 days. Modified technique of reconstruction with PMMC in total glossectomy is a viable option with minimal functional morbidity. Quality of life in terms of tracheostomy and feeding tube dependency is minimal. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:32-35. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Modified pectoralis major myocutaneous flap in reconstruction of head and neck defects].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Zan; Zhou, Xiao; Yu, Jianjun; Bao, Ronghua; Zhang, Hailin; Ling, Hang

    2015-05-01

    To report the experience of use of modified pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps in reconstruction of head and neck postoperative defects. A total of 107 patients who underwent head and neck defect reconstruction using modified PMMC flaps after tumor rescetion between Jan 2008 and Dec 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. The success rate of reconstruction with modified PMMC flaps was 94.4% (101/107). Five patients had partial flap necrosis and their wounds healed with dressing change. One patient (0.9%) had total flap necrosis, followed by the second reconstruction using contralateral PMMC flap. The modified falcate PMMC flap can obtain optimum quantity of the skin in the chest and decreasing the closing tension of the donnor site in favor of wound healing. The pedicle without muscle will not only maintain the partial function of the pectoralis major, but also help to avoid pressing the vascular pedicle within the subclavian tunnel. The muscular element the pedicled muscles of the PMMC flap can increase the ability of the flap to resist infection, which can use for covering an exposed carotid artery and improving the neck fibrosis of irradiated patients.

  11. Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for head and neck reconstruction: risk factors for fistula formation.

    PubMed

    Leite, A K N; de Matos, L L; Belli, M; Kulcsar, M A V; Cernea, C R; Garcia Brandão, L; Pinto, F R

    2014-12-01

    The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) is a safe and versatile flap used widely for head and neck cancer reconstructions, but one of the major and most feared complications is oro- or pharyngocutaneous fistula. Herein, we attempt to establish risk factors for fistula formation in reconstructions of mucosal defects in the head and neck using PMMF through retrospective analysis of PMMF performed during 3 years at a single institution, with a total of 84 procedures. There were 69 men and 15 women, with a mean age of 59.5 years. There were 15 cases of partial flap loss, two total flap losses and 31 fistulas. The independent risk factors for fistula formation were preoperative serum hemoglobin < 13 g/dl, preoperative serum albumin < 3.4 g/dl and hypopharynx reconstruction. The PMMF is still a very useful flap and this is the first multivariate analysis analysing risk factors for fistula formation. These findings are helpful in selecting patients with elevated risk of fistula formation, and therefore preventive measures can be undertaken to avoid potentially serious complications.

  12. Subclavicular Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Optimal Reconstruction of Large Orbitozygomatic Defects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pingarron, Lorena; Ruiz, Julian; Rey, Juan; Maniegas, Lourdes; Roson, Silvia; Martinez, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of microvascular free flaps, the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) has been relegated to background for most reconstructive surgeons. The objective of this article is to show the advantages of cervicofacial defects reconstruction with PMMF using the subclavicular plane route in a challenging clinical case. An 83-year-old man presented with cutaneous temporomalar lesion with orbital spread. Tumor resection was performed, including 12 × 11 cm skin and subcutaneous tissue, overlying zygomatic and malar bone, and orbital exenteration. Radical parotidectomy and functional neck dissection were performed. PMMF was chosen as reconstructive option routing the pedicle to the subclavicular plane. The length of the pedicle was 31 cm. The subclavicular route for PMMF increases the flap's length and arc of rotation compared with the conventional supraclavicular one. This procedure decreases the bulk of the PMMF pedicle which makes it functionally and cosmetically favorable. By using this modification, we may widen the “safe” reconstructive possibilities. PMID:25136415

  13. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-04-07

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps.

  14. Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap for Head and Neck Defects in the Era of Free Flaps: Harvesting Technique and Indications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Muyuan; Liu, Weiwei; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Peng, Hanwei

    2017-01-01

    The role of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) in head and neck reconstruction is challenged recently due to its natural drawbacks and the popularity of free flaps. This study was designed to evaluate the indications and reliability of using a PMMF in the current free flap era based on a single center experience. The PMMF was harvested as a pedicle-skeletonized flap, with its skin paddle caudally and medially to the areola, including the third intercostal perforator, preserving the upper one third of the pectoralis major muscle. The harvested flap was passed via a submuscular tunnel over the clavicle. One hundred eighteen PMMFs were used in 114 patients, of which 76 were high-risk candidates for a free flap; 8 patients underwent total glossectomy, and 30 underwent salvage or emergency reconstruction. Major complications occurred in 4 patients and minor complications developed in 10. Tracheal extubation was possible in all cases, while oral intake was possible in all but 1 case. These techniques used in harvesting a PMMF significantly overcome its natural pitfalls. PMMFs can safely be used in head and neck cancer patients who need salvage reconstruction, who are high risk for free flaps, and who need large volume soft-tissue flaps. PMID:28387356

  15. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  16. 75 FR 63500 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1939-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from Hurricane Earl during the period of August 29-31, 2010,...

  17. 75 FR 18521 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29, 2010, and... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting from...

  18. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated November 3, 2012, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island...

  19. 76 FR 61730 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4027-DR), dated September 3, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island...

  20. 75 FR 77889 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1949-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, rockslides, and mudslides...

  1. 75 FR 71453 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1948-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, mudslides, and landslides...

  2. 78 FR 23278 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4107-DR), dated March 22, 2013, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in the State of Rhode Island resulting from a...

  3. [Applicability of skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps for esophageal surgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwen; Zhou, Jinghai; Deng, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Stomach and colon are always used to reconstruct esophagus after esophagectomy. However, alternative procedures to reconstruct or repair esophagus are required if the patients suffered from gastric or colonic diseases, underwent gastric colonic operations or had severe local esophageal stricture. More than ten kinds of skin flaps and myocutaneous flaps, which are classified into free or pedicled ones, are used to reconstruct or repair esophagus. Microvascular anastomosis is required while using free flaps. Necrosis of the free flaps is prone to developing once the vascular occlusion occurs. The pectoralis major myocutaneous and latissimus dorsi pedicled flaps have sufficient blood supplies. However, both are bulky and difficult to reconstruct a circumferential esophagus through contouring a tube. Platysma myocutaneous flaps have a large surface area and are supplied from multiple vessels. Single lateral and bilateral platysma myocutaenous flap can be applied to repair the cervical esophageal defect and circumferential cervical esophagus, respectively. The use of platysma myocutaneous to repair and reconstruct cervical esophagus is a procedure easy to perform and confer excellent outcomes. There is no development of ulcer and hair growth after long-term follow-up and resistance to radiotherapy.

  4. Anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps as the preferred flaps for reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhen-Hu; Wu, Han-Jiang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Sheng; Tan, Hong Yu; Gong, Zhao Jian

    2014-12-01

    The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap is one of the most commonly used flaps in reconstructive procedures, but its application in oral and maxillofacial defects has not been fully determined. Herein, we summarize the application of 1212 anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps in the repair of oral and maxillofacial defects and examine their benefits in maxillofacial reconstruction of these defects. Patients were recruited from February 2002 to June 2013 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Central South University. All patients underwent reconstructive surgery employing anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps. Patient ages ranged from 6 to 82 years with a mean age of 51.2 years. There are 1015 flaps showing single lobe and 197 flaps showing a multi-island pedicle and one of which carries the iliac bone. The largest area among the single flaps was 28 × 12 cm(2), and the smallest was 3 × 2 cm(2). Among the 1212 transferred flaps, 1176 survived and 36 showed necrosis, a survival rate of about 97.0%. The common complications at flap donor site were poor wound healing (10.1%), localized paraesthesia (50.1%), and altered quadriceps force (11.0%). No cases presented with local serious complications, and 90% of patients achieved good functional recovery and aesthetically acceptable results after reconstruction of oral and maxillofacial defects at various locations using anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps. The time (23-121 min; average 51 min) for anastomosis of one vein and one artery was significantly less than that for two veins and one artery (45-153 min, average 83 min; p = 0.0003), which indicates one vein anastomosis can significantly reduce the operating time. The anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flaps can be easily obtained and can provide a good amount of muscle for filling dead space and fascia lata. These flaps can be prepared into a separate fat flap, multi-island fascia with iliac bone, and other composite pedicle flaps to meet the

  5. Magnitude of Myocutaneous Flaps and Factors Associated With Loss of Volume in Oral Cancer Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yuki; Yanamoto, Souichi; Ota, Yoshihide; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Myocutaneous flaps are often used to repair oral and maxillofacial defects after surgery for oral cancer; however, their volume decreases during the postoperative period. To facilitate treatment planning, the authors measured the extent of such postoperative flap volume loss and identified associated factors in patients who underwent oral reconstruction with myocutaneous flaps. The authors designed and performed a retrospective observational study of patients who underwent reconstructive procedures involving rectus abdominal myocutaneous (RAM) or pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flaps at Tokai University Hospital, Kobe University Hospital, or Nagasaki University Hospital from April 2009 through March 2013. Flap type and other clinical variables were examined as potential predictors of flap loss. The primary outcome was flap loss at 6 months postoperatively. Correlations between each potential predictor and the primary outcome were examined using multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 75 patients whose oral defects were reconstructed with RAM flaps (n = 57) or PMMC flaps (n = 18). RAM flaps exhibited a mean volume shrinkage of 22% at 6 months postoperatively, which was less than the 27.5% displayed by the PMMC flaps, but the difference was not important. Renal failure, previous surgery of the oral region, postoperative radiotherapy, and postoperative serum albumin level were found to be meaningful risk factors for postoperative flap volume loss. The results of this study suggest that larger flaps should be used in patients who possess these risk factors or are scheduled to undergo postoperative radiotherapy. Future studies should examine the utility of postoperative nutritional management for preventing flap volume loss. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 22151 - Rhode Island; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29,...

  7. Does Fibrin Sealant Reduce Seroma after Immediate Breast Reconstruction Utilizing a Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Han Gyu; Shin, Ho Seong; Kang, Moon Seok; Nam, Seung Min

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common complication of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in breast reconstruction is seroma formation in the back. Many clinical studies have shown that fibrin sealant reduces seroma formation. We investigated any statistically significant differences in postoperative drainage and seroma formation when utilizing the fibrin sealant on the site of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap harvested for immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing partial mastectomy. Methods A total of 46 patients underwent immediate breast reconstruction utilizing a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous island flap. Of those, 23 patients underwent the procedure without fibrin sealant and the other 23 were administered the fibrin sealant. All flaps were elevated with manual dissection by the same surgeon and were analyzed to evaluate the potential benefits of the fibrin sealant. The correlation analysis and Mann-Whitney U test were used for analyzing the drainage volume according to age, weight of the breast specimen, and body mass index. Results Although not statistically significant, the cumulative drainage fluid volume was higher in the control group until postoperative day 2 (530.1 mL compared to 502.3 mL), but the fibrin sealant group showed more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3. The donor site comparisons showed the fibrin sealant group had more drainage beginning on postoperative day 3 and the drain was removed 1 day earlier in the control group. Conclusions The use of fibrin sealant resulted in no reduction of seroma formation. Because the benefits of the fibrin sealant are not clear, the use of fibrin sealant must be fully discussed with patients before its use as a part of informed consent. PMID:23094246

  8. Delayed platysma myocutaneous turnover flap for repair of pharyngocutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Paul; Cañadas, Karina; Sasaki, Clarence T

    2015-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is a common and serious complication after total laryngectomy. Numerous surgical and non-surgical treatment approaches have been described. Here we describe a platysma myocutaneous turnover flap for repair of PCF. Platysma myocutaneous turnover flap is described and two patients are used as examples. Repair was initially successful in both patients; however, one patient had recurrence of fistula after her cancer recurred at the stoma. Numerous surgical techniques have been described for repair of PCF. Here a turnover flap was used, a technique not previously described for this problem. The delay technique enhances the viability of the flap thought to be through numerous mechanisms. The platysma myocutaneous turnover flap is useful for closure of pharyngocutaneous fistula when non-operative measures have failed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap: A Rat Model of Myocutaneous Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, Marie-Claire; Wigmore, Stephen; Kluth, David

    2013-01-01

    Free tissue transfer is the gold standard of reconstructive surgery to repair complex defects not amenable to local options or those requiring composite tissue. Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a known cause of partial free flap failure and has no effective treatment. Establishing a laboratory model of this injury can prove costly both financially as larger mammals are conventionally used and in the expertise required by the technical difficulty of these procedures typically requires employing an experienced microsurgeon. This publication and video demonstrate the effective use of a model of IRI in rats which does not require microsurgical expertise. This procedure is an in situ model of a transverse abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap where atraumatic clamps are utilized to reproduce the ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with this surgery. A laser Doppler Imaging (LDI) scanner is employed to assess flap perfusion and the image processing software, Image J to assess percentage area skin survival as a primary outcome measure of injury. PMID:23770929

  10. Medial thigh myocutaneous flap for covering extended hemipelvectomy.

    PubMed

    Luna-Perez, P; Herrera, L

    1995-12-01

    When a large tumour involves the buttock and anterolateral upper thigh, modifications to the classical hemipelvectomy may be required for its removal. Herein, we report the use of a medial myocutaneous flap for coverage of soft tissue defects produced by such procedures.

  11. Hemipelvectomy for Buttock Tumors Utilizing an Anterior Myocutaneous Flap of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, Paul H.; Chretien, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    Hemipelvectomy utilizing an anterior myocutaneous flap is indicated for aggressive tumors of the buttock and proximal portion of the posterior thigh. A large operative defect created posteriorly by amputation of the lower extremity, hemipelvis, and buttock is covered by a myocutaneous flap of quadriceps femoris muscle and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. The superficial femoral artery is preserved to sustain the myocutaneous flap. ImagesFig. 2A,B,C.Fig. 2A,B,C. PMID:6848048

  12. Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Breast Reconstruction: Bad Rap or Good Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. Methods: A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. Results: There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. Conclusion: The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications. PMID:22031843

  13. Use of Pedicled Trapezius Myocutaneous Flap for Posterior Skull Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansher; Rios Diaz, Arturo J; Cauley, Ryan; Smith, Timothy R; Caterson, E J

    2015-09-01

    Soft-tissue defects in posterior skull can be challenging for reconstruction. If related to tumor resection, these wound beds are generally irradiated and can be difficult from a recipient-vessel perspective for a free tissue transfer. Locoregional flaps might prove to be important reconstructive option in such patients. There is a very limited data on the usage of pedicled trapezius myocutaneous flaps for such defects. The authors reviewed existing study for usage of trapezius flap for posterior skull repair and used pedicled trapezius myocutaneous flaps based on the descending branch of superficial cervical artery (SCA) for reconstruction of posterior skull soft-tissue defect in an irradiated and infected wound. Two patients were operated for trapezius myocutaneous flap for posterior skull defects complicated by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and epidural abscess. There was no recipient or donor-site complication at a mean follow-up of 12.5 months. Neither of the 2 patients had any functional deficits for the entire duration of the follow-up. Although this flap was able to help in controlling the CSF leakage in the first patient, it successfully healed the cavity generated from epidural abscess drainage in the second patient. The large angle of rotation coupled with the ability to complete the procedure without repositioning the patients makes trapezius myocutaneous flap an attractive option for posterior skull reconstruction. In our limited experience, the pedicled trapezius flaps are a reliable alternative as they are well vascularized and able to obliterate the soft-tissue defect completely. The recipient site healed completely in infected as well as irradiated wound beds. In addition, the donor site can be primarily closed with minimal donor-associated complication.

  14. Myocutaneous revascularization following graded ischemia in lean and obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ross M; Coffman, Brittany; McGuire, Paul G; Howdieshell, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Background Murine models of diabetes and obesity have provided insight into the pathogenesis of impaired epithelialization of excisional skin wounds. However, knowledge of postischemic myocutaneous revascularization in these models is limited. Materials and methods A myocutaneous flap was created on the dorsum of wild type (C57BL/6), genetically obese and diabetic (ob/ob, db/db), complementary heterozygous (ob+/ob−, db+/db−), and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice (n=48 total; five operative mice per strain and three unoperated mice per strain as controls). Flap perfusion was documented by laser speckle contrast imaging. Local gene expression in control and postoperative flap tissue specimens was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Image analysis of immunochemically stained histologic sections confirmed microvascular density and macrophage presence. Results Day 10 planimetric analysis revealed mean flap surface area necrosis values of 10.8%, 12.9%, 9.9%, 0.4%, 1.4%, and 23.0% for wild type, db+/db−, ob+/ob−, db/db, ob/ob, and DIO flaps, respectively. Over 10 days, laser speckle imaging documented increased perfusion at all time points with revascularization to supranormal perfusion in db/db and ob/ob flaps. In contrast, wild type, heterozygous, and DIO flaps displayed expected graded ischemia with failure of perfusion to return to baseline values. RT-PCR demonstrated statistically significant differences in angiogenic gene expression between lean and obese mice at baseline (unoperated) and at day 10. Conclusion Unexpected increased baseline skin perfusion and augmented myocutaneous revascularization accompanied by a control proangiogenic transcriptional signature in genetically obese mice compared to DIO and lean mice are reported. In future research, laser speckle imaging has been planned to be utilized in order to correlate spatiotemporal wound reperfusion with changes in cell recruitment and gene expression to

  15. [Free radial forearm flap and myocutaneous flaps in oncological reconstructive surgery of the oral cavity, Comparison of functional results].

    PubMed

    Pompei, S; Caravelli, G; Vigili, M G; Ducci, M; Marzetti, F

    1998-03-01

    In modern multi-disciplinary cancer treatment, rehabilitation and functional results represent utmost intent in reconstructive surgery of the oral cavity. Even in cases where the stage of disease is advanced) and the perspective of survival is limited, it is possible to achieve an acceptable quality of life. The authors report, in this study, the morpho-functional results and the morbidity observed in glossectomies in which the reconstruction was performed using three different methods. In a total of 264 reconstructive flaps of the head and neck regions, the authors considered three groups of 15 patients that had had reconstruction after the demolitive procedure. Respectively these groups were divided by the followed methods: free forearm flap, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and nasolabial flap. The morbidity showed an extremely low rate of flap loss in all the groups, but "minor" complications, such as fistulas and leakages, were significantly more frequent in the myocutaneous flaps group. Functional evaluation for speech and deglutition showed good results in most patients. Extremely severe postoperative conditions as a permanent NG tube or incomprehensible speech had been observed in less than 15% of the cases. Particularly, the pectoralis major flap, showed its best functional performances in the total or subtotal glossectomies with a sacrifice of the muscles of the oral floor. The free forearm flap is reliable and safe with its low thickness and pliability, especially for partial glossectomies. The nasolabial flap was confirmed to be the first reconstructive choice for selected limited resections of the tongue and of the antero-lateral floor. With this experience it is possible, even in more complex free flaps, to reduce the time consumption and the complication rate. Free flaps do not substitute routinely myocutaneous and conventional flaps, but they represent the "ideal" reconstructive alternatives for specific and selected indications.

  16. The role of monocyte subsets in myocutaneous revascularization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Bilal; Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; McGuire, Paul G; Howdieshell, Thomas R

    2013-08-01

    The controlled recruitment of monocytes from the circulation to the site of injury and their differentiation into tissue macrophages are critical events in the reconstitution of tissue integrity. Subsets of monocytes/macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and tumor vascularity; however, the significance of monocyte heterogeneity in physiologic neovascularization is just emerging. A cranial-based, peninsular-shaped myocutaneous flap was surgically created on the dorsum of wild-type mice (C57BL6) and populations of mice with genetic deletion of subset-specific chemokine ligand-receptor axes important in monocyte trafficking and function (CCL2(-/-) and CX3CR1(-/-)) (n=36 total; 12 mice per group, nine with flap and three unoperated controls). Planimetric analysis of digital photographic images was utilized to determine flap surface viability in wild-type and knockout mice. Real-time myocutaneous flap perfusion and functional revascularization was determined by laser speckle contrast imaging. Image analysis of CD-31 immunostained sections confirmed flap microvascular density and anatomy. Macrophage quantification and localization in flap tissues was determined by F4/80 gene and protein expression. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on nonoperative back skin and postoperative flap tissue specimens to determine local gene expression. Myocutaneous flaps created on wild type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice were engrafted to the recipient site, resulting in viability. In contrast, distal full thickness cutaneous necrosis and resultant flap dehiscence was evident by d 10 in CCL2(-/-) mice. Over 10 d, laser speckle contrast imaging documented immediate graded flap ischemia in all three groups of mice, functional flap revascularization in wild type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice, and lack of distal flap reperfusion in CCL2(-/-) mice. Immunostaining of serial histologic specimens confirmed marked increases in microvascular

  17. Cornerstones in reconstructive plastic surgery: Argentinian development of muscular, myocutaneous, and fasciocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Kostianovsky, A S; Sostaric, N M

    1992-01-01

    This article pays tribute to two Argentinian surgeons whose work has been published in their local journals but is unknown internationally. Goldtraj's pioneering work on the treatment of vascular ulcers of the leg using a muscular flap, presented in 1954, and Spadafora's work on the treatment of tissue defects with myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps, presented in 1964, are discussed. Both papers deserve a place among the pioneering contributions on the subject of muscular as well as myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps.

  18. Alteration of island food-web dynamics following major disturbance by hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Major abiotic disturbance can be an important factor influencing food-web dynamics, particularly in areas impacted by the recent increase in hurricane activity. We present a unique set of data on key food-web processes occurring on 10 small islands for three relatively calm years and then four subsequent years during which two hurricanes passed directly over the study site. Herbivory, as measured by leaf damage, was 3.2 times higher in the year after the first hurricane (2000) than in the previous year and was 1.7 times higher in the year after the second hurricane (2002) than in 2001. The effect of a top predator (the lizard, Anolis sagrei) on herbivory strengthened continuously after the first hurricane and overall was 2.4 times stronger during the disturbance period than before. Overall abundance of lizards was 30% lower during the disturbance period than before, and abundances of web spiders and hymenopteran parasitoids were 66% and 59% lower, respectively. We suggest that increased herbivory observed on all islands was caused, at least in part, by the overall reduction in predation by both lizards and arthropods, whereas magnification of the lizard effect on herbivory was caused by reduced compensatory predation by arthropods.

  19. Paradoxical effects of heme arginate on survival of myocutaneous flaps

    PubMed Central

    Czopek, Alicja; Wigmore, Stephen J.; Kluth, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to partial flap and solid organ transplant failure. Heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible, cytoprotective enzyme which protects against IRI in solid organ transplant models. Heme arginate (HA), a HO-1 inducer, is a promising, translatable, preconditioning agent. This study investigated the effects of preconditioning with HA on the clinical outcome of a myocutaneous IRI model. Forty male Lewis rats were randomized to intravenously receive 1) Control-NaCl, 2) HA, 3) HA and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), a HO-1 inhibitor; and 4) SnMP alone. Twenty-four hours later, an in situ transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. Viability of flaps was measured clinically and by laser-Doppler perfusion scanning. In vitro work on human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa) assessed the effects of HA, SnMP, and the iron chelator desferrioxamine on 1) cytotoxicity, 2) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, and 3) ROS-mediated DNA damage. In contrast to our hypothesis, HA preconditioning produced over 30% more flap necrosis at 48 h compared with controls (P = 0.02). HA-containing treatments produced significantly worse flap perfusion at all postoperative time points. In vitro work showed that HA is cytotoxic to keratinocytes. This cytotoxicity was independent of HO-1 and was mediated by the generation of ROS by free heme. In contrast to solid organ data, pharmacological preconditioning with HA significantly worsened clinical outcome, thus indicating that this is not a viable approach in free flap research. PMID:24089372

  20. Using Major Elements to Determine Sources of Nitrate in Groundwater, Suffolk County, Long Island, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munster, J.; Hanson, G.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2004-05-01

    Suffolk County is the eastern most county on Long Island with an area of 2,500 square kilometers and a population of 1.4 million. Groundwater is the only source of potable water for Suffolk County. Nitrate levels have become a concern as a result of the continued eastward urbanization of Long Island since the mid 1900's. In 2003, 2% of 1000 public supply wells had greater than 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate, 8% had 6 to 10 ppm nitrogen as nitrate and 62% of the wells were rated as susceptible to increased nitrate contamination based on land use, travel time and prevalence. Nitrogen as nitrate above 10 ppm is harmful to infants and is currently the drinking water standard of the Environmental Protection Agency. The major sources of the nitrate in the urbanized areas are most likely turf grass fertilizer and sewage from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants that provide only secondary treatment. Turf grass occupies about 28% of the land. Two-thirds of the houses have septic tank/cesspool systems and a majority of the sewage treatment plants discharge effluent to the groundwater. Previous investigators of the sources of nitrate in groundwater on Long Island have used 15N values of nitrate-nitrogen to identify nitrate contamination (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Flipse and Bonner, 1985; Flipse et al., 1984; Kreitler et al., 1978). However, due to overlapping source signatures, nitrogen isotopes alone were not sufficient to characterize the sources of nitrate. More recent studies have shown that major elements that accompany nitrate in the groundwater (Bleifuss et al., 2000; Elhatip et al., 2003; Trauth and Xanthopoulos, 1997) may distinguish sources of nitrate with less ambiguity. In this study samples of waste water from septic tank/cesspool systems and sewage treatment plants and samples of soil water collected below turf grass that is not fertilized, fertilized with organic fertilizer and fertilized with chemical fertilizer were analyzed for major elements

  1. Genetic characterization of the population of Grande Comore Island (Njazidja) according to major blood groups.

    PubMed

    Chiaroni, Jacques; Touinssi, Mhammed; Frassati, Coralie; Degioanni, Anna; Gibert, Morgane; Reviron, Denis; Mercier, Pierre; Boëtsch, Gilles

    2004-08-01

    The Comorian population is historically considered a blend of influences from African Bantus, Arabs, and possibly Austronesians. In this study we present the first genetic data on the current Comorian population. Serologic analysis of the six major blood group systems (ABO, RH, KEL, FY, JK, and MNS) was performed on 164 individuals from Grande Comore Island (Njazidja). In addition, Duffy genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Our findings establish a high frequency of the Fy(a- b-) phenotype (86%), presenting the same genetic background as in sub-Saharan Africa. Analysis of genetic frequencies, distances, and admixture with other populations indicates that African Bantus made the main contribution to the gene pool (73.2%+/-15.5%). The Arab contribution from the Arabian peninsula was smaller (24.2%+/-7%) and the Indonesian contribution was minor (2.6%+/-9%). The major Bantu contribution was commensurate with the Bantu cultural influence. The contribution from the Arabian peninsula seemed in relation to its permeating religious and linguistic influence. As with the language, the Indonesian contribution to the Comorian gene pool was small. These results are in agreement with historical, sociological, and linguistic data.

  2. Temporal trends of surface urban heat islands and associated determinants in major Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rui; Wang, Lunche; Huang, Xin; Niu, Zigeng; Liu, Fongfu; Wang, Qing

    2017-12-31

    There are many studies focusing on spatial variations of surface urban heat islands (SUHIs) in literature. In this study, MODIS land surface temperature (LST) data and China's Land Use/Cover Datasets (CLUDs) were used to examine the temporal trends of SUHIs in 31 major Chinese cities during 2001-2015 using three indicators: SUHI intensity (SUHII), area of the SUHI (AreaSUHI) and percentage of area with increasing SUHII (PAISUHII). Correlation analyses between SUHII and background (rural) LST (extracted from MODIS LST), vegetation coverage (reflected by MODIS EVI data) and anthropogenic heat release (reflected by nighttime light data) were performed from temporal rather than spatial perspectives. Our findings showed that the SUHII and AreaSUHI in urbanized areas increased significantly in most cities in summer days, whereas they increased significantly in approximately half and more than half of the cities in summer and winter nights, respectively. In summer days, summer nights and winter nights, the PAISUHII was approximately 80% and over 50% in union areas and the 20km buffer, respectively. Correlation analyses indicated that the SUHII in stable urban areas was negatively correlated with the background LST in summer and winter days for most cities, especially in northern China. A reduction in vegetation contributed to the increasing SUHII in urbanized areas in summer days and nights. The increasing anthropogenic heat release was an important factor for increases in the SUHII in urbanized areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.

    PubMed

    Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

    2014-07-01

    Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects.

  4. Complications and oncologic outcomes of pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562

  5. Speech articulation after subtotal glossectomy and reconstruction with a myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Knuuttila, H; Pukander, J; Määttä, T; Pakarinen, L; Vilkman, E

    1999-01-01

    Speech samples of 9 subjects (8 males, 1 female) were recorded before and 0.5-2 years after a partial glossectomy and reconstruction with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. A reading sample, a list of meaningful and nonsense words, and a list of sustained vowels were recorded. The speech samples were evaluated by pairs of naive listeners and using acoustic analysis of the vowel production. Each pair listened to the recordings of only one patient. Inter-rater agreement was satisfactory. The general impression of the speech outcome varied from normal to moderately impaired. The perceptually estimated impairments of speech articulation in the after/before comparisons were statistically significant. Only the first formant of the vowel /i/ (rise) and the second formant of the vowel /a/ (drop) changed significantly at the group level. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.79) between the extent of tongue resection and the drop of the second formant of the vowel /a/. The perceptual variables showed a relationship (r = 0.74-0.82) with the changes in the level of the second formant of the vowel /i/. The relationship that emerged between the perceptual estimates and the objective acoustic parameters suggests that it will be possible to develop clinically relevant test batteries for articulatory quality analysis.

  6. Pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle for reconstruction of anterior and middle skull defects: an alternative.

    PubMed

    Seckel, B R; Upton, J; Freidberg, S R; Gilbert, K P; Murray, J E

    1986-01-01

    Three cases are presented demonstrating the use of a pedicled myocutaneous flap of latissimus dorsi muscle to reconstruct large defects of the anterior and middle skull after ablative surgery for carcinoma. This method is proposed as an alternative to reconstruction with a free myocutaneous flap in selected patients.

  7. Analysis of major air pollutants and submicron particles in New York City and Long Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, M.; Hopke, P. K.; Felton, H. D.; Frank, B. P.; Rattigan, O. V.; Wurth, M. J.; LaDuke, G. H.

    2017-01-01

    A year-long sampling campaign of major air pollutants and submicron particle number size distributions was conducted at two sites taken as representative of city-wide air quality in New York City and Long Island, respectively. A number of species were quantified with hourly time resolution, including particle number concentrations in 6 size ranges (20-30 nm, 30-50 nm, 50-70 nm, 70-100 nm, 100-200 nm, and >200 nm), nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, PM2.5 mass concentration and some PM major components (sulfate, organic and elemental carbon). Hourly concentrations of primary and secondary organic carbon were estimated using the EC tracer method. Data were matched with weather parameters and air parcel back-trajectories. A series of tools were thus applied to: (i) study the seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles of pollutants; (ii) investigate the relationships amongst pollutants through correlation and lagged correlation analyses; (iii) depict the role of atmospheric photochemical processes; (iv) examine the location of the potential sources by mean of conditional bivariate probability function analysis and (v) investigate the role of regional transport of air masses to the concentrations of analyzed species. Results indicate that concentrations of NOx, SO2, CO, non-methane hydrocarbons, primary OC and EC are predominantly determined by local sources, but are also affected by regional transports of polluted air masses. On the contrary, the transport of continental polluted air masses has a main effect in raising the concentrations of secondary PM2.5 (sulfate and secondary organic carbon). By providing direct information on the concentrations and trends of key pollutants and submicron particle number concentrations, this study finally enables some general considerations about air quality status and atmospheric processes over the New York City metropolitan area.

  8. Orbicularis oculi myocutaneous advancement flap for upper eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Demir, Zühtü; Yüce, Serdar; Karamürsel, Sebat; Celebioglu, Selim

    2008-02-01

    Reconstruction of large full-thickness defects of the upper eyelids is challenging because of their complex anatomy and specialized functions. The authors present and discuss a new, simple surgical technique for upper eyelid reconstruction. This is a single-stage procedure and has produced satisfactory to excellent results in the authors' patients. It presents the reconstructive surgeon with several advantages over other techniques. The eyelid tumor is excised surgically until clear margins are obtained. The V-shaped orbicularis oculi myocutaneous advancement flap is marked on the remaining superior eyelid tissue and mobilized, leaving the base of the pedicle intact with submuscular tissue attachment. Posterior lamella reconstruction is performed with mucoperiosteal graft harvested from the hard palate in patients with full-thickness defects. Then, the flap is advanced to the defect and the donor site is closed primarily. Eight patients, aged 17 to 72 years, have been operated on with this technique for upper eyelid reconstruction. Follow-up included assessment of position, closure, length of palpebral rim, eyelid opening, aesthetic balance, presence of corneal erosion, ulcer or entropion, levator function, and donor-site morbidity. The flap was viable in every patient, without total or partial necrosis. No patient required surgical revision. The oncologic result was good, and no recurrence was noted. This method is a simpler, single-stage operation; does not damage the lower lid; provides a thin, mobile eyelid; and, above all, is less invasive than other techniques, and at the same time allows a good functional and aesthetic reconstruction.

  9. Herbicide treatment of invasive Vinca major growing with endangered Galium buxifolium, an island endemic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn; Chess, Katie; Flagg, Karen; Niessen, Ken; Owen,; Thompson,

    2010-01-01

    Galium buxifolium E. Greene [Rubiaceae] (sea-cliff bedstraw) is a small shrub restricted to San Miguel and Santa Cruz Islands, in the California Channel Islands. Almost all of the 26 known populations grow on vertical north-facing sea cliffs in native scrub, sandwiched between the sea below and non-native annual grasslands on the terraces above. A notable exception is a popula?tion at Pelican Bay on Santa Cruz Island, growing on the cliff and on thin terrace soils above the cliff in a stand of coastal bluff scrub that is recovering from more than a century of sheep grazing (Figure 1). Ironically, this stand is near the location of the historic Eaton Resort, a charismatic inn frequented by Hollywood glitterati in the early 1900s. Several landscape ornamentals planted there persist today in the area of the Galium population. Italian stone pine (Pinus pinaea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) tower over the site while the invasive groundcover Vinca major L. [Apocynaceae] (greater periwinkle) forms dense mats at the cliff edge that are spreading into the developing native plant stand. Wherever the Galium is found it is intermixed with other native scrub plants in dense communities on moist ocean bluffs. Historic notes and herbarium collections indicate that it may have been more widespread on nearshore terraces adjacent to sea-cliff populations before conversion to grassland. Since Pelican Bay is the only site that we know of where Galium is spreading onto the nearby terrace, we wanted to know whether the Vinca posed a roadblock to upslope population expansion. In 2005 we mapped Vinca and Galium at the site. We also measured Galium individuals to see where the smaller, younger plants were to better understand where the population is expanding. We observed that 1) both the Galium and the Vinca appear to be spreading from the cliff face upslope onto a series of rock outcrops, stone walls and benches, 2) the native scrub community is recovering at the site and 3) the Vinca

  10. Recurrent breast carcinoma arising in a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun M; Shin, Sandra J; Chen, Xia; Rosen, Paul Peter

    2004-10-01

    Reconstruction after mastectomy for breast carcinoma with implants or myocutaneous flaps is a widely used surgical technique. Recurrence of breast carcinoma after these procedures is uncommon. Most recurrences occur in the skin or scar site of the mastectomy and are readily detectable by physical examination. There are rare reported cases of recurrent carcinoma occurring within the flaps that are usually diagnosed with the aid of imaging and subsequent pathologic examination. In most cases, these recurrences represent invasive or in situ ductal carcinoma. We report an additional 2 cases of breast carcinoma recurring within the myocutaneous flap, both of which exhibited uncommon histologic features not previously reported.

