Science.gov

Sample records for major policy options

  1. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  2. Arctic Region Policy: Information Sharing Model Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    complying. ( Ostrom , 2010) D. CONCLUSION The 2009 Arctic Region Policy highlights the need to develop capabilities to protect U.S. air, land and sea...polar icebreaker modernization: Background, issues, and options for Congress (RL34391). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Ostrom , E

  3. Public Telecommunications Policies and Education's Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Frank W.

    The use of satellite telecommunications for educational and other public service purposes has been restricted by educators' lack of awareness of the potential that exists. While industry actively promotes its own interests, educators rarely even realize that international policies being made today will affect critically the options available for…

  4. Interim Policy Options for Commercialization of Solar Heating and Cooling Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdek, Roger

    This interim report reviews the major incentive policy options available to accelerate market penetration of solar heating and cooling (SHAC) systems. Feasible policy options designed to overcome existing barriers to commercial acceptance and market penetration are identified and evaluated. The report is divided into seven sections, each dealing…

  5. Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options through Personnel Flow Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Policy Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling Stephen D. Brady NATIONAL DEFENSE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Assessing Stop-Loss Policy...Options Through Personnel Flow Modeling Stephen D. Brady Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Approved for public release

  6. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    PubMed

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  7. State options for low-carbon coal policy

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cowart; Shanna Vale; Joshua Bushinsky; Pat Hogan

    2008-02-15

    There is growing state-level interest in the USA in accelerating the development of low-carbon coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS). Many states have adopted greenhouse gas emission targets and made commitments to low-carbon energy, and believe that these polices will result in job creation, air quality improvements, and reliable low-cost energy supplies. This paper provides an overview of options for states to encourage the deployment of carbon capture and sequestration. It describes actions (including legislation, regulations, and incentives) throughout the country. It also reviews in greater detail the range of policies available to state Public Utility Commissions for advancing deployment of CCS. Many states are adopting meaningful incentives for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and, as a handful of states are beginning to demonstrate, a number of these incentives can apply to CCS as well. States also have a number of authorities relevant to advancement of clean coal power, particularly within the domain of state public utility commissions (PUCs). State commissions have a wide array of policy options available to them in pursuing this goal, and will play a crucial role in determining the speed and effectiveness with which such technologies are deployed. States also enjoy major advantages, such as their direct jurisdiction over many critical power plant issues (including siting and retail ratemaking) that federal agencies do not possess. Regardless of the final form of federal greenhouse gas rules, states have the chance to gain experience as first movers and policy innovators, and will play an important role in shaping a low-carbon future. Although national policy is essential, a proactive approach by state policymakers and regulators to drive CCS can reduce future compliance costs, speed the required technological developments, and pave the way for future national policy.

  8. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  9. Waverly, Iowa Smart Planning Workshop: Policy Options and Project Designs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report from the EPA-FEMA technical assistance project in Waverly, IA, presents policy options and project design ideas that could help new development be more resilient to disasters such as floods while bringing multiple benefits.

  10. How federalism shapes public health financing, policy, and program options.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, fiscal and functional federalism strongly shape public health policy and programs. Federalism has implications for public health practice: it molds financing and disbursement options, including funding formulas, which affect allocations and program goals, and shapes how funding decisions are operationalized in a political context. This article explores how American federalism, both fiscal and functional, structures public health funding, policy, and program options, investigating the effects of intergovernmental transfers on public health finance and programs.

  11. Pacific Century Institutions: Conceiving Options for United States Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-21

    Liberalism, realism, social constructivism outline categories of thought.38 As distinct schools of thought reflecting significant differences...Pacific Century Institutions: Conceiving Options for United States Policy by Colonel Timothy Andrew Chafos United States...student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of

  12. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for tackling obesity in Greece.

    PubMed

    Codrington, C; Sarri, K; Kafatos, A

    2007-05-01

    The study aimed to map stakeholders' evaluations of policy options to counter the rising prevalence of obesity in Greece, where the case for action on obesity is only now being made. The multi-criteria mapping method was used to capture and compare stakeholders' appraisals and to provide a policy analysis. Efficacy and practical feasibility were the issues most frequently used by stakeholders to evaluate options and were weighted more highly than cost criteria, which were often defined in terms of governmental costs. There was a broad favourable appraisal for downstream measures offering individuals the skills, information and opportunities to make healthier choices, rather than options to modify the obesogenic environment. Consistently, high rankings were given to educational options, for improving communal facilities and for some information-related options (food labelling, advertising), with particular support for policies targeting the young. There was also significant advocacy by a few for the creation of a new government body charged with intersectoral policy co-ordination. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project analyses thus point to support for a portfolio of measures to combat the problem of obesity in Greece as well as an appreciation that political will is an essential prerequisite.

  13. Options, Sustainability Policy and the Spontaneous Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, John

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implications for sustainability policy of environmental uncertainty and indeterminacy, and relates the associated problems with a conventional understanding of sustainable development to Hayek's critique of collective planning. It suggests that the appropriate recourse is not, however, a Hayekian endorsement of the free…

  14. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  15. Future Options for Swedish Security Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Baltic part of this system, this thesis needs a model . A general model breaks down the complexity of the problem. The basis for the analysis is a...financial aim. The most apparent expression of the impulse to further integration is the European Monetary Union (EMU), which is set to have a...used the phrase "stability has been reinforced by the basic model for security policy: nonalignment and cooperation within NATO’s new structure" in

  16. New US Policy Options for South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-25

    Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 SUMMARY Since Pakistan and india gained independence in the iate i940s, US policies toward South Asla...or nuclear proliferation, For most of the postwar period, the US favored Pakistan over India . Changing international circumstances--the demise of the...Cold War, Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, alleviation of superpower rivalry in much of the Third World, and new democratic governments in India

  17. A Practical Method of Policy Analysis by Simulating Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, James L.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on a method of policy analysis that has evolved from the previous articles in this issue. The first section, "Toward a Theory of Educational Production," identifies concepts from science and achievement production to be incorporated into this policy analysis method. Building on Kuhn's (1970) discussion regarding paradigms, the…

  18. Fertility targets and policy options in Asia.

    PubMed

    Bulatao, R A

    1984-11-01

    The 3rd Asian and Pacific Population Conference in Colombo in 1982 recommended that countries review and modify existing demographic targets and goals for reducing birth and death rates in order to attain low levels as early as possible and to attain replacement level by the year 2000. The demographic goals of selected Asian countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines are assessed and compared to World Bank population projections. It also discusses the underlying rationale for setting fertility targets, and considers what government actions could make them more achievable. 6 stages for controlling population are distinguished: 1) collection and publication of reliable demographic data; 2) enunciation of an official policy to reduce population growth; 3) development of appropriate institutions to integrate demographic projections into economic plans; 4) promotion of family planning; 5) provision of incentives and disincentives, including elimination of all implicit and explicit subsidies for child bearing; and 6) restitution of birth quotas requiring permission for each child born. Principles to maintain and accelerate fertility declines to meet demographic targets include creating appropriate and equitable development policies, increasing the standard of family planning programs, confronting organizational problems, providing easier and more equal access to contraceptive methods, exploring innovative approaches to encourage smaller families and making a firm political commitment to population control. Rapid fertility decline will also require financial commitment. Willingness to spend the necessary amounts, and the capacity to spend them as well, will determine whether the countries of Asia enter the next century in control of their population.