  11. Adaptive introgression between Anopheles sibling species eliminates a major genomic island but not reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Chris S.; Weetman, David; Essandoh, John; Yawson, Alexander E.; Maslen, Gareth; Manske, Magnus; Field, Stuart G.; Webster, Mark; Antão, Tiago; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Donnelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive introgression can provide novel genetic variation to fuel rapid evolutionary responses, though it may be counterbalanced by potential for detrimental disruption of the recipient genomic background. We examine the extent and impact of recent introgression of a strongly selected insecticide-resistance mutation (Vgsc-1014F) located within one of two exceptionally large genomic islands of divergence separating the Anopheles gambiae species pair. Here we show that transfer of the Vgsc mutation results in homogenization of the entire genomic island region (~1.5% of the genome) between species. Despite this massive disruption, introgression is clearly adaptive with a dramatic rise in frequency of Vgsc-1014F and no discernable impact on subsequent reproductive isolation between species. Our results show (1) how resilience of genomes to massive introgression can permit rapid adaptive response to anthropogenic selection and (2) that even extreme prominence of genomic islands of divergence can be an unreliable indicator of importance in speciation. PMID:24963649

  12. Adaptive introgression between Anopheles sibling species eliminates a major genomic island but not reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Chris S; Weetman, David; Essandoh, John; Yawson, Alexander E; Maslen, Gareth; Manske, Magnus; Field, Stuart G; Webster, Mark; Antão, Tiago; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Donnelly, Martin J

    2014-06-25

    Adaptive introgression can provide novel genetic variation to fuel rapid evolutionary responses, though it may be counterbalanced by potential for detrimental disruption of the recipient genomic background. We examine the extent and impact of recent introgression of a strongly selected insecticide-resistance mutation (Vgsc-1014F) located within one of two exceptionally large genomic islands of divergence separating the Anopheles gambiae species pair. Here we show that transfer of the Vgsc mutation results in homogenization of the entire genomic island region (~1.5% of the genome) between species. Despite this massive disruption, introgression is clearly adaptive with a dramatic rise in frequency of Vgsc-1014F and no discernable impact on subsequent reproductive isolation between species. Our results show (1) how resilience of genomes to massive introgression can permit rapid adaptive response to anthropogenic selection and (2) that even extreme prominence of genomic islands of divergence can be an unreliable indicator of importance in speciation.

  13. Long-distance island hopping without dispersal stages: transportation across major zoogeographic barriers in a Southern Ocean isopod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Florian; Agrawal, Shobhit; Held, Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Species integrity is maintained only if recurrent allelic exchange between subpopulations occurs by means of migrating specimens. Predictions of this gene flow on the basis of observed or assumed mobility of marine species have proven to be error-prone. Using one mitochondrial gene and seven microsatellite markers, we studied the genetic structure and gene flow in Septemserolis septemcarinata, a strictly benthic species lacking pelagic larvae and the ability to swim. Suitable shallow-water habitats around three remote islands (South Georgia, Bouvet, and Marion Island) are geographically disjunct, isolated by more than 2,000 km of uninhabitable deep sea (east-west) and also separated by the Polar Front (north-south), which serves as a strong demarcation line in many marine taxa. Although we did find genetic differentiation among the three island populations, our results also revealed that a scenario with recent gene flow explains our data best. A model assuming no gene flow after initial colonization of the islands performs significantly worse. The tests also favor an asymmetric gene flow pattern (west to east ≫ east to west) thus mirroring the directionality of major oceanographic currents in the area. We conclude that rare long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance or human-mediated transport must be responsible for the observed patterns. As a mechanism, we propose passive rafting on floating substrata in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness of a physical barrier is not solely a function of its physical parameters but strongly depends on how organisms interact with their environment.

  14. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  15. Infrahyoid myocutaneous flap for medium-sized head and neck defects: surgical outcome and technique modification.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hanwei; Wang, Steven J; Yang, Xihong; Guo, Haipeng; Liu, Muyuan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcomes associated with infrahyoid myocutaneous flaps used in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects following head and neck cancer resection, as well as to discuss a novel technique modification. Case series with chart review. University cancer hospital. A total of 20 patients with oral or hypopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent infrahyoid myocutaneous flap reconstruction between June 2005 and December 2011 were retrospectively studied. A novel technical modification of flap harvest, preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein, was attempted in 15 flaps and was successful in 13 flaps. Functional evaluation was performed in all patients 3 to 6 months after the operation or postoperative radiation. Total flap necrosis, marginal skin paddle necrosis, and total skin paddle loss were observed in 1, 2, and 1 patient(s), respectively. Pharyngocutaneous fistula without flap problem occurred in 1 patient. No flap complications occurred in 13 cases where the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein was successfully preserved. Functional results were excellent in 16 patients, good in 3 patients, and fair in 1 patient. The infrahyoid myocutaneous flap is a reliable and convenient technique that can serve as an alternative to free flaps in the reconstruction of medium-sized defects of the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Preservation of the cranial portion of the anterior jugular vein is a novel technical modification of harvesting this flap, which may result in better venous return of the skin paddle and reduce skin paddle necrosis.

  16. Reconstruction of large head and neck deformities: experience with free gracilis muscle and myocutaneous flaps.

    PubMed

    Del Frari, Barbara; Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Microvascular free flaps continue to revolutionize coverage options in head and neck reconstruction. The authors describe their experience with the gracilis free flap and the myocutaneous gracilis free flap with reconstruction of head and neck defects. Eleven patients underwent 12 free tissue transfer to the head and neck region. The reconstruction was performed with the transverse myocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap (n = 7) and the gracilis muscle flap with skin graft (n = 5). The average patient age was 63.4 years (range, 17-82 years). The indications for this procedure were tumor and haemangioma resections. The average patient follow-up was 20.7 months (range, 1 month-5.7 years). Total flap survival was 100%. There were no partial flap losses. Primary wound healing occurred in all cases. Recipient site morbidities included one hematoma. In our experience for reconstruction of moderate volume and surface area defects, muscle flaps with skin graft provide a better color match and skin texture relative to myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous flaps. The gracilis muscle free flap is not widely used for head and neck reconstruction but has the potential to give good results. As a filling substance for large cavities, the transverse myocutaneus gracilis flap has many advantages including reliable vascular anatomy, relatively great plasticity and a concealed donor area.

  17. The effects of historical fragmentation on major histocompatibility complex class II β and microsatellite variation in the Aegean island reptile, Podarcis erhardii.

    PubMed

    Santonastaso, Trent; Lighten, Jackie; van Oosterhout, Cock; Jones, Kenneth L; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Anthony, Nicola M

    2017-07-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in disease resistance and is the most polymorphic gene region in vertebrates. Although habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to a loss in MHC variation through drift, the impact of other evolutionary forces may counter this effect. Here we assess the impact of selection, drift, migration, and recombination on MHC class II and microsatellite variability in 14 island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii. Lizards were sampled from islands within the Cyclades (Greece) formed by rising sea levels as the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 before present. Bathymetric data were used to determine the area and age of each island, allowing us to infer the corresponding magnitude and timing of genetic bottlenecks associated with island formation. Both MHC and microsatellite variation were positively associated with island area, supporting the hypothesis that drift governs neutral and adaptive variation in this system. However, MHC but not microsatellite variability declined significantly with island age. This discrepancy is likely due to the fact that microsatellites attain mutation-drift equilibrium more rapidly than MHC. Although we detected signals of balancing selection, recombination and migration, the effects of these evolutionary processes appeared negligible relative to drift. This study demonstrates how land bridge islands can provide novel insights into the impact of historical fragmentation on genetic diversity as well as help disentangle the effects of different evolutionary forces on neutral and adaptive diversity.

  18. Pharmacologic manipulation of the microcirculation in cutaneous and myocutaneous flaps in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, C.Y.; Neligan, P.C.; Nakatsuka, T.; Sasaki, G.H.

    1985-04-01

    The vascular effects of isoxsuprine, diazoxide, and isoproterenol were studied in arterial buttock flaps and latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps in pigs. Capillary blood flow to the skin and muscles of these flaps was measured by the radioactive microsphere (15-mu diameter) technique 6 hours postoperatively under pentobarbital anesthesia. It was observed that isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor agonist, was not effective in augmentation of skin blood flow in the arterial buttock flaps. However, isoproterenol significantly increased capillary blood flow to the arterialized portion of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps compared with controls. Isoxsuprine and diazoxide (vascular smooth muscle relaxants) significantly (p less than 0.05) increased total capillary blood flow to the skin of arterial buttock flaps and to the skin and muscles of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps. However, the increase in capillary blood flow occurred mainly in the arterialized portion of these flaps. The capillary blood flow, which was supplied by the small arteries in the distal portion of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps, was not increased by treatment with isoxsuprine or diazoxide. Therefore, there was also no increase in the maximum distance of capillary blood flow from the pedicle to the distal end of the flaps. These observations led the authors to hypothesize that different sizes (diameters) of arteries in the skin and muscle have different reactivity (or sensitivity) to vasodilatory drugs. In the present experiment, the large dominant artery of the arterial buttock and latissimus dorsi flaps responded to isoxsuprine or diazoxide (vascular smooth-muscle relaxants), resulting in an increase in blood supply to the capillaries in the proximal portion of the flaps.

  19. Public recognition of major signs and symptoms of heart attack: seventeen states and the US Virgin Islands, 2001.

    PubMed

    Greenlund, Kurt J; Keenan, Nora L; Giles, Wayne H; Zheng, Zhi Jie; Neff, Linda J; Croft, Janet B; Mensah, George A

    2004-06-01

    Timely access to emergency cardiac care and survival is partly dependent on early recognition of heart attack symptoms and immediate action by calling emergency services. We assessed public recognition of major heart attack symptoms and knowledge to call 9-1-1 for an acute event. Data are from the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey. Participants (n = 61,018) in 17 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands indicated whether the following were heart attack symptoms: pain or discomfort in the jaw, neck, back; feeling weak, lightheaded, faint; chest pain or discomfort; sudden trouble seeing in 1 or both eyes (false symptom); pain or discomfort in the arms or shoulder; shortness of breath. Participants also indicated their first action if someone was having a heart attack. Most persons (95%) recognized chest pain as a heart attack symptom. However, only 11% correctly classified all symptoms and knew to call 9-1-1 when someone was having a heart attack. Symptom recognition and the need to call 9-1-1 was lower among men than women, persons of various ethnic groups than whites, younger and older persons than middle-aged persons, and persons with less education. Persons with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, or prior heart attack or stroke were not appreciably more likely to recognize heart attack symptoms than were persons without these conditions. Public health efforts are needed to increase recognition of the major heart attack symptoms in both the general public and groups at high risk for an acute event.

  20. Extreme genetic heterogeneity among the nine major tribal Taiwanese island populations detected with a new generation Y23 STR system.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaoshu; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph; Calderon, Silvia; Li, Li; Zhong, Mingxia; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-09-01

    The Taiwanese aborigines have been regarded as the source populations for the Austronesian expansion that populated Oceania to the east and Madagascar off Africa to the West. Although a number of genetic studies have been performed on some of these important tribes, the scope of the investigations has been limited, varying in the specific populations examined as well as the maker systems employed. This has made direct comparison among studies difficult. In an attempt to alleviate this lacuna, we investigate, for the first time, the genetic diversity of all nine major Taiwanese aboriginal tribes (Ami, Atayal, Bunun, Rukai, Paiwan, Saisat, Puyuma, Tsou and Yami) utilizing a new generation multiplex Y-STR system that allows for the genotyping of 23 loci from a single amplification reaction. This comprehensive approach examining 293 individuals from all nine main tribes with the same battery of forensic markers provides for the much-needed equivalent data essential for comparative analyses. Our results have uncovered that these nine major aboriginal populations exhibit limited intrapopulation genetic diversity and are highly heterogeneous from each other, possibly the result of endogamy, isolation, drift and/or unique ancestral populations. Specifically, genetic diversity, discrimination capacity, fraction of unique haplotypes and the most frequent haplotypes differ among the nine tribes, with the Tsou possessing the lowest values for the first three of these parameters. The phylogenetic analyses performed indicate that the genetic diversity among all nine tribes is greater than the diversity observed among the worldwide reference populations examined, indicating an extreme case of genetic heterogeneity among these tribes that have lived as close neighbors for thousands of years confined to the limited geographical area of an island. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated major and trace elements in the Rhodes Island, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Georgios; Manoli, Evangelia; Kouras, Athanasios; Samara, Constantini

    2012-08-15

    Ambient concentrations of PM(10) and associated major and trace elements were measured over the cold and the warm season of 2007 at two sites located in the Rhodes Island (Greece), in Eastern Mediterranean, aimed at source apportionment by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor modeling. Source chemical profiles, necessary in CMB modeling, were obtained for a variety of emission sources that could possibly affect the study area, including sea spray, geological material, soot emissions from the nearby oil-fuelled thermal power plant, and other anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular traffic, residential oil combustion, wood burning, and uncontrolled open-air burning of agricultural biomass and municipal waste. Source apportionment of PM(10) and elemental components was carried out by employing an advanced CMB version, the Robotic Chemical Mass Balance model (RCMB). Vehicular emissions were found to be major PM(10) contributor accounting, on average, for 36.8% and 31.7% during the cold period, and for 40.9% and 39.2% in the warm period at the two sites, respectively. The second largest source of ambient PM(10), with minor seasonal variation, was secondary sulfates (mainly ammonium and calcium sulfates), with total average contribution around 16.5% and 18% at the two sites. Soil dust was also a remarkable source contributing around 22% in the warm period, whereas only around 10% in the cold season. Soot emitted from the thermal power plant was found to be negligible contributor to ambient PM(10) (<1%), however it appeared to appreciably contribute to the ambient V and Ni (11.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at one of the sites during the warm period, when electricity production is intensified. Trajectory analysis did not indicate any transport of Sahara dust; on the contrary, long range transport of soil dust from arid continental regions of Minor Asia and of biomass burning aerosol from the countries surrounding the Black Sea was considered possible.

  2. The rotary door myocutaneous flap. A reliable technique for laryngotracheal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Eliachar, I; Levine, S C; Sebek, B A; Tucker, H M

    1986-09-01

    We examined the possible uses of the "rotary door" sternohyoid myocutaneous flap (RDF) in laryngotracheal reconstruction. This well-vascularized myocutaneous flap, when rotated axially, can replace or widen the anterolateral walls of the airway. It provides a large epithelial surface, together with bulky structural support. The flap is readily available within the immediate surgical field and can replace large defects in the airway, from the level of the glottis to the cervical trachea. After extensive structural and soft-tissue loss of the larynx and trachea were produced to simulate commonly encountered traumatic and postsurgical stenotic conditions, the RDF was employed in 23 dogs in a single-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction. A stable, widely patent airway was achieved. The dogs were followed up for periods varying from three to six months. No complications or secondary stenoses were encountered. Photographic, radiologic, and endoscopic examinations demonstrated the viability and usefulness of this newly described flap. Long-term tracheostomy was used so that intraluminal stents and cannulas could be avoided. Histopathologic studies confirmed the integration of the RDF into the framework of the larynx and trachea. Application of this technique in cases of tumors, trauma, and stenosis of the airway is suggested.

  3. A major outbreak of gastroenteritis in Réunion Island in 2012: first identification of G12 rotavirus on the Island.

    PubMed

    Caillère, N; Vilain, P; Brottet, E; Kaplon, J; Ambert-Balay, K; Polycarpe, D; Filleul, L

    2013-05-09

    Between August and November 2012 a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred on Réunion Island, affecting more than 50,000 cases, particularly young children. Virological analyses showed that the virus responsible for this epidemic was rotavirus. Genotyping of stool samples indicated circulation of rotavirus type G3P[8] but also G12P[8], highlighting the risk of global emergence of this genotype in the coming years.

  4. The rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap combined with vascularized costal cartilages in reconstructive craniofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Minakawa, H; Kokubu, I; Kawashima, K; Sugihara, T; Satoh, N; Fukuda, S

    1997-08-01

    The efficacy of osteocutaneous or vascularized bone flaps for reconstruction of massive skeletal and soft-tissue defects has been supported by recent descriptions in the literature. In this article we presented an alternative technique, which is the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap combined with vascularized eighth and ninth costal cartilages, for reconstruction of midfacial composite defects. The vascular pedicle of the composite flap is the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. The costal cartilages are supplied by the perichondrial vascular network through the anterior intercostal vessels connecting with the deep epigastric vascular system. Vascularized costal cartilages are considered to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications and resorption of this material. This technique is a useful tool for restoration of craniofacial contour in reconstructive head and neck surgery.

  5. Extensive Chest Wall Tissue Loss and its Management by Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Extensive electric burn around the chest in children is rare and this type of injury always poses a great challenge for its management. A 12-year-old male child with extensive electric burn of the chest wall was admitted to hospital. It was a neglected case of 9 days old burn; the young boy was in critical condition having systemic features of toxemia with widespread necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles along with exposed bones (ribs and sternum) with the risk of impending rupture of pleura through the exposed intercostal spaces. After initial resuscitation, a thorough debridement of all necrotic tissues was done. Thereafter, a superiorly based vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was harvested to cover the exposed bones and intercostal spaces. The remaining raw areas were skin grafted. The child made an excellent recovery with good outcome. PMID:28082777

  6. Myocutaneous flap (V-Y design) from the nasal bridge for medial canthal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moretti, E A; Gomez Garcia, F

    1998-07-01

    Repair of soft tissue loss of the medial canthal area is usually accomplished by using skin grafts or frontal flaps based on the glabellar vessels. However, skin grafts can provoke scar tissue contracture, or skin color chromatic changes (hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation). On the other hand, frontal flaps are sometimes thicker than normal skin and lead to unsatisfactory aesthetic results. To avoid these disadvantages, the authors designed an alternative method for reconstruction of defects of the medical canthal area. The authors suggest using a myocutaneous flap (V-Y design) from the nasal bridge to repair soft tissue defects no larger than 2 cm in diameter (surface < 4 cm2) in the medial canthal area. The pedicle of this flap is based on supratrochlear and dorsal nasal vessels. This technique has proved safe and reliable and has led to good functional and cosmetic results.

  7. REMEDIATION OF A MAJOR JET FUEL SPILL BY BIOSLURPER AND NATURAL BIOVENTING TECHNOLOGY ON AN ISLAND AIR BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia has served as a base for B-52 bombers. In 1991 an underground transfer pipeline fracture was discovered after a spill exceeding 200,000 gallons occurred. The hydrogeology is fresh water at less than ten feet down overlying more dense salt...

  8. REMEDIATION OF A MAJOR JET FUEL SPILL BY BIOSLURPER AND NATURAL BIOVENTING TECHNOLOGY ON AN ISLAND AIR BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Indian Ocean island of Diego Garcia has served as a base for B-52 bombers. In 1991 an underground transfer pipeline fracture was discovered after a spill exceeding 200,000 gallons occurred. The hydrogeology is fresh water at less than ten feet down overlying more dense salt...

  9. Galactorrhoea of the neck following pectoralis major reconstruction of a pharyngeal defect.

    PubMed

    Wheble, Gac; Taylor, K J; Potter, M

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of postoperative galactorrhea following the use of a pedicled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of a pharyngolaryngeal defect in a woman with squamous cell carcinoma. We believe this to be unique in the literature, and an important complication to be reported, due to the similarities in appearance of galactorrhoea and postoperative aerodigestive tract/cutaneous fistula.

  10. Aleutian Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Remote, rugged and extraordinarily beautiful, Alaska’s Aleutian Islands are best known for wildlife reserves, military bases, fishing, furs and fog. The sprawling volcanic archipelago was brought into the spotlight by the Russian-supported expedition of Alexey Chirikov and Vitus Bering in 1741, and soon became controlled by the Russian-American Fur Company. In 1867 the United States purchased Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, from Russia. By 1900 the port in Unalaska was well established as a shipping port for Alaska gold. The archipelago sweeps about 1,200 miles (1,800 km) from the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula to Attu, the most westward island. Four major island groups hold 14 large islands, about 55 smaller islands, and a large number of islets, adding up to roughly 150 islands/islets in total. This chain separates the Bering Sea (north) from the Pacific Ocean (south) and the islands are connected by the Marine Highway Ferry – at least as far as Unalaska. For the most remote islands, such as birding paradise of Attu, the western-most Aleutian Island, travel becomes trickier and relies primarily on custom charter. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flew over the region and captured this spectacular true-color image of the eastern Aleutian Islands on May 15, 2014. In this image, the Alaskan Peninsula protrudes from the mainland and sweeps to the southwest. The first set of islands are called the Fox Island group. Unalaska Island is part of this group and can be identified, with some imagination, as an island formed in the shape of a flying cherub, with two arms (peninsulas) outstretched towards the northeast, seemingly reaching for the round “balls” of Akutan and Akun Islands. The smallest islands in the west of the image belong to the group known as the Islands of Four Mountains. The Aleutians continue far to the west of this image. Fog surrounds the Aleutians, stretching from just off the southwestern Alaska mainland to the

  11. Concrete and Rock Tests, Major Rehabilitation, Dresden Island Lock and Dam, Illinois Waterway, Chicago District. Phase I. Rehabilitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    District to check previous structural stability analyses. 5. In the summer of 1976, concrete and shotcrete cores were taken from the lock chamber walls at...borings were drilled in the summer of 1976 into the lock chamber walls from inside the chamber; 2 of the 16 were in the shotcrete section of the river...wall. The shotcrete core showed an excellent bond to the old con- crete and is considered extremely well placed. The job at Dresden Island Lock is

  12. [Repair of occipital and nuchal wounds with inferior trapezius myocutaneous flaps in patients after high voltage electrical burn].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-min; Hao, Tian-zhi; Sun, Zhi-gang; He, Li-xin; Cao, Yu-jue; Lu, Gang

    2008-06-01

    To explore the methods and effects of repair of occipital and nuchal wounds with inferior trapezius myocutaneous flap after deep electrical bum. Twelve patients with high-voltage electrical burn in occipital and nuchal regions were hospitalized to our ward from March 2003 to September 2007. They were repaired with improved inferior trapezius myocutaneous flaps after debridement. Flaps were of two types: (1) blood supply from cutaneous and perforator branches of the original segment of the superficial descending branch of transverse cervical artery. (2) combined blood supply from both superficial and deep descending branches of transverse cervical artery C, i.e., dorsal scapular artery). All flaps carried segmental and limited trapezius muscle cuff surrounding the vascular pedicle of the flap similar to a perforator flap. Flaps survived completely primarily in eight cases. In two patients, infection developed in flaps adjacent to wounds with lignification; they healed after dress change. Necrosis appeared in distal end of flap (one case), it healed after re-operation. One patient with surviving flaps died of sepsis and multiple organ failure 21 days after operation. The flaps which survived were not swollen ; the donor sites at scapular region looked normal without pterygoid or pendulous scapula deformities. Inferior trapezius myocutaneous flaps can be used to repair occipital and nuchal wounds, with the advantages of constant blood vessels, reliable blood supply, convenience for application.

  13. Spatial Factors Play a Major Role as Determinants of Endemic Ground Beetle Beta Diversity of Madeira Island Laurisilva

    PubMed Central

    Boieiro, Mário; Carvalho, José C.; Cardoso, Pedro; Aguiar, Carlos A. S.; Rego, Carla; de Faria e Silva, Israel; Amorim, Isabel R.; Pereira, Fernando; Azevedo, Eduardo B.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Serrano, Artur R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The development in recent years of new beta diversity analytical approaches highlighted valuable information on the different processes structuring ecological communities. A crucial development for the understanding of beta diversity patterns was also its differentiation in two components: species turnover and richness differences. In this study, we evaluate beta diversity patterns of ground beetles from 26 sites in Madeira Island distributed throughout Laurisilva – a relict forest restricted to the Macaronesian archipelagos. We assess how the two components of ground beetle beta diversity (βrepl – species turnover and βrich - species richness differences) relate with differences in climate, geography, landscape composition matrix, woody plant species richness and soil characteristics and the relative importance of the effects of these variables at different spatial scales. We sampled 1025 specimens from 31 species, most of which are endemic to Madeira Island. A spatially explicit analysis was used to evaluate the contribution of pure environmental, pure spatial and environmental spatially structured effects on variation in ground beetle species richness and composition. Variation partitioning showed that 31.9% of species turnover (βrepl) and 40.7% of species richness variation (βrich) could be explained by the environmental and spatial variables. However, different environmental variables controlled the two types of beta diversity: βrepl was influenced by climate, disturbance and soil organic matter content whilst βrich was controlled by altitude and slope. Furthermore, spatial variables, represented through Moran’s eigenvector maps, played a significant role in explaining both βrepl and βrich, suggesting that both dispersal ability and Madeira Island complex orography are crucial for the understanding of beta diversity patterns in this group of beetles. PMID:23724065

  14. The Island Arcs as a Major Source of Mantellic Sr to the Ocean: Tectonic Control over Seawater Chemistry and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louvat, P.; Allegre, C. J.; Meynadier, L.

    2005-12-01

    The evolution of 87Sr/86Sr in the Cenozoic ocean has been the subject of famous and vivid controversies between the BLAG model1 and Raymo's one2. No clear winner! Recently the question has been worsened because recent estimates of the hydrothermal flux at ridge crest3, 4, 5 and of the low-temperature oceanic crust weathering flux6 have shown that these fluxes are not enough to balance the continental radiogenic input to give 0.70917 (present-day seawater 87Sr/86Sr). We have re-examined this problem using both Sr and Nd isotopic budgets. Seawater 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratio varies from one ocean to another as a consequence of its short residence time. For each ocean we can calculate the Nd contributions from continental (rivers) and mantellic sources. Since ridge crests cannot be the mantle-like source for Nd, this source is identified as the island arc and OIB weathering, in agreement with the observation by Goldstein and Hemming7. This approach leads us to examine the possibility of the same island arc origin for the missing mantle-like seawater Sr. The classical approach to the budget of water entering the ocean is to consider the river water fluxes as established by hydrological survey statistics. But these fluxes are too small, as they do not include the underground water flows, which are particularly important for volcanic terrains8. A budget calculation based on mean surface area, mean water fluxes and mean Sr concentrations in rivers and springs demonstrates island arc and OIB weathering is a sufficient source of mantellic Sr to the ocean to match the seawater 87Sr/86Sr budget. This result has a fundamental consequence on the explanation of the seawater 87Sr/86Sr evolution during the Cenozoic. Indeed, when a continental collision occurs a large portion of island arcs is eliminated. Thus the increase in the contribution of radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr from continental weathering and the decrease of the mantle contribution via island arc weathering are tectonically and

  15. Seasonal effects and fine-scale population dynamics of Aedes taeniorhynchus, a major disease vector in the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cruz, Marilyn; Cedeno, Virna; Goodman, Simon J

    2010-10-01

    Characterization of the fine-scale population dynamics of the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus is needed to improve our understanding of its role as a disease vector in the Galapagos Islands. We used microsatellite data to assess the genetic structure of coastal and highland mosquito populations and patterns of gene flow between the two habitats through time on Santa Cruz Island. In addition, we assessed possible associations of mosquito abundance and genetic diversity with environmental variables. The coastal and highland mosquito populations were highly differentiated from each other all year round, with some gene flow detected only during periods of increased precipitation. The results support the hypothesis that selection arising from ecological differences between habitats is driving adaptation and divergence in A. taeniorhynchus, and maintaining long-term genetic differentiation of the populations against gene flow. The highland and lowland populations may constitute an example of incipient speciation in progress. Highland populations were characterized by lower observed heterozygosity and allelic richness, suggesting a founder effect and/or lower breeding site availability in the highlands. A lack of reduction in genetic diversity over time in highland populations suggests that they survive dry periods as dormant eggs. Association between mosquito abundance and precipitation was strong in the highlands, whereas tide height was the main factor affecting mosquito abundance on the coast. Our findings suggests differences in the infection dynamics of mosquito-borne parasites in the highlands compared to the coast, and a higher risk of mosquito-driven disease spread across these habitats during periods of increased precipitation.

  16. [Radiotherpay and immediate breast reconstruction with myocutaneous flap in breast cancer of reserved prognosis].

    PubMed

    Missana, M C; Levy, C; Barreau-Pouhaer, L; Janin, N

    2000-04-01

    In France, immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) for infiltrating carcinoma remains controversial. Many teams advocate the possible event of a post mastectomy radiotherapy and its negative effect on IBR. In our Institute we do not exclude infiltrating breast cancer patient from IBR. In the poor prognostic patients who wish IBR, we recommend autologous IBR to obtain the best aesthetic result with minimum revision procedures and best tolerance to adjuvant radiotherapy. From January 1993 to December 1997, we performed 687 IBR with myocutaneous flap for infiltrating carcinomas. In this group only 68 patients needed postoperative chest wall radiotherapy (45 Gy): 27 TRAM flap, 41 latissimus flap. Only one of the TRAM but 39 of latissimus flaps were associated with a prosthesis. The mean follow-up was 24 months. Fourteen patients developed metastatic disease, and ten were dead at the time of the chart revue. The autogenous TRAM flap tolerate radiation quite well and remain soft and mobile. The latissimus flap associated with a prosthesis developed capsular contracture (BAKER II or III) in 71% of cases. In all cases the cosmetic impairment was not important and the result after capsulectomy remained soft. We concluded that IBR could be offered to motivated patients in all stages of the disease regardless of the subsequent chest wall radiotherapy, and we recommend its use for possible autologous reconstruction.

  17. Novel Genetic Variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a Novel Ehrlichia sp. in Wild Deer and Ticks on Two Major Islands in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Makoto; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Lin, Quan; Isogai, Emiko; Tahara, Kenji; Itagaki, Asao; Hiramitsu, Yoshimichi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether and what species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma naturally infect deer in Japan. Blood samples obtained from wild deer on two major Japanese islands, Hokkaido and Honshu, were tested for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by PCR assays and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, major outer membrane protein p44 genes, and groESL. DNA representing four species and two genera of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma was identified in 33 of 126 wild deer (26%). DNA sequence analysis revealed novel strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a novel Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma centrale, and Anaplasma bovis in the blood samples from deer. None of these have been found previously in deer. The new Ehrlichia sp., A. bovis, and A. centrale were also detected in Hemaphysalis longicornis ticks from Honshu Island. These results suggest that enzootic cycles of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species distinct from those found in the United States or Europe have been established in wild deer and ticks in Japan. PMID:16461655

  18. [Genital elephantiasis: reconstructive treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema with a myocutaneous M. gracilis flap. Experiences from a District Hospital in Ethiopia].

    PubMed

    Prica, S; Donati, O F; Schaefer, D J; Peltzer, J

    2008-08-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an illness leading to serious functional and aesthetic as well as psychosocial impairment. Since the 19th century there have been articles describing methods for surgical ablative treatment of penoscrotal lymphoedema. However, most of these methods ignore the creation a new drainage for the lymph. We now describe a new technique using a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap for the reconstruction of the soft tissue damage resulting from radical excision, thus ensuring drainage of the lymph into the deep muscle compartment of the thigh. In the District Hospital "Mettu-Karl Hospital" in the Ethiopian rain forest region of Illubabor, during a period of 6 months the described surgical procedure was applied to 9 patients suffering from severe forms of this grotesquely disfiguring disease. Two patients presented with combined penoscrotal oedema, while the other 7 patients were suffering from isolated scrotal lymphoedema alone. All patients benefited from reconstruction with a myocutaneous M. gracilis muscle flap after radical excision of the affected tissue. All patients were evaluated after 3 and 12 months postoperatively in the presence of a translator. All nine patients showed a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result after 3 months without postoperative occurrence of infection. The evaluation 12 months postoperatively showed no recurrence of genitoscrotal lymphoedema. All patients reported on having regained normal ability for sexual intercourse and no occurrence of urinary tract infections since the operation. Concerning fertility, no statements could be made. A significant improvement in the quality of life was observed by the regained ability to walk and work and consequently the reintegration of the patients into their socio-economic environment. Radical excision of the affected tissue followed by transferring a functioning lymphatic drainage into the deep muscle compartment of the ipsilateral thigh using a proximally based

  19. Palm Islands, Dubai, UAE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-02

    The Palm Islands are artificial islands in Dubai, United Arab emirates on which major commercial and residential structures are being built. NASA Terra spacecraft acquired this image on November 17 and December 10, 2008.

  20. Platysma myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of intraoral defects following excision of oral sub mucous fibrosis: A report of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ramanujam, Sathyanarayanan; Venkatachalam, Suresh; Subramaniyan, Monica; Subramaniyan, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Various surgical procedures are available for treating oral submucous fibrosis, but all of them have their inherent drawbacks. The superiorly based platysma myocutaneous flap is a common reconstruction option for intraoral defects followed after excision of fibrous bands in oral submucous fibrosis. The superiorly based flap has an excellent blood supply, but less efficient venous drainage when compared with posteriorly based flap. We present our results of using a superiorly based flap in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis. Of 10 patients eight had no postoperative complications, one patient developed partial skin loss and other developed venous congestion which was managed conservatively. PMID:26538949

  1. Locoregional recurrence after mastectomy with immediate transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sharla Gayle; Teller, Paige; Iyengar, Radha; Carlson, Grant W; Gabram-Mendola, Sheryl G A; Losken, Albert; Styblo, Toncred; Torres, Mylin; Wood, William C; Perez, Sebastian D; Mosunjac, Marina; Rizzo, Monica

    2012-08-01

    The locoregional recurrence (LRR) rate after mastectomy is reported to be similar with immediate reconstruction. We aimed to identify characteristics of LRR after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) reconstruction. We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing immediate TRAM reconstruction for breast cancer who were diagnosed with LRR. We identified 18 LRR (4.6 %) in 18 of 390 patients who underwent immediate TRAM reconstructions for breast cancer from 1998 to 2008. The median follow-up was 69.2 months. The mean age at time of mastectomy was 49.5 years. All LRR were detected by physical examination. The LRR occurred in the TRAM subcutaneous tissue (n = 9), five in the ipsilateral axillary lymph node and four in the supraclavicular lymph node. Of the 18 patients who developed LRR, 14 (77.7 %) presented with stage 0-1-2 and 4 (22.2 %) with stage 3 disease at the time of the original mastectomy. The average time for a LRR to present was 35.8 months after initial mastectomy and reconstruction. For patients who initially presented with stage 3 disease, the average time to LRR was shorter (22.9 months). Nine patients (50.0 %) were found to have metastatic disease at the time of the LRR, and 6 (33.3 %) died of disease. All TRAM LRR were detected by routine physical examination by the patient or the surgeon. Our findings suggest that routine history and clinical breast examination of the breast reconstructed with a TRAM flap along with patient self-awareness are reliable in the diagnosis of LRR.

  2. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:28246626

  3. Tug 'O' war: challenges of transverse upper gracilis (TUG) myocutaneous free flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Locke, Michelle B; Zhong, Toni; Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2012-08-01

    Autologous tissue microsurgical breast reconstruction is increasingly requested by women following mastectomy. While the abdomen is the most frequently used donor site, not all women have enough abdominal tissue excess for a unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. A secondary choice in such women may be the transverse upper gracilis (TUG) myocutaneous flap. This study reviews our experience with TUG flap breast reconstruction looking specifically at reconstructive success rate and the requirement for secondary surgery. A total of 16 free TUG flaps were performed to reconstruct 15 breasts in eight patients over a period of five years. Data were collected retrospectively by chart review. Follow up ranged from 14 to 41 months. During the follow up period, there was one (6.3%) complete flap loss in an immediate breast reconstruction patient. Four further flaps (25%) failed in their primary aim of breast reconstruction, as they required additional significant reconstruction with either deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps (two flaps (12.5%), one patient) or augmentation with silicone breast implants (two flaps (12.5%), one patient), giving a successful breast reconstruction rate with the TUG flap of only 66.7%. In all of the remaining reconstructed breasts, deficient flap volume or breast contour was seen. Eight flaps were augmented by lipofilling. A total of 62.5% of the donor sites had complications, namely sensory disturbance of the medial thigh (25%) and poor scar (37.5%) requiring revision. This series demonstrates a high rate of reconstructive failure and unsatisfactory outcomes from TUG flap breast reconstruction. We feel this reinforces the necessity of adequate pre-operative patient assessment and counselling, including discussion regarding the likelihood of subsequent revisional surgery, before embarking on this form of autologous breast reconstruction.

  4. Myocutaneous Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Burnt Patient Led to Upper Extremity Amputation; A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Mehdi; Moein, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic fungal infection that can implicate cranial sinuses, brain, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and skin. Although it can occur in patients with competent and incompetent immunity such as patients with diabetes mellitus, lymphoma, leukemia and burns, but it has an aggressive, malignant and lethal course in patients with incompetent immunity. To enforce the importance of burn in patients with underlaying diseases such as diabetes, we are going to report a rare case of diabetic burnt patient complicated by right upper extremity myocutaneous mucormycosis. We selected this case to emphasis the importance of underlying disease (diabetes mellitus) with cutaneous burn, aggressive treatment of fungal infection in these patients and referring such case to burn center to prevent catastrophic results. A 50-year-old woman was introduced to us after several days of medical and surgical care of right upper extremity and trunk split-thickness burn. Due to gross muscle necrosis of right upper extremity and poor general condition of the patient, she was taken to the operating room that led to right upper extremity amputation and several times of aggressive debridement to save her life. Pathologic report was indicative of mucormycosis. We can conclude from this case that: 1) Burn, even partially thickness and with little body surface area, should be referred to burn center for better care 2) No response to usual medical treatment should make us more sensitive to consider the unusual causes of infection such as fungi 3) Suspected dead tissues should be excised aggressively especially if suspiciousness to wound sepsis and fungal infection is present especially in an immunocompromised patient.

  5. [Articulatory function in patients receiving glossectomy followed by reconstruction with a recto-abdominal myocutaneous free flap].

    PubMed

    Ikema, Y; Tsukuda, M; Mochimatsu, I; Kawai, S; Enomoto, H; Zhou, L X; Yoshida, T; Hirose, H

    1996-06-01

    Postoperative articulatory functions of patients with tongue cancer have been improved by reconstructive surgery with a radial forearm or recto-abdominal myocutaneous free flap. We examined the postoperative articulatory functions of 10 patients who received reconstruction with a recto-abdominal myocutaneous free flap after glossectomy. The functions were investigated by standardized tests, i. e. a quentionnaires, the 100 Japanese monosyllable speech intelligibility test and a single-word intelligibility test. A confusion matrix was obtained from the results of the monosyllable test. On the basis of resection sites, the present cases were divided into two types: an anterior type and a lateral type. The results are summarized as follows. There was no significant difference in the results of the quentionnareis between the two types. The mean score of the 100 Japanese monosyllable speech intelligibility test in cases of the anterior type was 48% and in those of the lateral type it was 62%. The mean score of the single-word intellibibility test in cases of the anterior type was 75% and in those of the lateral type it was 83%. In cases of the anterior type, dental and alveolar sounds were often confused with fricatives, whereas in the lateral type, velars sounds were often confused with affricates or flaps. These results suggest that our classification based on resection site was useful for investigating postoperative articulatory functions after partial glossectomy.

  6. Vulnerability to xylem embolism as a major correlate of the environmental distribution of rain forest species on a tropical island.

    PubMed

    Trueba, Santiago; Pouteau, Robin; Lens, Frederic; Feild, Taylor S; Isnard, Sandrine; Olson, Mark E; Delzon, Sylvain

    2017-02-01

    Increases in drought-induced tree mortality are being observed in tropical rain forests worldwide and are also likely to affect the geographical distribution of tropical vegetation. However, the mechanisms underlying the drought vulnerability and environmental distribution of tropical species have been little studied. We measured vulnerability to xylem embolism (P50 ) of 13 woody species endemic to New Caledonia and with different xylem conduit morphologies. We examined the relation between P50 , along with other leaf and xylem functional traits, and a range of habitat variables. Selected species had P50 values ranging between -4.03 and -2.00 MPa with most species falling in a narrow range of resistance to embolism above -2.7 MPa. Embolism vulnerability was significantly correlated with elevation, mean annual temperature and percentage of species occurrences located in rain forest habitats. Xylem conduit type did not explain variation in P50 . Commonly used functional traits such as wood density and leaf traits were not related to embolism vulnerability. Xylem embolism vulnerability stands out among other commonly used functional traits as a major driver of species environmental distribution. Drought-induced xylem embolism vulnerability behaves as a physiological trait closely associated with the habitat occupation of rain forest woody species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Phenomic Scan of the Norfolk Island Genetic Isolate Identifies a Major Pleiotropic Effect Locus Associated with Metabolic and Renal Disorder Markers

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Miles C.; Lea, Rodney A.; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Hanna, Michelle; Eccles, David A.; Carless, Melanie A.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Bellis, Claire; Goring, Harald H.; Curran, Joanne E.; Harper, Jacquie L.; Gibson, Gregory; Blangero, John; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Multiphenotype genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may reveal pleiotropic genes, which would remain undetected using single phenotype analyses. Analysis of large pedigrees offers the added advantage of more accurately assessing trait heritability, which can help prioritise genetically influenced phenotypes for GWAS analysis. In this study we performed a principal component analysis (PCA), heritability (h2) estimation and pedigree-based GWAS of 37 cardiovascular disease -related phenotypes in 330 related individuals forming a large pedigree from the Norfolk Island genetic isolate. PCA revealed 13 components explaining >75% of the total variance. Nine components yielded statistically significant h2 values ranging from 0.22 to 0.54 (P<0.05). The most heritable component was loaded with 7 phenotypic measures reflecting metabolic and renal dysfunction. A GWAS of this composite phenotype revealed statistically significant associations for 3 adjacent SNPs on chromosome 1p22.2 (P<1x10-8). These SNPs form a 42kb haplotype block and explain 11% of the genetic variance for this renal function phenotype. Replication analysis of the tagging SNP (rs1396315) in an independent US cohort supports the association (P = 0.000011). Blood transcript analysis showed 35 genes were associated with rs1396315 (P<0.05). Gene set enrichment analysis of these genes revealed the most enriched pathway was purine metabolism (P = 0.0015). Overall, our findings provide convincing evidence for a major pleiotropic effect locus on chromosome 1p22.2 influencing risk of renal dysfunction via purine metabolism pathways in the Norfolk Island population. Further studies are now warranted to interrogate the functional relevance of this locus in terms of renal pathology and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26474483

  8. [Vascularization of free myocutaneous gracilis flaps in replacement transplantation after preoperative radiotherapy. An experimental study].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Mosgau, S; Rödel, F; Keilholz, L; Grabenbauer, G G; Wiltfang, J; Radespiel-Tröger, M; Sauer, R; Neukam, F W

    2000-11-01

    Following preoperative radiotherapy prior to ablative surgery of squamous epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck region, inflammatory changes to the connective tissue and vascular endothelium are observed. These processes may lead to a delay in healing of free flaps in the irradiated transplant bed. The aim of the study was to investigate qualitative and quantitative changes in vascularization in irradiated and regular transplant beds. In Wistar rats (male, weight 300 to 500 g) undergoing preoperative irradiation of the neck region with 3 times 10 Gy (30 animals) and 5 times 10 Gy (30 animals) and non-irradiated rats (42 animals), a free myocutaneous gracilis flap taken from the groin was transplanted to the irradiated region of the neck. The time interval between irradiation and transplantation was 4 weeks. On day 3, 4, 5, 7, 14 and 28 post operation, the capillary sprouting, structural changes and the distribution patterns were analyzed by H & E and immunohistochemical staining (goat-F[ab]-2-anti-von Willebrand factor antibody). Three histological sections (2 to 4 microns) per sample were investigated histomorphometrically, qualitatively and quantitatively (ratio capillary area/total area, and capillary lumen) by NH-image-digitized measurement. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. In contrast to non-irradiated rats, irradiated animals showed a qualitatively reduced and a more irregular capillary distribution with more marked pericapillary fibrosis in the irradiated transplant bed. Quantitatively, the ratio capillary area/total area, as a marker of improved capillarization was significantly reduced in the transition area transplant/irradiated transplant bed and in irradiated transplant bed tissues in contrast to the non-irradiated control group (p = 0.004). Also, from day 14 to 28 a significant decrease was found in the transition area between transplanted tissues and irradiated transplant bed tissues in irradiated animals (p = 0

  9. Urban Heat Islands of the World's Major Cities Revealed at Multiple Scales Using Both Station Observations and Complementary Remotely Sensed Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L. H.; Krehbiel, C.; Henebry, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) have long been studied using both ground-based observations of air temperature and remotely sensed data. In the rapidly urbanizing world, cross-comparison between various datasets will allow us to characterize and model UHI effects more generally. Here we analyze UHIs of the world's major cities using station observations from the Global Historical Climate Network (GHCN), surface air temperatures derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSRs), and land surface temperatures (LST) estimated from Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We compute the two measurements of thermal time (accumulated diurnal degree-days or ADDD and nocturnal degree-days or ANDD) and the normalized difference accumulated thermal time index (NDATTI) to characterize urban and rural thermal differences and day-night dynamics over multiple growing seasons. Our preliminary results for 27 major cities and 83 urban-rural groupings in the USA and Canada indicate that daytime urban thermal accumulations from the passive microwave data (AMSRs) were generally lower than in adjacent rural areas, with only 18% of urban-rural groupings showing higher thermal accumulations in cities. In contrast, station observations and MODIS LST showed consistently higher ADDD in cities (82% and 93% for GHCN and MODIS data respectively). UHIs are more pronounced at night, with 55% (AMSR), 93% (GHCN) and 100% (MODIS) of urban-rural groupings showing higher ANDD in cities. Humidity appears to be a common factor driving the day-night thermal dynamics throughout all three datasets (Figure 1). Normalized day-night differences in thermal time metrics were consistently lower (>90% of urban-rural groupings) in urban than rural areas for both air temperature datasets (GHCN and AMSRs). With MODIS LST, only 70% of urban-rural groupings show lower NDATTI in cities. We will present results for the rest of the globe.

  10. Signal averaging and waveform analysis of laser Doppler flowmetry monitoring of porcine myocutaneous flaps: I. Acute assessment of flap viability.

    PubMed

    Stack, B C; Futran, N D; Ridley, M B; Schultz, S; Sillman, J S

    1995-11-01

    Postoperative monitoring of microvascular free-tissue transfer is essential to the early identification and correction of vascular compromise. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a noninvasive monitor of capillary bed perfusion. Its current clinical use requires continuous monitoring and trend analysis to detect changes in capillary perfusion. This study investigated the hypothesis that signal averaging of laser Doppler flowmetry output triggered by a fixed point in the cardiac cycle would provide accurate information about the microvascular flow patterns not dependent on trend analysis. These results indicate that averaged waveform analysis allowed for a rapid, objective, and statistically significant distinction between a viable myocutaneous flap and one with vascular compromise in a porcine model. Moreover, this technique allows for distinction between venous and arterial insufficiency.

  11. Etanercept protects myocutaneous flaps from ischaemia reperfusion injury: An experimental study in a rat tram flap model.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Burak; Çevik, Özge; Çilingir, Özlem Tuğçe

    2016-08-01

    Background Being an inevitable component of free tissue transfer, ischemia-reperfusion injury tends to contribute to flap failure. TNF-α is an important proinflammatory cytokine and a prominent mediator of the ischemia-reperfusion injury. Etanercept, a soluble TNF-α binding protein, has shown anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in animal models of renal and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. We have designed an experimental study to investigate the effect of etanercept on myocutaneous ischemia-reperfusion injury on transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap model in rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: In group 1 (sham), the TRAM flap was raised and sutured back without further intervention. In group 2 (control), the flap was raised and the ischemia-reperfusion protocol was followed. In group 3, etanercept (10 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 10 minutes before reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histolopathological evaluations were performed on serum and tissue samples. Results In the etanercept group the IMA and 8-OHdG levels (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively) were found significantly lower, and the GSH and SOD levels (p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively) significantly higher in comparison to the control group. The histopathological analysis has revealed a lower degree of hyalinization, degenerated muscle fibers and nuclear change in the etanercept group compared to the control group. Conclusion The results of our experimental study indicate that etanercept offers protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle tissue, enhancing the TRAM flap viability. The ability of etanercept to induce ischemic tolerance suggests that it may be applicable in free-flap surgery.

  12. [The lower trapezius muscle island flap. Anatomic principles and clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Haas, F; Pierer, G; Weiglein, A; Moshammer, H; Schwarzl, F; Scharnagl, E

    1999-01-01

    Up to now, there is no uniform anatomic description neither of the branches of the subclavian artery nor of the pedicle of the lower myocutaneous trapezius flap. A dissection study was carried out on 140 necks in 70 cadavers. Variations of the subclavian artery and its branches, vessel diameter at different levels, the course of the pedicle under the levator scapulae muscle, the arc of rotation of the island flap, and the variations of the segmental intercostal branches to the lower part of the trapezius muscle were examined. Results of this study enable us to suggest a new nomenclature for the branches of the subclavian artery, a proper pedicle definition, and a technique for safe flap elevation. The lower trapezius island flap is a thin and pliable myocutaneous flap with a constant pedicle which ensures safe flap elevation. This flap has the potential for a wider acceptance due to minor donor site morbidity, large arc of rotation, and an ample range of clinical applications in the head and neck area as an island flap as well as a free flap.

  13. Heat Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  14. Isabela Island, Galapagos Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-20

    STS072-732-072 (11-20 Jan. 1996) --- Three of the nineteen Galapagos Islands are visible in this image, photographed from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The Galapagos Islands are located 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) to the west of Ecuador. The largest of the islands, Isabela, is at center (north is toward the upper right corner). The numerous circular features on the island, highlighted by clouds, are volcanoes. The Galapagos Islands owe their existence to a hot spot, or persistent heat source in the mantle, which also is located over a rift, or place where plates are separating and new crust is being created. The rift is located between the Cocos and Nazca Plates. The dark linear features on the islands are lava flows from past eruptions. The island to the left of Isabela is Fernandina, while the island to the right is San Salvador. The Galapagos Islands were visited by the English naturalist Charles Darwin in 1835.

  15. Septic necrosis of the midline wound in postoperative peritonitis. Successful management by debridement, myocutaneous advancement, and primary skin closure.

    PubMed Central

    Lévy, E; Palmer, D L; Frileux, P; Hannoun, L; Nordlinger, B; Tiret, E; Honiger, J; Parc, R

    1988-01-01

    Wound management following laparotomy for postoperative peritonitis and varying degrees of parietal necrosis remains a challenging and controversial problem. Because maintained peritoneal integrity and primary wound closure offer the best opportunity for survival, an original technique involving bilateral incisions to relax skin and rectus fascia is proposed. This technique permits medial myocutaneous advancement and primary tension-free skin closure of midline laparotomy incisions. Sixty-nine patients with severe postoperative peritonitis were treated according from 1980 through 1985. Nine of these patients died of advanced multiple organ failure soon after referral, and eight more died after prolonged treatment. Fourteen patients had one or more reoperations for complications. Only nine wound failures resulted, including five eviscerations and four wound infections followed by progressive dehiscence. The bilateral relaxing incisions healed secondarily without complication. Survivors developed midline wound hernia; ten of the 52 surviving patients have had these repaired. This method of primary closure is safe when performed in conjunction with rigorous surgical care of intraperitoneal infection and may enhance survival. We recommend the technique to surgeons who treat severe postoperative peritonitis and septic necrosis of midline laparotomy wounds. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 7. Figs. 8A and B. Fig. 9. PMID:3281613

  16. Chondrosarcoma from the sternum: reconstruction with titanium mesh and a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap after subtotal sternal excision.

    PubMed

    Koto, Kazutaka; Sakabe, Tomoya; Horie, Naoyuki; Ryu, Kazuteru; Murata, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ishida, Toshihiro; Konishi, Eiichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2012-10-01

    Chondrosarcoma arising from the sternum is extremely rare and is often untreatable. Removal of the sternum for malignant tumor results in large defects in bone and soft tissue, causing deformity and paradoxical movement of the chest wall and making subsequent repair of the thorax very important. We report a very rare patient with a chondrosarcoma of the sternum who underwent case chest wall resection, followed by reconstruction using a titanium mesh covered with a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with progressively enlarged swelling of his anterior chest wall. Physical examination showed a 2.5×2.0 cm mass fixed to the sternum, which was diagnosed as a chondrosarcoma based on clinical findings, imaging characteristics and incision biopsy results. The patient underwent a subtotal sternal and chest wall resection to remove the tumor, followed by reconstruction with a titanium mesh and a TRAM flap. There were no complications associated with surgery. We report an extremely rare case of a patient who underwent subtotal sternal resection, followed by reconstruction, for a large chondrosarcoma. The elasticity and rigidity provided by the titanium mesh and the complete coverage of the surgical wound by a TRAM flap suggest that these procedures may be useful in reconstructing large defects in the chest wall.

  17. Chondrosarcoma from the sternum: Reconstruction with titanium mesh and a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap after subtotal sternal excision

    PubMed Central

    Koto, Kazutaka; Sakabe, Tomoya; Horie, Naoyuki; Ryu, Kazuteru; Murata, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Ishida, Toshihiro; Konishi, Eiichi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Chondrosarcoma arising from the sternum is extremely rare and is often untreatable. Removal of the sternum for malignant tumor results in large defects in bone and soft tissue, causing deformity and paradoxical movement of the chest wall and making subsequent repair of the thorax very important. We report a very rare patient with a chondrosarcoma of the sternum who underwent case chest wall resection, followed by reconstruction using a titanium mesh covered with a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Case Report A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with progressively enlarged swelling of his anterior chest wall. Physical examination showed a 2.5×2.0 cm mass fixed to the sternum, which was diagnosed as a chondrosarcoma based on clinical findings, imaging characteristics and incision biopsy results. The patient underwent a subtotal sternal and chest wall resection to remove the tumor, followed by reconstruction with a titanium mesh and a TRAM flap. There were no complications associated with surgery. Conclusions We report an extremely rare case of a patient who underwent subtotal sternal resection, followed by reconstruction, for a large chondrosarcoma. The elasticity and rigidity provided by the titanium mesh and the complete coverage of the surgical wound by a TRAM flap suggest that these procedures may be useful in reconstructing large defects in the chest wall. PMID:23018358

  18. Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-27

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows the Kerguelen Islands also known as the Desolation Islands, which are part of the French Southern and Antarctic lands. The islands are among the most isolated places on Earth.

  19. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700-900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa.

  20. Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Msaidie, Said; Ducourneau, Axel; Boetsch, Gilles; Longepied, Guy; Papa, Kassim; Allibert, Claude; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Chiaroni, Jacques; Mitchell, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Comoros Islands are situated off the coast of East Africa, at the northern entrance of the channel of Mozambique. Contemporary Comoros society displays linguistic, cultural and religious features that are indicators of interactions between African, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian (SEA) populations. Influences came from the north, brought by the Arab and Persian traders whose maritime routes extended to Madagascar by 700–900 AD. Influences also came from the Far East, with the long-distance colonisation by Austronesian seafarers that reached Madagascar 1500 years ago. Indeed, strong genetic evidence for a SEA, but not a Middle Eastern, contribution has been found on Madagascar, but no genetic trace of either migration has been shown to exist in mainland Africa. Studying genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands could therefore provide new insights into human movement in the Indian Ocean. Here, we describe Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic variation in 577 Comorian islanders. We have defined 28 Y chromosomal and 9 mitochondrial lineages. We show the Comoros population to be a genetic mosaic, the result of tripartite gene flow from Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia. A distinctive profile of African haplogroups, shared with Madagascar, may be characteristic of coastal sub-Saharan East Africa. Finally, the absence of any maternal contribution from Western Eurasia strongly implicates male-dominated trade and religion as the drivers of gene flow from the North. The Comoros provides a first view of the genetic makeup of coastal East Africa. PMID:20700146

  1. Survival in amoeba--a major selection pressure on the presence of bacterial copper and zinc resistance determinants? Identification of a "copper pathogenicity island".

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Lüthje, Freja L; Qin, Yanan; McDevitt, Sylvia Franke; Lutay, Nataliya; Hobman, Jon L; Asiani, Karishma; Soncini, Fernando C; German, Nadezhda; Zhang, Siyu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rensing, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The presence of metal resistance determinants in bacteria usually is attributed to geological or anthropogenic metal contamination in different environments or associated with the use of antimicrobial metals in human healthcare or in agriculture. While this is certainly true, we hypothesize that protozoan predation and macrophage killing are also responsible for selection of copper/zinc resistance genes in bacteria. In this review, we outline evidence supporting this hypothesis, as well as highlight the correlation between metal resistance and pathogenicity in bacteria. In addition, we introduce and characterize the "copper pathogenicity island" identified in Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from copper- and zinc-fed Danish pigs.

  2. Myocutaneous sternocleidomastoid flap for reconstruction after the resection of a parapharyngeal heterotopic glioma in a child with cleft palate, and systematic review of parapharyngeal glial heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Prado-Calleros, Héctor M; Arrieta-Gómez, José R; Castillo-Ventura, Beatriz; Martínez, Sara Parraguirre; Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Jiménez-Escobar, Irma

    2016-02-01

    We describe the surgery and reconstruction employed with a sternocleidomastoid myocutaneous flap for the treatment of a heterotopic glioma in a 2-year-old boy with incomplete palatal fissure who presented with dysphagia and snoring, in whom a lateral pharyngeal wall mass obstructing 60% of the airway was noted. Heterotopic gliomas are uncommonly reported in the parapharyngeal space and should be included in the differential diagnosis at this location in children. Parapharyngeal tumors present difficult diagnostic and management challenges; head and neck surgeons must be prepared not only for the resection but also for the reconstruction of these rare lesions.

  3. Oncological safety and quality of life associated with mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Min, Sun Young; Kim, Hyun Yul; Jung, So-Youn; Kwon, Youngmee; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kang, Han-Sung; Yun, Young Ho; Lee, Eun Sook

    2010-01-01

    To determine the quality of life (QoL) of breast cancer patients who underwent mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (LD), and the oncological safety of the procedure. Between May 2001 and March 2007, 2,566 patients had breast cancer surgery at the National Cancer Center, Korea. Of the 2,566 patients, 1,699 had breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 120 had a mastectomy with an immediate LD. We retrospectively compared the oncologic safety of the two techniques. We also assessed the QoL using the EORTC QLQ BR-23 and Zung's self-rating depression scale in 52 LD patients, 104 age- and stage-matched patients who underwent BCS, and 104 age-matched healthy women. The LD group had earlier stage disease than the BCS group at baseline, but following surgery, the groups did not differ in the rates of local recurrence or systemic metastases. Compared with the healthy group, the patient groups had poorer functioning and more depression (p < 0.001). Among the patient groups, the LD group reported lower scores for body image (p = 0.007) and future perspective (p = 0.023) than the BCS group. In the LD group, patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy reported lower scores for future perspective and higher scores for depression than those who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The BCS and LD groups did not differ in oncological outcome, and the QoL of patients in the LD group was not always good. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction should be considered carefully and tailored to the patient's needs and characteristics.

  4. Chromobacterium pathogenicity island 1 type III secretion system is a major virulence determinant for Chromobacterium violaceum-induced cell death in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Miki, Tsuyoshi; Iguchi, Mirei; Akiba, Kinari; Hosono, Masato; Sobue, Tomoyoshi; Danbara, Hirofumi; Okada, Nobuhiko

    2010-08-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes fatal septicaemia in humans and animals. C. violaceum ATCC 12472 possesses genes associated with two distinct type III secretion systems (T3SSs). One of these systems is encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity islands 1 and 1a (Cpi-1/-1a), another is encoded by Chromobacterium pathogenicity island 2 (Cpi-2). Here we show that C. violaceum causes fulminant hepatitis in a mouse infection model, and Cpi-1/-1a-encoded T3SS is required for its virulence. In addition, using C. violaceum strains with defined mutations in the genes that encode the Cpi-1/-1a or Cpi-2 locus in combination with cultured mammalian cell lines, we found that C. violaceum is able to induce cytotoxicity in a Cpi-1/-1a-dependent manner. Characterization of Chromobacterium-induced cytotoxicity revealed that cell lysis by C. violaceum infection involves the formation of pore structures on the host cell membrane, as demonstrated by protection by cytotoxicity in the presence of osmoprotectants. Finally, we demonstrated that CipB, a Cpi-1/-1a effector, is implicated in translocator-mediated pore formation and the ability of CipB to form a pore is essential for Chromobacterium-induced cytotoxicity. These results strongly suggest that Cpi-1/-1a-encoded T3SS is a virulence determinant that causes fatal infection by the induction of cell death in hepatocytes.

  5. Microsatellite markers characterized in the mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera, Culicidae), a disease vector and major pest on the American coast and the Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Dawson, Deborah A; Cunningham, Andrew A; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-09-01

    The black salt-marsh mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as West Nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in North and Latin America. This mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the Galápagos Islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. The use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dynamics of A. taeniorhynchus and its role in the transmission of diseases. Here we report the isolation of 12 unique microsatellite loci using an enrichment protocol. We also identified other multi-locus microsatellites linked to transposable elements. The presence of such elements may explain why the isolation of useful scorable microsatellite markers in the Aedes genus is often difficult. Four of the markers isolated amplified polymorphic products in Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and/or Aedes japonicus.

  6. Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps for breast reconstruction: a systematic review of flap complication rates and donor-site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sailon, Alexander M; Schachar, Jeffrey S; Levine, Jamie P

    2009-05-01

    Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps represent increasingly popular options for breast reconstruction. Although several retrospective, small-scale studies comparing these flaps have been published, most have failed to find a significant difference in flap complication rates or donor-site morbidity. We systematically reviewed the current literature, and subsequently pooled and analyzed data from included studies. Included studies reported flap complications and/or donor site morbidities for both flap types. Eight studies met the inclusionary criteria. For flap complications, there was a statistically significant difference between deep inferior epigastric perforator and free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps in fat necrosis rates (25.5 +/- 0.49 vs. 11.3% +/- 0.41%, P < 0.001) and total necrosis rates (4.15 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.59% +/- 0.08%, P = 0.044). Partial necrosis rates were not statistically significant (3.54 +/- 0.07 vs. 1.60% +/- 0.07%, P = 0.057). For donor-site morbidity, there was no statistically significant difference in abdominal bulge (8.07 +/- 0.23 vs. 11.25% +/- 0.29%, P = 0.28). Multicenter, prospective studies are needed to further investigate differences between these flap options.

  7. Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Versus Alternative Flaps for Perineal Repair After Abdominoperineal Excision of the Rectum in the Era of Laparoscopic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Mark Scott

    2017-07-01

    Plastic surgical reconstruction of the perineum is often required after abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Options for this reconstruction include a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous (VRAM) flap, gluteal fasciocutaneous flap, and gracilis myocutaneous flap. Although the VRAM flap is well established at most centers, less experience exists with the gluteal and gracilis flaps. In the era of laparoscopic colorectal resection, plastic surgeons are being forced to use gluteal and gracilis flaps because the VRAM flap must be tunnelled intra-abdominally requiring laparotomy. We therefore aimed to systematically review the evidence comparing VRAM, gluteal, and gracilis flaps. A comprehensive, structured literature search was conducted using Medline, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. Studies included were randomized control trials and observational studies documenting complication rates associated with the VRAM, gluteal, or gracilis flap. Eleven studies meeting all inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified. When meta-analyzed, the overall rate of any perineal wound or flap complication among VRAM patients (35.8%) was significantly lower than gluteal flap (43.7%) and gracilis flap patients (52.9%) (P = 0.041). The VRAM flap is well established for perineal reconstruction, and this study suggests that it may be superior to the gluteal and gracilis flaps in terms perineal wound and flap complication rates. This should be taken into account when weighing up the risks and benefits of a laparoscopic approach to abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Large studies making direct comparisons between the flap options should be conducted.

  8. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of phosphorus in surface sediments of two major Chinese mariculture areas: the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Qianguo; Tosi, Luigi; Qin, Song

    2014-06-15

    Phosphorus (P) in surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay (LB) and the coastal waters around the Zhangzi Island (ZI) was analyzed. Six forms of P were separated - exchangeable or loosely sorbed P (Ads-P), aluminum-bound P (Al-P), iron-bound P (Fe-P), authigenic apatite plus CaCO3-bound P plus biogenic apatite (Ca-P), detrital apatite plus other inorganic P (De-P) and organic P (OP). The average contents of P in the LB were in the order: De-P>OP>Ca-P>Fe-P>Ads-P>Al-P; in the ZI, the corresponding order was De-P>OP>Fe-P>Ca-P>Ads-P>Al-P. Due to the high nutrient loadings from the surrounding rivers, TP contents in sediments of the LB were higher than in those of the ZI. The potential bio-available P (Ads-P and OP) accounted for 14.7% and 24.2% of TP in sediments of the LB and the ZI, respectively.

  10. Ultrasound imaging evaluation of abdominal muscles after breast reconstruction with a unilateral pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lin, Sin-Daw; Guo, Lan-Yuen; Hou, Yi-You; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2013-03-01

    A muscle-sparing (MS) procedure using a full-width pedicled transverse rectus abdominis (RA) myocutaneous (TRAM) flap was developed to reduce abdominal morbidities after breast reconstruction. However, the effects of this procedure on the morphology of the remnant RA muscle and other abdominal muscles remain unclear. Ultrasound imaging was used to evaluate the morphology of the remnant RA muscle and other abdominal muscles in women with the MS pedicled TRAM flap procedure. A case-control, cross-sectional design was used. Thirty-four women with an MS unilateral pedicled TRAM flap procedure after mastectomy (TRAM group) and 25 women who were healthy and matched for age (control group) participated. The curl-up test measured trunk flexor muscle strength. Ultrasound imaging measured the thickness of all abdominal muscles in all participants and the cross-sectional area of the RA muscle at rest and in an isometric position with the head raised in women in the TRAM group. Acoustic echogenicity and border visibility assessed the tissue composition of the remnant RA muscle. Trunk flexor muscle strength was weaker in the TRAM group than in the control group. Compared with the remnant RA muscle in the contracted state, the remnant RA muscle in the relaxed state was thinner and had a smaller cross-sectional area. The remnant RA muscle in the relaxed state also was thinner, more echoic, and less visible than its contralateral counterpart. No differences in the thickness of the other abdominal muscles were found between the sides. The abdominal muscles in the TRAM group were smaller than those in the control group. Because a prospective, longitudinal design was not used, a definite cause-effect relationship could not be determined. In women with an MS unilateral pedicled TRAM flap procedure, the remnant RA muscle retains its ability to change in size during contraction, albeit at reduced levels. Muscular atrophy occurs in other ipsilateral and contralateral abdominal muscles as

  11. Magmatic relationships and ages between adakites, magnesian andesites and Nb-enriched basalt-andesites from Hispaniola: Record of a major change in the Caribbean island arc magma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder Viruete, J.; Contreras, F.; Stein, G.; Urien, P.; Joubert, M.; Pérez-Estaún, A.; Friedman, R.; Ullrich, T.

    2007-12-01

    Located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, the Late Cretaceous Tireo Fm (TF) records a major change of the magma sources in the Caribbean island arc. It comprises a > 3 km thick sequence of arc-related volcanic and volcano-sedimentary rocks with variable geochemical characteristics. Combined detailed mapping, stratigraphy, geochemistry and U-Pb/Ar-Ar geochronology show that the volcanic rocks of the Tireo Fm include two main volcanic sequences. The lower volcanic sequence is dominated by monotonous submarine vitric-lithic tuffs and volcanic breccias of andesite to basaltic andesite, with minor interbedded flows of basalts and andesites. Fossil and (U-Pb and 40Ar- 39Ar) geochronological data show that arc magmatism in the lower sequence began to accumulate before ˜ 90 Ma, from the Aptian to Turonian. These rocks constitute an island arc tholeiitic suite, derived from melting by fluxing of a mantle wedge with subduction-related hydrous fluids. The upper volcanic sequence is characterized by a spatial and temporal association of adakites, high-Mg andesites, and Nb-enriched basalts, which collectivelly define a shift in the composition of the subduction-related erupted lavas. A dacitic to rhyolitic explosive volcanism with subaerial and episodic aerial eruptions, and sub-volcanic emplacements of domes, characterize mainly this stratigraphic interval. The onset of this volcanism took place at Turonian-Coniacian boundary and continued in the Santonian to Lower Campanian, with minor events in the Late Campanian. Adakites represent melts of the subducting slab, magnesian andesites the product of hybridization of adakite liquids with mantle peridotite, and Nb-enriched basalts melts of the residue from hybridization. We propose a model of oblique ridge subduction at ˜ 90 Ma and possibly subsequent slab window formation, as principal cause of magmatic variations recorded in the Caribbean island arc, above a southwestern-dipping subduction zone.

  12. Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

    2002-01-01

    The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously

  13. Use of remote sensing data in the rapid charcaterisation of a major landslide disaster; the case of the catastrophic February 2006 landslide, Leyte Island, Philippines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Roberts, N. J.; Guthrie, R. H.

    2006-12-01

    In February 2006, a disastrous rock avalanche occurred in tropical mountain terrain, on Leyte Island, Central Philippines. Over 1,100 people perished when the village of Guinsaugon was overwhelmed directly in the path of the landslide. We characterized the landslide using a SRTM 90 m DEM to generate topographic data, a pre- disaster high resolution SPOT 5 image, and a cloud-obscured post-event ASTER image. This data was augmented by GPS controlled field traverses to develop a first order characterization of the rock avalanche. The rock avalanche was initiated by the failure of a 450 m high rock slope within the Philippine Fault Zone where the rock mass consisted of sheared and brecciated volcanic, sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks. Tectonic weakening of the failed rock mass had resulted from active strike-slip movements along the Philippine Fault which have been estimated by other workers at 2.5 cm/year. We estimate that the rock avalanche involved a total volume of 15Mm3 and ran out a horizontal distance of 4040 m over a vertical distance of 810 m, equivalent to a fahrböschung of 11 degrees. Run-out distance was enhanced by friction reduction due to undrained loading when the debris encountered flooded paddy fields in the valley bottom at a path distance of 2600 m. There was no direct trigger for the landslide but the landslide did follow a period of very heavy rainfall with a lag time of four days. Analysis of the pre-landslide rainfall pattern was assisted by TRMM data from NASA. The rock avalanche is one of several disastrous landslides to have occurred in the Philippines in the last twenty years. In terms of loss of life, the Guinsaugon rock avalanche is the most devastating single-event landslide to have occurred worldwide since the Casita Volcano rock avalanche-debris flow which was triggered by Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua in 1998.

  14. The bipedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap: clinical experience with 53 patients.

    PubMed

    Karaaltin, Mehmet Veli; Erdem, Adnan; Canter, Ibrahim; Cavdar, Günay; Baghaki, Semih

    2010-01-01

    The Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is a valuable workhorse of the microsurgeon, especially in closing large body defects. One of the pitfalls in harvesting the flap, is particularly in its inferior aspect which may be unreliable. Here we report a series of 53 patients who were undergone bipedicled free latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous free flaps for extensive tissue defects. The age of patients were between 5 and 64 and all of them were males. The wound sizes in these patients ranged between 31-35 x 10-12 cm and flap dimensions were between 38-48 x 6-8 cm. Perforator branches of the 10th intercostal vessels were dissected and supercharged to the flaps to reduce the risk of ischemia of the inferior cutaneous extensions. The secondary pedicles were anastomosed to recipient vessels other than the primary pedicles. Recipient areas were consisted of lower extremities. Four patients suffered of early arterial failure in the major pedicle and all revisions were successfully attempted. Neither sign of venous congestion nor arterial insufficiency were observed at the inferior cutaneous extensions of the flaps, and all defects were reconstructed successfully. All donor sites were primarily closed, only two patients suffered from a minor area of superficial epidermal loss at the donor site, without suffering any adjunct complications. In conclusion coverage of large defects can be safely performed with extending the skin paddle of latissimus dorsi flap as a bipedicled free flap.

  15. Equivalencies Regarding the Measurement and Constructs of Self-Esteem and Major Life Events in an Asian-Pacific Islander Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Robin H.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Andrade, Naleen N.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; Kim, S. Peter; Goebert, Deborah A.; Carlton, Barry S.; Bell, Cathy K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines aspects of self-esteem measures and major life events using the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) with Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, and non-Hawaiian high school students (N=816). There was a lack of consensus regarding the dimensions of RSES as previously reported. Measurement equivalency findings concerning RSES caution against…

  16. Equivalencies Regarding the Measurement and Constructs of Self-Esteem and Major Life Events in an Asian-Pacific Islander Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyamoto, Robin H.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Andrade, Naleen N.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; Kim, S. Peter; Goebert, Deborah A.; Carlton, Barry S.; Bell, Cathy K.