  19. Evaluating Policy Options for Biofuel Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witcover, J.; Yeh, S.; Msangi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The use of biofuels leads to global land use change (LUC) through increased land competition. LUC poses risks such as increased greenhouse gas emissions and food prices, that policymakers must balance against biofuel objectives. This paper examines policy approaches to lower LUC risk from biofuels. We propose a three-pronged policy approach: (1) promoting feedstocks that rely less on land; (2) reducing LUC risk for land-using feedstocks; and (3) stimulating investments that increase land productivity and environmental protection. We illustrate possibilities for model-based evaluation of LUC policy design options using two linked partial economic equilibrium simulation models (BEPAM/IMPACT). While the modeling addresses only a subset of mitigation options presented (including an 'iLUC factor'), it illustrates how this approach can shed light on the geographical distribution and magnitude of LUC resulting from specific policy designs.

  20. Post-Unified Korean Foreign Policy Options: Regional Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    Korean War, the U.S. security policy toward Korea has been instrumental in promoting peace and stability on the peninsula. The strong defense alliance...request the removal of United States troops from the Korean peninsula and the nullification of the United States-South Korea Mutual Defense Treaty...security alliance. However, after the elimination of the North Korean threat, a unified Korea will be able to redefine its foreign policy options

  1. Managing oil disruptions: issues and policy options. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Webre, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) prepared the analysis of policy options to help Congress decide whether to extend or expand the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973, or whether to let it lapse on September 30, 1981. The central theme is that large disruptions of imported oil can deal the economy a severe blow that reduces output and increases unemployment and inflation. Alternative policies might allow this blow to be offset in different ways, but they cannot eliminate an impact. Some policies better contain the inflationary effects of a disruption, but are less effective in mitigating losses in aggregate production and higher unemployment. For others, the converse is true. Further, the appropriateness of each policy varies with the size and anticipated duration of the import disruption. Congress may wish to consider a portfolio of standby policies as well as the selection of just one. Two appendices offer further policy analyses. 10 references, 3 tables.

  2. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-03

    EPA experts have pointed to the change by drinking water treatment facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change...12, 2008. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine

  3. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    have pointed to the change by drinking water treatment facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified...Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine , for purposes such

  4. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    PubMed

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  5. Comparing Clean Water Act Section 316(b) policy options.

    PubMed

    Kadvany, John

    2002-05-02

    This paper develops a comparative framework for policy proposals involving fish protection and Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act (CWA). Section 316(b) addresses the impingement and entrainment of fish by cooling-water intake structures used principally by steam electric power plants. The framework is motivated by examining the role of adverse environmental impacts (AEIs) in the context of Section 316(b) decision making. AEI is mentioned in Section 316(b), but not defined. While various AEI options have been proposed over the years, none has been formalized through environmental regulations nor universally accepted. Using a multiple values approach from decision analysis, AEIs are characterized as measurement criteria for ecological impacts. Criteria for evaluating AEI options are identified, including modeling and assessment issues, the characterization of ecological value, regulatory implementation, and the treatment of uncertainty. Motivated by the difficulties in defining AEI once and for all, a framework is introduced to compare options for 316(b) decision making. Three simplified policy options are considered, each with a different implicit or explicit AEI approach: (1) a technology-driven rule based on a strict reading of the 316(b) regulatory text, and for which any impingement and entrainment count as AEI, (2) a complementary, open-ended risk-assessment process for estimating population effects with AEI characterized on a site-specific basis, and (3) an intermediate position based on proxy measures such as specially constructed definitions of littoral zone, sensitive habitat, or water body type. The first two proposals correspond roughly to responses provided, respectively, by the Riverkeeper environmental organization and the Utility Water Act Group to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s proposed 316(b) new facilities rule of August 2000; the third example is a simplified form of the EPA's proposed August 2000 new facilities rule itself

  6. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    PubMed

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  7. Policy Options to Promote Smokefree Environments for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Karla S

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children is associated with a wide variety of adverse health risks, including: asthma, otitis media, respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and function, decreased exercise tolerance, cognitive impairments, behavior problems, and sudden infant death syndrome. Unfortunately, over 40% of children aged 3-11 years-15.1 million children-are currently exposed to SHS, with nearly 70% of black children in this age group being exposed. Over the past three decades, great strides have been made in establishing smokefree environments for adults, ultimately reducing their SHS exposure. Regulations have been passed at the organizational, local, and state levels that increasingly ban smoking in the workplace and public places. Children's SHS exposure patterns, however, differ from adults' exposures, with greater time spent in the home and other potentially unregulated venues (school, child care, and car). This means that children have been afforded relatively less protection from SHS by these smokefree regulations. It is imperative, therefore, to seek alternative options for promoting smokefree environments for children throughout the United States. This article explores policy options that promote smokefree environments for children and adolescents: comprehensive smokefree/tobacco-free policies covering indoor/outdoor public places, housing, private vehicles, and child care, as well as Clinical Guidelines regarding patient/family interviews on smoking, SHS, cessation, and voluntary smokefree efforts. The policy section highlights the role of child and adolescent health practitioners in promoting these policies with the hope of fostering engagement of these key stakeholders in the policy process. Note, there are a wide range of important policy and regulatory strategies aimed at reducing tobacco initiation and use among children, adolescents, and young adults; while essential in tobacco prevention and control efforts, a discussion of

  8. Aviation Security: Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-25

    Order Code RL34390 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo February 25, 2008 Bart Elias Specialist in... Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for Screening and Securing Air Cargo 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aviation Security : Background and Policy Options for

  9. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  10. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  11. Nonprofit conversion: theory, evidence, and state policy options.

    PubMed Central

    Marsteller, J A; Bovbjerg, R R; Nichols, L M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the contributions of nonprofit hospitals and health plans to healthcare markets and to analyze state policy options with regard to the conversion of nonprofits to for-profit status. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Secondary national and state data from a variety of sources, 1980-present. STUDY DESIGN: Policy analysis. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Development of a conceptual economic framework; analysis of empirical, legal, and theoretical literature; and review of statutes, rules, and court decisions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three main rationales support special status for nonprofits, especially hospitals: charity care, other community benefits, and consumer protection. The main social rationale for for-profits is their incentives for better efficiency. There are reasons to expect that nonprofit and for-profit goals differ; however, measured differences in community hospital cost, prices, and quality between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals are undetectable or inconclusive. Nonprofit hospitals do provide more uncompensated care than for-profit hospitals. Similarities between nonprofit and for-profit hospitals may exist because nonprofits may set norms that for-profits follow to some degree. States have substantial power and discretion in overseeing nonprofit conversions. Some have regularized oversight through new legislation that constrains, but does not eliminate, state officials' discretion. These statutes may be deferential to converting entities and their buyers or may be very restrictive of them. CONCLUSIONS: Overseeing the appropriate disposition of nonprofit assets in individual conversions is extremely important. States should also monitor local market conditions through community benefits assessments and other data collection, however, to accurately assess (and possibly redress) what is lost or gained from conversion. Local market conditions are likely more important in determining hospital behavior than ownership form. Potentially

  12. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    PubMed Central

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  13. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America.