    2001-01-01

    Examines aspects of self-esteem measures and major life events using the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) with Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, and non-Hawaiian high school students (N=816). There was a lack of consensus regarding the dimensions of RSES as previously reported. Measurement equivalency findings concerning RSES caution against…

  17. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  18. Late colonization of Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Terry L; Lipo, Carl P

    2006-03-17

    Easter Island (Rapa Nui) provides a model of human-induced environmental degradation. A reliable chronology is central to understanding the cultural, ecological, and demographic processes involved. Radiocarbon dates for the earliest stratigraphic layers at Anakena, Easter Island, and analysis of previous radiocarbon dates imply that the island was colonized late, about 1200 A.D. Substantial ecological impacts and major cultural investments in monumental architecture and statuary thus began soon after initial settlement.

  19. The platysma myocutaneous flap (PMF) for head and neck reconstruction: a retrospective and multicentric analysis of 91 T1-T2 patients.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Garzino-Demo, Paolo; Ramieri, Guglielmo; Tanteri, Giulia; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Caldarelli, Claudio; Garzaro, Massimiliano; Giordano, Carlo; Berrone, Sid

    2012-12-01

    The platysma myocutaneous flap (PMF) was first applied to intraoral reconstructions in 1978. PMF is not only an alternative to microvascular flaps but it also represents an excellent reconstructive choice especially in cases where free tissue transfer cannot be carried out. Failure and complications rate have been described as varying from 18 to 45% and this is why this flap should not be used in specific cases such as in the presence of cervical metastases and in cases of mandibulectomy and simultaneous reconstruction with alloplastic materials. The purpose of this study is to examine the experience and results obtained in three different and independent institutes where PMF has been adopted in 91 patients for head and neck cancer reconstructions. The authors report their departments' separate but simultaneous experiences with PMF for small and middle-size soft tissue defects in a 10-year period.

  20. Anterior rectus fascia back cut: a new modification to relieve the pressure in fascial closure of the superior pedicle of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Shalom, Avshalom; Schein, Ophir; Westreich, Melvyn

    2012-04-01

    The maintenance of vascular patency is one of the key points to be considered after a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap has been raised and when closing the anterior rectus fascia to avoid a hernia. In this study we describe a new approach to closing the most superior part of the fascia to help insure vascular patency. Forty patients who had their breasts reconstructed with TRAM flaps made up the study group. The new back cut technique was used in 25 patients. Of the remaining 15 patients, four required early revision on the day of operation for severe venous congestion or ischaemia. None of the patients who had the back cut technique required early revision. We found the back cut technique to be safe and easy, and we think that it can reduce the incidence of flap ischaemia and still achieve tight fascial closure.

  1. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  4. Prodigious emission rates and magma degassing budget of major, trace and radioactive volatile species from Ambrym basaltic volcano, Vanuatu island Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Aiuppa, A.; Bani, P.; Métrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; Gauthier, P.-J.; Shinohara, H.; Sawyer, G.; Parello, F.; Bagnato, E.; Pelletier, B.; Garaebiti, E.

    2016-08-01

    Ambrym volcano, in the Vanuatu arc, is one of the most active volcanoes of the Southwest Pacific region, where persistent lava lake and/or Strombolian activity sustains voluminous gas plume emissions. Here we report on the first comprehensive budget for the discharge of major, minor, trace and radioactive volatile species from Ambrym volcano, as well as the first data for volatiles dissolved in its basaltic magma (olivine-hosted melt inclusions). In situ MultiGAS analysis of H2O, CO2, SO2 and H2S in crater rim emissions, coupled with filter-pack determination of SO2, halogens, stable and radioactive metals demonstrates a common magmatic source for volcanic gases emitted by its two main active craters, Benbow and Marum. These share a high water content ( 93 mol%), similar S/Cl, Cl/F, Br/Cl molar ratios, similar (210Po/210Pb) and (210Bi/210Pb) activity ratios, as well as comparable proportions in most trace metals. Their difference in CO2/SO2 ratio (1.0 and 5.6-3.0, respectively) is attributed to deeper gas-melt separation at Marum (Strombolian explosions) than Benbow (lava lake degassing) during our measurements in 2007. Airborne UV sensing of the SO2 plume flux (90 kg s- 1 or 7800 tons d- 1) demonstrates a prevalent degassing contribution ( 65%) of Benbow crater in that period and allows us to quantify the total volatile fluxes during medium-level eruptive activity of the volcano. Results reveal that Ambrym ranks among the most powerful volcanic gas emitters on Earth, producing between 5% and 9% of current estimates for global subaerial volcanic emissions of H2O, CO2, HCl, Cu, Cr, Cd, Au, Cs and Tl, between 10% and 17% of SO2, HF, HBr, Hg, 210Po and 210Pb, and over 30% of Ag, Se and Sn. Global flux estimates thus need to integrate its contribution and be revised accordingly. Prodigious gas emission from Ambrym does not result from an anomalous volatile enrichment nor a differential excess degassing of its feeding basalt: this latter contains relatively modest

  5. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  6. Single step fibula-pro-tibia transfer and soft tissue coverage with free myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap after extensive osteomyelitis and soft tissue necrosis--a 3 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Föhn, M; Bannasch, H; Stark, G B

    2009-11-01

    A 10-year-old girl from Ghana, Africa, developed chronic osteomyelitis of her right tibia and a large soft tissue defect on the ventral lower leg after a minor injury. She was treated more than 6 months after trauma without any improvement. We report a follow up of 3 years after reconstruction with a single-step pedicled fibula-pro-tibia transfer and wound coverage with a free myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap.

  7. Belcher Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Belcher Islands - September 21st, 2001 Description: Like sweeping brushstrokes of pink and green, the Belcher Islands meander across the deep blue of Canada's Hudson Bay. The islands' only inhabitants live in the small town of Sanikiluaq, near the upper end of the middle island. Despite the green hues in this image, these rocky islands are too cold to sustain more than a smattering of low-growing vegetation. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 5 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  8. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    the potential for long-term sustainability are presented. Galveston Island is a 47 km long sand barrier island along the upper Texas coast (Figure...1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND , TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1, ANDREW MORANG1, DAVID B. KING1, ROBERT C. THOMAS2 1. U.S. Army...Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the

  9. Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-15

    This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows a streamlined island in a broad channel in Chryse Planitia. The channel is part of the outflow region of Lobo Vallis, a northern branch of Kasei Valles.

  10. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  11. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  12. A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst: delineation of surgical margins and reconstruction with bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps.

    PubMed

    Ota, Y; Karakida, K; Watanabe, D; Miyasaka, M; Tsukinoki, K

    1998-10-01

    A case of central carcinoma of the mandible arising from a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst is reported. A 38-year-old man was admitted to the Tokai University Hospital due to postoperative infection of a recurrent odontogenic keratocyst of the left mandible. He had had a cystectomy for an odontogenic keratocyst 4 years ago. The lesion revealed bony destruction of the mandible with worm-eating shaped margins with extension to the facial skin. A biopsy specimen revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The mandible was resected with facial skin and the sublingual space was dissected to preserve the lingual nerve. The oral and the facial resections were reconstructed with a titanium plate and bilateral rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps. The plate was removed due to infection around the margins and readjustment of the flaps was conducted 5 months after the surgery. He has not had a local relapse, metastasis, or incisional hernia for 8 months following surgery. Good occlusion has been attained by the residual mandible, and he is able to eat without any problems.

  13. [Application of anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap using computed tomography angiography for mouth-floor reconstruction after resection of middle-late stage carcinoma of mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Luo, Shihong; Xiao, Jingang; Sun, Libo; Zhang, Li; Zeng, Liangnan; Xia, Delin; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of free anterolateral thigh myocutaneous flap (ALTMF) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) for the reconstruction of mouth-floor defects after the resection of middle-late stage carcinoma of the mouth floor. Sixteen cases of middle-late stage carcinomas of the mouth floor underwent radical resection, and mouth-floor and tongue defects were reconstructed with ALTMF. CTA was applied to plan the lateral circumflex femoral artery (LCFA) and its perforating vessel, which was verified during the operation. The position of the perforating vessel in the operation was fully consistent with that designed by the preoperative CTA. All 16 flaps completely survived. The appearance and function of all cases were both satisfactory. All donor sites were primarily closed and healed without functional morbidity. During the follow-up period of 6-36 months, 15 cases survived with acceptable aesthetic and functional results in mouth floor and tongue reconstruction, except for 1 case (T4N2M0) that died of metastasis carcinoma 10 months after operation. CTA can accurately locate the LCFA and artery perforator. Preoperative perforator planning using CTA in ALTMF transplantation is a reliable and useful method thatresults in safe operation with optimal outcome. The ALTMF is an ideal choice for the reconstruction of soft tissue defects after the resection of middle-late staie carcinoma of the mouth floor

  14. Recovery of sensation in immediate breast reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps after breast-conservative surgery and skin-sparing mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko

    2011-04-01

    In breast reconstruction, sensation in the reconstructed breasts affects the patients' quality of life along with its aesthetic outcome. Fortunately, less invasive procedures such as breast-conservative surgery (BCS) and skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) have greatly contributed to the improved aesthetic outcome in immediate breast reconstruction. However, there are few reports on the recovery of breast sensation after BCS and SSM. We retrospectively reviewed 104 consecutive patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap between 2001 and 2006 at our institution. The sensations of pain, temperature, touch, and vibration were examined at the nipple and skin envelope during the follow-up period (range: 12-61 months, mean: 31 months), and a stratified analysis was performed to determine the critical factors affecting the sensation recovery after BCS and SSM. We found that large breast size significantly impaired the recovery of sensation in the nipple and skin envelope after BCS as well as SSM. Older age and high body mass index value were the factors which negatively affected the sensation in the skin envelope after SSM. While all our BCS patients underwent postoperative radiation therapy, it did not negatively affect the recovery of sensation in SSM patients. On the basis of these findings, we could further improve the sensation of the reconstructed breasts after BCS and SSM. Especially after SSM, the use of innervated flaps is recommended in the patients with large breast, increased age, or obesity when the nipple-areola complex is resected.

  15. A case report on a full-thickness chest wall reconstruction with polypropylene mesh and stainless steel mesh concurrently using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Akimoto, Masataka; Hisayoshi, Takao; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Shimizu, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    A full-thickness chest wall resection requires subsequent chest wall reconstruction. A chest wall resection and reconstruction was performed using a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, together with polypropylene mesh (Marlex mesh) and stainless steel mesh (SSM). A 71-year-old man was diagnosed as having recurrent lung cancer in the chest wall, and underwent surgical resection. Marlex mesh was sutured to the posterior wall of the surgical defect. A portion of the SSM was adjusted to the size of the defect and cut out. Its edges were folded to make the portion into a plate. This SSM plate was placed anteriorly to the Marlex mesh and sutured to the ribs. The Marlex mesh was folded back on the SSM plate by 2 cm and fixed. After the above procedures, a left-sided TRAM flap was raised through a subcutaneous tunnel up to the defect and sutured to the region. The patient was discharged from hospital 19 days postoperatively. The wound was fine and he had no flail chest or dyspnea, and carcinomatous pain resolved.

  16. Barrier Island Migration and Morphologic Evolution, Fire Island Inlet, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    Fire Island Inlet, NY, is an overlapping barrier inlet system, where the inlet channel lies on an east-west orientation with Fire Island to the south...shoreline change in the areas surrounding Fire Island Inlet, describes major long-term influences to the inlet system, and interprets the consequences of...engineering operations to the position of neighboring shorelines. Fire Island Inlet’s evolution has been a trend of downdrift erosion and updrift

  17. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-04-30

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede, and the eastern island Little Diomede are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite.

  18. Bahama Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-04-09

    STS006-45-097 (4-9 April 1983) --- This photograph was taken with a handheld 70mm camera aimed through the “ceiling” windows of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger during its five-day STS-6 mission. A beautiful photo shows the contrast between the islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water. Islands of the Bahamas seen are New Providence (upper left) and Eleuthera (right). Northeast Providence Channel is at the upper edge and Exuma Sound is at the lower left with the open Atlantic along the right edge. The wind, from the south, causes a long cloud to develop downwind from Eleuthera Point. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Sea plate creates a series of island arc volcanoes and the Earth's deepest ocean trench. Anatahan had no known historical eruptions ... bomber, lies on the north side edge of the craters flat lands. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  20. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  1. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  2. Initial experience with the use of porcine acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) for abdominal wall reinforcement after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cicilioni, Orlando; Araujo, Gerson; Mimbs, Nancy; Cox, Matthew D

    2012-03-01

    Reestablishing anterior rectus fascial integrity remains a clinical challenge after transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction. The main concerns include herniation and bulging due to abdominal weakness. Mesh-assisted closure of the fascial defect has improved bulging and herniation rates but infection, extrusion, and encapsulation are serious concerns with mesh use. Biologic tissue matrices may overcome some of these mesh-related complications. The initial experience of using Strattice for fascial closure after TRAM flap procedure is described in this article. Strattice was in-lain and sutured between the anterior and posterior layers of the rectus fascia, at the rectus muscle donor site. The abdominal wall was closed with progressive tension sutures. Postoperative complications at the donor site were assessed. A total of 16 unilateral and 9 bilateral reconstructions were performed in 25 patients. Length of hospital stay was 2 to 3 days which is shorter than with mesh repair (typically 4-5 days). During a mean follow-up period of 14.0 months, complications occurred in 7 patients (28%): seroma formation (2), minor skin separation (2), superficial skin infection (2), and superficial wound dehiscence (1). Complications were not directly related to Strattice and all, except one (superficial skin infection), were resolved without surgical intervention. In all patients, routine abdominal functions were restored 4 months postoperatively. Strattice is a safe, alternative option to synthetic mesh for fascial repair following TRAM flap breast reconstruction. When used in conjunction with progressive tension suture closure of the abdominal wall, dynamic reconstruction of the abdominal wall with resumption of abdominal function is possible with Strattice.

  3. Real world dehiscence rates for patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection with or without myocutaneous flap closure in the national surgical quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Curran, Thomas; Poylin, Vitaliy; Nagle, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Perineal wound complications cause significant morbidity following abdominoperineal resection (APR). Myocutaneous flap closure may mitigate perineal wound complications though data is limited outside of specialized oncologic centers. We aim to compare rates of wound dehiscence in patients undergoing APR with and without flap closure. All patients undergoing APR in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between 2005 and 2013 were included. Thirty-day rate of wound dehiscence and other perioperative outcomes were compared between the flap and non-flap cohorts. Subgroup analysis was performed for propensity score-matched cohorts and those receiving neoadjuvant radiation. Seven thousand two hundred and five patients underwent non-emergent APR [527 (7 %) flap vs. 6678 (93 %) non-flap]. Wound dehiscence occurred in 224 patients [38 (7 %) flap vs. 186 (3 %) non-flap] with 84/224 (38 %) of these reoperated. Reoperation was more common in flap patients [15 vs. 8 %; p = 0.001]. Overall morbidity was higher in flap closure [38 % flap vs. 31 % non-flap; p < 0.001]. Dehiscence was higher for flap closure in the propensity score-matched cohort [7 vs. 3 %; p < 0.001]. Flap closure was an independent predictor of dehiscence for both the overall and propensity score-matched groups. Dehiscence was not increased in patients who had neoadjuvant radiation [5.4 % flap vs. 2.6 % non-flap; p = 0.127]. This represents the largest study of flap vs. non-flap closure following APR and the first such study from a national database. Flap closure was independently associated with increased risk of wound dehiscence in both the overall and matched cohorts. This study highlights the challenge of wound complications following APR and provides real-world generalizable data.

  4. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  5. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  6. Kasei Vallis Streamlined Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    Except for the loss of its ring of ejecta, the crater at the leading edge of this streamlined island in Kasei Vallis, imaged here by NASA Mars Odyssey, shows no hint of the catastrophic floods that passed by it. Kasei Vallis is one of several major outflow channel systems that were active over 3 billion years ago. The intense floods scoured the landscape, eroding craters and producing streamlined islands. But in a close-up view, the evidence for these floods is not apparent. This true of the most similar terrestrial example, the channeled scablands of eastern Washington which also were formed by a catastrophic flood. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04022

  7. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  8. The effects of island ontogeny on species diversity and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Valente, Luis M; Etienne, Rampal S; Phillimore, Albert B

    2014-06-07

    A major goal of island biogeography is to understand how island communities are assembled over time. However, we know little about the influence of variable area and ecological opportunity on island biotas over geological timescales. Islands have limited life spans, and it has been posited that insular diversity patterns should rise and fall with an island's ontogeny. The potential of phylogenies to inform us of island ontogenetic stage remains unclear, as we lack a phylogenetic framework that focuses on islands rather than clades. Here, we present a parsimonious island-centric model that integrates phylogeny and ontogeny into island biogeography and can incorporate a negative feedback of diversity on species origination. This framework allows us to generate predictions about species richness and phylogenies on islands of different ages. We find that peak richness lags behind peak island area, and that endemic species age increases with island age on volcanic islands. When diversity negatively affects rates of immigration and cladogenesis, our model predicts speciation slowdowns on old islands. Importantly, we find that branching times of in situ radiations can be informative of an island's ontogenetic stage. This novel framework provides a quantitative means of uncovering processes responsible for island biogeography patterns using phylogenies.

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  10. Threats to avifauna on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Trevino, Heather S; Skibiel, Amy L; Karels, Tim J; Dobson, F Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Results of the study by Blackburn et al. (2004a) of avifauna on oceanic islands suggest that distance from the mainland and time since European colonization have major influences on species extinctions and that island area is a significant but secondary contributing factor. After augmenting the data of the study on geographical properties for some of the islands they examined, we used a causal analysis approach with structural equation modeling to reexamine their conclusions. In our model geographical properties of islands, such as island area and isolation, were considered constraints on biological factors, such as the number of introduced mammalian predators and existing number of avifauna, that can directly or indirectly influence extinction. Of the variables we tested, island area had the greatest total influence on the threat of extinction due to its direct and indirect effects on the size of island avifauna. Larger islands had both a greater number of threatened bird species and more avifauna, increasing the number of species that could become threatened with extinction. Island isolation also had a significant, positive, and direct effect on threats to island avifauna because islands farther from the mainland had fewer current extant avifauna. Time since European colonization had a significant negative, but relatively weaker, influence on threats compared with the traditional biogeographic factors of island area and distance to the mainland. We also tested the hypothesis that the amount of threat is proportionally lower on islands that have had more extinctions (i.e., there is a "filter effect"). Because the proportion of bird extinctions potentially explained only 2.3% of the variation in the proportion of threatened species on islands, our results did not support this hypothesis. Causal modeling provided a powerful tool for examining threat of extinction patterns of known and hypothesized pathways of influence.

  11. Ogasawara Islands, Japan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-12

    This image, acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft, is of the volcanic Ogasawara Islands. The islands were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, in recognition of an outstanding example of ongoing evolutionary processes in oceanic island ecosystems.

  12. 78 FR 4967 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated 11/ 14/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy. Incident Period: 10/26/2012 through... the President's major disaster declaration for the State of Rhode Island, dated 11/14/2012 is hereby...

  13. 75 FR 17178 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island.... Contiguous Counties (Economic Injury Loans Only): Rhode Island: Bristol. Connecticut: New London, Windham...

  14. 77 FR 70203 - Rhode Island Disaster #RI-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Rhode Island Disaster RI-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island...): Rhode Island: Kent. Connecticut: New London. Massachusetts: Bristol. The Interest Rates are: Percent For...

  15. Island biology: looking towards the future.

    PubMed

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-10-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014-an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7-11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries(1)-demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Island biology: looking towards the future

    PubMed Central

    Kueffer, Christoph; Drake, Donald R.; Fernández-Palacios, José María

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands are renowned for the profound scientific insights that their fascinating biotas have provided to biologists during the past two centuries. Research presented at Island Biology 2014—an international conference, held in Honolulu, Hawaii (7–11 July 2014), which attracted 253 presenters and 430 participants from at least 35 countries1—demonstrated that islands are reclaiming a leading role in ecology and evolution, especially for synthetic studies at the intersections of macroecology, evolution, community ecology and applied ecology. New dynamics in island biology are stimulated by four major developments. We are experiencing the emergence of a truly global and comprehensive island research community incorporating previously neglected islands and taxa. Macroecology and big-data analyses yield a wealth of global-scale synthetic studies and detailed multi-island comparisons, while other modern research approaches such as genomics, phylogenetic and functional ecology, and palaeoecology, are also dispersing to islands. And, increasingly tight collaborations between basic research and conservation management make islands places where new conservation solutions for the twenty-first century are being tested. Islands are home to a disproportionate share of the world's rare (and extinct) species, and there is an urgent need to develop increasingly collaborative and innovative research to address their conservation requirements. PMID:25339655

  17. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  18. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  19. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  20. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  1. Karst aquifers on small islands--the island of Olib, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Tatjana; Munda, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Water supply is a major problem in the Adriatic islands, especially during the summer tourism season, and represents a limiting factor to the islands' further economic development. Much attention has been given to water supply solutions, primarily in terms of attempting to use the existing island water. Unfortunately, few islands have favourable hydrological conditions to accumulate significant quantities of surface water or groundwater. In the period from 2001 to 2004, investigations were conducted on many islands to define their own freshwater or partially brackish water resources since desalinisation technology could resolve a significant part of the water supply demand on small and distant islands. Due to the specificity and complexity of research in karst areas, the study was conducted in phases and included the geological and hydrogeological reconnaissance of the island, aimed at locating possible areas on the island where the necessary quantities of groundwater of adequate quality could be captured; a detailed hydrogeological mapping of the specified areas, geophysical investigation and test drilling; and, over several days, test pumping of the most promising borehole. One of the islands investigated was the island of Olib. The conducted surveys indicated that it is possible to pump about 3.5 L/s of groundwater from the karst aquifer of the island of Olib, which fully complies with the sanitary quality of drinking water.

  2. Slope protection for artificial island

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, M.T.; Collins, J.I.; Shak, A.T.

    1981-08-01

    The technology under development to protect artificial-island production platforms from Arctic sea and ice damage involves three major considerations: (1) sea conditions during the ice-free season, (2) ice conditions during winter, and (3) construction constraints imposed by material availability, transportation problems, and length of the construction season. So far, researchers have evaluated 15 different slope-protection systems on the basis of reliability, construction-cost, and maintenance-cost factors, choosing 8 candidates for wave and ice model testing. The cases of interest involve exploration and production islands in shallow and deeper water applications.

  3. Radial free forearm flap versus pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in patients with tongue cancer: Assessment of quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peipei; Li, Rui; Liu, Yiming; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated the quality of life of Chinese patients with tongue cancer who had undergone immediate flap reconstruction surgery. In addition, we compared 2 groups of patients: those who had received radial forearm free flap (RFFF) surgery and others who had received pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) surgery. Material and Methods Patients who received RFFF or PMMF reconstruction after primary tongue cancer treated with total and subtotal tongue resection were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores (14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires) were collected. Results A total of 41 of 63 questionnaires were returned (65.08%). There were significant differences between the 2 groups in the gender (p< .05). Patients reconstructed with RFFF performed better in the shoulder domains, in addition to worse appearance domains. Conclusions Using either RFFF or PMMF for reconstruction of defects after tongue cancer resection significantly influences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for tongue cancers. Key words:Quality of life, radial forearm free flaps, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, tongue cancer, oral function. PMID:27694786

  4. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-24

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  5. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  6. Islands contribute disproportionately high amounts of evolutionary diversity in passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Jønsson, Knud A; Holt, Ben G

    2015-10-05

    Island systems generally have fewer species than continental areas due to their small size and geographical isolation. Low island diversity reduces the possibility of exportation of island lineages and island systems are not thought to have a major influence on the build-up of continental diversity. However, the view that islands represent the end of the colonization road has recently been challenged and islands do represent the origin of some specific continental lineages. Here we assess the net contribution of island systems to global diversity patterns of passerine birds, using a complete phylogeny (5,949 species), biogeographical regionalization and null-model comparisons. We show that, in contrast to major continental regions, island regions export relatively more evolutionary lineages than would be expected based on current distributional patterns. This result challenges a central paradigm in island biogeography and changes our perception of the relative importance of islands for the build-up of global diversity.

  7. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    PubMed Central

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. Results: More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990–1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion: The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.) PMID:25353012

  8. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. A comparison of motivations between island tourists visiting Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand

    Treesearch

    Chi-Ming Hsieh; Sung Hee Park

    2009-01-01

    The island tourism market is a major growth segment in international tourism. The islands of Penghu, Taiwan, and Phuket, Thailand have become major tourism destinations for Taiwanese tourists, who have had an economic impact on the local communities of these islands. The objectives of this study were to develop a profile of Taiwanese tourists visiting Penghu and Phuket...

  10. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  11. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     ... View an animated gif (371 kb) A large tabular iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West ...

  12. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  13. Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-04

    This image from NASA EarthKAM is of Sakhalin Island, located just north of Japan and east of the Khabarovski and Primorski Krai of the Russian Far East. With the Kuril Islands, it forms Sakhalin Province.

  14. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This ASTER image was acquired on December 12, 2000, and covers an area of 38 x 48 km. Pine Island Glacier has undergone a steady loss of elevation with retreat of the grounding line in recent decades. Now, space imagery has revealed a wide new crack that some scientists think will soon result in a calving event. Glaciologist Robert Bindschadler of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center predicts this crack will result in the calving of a major iceberg, probably in less than 18 months. Discovery of the crack was possible due to multi-year image archives and high resolution imagery. This image is located at 74.1 degrees south latitude and 105.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11095

  15. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  16. Canary Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This nearly vertical view of the Canary Archipelago (28.5N, 16.5W) shows five of the seven islands: Grand Canary, Tenerife, Gomera, Hierro and La Palma. The largest island in view is Tenerife. Island cloud wakes evident in this photo are the result of southerly winds giving rise to cloud banks on the lee side especially on Tenerife which has the highest volcanic peaks. Island water wakes and internal waves are also evident but not as apparent.

  17. Island of Timor, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-27

    This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

  18. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  19. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  20. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the island is visible within a relatively clear area of open ocean. In the lower right image, the island is partially obscured by ... Steep cliffs surrounding most sides of the island also made access difficult, and after various attempts, a landing was made in 1822 by an ...

  2. Avifauna: Turnover on Islands.

    PubMed

    Mayr, E

    1965-12-17

    The percentage of endemic species of birds on islands increases with island area at a double logarithmic rate. This relation is apparently due to extinction, which is more rapid the smaller the island. The turnover resulting from extinction and replacement appears to be far more rapid than hitherto suspected.

  3. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  4. Sensitive areolar reconstruction in using a neurocutaneous island flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, J A; Pereira Filho, O J; Ely, J B

    1999-11-01

    Sensory reconstruction has recently been stressed in breast reconstruction. However, there are no reports concerning the reconstruction of a sensitive areola. The bilateral reconstruction of a sensitive areola using a neurocutaneous flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve is reported. The flap was harvested from the distal third of the forearm as an island flap and tunneled to reach the apex of the new breast, which was previously reconstructed using a 135-cc, gel-filled, silicone prosthesis covered by a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Six months later, fine sensibility in the reconstructed areola was demonstrated. The patient could perceive light touch, pain, and 14 mm two-point discrimination. At 2 months after surgery, 50 percent of cutaneous faulty stimulus location was observed. However, at 4 and 6 months after surgery, faulty location disappeared. Six months after harvesting the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the sensory deficit was minimal; it included a hypoesthesic zone of 4 to 7 cm and an anesthesic zone of 2.5 to 5 cm on the middle third of the forearm. Fifteen months after the procedure, no hypoesthesic zone was observed; only a 2 to 3 cm anesthesic zone on the proximal medial side of the forearm existed. This sensory deficit passed unnoticed by the patient. The technique developed here is a refinement in breast reconstruction, and we think it should be used in selected patients.

  5. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  6. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  7. Birds are islands for parasites.

    PubMed

    Koop, Jennifer A H; DeMatteo, Karen E; Parker, Patricia G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host-parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites.

  8. Birds are islands for parasites

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; DeMatteo, Karen E.; Parker, Patricia G.; Whiteman, Noah K.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving the extraordinary diversification of parasites is a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Co-speciation, one proposed mechanism that could contribute to this diversity is hypothesized to result from allopatric co-divergence of host–parasite populations. We found that island populations of the Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis) and a parasitic feather louse species (Degeeriella regalis) exhibit patterns of co-divergence across variable temporal and spatial scales. Hawks and lice showed nearly identical population genetic structure across the Galápagos Islands. Hawk population genetic structure is explained by isolation by distance among islands. Louse population structure is best explained by hawk population structure, rather than isolation by distance per se, suggesting that lice tightly track the recent population histories of their hosts. Among hawk individuals, louse populations were also highly structured, suggesting that hosts serve as islands for parasites from an evolutionary perspective. Altogether, we found that host and parasite populations may have responded in the same manner to geographical isolation across spatial scales. Allopatric co-divergence is likely one important mechanism driving the diversification of parasites. PMID:25099959

  9. Norfolk Island, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-13

    Situated 1670 km northeast of Sydney, Norfolk Island is an Australian Territory. It was permanently settled in 1856 by Pitcairn Islanders who were descendants of Tahitians and HMS Bounty mutineers. In 1979 Norfolk was granted limited self-government: the island elects a government that runs most of the island's affairs. In March, a local council replaced the local government, and the island was given closer financial ties to Australia. The image was acquired November 12, 2009, covers an area of 9 x 11 km, and is located at 29 degrees south, 168 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19463

  10. Angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle of an island nasal chondromucosal flap: Anatomical study and clinical application

    PubMed Central

    HOU, DIANJU; FANG, LIN; ZHAO, ZHENMIN; ZHOU, CHUANDE; YANG, MINGYONG

    2013-01-01

    Successful eyelid reconstructions have been reported when using an axial nasal chondromucosal flap based on the dorsal nasal artery. The present study aimed to present a detailed anatomical description of the blood supply of the lateral nasal region and the angular artery, in order to propose the angular vessels as a new vascular pedicle for the island nasal chondromucosal flap. A total of 11 cadavers (22 hemi-faces) were examined. Observations with regard to the origin, course and distribution patterns of the angular artery were recorded. Based on the anatomical study findings, the angular vessels were proposed as a vascular source for the island nasal chondromucosal flap. Observations with regard to the varying origins of the angular artery were categorized into four types. The course of the angular artery along the nasojugal fold was constant. The angular artery branched off into the upper two-thirds of the lateral nasal region and anastomosed with the other vascular branches on the nasal dorsum. Clinically, reconstruction of a full-thickness defect of the lower eyelid was successfully performed by using this composite flap based on the angular vessels and an adjacent orbicularis oculi myocutaneous flap. Satisfactory esthetic outcomes were obtained for the donor and recipient sites. The angular artery is a good vascular source for an island nasal chondromucosal flap. The flap may be created safely and successfully in clinic. Island nasal chondromucosal flaps and nasolabial groove skin flaps based on the angular vessels may be designed simultaneously for use on full-thickness defects of the eyelid. PMID:23408230

  11. Christmas Island, Line Island Group, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Christmas Island (2.0N,158.0W), mid central Pacific Ocean, is considered to be the largest atoll in the world, about 25 km in diameter, and is part of the Line Island Group, a northwest-southeast trending chain of volcanic islands on some of the oldest ocean crust in the Pacific. The lagoon is nearly filled with reef growth leaving only a narrow entrance from the sea and large cocoanut groves are found along the fringes of the lagoon.

  12. [Dengue fever in the Reunion Island and in South Western islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    D'Ortenzio, E; Balleydier, E; Baville, M; Filleul, L; Renault, P

    2011-09-01

    South Western islands of the Indian Ocean are permanently threatened by dengue fever outbreaks. On the Reunion Island, two dengue outbreaks were biologically documented (1977-1978 and 2004). And since July 2004 there has been an inter-epidemic period for the island with sporadic cases and clusters. Between January 1, 2007 and October 5, 2009, the epidemiologic surveillance system detected five confirmed autochthonous cases, five confirmed imported cases (South-East Asia), and 71 probable cases. All the five autochthonous confirmed cases occurred in Saint-Louis during two consecutive clusters. In other South Western islands of the Indian Ocean, several dengue fever outbreaks have been reported. Importation of dengue virus from South-East Asia is a major risk for a new outbreak on the island. The introduction of a new serotype could lead to the emergence of new and severe clinical forms, including dengue hemorrhagic fever.

  13. Water resources of the Yap Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1984-01-01

    The Yap Islands consist of four major islands, Yap, Gagil-Tamil, Maap, and Rumung. Of these, Yap Island has more than half the total land area, most of the population, and almost all of the economic development. The islands of Maap and Rumung together compose only 15 percent of the land area and population. Average annual rainfall over the Yap Islands amounts to 122 inches. Rainfall-runoff comparisons indicate that about half of the annual rainfall runs off to the ocean on Yap Island and Gagil-Tamil. Streams on Gagil-Tamil are perennial but streams on Yap Island are dry an average of 3 months per year due to geologic differences. Analyses of water samples from 23 sources show the good quality and the chemical similarity of surface and ground water. This report summarizes the hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used by the planning and public works officials of Yap to make decisions concerning development and management of their water resources.

  14. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  15. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    . It all depends on your hypothesis. Like the streamlined islands, the current-like flutes are parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesis that catastrophic floods broke forth in this region, known as Ares Vallis. Ares Vallis is the region where Pathfinder landed to help understand the possible history of water on Mars. Geologists want to understand not only if there was a catastrophic flood, but why it happened. Both orbiters and landers can add to the information on hand, but some Earth examples might provide clues as well. On our planet, some glacial valleys have had major catastrophic floods that were caused by the sudden outburst and drainage of glacial lakes. The Channeled Scabland in Washington state is great Earthly example of a place where the sudden failure of a glacier ice dam spewed out water, leaving a system of large, dry channels with flutes similar to the ones seen in this image. Did something similar happen to cause this outburst on Mars? Hopefully, future studies of THEMIS and other images will help us understand the answer.

  16. Syrtis Major

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-23

    This image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano and believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction.

  17. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  18. Islanding detection scheme based on adaptive identifier signal estimation method.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, M; Noroozian, R; Gharehpetian, G B

    2017-09-12

    This paper proposes a novel, passive-based anti-islanding method for both inverter and synchronous machine-based distributed generation (DG) units. Unfortunately, when the active/reactive power mismatches are near to zero, majority of the passive anti-islanding methods cannot detect the islanding situation, correctly. This study introduces a new islanding detection method based on exponentially damped signal estimation method. The proposed method uses adaptive identifier method for estimating of the frequency deviation of the point of common coupling (PCC) link as a target signal that can detect the islanding condition with near-zero active power imbalance. Main advantage of the adaptive identifier method over other signal estimation methods is its small sampling window. In this paper, the adaptive identifier based islanding detection method introduces a new detection index entitled decision signal by estimating of oscillation frequency of the PCC frequency and can detect islanding conditions, properly. In islanding conditions, oscillations frequency of PCC frequency reach to zero, thus threshold setting for decision signal is not a tedious job. The non-islanding transient events, which can cause a significant deviation in the PCC frequency are considered in simulations. These events include different types of faults, load changes, capacitor bank switching, and motor starting. Further, for islanding events, the capability of the proposed islanding detection method is verified by near-to-zero active power mismatches. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  20. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islands in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.

  1. Islander: a database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey M; Lau, Britney Y; Williams, Kelly P

    2015-01-01

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islands in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.

  2. Islander: a database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islands in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution. PMID:25378302

  3. Global controls of Barrier island chain morphology and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, V.; Pilkey, O.H.; Keysworth, A. )

    1989-09-01

    Information for this reconnaisance study of the morphology and distribution of barrier island chains around the world was obtained primarily from maps and charts. Five hundred thirty islands and spits compose the 74 chains that are the basis of this study. A chain is defined as consisting of a minimum of three islands, two islands and a spit, or two spits and an island. Barrier island chain lengths range from less than 20 km to more than 700 km. Both long and short chains occur on trailing edge and marginal sea margins, whereas collision coasts bear short chains only. Most chains are composed of fewer than 10 islands each. Of the three major tectonic coastal types, marginal seas are most susceptible to barrier-island chain formation, followed by trailing-edge margins, then by collision coasts. Chains on collision coasts are usually at the mouths of estuaries or fringing small deltas. Of all barrier chains, 12% are located in areas of pack ice. Only 2.2% of the world's coasts are fronted with barrier-island chains, a much smaller percentage than previous estimates. This difference is probably due to differing definitions of barrier islands. Chains are found adjacent to both steeply dipping (e.g., Taiwan) and gently dipping (e.g., Yellow Sea) continental shelves. Not surprisingly, shoreface slopes appear to be a function of wave energy; the higher the wave energy the steeper the slope. Pack-ice islands are characterized by unusually flat shorefaces and very wide inlets, both probably reflecting the lack of year-round wave energy. The length of individual islands appears to be inversely related to both tidal amplitude and coastal plain slope. Lagoonal width is largely controlled by coastal plain slope; the largest lagoons are on the flattest slopes. The variable quality of the maps is used in this study was its major shortcoming. The next step in global barrier-island chain studies should involve satellite imagery.

  4. Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

  5. Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands

    Treesearch

    P. Acevedo-Rodr¡guez; M. T. Strong

    2005-01-01

    The present treatment constitutes an updated revision for the monocotyledon and gymnosperm flora (excluding Orchidaceae and Poaceae) for the biogeographical region of Puerto Rico (including all islets and islands) and the Virgin Islands. With this contribution, we fill the last major gap in the flora of this region, since the dicotyledons have been previously revised....

  6. Damming Tropical Island Streams: Problems, Solutions, and Alternatives.

    Treesearch

    JAMES G. MARCH; JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2003-01-01

    The combination of human population growth, increased water usage, and limited groundwater resources often leads to extensive damming of rivers and streams on tropical islands. Ecological effects of dams on tropical islands can be dramatic, because the vast majority of native stream faunas (fishes, shrimps, and snails) migrate between freshwater and saltwater during...

  7. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  8. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska #2

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-11-04

    This image is a perspective view acquired by NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar AIRSAR in 2001, is of Umnak Island, one of Alaska Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

  9. Disturbed island ecology.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, R J

    1995-10-01

    The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of island ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected islands in the Caribbean, islands that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However, particularly with organisms of long generation times, it is questionable whether such models are applicable. This may be as important for wildlife managers to take account of as for theorists. Disturbance regime should be incorporated into island ecological models alongside other ecological factors structuring colonization patterns and turnover.

  10. Bardsey Island, Wales

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-01

    Lying 3 km off the Llyn peninsula of Wales, the Bardsey Island is known as the Island of 20,000 saints. While today's permanent population numbers only four, the island was once an important religious site, with a 6th century monastery. It is the legendary burial site of King Arthur. Another legend holds that anyone who died on the island would not go to hell. The image was acquired April 4, 2006, covers an area of 6 by 10 km, and is located at 52.7 degrees north, 4.8 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21182

  11. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  12. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... plan (WSP), and environmental assessment (EA) for Protection Island and San Juan Islands National...

  13. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  15. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  16. Water resources of the Truk Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van der Brug, Otto

    1983-01-01

    The Truk Islands, part of the Caroline Islands in the western Pacific, consist of 19 volcanic islands and about 65 coral islets. The volcanic islands and some of the coral islets are scattered in an 820-square-mile lagoon enclosed by a 125-mile long barrier reef. Moen, although not the largest, is by far the most developed island and is the adminstrative, commercial, educational, and transporation center of the islands. Monthly rainfall records for most years are available since 1903. Rainfall-runoff comparisons show that about half the annual rainfall runs off as surface water into Truk Lagoon. Flow characteristics of the major streams, based on more than 11 years of record, are provided and the application of data for possible use in the design of reservoirs and rain catchments is included. Historical and present development of all water sources is given. The chemical analyses of surface and ground water on Moen, with the exception of water from well 9, show the good quality of the water sources. This report summarizes all hydrologic data collected and provides interpretations that can be used for development and management of the water resources. (USGS)

  17. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-30

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on 18 September 2006.

  18. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  19. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  20. Entire Island of Crete

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-364 (22 June 1973) --- Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  2. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  3. Islands in a Storm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay is actually a group of three islands: Ewell, Rhodes Point, and Tylerton. Dwindling enrollment jeopardizes the community's two schools that contain grades one through seven. The school board believes they can give the sixth and seventh graders at Ewell and Tylerton a better education on the mainland. (MLF)

  4. Geology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stearns, Harold T.

    1946-01-01

    A brief summary of the geography, climate, and geomorphology is given. Streams develop slowly after the extinction of a volcano because of the high permeability of the rock. Once established they cut rapidly because of the steep slopes and fractured condition of the rock. Stream erosion varies enormously on different slopes of the same mountain due to the great differences in rainfall and to other causes. Six reasons are given for the development of amphitheater-headed valleys. Marine erosion has formed cliffs as much as 1,000 feet high on the leeward side and 3,000 feet high on the windward side of some of the domes. The islands have undergone a complex series of emergences and submergences leaving marine fossiliferous limestone up to 1,070 feet above sea level and valleys drowned more than 1,200 feet. Twelve terrace levels are recognized. Some are definitely eustatic.A synopsis is given of the present knowledge of the geology of each volcanic mountain, as well as a table of the rock units, and geologic maps of all major islands. The volcanoes pass through four major phases between birth and extinction and are built around one minor and two major rift zones. The volcanoes began their history above sea level in the Tertiary. Most of them became dormant either before or during the early Quaternary. Activity was renewed in the late Quaternary. Mauna Kea was glaciated in the late Pleistocene. The character of each islet in the archipelago is tabulated.

  5. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  6. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islandsmore » in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.« less

  7. NASA Spacecraft Images Massive Crack in Antarctica Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-15

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows a massive crack across the Pine Island Glacier, a major ice stream that drains the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Eventually, the crack will extend all the way across the glacier.

  8. A new, rare type of oceanic islands: The case of Norfolk Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Whan, T.; Arculus, R. J.; O'Neill, H. S.; Yaxley, G. M.; McAlpine, S.; Smith, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Most intra-plate oceanic islands are considered to be expressions of partial melting of hot, ascending mantle plumes. Mantle plume activity is often evident by progressively-aged volcanic island chains, early flood basalts, or elevated mantle temperatures (hot-spots). However, some isolated volcanic islands lack these characteristics. Their mantle sources, causes of melting, and geodynamic settings remain elusive. Here we present petrologic and geochemical data for an example of this type of ocean island: Norfolk Island and neighbouring Phillip Island. These islands are only 7 km apart and are located in the Southwest Pacific. They are the only sub-aerial volcanic islands on the Norfolk Ridge, which extends roughly linearly south from New Caledonia and north from New Zealand. The Norfolk Ridge is a continental slice rifted from the eastern Australian margin during opening of the Tasman Sea and the on-going break-up of Gondwana. There are a few isolated, unexplored volcanic edifices trending NNW from the Norfolk Ridge north of Norfolk Island that may be a hot spot trace. Norfolk and Phillip islands are both composed of young (ca. 2-3 Ma), primitive basalts and basaltic andesites containing abundant phenocrysts of olivine and rare pyroxene and feldspar. Major element systematics are unique among the global spectrum of ocean island basalts, with low CaO, high Al2O3, and high Na/Ti indicating that melting processes and/or the mantle source differs from that of any other OIB. However, Fe/Mn are high, similar to other OIB, and REE patterns carry the typical OIB garnet signature. The highest MgO contents approach 9 wt%. The unusual major-element chemistry results in olivine-dominated crystallization extending to low MgO (ca. 6-7 wt%), hence little increase of incompatible elements with decreasing MgO, but surprisingly Ni and Cr also remain nearly constant with MgO. Isotopic compositions (Sr-Nd-Hf) indicate either a primitive mantle source composition (ɛNd=6

  9. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  10. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  11. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  12. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  13. Climate Throughout Geologic Time Has Been Controlled Primarily by the Balance Between Cooling Caused by Major Explosive Eruptions of Evolved Magmas Typical of Island Arcs and Warming Caused by Voluminous Effusive Eruptions of Basaltic Magma Typical of Subaerial Ocean Ridges and Island Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Most volcanic eruptions deplete ozone ~6% for a few years, allowing more high-energy, ultraviolet-B radiation to warm earth. Record low levels of total column ozone followed the 1991 explosive eruption of Pinatubo. Yet 6% depletion also followed the smaller and more effusive eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grímsvötn (2011) in Iceland. Explosive volcanoes also eject 10-20 megatons of sulfur dioxide into the lower stratosphere, forming sulfuric-acid aerosols that reflect and diffuse sunlight causing a net cooling of ~0.5°C for 3 years. High rates of explosive volcanos cool earth into ice ages while high rates of effusive basaltic volcanism in Iceland between 11,500 and 9,500 years ago clearly warmed Earth out of the last ice age depositing sulfate recorded in ice cores in Greenland. Basalts from these eruptions are observed as tuyas in Iceland dated during this period. The 25 Dansgaard-Oeschger abrupt warmings are contemporaneous with increased sulfate in Greenland and with the few older dates available for tuyas in Iceland. Extensive flood basalts were formed during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum and during times of most major mass extinctions when global temperatures rose substantially, with fossil evidence for ozone depletion. Greenhouse-gas theory assumes electromagnetic radiation travels through space as waves and therefore thermal energy reaching earth is proportional to the square of wave amplitude. Thus the change in energy reaching Earth due to ozone depletion is considered small compared to infrared energy absorbed by greenhouse gases. But waves travel in matter and there is no matter in space. Electromagnetic energy is transmitted as frequency, as shown by radio signals, where energy equals frequency times the Planck constant. Thus thermal energy reaching earth when ozone is depleted is 50 times thermal energy involved in greenhouse gases. Global warming from 1970 to 1998 was caused primarily by 3% ozone depletion due to anthropogenic

  14. Comparative Perfusion Analysis of Free Muscle-Sparing Versus Pedicle Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (TRAM) Flaps in Vivo in the Peri-Operative and Late Post-Operative Periods.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard; Rimler, Jonathan; Laurence, Vincent; Z Paydar, Keyianoosh; A Wirth, Garrett

    2017-05-01

    Current teaching suggests increased perfusion in free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps over pedicled TRAM flaps, broadening indications for its use in high risk patients. This study compared perfusion analysis of free muscle-sparing versus pedicle TRAM flaps in vivo in the peri-operative and late post-operative periods. The SPY-Elite system using indocyanine green dye was used to analyze flap perfusion intra-operatively and at 1 week and 3 months post-operatively. Image analysis was completed by evaluating the perfusion maps from the SPY- Elite system with Image J software calculate maximum, minimum, and average luminescence over the surface area of the flaps. Student's T-test was used for statistical analysis. Intra-operatively, we found a 73.4% greater perfusion in the free muscle-sparing as compared to the pedicled TRAM. This increase in free muscle-sparing TRAM perfusion was not evident 1 week post-operatively, due to a relative increase in pedicle flap perfusion that coincided with a revision of the pedicled flap due to distal flap necrosis. At 3 months, the free muscle-sparing TRAM flap once again showed superior perfusion with a 15.7% increase over the pedicled flap. We showed superior free muscle-sparing TRAM perfusion in the early peri-operative period which coincided with the time framein which flap loss was most common. Local swelling, pedicle rotation, tunneling, and dominance of the deep inferior epigastric circulation were potential causes of initial decreased pedicled TRAM perfusion. This analysis adds more objective data to the question of indications and relative strengths between free and pedicled TRAM flaps.

  15. The floating (pathogenicity) island: a genomic dessert

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Richard P.; Ram, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Among the prokaryotic genomic islands (GIs) involved in horizontal gene transfer (HGT) are the classical pathogenicity islands, including the integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), the gene-transfer agents (GTAs), and the staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs), the primary focus of this review. While the ICEs and GTAs mediate HGT autonomously, the SaPIs are dependent on specific phages. The ICEs transfer primarily their own DNA the GTAs exclusively unlinked host DNA and the SaPIs combine the capabilities of both. Thus the SaPIs derive their importance from the genes they carry (their genetic cargo) and the genes they move. They act not only as versatile high frequency mobilizers, but also as mediators of phage interference, and consequently are major benefactors of their host bacteria. PMID:26744223

  16. Evolutionary forces shaping genomic islands of population differentiation in humans.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Tamara; Foll, Matthieu; Excoffier, Laurent

    2012-03-22

    Levels of differentiation among populations depend both on demographic and selective factors: genetic drift and local adaptation increase population differentiation, which is eroded by gene flow and balancing selection. We describe here the genomic distribution and the properties of genomic regions with unusually high and low levels of population differentiation in humans to assess the influence of selective and neutral processes on human genetic structure. Individual SNPs of the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP) showing significantly high or low levels of population differentiation were detected under a hierarchical-island model (HIM). A Hidden Markov Model allowed us to detect genomic regions or islands of high or low population differentiation. Under the HIM, only 1.5% of all SNPs are significant at the 1% level, but their genomic spatial distribution is significantly non-random. We find evidence that local adaptation shaped high-differentiation islands, as they are enriched for non-synonymous SNPs and overlap with previously identified candidate regions for positive selection. Moreover there is a negative relationship between the size of islands and recombination rate, which is stronger for islands overlapping with genes. Gene ontology analysis supports the role of diet as a major selective pressure in those highly differentiated islands. Low-differentiation islands are also enriched for non-synonymous SNPs, and contain an overly high proportion of genes belonging to the 'Oncogenesis' biological process. Even though selection seems to be acting in shaping islands of high population differentiation, neutral demographic processes might have promoted the appearance of some genomic islands since i) as much as 20% of islands are in non-genic regions ii) these non-genic islands are on average two times shorter than genic islands, suggesting a more rapid erosion by recombination, and iii) most loci are strongly differentiated between Africans and non-Africans, a

  17. Groundwater Resource Vulnerability for Small Island Developing States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Holding, S.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater constitutes the majority of naturally-occurring freshwater supply on many small islands. However, in addition to potential impacts of climate change and population growth that may compromise water supply and demand on small islands, Small Island Developing States (SIDS) often lack hydrogeological data for characterizing aquifers and have limited institutional means for managing the groundwater resource. As part of UNESCO-IHP's Transboundary Water Assessment Programme (TWAP), an assessment of groundwater systems on 43 SIDS was undertaken. This SIDS assessment represents the first baseline global assessment of the status of groundwater in SIDS, covering all major island states of the world with an area less than 50,000 km2. As many SIDS comprise multiple islands with different hydrogeologic settings, a representative island from each SIDS was chosen to represent the majority of the population. Data were compiled from publications, accessible datasets and a questionnaire distributed to collect local expertise. A total of 74 variables were defined for each SIDS, according to the level of confidence in the data (i.e. high confidence when based on specific studies and low confidence when inferred). These variables represent the current hydrogeologic conditions for each island and were used to define indicators that characterise vulnerability. Recharge was modelled for both current and future projected climate change for the 2060s using regionally downscaled data for each SIDS to identify islands likely to experience significant stress due to changes in recharge. The assessment results were categorized based on island type to identify trends in hydrogeologic conditions and vulnerability for similar island types. Despite limitations and uncertainty in the data used in the assessment, the results provide a broad assessment of current and future groundwater resource vulnerability for SIDS throughout the world.

  18. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  19. Heat Island Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  20. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  1. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Kasei Valles Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-06

    There are several streamlined islands in this image of Kasei Valles. This image captured by NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft is located near the region where Kasei Valles empties into Chryse Planitia.

  3. Approaching Marquette Island

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-01

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took this picture of a rock informally named Marquette Island as the rover was approaching the rock for investigations that have suggested the rock is a stony meteorite.

  4. Henderson Island, South Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-15

    Uninhabited Henderson Island is part of the United Kingdom's Pitcairn Islands group in the South Pacific. According to a study by the University of Tasmania published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, the island has the highest density of plastic waste anywhere in the world, an estimated 38 million pieces of rubbish. The island is near the center of an ocean current, so it collects rubbish from boats and South America. The image was acquired February 7, 2012, covers an area of 10.3 by 12.3 km, and is located at 24.3 degrees south, 128.3 degrees west. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21691

  5. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-03

    STS026-43-082 (29 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1988) --- This 70mm northerly oriented frame over the Pacific Ocean features the Hawaiian Islands chain. The islands perturb the prevailing northeasterly winds producing extensive cloud wakes in the lee of the islands. Photo experts feel that atmospheric haze in the Hawaii wake is probably a result of the continuing eruptions of Kilauea volcano on the southeast coast. From the lower right corner in a diagonal directed upward to the north are the islands of Nihau, Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, Kahoolawe, and Hawaii. This photo was shown during the post-flight press conference on October 11, 1988 by the STS-26 astronauts, who at one time during the flight wore Hawaiian attire to pay tribute to the working staff of the Hawaii tracking station.

  6. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  7. "Treasure Island" and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riach, Alan

    1996-01-01

    Examines the sense of rupture or difference inherent in children's literature between the author or adult and the reader or child, as they concern Robert Louis Stevenson's novel "Treasure Island." (TB)

  8. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  10. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  11. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  12. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  13. Mosquito Survey, Island of Rota (Mariana Islands)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    and has also been collected from Tinfan, The adult of Aedes albopictus a severe pest and it is considered to be an important vector of dengue fever . Bionomic...evidence of local The introduction of Aedes albopictus has brought an acknowledged vector of dengue fever to the island. This is potentially...distance away from human habitation. The adults are ready biters. Medical importance: Vector of dengue fever . 2. Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse

  14. Pectoralis major myofascial interposition flap prevents postoperative pharyngocutaneous fistula in salvage total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Anschütz, Lukas; Nisa, Lluís; Elicin, Olgun; Bojaxhiu, Beat; Caversaccio, Marco; Giger, Roland

    2016-11-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is the most cumbersome complication after salvage total laryngectomy (STL) in patients who have been previously irradiated for laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. To assess the fistula rate, risk factors and effects of primary closure with and without pectoralis major myofascial interposition flap (PMMIF) on fistula formation, we conducted a retrospective review. We identified 48 patients from 2004 to 2013 who underwent STL after failure of primary curative (chemo)radiotherapy in laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer. Details of risk factors for PCF formation, other postoperative complications and general outcome data were analyzed. Ten (20.8 %) out of 48 patients underwent STL with PMMIF closure. Patient and tumor features were not different between the groups with or without PMMIF closure. PCF rates were 0 and 42.1 % in patients with and without PMMIF, respectively (p = 0.002). Other operative complications were similar. We identified prior neck irradiation to be a risk factor for fistula formation (p = 0.04). Patients without PCF had a statistically significant reduction of average hospital stay (20 vs. 56 days; p = 0.001). Analysis of fistula management revealed 50 % of PCF to be closed secondarily by a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap. Over one-third of fistulae persisted despite attempted surgical closure in some cases. PMMIF is useful to prevent PCF in STL following (chemo)radiotherapy. Neck irradiation during primary treatment is a risk factor for PCF formation.

  15. The imprint of geologic history on within-island diversification of woodlouse-hunter spiders (Araneae, Dysderidae) in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Macías-Hernández, Nuria; Bidegaray-Batista, Leticia; Emerson, Brent C; Oromí, Pedro; Arnedo, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    Geological processes and ecological adaptation are major drivers of diversification on oceanic islands. Although diversification in these islands is often interpreted as resulting from dispersal or island hopping rather than vicariance, this may not be the case in islands with complex geological histories. The island of Tenerife, in the Canary Islands, emerged in the late Miocene as 3 precursor islands that were subsequently connected and reisolated by volcanic cycles. The spider Dysdera verneaui is endemic to the island of Tenerife, where it is widely distributed throughout most island habitats, providing an excellent model to investigate the role of physical barriers and ecological adaptation in shaping within-island diversity. Here, we present evidence that the phylogeographic patterns of this species trace back to the independent emergence of the protoislands. Molecular markers (mitochondrial genes cox1, 16S, and nad1 and the nuclear genes ITS-2 and 28S) analyzed from 100 specimens (including a thorough sampling of D. verneaui populations and additional outgroups) identify 2 distinct evolutionary lineages that correspond to 2 precursor islands, each with diagnostic genital characters indicative of separate species status. Episodic introgression events between these 2 main evolutionary lineages explain the observed incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear markers, probably as a result of the homogenization of their ITS-2 sequence types. The most widespread lineage exhibits a complex population structure, which is compatible with either secondary contact, following connection of deeply divergent lineages, or alternatively, a back colonization from 1 precursor island to another.

  16. Barrier island habitat map and vegetation survey—Dauphin Island, Alabama, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hongqing

    2017-08-04

    Barrier islands are dynamic environments due to their position at the land-sea interface. Storms, waves, tides, currents, and relative sea-level rise are powerful forces that shape barrier island geomorphology and habitats (for example, beach, dune, marsh, and forest). Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Deep Water Horizon oil spill in 2010 are two major events that have affected habitats and natural resources on Dauphin Island, Alabama. The latter event prompted a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the State of Alabama funded by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to investigate viable, sustainable restoration options that protect and restore the natural resources of Dauphin Island, Alabama.In order to understand the feasibility and sustainability of various restoration scenarios, it is important to understand current conditions on Dauphin Island. To further this understanding, a detailed 19-class habitat map for Dauphin Island was produced from 1-foot aerial infrared photography collected on December 4, 2015, and lidar data collected in January 2015. We also conducted a ground survey of habitat types, vegetation community structure, and elevations in November and December 2015. These products provide baseline data regarding the ecological and general geomorphological attributes of the area, which can be compared with observations from other dates for tracking changes over time.

  17. Local Factors Determine Plant Community Structure on Closely Neighbored Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lin; Yu, Lin; Sun, Que

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recent popularity of the metacommunity concept, ecologists have not evaluated the applicability of different metacommunity frameworks to insular organisms. We surveyed 50 closely spaced islands in the Thousand-Island Lake of China to examine the role of local (environmental) and regional (dispersal) factors in structuring woody plant assemblages (tree and shrub species) on these islands. By partitioning the variation in plant community structure into local and regional causes, we showed that local environmental conditions, specifically island morphometric characteristics, accounted for the majority of the variation in plant community structure among the studied islands. Spatial variables, representing the potential importance of species dispersal, explained little variation. We conclude that one metacommunity framework–species sorting–best characterizes these plant communities. This result reinforces the idea that the traditional approach of emphasizing the local perspective when studying ecological communities continues to hold its value. PMID:21572960

  18. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  19. Modeling Catastrophic Barrier Island Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, J. W.; McNamara, D.

    2012-12-01

    Barrier islands, thin strips of sand lying parallel to the mainland coastline, along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts appear to have maintained their form for thousands of years in the face of rising sea level. The mechanisms that allow barrier islands to remain robust are transport of sediment from the ocean side of barriers to the top and backside during storms, termed island overwash, and the growth and alongshore propagation of tidal deltas near barrier island inlets. Dynamically these processes provide the necessary feedbacks to maintain a barrier island in an attractor that withstands rising sea level within a phase space of barrier island geometrical characteristics. Current barrier island configurations along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts exist among a wide range of storm climate and underlying geologic conditions and therefore the environment that forces overwash and tidal delta dynamics varies considerably. It has been suggested that barrier islands in certain locations such as those between Avon and Buxton (losing 76% of island width since 1852) and Chandeleur islands (losing 85% of its surface area since 2005) along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, respectively, may be subject to a catastrophic shift in barrier island attractor states - more numerous inlets cutting barriers in some locations and the complete disappearance of barrier islands in other locations. In contrast to common models for barrier islands that neglect storm dynamics and often only consider cross-shore response, we use an alongshore extended model for barrier island dynamics including beach erosion, island overwash and inlet cutting during storms, and beach accretion, tidal delta growth and dune and vegetation growth between storms to explore the response of barrier islands to a wide range of environmental forcing. Results will be presented that show how barrier island attractor states are altered with variations in the rate of sea level rise, storminess, and underlying geology. We will

  20. DNA Microarray Profiling of a Diverse Collection of Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Assigns the Majority to the Correct Sequence Type and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Type and Results in the Subsequent Identification and Characterization of Novel SCCmec-SCCM1 Composite Islands

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Orla M.; Deasy, Emily C.; Rossney, Angela S.; Kinnevey, Peter M.; Ehricht, Ralf; Monecke, Stefan; Coleman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred seventy-five isolates representative of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones that predominated in Irish hospitals between 1971 and 2004 and that previously underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were characterized by spa typing (175 isolates) and DNA microarray profiling (107 isolates). The isolates belonged to 26 sequence type (ST)-SCCmec types and subtypes and 35 spa types. The array assigned all isolates to the correct MLST clonal complex (CC), and 94% (100/107) were assigned an ST, with 98% (98/100) correlating with MLST. The array assigned all isolates to the correct SCCmec type, but subtyping of only some SCCmec elements was possible. Additional SCCmec/SCC genes or DNA sequence variation not detected by SCCmec typing was detected by array profiling, including the SCC-fusidic acid resistance determinant Q6GD50/fusC. Novel SCCmec/SCC composite islands (CIs) were detected among CC8 isolates and comprised SCCmec IIA-IIE, IVE, IVF, or IVg and a ccrAB4-SCC element with 99% DNA sequence identity to SCCM1 from ST8/t024-MRSA, SCCmec VIII, and SCC-CI in Staphylococcus epidermidis. The array showed that the majority of isolates harbored one or more superantigen (94%; 100/107) and immune evasion cluster (91%; 97/107) genes. Apart from fusidic acid and trimethoprim resistance, the correlation between isolate antimicrobial resistance phenotype and the presence of specific resistance genes was ≥97%. Array profiling allowed high-throughput, accurate assignment of MRSA to CCs/STs and SCCmec types and provided further evidence of the diversity of SCCmec/SCC. In most cases, array profiling can accurately predict the resistance phenotype of an isolate. PMID:22869569

  1. Geochemistry of manganese nodules from offshore areas of Mariana Islands and Johnston Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ju-chin; Yao, Yung-chang

    The manganese nodules near the Mariana Islands generally range from 2 to 4 cm in diameter and some samples have porous surfaces. The nodules near Johnston Island are larger in size (5-8 cm in diameter) and more compact than the Mariana nodules. The major FeMn minerals found in Mariana Islands samples are todorokite, birnessite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) while, in the Johnston Island samples, only birnessite and akaganeite are found. The Mariana Islands nodules are higher in Mn, Mg, Na, K, Co, Ni, Pb and Th but lower in Fe, Sr, Zn, Ba, Zr, Y and REEs than the Johnston Island samples. The (Cu + Ni + Co) contents of the Mariana Islands samples are generally higher than 15,000 ppm with {Co}/{Zn} ratios varying from 10 to 15, while the Johnston Island samples generally have (Cu + Ni + Co) between 8000 and 10,000 ppm with {Co}/{Zn} ratios varying from 5 to 7. Therefore these nodules may not be related to hydrothermal activity (Toth, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull.91, 44-54, 1980). Both the Mariana Islands and Johnston Island nodules show similar LREE-enriched patterns with distinct positive Ce anomaly and negative Eu anomaly. The positive correlation between the Ce anomaly defined as log {Ce}/{{2}/{3}La+ {1}/{3}Nd } and {Mn}/{Fe} ratios found in the nodules studied suggest that a phosphorus-rich phase with REE pattern similar to that for biogenous apatite may be the third component in considering the source of REEs in the nodules. The growth rate determined by the excess 230Th method for Johnston Island nodule JA-1, from 0.2 to 0.45 mm depth, is 1.12±0.10 mm/Ma but a much higher rate (17.66 ± 7.61 mm/Ma) is observed from 0.45 to 1.8 mm depth. The growth rate of the nodule may be related to its Mn and Fe contents.

  2. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  3. 11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTH, WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND FROM 130 SOUTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  4. Investigating the Influence of Coastal Islands on River Water Distribution and Mixing in Western Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S. R.; Whitney, M. M.; Jia, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The Saugatuck, Norwalk, and Five Mile Rivers enter western Long Island Sound (LIS) adjacent to a chain of islands. These islands can influence the exchange of river water with the broader estuary. An observational and modeling approach is taken to determine the influence of these islands on the flow pathways and mixing of these coastal river waters. Prior research used a LIS- wide application of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and passive tracers to track the distribution of waters from individual major rivers (e.g. Connecticut and Housatonic) and groups of smaller coastal rivers. The western group of small coastal rivers (including the Saugatuck, Norwalk and Five Mile Rivers) contributes less than 10% of the freshwater in western LIS. The farther removed but larger Connecticut and Housatonic collectively account for more than 75% of the freshwater. These small coastal rivers, however, were found to enhance coastal stratification in early summer more so than the larger rivers. The LIS-wide model, however, lacked adequate resolution to include the island chain and its effects on circulation and freshwater distribution. Recent observations have suggested that these islands can enhance mixing in specific areas around the islands. Observed surface salinities tend to be fresher inshore of the island chain and show a clear freshening after major rain events. A new high resolution nested grid is applied to this area in ROMS to resolve the islands and to isolate their effects. Model output and data collected during the summer of 2015 low discharge season are used for comparative purposes and to determine the overall influence of these islands on the flow pathways and mixing of coastal river waters.

  5. Reduction of Islands in Full-pressure Stellarator Equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Hudson; D.A. Monticello; A.H. Reiman

    2001-04-30

    The control of magnetic islands is a crucial issue in designing Stellarators. Islands are associated with resonant radial magnetic fields at rational rotational-transform surfaces and can lead to chaos and poor plasma confinement. In this article, we show that variations in the resonant fields of a full-pressure stellarator equilibrium can be related to variations in the boundary via a coupling matrix, and inversion of this matrix determines a boundary modification for which the island content is significantly reduced. The numerical procedure is described and the results of island optimization are presented. Equilibria with islands are computed using the Princeton Iterative Equilibrium Solver, and resonant radial fields are calculated via construction of quadratic-flux-minimizing surfaces. A design candidate for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2001], which has a large island, is used to illustrate the technique. Small variations in the boundary shape are used to reduce island size and to reverse the phase of a major island chain.

  6. Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island.

    PubMed Central

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Alex G; Hänel, Christine; Chown, Steven L

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of species to areas beyond the limits of their natural distributions has a major homogenizing influence, making previously distinct biotas more similar. The scale of introductions has frequently been commented on, but their rate and spatial pervasiveness have been less well quantified. Here, we report the findings of a detailed study of pterygote insect introductions to Gough Island, one of the most remote and supposedly pristine temperate oceanic islands, and estimate the rate at which introduced species have successfully established. Out of 99 species recorded from Gough Island, 71 are established introductions, the highest proportion documented for any Southern Ocean island. Estimating a total of approximately 233 landings on Gough Island since first human landfall, this equates to one successful establishment for every three to four landings. Generalizations drawn from other areas suggest that this may be only one-tenth of the number of pterygote species that have arrived at the island, implying that most landings may lead to the arrival of at least one alien. These rates of introduction of new species are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than background levels for Gough Island, an increase comparable to that estimated for global species extinctions (many of which occur on islands) as a consequence of human activities. PMID:12803900

  7. Rates of species introduction to a remote oceanic island.

    PubMed

    Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Alex G; Hänel, Christine; Chown, Steven L

    2003-05-22

    The introduction of species to areas beyond the limits of their natural distributions has a major homogenizing influence, making previously distinct biotas more similar. The scale of introductions has frequently been commented on, but their rate and spatial pervasiveness have been less well quantified. Here, we report the findings of a detailed study of pterygote insect introductions to Gough Island, one of the most remote and supposedly pristine temperate oceanic islands, and estimate the rate at which introduced species have successfully established. Out of 99 species recorded from Gough Island, 71 are established introductions, the highest proportion documented for any Southern Ocean island. Estimating a total of approximately 233 landings on Gough Island since first human landfall, this equates to one successful establishment for every three to four landings. Generalizations drawn from other areas suggest that this may be only one-tenth of the number of pterygote species that have arrived at the island, implying that most landings may lead to the arrival of at least one alien. These rates of introduction of new species are estimated to be two to three orders of magnitude greater than background levels for Gough Island, an increase comparable to that estimated for global species extinctions (many of which occur on islands) as a consequence of human activities.

  8. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Ryan A.; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P.

    2016-01-01

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called ‘small-island effect’ and an overall biphasic species–area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization–extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  9. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    Lanzarote is the easternmost of the Canary Islands, 125 km off the coast of Africa, and is the fourth largest of the archipelago, with an area of 846 square kilometers. Like all of the Canary Islands, its volcanic origin dates to about 15 million years ago. The largest historic eruption occurred in the 1730s. The island was first recorded by Pliny the Elder, though it may have been originally settled by the Phoenicians (Wikipedia). The image was acquired 12 March 2015, covers an area of 50.5 by 55.1 km, and is located near 29 degrees north, 13.6 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21284

  11. Prince Patrick Island, Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-26

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Prince Patrick Island, which is located in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and is the westernmost Elizabeth Island in the Northwest Territories of Canada. The island is underlain by sedimentary rocks, cut by still-active faults. The streams follow a dendritic drainage system: there are many contributing streams (analogous to the twigs of a tree), which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (the branches and the trunk of the tree, respectively). They develop where the river channel follows the slope of the terrain. The image covers an area of 22 by 27 km, was acquired July 2, 2011, and is located at 76.9 degrees north, 118.9 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19222

  12. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  13. Interactions between sea-level rise and wave exposure on reef island dynamics in the Solomon Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Simon; Leon, Javier X.; Grinham, Alistair R.; Church, John A.; Gibbes, Badin R.; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2016-05-01

    Low-lying reef islands in the Solomon Islands provide a valuable window into the future impacts of global sea-level rise. Sea-level rise has been predicted to cause widespread erosion and inundation of low-lying atolls in the central Pacific. However, the limited research on reef islands in the western Pacific indicates the majority of shoreline changes and inundation to date result from extreme events, seawalls and inappropriate development rather than sea-level rise alone. Here, we present the first analysis of coastal dynamics from a sea-level rise hotspot in the Solomon Islands. Using time series aerial and satellite imagery from 1947 to 2014 of 33 islands, along with historical insight from local knowledge, we have identified five vegetated reef islands that have vanished over this time period and a further six islands experiencing severe shoreline recession. Shoreline recession at two sites has destroyed villages that have existed since at least 1935, leading to community relocations. Rates of shoreline recession are substantially higher in areas exposed to high wave energy, indicating a synergistic interaction between sea-level rise and waves. Understanding these local factors that increase the susceptibility of islands to coastal erosion is critical to guide adaptation responses for these remote Pacific communities.

  14. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  15. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  16. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  17. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  18. Santa Rosa Island Mission Utilization Plan Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    fox, feral cats , fire ants, and cactus moths are non-native invasive animal species known to inhabit SRI. Affected Environment Biological Resources...03/22/05 Santa Rosa Island Mission Utilization Plan Page 3-22 Programmatic Environmental Assessment Feral Cats Feral cats are a major predator on...native wildlife species. Over time, and with the assistance of humans, feral cats have become established on Santa Rosa Island. Feral cats hunt

  19. Forest statistics for Rhode Island

    Treesearch

    John R. Peters; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    This report contains data from the second inventory of the forest resources of Rhode Island. The inventory was completed in 1971 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Natural Resources.