  14. The United States and the Southwest Pacific: Policy Options for a Changing Region.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    moved to try and change that policy so that the extraterritorial reach of the legislation relating to tuna boats is halted. [9:11 The Pacific Islands...AD-AU69 721 THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: POLICY / OPTIONS FOR A CHANGING REGION(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA T W SHUBERT...POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS THE UNITED STATES AND THE SOUTHWEST PACIFIC: POLICY OPTIONS FOR A CHANGING REGION by - 7W Thomas Walter

  15. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  16. Table of Policy Options for Smart Growth Fixes for Climate Adaptation and Resilience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sortable table of policy options discussed in the publication Smart Growth Fixes for Climate Adaptation and Resilience, which can help local governments prepare for climate change while gaining other environmental, economic, health, and social benefits

  17. Excellence at Work. Policy Option Papers for the National Governors' Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganzglass, Evelyn, Ed.

    This volume contains an introduction and four policy option papers that explore key issues affecting the economy and state options to address the issues within the context of the U.S. workplace. "Introduction" (David Bedford, Evelyn Ganzglass) discusses the issues identified in the first phase of the governors' initiative on Excellence at Work and…

  18. U.S. weapons-usable plutonium disposition policy: Implementation of the MOX fuel option

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, A.L.; Gonzalez, V.L.

    1998-10-01

    A comprehensive case study was conducted on the policy problem of disposing of US weapons-grade plutonium, which has been declared surplus to strategic defense needs. Specifically, implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel disposition option was examined in the context of national and international nonproliferation policy, and in contrast to US plutonium policy. The study reveals numerous difficulties in achieving effective implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option including unresolved licensing and regulatory issues, technological uncertainties, public opposition, potentially conflicting federal policies, and the need for international assurances of reciprocal plutonium disposition activities. It is believed that these difficulties can be resolved in time so that the implementation of the mixed-oxide fuel option can eventually be effective in accomplishing its policy objective.

  19. Stakeholder appraisal of policy options for responding to obesity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Borg, P; Fogelholm, M

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the Finnish Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project study was to use a multi-criteria mapping method to assess stakeholder opinions on policies that might have relevance when planning policies targeting obesity prevention. When evaluating policies, criteria relating to 'Positive societal benefits' and 'Additional health benefits' were often considered important, along with the more obvious 'Efficacy in addressing obesity'. Other criteria (like economic factors) were of less importance. All policy options targeting at 'Educational and Research Initiatives' were highly ranked in the analysis by all stakeholders. Policies aimed at improving 'Food-Related Informational Initiatives' were also ranked well on average, although more variation between stakeholders existed. Policies targeting increased physical activity and easier access/provision to healthy foods received also relatively good rankings but with wide variation and doubts in the appraisals. Policies encouraging new technological innovations and institutional reforms were mostly ranked poorly and were not seen as solutions to obesity problem. Irrespective of the stakeholder group, it seems that while traditional educational policies were most highly ranked, several other policies are also viable options in the policy portfolio of obesity prevention.

  20. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-13

    treatment facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer...and Options for Congress Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection. Advocates for their inclusion in

  1. POLICY OPTIONS TO REVERSE THE DECLINE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project was to identify practical options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest and California. Wild salmon recovery efforts in western North Americ...

  2. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O'Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  3. An Empirical Exploration of Selected Policy Options in Organ Donation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenow, Daniel J.; Youngs, George A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Presents findings from a mail survey of 414 persons regarding organ transplantation and donation policy issues. Gauged three measures of support for organ donation: donor card commitment, required request of next-of-kin support, and weak presumed consent support. High levels of support exist for organ donor cards and the next-of-kin law. Little…

  4. Panarchy, Adaptive Management and Governance: Policy Options for Building Resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sustainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems is critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a com...

  5. Panarchy, adaptive management and governance: policy options for building resilience

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping policy for sus­tainability. In particular, the types of legal instruments, institutions, and the response of law to the inherent variability in socio-ecological systems are critical. Environmental protection has typically involved a c...

  6. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  7. The effect of limited options and policy interactions on water storage policy in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A L

    2001-09-01

    Due to environmental constraints and reactive water management practices, water shortages exist across the Everglades ecosystem. A growing human population and continued wetlands damage and loss decrease the system's ability to provide water for sustained natural areas and for human uses. 'The Restudy' is an $8 billion plan to restore the Everglades while also continuing to provide water storage for urban and agricultural areas. The Restudy proposes a mix of water storage systems to provide for the predicted future growth in water demand. This mix is purported to be the most cost-efficient at providing water supplies, within the constraints of unchanged agricultural and urban land use. However, a sensitivity analysis of the Restudy's cost equation reveals that the total cost of water storage systems is influenced by real estate, land acquisition and water treatment costs. The interaction of land use and agricultural policies can affect these cost factors, and can change the relative cost-efficiency between storage systems. Real estate and land acquisition costs are affected by several 1996 Farm Bill provisions, which influence the cost of aboveground water storage systems versus Aquifer Storage and Recovery systems. The Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida recommendations also influence the water storage options available to the Restudy. Due to the Restudy's initial assumptions and constraints, it may not advocate the most economically and ecologically sound remediation.

  8. Castro, Cuba, and the Future: U.S. Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    powdered milk 40% rice 40% of all food The same existed for raw materials, fertilizers, industrial equipment, and spareparts. In addition, the Soviets...2 Another statement puts the economy in perspective--"Lack of food In the tropics Is often the result of bad policy: how can bananas and coconuts be...duties on imports for hotel construction, furniture and food . 1 7 There Is great potential for tourism--800 miles of the Caribbean’s best--the water Is

  9. Low-income energy policy in a restructuring electricity industry: an assessment of federal options

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.W.

    1997-07-01

    This report identifies both the low-income energy services historically provided in the electricity industry and those services that may be affected by industry restructuring. It identifies policies that are being proposed or could be developed to address low- income electricity services in a restructured industry. It discusses potential federal policy options and identifies key policy and implementation issues that arise when considering these potential federal initiatives. To understand recent policy development at the state level, we reviewed restructuring proposals from eight states and the accompanying testimony and comments filed in restructuring proceedings in these states.

  10. Policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions.

    PubMed

    Mah, Catherine L; Cook, Brian; Rideout, Karen; Minaker, Leia M

    2016-06-09

    Public policy is central to health promotion: it determines the distribution of resources in a society and establishes the structural context for the actions of both corporations and consumers. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to begin a discussion on promising policy options for a health-promoting retail food environment. Drawing on specific municipal examples, we examine four groups of policy options for healthier retail food environments in city-regions: planning for health; transforming consumer environments; economic and fiscal instruments; and a culture of transparency and participation. We introduce examples of policy options that are receiving increasing attention in the public health and urban planning literature and that function at the municipal level. We also highlight how public health professionals have an important role to play in policy that shapes retail food environments, especially in making explicit the linkages between health and other policy goals. In doing so, this commentary aims to motivate public health practitioners in a variety of community contexts to consider the policy supports they need to advance their exploration, development, testing and evaluation of interventions for healthier retail food environments.