  20. On Major Naval Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    to Brindisi. Targets included ports Porto Corsini (near Ravenna), Senigallia, Rimini, Ancona , the Potenza estuary, and Venice.14 The Austrian aircraft...ationally lost, as happened to the U.S. Navy in the battle of Santa Cruz Islands on 26–27 October 1942 in the lower Solomons, and to the Japanese in the...29. The following naval battles were fought: Savo Island (9 August 1942), Eastern Solomons (24 August), Cape Esperance (11–12 Octo- ber), Santa Cruz

  1. Asbestos hazard evaluation in Rhode Island schools.

    PubMed Central

    Faich, G A

    1980-01-01

    A statewide survey to identify and abate spray-on asbestos hazards in schools has been conducted in Rhode Island. Of 326 target schools, 24 (8 per cent) contained material confirmed in the laboratory to be spray-on asbestos. Overt hazards requiring major corrective measures were found in 4 (1 per cent) of the target schools. Simplified identification and reporting procedures allowed for the efficient conduct of the survey. PMID:7352611

  2. Considering the Optimal Timing of Breast Reconstruction With Abdominal Flaps With Adjuvant Irradiation in 370 Consecutive Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap and Free Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Performed in a Chinese Oncology Center

    PubMed Central

    He, Shanshan; Yin, Jian; Robb, Geoffrey L.; Sun, Jingyan; Zhang, Xuehui; Li, Haixin; Liu, Jing; Han, Chunyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose There is an ongoing debate on the optimal sequence of radiation and breast reconstruction. The purpose of this article was to (a) assess the impact of radiation on autologous breast reconstruction and (b) analyze the best timing for autologous breast reconstruction in the setting of radiation in a Chinese population. Methods A retrospective review of patients undergoing breast reconstruction with autologous lower abdominal flaps between 2001 and 2014 in the Tianjin Medical University and Cancer Hospital was performed. Patients were grouped by their irradiation status (irradiated vs nonirradiated). The irradiated group was further stratified into 2 groups by the timing of irradiation (immediate breast reconstruction followed by radiation vs prior radiation and delayed breast reconstruction). The primary outcomes were early and late breast complications, secondary and revision surgeries to the reconstructed breast, whereas the secondary outcomes were aesthetic and psychological evaluations of the patients. Logistic regression was used to assess the potential association between irradiation, patient and treatment variables, and surgical outcomes. Results Three hundred sixty patients with 370 reconstructed breasts were included in the study. Two hundred seventy-eight cases were nonirradiated, of which 158 were immediate and 120 were delayed. Ninety-two cases were irradiated, of which 61 were immediate, and 31 were delayed. Three hundred thirty-two cases underwent pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, 38 had deep inferior epigastric perforator flap. The irradiated group had a significant increase in secondary surgery due to fat necrosis (P < 0.001) and in late complications (P = 0.011). A significant increase in flap contracture (P = 0.043) and an increasing trend in the severity of fat necrosis were observed when radiation was performed after breast reconstruction. However, radiation and its timing did not have an adverse impact on patients

  3. Presurgical Botulinum Toxin A Treatment Increases Angiogenesis by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Subsequent Superiorly Based Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Survival in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Lee, Song Hyun; Park, Yun Joo; Lee, Young Seok; Rah, Dong Kyun; Kim, Sung Young

    2016-06-01

    To date, there have been several experimental studies to assess tissue viability of transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps. Botulinum toxin A (BoTA) has gained popularity in many clinical fields, for a variety of therapeutic and aesthetic purposes. In addition, there have been reports regarding the positive effect of BoTA on flap survival by various mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that pretreatment with BoTA could augment the survival of TRAM flaps via increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-dependent angiogenesis.Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group and a BoTA group. Five days before superiorly based TRAM flap elevation, the BoTA group was pretreated with BoTA, whereas the control group was pretreated with normal saline. Gross flap survival rates were assessed, and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were performed for the evaluation of angiogenesis-related factors (CD34, HIF-1α, and VEGF).In the BoTA group, the gross flap survival rate was significantly higher than that in the control group on both ipsilateral (92.78.3 ± 5.05% vs 86.8 ± 3.88%, P = 0.009) and contralateral (91.57 ± 5.79% vs 74.28 ± 11.83%, P < 0.001) sides.The relative mRNA expression of CD34 and VEGF was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group in every zone, whereas the relative mRNA expression of HIF-1α was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group on contralateral sides. The relative protein expression of CD34, VEGF, and HIF-1α was significantly higher in the BoTA group than that in the control group in every zone.In conclusion, we demonstrate that presurgical BoTA treatment might increase angiogenesis by HIF-1α/VEGF, subsequently increase superiorly based TRAM flap survival in a rat model.

  4. Immediate locally advanced breast cancer and chest wall reconstruction: surgical planning and reconstruction strategies with extended V-Y latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendonça; Montag, Eduardo; Arruda, Eduardo; Okada, Alberto; Brasil, José Augusto; Gemperli, Rolf; Filassi, José Roberto; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2011-06-01

    Surgical resection in locally advanced breast cancer produces large defects that may not be suitable for primary closure. Immediate reconstruction is controversial and presents a complicated scenario for breast surgeons and plastic surgeons. In this study, a different design was planned for the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap with primary closure in V-Y for the correction of major lesions in the anterior chest wall. Twenty-five patients underwent immediate locally advanced breast cancer reconstruction with a V-Y latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. This flap was raised from adjacent tissue located on the lateral and posterior thoracic region and presented a triangular shape whose base was the lateral aspect of the mastectomy wound. The technique was indicated in patients with large thoracic wounds. Mean follow-up time was 16 months. Closure was obtained in the donor and recipient sites without the use of skin grafts or other more major procedures. Complications occurred in nine patients (36 percent), including dorsal wound dehiscence in five patients and seroma in three. All cases except one were treated by a conservative approach with a good result. No total flap loss was reported. All patients achieved a satisfactory thoracic reconstruction and adequate wound care. The V-Y latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is a reliable technique for immediate locally advanced breast cancer reconstruction. The technique is advantageous because the V-Y design allows primary closure of the chest wound and donor defect. Success depends on patient selection, coordinated planning with the breast cancer surgeon, and careful intraoperative management.

  5. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

  6. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?

  7. Dengue transmission in the small-island setting: investigations from the Caribbean island of Grenada.

    PubMed

    Schiøler, Karin L; Macpherson, Calum N

    2009-08-01

    The Caribbean region has experienced a major surge in dengue activity in recent decades. Yet, for many, and especially the smaller islands, the true extent and general epidemiology of dengue transmission remains unclear because of inadequate systems of surveillance and reporting. We established an active surveillance system supported by laboratory-based diagnosis on the small island of Grenada, from January 2001 through June 2002. The surveillance data provided evidence of three distinct modes of disease dynamics in the form of low endemic, pre-epidemic, and overt epidemic transmission of mostly benign dengue fever. A shift in serotype activity and modal age was evident during the noted transition, with the more densely populated south end of the island presenting the focus of transmission.

  8. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern.

  9. Islands in a European mountain river: Linkages with large wood deposition, flood flows and plant diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Walusiak, Edward; Zawiejska, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    Vegetated islands are characteristic landforms of braided mountain rivers. Long-term observations and recent morphological and botanical surveys conducted in the gravel-bed Czarny Dunajec, Polish Carpathians, were used to determine the processes and patterns governing initiation and development of islands and their floristic complexity. Moreover, dendrochronologically estimated years of island inception were compared with the timing and magnitude of flood flows in the period 1970-2011 to infer about controls on the formation and persistence of islands in the river. In the high-energy, braided river, islands originate as a result of deposition of large vegetative particles, mostly large wood, on gravel bars and the associated vegetative regeneration of living wood or the growth of seedlings and saplings in the shelter of wood accumulations. Tree-ring dating of the largest trees growing in particular zones of building and established islands indicated a predominant upstream island growth in the river. It results from repeated accumulation of living wood on the head of islands and its subsequent regeneration and contrasts with the progressive downstream growth of islands in the rivers supplied with large, stable logs of the tree species without the capability to re-sprout. The lack of islands from the years 1982-1996 most likely reflects the removal of relatively young islands by two major floods in the 1990s which were, however, unable to destroy older and larger islands. After 1997 the occurrence of low to moderate floods facilitated the formation and persistence of islands. The plant inventory demonstrated that species richness increased non-linearly with the increasing age, area and shoreline length of islands. Islands supported more plant species than the riparian forest and attained comparable species richness at an early stage of development. Fast developing, dynamic and supporting rich plant communities, islands contribute highly to the overall floristic

  10. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  11. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. Prince Edward Island.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  14. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  15. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  16. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  17. Magnetic-island formation

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

  18. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  19. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  20. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  1. Search for clues to Mesozoic graben on Long Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, W.B.; Aparisi, M.; Sirkin, L.

    1989-01-01

    The position of Long Island between the Hartford Basin of Connecticut and graben structures reported from seismic reflection studies offshore to the south of the island suggests the possibility that other grabens associated with the early Mesozoic rifting might be buried beneath central Long Island. The hypothesis that post-rift tectonic activity would be related to the rift grabens and that such activity would be expressed in the post-rift sedimentary deposits led to a study of the Cretaceous and Pleistocene section to seek clues for buried grabens on Long Island. The Pleistocene glacial deposits in central and eastern Long Island have been mapped and a pollen zonation in the Upper Cretaceous section in the central part established. This work, combined with literature research, suggests the following: 1. (1) In central Long Island, the spacing of wells which reach basement enables a NE- striking zone free of basement samples to be defined where a buried graben could occur. This zone is referred to as the "permissible zone" because within it the data permit the existence of a hidden graben. 2. (2) The abrupt changes in the thickness of some pollen zones in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of central Long Island may be related to Cretaceous faulting. 3. (3) Buried preglacial valleys, the confluence of glacial lobes and major glacial outwash channels seem concentrated in west central and central Long Island. The loci of these drainage features may reflect structural control by a basement depression. 4. (4) The "permissible zone" is aligned with the zone of structures in an offshore zone south of central Long Island and with the Hartford Basin in Connecticut. Geophysical anomalies also fit into this pattern. 5. (5) A definitive answer to the question of a buried graben on Long Island will require a seismic line across the "permissible zone", or further drilling. ?? 1989.

  2. Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Robin, V V; Gupta, Pooja; Thatte, Prachi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation of species that live in naturally patchy metapopulations such as mountaintops or sky islands experiences two levels of patchiness. Effects of such multilevel patchiness on species have rarely been examined. Metapopulation theory suggests that patchy habitats could have varied impacts on persistence, dependent on differential migration. It is not known whether montane endemic species, evolutionarily adapted to natural patchiness, are able to disperse between anthropogenic fragments at similar spatial scales as natural patches. We investigated historic and contemporary gene flow between natural and anthropogenic patches across the distribution range of a Western Ghats sky-island-endemic bird species complex. Data from 14 microsatellites for 218 individuals detected major genetic structuring by deep valleys, including one hitherto undescribed barrier. As expected, we found strong effects of historic genetic differentiation across natural patches, but not across anthropogenic fragments. Contrastingly, contemporary differentiation (D(PS)) was higher relative to historic differentiation (F(ST)) in anthropogenic fragments, despite the species' ability to historically traverse shallow valleys. Simulations of recent isolation resulted in high D(PS)/F(ST) values, confirming recent isolation in Western Ghats anthropogenic fragments and also suggesting that this ratio can be used to identifying recent fragmentation in the context of historic connectedness. We suggest that in this landscape, in addition to natural patchiness affecting population connectivity, anthropogenic fragmentation additionally impacts connectivity, making anthropogenic fragments akin to islands within natural islands of montane habitat, a pattern that may be recovered in other sky-island systems.

  3. Studies of Islands on Freely Suspended Bubbles of Smectic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattanaporkratana, A.; Mavel, B.; Park, C. S.; Maclennan, J. E.; Clark, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    We have constructed an optical system for observing the internal structure of freely suspended smectic liquid crystal bubbles using a reflected light microscope. Liquid crystal bubbles can have thicker circular regions (islands) which can easily be generated by shrinking the bubble diameter. The diameter of these islands is approximately 10 microns and they are typically up to five times thicker than the surrounding liquid crystal film (500 angstroms). In the Laboratory, the location of the islands is strongly influenced by gravity, which causes the majority of islands to migrate to the bottom half of the bubble. We will describe the size and thickness distributions of islands and their time evolution, and also discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence of smectic bubbles, the shapes of islands and holes affected by bubble vibrations, and the interactions between islands, which we have probed using optical tweezers.

  4. Studies of Islands on Freely Suspended Bubbles of Smectic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattanaporkratana, A.; Mavel, B.; Park, C. S.; Maclennan, J. E.; Clark, N. A.

    2002-01-01

    We have constructed an optical system for observing the internal structure of freely suspended smectic liquid crystal bubbles using a reflected light microscope. Liquid crystal bubbles can have thicker circular regions (islands) which can easily be generated by shrinking the bubble diameter. The diameter of these islands is approximately 10 microns and they are typically up to five times thicker than the surrounding liquid crystal film (500 angstroms). In the Laboratory, the location of the islands is strongly influenced by gravity, which causes the majority of islands to migrate to the bottom half of the bubble. We will describe the size and thickness distributions of islands and their time evolution, and also discuss two-dimensional hydrodynamics and turbulence of smectic bubbles, the shapes of islands and holes affected by bubble vibrations, and the interactions between islands, which we have probed using optical tweezers.

  5. A research framework of payments for environmental services of island based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-an; Cheng, Jianyu; Liu, Qiong; Fu, Dongyang

    2012-10-01

    The issue of island ecological environment deterioration has been a major concern worldwide, and is considered one of the critical problems crying out for solutions in the ocean ecosystem research. Based on principle of social equity, Payments for Environmental Services(PES) has, by far, become an effective means of internalization to settle the external problems of public goods in recent years. Taking islands as the object, this paper is to expound the cocept of island PES , and to reveal the mechanism of island PES with the purpose of constructing the PES mechanism of island with multidisciplinary methods, such as the marine ecology, ecological economics combined with remote-sensing data. This study will lay the theoretical foundation for ameliorating island environmental protection policy, and provide guidance to the government in making island development strategy and PES programs.

  6. Refining the link between the Holocene development of the Mississippi River Delta and the geologic evolution of Cat Island, MS: implications for delta-associated barrier islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miselis, Jennifer L.; Buster, Noreen A.; Kindinger, Jack G.

    2014-01-01

    underscores the potential for increased future vulnerability of barrier islands that develop adjacent to major river delta complexes.

  7. Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The consequences of bone metastasis are often devastating. Although the exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, it is estimated that 350,000 people die of bone metastasis annually in the United States. The incidence of local recurrences after mastectomy and breast-conserving therapy varies between 5% and 40% depending on the risk factors and primary therapy utilized. So far, a standard therapy of local recurrence has not been defined, while indications of resection and reconstruction considerations have been infrequently described. This case report reviews the use of sternectomy for breast cancer recurrence, highlights the need for thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation to ensure the absence of other systemic diseases, and suggests the use of serratus anterior muscle flap as a pedicle graft to cover full-thickness defects of the anterior chest wall. Case presentation We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who was referred to our hospital for the management of a retrosternal mediastinal mass. She had undergone radical mastectomy in 1999. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 74.23 × 37.7 × 133.6-mm mass in the anterior mediastinum adjacent to the main pulmonary artery, the right ventricle and the ascending aorta. We performed total sternectomy at all layers encompassing the skin, the subcutaneous tissues, the right pectoralis major muscle, all the costal cartilages, and the anterior part of the pericardium. The defect was immediately closed using a 0.6 mm Gore-Tex cardiovascular patch combined with a serratus anterior muscle flap. Our patient had remained asymptomatic during her follow-up examination after 18 months. Conclusion Chest wall resection has become a critical component of the thoracic surgeon's armamentarium. It may be performed to treat either benign conditions (osteoradionecrosis, osteomyelitis) or malignant diseases. There are, however, very few reports on the results of full

  8. Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Daliakopoulos, Stavros I; Klimatsidas, Michael N; Korfer, Reiner

    2010-03-01

    The consequences of bone metastasis are often devastating. Although the exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, it is estimated that 350,000 people die of bone metastasis annually in the United States. The incidence of local recurrences after mastectomy and breast-conserving therapy varies between 5% and 40% depending on the risk factors and primary therapy utilized. So far, a standard therapy of local recurrence has not been defined, while indications of resection and reconstruction considerations have been infrequently described. This case report reviews the use of sternectomy for breast cancer recurrence, highlights the need for thorough clinical and radiologic evaluation to ensure the absence of other systemic diseases, and suggests the use of serratus anterior muscle flap as a pedicle graft to cover full-thickness defects of the anterior chest wall. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who was referred to our hospital for the management of a retrosternal mediastinal mass. She had undergone radical mastectomy in 1999. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 74.23 x 37.7 x 133.6-mm mass in the anterior mediastinum adjacent to the main pulmonary artery, the right ventricle and the ascending aorta. We performed total sternectomy at all layers encompassing the skin, the subcutaneous tissues, the right pectoralis major muscle, all the costal cartilages, and the anterior part of the pericardium. The defect was immediately closed using a 0.6 mm Gore-Tex cardiovascular patch combined with a serratus anterior muscle flap. Our patient had remained asymptomatic during her follow-up examination after 18 months. Chest wall resection has become a critical component of the thoracic surgeon's armamentarium. It may be performed to treat either benign conditions (osteoradionecrosis, osteomyelitis) or malignant diseases. There are, however, very few reports on the results of full-thickness complete chest wall resections for locally

  9. FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLANDERS FIELDS MEMORIAL IN TRAFFIC ISLAND ON EAST DRIVE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  11. The dynamics of genetic and morphological variation on volcanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Gübitz, Thomas; Thorpe, Roger S; Malhotra, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos of volcanic origin have been important in the study of evolution because they provide repeated natural experiments allowing rigorous tests of evolutionary hypotheses. Ongoing volcanism on these islands may, however, affect the evolutionary diversification of species. Analysis of population structure and phylogeographic patterns in island populations can provide insight into evolutionary dynamics on volcanic islands. We analysed genetic and morphological variation in the gecko Tarentola boettgeri on the island of Gran Canaria and compared it with Tarentola delalandii on Tenerife, a neighbouring volcanic island of similar age but distinctly different geological past. Intraspecific divergence of mitochondrial haplotypes indicates long-term persistence of Tarentola on each island, with a phylogeographic signal left by older volcanic events. More recent volcanic eruptions (approximately 0.2 million years ago on Tenerife, approximately 2.2 million years ago on Gran Canaria) have left a signature of population expansion in the population genetic structure, the strength of which depends on the time since the last major volcanic eruption on each island. While these stochastic events have left traces in morphological variation in Tenerife, in Gran Canaria geographical variation was solely associated with environmental variables. This suggests that historically caused patterns in morphology may be overwritten by natural selection within 2 million years. PMID:15870037

  12. 76 FR 19116 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...Donough, McHenry, Menard, Mercer, Morgan, Moultrie, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Putnam, Richland, Rock Island...

  13. High genetic diversity in the offshore island populations of the tephritid fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chunyan; Zheng, Chunyan; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan

    2016-10-13

    different populations on mainland China. Our study suggests that these island populations have high genetic diversity, experience frequent gene flow and exhibit low or medium levels of genetic differentiation among some island populations. Therefore, the geographic isolation of the six islands does not appear to be a major dispersal barrier to B. dorsalis. Such knowledge is helpful for a better understanding of evolutionary processes of the species of island populations.

  14. The emergence and evolution of Santa Maria Island (Azores) - the conundrum of uplifting islands revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalho, R. S.; Helffrich, G. R.; Madeira, J.; Cosca, M. A.; Quartau, R.; Thomas, C.; Hipólito, A.; Ávila, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The growth and decay of ocean island volcanoes is intrinsically linked to vertical movements; whilst mechanisms for subsidence are well understood, uplift mechanisms are still very enigmatic. Santa Maria Island in the Azores is an ocean island volcano with a complex evolutionary history with subsidence followed by uplift. The island emerged by surtseyan activity at approximately 6 Ma, entailing in the formation of a subaerial shield volcano that was fully developed by ~5.6 Ma. The edifice then experienced a period of intense erosion and subsidence, during which it was partially or completely truncated to a shallow submarine bank. Around 5 Ma, volcanism resumed on the eastern side of the edifice, with occasional submarine/surtseyan activity synchronous with marine deposition. By ~4.3 Ma, volcanism grew in intensity forming a new edifice centred on the eastern flank of the underlying edifice. This new volcanic edifice started as submarine and then, as it gradually grew upwards and outpaced subsidence, breached sea level and formed a new island. The new edifice kept growing eastwards and northwards until ~3.5 Ma, when volcanic activity waned. At 3.5-3.2 Ma, however, subsidence reversed to an uplift trend that extended throughout the Upper Pleistocene into the present. This uplift trend is responsible for the generation of a staircase of shore platforms on the windward side of the island, which extends up to ~230 m in elevation. The fact that an island located in very young lithosphere experienced such a pronounced uplift trend is remarkable and raises important questions concerning possible uplift mechanisms. The loading of the neighbouring island of São Miguel may account for part of the uplift, but not the majority. Vertical tectonics along the nearby Gloria Fault is not completely implausible but unlikely to be a source of significant uplift due to its dominant strike-slip character. Thus, other mechanisms need to be considered, most notably intrusions at the base

  15. Native Americans, regional drought and tree Island evolution in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernhardt, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses palynologic data to determine the effects of regional climate variability and human activity on the formation and development of tree islands during the last ~4000 years. Although prolonged periods of aridity have been invoked as one mechanism for their formation, Native American land use has also been hypothesized as a driver of tree island development. Using pollen assemblages from head and near tail sediments collected on two tree islands and documented archeological data, the relative roles of Native Americans, climate variability, and recent water-management practices in forming and structuring Everglades tree islands are examined. The timing of changes recorded in the pollen record indicates that tree islands developed from sawgrass marshes ~3800 cal. yr BP, prior to human occupation. Major tree island expansion, recorded near tail sediments, occurred ~1000 years after initial tree island formation. Comparison of the timing of pollen assemblages with other proxy records indicates that tree island expansion is related to regional and global aridity correlated with southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Local fire associated with droughts may also have influenced tree island expansion. This work suggests that Native American occupation did not significantly influence tree island formation and that the most important factors governing tree island expansion are extreme hydrologic events due to droughts and intense twentieth century water management.

  16. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  17. Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

  18. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  19. A model for fracturation in the Loyalty Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Igor; Huaman, David; Thovert, Jean-François; Genthon, Pierre; Adler, Pierre M.

    2007-10-01

    The Loyalty Islands are a series of limestone karstified islands that are currently uplifted and deformed on the elastic bulge of the Australian plate before its subduction at the Vanuatu trench (SW Pacific). These islands have been extensively surveyed for geology and hydrogeology, and fracturation maps have been produced which indicate a major direction N110±35°. This fracture orientation is analytically modeled as resulting from the elastic deformation of the Australian lithosphere before its subduction. First, the vertical deflection around a circular subduction zone is determined. Second, a point force is introduced which accounts for the first stages of a collision between the Loyalty ridge and this circular subduction zone. This model yields principal stress orientations and elevations of the islands in fair agreement with real data.

  20. Urban Heat Islands and Urban Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Paolo; Ceriola, Giulio; Daglis, Ioannis A.; de Ridder, Koen; Giannaros, Theodoros; Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Maiheu, Bino; Melas, Dimitrios; Montero Herrero, Enrique; Paganini, Marc; Palacios, Marino; Radius, Andrea; Sapage, Tania; Tamame, Maria; Tambuyzer, Han; Viel, Monique

    2010-12-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Urban Thermography project is a project funded by ESA under the DUE program. The project started on 1st November 2008 and will last 2.5 years. The UHI project is relying on all satellite missions that embark TIR sensors to analyse the spatial variability of the Urban Heat Islands in the metropolitan areas of 10 European cities over the last 10 years. Moreover, thermography mapping using airborne data have been or will be performed for Athens, Madrid and Brussels. The project is contributing to the 'Reorientation of the Fuegosat Consolidation Phase', through the collection and synthesis of user requirements for a frequent and routine observation of surface and air temperatures in the core of the major European cities and in the surrounding peri-urban areas.

  1. Island-trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    model of the depth-integrated flow for the world ocean allowing for island circulations . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 45:89–112, 1989. J. MacKinnon...Mountain waves in the deep ocean . Nature, 501:321–322, 2013. M. Nikurashin and R. Ferrari. Overturning circulation driven by breaking internal waves...Island-trapped waves, internal waves, and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California

  2. Island-Trapped Waves, Internal Waves, and Island Circulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Island-trapped waves, internal waves, and island circulation T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography University of California...extent of the topography is larger or smaller than the deformation radius, the topographic effects on circulation are different. Going from large to...2011), and may be an energy sink for the geostrophic circulation (Wright et al., 2014); • Strong flow at small islands leads to persistent submesoscale

  3. Hydrologic framework of Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smolensky, Douglas A.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Shernoff, Peter K.

    1990-01-01

    Long Island, N.Y., is underlain by a mass of unconsolidated geologic deposits of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie southward-sloping consolidated bedrock. These deposits are thinnest in northern Queens County (northwestern Long Island), where bedrock crops out, and increase to a maximum thickness of 2,000 ft in southeastern Long Island. This sequence of unconsolidated deposits consists of several distinct geologic units ranging in age from late Cretaceous through Pleistocene, with some recent deposits near shores and streams. These units are differentiated by age, depositional environment, and lithology in table 1. Investigations of ground-water availability and flow patterns may require information on the internal geometry of the hydrologic system that geologic correlations and interpretation alone cannot provide; hydrologic interpretations in which deposits are differentiated on the basis of water-transmitting properties are generally needed also. This set of maps and vertical sections depicts the hydrogeologic framework of the unconsolidated deposits that form Long Island's ground-water system. These deposits can be classified into eight major hydrogeologic units (table 1). The hydrogeologic interpretations presented herein are not everywhere consistent with strict geologic interpretation owing to facies changes and local variations in the water-transmitting properties within geologic units. These maps depict the upper-surface altitude of seven of the eight hydrogeologic units, which, in ascending order, are: consolidated bedrock, Lloyd aquifer, Raritan confining unit, Magothy aquifer, Monmouth greensand, Jameco aquifer, and Gardiners Clay. The upper glacial aquifer—the uppermost unit—is at land surface over most of Long Island and is, therefore, not included. The nine north-south hydrogeologic sections shown below depict the entire sequence of unconsolidated deposits and, together with the maps, provide a detailed three-dimensional interpretation of

  4. Altamaha River Delta, Georgia Sea Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The history of sea islands in the Altamaha River delta on the coast of Georgia is revealed in this image produced from data acquired by the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The outlines of long-lost plantation rice fields, canals, dikes and other inlets are clearly defined. Salt marshes are shown in red, while dense cypress and live oak tree canopies are seen in yellow-greens.

    Agricultural development of the Altamaha delta began soon after the founding of the Georgia Colony in 1733. About 25 plantations were located on the low-lying islands and shores by the 19th century, taking advantage of the rich alluvial flow and annual inundation of water required by some crops. The first major crop was indigo; when demand for that faded, rice and cotton took its place. A major storm in 1824 destroyed much of the town of Darien (upper right) and put many of the islands under 20 feet of water. The Civil War ended the plantation system, and many of the island plantations disappeared under heavy brush and new growth pine forests. Some were used as tree farms for paper and pulp industries, while the Butler Island (center left) plantation became a wildlife conservation site growing wild sea rice for migrating ducks and other waterfowl. Margaret Mitchell is reputed to have used the former owner of the Butler Plantation as a basis for the Rhett Butler character in her novel 'Gone With The Wind,' taking the first name from Rhett's Island (lower right).

    These data were obtained during a 1994-95 campaign along the Georgia coast. AIRSAR's ability to detect vegetation canopy density, hydrological features and other topographic characteristics is a useful tool in landscape archaeology. AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The analysis on the data shown was accomplished by Dr. Gary Mckay, Department of Archaeology and Geography, and Ian

  5. Altamaha River Delta, Georgia Sea Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The history of sea islands in the Altamaha River delta on the coast of Georgia is revealed in this image produced from data acquired by the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), developed and operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The outlines of long-lost plantation rice fields, canals, dikes and other inlets are clearly defined. Salt marshes are shown in red, while dense cypress and live oak tree canopies are seen in yellow-greens.

    Agricultural development of the Altamaha delta began soon after the founding of the Georgia Colony in 1733. About 25 plantations were located on the low-lying islands and shores by the 19th century, taking advantage of the rich alluvial flow and annual inundation of water required by some crops. The first major crop was indigo; when demand for that faded, rice and cotton took its place. A major storm in 1824 destroyed much of the town of Darien (upper right) and put many of the islands under 20 feet of water. The Civil War ended the plantation system, and many of the island plantations disappeared under heavy brush and new growth pine forests. Some were used as tree farms for paper and pulp industries, while the Butler Island (center left) plantation became a wildlife conservation site growing wild sea rice for migrating ducks and other waterfowl. Margaret Mitchell is reputed to have used the former owner of the Butler Plantation as a basis for the Rhett Butler character in her novel 'Gone With The Wind,' taking the first name from Rhett's Island (lower right).

    These data were obtained during a 1994-95 campaign along the Georgia coast. AIRSAR's ability to detect vegetation canopy density, hydrological features and other topographic characteristics is a useful tool in landscape archaeology. AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The analysis on the data shown was accomplished by Dr. Gary Mckay, Department of Archaeology and Geography, and Ian

  6. The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

  7. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  8. Coastal Transport Integrated System in the Aegean Sea Islands: Framework, Methodology, Data Issues and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Stratakis, P.; Karathanasis, C.; Gkadolou, E.; Pagounis, V.; Chronis, K.; Gatsiou, M.; Moumouri-Frag, F.; Tsekos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Greece has more than one hundred inhabited islands, the majority of them are geographically scattered in small distances in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea suffers systematically from two major issues. First, many islands are not served quite frequently with the continent or other islands' major ports. It is a situation rather problematic for the habitants of the islands who wish to travel, for the patients in need to be transferred to metropolitan hospitals, for the goods transport from and to islands. Second, there is a crucial issue in the Aegean Sea regarding the so-called "thin lines". Governments spend every year tens of million euros in subsidies in order to sustain the thin lines. Our aim is the development of an integrated and holistic spatial information system to effectively design coastal transportation lines to combat the above mentioned problems. This paper will present the project framework, the methodology followed, data issues and preliminary results.

  9. Using hydrogeochemical methods to evaluate complex quaternary subsurface stratigraphy Block Island, Rhode Island, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veeger, A.I.; Stone, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems in Hydrogeologic investigations of glaciated regions is the determination of complex stratigraphic relationships in the subsurface where insufficient information is available from drilling and geophysical records. In this paper, chemical characteristics of groundwater were used to identify stratigraphic changes in glacial deposits that were previously inferred on Block Island, Rhode Island, USA, an emergent remnant of the late Wisconsinan terminal moraine, located approximately 16 km south of the Rhode Island mainland. Two chemically distinct water types are recognized on the island: 1) high-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels in excess of 20 mg/L, bicarbonate greater than 30 mg/L and dissolved iron ranging from 1-20 mg/L; and 2) low-iron, characterized by dissolved silica levels below 16 mg/L, bicarbonate less than 30 mg/L, and less than 0.3 mg/L dissolved iron. The spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and organic matter and the resulting redox conditions are believed to control the occurrence of highiron groundwater. The high-iron waters occur almost exclusively in the eastern half of the island and appear to coincide with the presence of allochthonous blocks of Cretaceous-age coastal-plain sediments that were incorporated into Pleistocene-age deposits derived from the Narragansett Bay-Buzzard's Bay lobe of the Late Wisconsinan Laurentide ice sheet. The low-iron waters occur in the western half of the island, where the occurrence of these Cretaceous-age blocks is rare and the sediments are attributed to a sublobe of the Hudson-Champlain lobe of the Late Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  10. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule, technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the geographic coordinates for Bucholz Army Airfield (AAF), Kwajalein Island, Marshall...

  11. Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lenna L.; Yi, Joyce P.; Beyer, Jennifer; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Dabelea, Dana M.; Lawrence, Jean M.; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Marcovina, Santica M.; Waitzfelder, Beth E.; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Given limited reports on diabetes among U.S. Asian and Pacific Islander youth, we describe the clinical characteristics, incidence, and prevalence of diabetes among Asian, Pacific Islander, and mixed Asian–Pacific Islander youth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Data were collected from 245 Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islander participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study, a population-based study of diabetes in youth (aged <20 years). Additionally, we estimated the incidence and prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes for Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islander youth combined. RESULTS—Most participants with type 2 diabetes were obese (range Asian 71% to Pacific Islander 100%) with mean BMI >33 kg/m2. In those with type 1 diabetes, Pacific Islanders were more likely to be obese, with a mean BMI of 26 vs. 20 kg/m2 for Asian and Asian–Pacific Islander youth (P < 0.0001). The incidence of type 1 diabetes for youth aged 0–9 years was 6.4 per 100,000 person-years and 7.4 per 100,000 person-years for youth aged 10–19 years. The incidence of type 2 diabetes was 12.1 per 100,000 person-years for youth aged 10–19 years. CONCLUSIONS—While Asian and Asian–Pacific Islanders with type 1 and type 2 diabetes had lower mean BMIs than Pacific Islanders, all Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes had mean BMIs above adult ethnicity-specific definitions of obesity. While the majority of Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islander youth had type 1 diabetes, older Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islander youth (aged 10–19 years) have an incidence of type 2 diabetes almost double that of type 1 diabetes. Public health efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes and obesity in Asian, Pacific Islander, and Asian–Pacific Islander adolescents are needed. PMID:19246578

  12. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  13. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  14. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  15. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  16. 32 CFR 935.62 - Island Attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Island Attorney. 935.62 Section 935.62 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Judiciary § 935.62 Island Attorney. There is an Island Attorney, appointed by the General Counsel as needed. The Island Attorney shall serve at the pleasure of the General Counsel. The...

  17. CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toyota, Minoru; Ahuja, Nita; Ohe-Toyota, Mutsumi; Herman, James G.; Baylin, Stephen B.; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    1999-01-01

    Aberrant methylation of promoter region CpG islands is associated with transcriptional inactivation of tumor-suppressor genes in neoplasia. To understand global patterns of CpG island methylation in colorectal cancer, we have used a recently developed technique called methylated CpG island amplification to examine 30 newly cloned differentially methylated DNA sequences. Of these 30 clones, 19 (63%) were progressively methylated in an age-dependent manner in normal colon, 7 (23%) were methylated in a cancer-specific manner, and 4 (13%) were methylated only in cell lines. Thus, a majority of CpG islands methylated in colon cancer are also methylated in a subset of normal colonic cells during the process of aging. In contrast, methylation of the cancer-specific clones was found exclusively in a subset of colorectal cancers, which appear to display a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). CIMP+ tumors also have a high incidence of p16 and THBS1 methylation, and they include the majority of sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability related to hMLH1 methylation. We thus define a pathway in colorectal cancer that appears to be responsible for the majority of sporadic tumors with mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:10411935

  18. The Effect of the Past on the Present: Cook Islands Teachers' Perceptions of Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Frances

    2013-01-01

    In many countries where English is taught as a second language, the majority of the language teachers are NNS (non-native speakers) of English. Little research based on the experience of NNS teachers in a Pacific Islands context seems to be available. This article explores the knowledge, beliefs, and insights of three Cook Islands teachers and the…

  19. Guided Educational Tourism as Informal Physical Geography Education on St. Helena Island, Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Joseph M.; Stoltman, Joseph P.

    2017-01-01

    Guided educational tours are a major activity within informal education. This article examines the potential for tour guides of a largely historical tour of St. Helena Island, Michigan, to include physical geography within the tour. Using field data and interview methods, the researchers identified the physical features of the island that could be…

  20. Upland forests of the American/Pacific Islands: research opportunities in Micronesia and American Samoa

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell

    1993-01-01

    Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna vegetation; such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of...

  1. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  2. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  3. 76 FR 2572 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... part 71 by amending Class E airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI (75 FR 61993... Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI, as published in the Federal ] Register on October 7, 2010, FR Doc...

  4. Streamlined islands and the English Channel megaflood hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. S.; Oggioni, F.; Gupta, S.; García-Moreno, D.; Trentesaux, A.; De Batist, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recognising ice-age catastrophic megafloods is important because they had significant impact on large-scale drainage evolution and patterns of water and sediment movement to the oceans, and likely induced very rapid, short-term effects on climate. It has been previously proposed that a drainage system on the floor of the English Channel was initiated by catastrophic flooding in the Pleistocene but this suggestion has remained controversial. Here we examine this hypothesis through an analysis of key landform features. We use a new compilation of multi- and single-beam bathymetry together with sub-bottom profiler data to establish the internal structure, planform geometry and hence origin of a set of 36 mid-channel islands. Whilst there is evidence of modern-day surficial sediment processes, the majority of the islands can be clearly demonstrated to be formed of bedrock, and are hence erosional remnants rather than depositional features. The islands display classic lemniscate or tear-drop outlines, with elongated tips pointing downstream, typical of streamlined islands formed during high-magnitude water flow. The length-to-width ratio for the entire island population is 3.4 ± 1.3 and the degree-of-elongation or k-value is 3.7 ± 1.4. These values are comparable to streamlined islands in other proven Pleistocene catastrophic flood terrains and are distinctly different to values found in modern-day rivers. The island geometries show a correlation with bedrock type: with those carved from Upper Cretaceous chalk having larger length-to-width ratios (3.2 ± 1.3) than those carved into more mixed Paleogene terrigenous sandstones, siltstones and mudstones (3.0 ± 1.5). We attribute these differences to the former rock unit having a lower skin friction which allowed longer island growth to achieve minimum drag. The Paleogene islands, although less numerous than the Chalk islands, also assume more perfect lemniscate shapes. These lithologies therefore reached island

  5. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

  7. Reunion Island Volcano Erupts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  9. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input. PMID:26913017

  10. Fire Island National Seashore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayagandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2007-01-01

    These lidar-derived topographic maps were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. The aims of the partnership that created this product are to develop advanced survey techniques for mapping barrier island geomorphology and habitats, and to enable the monitoring of ecological and geological change within National Seashores. This product is based on data from an innovative airborne lidar instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL).

  11. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  12. The submental island flap.

    PubMed

    Sterne, G D; Januszkiewicz, J S; Hall, P N; Bardsley, A F

    1996-03-01

    The submental island flap is a reliable source of skin of excellent colour, contour and texture match for facial resurfacing and leaves a well hidden donor site. The flap is safe, rapid and simple to raise. We report on its use in 12 cases of facial or intraoral reconstruction. Complications were few. However, there was one case of complete flap loss following its use in a reverse flow manner, due to the presence of an unreported, but constant, valve in the venous system of the face. We believe this flap to be a worthwhile addition to the existing surgical armamentarium.

  13. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  14. Rain on small tropical islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, A. H.; Burleyson, C. D.; Yuter, S. E.

    2011-04-01

    A high-resolution rainfall climatology based on observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's Precipitation Radar (PR) instrument is used to evaluate the influence of small tropical islands on climatological rainfall. Islands with areas between one hundred and several thousand km2 are considered in both the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent and Caribbean regions. Annual mean climatological (1997-2007) rainfall over each island is compared with that over the surrounding ocean region, and the difference is expressed as a percentage. In addition to total rainfall, rain frequency and intensity are also analyzed. Results are stratified into two 12 h halves of the diurnal cycle as well as eight 3 h periods, and also by a measure of each island's topographic relief. In both regions, there is a clear difference between larger islands (areas of a few hundred km2 or greater) and smaller ones. Both rain frequency and total rainfall are significantly enhanced over larger islands compared to the surrounding ocean. For smaller islands the enhancement is either negligibly small, statistically insignificant, or, in the case of Caribbean rain frequency, negative. The enhancement in total rainfall over larger islands is partly attributable to greater frequency and partly to greater intensity. A diurnal cycle in island enhancement is evident in frequency but not intensity, except over small Caribbean islands where the converse is true. For the larger islands, higher orography is associated with greater rainfall enhancements. The orographic effect is larger (percentagewise) in the Caribbean than in the Maritime Continent. Orographic precipitation enhancement manifests more strongly as increased frequency of precipitation rather than increased intensity and is present at night as well as during the day. The lack of a clear diurnal cycle in orographic enhancement suggests that much of the orographic rainfall enhancement is attributable to mechanically forced upslope flow

  15. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  16. Analysis of shoreline and geomorphic change for Breton Island, Louisiana, from 1869 to 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrano, Joseph F.; Flocks, James G.; Smith, Kathryn E. L.

    2016-04-19

    Many barrier islands in the United States are eroding and losing elevation substantively because of storm surge, waves, and sea-level changes. This is particularly true for the deltaic barrier system in Louisiana. Breton Island is near the mouth of the Mississippi River at the southern end of the Chandeleur barrier island chain in southeast Louisiana. This report expands on previous geomorphic studies of Breton Island by incorporating additional historic and recent datasets. Multiple analyses focus on longand short-term shoreline change, as well as episodic events and anthropogenic modification. Analyses periods include long term (1869–2014), long-term historic (1869–1950), post-Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (1950–2014), pre/post-Hurricane Katrina (2004–5), and recent (2005–14). In addition to shoreline change, barrier island geomorphology is evaluated using island area, elevation, and sediment volume change. In the long term (1869–2014), Breton Island was affected by landward transgression, island narrowing, and elevation loss. Major storm events exacerbated the long-term trends. In the recent period (2005–14), Breton Island eroded at a slower rate than in the long-term and gained area and total sediment volume. The recent accretion is likely because of the lack of major storms since Hurricane Katrina in 2005.

  17. Emerging energy technologies in an island environment: Hawaii. [Review

    SciTech Connect

    Shupe, J.W.; Weingart, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    Island communities have energy-supply problems that differ appreciably from those of major land masses. There is usually an absence of local fossil fuel reserves, such as oil, natural gas and coal, as well as a limited infrastructure for delivering energy. This lack of flexibility requires island communities to satisfy their energy demands with indigenous resources, plus whatever energy supply is imported by sea. In recent years, the energy needs of many island communities have been met almost entirely by seaborne petroleum. As imported oil has become increasingly more expensive and less secure, greater effort has been directed by some island communities toward the development of their local energy resources. A case study illustrates the progress made to date in one island area - Hawaii - in minimizing its near-total dependence on seaborne petroleum. However, there should be some spin-off of this experience to regional energy planning, not only to other island communities, but also to regions within developing countries that share many of these characteristics. 34 references, 6 figures, 6 tables.

  18. Islands, mainland, and terrestrial fragments: How isolation shapes plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Martín-Queller, Emi; Albert, Cécile H; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-09-01

    The fragmentation of natural habitats is a major threat for biodiversity. However, the impact and spatial scale of natural isolation mechanisms leading to species loss, compared to anthropogenic fragmentation, are not clear, mainly due to differences between fragments and islands, such as matrix permeability. We studied a 500 km(2) Mediterranean region in France, including urban habitat fragments, continuous habitat, and continental-shelf islands. On the basis of 295 floristic relevés, we built species-area relationships to compare isolation in fragments after urbanization, with continuous habitat and continental-shelf islands. We assumed either no dispersal, infinite dispersal, or estimated intermediate levels of habitat reachability through graph theory. Isolation mechanisms occurred in fragments but with a lower strength than in near-shore islands, and most importantly affected perennial plants. Annual plants were less affected, probably due to their smaller size and shorter life cycle. Isolation occurred at landscape level in fragments and at patch level in islands. The amount of reachable habitat (accounting for spatial configuration) explained local species richness in both systems, but the amount of habitat (no consideration of spatial configuration) was already a good predictor. These results suggest an important role of habitat amount around fragments in mitigating the isolation effects observed in near-shore islands, and the importance of carefully considering different functional groups.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in the seroprevalence of canine heartworm antigen in the island fox.

    PubMed

    Roemer, G W; Coonan, T J; Garcelon, D K; Starbird, C H; McCall, J W

    2000-10-01

    Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are endemic to six of the eight California Channel Islands (USA). The island fox is classified as a threatened species by the State of California, and recently three of the six subspecies have experienced abrupt population declines. As part of a continuing effort to determine the cause of the declines, we tested island fox serum samples collected in 1988 (n = 176) and 1997-98 (n = 156) over the entire geographic range of the species for seroprevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) antigen. Using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PetChek, Idexx Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) we detected heartworm antigen in four of the six populations of island foxes. On San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, seroprevalence in adult foxes was >85% (n = 62) in 1988 and increased to 100% (n = 24) in 1997-98. On Santa Cruz Island, seroprevalence in adult foxes decreased from 83% (n = 30) to 58% (n = 26), whereas on San Nicolas Island, seroprevalence increased from 25% (n = 32) to 77% (n = 30) during the same period. All of the pups assayed (n = 33) were seronegative. The seroprevalences of heartworm reported herein for the four populations of island foxes are the highest yet reported for a fox species. However, additional demographic data reported elsewhere suggests that heartworm has not been a major factor in the recent declines of island fox populations.

  20. Ellis Island: The Immigrants' Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson where the students participate in a simulation of the process at Ellis Island in order to understand the feelings people underwent during immigration. Explains that the students choose and research a character, either fictional or a relative, and act out the experience of entering Ellis Island. (CMK)

  1. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  2. Motorcycle helmet use in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Hayda, Roman A; Adams, Charles A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Born, Christopher T

    2013-12-03

    Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern and place economic stresses on the health care system. Helmets have been shown to reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Universal motorcycle helmet laws in other states have shown to be effective at increasing helmet use. The current Rhode Island motorcycle helmet law does not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review.

  3. Geology of Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, Benjamin Kendall

    1917-01-01

    In preparing the present treatise and the accompanying geologic map of Massachusetts and Rhode Island (PI. X, in pocket) I have endeavored to use all the material available. The matter has been greatly condensed, for the detailed geology of a considerable part of the area will be described in a number of forthcoming folios of the Geologic Atlas of the United States. The Holyoke folio, published in 1898, covered the major part of the Triassic rocks in Massachusetts, but as those rocks have since been more thoroughly studied they are here treated in greater detail to bring their discussion up to date.

  4. Islands in a Sea of Mud: Insights From Terrestrial Island Theory for Community Assembly on Insular Marine Substrata.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K S

    Most marine hard-bottom habitats are isolated, separated from other similar habitats by sand or mud flats, and can be considered analogous to terrestrial islands. The extensive scientific literature on terrestrial islands provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of isolated marine habitats. More individuals and higher species richness occur on larger marine substrata, a pattern that resembles terrestrial islands. However, while larger terrestrial islands have greater habitat diversity and productivity, the higher species richness on larger marine hard substrata can be explained by simple surface area and hydrodynamic phenomena: larger substrata extend further into the benthic boundary, exposing fauna to faster current and higher food supply. Marine island-like communities are also influenced by their distance to similar habitats, but investigations into the reproductive biology and dispersal ability of individual species are required for a more complete understanding of population connectivity. On terrestrial islands, nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been attributed to interspecific competition, but while nonrandom co-occurrence patterns have been found for marine fauna, different mechanisms are responsible, including epibiontism. Major knowledge gaps for community assembly in isolated marine habitats include the degree of connectivity between isolated habitats, mechanisms of succession, and the extent of competition on hard substrata, particularly in the deep sea. Anthropogenic hard substrata of known age can be used opportunistically as "natural" laboratories to begin answering these questions. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiological conditions at the Southern Islands of Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.

    1996-03-01

    The data presented in the following tables is the total available for each southern island; they include both the data from the 1978 Northern Marshall Island Radiological Survey (NMIRS) and trips to Rongelap Atoll from 1986 through 1991. There are additional samples that were taken at Rongelap Island in 1990 and 1991, and the data are unavailable for this report. In one table we present the number of vegetation samples collected in the 1978 NMIRS and from 1986 through 1991. Again, the majority of the {sup 137}Cs is from the 1986-1991 trips. We have not made additional analyses of {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am and {sup 90}Sr because the concentrations are very low and these radionuclides contribute less than 5% of an already very small dose. In another table we show the number of soil samples collected at each island in 1978 and the number collected since 1986. Most of the data are from 1986 through 1991. The major exception is {sup 90}Sr where all of the data are from the 1978 NMIRS. We have done some additional Pu analyses of soils from Rongelap Eniaetok, and Borukka Island but none of the other southern islands. A significant amount of new data for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am have been generated from the samples collected from 1986 through 1991. The data are presented in the form of summary tables, graphics, detailed appendices and aerial photographs of the islands with the sample locations marked. The identified sample locations from the 1978 NMIRS will be added later.

  6. Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian

  7. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology.

    PubMed

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A; Wilmshurst, Janet M; de Boer, Erik J; Coffey, Emily E D; Whittaker, Robert J; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Willis, Kathy J

    2017-06-22

    The discovery and colonization of islands by humans has invariably resulted in their widespread ecological transformation. The small and isolated populations of many island taxa, and their evolution in the absence of humans and their introduced taxa, mean that they are particularly vulnerable to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline reference periods using long-term ecological data. The use of multiple reference points may provide information on both the variability of natural systems and responses to successive waves of cultural transformation of island ecosystems, involving, for example, the alteration of fire and grazing regimes and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems.

  8. Earthquake Births New Island off Pakistan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On September 24, 2013, a major strike-slip earthquake rattled western Pakistan, killing at least 350 people and leaving more than 100,000 homeless. The 7.7 magnitude quake struck the Baluchistan province of northwestern Pakistan. Amidst the destruction, a new island was created offshore in the Paddi Zirr (West Bay) near Gwadar, Pakistan. On September 26, 2013, the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured the top image of that new island, which sits roughly one kilometer (0.6 miles) offshore. Likely a “mud volcano,” the island rose from the seafloor near Gwadar on September 24, shortly after the earthquake struck about 380 kilometers (230 miles) inland. The lower image, acquired by the Operational Land Imager on the Landsat 8 satellite, shows the same area on April 17, 2013. In the satellite images, lighter shades of green and tan in the water reveal shallow seafloor or suspended sediment. The water depth around the new island is roughly 15 to 20 meters (50 to 65 feet), according to marine geologist Asif Inam of Pakistan’s National Institute of Oceanography. “The floor in that area is generally flat, but the gradient in this area changes quite abruptly,” Inam said. The top image from ALI is also clear enough to show the parallel ripples of waves marching toward the shore. Read more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=82146 NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data from the NASA EO-1 team. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Censorship in the Schools: The Island Trees Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the background of and the issues raised by the Supreme Court case "Pico v Island Trees Union Free School District." Presents both the Court's majority opinion that a school board's authority to remove library books on ideological grounds is subject to constitutional limits and the views of dissenting justices. (MM)

  10. Profile of State High School Exit Exam Policies. Rhode Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Rhode Island's high school exit exam standards and policies. Some of the categories presented include: (1) State exit exam policy; (2) Type of Test; (3) Purpose; (4) Major changes in exit exam policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (5) Subjects tested on exam; (6) Grade exam…

  11. Censorship in the Schools: The Island Trees Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the background of and the issues raised by the Supreme Court case "Pico v Island Trees Union Free School District." Presents both the Court's majority opinion that a school board's authority to remove library books on ideological grounds is subject to constitutional limits and the views of dissenting justices. (MM)

  12. Operation IceBridge: Fly Through of Pine Island Glacier Crack

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation provides a fly through of the major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg...

  13. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  14. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  15. Understanding groundwater dynamics on barrier islands using geochronological data: An example from North Stradbroke Island, South-east Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Newborn, Dean; Cartwright, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Freshwater lenses underneath barrier islands are dynamic systems affected by changing sea levels and groundwater use. They are vulnerable to contamination and over-abstraction. Residence times of fresh groundwater in barrier islands are poorly understood and have mostly been assessed by modelling approaches and estimates without fundamental validation with geochronological data. Assessing residence time and recharge rates will improve significantly our understanding of hydrological processes of coastal environments that will in turn allow us to make informed decisions on groundwater use and environmental protection. This project focused on groundwater recharge rates and residence times of the fresh water aquifer system of North Stradbroke Island, south-east Queensland, Australia. Groundwater bores, wetlands and submarine groundwater discharge points in the tidal areas (wonky holes) were sampled along a transect across the island and were analysed for major ion chemistry and stable isotopes (δ2H, δ18O, δ13C) in combination with 3H and 14C analysis. Calculated 3H using a 95% exponential-piston flow model and 14C ages range from 12 to >100 years and modern to 3770 years, respectively, indicating a highly heterogeneous aquifer system with mixing from low and high conductive areas. The major ion chemistry in combination with stable and radiogenic isotopes suggests that a significant groundwater component derives from the fractured rock basement and older sedimentary formations underlying the sand dunes of the island. The results help refining the conceptual and numerical groundwater flow model for North Stradbroke island in this particular case but also demonstrate the possible complexity of barrier island hydrogeology.

  16. Island fever: the historical determinants of malaria in the Andaman Islands.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis; Bradley, David J

    2010-03-01

    Malaria was the major cause of morbidity and a leading cause of mortality in the Andaman Islands Penal Colony from 1858 to 1945. Besides annual malaria incidence peaks coinciding with the arrival of the monsoon, multi-year cycles (administrative in nature) of 10-15 years are also discernable. The size of the previous year's prisoner intake was associated (r(2)=0.21, n=57) with increased malaria. The positive relationship (r(2)=0.33, n=47) between the total number of Buddhist prisoners and malaria may have been due to prisoners of Burmese ethnicity introducing new malaria strains to the otherwise isolated islands. Well-meaning but ultimately disastrous attempts were made to drain the mangrove swamps around the penal colony. Because of the brackish-water breeding habits of the main vector, Anopheles sundaicus, engineering works along the shoreline often increased malaria. Malaria morbidity approximately trebled from 1928 to 1929 and doubled again in the next year with increases in all-cause mortality from 20/1000 in 1929 to 51/1000 in 1930, coincident with a major dredging operation for a new port. The history of malaria control in the Andaman Islands Penal Colony is a cautionary tale that well-meaning and well-funded efforts can fail spectacularly if local epidemiological reality is not well understood.

  17. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  18. The footprint of urban heat island effect in China

    Treesearch

    Decheng Zhou; Shuqing Zhao; Liangxia Zhang; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one major anthropogenic modification to the Earth system that transcends its physical boundary. Using MODIS data from 2003 to 2012, we showed that the UHI effect decayed exponentially toward rural areas for majority of the 32 Chinese cities. We found an obvious urban/ rural temperature “cliff”, and estimated that the footprint of UHI effect (...

  19. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  20. Anatahan Volcano, Mariana Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In the early hours of February 7, ASTER captured this nighttime thermal infrared image of an eruption of Anatahan Volcano in the central Mariana Islands. The summit of the volcano is bright indicating there is a very hot area there. Streaming to the west is an ash plume, visible by the red color indicating the presence of silicate-rich particles. Dark grey areas are clouds that appear colder than the ocean. Anatahan is a stratovolcano that started erupting in May 2003, forming a new crater.

    The image covers an area of 56.3 x 41.8 km, and is located 16 degrees north latitude and 145.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule 207...

  2. Growth of fcc(111) Dy multi-height islands on 6H-SiC(0001) graphene.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, M T; Hupalo, M; Thiel, P A; Tringides, M C

    2013-06-05

    Graphene based spintronic devices require an understanding of the growth of magnetic metals. Rare earth metals have large bulk magnetic moments so they are good candidates for such applications, and it is important to identify their growth mode. Dysprosium was deposited on epitaxial graphene, prepared by thermally annealing 6H-SiC(0001). The majority of the grown islands have triangular instead of hexagonal shapes. This is observed both for single layer islands nucleating at the top of incomplete islands and for fully completed multi-height islands. We analyze the island shape distribution and stacking sequence of successively grown islands to deduce that the Dy islands have fcc(111) structure, and that the triangular shapes result from asymmetric barriers to corner crossing.

  3. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  4. Global Collembola on Deception Island.

    PubMed

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites.

  5. Island biogeography of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Hudson T; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A

    2017-09-07

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  6. GIPSy: Genomic island prediction software.

    PubMed

    Soares, Siomar C; Geyik, Hakan; Ramos, Rommel T J; de Sá, Pablo H C G; Barbosa, Eudes G V; Baumbach, Jan; Figueiredo, Henrique C P; Miyoshi, Anderson; Tauch, Andreas; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria are highly diverse organisms that are able to adapt to a broad range of environments and hosts due to their high genomic plasticity. Horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in this genome plasticity and in evolution by leaps through the incorporation of large blocks of genome sequences, ordinarily known as genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs may harbor genes encoding virulence, metabolism, antibiotic resistance and symbiosis-related functions, namely pathogenicity islands (PAIs), metabolic islands (MIs), resistance islands (RIs) and symbiotic islands (SIs). Although many software for the prediction of GEIs exist, they only focus on PAI prediction and present other limitations, such as complicated installation and inconvenient user interfaces. Here, we present GIPSy, the genomic island prediction software, a standalone and user-friendly software for the prediction of GEIs, built on our previously developed pathogenicity island prediction software (PIPS). We also present four application cases in which we crosslink data from literature to PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs predicted by GIPSy. Briefly, GIPSy correctly predicted the following previously described GEIs: 13 PAIs larger than 30kb in Escherichia coli CFT073; 1 MI for Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243, which seems to be a miscellaneous island; 1 RI of Acinetobacter baumannii AYE, named AbaR1; and, 1 SI of Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 presenting a mosaic structure. GIPSy is the first life-style-specific genomic island prediction software to perform analyses of PAIs, MIs, RIs and SIs, opening a door for a better understanding of bacterial genome plasticity and the adaptation to new traits.

  7. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  8. Hydrogeology study of Faial Island, the Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, R. M.; Cruz, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    Azores Archipelago is a Portuguese territory formed by nine islands divided into three groups (eastern, central and western) located in the North Atlantic Ocean. The islands stretch along a NW-SE direction near the so called Azores triple junction, where the North American Plate, the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate meet. Faial Island is the westernmost island of the central group, located between 38°30'56'' to 38°38'40'' N latitude and 28°35'55'' to 28°50'06'' W longitude. Faial is affected by important tectonic features with a WNW-ESE general trend. These features combined with faults with NNW-SSE to NW-SE and NE-SW directions may have conditioned the emplacement of the central volcano with caldera on the central part of the island. In what concerns the geomorphology, besides the central volcano with caldera, one should refer to the graben on the eastern sector, to the scoria cones alignment on the W and to the flattened sector SE of the central volcano. The drainage network is markedly controlled by tectonics and the drainage density is higher on the northern and southern flanks of the central volcano. The origin of the island started more than 800000 years ago with the emplacement of a composite volcano on the NE of the island (Ribeirinha Complex) consisting of a series of lava flows of basaltic to benmoreitic composition and undifferentiated pyroclasts. The complex (Cedros Complex) which followed is about 580000 years old and corresponds to the central volcano formed by suites of basaltic to trachitic lava flows, pyroclasts and domes. Approximately 50000 ago an important fissural activity took place on the eastern part of the island and originated Almoxarife Formation consisting of basaltic to benmoreitic lava flows, scoria cones and tuff cones. The Caldeira Formation (~16000 years) comprises benmoreitic to trachytic materials emitted from the central volcano, whose explosive phases generated ten members formed mainly by pumice fall deposits and

  9. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  10. Facial scarification and tattooing on Santa Catalina Island (Solomon Islands).

    PubMed

    Mammen, L; Norton, S A

    1997-10-01

    Ritual scarification is the culturally sanctioned process of incising the skin to achieve patterned scars. Scarification was practiced widely by traditional societies, but the encroachment of Western cultural expectations has made the practice increasingly uncommon. Ritual tattooing has a meaningful place in many traditional societies. Ritual scarification and tattooing are still found on Santa Catalina Island, an isolated member of the Solomon Islands in the south-west Pacific.

  11. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  12. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  13. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  14. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  15. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  17. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  18. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  19. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  20. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  1. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  2. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  3. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  4. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  5. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  6. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Treesearch

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  7. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Treesearch

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  8. Montague Island vole: a conservation assessment.

    Treesearch

    Ellen Weintraub. Lance

    2002-01-01

    Montague Island tundra voles were first described in the early 1900s. Based on their large size and dark coloration relative to other island and mainland populations, tundra voles from Montague Island were classified as a distinct subspecies. Research conducted in the 1990s revealed significant differences in the size and shape of Montague Island voles, but not...

  9. Direct seeding trials of three major timber species in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Gerald A. Waiters; Craig D. Whitesell

    1971-01-01

    Trials are underway to detemine the feasibility of direct seeding timber species to specific sites. Three major timber species were direct seeded on a moist, cindery, low-elevation site on the island of Hawaii. After 1 year, West Indies mahogany and monkey-god had acceptable stocking; stocking of lemon-gum eucalyptus was considered poor. All thee species made rapid...

  10. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  11. 78 FR 70854 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-7201 Farallon De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... De Medinilla Island; Mariana Islands, GU AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... coordinate in the boundary of restricted area R-7201, Farallon De Medinilla Island, Mariana Islands, Guam... revised datum which resulted in a minor shift in the charted location of Farallon De Medinilla Island...

  12. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  13. Island wake produced by Antipodes Islands south of New Zealand

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-12-16

    SL4-137-3655 (16 Dec. 1973) --- An island wake produced by the Antipodes Islands in the ocean current south of New Zealand is seen in this photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewmen took the picture with a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. The bow wave pattern is quite evident and can be used to determine the current speed from the angle of the bow wave if the propagation speed of the surface wave is known. Also, evident is the darker band extending downstream from the island tens of miles. This is the actual wake of the island. The existence of water color differences from within to outside a turbulent island wake may indicate a temperature difference, with cooler water being stirred to the surface in the wake. This temperature difference could be used to drive a thermo-electric type generator to reduce small islands' dependence on imported oil for power generation. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Barrier-island aggradation via inlet migration: Mustang Island, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Alexander R.; Anderson, John B.; Blum, Michael

    2006-05-01

    After establishing its present location around 9.5 ka, Mustang Island aggraded, stacking over 20 m of barrier-island sand in the same location. Throughout Mustang Island's history, tidal inlets shifted within nearly the same location from 7.5 ka to the present, leaving 10-15 m thick deposits of clean, well-sorted, quartz sand deposited within only a few centuries. These deposits lack some of the sedimentary features normally associated with tidal inlets, such as tidal couplets and shell hash. The lack of such features is attributed to the uniform nature of the deposits cut by the inlets during the island's relatively long period of aggradation. Mustang Island was able to maintain an aggradation character throughout most of the Holocene due to the sediment eroded from three sources: Pleistocene headlands, the transgressive Colorado River delta of Texas, and the OIS 3 shoreline of the central-Texas shelf. Each of these sources was exposed to waves and accompanying longshore drift during the island's early history when sea level rose quickly, but was flooded or capped by transgressive muds by the time sea-level rise slowed during the middle Holocene.

  15. Risk to Water Security on Small Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, S. T.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The majority of fresh water available on small islands is shallow groundwater that forms a freshwater lens. Freshwater lenses are generally limited in extent and as such are vulnerable to many stressors that impact water security. These include stressors related to climate change, such as sea level rise, as well as those related to human impacts, such as contamination. Traditionally, water security assessments have focussed on indicators that provide a snapshot of the current condition. However, recent work suggests that in order to effectively manage the water system, it is also important to consider uncertain future impacts to the system by evaluating how different stressors might impact water security. In this study, a framework for assessing risk to water security was developed and tested on Andros Island in The Bahamas. The assessment comprises two main components that characterise the water system: numerical modelling studies and a hazard survey. A baseline numerical model of the freshwater lens throughout Andros Island was developed to simulate the morphology of the freshwater lens and estimate the freshwater resources currently available. The model was prepared using SEAWAT, a density-dependent flow and solute transport code. Various stressors were simulated in the model to evaluate the response of the freshwater lens to predicted future shifts in climate patterns, sea level rise, and changes in water use. A hazard survey was also conducted on the island to collect information related to the storage of contaminants, sanitation infrastructure, waste disposal practices and groundwater abstraction rates. The results of the survey form a geo-spatial database of the location and associated hazards to the freshwater lens. The resulting risk framework provides a ranking of overall risk to water security based on information from the numerical modelling and hazard survey. The risk framework is implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and provides a map

  16. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  17. Effect of magnetic islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañón Navarro, A.; Bardóczi, L.; Carter, T. A.; Jenko, F.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2017-03-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes have deleterious effects on plasma confinement and, if they grow large enough, they can lead to discharge termination. Therefore, they impose a major barrier in the development of operating scenarios of present-day tokamaks. Gyrokinetics offers a path toward studying multi-scale interactions with turbulence and the effect on plasma confinement. As a first step toward this goal, we have implemented static magnetic islands in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations with the GENE code. We investigate the effect of the islands on profiles, flows, turbulence and transport and the scaling of these effects with respect to island size. We find a clear threshold island width, below which the islands have little or no effect while beyond this point the islands significantly perturb flows, increase turbulence and transport. Additionally, we study the effect of radially asymmetric islands on shear flows for the first time. We find that island induced shear flows can regulate turbulent fluctuation levels in the vicinity of the island separatrices. Throughout this work, we focus on experimentally relevant quantities, such as rms levels of density and electron temperature fluctuations, as well as amplitude and phasing of turbulence modulation. These simulations aim to provide guidelines for interpreting experimental results by comparing qualitative trends in the simulations with those obtained in tokamak experiments.

  18. Crustose coralline algal diseases in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo

    2010-12-01

    Despite the critical role of crustose coralline algae (CCA) in coral reef formation, maintenance, and ecology, little is known about coralline algal disease abundance, distribution, etiology, or the potential implications of declining CCA flora. This paper presents the first quantitative study of CCA disease on U.S. Pacific coral reefs, based on Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 337 discrete sites, at 42 different U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and Atolls, within 5 major geographical regions: main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA), and Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Five major disease categories were enumerated, and a disease occurrence index was estimated, based on case counts relative to percent CCA cover. CCA disease occurrence exhibited considerable spatial variability both between and within islands/atolls, with some regions being disproportionately affected by disease. No diseases were observed at remote Johnston and Wake Atolls, or the main Hawaiian Islands. Diseases were rare in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands; occasional to common around the PRIA, and common to abundant in American Samoa, Guam, and the Southern Mariana Islands. Pacific-wide, disease occurrence was statistically associated with CCA percent cover and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) but not with human population density; nonetheless, disease occurrence and population density were statistically correlated for those islands containing disease. Although Pacific-wide, the occurrence of disease was low, with no active outbreaks detected in any region, hot spots of disease were detected around Guam, the southern CNMI, American Samoa, and the PRIA. The high levels of spatial and temporal variability in disease occurrence herein underscore the patchy nature and fluctuating distribution dynamics of these afflictions. Also, the widespread dispersal

  19. The taxonomic position and the unexpected divergence of the Habu viper, Protobothrops among Japanese subtropical islands.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroki; Chijiwa, Takahito; Hattori, Shosaku; Terada, Koki; Ohno, Motonori; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

    2016-08-01

    There are four Habu species currently recognized in Japan: Protobothrops flavoviridis from the Amami Islands and the Okinawa Islands, P. tokarensis from the Tokara Islands, P. elegans from the Yaeyama Islands and Ovophis okinabvensis from the Amami Islands and the Okinawa Islands. To clarify their taxonomic positions, we determined the complete mitochondria genome sequence (approx. 17kb) from two specimens from two different islands each for P. flavoviridis, P. tokarensis and P. elegans as well as one specimen of O. okinavensis and reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of Protobothrops using the published sequences of related species. The maximum likelihood tree showed four major species groups within Protbothrops: Group I consisting of P. cornutus, P. dabieshanensis, P. jerdonii and P. xiangchengensis; Group II consisting of P. flavoviridis and P. tokarensis; Group III consisting of P. maolensis, P. mucrosquamatus and P. elegans; Group IV consisting of P. himalayanus and P. kaubacki. Since we observed an unexpected divergence and the paraphyly of the two samples of P. flavoviridis collected from different islands, Amami-Oshima and Okinawajima within the Group II, we expanded the analysis by increasing the number of P. flavoviridis and P. tokarensis collected from 10 islands: Amami-Oshima (5 specimens), Kakeromajima (4) and Tokunoshima (4) from the Amami Islands, Okinawajima (4), Iheyajima (4), Iejima (4), Tokashikijima (4) and Kumejima (4) from the Okinawa Islands, Kodakarajima (P. tokarensis) (4) and Takarajima (P. tokarensis) (4) from the Tokara Islands. The maximum likelihood tree of the 44 samples replicated the significant divergence of P. flavoviridis between the Amami Clade including Amami-Oshima, Kakeromajima and Tokunoshima and the Okinawa Clade including Okinawajima, Iheyajima, Iejima, Tokashikijima and Kumejima. The Amami Clade also include all specimens from the Tokara Islands currently known as an independent species, P. tokarensis, suggesting the

  20. Geographic information system for Long Island: An epidemiologic systems approach to identify environmental breast cancer risks on Long Island. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, H.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    BNL is developing and implementing the project ``Geographic Information System (GIS) for Long Island`` to address the potential relationship of environmental and occupational exposures to breast cancer etiology on Long Island. The project is divided into two major phases: The four month-feasibility project (Phase 1), and the major development and implementation project (Phase 2). This report summarizes the work completed in the four month Phase 1 Project, ``Feasibility of a Geographic Information System for Long Island.`` It provides the baseline information needed to further define and prioritize the scope of work for subsequent tasks. Phase 2 will build upon this foundation to develop an operational GIS for the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

  1. Major Depression Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), in the NSDUH study a major depressive ... and self-image. Unlike the definition in the DSM-IV, no exclusions were made for a major ...

  2. Chasing the shadows, a trip to spice island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.; Baskoro, A. A.; Satyaningsih, R.; Simatupang, F. M.; Maulana, F.; Suherli, J.; Syamara, R.; Canas, L.; Stevenson, T.; Oktariani, F.; Santosa, I.; Ariadi, F.; Carvalho, N.; Soegijoko, K.

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Total Solar Eclipse provided us an opportunity to introduce astronomy to a much wider audience. The path of totality crossed the Indonesia from Sumatra to the Maluku Islands and ended its journey in the Pacific Ocean. Its path crossed over 4 major islands, 12 provinces and many cities. Most of the cities have minimum exposure to astronomy. langitselatan travelled to observe the eclipse and to do astronomy outreach at the eastern most island under the eclipse path. We chose Maba, a small village in East Halmahera, North Maluku as our site to observe the eclipse as well as conduct a workshop for teachers and students. The aim of the workshop is to introduce astronomy taking advantage of the eclipse as well as raise awareness and curiosity among students. In this paper, we will share a short report regarding the whole trip and event in Maba.

  3. CpG islands of hepatitis B virus genome isolated from Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhiwei; Huang, Jihua; Zhong, Chengyao; Li, Lianbing; Xie, Qingdong; Ma, Mingfu; Han, Tingting; Wang, Degang; Maldonado, Martin; Xu, Lan; Huang, Tianhua; Zhong, Ying

    2015-05-01

    There are differences in the distribution and length of HBV CpG islands and the viral mutations contribute greatly to the development of HBV-related diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of such difference and mutations in HBV genotypes B and C sequences on the regulation of HBV gene expression and their clinical outcomes. To study the distribution, length and genetic trait of CpG islands in normal and mutant sequences of HBV genotypes B and C, 320 HBV isolates from Chinese patients were retrieved from GenBank. Programs CLUSTALX 1.83 and MethPrimer were employed to perform multiple sequence alignments and to predict CpG islands, respectively. 72.0% genotype B isolates contained three conventional CpG islands, and 76.1% genotype C only contained CpG islands II and III. 14.6% genotype B and 7.5% genotype C contained three novel CpG islands. In genotype B, lengths of conventional CpG islands between normal and mutant isolates exhibited substantial variations, but in genotype C, those were relatively stable. CpG island II could be "truncated" or "split". "Truncated" region mutations were associated with structural and functional abnormalities of HBV genes. Rate of "split" CpG island II in genotype B was much higher than that in genotype C. In the majority of isolates from HCC and HBV-ACLF, genotype C lacked CpG island I and novel islands. Distribution, length and genetic trait of CpG islands in HBV genotypes B and C might affect their methylation status, and further affect regulation of HBV gene expression, leading to different clinical outcomes.