  11. Policy Options Analysis of Assistance to Firefighters Grant Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    International Association of Fire Fighters ISO Insurance Service Organization MNHS Minnesota Historical Society MOE maintenance of effort NAPA ...community. In 2007, the National Academy of Public Administration ( NAPA ) conducted a performance assessment of the AFG; this assessment had a more...comprehensive approach ( NAPA , 2007). The report identified two major strengths of the AFG, the fire communities’ identified priority setting and peer

  12. Policy Objective and Options under a Leverage Strategy Toward Cuba.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    Cuba and the United States , the reassessment of the U.S.-Cuban fishing treaty of 1977, and the resumption of a major anti- Castro ...example, what would It "cost" the United States for Castro to detach Cuba militarily from the USSR, and to cease its revolutionary activities In the...resolving Cuban related problems. Accordingly, Cuba -derived leverage might best be used by the United States to secure Soviet cooperation in minimizing

  13. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Kreycik, C.; Young, K.

    2009-09-01

    Geothermal electricity production capacity has grown over time because of multiple factors, including its renewable, baseload, and domestic attributes; volatile and high prices for competing technologies; and policy intervention. Overarching federal policies, namely the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), provided certainty to project investors in the 1980s, leading to a boom in geothermal development. In addition to market expansion through PURPA, research and development policies provided an investment of public dollars toward developing technologies and reducing costs over time to increase the market competitiveness of geothermal electricity. Together, these efforts are cited as the primary policy drivers for the currently installed capacity. Informing policy decisions depends on the combined impacts of policies at the federal and state level on geothermal development. Identifying high-impact suites of policies for different contexts, and the government levels best equipped to implement them, would provide a wealth of information to both policy makers and project developers.

  14. Real options analysis for land use management: Methods, application, and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Regan, Courtney M; Bryan, Brett A; Connor, Jeffery D; Meyer, Wayne S; Ostendorf, Bertram; Zhu, Zili; Bao, Chenming

    2015-09-15

    Discounted cash flow analysis, including net present value is an established way to value land use and management investments which accounts for the time-value of money. However, it provides a static view and assumes passive commitment to an investment strategy when real world land use and management investment decisions are characterised by uncertainty, irreversibility, change, and adaptation. Real options analysis has been proposed as a better valuation method under uncertainty and where the opportunity exists to delay investment decisions, pending more information. We briefly review the use of discounted cash flow methods in land use and management and discuss their benefits and limitations. We then provide an overview of real options analysis, describe the main analytical methods, and summarize its application to land use investment decisions. Real options analysis is largely underutilized in evaluating land use decisions, despite uncertainty in policy and economic drivers, the irreversibility and sunk costs involved. New simulation methods offer the potential for overcoming current technical challenges to implementation as demonstrated with a real options simulation model used to evaluate an agricultural land use decision in South Australia. We conclude that considering option values in future policy design will provide a more realistic assessment of landholder investment decision making and provide insights for improved policy performance.

  15. Policy Overview and Options for Maximizing the Role of Policy in Geothermal Electricity Development

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Kreycik, Claire; Young, Katherine

    2009-09-01

    This research explores the effectiveness of the historical and current body of policies in terms of increased geothermal electricity development. Insights are provided into future policies that may drive the market to optimize development of available geothermal electricity resources.

  16. Greater Energy Savings through Building Energy Performance Policy: Four Leading Policy and Program Options

    SciTech Connect

    SEE Action Existing Commercial Buildings Working Group

    2014-05-30

    This paper lays out recommendations for linking existing policies and developing new policies, such that their success is based on the real energy savings achieved in buildings. This approach has the potential to affect the entire building lifecycle.

  17. Stemming the Impact of Health Professional Brain Drain from Africa: A Systemic Review of Policy Options

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Africa has been losing professionally trained health workers who are the core of the health system of this continent for many years. Faced with an increased burden of disease and coupled by a massive exodus of the health workforce, the health systems of many African nations are risking complete paralysis. Several studies have suggested policy options to reduce brain drain from Africa. The purpose of this paper is to review possible policies, which can stem the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa. A systemic literature review was conducted. Cinahl, Science Direct and PubMed databases were searched with the following terms: health professional brain drain from Africa and policies for reducing impact of brain drain from Africa. References were also browsed for relevant articles. A total of 425 articles were available for the study but only 23 articles met the inclusion criteria. The review identified nine policy options, which were being implemented in Africa, but the most common was task shifting which had success in several African countries. This review has demonstrated that there is considerable consensus on task shifting as the most appropriate and sustainable policy option for reducing the impact of health professional brain drain from Africa.

  18. Using economic policy to tackle chronic disease: options for the Australian Government.

    PubMed

    Kaplin, Lauren; Thow, Anne Marie

    2013-03-01

    Australia suffers from one of the highest prevalences among developed countries of persons being overweight and obese, these conditions arising from the overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods that are generally less expensive than healthier options. One potential avenue for intervention is to influence the price of foods such that healthier options are less expensive and, therefore, are an easier choice to make. This article considers the potential for fiscal policies that would realign food prices with health incentives. Through a review of consumption taxes, consumer subsidies, trade policies, agricultural support policies, and other incentive programs as possible avenues for intervention, this article asks what the Commonwealth Government has already done to help improve Australian diets, and looks at where further improvements could be made.

  19. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea: environmental and socioeconomic status, future prognosis and ameliorative policy options.

    PubMed

    DeVantier, Lyndon; Alcala, Angel; Wilkinson, Clive

    2004-02-01

    The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea, with neighboring Indonesian Seas and South China Sea, lies at the center of the world's tropical marine biodiversity. Encircled by 3 populous, developing nations, the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia, the Sea and its adjacent coastal and terrestrial ecosystems, supports ca. 33 million people, most with subsistence livelihoods heavily reliant on its renewable natural resources. These resources are being impacted severely by rapid population growth (> 2% yr-1, with expected doubling by 2035) and widespread poverty, coupled with increasing international market demand and rapid technological changes, compounded by inefficiencies in governance and a lack of awareness and/or acceptance of some laws among local populations, particularly in parts of the Philippines and Indonesia. These key root causes all contribute to illegal practices and corruption, and are resulting in severe resource depletion and degradation of water catchments, river, lacustrine, estuarine, coastal, and marine ecosystems. The Sulu-Sulawesi Sea forms a major geopolitical focus, with porous borders, transmigration, separatist movements, piracy, and illegal fishing all contributing to environmental degradation, human suffering and political instability, and inhibiting strong trilateral support for interventions. This review analyzes these multifarious environmental and socioeconomic impacts and their root causes, provides a future prognosis of status by 2020, and recommends policy options aimed at amelioration through sustainable management and development.

  20. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Min; Marnay, Chris; Zhou, Nan

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  1. Policy Options to Reduce Fragmentation in the Pooling of Health Insurance Funds in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bazyar, Mohammad; Rashidian, Arash; Kane, Sumit; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Doshmangir, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are fragmentations in Iran’s health insurance system. Multiple health insurance funds exist, without adequate provisions for transfer or redistribution of cross subsidy among them. Multiple risk pools, including several private secondary insurance schemes, have resulted in a tiered health insurance system with inequitable benefit packages for different segments of the population. Also fragmentation might have contributed to inefficiency in the health insurance systems, a low financial protection against healthcare expenditures for the insured persons, high coinsurance rates, a notable rate of insurance coverage duplication, low contribution of well-funded institutes with generous benefit package to the public health insurance schemes, underfunding and severe financial shortages for the public funds, and a lack of transparency and reliable data and statistics for policy-making. We have conducted a policy analysis study, including qualitative interviews of key informants and document analysis. As a result we introduce three policy options: keeping the existing structural fragmentations of social health insurance (SHI)schemes but implementing a comprehensive "policy integration" strategy; consolidation of existing health insurance funds and creating a single national health insurance scheme; and reducing fragmentation by merging minor well-resourced funds together and creating two or three large insurance funds under the umbrella of the existing organizations. These policy options with their advantages and disadvantages are explained in the paper. PMID:27239868

  2. Policy options for increasing the supply of transplantable kidneys in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Jia Loon

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for eligible end-stage renal disease patients. However, the supply of donated kidneys has been consistently insufficient to meet the transplantation requirements of the population. In this paper, I discuss the feasibility of several policy options that engage potential donors or key individuals in a Singapore context, including financial and non-financial incentives for deceased/living organ donors and their families, improving actualisation rates of both donation after brain death, donation after cardiac death through quality improvement programmes and remuneration schemes, and a media platform for directed organ donation. I conclude by highlighting the most feasible policies to be considered. PMID:27779281

  3. Covert Coercion: A Formal Analysis of Unconventional Warfare as an Interstate Coercive Policy Option

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    INTERSTATE COERCIVE POLICY OPTION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR( S ) Luke A. Wittmer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943–5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10...associated paramilitary and political actions are occasionally pursued as the means to support the U.S.’ s coercive overtures. Under the rubric of covert

  4. Taking action against ocean acidification: a review of management and policy options.

    PubMed

    Billé, Raphaël; Kelly, Ryan; Biastoch, Arne; Harrould-Kolieb, Ellycia; Herr, Dorothée; Joos, Fortunat; Kroeker, Kristy; Laffoley, Dan; Oschlies, Andreas; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Ocean acidification has emerged over the last two decades as one of the largest threats to marine organisms and ecosystems. However, most research efforts on ocean acidification have so far neglected management and related policy issues to focus instead on understanding its ecological and biogeochemical implications. This shortfall is addressed here with a systematic, international and critical review of management and policy options. In particular, we investigate the assumption that fighting acidification is mainly, but not only, about reducing CO2 emissions, and explore the leeway that this emerging problem may open in old environmental issues. We review nine types of management responses, initially grouped under four categories: preventing ocean acidification; strengthening ecosystem resilience; adapting human activities; and repairing damages. Connecting and comparing options leads to classifying them, in a qualitative way, according to their potential and feasibility. While reducing CO2 emissions is confirmed as the key action that must be taken against acidification, some of the other options appear to have the potential to buy time, e.g. by relieving the pressure of other stressors, and help marine life face unavoidable acidification. Although the existing legal basis to take action shows few gaps, policy challenges are significant: tackling them will mean succeeding in various areas of environmental management where we failed to a large extent so far.

  5. Securing water for wetland conservation: a comparative analysis of policy options to protect a national nature reserve in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Wu, Junjie; Wang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Ma

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluates four policy options to secure the water supply needed for wetland conservation in Qixinghe--a national wetland nature reserve in China--using four criteria: cost effectiveness, probability of success in achieving the water-saving goal, political feasibility, and farmer acceptance. This multi-criteria analysis framework reveals the ecological, economic, and socio-political trade-offs for policymakers when choosing among the four policy options. Results suggest that upgrading irrigation infrastructure in the area surrounding the wetland (Option I) is the most politically feasible option, but it is the second best option in terms of cost effectiveness. Constructing a dam to store and control floodwater (Option II) is the most reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. It is also the farmers' most favored strategy. But this option is the least cost effective and receives little support from local governments. Promoting farmers' adoption of water-saving practices (Option III) is the most cost effective, but it is less reliable for achieving the water-saving goal than Options I or II. Converting paddy crops to dry-land crops (Option IV) is politically infeasible and least reliable for achieving the water-saving goal. The overall ranking of the four options is determined using the policymakers' revealed weights on the four criteria. Option I is ranked first, followed by Options II, III, and IV.

  6. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (−100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981

  7. A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Policy options for alcohol price regulation: the importance of modelling population heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Meier, Petra Sylvia; Purshouse, Robin; Brennan, Alan

    2010-03-01

    Context and aims Internationally, the repertoire of alcohol pricing policies has expanded to include targeted taxation, inflation-linked taxation, taxation based on alcohol-by-volume (ABV), minimum pricing policies (general or targeted), bans of below-cost selling and restricting price-based promotions. Policy makers clearly need to consider how options compare in reducing harms at the population level, but are also required to demonstrate proportionality of their actions, which necessitates a detailed understanding of policy effects on different population subgroups. This paper presents selected findings from a policy appraisal for the UK government and discusses the importance of accounting for population heterogeneity in such analyses. Method We have built a causal, deterministic, epidemiological model which takes account of differential preferences by population subgroups defined by age, gender and level of drinking (moderate, hazardous, harmful). We consider purchasing preferences in terms of the types and volumes of alcoholic beverages, prices paid and the balance between bars, clubs and restaurants as opposed to supermarkets and off-licenses. Results Age, sex and level of drinking fundamentally affect beverage preferences, drinking location, prices paid, price sensitivity and tendency to substitute for other beverage types. Pricing policies vary in their impact on different product types, price points and venues, thus having distinctly different effects on subgroups. Because population subgroups also have substantially different risk profiles for harms, policies are differentially effective in reducing health, crime, work-place absence and unemployment harms. Conclusion Policy appraisals must account for population heterogeneity and complexity if resulting interventions are to be well considered, proportionate, effective and cost-effective.

  9. Implementing Policy Options to Strengthen the Nexus between Postsecondary Education and Workforce Development. Commission Report 08-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the California Postsecondary Education adopted the last in an initial series of reports on the nexus between postsecondary education and workforce development by requesting staff to return with plans and priorities to pursue implementation of ten general policy options, grouped into three categories. One option is already being…

  10. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract...

  11. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract...

  12. Milk marketing policy options for the dairy industry in New England.

    PubMed

    Doyon, M; Criner, G; Bragg, L A

    2008-03-01

    New England dairy farmers are under intense price pressure resulting from important growth in milk production from lower cost of production Southwest states as well as by retailers' market power. Agricultural officials and legislative bodies in New England and in other Northeast US states are aware of these pressures and have been reacting with emergency dairy farm aid, following a very low 2006 milk price, and with state legislations in an attempt to address perceived excess retailing margins for fluid milk. In this paper, we suggest that a sigmoid demand relationship exists for fluid milk. This demand relationship would explain fluid milk asymmetric price transmission, high-low pricing, and the creation of a large retailing margin (chain surplus) often observed for fluid milk. It is also argued that a sigmoid demand relationship offers an opportunity for state legislators to help Northeast dairy farmers capturing a larger share of the dollar of the consumers through various policy options. Therefore, 5 milk market channel regulatory mechanisms (status quo, price gouging, supply control, fair share policy, and chain surplus return) are discussed and compared. The supply control mechanism was found the most effective at redistributing the chain surplus, associated with the sigmoid demand relationship for fluid milk, to dairy farmers. However, this option is unlikely to be politically acceptable in the United States. Second-best options for increasing dairy farmers' share of the consumers' dollar are the fair price policy and the chain surplus return. The former mechanism would distribute the chain surplus between retailers, processors, and farmers, whereas the latter would distribute it between consumers, retailers, and farmers. Remaining mechanisms would either transfer the chain surplus to retailers (status quo) or to consumers (price gouging).

  13. The effectiveness of recycling policy options: waste diversion or just diversions?

    PubMed

    Mueller, William

    2013-03-01

    Recycling is becoming ever more important as waste generation rates increase globally. Policy-makers must decide which recycling practices to implement from the host of options at their disposal to best divert waste from landfill. This study strived to determine the most important characteristics in recycling programs that were associated with higher material recovery rates, including bag limits, user pay programs, the number of materials collected, curbside collection frequency, promotion and education (P&E) activities, Best Practice principles, and the type of recycling collection stream. Data collected from 223 recycling programs in Ontario during 2005-2010 were used to perform multiple regression analyses. The findings of this study suggest that attributes of convenience are more important to encourage recycling than those that penalize disposal, thus providing important implications for waste policy-makers, both in Ontario and in other jurisdictions.

  14. Intellectual Property and Online Courses: Policies at Major Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggie, Kathryn Ann; Barron, Ann E.; Gulitz, Elizabeth; Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the intellectual property policies of a stratified random sample of public and private Carnegie Doctoral Research-Extensive Universities. University policies were examined to determine whether or not they included provisions for distance education materials or courseware, what provisions were made for…

  15. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  16. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  17. Current Scenario of HIV/AIDS, Treatment Options, and Major Challenges with Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Usman, Muhammad; Kandi, Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative organism of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the inability of modern medicine to find a cure for it has placed HIV as one of the most dreaded pathogens of the 21st century. With millions of people infected with HIV, it was once thought to result in “medical apocalypse”. However, with the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is now possible to control HIV. Adherence to ART helps to keep the viral load under control and prolong the time of progression to AIDS, resulting in near normal life expectancy. Even with the introduction of ART, a substantial number of patients fail to adhere due to a variety of reasons, including adverse side effects, drug abuse, mental disorders, socioeconomic status, literacy, and social stigma. With the availability of so many options for HIV treatment at each stage of the disease progression, physicians can switch between the treatment regimens to avoid and/or minimize the adverse effects of drugs. Close monitoring, major social reforms, and adequate counselling should also be implemented to circumvent other challenges. PMID:27054050

  18. Mitigation implications of midcentury targets that preserve long-term climate policy options.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian C; Riahi, Keywan; Keppo, Ilkka

    2010-01-19

    Midcentury targets have been proposed as a guide to climate change policy that can link long-term goals to shorter-term actions. However no explicit mitigation analyses have been carried out of the relationship between midcentury conditions and longer-term outcomes. Here we use an integrated assessment modeling framework with a detailed representation of the energy sector to examine the dependence of climate change outcomes in 2100 on emissions levels, atmospheric concentrations, and technology characteristics in 2050. We find that midcentury conditions are crucial determinants of longer-term climate outcomes, and we identify feasibility thresholds describing conditions that must be met by midcentury to keep particular long-term options open. For example, to preserve the technical feasibility of a 50% likelihood of keeping global average temperature at < 2 degrees C above preindustrial in 2100, global emissions must be reduced by about 20% below 2000 levels by 2050. Results are sensitive to several assumptions, including the nature of future socio-economic development. In a scenario with high demand for energy and land, being below 2 degrees C with 50% likelihood requires a 50% reduction in emissions below 2000 levels by 2050, which is only barely feasible with known technologies in that scenario. Results suggest that a greater focus on midcentury targets could facilitate the development of policies that preserve potentially desirable long-term options.

  19. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Chandler, Jess; Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Ally, Moonis

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  20. The future of Indian Health Services for native Americans in the United States: an analysis of policy options and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Henley, Tiffany; Boshier, Maureen

    2016-10-01

    The passage of the Affordable Care Act in the United States has opened a policy window for the establishment of an independent Medicaid agency for the Navajo Nation. This article explores several policy options to improve health care services for Native Americans. Although there is a lack of scholarly research on the impact of healthcare reform and the effectiveness of current health care programs for American Indians, policymakers should utilize evidence-based research to inform policy decisions.

  1. Exploring policy and financing options for long-term care in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, S D

    2001-01-01

    Policy and financing arrangements for long-term care are important themes in each country and/or region, and Taiwan, with its unique historic and politico-economic background, can be regarded as a bridge between well-developed and under-developed countries. Policy formulation about long-term care in Taiwan involves several agencies in the government, including Ministry of Health, Interior Affairs, Education, Insurance Bureau, and Economic Council, and formulation of policy objectives has progressed considerably in the last five years. Financing arrangements are less well-developed because the National Health Insurance Program began only in 1995, and most long-term care is not yet covered. As demand for long-term care exceeds supply, and this gap will grow in future, current resource allocation measures are concerned to facilitate the expansion of community care rather than allowing institutional care to absorb more resources. Developing future financing options is now a central task for policymaking, and government must continue to take a leading role in consolidating financial and integrating the service systems.

  2. Major Issues of University Education Policy in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    University education is believed to be one of the most controversial public policies in Hong Kong. Numerous changes have also occurred in the university education sector since the 1990s when the rapid expansion of university places was put into force. The most notable changes may include the institutionalization of quality assurance mechanisms,…

  3. Exploring Policy Options to Stop the Loss of Wetlands on Prairie Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serran, J.; Creed, I. F.

    2013-12-01

    Wetlands from the prairie pothole region of North America have been disappearing at rapid rates over the past century. Within Canada, the issue of wetland loss is compounded by the lack of high resolution wetland inventories, the lack of information on rates of wetland loss, and the absence of wetland policies to further protect against loss. In Alberta, the situation is particularly problematic as increasing development pressures continue to place wetlands at risk. The 'no net loss' of wetlands policy established in 1993 has been ineffective, as wetland loss has continued, leaving Albertans searching for alternative policy options. An alternative policy option is to shift focus from wetland area to wetland function. We present a wetland function assessment system founded on ecological and hydrological processes for estimating wetland functions, including biodiversity, flood control, and pollution reduction, for a regional watershed in Alberta. First, we establish wetland loss rates using inventory time series from 1960 to present; wetland loss estimates can be derived from a break in slope in the area-frequency relationship. Second, we create a high-resolution wetland inventory using a novel approach that fuses LiDAR data (probability of wetland) with aerial photographs (to distinguish open water and the surrounding wet meadow zone). Third, using this wetland inventory, we identify indicators of wetland function using GIS and remote sensing data and technologies for application at regional watershed scales. Biodiversity indicators include a wetland's condition, ability to provide habitat, and potential for high ecological diversity. Flood control indicators include a wetland's ability to store water, connect to surface drainage network, and desynchronize flood waves throughout the landscape. Pollution control indicators include a wetland's contributing source area of nutrients, mechanisms that transport nutrients to the wetland, and mechanisms that retain

  4. Policy brief: Options to reduce sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify key policy recommendations to relevant settings that impact on the availability, marketing price, and knowledge of SSBs and ultimately the consumption of SSBs in New Zealand, particularly in youth. These recommendations will provide achievable goals to various stakeholders and settings of influence, aiming to reduce SSBs intake. The ideal outcome is that water and milk (unflavoured) become preferred beverage options for New Zealand children and adults. These goals align to the vision articulated by the advocacy group 'FIZZ' to achieve a Sugary Drink Free New Zealand by 2025. This means that SSBs should be only rarely consumed, and comprise less than 5% of total population beverage intake. Addressing SSBs in particular is an important step to addressing New Zealand's obesity epidemic, especially among children.

  5. Encouraging re-mining and reclamation of abandoned mined lands in Appalachia: Policy options

    SciTech Connect

    Santopietro, G.D.; Zipper, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    Abandoned mined lands (AML) are areas that were mined prior to implementation of federal controls over coal-mined land reclamation and were inadequately reclaimed. The majority of the US`s AML acreages were produced by coal mining in the Appalachian areas. Environmental problems include lands in barren or semi-barren condition, excessive sedimentation, acid water discharges, and unstable slopes. This article address the potential to reclame AMLs in the Appalachian region by creating incentives for environmental enhancement through re-mining. Background information of AML and on current policies affecting re-mining are reviewed and the results of a survey of individuals who are knowledgeable in remining policy issues are reported. 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Policy perspectives of major nursing organizations, part II. Interview by David M Keepnews.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Pamela; Corcoran, Ruth; Dickenson-Hazard, Nancy; Davis-Lewis, Bettye; Gorham, Millicent

    2005-08-01

    Understanding the roles of interest groups is an important element of examining policy change. There are a number of interest groups that affect the policy environment for nursing and that shape the profession's impact on health policy. This article, the second of a two-part series, presents interviews with executive directors and chief executive officers of major nursing organizations about their organizations' policy priorities and policy-related activities. Included in this article are the American Organization of Nurse Executives, the National League for Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the National Black Nurses Association.

  7. Broadcasting and Telecommunications. Yukon 2000: Toward a Communications Policy. Part I: A Background Paper. Facts, Figures and Definitions and Part II. Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukon Dept. of Community and Transportation, Whitehorse.

    These two booklets, which describe the current status of communications in the Yukon Territory and consider future policy options, focus on the broadcasting industry, including radio and television, and the telecommunications industry, which comprises telephone, telegraph, and cable systems. The first booklet, a background paper, briefly describes…

  8. Test-Optional Admission Policies and Their Effect on the Composition of the Student Body at King's College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmude, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study examined test-optional admission policies and their effect on the composition of the student body at King's College. According to the College Board (2009), students from underrepresented populations do not perform as well as White students on standardized tests. Therefore, higher education institutions have established test-optional…

  9. Choices for Children: Policy Options for State Provision of Early Childhood Programs. Finance Collaborative Working Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, W. Norton

    Alternative early childhood education policies that states might consider are discussed in this five-part report. Likely consequences, and pros and cons of each alternative are outlined. Section I presents various funding options, including the funding of existing programs, voucher mechanisms, project grants, and formula funding. Section II…

  10. Policy Options for Insuring the Delivery of an Appropriate Education to Handicapped Children Who Are of Limited English Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baca, Leonard

    The report analyzes policy issues in the education of bilingual exceptional students. Chapter 1 provides a historical review of the question, including overviews of litigation and legislation and findings regarding the effectiveness of bilingual education. Significant issues are considered in Chapter 2, including programmatic options, removable…

  11. Status of the world's remaining closed forests: An assessment using satellite data and policy options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, A.; Shi, H.; Foresman, T.; Fosnight, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, it appears that some of the WRCF have survived because i) they lack sufficient quantity of commercially valuable species; ii) they are located in remote or inaccessible areas; or iii) they have been protected as national parks and sanctuaries. Forests will be protected when people who are deciding the fate of forests conclude than the conservation of forests is more beneficial, e.g. generates higher incomes or has cultural or social values, than their clearance. If this is not the case, forests will continue to be cleared and converted. In the future, the WRCF may be protected only by focused attention. The future policy options may include strategies for strong protection measures, the raising of public awareness about the value of forests, and concerted actions for reducing pressure on forest lands by providing alternatives to forest exploitation to meet the growing demands of forest products. Many areas with low population densities offer an opportunity for conservation if appropriate steps are taken now by the national governments and international community. This opportunity must be founded upon the increased public and government awareness that forests have vast importance to the welfare of humans and ecosystems' services such as biodiversity, watershed protection, and carbon balance. Also paramount to this opportunity is the increased scientific understanding of forest dynamics and technical capability to install global observation and assessment systems. High-resolution satellite data such as Landsat 7 and other technologically advanced satellite programs will provide unprecedented monitoring options for governing authorities. Technological innovation can contribute to the way forests are protected. The use of satellite imagery for regular monitoring and Internet for information dissemination provide effective tools for raising worldwide awareness about the significance of forests and intrinsic value of nature.

  12. Staying in Tune with Music Education: Policy Awareness among Music Education Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Suzanne L.; Knaster, Jenna; Knieste, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A nationwide sample of undergraduate music education majors (N = 260; 69% completion rate) completed an electronic survey to determine awareness of music and general education policy and advocacy efforts. Students reported concern with the impact of policy on school music programs and their future careers. They were informed about music education…

  13. A real options approach to biotechnology investment policy-the case of developing a Campylobacter vaccine to poultry.

    PubMed

    Lund, Mogens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to identify and analyse public-private incentives for the development and marketing of new animal vaccines within a real options methodological framework, and to investigate how real options methodology can be utilized to support economic incentives for vaccine development in a cost-effective way. The development of a vaccine against Campylobacter jejuni in poultry is applied as a case study. Employing the real options methodology, the net present value of the vaccine R&D project becomes larger than a purely probabilistic expected present value throughout the different stages of the project - and the net present value becomes larger, when more types of real options are taken into consideration. The insight from the real options analysis reveals opportunities for new policies to promote the development of animal vaccines. One such approach might be to develop schemes combining stage-by-stage optimized subsidies in the individual development stages, with proper account taken of investors'/developers' economic incentives to proceed, sell or cancel the project in the respective stages. Another way of using the real options approach to support the development of desirable animal vaccines could be to issue put options for the vaccine candidate, enabling vaccine developers to hedge against the economic risk from market volatility.

  14. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of

  15. Policy perspectives of major nursing organizations. Interview by David M. Keepnews.

    PubMed

    Stierle, Linda; Bednash, Geraldine Polly; Apple, Kathy

    2005-05-01

    Understanding the roles of interest groups is an important element of examining policy change. There are a number of interest groups that affect the policy environment for nursing and that shape the profession's impact on health policy. This article is the first of a series featuring interviews with executive directors/chief executive officers of three major nursing organizations, focusing on their policy priorities and how these priorities are determined. The three organizations featured in this article are the American Nurses Association (ANA), the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) and the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN).

  16. A risk-based framework for water resource management under changing water availability, policy options, and irrigation expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Long-term water resource management requires the capacity to evaluate alternative management options in the face of various sources of uncertainty in the future conditions of water resource systems. This study proposes a generic framework for determining the relative change in probabilistic characteristics of system performance as a result of changing water availability, policy options and irrigation expansion. These probabilistic characteristics can be considered to represent the risk of failure in the system performance due to the uncertainty in future conditions. Quantifying the relative change in the performance risk can provide a basis for understanding the effects of multiple changing conditions on the system behavior. This framework was applied to the water resource system of the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. A "bottom-up" flow reconstruction algorithm was used to generate multiple realizations for water availability within a feasible range of change in streamflow characteristics. Consistent with observed data and projected change in streamflow characteristics, the historical streamflow was perturbed to stochastically generate feasible future flow sequences, based on various combinations of changing annual flow volume and timing of the annual peak. In addition, five alternative policy options, with and without potential irrigation expansion, were considered. All configurations of water availability, policy decisions and irrigation expansion options were fed into a hydro-economic water resource system model to obtain empirical probability distributions for system performance - here overall and sectorial net benefits - under the considered changes. Results show that no one specific policy can provide the optimal option for water resource management under all flow conditions. In addition, it was found that the joint impacts of changing water availability, policy, and irrigation expansion on system performance are complex and

  17. System-wide and Superemitter Policy Options for the Abatement of Methane Emissions from the U.S. Natural Gas System.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Erin N; Robinson, Allen L; Cohon, Jared L

    2017-03-18

    This work assesses trade-offs between system-wide and superemitter policy options for reducing methane emissions from compressor stations in the U.S. transmission and storage system. Leveraging recently collected national emissions and activity data sets, we developed a new process-based emissions model implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation framework to estimate emissions for each component and facility in the system. We find that approximately 83% of emissions, given the existing suite of technologies, have the potential to be abated, with only a few emission categories comprising a majority of emissions. We then formulate optimization models to determine optimal abatement strategies. Most emissions across the system (approximately 80%) are efficient to abate, resulting in net benefits ranging from $160M to $1.2B annually across the system. The private cost burden is minimal under standard and tax instruments, and if firms market the abated natural gas, private net benefits may be generated. Superemitter policies, namely, those that target the highest emitting facilities, may reduce the private cost burden and achieve high emission reductions, especially if emissions across facilities are highly skewed. However, detection across all facilities is necessary regardless of the policy option and there are nontrivial net benefits resulting from abatement of relatively low-emitting sources.

  18. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  19. Reactor-based management of used nuclear fuel: assessment of major options.

    PubMed

    Finck, Phillip J; Wigeland, Roald A; Hill, Robert N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

  20. Reactor-Based Management of Used Nuclear Fuel: Assessment of Major Options

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip J. Finck; Roald A. Wigeland; Robert N. Hill

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the current status of the ongoing Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program in the U.S. Department of Energy that is investigating the potential for using the processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel to improve radioactive waste management, including used fuel. A key element of the strategies is to use nuclear reactors for further irradiation of recovered chemical elements to transmute certain long-lived highly-radioactive isotopes into less hazardous isotopes. Both thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors are being studied as part of integrated nuclear energy systems where separations, transmutation, and disposal are considered. Radiotoxicity is being used as one of the metrics for estimating the hazard of used fuel and the processing of wastes resulting from separations and recycle-fuel fabrication. Decay heat from the used fuel and/or wastes destined for disposal is used as a metric for use of a geologic repository. Results to date indicate that the most promising options appear to be those using fast reactors in a repeated recycle mode to limit buildup of higher actinides, since the transuranic elements are a key contributor to the radiotoxicity and decay heat. Using such an approach, there could be much lower environmental impact from the high-level waste as compared to direct disposal of the used fuel, but there would likely be greater generation of low-level wastes that will also require disposal. An additional potential waste management benefit is having the ability to tailor waste forms and contents to one or more targeted disposal environments (i.e., to be able to put waste in environments best-suited for the waste contents and forms).

  1. Research-Informed Policy Options for Infant and Toddler Early Care and Education: Research-to-Policy Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    This Research-to-Policy Resource List compiles research-based policy documents published in 2010 and later on the following topics: Early learning guidelines for infants and toddlers; Program standards for settings serving infants and toddlers; Core competencies and credentials for caregivers of infants and toddlers; Use of infant/toddler…

  2. Clinical review of treatment options for major depressive disorder in patients with coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Baker, Brian

    2012-11-01

    It is established that the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) in coronary heart disease (CHD) populations is high and is associated with increased mortality. In this systematic review, we examined the evidence for the effective treatment of MDD in CHD patients by reviewing randomized control trials (RCTs) between 1980 and 2011 and then assessing whether these treatments were clinically meaningful. A total of 8 RCTs were retrieved. Sertraline, citalopram, and mirtazapine were safe from a cardiac perspective, but only sertraline and citalopram were clearly more effective than placebo in CHD patients with moderate-to-severe type, recurrent MDD, or MDD episode onset before the CHD event. Augmenting sertraline with omega-3 fatty acids did not result in superior depression outcomes. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was equivocally superior to usual care. Interpersonal psychotherapy was only superior to clinical management in patients with high baseline functional status. Exercise is a potential treatment for those with mild depression.

  3. Atypical Antipsychotics and Other Therapeutic Options for Treatment of Resistant Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Rubo J.; MacPherson, Holly; Young, Allan H.

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant therapies, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are current first-line treatments for Major Depressive Disorder. However, over 50% of treated patients show an inadequate response to initial antidepressant therapy. If the therapeutic outcomes from two antidepressant therapies are suboptimal, potentially resulting in Treatment Resistant Depression, subsequent strategies include switching to another antidepressant or augmenting treatment by combining with other agents. When combined with SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics have supplementary action on dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems. Studies on combined treatment with atypical antipsychotics have shown significantly increased remission rates, shortened response times, and favorable side effects. Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is now an acceptable treatment strategy which leads to increased remission rates and better outcomes for patients.

  4. Improving Instruction through Effective Teacher Evaluation: Options for States and Districts. TQ Research & Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Carrie; Oliva, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Research and Policy Brief is to provide state and local policymakers with a comprehensive understanding of the measures used in teacher evaluation--their strengths, limitations, and current use in policy and practice. This brief will underscore aspects of evaluation policies currently aligned with best practices