  4. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  5. Opportunity at Cook Islands Stereo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-23

    NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity combined images into this stereo, 360-degree view of the rover surroundings on March 12, 2009. Cook Islands is visible just below center of this image. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  6. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  7. Leprosy on Reunion Island, 2005-2013: Situation and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Lafarge, Sophie; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Gerber, Anne; Pouderoux, Nicolas; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Manaquin, Rodolphe; Larrieu, Sophie; Vilain, Pascal; Huiart, Laetitita

    2016-01-01

    Background Reunion Island is a French overseas territory located in the south-western of Indian Ocean, 700 km east of Madagascar. Leprosy first arrived on Reunion Island in the early 1700s with the African slaves and immigration from Madagascar. The disease was endemic until 1980 but improvement of health care and life conditions of inhabitants in the island have allowed a strong decrease in new cases of leprosy. However, the reintroduction of the disease by migrants from endemic neighbouring countries like Comoros and Madagascar is a real and continuing risk. This observational study was then conducted to measure the number of new cases detected annually on Reunion Island between 2005 and 2013, and to describe the clinical features of these patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Data were collected over two distinct periods. Incident cases between 2005 and 2010 come from a retrospective study conducted in 2010 by the regional Office of French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (CIRE of Indian Ocean), when no surveillance system exist. Cases between 2011 and 2013 come from a prospective collection of all new cases, following the implementation of systematic notification of all new cases. All patient data were anonymized. Among the 25 new cases, 12 are Reunion Island residents who never lived outside Reunion Island, and hence are considered to be confirmed autochthonous patients. Registered prevalence in 2014 was 0.05 /10 000 habitants, less than the WHO’s eradication goal (1/10 000). Conclusions/Significance Leprosy is no longer a major public health problem on Reunion Island, as its low prevalence rate indicates. However, the risk of recrudescence of the disease and of renewed autochthonous transmission remains real. In this context, active case detection must be pursued through the active declaration and rapid treatment of all new cases. PMID:27082879

  8. Periodic Shoreline Morphology, Fire Island, New York

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    The presence of shoreline undulations along the Atlantic coast of Fire Island , NY requires careful consideration in developing erosion control and...hurricane protection plans and design alternatives for the protection of the Fire Island barrier and the Long Island mainland. An analysis and geometric... Island shoreline their presence after project construction must be anticipated. Conclusions drawn from the analysis of the Fire Island shoreline

  9. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  10. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards

  11. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs.

  12. Early stages of island development in a mountain river recovering from channelization and channel incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Walusiak, Edward; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Liro, Maciej; Zawiejska, Joanna

    2017-04-01

    Development of islands in the Raba River, Polish Carpathians was investigated to document its early stages in a mountain river recovering from channelization and channel incision and verify whether islands can significantly contribute to the overall plant diversity of the river corridor. In the 20th century the heavily channelized Raba incised deeply in its mountain course, but a few years ago an erodible river corridor was established in its 3 km-long reach. Resignation from the maintenance of channelization structures in the reach about 10 years ago and the passage of two large floods in 2010 and 2014 resulted in up to a threefold increase in channel width, re-establishment of a multi-thread channel pattern and development of islands in the widened channel. Similar to other European mountain rivers, in the Raba islands originate as a result of deposition and sprouting of living driftwood of Salicaceae. Monitoring of islands in the study reach performed each year between 2011 and 2016 documented an increase in the number of islands from 28 to 42, in average island age from 2.8 to 5.0 years, in total island area from 0,39 ha to 1,75 ha and in average island area from 139 m2 to 418 m2. However, the increase in these parameters was not steady, but moderated by processes of island erosion by flood flows, island establishment shortly after major floods (increasing the number and reducing the average age and area of islands) and island coalescence in the years without major floods (with the opposite effects on the island parameters). The total number of vascular plant species fluctuated between 142 and 202 in particular years. An inventory of plant species on islands and plots of riparian forest performed in 2012 indicated that islands supported a greater total number of species than the adjacent riparian forest and that particular islands supported a significantly greater number of biennial and annual plants than riparian forest plots. An inventory performed in 2015

  13. Telemedicine in the Solomon Islands: 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Martiniuk, Alexandra; Negin, Joel; Hersch, Fred; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Jagilli, Rooney; Houasia, Patrick; Gorringe, Lilijana; Christie, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Telemedicine has been used in the Solomon Islands since 2000. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to examine telemedicine use in the Solomon Islands from January 2006 to June 2009. During the study period 66 telemedicine cases were submitted to the store and forward telemedicine system being used there. These included orthopaedic, oncology, cardiothoracic, infectious, congenital, gastroenterology and dermatology cases. Most cases (52%) were submitted by doctors at the National Referral Hospital (NRH) in Honiara. The majority of responses came from the NRH (27%). A final, firm recommendation regarding patient diagnosis and/or care was given for 46% of the cases. Interviews were conducted with 23 stakeholders in the Solomon Islands and in Australia to better understand the current and future use of telemedicine. The interviews identified the fragility of the Solomon Islands infrastructure, including the lack of training, as the largest barrier to the future use of telemedicine. The best use of telemedicine appears to be case sharing within the Solomon Islands, with connections to clinicians in other countries as a secondary benefit when particular expertise is required.

  14. Near-island biological hotspots in barren ocean basins

    PubMed Central

    Gove, Jamison M.; McManus, Margaret A.; Neuheimer, Anna B.; Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Craig R.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Friedlander, Alan M.; Ehses, Julia S.; Young, Charles W.; Dillon, Amanda K.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplankton production drives marine ecosystem trophic-structure and global fisheries yields. Phytoplankton biomass is particularly influential near coral reef islands and atolls that span the oligotrophic tropical oceans. The paradoxical enhancement in phytoplankton near an island-reef ecosystem—Island Mass Effect (IME)—was first documented 60 years ago, yet much remains unknown about the prevalence and drivers of this ecologically important phenomenon. Here we provide the first basin-scale investigation of IME. We show that IME is a near-ubiquitous feature among a majority (91%) of coral reef ecosystems surveyed, creating near-island ‘hotspots' of phytoplankton biomass throughout the upper water column. Variations in IME strength are governed by geomorphic type (atoll vs island), bathymetric slope, reef area and local human impacts (for example, human-derived nutrient input). These ocean oases increase nearshore phytoplankton biomass by up to 86% over oceanic conditions, providing basal energetic resources to higher trophic levels that support subsistence-based human populations. PMID:26881874

  15. Near-island biological hotspots in barren ocean basins.

    PubMed

    Gove, Jamison M; McManus, Margaret A; Neuheimer, Anna B; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Smith, Craig R; Merrifield, Mark A; Friedlander, Alan M; Ehses, Julia S; Young, Charles W; Dillon, Amanda K; Williams, Gareth J

    2016-02-16

    Phytoplankton production drives marine ecosystem trophic-structure and global fisheries yields. Phytoplankton biomass is particularly influential near coral reef islands and atolls that span the oligotrophic tropical oceans. The paradoxical enhancement in phytoplankton near an island-reef ecosystem--Island Mass Effect (IME)--was first documented 60 years ago, yet much remains unknown about the prevalence and drivers of this ecologically important phenomenon. Here we provide the first basin-scale investigation of IME. We show that IME is a near-ubiquitous feature among a majority (91%) of coral reef ecosystems surveyed, creating near-island 'hotspots' of phytoplankton biomass throughout the upper water column. Variations in IME strength are governed by geomorphic type (atoll vs island), bathymetric slope, reef area and local human impacts (for example, human-derived nutrient input). These ocean oases increase nearshore phytoplankton biomass by up to 86% over oceanic conditions, providing basal energetic resources to higher trophic levels that support subsistence-based human populations.

  16. Global patterns and drivers of phylogenetic structure in island floras

    PubMed Central

    Weigelt, Patrick; Daniel Kissling, W.; Kisel, Yael; Fritz, Susanne A.; Karger, Dirk Nikolaus; Kessler, Michael; Lehtonen, Samuli; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Kreft, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Islands are ideal for investigating processes that shape species assemblages because they are isolated and have discrete boundaries. Quantifying phylogenetic assemblage structure allows inferences about these processes, in particular dispersal, environmental filtering and in-situ speciation. Here, we link phylogenetic assemblage structure to island characteristics across 393 islands worldwide and 37,041 vascular plant species (representing angiosperms overall, palms and ferns). Physical and bioclimatic factors, especially those impeding colonization and promoting speciation, explained more variation in phylogenetic structure of angiosperms overall (49%) and palms (52%) than of ferns (18%). The relationships showed different or contrasting trends among these major plant groups, consistent with their dispersal- and speciation-related traits and climatic adaptations. Phylogenetic diversity was negatively related to isolation for palms, but unexpectedly it was positively related to isolation for angiosperms overall. This indicates strong dispersal filtering for the predominantly large-seeded, animal-dispersed palm family whereas colonization from biogeographically distinct source pools on remote islands likely drives the phylogenetic structure of angiosperm floras. We show that signatures of dispersal limitation, environmental filtering and in-situ speciation differ markedly among taxonomic groups on islands, which sheds light on the origin of insular plant diversity. PMID:26198002

  17. Origin and evolution of silicic magmas at ocean islands: Perspectives from a zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, K. J.; Barclay, J.; Preece, K.; Brown, R. J.; Davidson, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    Ascension Island, in the south Atlantic is a composite ocean island volcano with a wide variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions evident in its 1 million year subaerial history. In this paper, new observations of a unique zoned fall deposit on the island are presented; the deposit gradationally changes from trachytic pumice at the base, through to trachy-basaltic andesite scoria at the top of the deposit. The key features of the eruptive deposits are described and are coupled with whole rock XRF data, major and trace element analyses of phenocrysts, groundmass glass and melt inclusions from samples of the compositionally-zoned fall deposit to analyse the processes leading up to and driving the explosive eruption. Closed system crystal fractionation is the dominant control on compositional zonation, with the fractionating assemblage dominated by plagioclase feldspar and olivine. This fractionation from the trachy-basaltic andesite magma occurred at pressures of 250 MPa. There is no evidence for multiple stages of evolution involving changing magmatic conditions or the addition of new magmatic pulses preserved within the crystal cargo. Volatile concentrations range from 0.5 to 4.0 wt.% H2O and progressively increase in the more-evolved units, suggesting crystal fractionation concentrated volatiles into the melt phase, eventually causing internal overpressure of the system and eruption of the single compositionally-zoned magma body. Melt inclusion data combined with Fe-Ti oxide modelling suggests that the oxygen fugacity of Ascension Island magmas is not affected by degree of evolution, which concentrates H2O into the liquid phase, and thus the two systems are decoupled on Ascension, similar to that observed in Iceland. This detailed study of the zoned fall deposit on Ascension Island highlights the relatively closed-system evolution of felsic magmas at Ascension Island, in contrast to many other ocean islands, such as Tenerife and Iceland.

  18. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little... extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A line...

  19. Eco-geomorphic processes that maintain a small coral reef island: Ballast Island in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayanne, Hajime; Aoki, Kenji; Suzuki, Takuya; Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya; Ide, Yoichi; Iwatsuka, Yuudai; Takahashi, Kenya; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Sekimoto, Tsunehiro; Isobe, Masahiko

    2016-10-01

    Landform changes in Ballast Island, a small coral reef island in the Ryukyu Islands, were investigated by remote sensing analysis and a field survey. The area of the island almost doubled after a mass coral bleaching event in 1998. Coral branches generated by the mass mortality and broken by waves were delivered and stocked on a reef flat and accumulated to expand the area of the island. In 2012 high waves generated by typhoons also changed the island's topography. Overall, the island moved in the downdrift direction of the higher waves. Waves impacting both sides of the island piled up a large volume of coral gravels above the high-tide level. Eco-geomorphic processes, including a supply of calcareous materials from the corals on the same reef especially during stormy wave conditions, were key factors in maintaining the dynamic topographic features of this small coral reef island.

  20. Analysis of Island Land Use Change Based on Transfer Matrix'a Case Study of Dongtou Island in Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Tao, Kunwang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    With the increasing developments of islands, the protection and management of island's natural resources are imperative. The core of islands' protection and management is to acquire the information of changes of the land use and land cover. What's more, the purpose of the islands' land use change information analysis is to plan the effective protection of land resource, achieve scientific management and sustainable utilization. Based on the improved calculation method of land use change and the computational model of change rate of the land use, an analysis of land use transfer matrix and transfer probability matrix is presented, and the method of land use change analysis based on the transfer matrix is proposed in this paper. And then the comparative analysis of all types of land use transfer is introduced. Taken the island of Dongtou in Zhejiang Province as the case, with the SPOT-5 satellite image in 2005 and the aerial image in 2011 as the data source, the current situation of land utilization of Dongtou Island and its land use change are analyzed. The experiment results show that, from 2005 to 2011, the greatest changes are the structures and water, followed by the forest land, grassland, cultivated land and others. The major change of structure and forest is the net change, while the major change of the water and grassland is the swap change. From the perspective of increment, the conversion from waters to structure has the most advantage, followed by water converted to grassland and road. To see from the loss, structures converted into roads and buildings have the most superiority transformation, followed by structures converted to grassland. The analysis of the case proves that the proposed process and method in this paper could achieve better results in the practical application. The experiment results also demonstrate that the proposed method could effectively obtain the dynamic change information of land use which is much helpful for land management and

  1. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  2. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  3. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  4. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  5. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  7. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the Virgin Islands of the United States and the Island of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the...

  8. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F.; Salzedas, F.; Galvão, R. M. O. Sanada, E. K.

    2016-05-15

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  9. [Epidemiology and prevention of malaria in the southwestern islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    Tchen, J; Ouledi, A; Lepère, J F; Ferrandiz, D; Yvin, J L

    2006-06-01

    Malaria epidemiology differs greatly in the geographically close islands of the southwestern Indian Ocean. In Madagascar and the Comoros Union malaria is still a major public health problem. In Mayotte indigenous transmission resumed in 1995 and is currently high in some communities. In the Mascarene Islands (Reunion and Mauritius), indigenous transmission has been eradicated (Reunion) or become rare (Mauritius). The Seychelles Islands are malaria-free since local conditions are unfavorable for Anopheles mosquitoes. The level of resistance to antimalarials also differs from one island to another. Resistance to chloroquine ranges from moderate in Madagascar to high in the Comoros Union. Health recommendations for travelers must be adapted to the epidemiological features on each island.

  10. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F.; Salzedas, F.; Galvão, R. M. O.; Sanada, E. K.

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/ n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  11. Microcomputers and minipopulations: the 1981 Cook Islands census.

    PubMed

    Hayes, G R

    1983-01-01

    majority of the total emigration stream, affecting the sex ratio which increased from 105 in 1976 to 107 in 1981. When combined with birth registration data, the 1981 census results confirm that the fertility transition is well under way in the Cook Islands. This pattern appears to support the argument that family planning programs can bring down fertility independently of significant changes in systems of production. Nevertheless, family planning services alone cannot explain the decline in fertility; women's status has been improving and the circulation of population between the Cook Islands and New Zealand has undoubtedly helped to diffuse modern norms with respect to family size, the deliberate control of conception, and the active participation of women in reproductive decision-making. The general pattern of rapid population decline could have important consequences for the Cook Islands' economy and society and raises questions as to the economic viability of some of these small and remote island communities.

  12. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  13. Volcanic hazard on Deception Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, S.; Geyer, A.; Martí, J.; Pedrazzi, D.; Aguirre-Díaz, G.

    2014-09-01

    Deception Island is the most active volcano in the South Shetland Islands and has been the scene of more than twenty identified eruptions over the past two centuries. In this contribution we present the first comprehensive long-term volcanic hazard assessment for this volcanic island. The research is based on the use of probabilistic methods and statistical techniques to estimate volcanic susceptibility, eruption recurrence and the most likely future eruptive scenarios. We perform a statistical analysis of the time series of past eruptions and the spatial extent of their products, including lava flows, fallout, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. The Bayesian event tree statistical method HASSET is applied to calculate eruption recurrence, while the QVAST tool is used in an analysis of past activity to calculate the possibility that new vents will open (volcanic susceptibility). On the basis of these calculations, we identify a number of significant scenarios using the GIS-based VORIS 2.0.1 and LAHARZ software and evaluate the potential extent of the main volcanic hazards to be expected on the island. This study represents a step forward in the evaluation of volcanic hazard on Deception Island and the results obtained are potentially useful for long-term emergency planning.

  14. Genome-wide SNP analysis reveals population structure and demographic history of the ryukyu islanders in the southern part of the Japanese archipelago.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takehiro; Nakagome, Shigeki; Watanabe, Chiaki; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Kawaguchi, Akira; Koganebuchi, Kae; Haneji, Kuniaki; Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Yamamoto, Ken; Ishida, Hajime; Mano, Shuhei; Kimura, Ryosuke; Oota, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    The Ryukyu Islands are located to the southwest of the Japanese archipelago. Archaeological evidence has revealed the existence of prehistoric cultural differentiation between the northern Ryukyu islands of Amami and Okinawa, and the southern Ryukyu islands of Miyako and Yaeyama. To examine a genetic subdivision in the Ryukyu Islands, we conducted genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism typing of inhabitants from the Okinawa Islands, the Miyako Islands, and the Yaeyama Islands. Principal component and cluster analyses revealed genetic differentiation among the island groups, especially between Okinawa and Miyako. No genetic affinity was observed between aboriginal Taiwanese and any of the Ryukyu populations. The genetic differentiation observed between the inhabitants of the Okinawa Islands and the Miyako Islands is likely to have arisen due to genetic drift rather than admixture with people from neighboring regions. Based on the observed genetic differences, the divergence time between the inhabitants of Okinawa and Miyako islands was dated to the Holocene. These findings suggest that the Pleistocene inhabitants, whose bones have been found on the southern Ryukyu Islands, did not make a major genetic contribution, if any, to the present-day inhabitants of the southern Ryukyu Islands.

  15. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2013-09-01

    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after

  16. Molecular and mathematical modeling analyses of inter-island transmission of rabies into a previously rabies-free island in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Tohma, Kentaro; Saito, Mariko; Demetria, Catalino S; Manalo, Daria L; Quiambao, Beatriz P; Kamigaki, Taro; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-03-01

    Rabies is endemic in the Philippines and dog bites are a major cause of rabies cases in humans. The rabies control program has not been successful in eliminating rabies because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Therefore, more effective and feasible strategies for rabies control are urgently required in the country. To control rabies, it is very important to know if inter-island transmission can occur because rabies can become endemic once the virus is introduced in areas that previously had no reported cases. Our molecular epidemiological study suggests that inter-island transmission events can occur; therefore, we further investigated these inter-island transmission using phylogenetic and modeling approaches. We investigate inter-island transmission between Luzon and Tablas Islands in the Philippines. Phylogenetic analysis and mathematical modeling demonstrate that there was a time lag of several months to a year from rabies introduction to initial case detection, indicating the difficulties in recognizing the initial rabies introductory event. There had been no rabies cases reported in Tablas Island; however, transmission chain was sustained on this island after the introduction of rabies virus because of low vaccination coverage among dogs. Across the islands, a rabies control program should include control of inter-island dog transportation and rabies vaccination to avoid viral introduction from the outside and to break transmission chains after viral introduction. However, this program has not yet been completely implemented and transmission chains following inter-island virus transmission are still observed. Local government units try to control dog transport; however, it should be more strictly controlled, and a continuous rabies control program should be implemented to prevent rabies spread even in rabies-free areas.

  17. Small population instability and island settlement patterns.

    PubMed

    Williamson, I; Sabath, M D

    1984-03-01

    This study used data from the Marshall Islands to examine the relationship between settlement pattern within an island group to the stability of potential population inhabiting those islands. It was hypothesized that extinction probability (based on island carrying capacity, frequency and amplitude of fluctuation in resources determining carrying capacity, and the net costs of contact and exchange between population units) will determine island settlement patterns, resulting in nonsettlement of islands with low carrying capacities and settlement of all islands with high carrying capacities. The Marshall Island group includes both settled and unsettled islands, and represents a homogeneous culture that has remained unchanged for many generations. The mesophytic index (rainfall x land area), used as an indicator of atoll human carrying capacity, was related to island settlement patterns. No atolls with mesophytic indices exceeding 2000 units were uninhabited, although 4 with values under 2000 units were inhabited, suggesting an overlap zone between inhabitable and uninhabitable islands. Population size and settlement existence were also related. Only 2 of 21 inhabited islands had populations below 100, and none of the uninhabited islands contained more than 78 individuals. These results may be of relevance to earlier atoll colonization patterns. The prerequisites for atoll colonization appear to have been colonizing groups exceeding 80 individuals, contact with an established population source, and a horticultural subsistence mode and maritime technology. It is concluded that small population instability should be considered in terms of the colonization process and settlement pattern of island groups.

  18. Conjugative type IVb pilus recognizes lipopolysaccharide of recipient cells to initiate PAPI-1 pathogenicity island transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity island 1 (PAPI-1) is one of the largest genomic islands of this important opportunistic human pathogen. Previous studies have shown that PAPI-1 encodes several putative virulence factors, a major regulator of biofilm formation, and antibiotic-resistance traits, a...

  19. Major appliance management report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, M.; O`Donnell, K.F.

    1990-07-15

    Major appliances (also called `white goods`) have long been managed as part of the traditional municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, with the most common management method being landfill disposal. Over the past several years, it has become increasingly apparent that major appliances are not easily or best managed along with MSW. Indiscriminate disposal of major appliances can cause environmental problems and unnecessary use of scarce landfill space as well as wasting valuable recyclable materials. In recognition of these factors, the 1989 Minnesota Legislature took a number of steps to shift the management of major appliances towards separate handling and recycling.

  20. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  1. Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands: A Global View

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan

    2006-07-17

    An important milestone was passed this year when the fraction of the world's population living in cities exceeded 50%. This shift from the countryside to urban areas is certain to continue and, for many, the destination will be large cities. Already there are over 400 cities with populations greater than one million inhabitants and twenty cities with populations greater than ten million inhabitants. With a growing fraction of the population living in an urban environment, the unique aspects of an urban climate also rise in importance. These include features like air pollution and increased humidity. Another unique feature of the urban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island. The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one hundred years ago in northern latitude cities, where the city centers were slightly warmer than the suburbs. (Instantaneous communications probably played a role in its identification, much as it did for other weather-related events.) For these cities, a heat island was generally a positive effect because it resulted in reduced heating requirements during the winters. It was only in the 1960s, as air conditioning and heavy reliance on automobiles grew, that the negative impacts of heat islands became apparent. The heat islands made summer conditions much less comfortable and increased air conditioning energy use. Since then the summer heat island has become the dominant environmental concern. Measurements in thousands of sites, plus the development of sophisticated dynamic simulations of urban air basins, has enabled us to better understand the relationships between urban temperatures, sunlight, and rates of formation of air pollutants. These models have also given us insights into the roles of vegetation and other characteristics of the land surface. More recently-roughly the last fifteen years-it has become possible to quantify the roles of the major features influencing the formation and persistence of urban heat islands

  2. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Mary E; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  3. Continental Island Formation and the Archaeology of Defaunation on Zanzibar, Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Mary E.; Rouby, Hélène; Punnwong, Paramita; Marchant, Robert; Crowther, Alison; Kourampas, Nikos; Shipton, Ceri; Walsh, Martin; Lambeck, Kurt; Boivin, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    With rising sea levels at the end of the Pleistocene, land-bridge or continental islands were formed around the world. Many of these islands have been extensively studied from a biogeographical perspective, particularly in terms of impacts of island creation on terrestrial vertebrates. However, a majority of studies rely on contemporary faunal distributions rather than fossil data. Here, we present archaeological findings from the island of Zanzibar (also known as Unguja) off the eastern African coast, to provide a temporal perspective on island biogeography. The site of Kuumbi Cave, excavated by multiple teams since 2005, has revealed the longest cultural and faunal record for any eastern African island. This record extends to the Late Pleistocene, when Zanzibar was part of the mainland, and attests to the extirpation of large mainland mammals in the millennia after the island became separated. We draw on modeling and sedimentary data to examine the process by which Zanzibar was most recently separated from the mainland, providing the first systematic insights into the nature and chronology of this process. We subsequently investigate the cultural and faunal record from Kuumbi Cave, which provides at least five key temporal windows into human activities and faunal presence: two at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), one during the period of post-LGM rapid sea level rise and island formation, and two in the late Holocene (Middle Iron Age and Late Iron Age). This record demonstrates the presence of large mammals during the period of island formation, and their severe reduction or disappearance in the Kuumbi Cave sequence by the late Holocene. While various limitations, including discontinuity in the sequence, problematize attempts to clearly attribute defaunation to anthropogenic or island biogeographic processes, Kuumbi Cave offers an unprecedented opportunity to examine post-Pleistocene island formation and its long-term consequences for human and animal

  4. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  5. Island morphologies in epitaxial growth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessinger, Uwe; Leskovar, M.; Rumaner, Lee; Ohuchi, Fumio; Olmstead, Marjorie A.; Ueno, Keiji; Koma, Atsushi

    1996-03-01

    Growth of epitaxial films commonly occurs through the coalescence of individual islands. The morphology of islands has therefore a key importance for the film qualities desired. A uniform layer-by-layer growth of the film is achieved when islands in the first layer coalesce to form a uniform layer before a second layer nucleates; a non-uniform multi-layer growth results from multiple layers successively nucleating on top of each other before the first layer coalesces. We developed a kinetic model based on an analytic solution of the diffusion equation between nucleation events to calculate the evolving island morphology during growth. The morphologies depend on deposition rate, substrate temperature, and activation energies for surface diffusion on the substrate and deposited material. By applying this theory to atomic force microscopy data of GaSe multi-layer islands, we extract a value for the activation energy for Ga diffusion across steps of GaSe. Supported by NSF Grant No. ECS-9209652, DOE Grant No. DE-FG06-94ER45516, and the Japanese New Energy Development Organization.

  6. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extend (>20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergency of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  7. Miocene reef carbonates of Mariana Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, H.G. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Miocene carbonates in the southern Mariana Islands are impressive for their lithologic diversity, thicknesses (over 250 m), and geographic extent (> 20% combined outcrop coverage over four major high islands: Guam, Rota, Tinian and Saipan). Sections are dominated either by lagoonal algal-foraminiferal wackestones and mudstones with locally abundant high-energy shelly-skeletal facies, or by rubbly to muddy, fore-reef-to-bank deposits of packstones and grainstones with highly diverse and variable biogenic clasts. Fresh to deeply weathered volcaniclastic material may comprise at least 80% of some high-energy fore-reef facies, whereas lagoonal and bank deposits usually contain less than 0.5% terrigenous material. Surprisingly, the Miocene in the Marianas lacks almost completely any reef-core facies. Several poorly developed coral-rich mounds on Saipan and localized laminated red algal buildups on Guam appear to constitute the extant reef-wall facies in the Miocene. The lack of buildups may be a matter of differential survival; it may result from headland erosion and benching associated with emergence of narrow reef tracts as has been postulated by others for south Guam. Alternatively, the authors are proposing that Miocene bathymetry and the volume of terrigenous influx militated against significant reef core formation. Radiometric age dating of these reef carbonates has proven unsuccessful because pervasive diagenesis has transformed the entire Miocene section into low-magnesium calcite with minor and occasional dolomite. Freshwater phreatic diagenesis accounts for the principal porosity variation and trace element distribution.

  8. Mental health services in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse

    2012-06-01

    The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.

  9. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  10. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  11. The Major Disciplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Teacher Certification and Placement Section.

    The development of a competency-based teacher certification program of social studies teachers in the state of Minnesota included this conceptual framework for the major social studies disciplines. Each of the major disciplines - anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology and philosophy, and sociology - are defined…

  12. Electron quantization in arbitrarily shaped gold islands on MgO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiehler, Christian; Pan, Yi; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Koskinen, Pekka; Häkkinen, Hannu; Nilius, Niklas; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2013-09-01

    Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy has been employed to analyze the formation of quantum well states (QWS) in two-dimensional gold islands, containing between 50 and 200 atoms, on MgO thin films. The energy position and symmetry of the eigenstates are revealed from conductance spectroscopy and imaging. The majority of the QWS originates from overlapping Au 6p orbitals in the individual atoms and is unoccupied. Their characteristic is already reproduced with simple particle-in-a-box models that account for the symmetry of the islands (rectangular, triangular, or linear). However, better agreement is achieved when considering the true atomic structure of the aggregates via a density functional tight-binding approach. Based on a statistically relevant number of single-island data, we have established a correlation between the island geometry and the gap between the highest-occupied and the lowest-unoccupied molecular orbital in the finite-sized islands. The linear eccentricity is identified as a suitable descriptor for this relationship, as it combines information on both island size and island shape. Finally, the depth of the confinement potential is determined from the spatial extension of QWS beyond the physical boundaries of the Au islands. Our paper demonstrates how electron quantization effects can be analyzed in detail in metal nanostructures. The results may help elucidating the interplay between electronic and chemical properties of oxide-supported clusters as used in heterogeneous catalysis.

  13. Range expansion and hybridization in Round Island petrels (Pterodroma spp.): evidence from microsatellite genotypes.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth M; Nichols, Richard A; Faulkes, Chris G; Jones, Carl G; Bugoni, Leandro; Tatayah, Vikash; Gottelli, Dada; Jordan, William C

    2010-08-01

    Historical records suggest that the petrels of Round Island (near Mauritius, Indian Ocean) represent a recent, long-distance colonization by species originating from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The majority of petrels on Round Island appear most similar to Pterodroma arminjoniana, a species whose only other breeding locality is Trindade Island in the South Atlantic. Using nine microsatellite loci, patterns of genetic differentiation in petrels from Round and Trindade Islands were analysed. The two populations exhibit low but significant levels of differentiation in allele frequencies and estimates of migration rate between islands using genetic data are also low, supporting the hypothesis that these populations have recently separated but are now isolated from one another. A second population of petrels, most similar in appearance to the Pacific species P. neglecta, is also present on Round Island and observations suggest that the two petrel species are hybridizing. Vocalizations recorded on the island also suggest that hybrid birds may be present within the population. Data from microsatellite genotypes support this hypothesis and indicate that there may have been many generations of hybridization and back-crossing between P. arminjoniana and P. neglecta on Round Island. Our results provide an insight into the processes of dispersal and the consequences of secondary contact in Procellariiformes.

  14. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    DOE PAGES

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturatedmore » island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.« less

  15. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. In a fusion device, a magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Further modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. An additional destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  16. Thermal island destabilization and the Greenwald limit

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gates, D. A.; Brennan, D. P.

    2015-02-24

    Magnetic reconnection is ubiquitous in the magnetosphere, the solar corona, and in toroidal fusion research discharges. A magnetic island saturates at a width which produces a minimum in the magnetic energy of the configuration is evident in a fusion device. At saturation, the modified current density profile, a function of the flux in the island, is essentially flat, the growth rate proportional to the difference in the current at the O-point and the X-point. Furthermore, modification of the current density profile in the island interior causes a change in the island stability and additional growth or contraction of the saturated island. Because field lines in an island are isolated from the outside plasma, an island can heat or cool preferentially depending on the balance of Ohmic heating and radiation loss in the interior, changing the resistivity and hence the current in the island. A simple model of island destabilization due to radiation cooling of the island is constructed, and the effect of modification of the current within an island is calculated. In addition destabilization effect is described, and it is shown that a small imbalance of heating can lead to exponential growth of the island. A destabilized magnetic island near the plasma edge can lead to plasma loss, and because the radiation is proportional to plasma density and charge, this effect can cause an impurity dependent density limit.

  17. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  18. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.

  19. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-07-21

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands.

  20. Chemical weathering fluxes from volcanic islands and the importance of groundwater: The Hawaiian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopka, Herdis Helga; Derry, Louis A.

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the products and rates of chemical weathering on the Hawaiian Islands, sampling streams on Kaua'i and both streams and groundwater wells on the island of Hawai'i. Dissolved silica was used to investigate the flowpaths of water drained into streams. We found that flowpaths exert a major control on the observed chemical weathering rates. A strong link exists between the degree of landscape dissection and flowpaths of water through the landscape, with streams in undissected landscapes receiving water mainly from surface runoff and streams in highly dissected landscapes receiving a considerable fraction of their water from groundwater (springs and/or seepage). Total alkalinity in Hawaiian streams and groundwater is produced exclusively by silicate chemical weathering. We find that fluxes of total alkalinity (often called "CO2 consumption rate" in the geochemical literature), from the islands are lower than those observed in basaltic regions elsewhere. Groundwater is, overall, the major transport vector for products of chemical weathering from the Hawaiian Islands. On the youngest and largest island, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) transports more than an order of magnitude more solutes to the ocean than surface water and on the youngest part of the youngest island, SGD is the only link between the terrestrial weathering system and the ocean. These results suggest that groundwater, and particularly SGD, needs to be included in geochemical weathering budgets of volcanic islands.

  1. A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for Breton Island, Louisiana: 1869-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terrano, Joseph F.; Flocks, James G.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.

    2015-01-01

    Many barrier islands in the United States are experiencing substantive erosion and elevation loss due to storm surge, waves, and sea-level changes; this is particularly true for the deltaic barrier system in Louisiana. Breton Island is located near the mouth of the Mississippi River in the southern end of the Chandeleur Island chain in southeast Louisiana. This report expands on previous geomorphic studies of Breton Island by incorporating additional historic and recent datasets. Multiple analyses focused on long- and short-term shoreline change, as well as episodic events and anthropogenic modification. Analyses time periods included the long-term (1869–2014), long-term historic (1869–1950), post Mississippi River Gulf Outlet (1950–2014), pre/post Hurricane Katrina (2004–2005), and recent (2005–2014) change. In addition to shoreline change, barrier island geomorphology was evaluated using island area, elevation, and sediment volume change. In the long term (1969–2014), Breton Island has experienced landward transgression, island narrowing, and elevation loss. Major storm events are exacerbating the long-term trends. However, the short-term trends (2005–2014) show that Breton Island is eroding at a slower rate than long-term and has gained area and total sediment volume. The short-term accretion is likely due to the lack of major storms since Hurricane Katrina (2005).

  2. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  3. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  4. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  5. Rates of subsidence and relative sea level rise in the Hawaii Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Albert

    2016-12-01

    The major cause of the Hawaiian Islands coastal erosion is shown to be not global warming, but the sinking of the volcanic islands. The geologic "circle-of-life" beyond the Hawaiian hot spot is the true explanation of the beach erosion. The sea levels are slow rising and not accelerating worldwide as well as in the United States. In the specific of the Hawaii Islands, they have been decelerating over the last 3 decades because of the phasing of the multi-decadal oscillations for this area of the Pacific. There is therefore no evidence coastal erosion will double in the Hawaii by 2050 because of global warming.

  6. Hookworm enteritis with bacteremia in California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island.

    PubMed

    Spraker, Terry R; DeLong, Robert L; Lyons, Eugene T; Melin, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    Large breeding populations of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are located on San Miguel and San Nicolas Islands in the Southern California Bight. In 2001, there was a substantial increase in pup mortality in late summer and fall. From June 2002 to January 2003, 208 freshly dead pups were examined on San Miguel Island, the most western of the Channel Islands off the coast of southern California. Tissues from 186 of these pups were examined histologically. The primary lesions in 133 (72%) of the pups were an enteritis associated with hookworms and infections in major organs. Emaciation/starvation in 43 pups (26%) was the second most important cause of death.

  7. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    SciTech Connect

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  8. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  9. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  10. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  11. SRTM Perspective with Landsat Virgin Islands, Carribean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (front to back) of this east-looking view of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Elevation is shown with 1.5x scaled vertical exaggeration. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as very light shades of blue. Tropical vegetation appears green, and developed areas appear in shades of brown and white.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994

  12. 23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. VERTICAL WESTINGHOUSE GENERATORS IN 1919 ADDITION. DATED FEBRUARY 19, 1919. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 160, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  13. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  14. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  15. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL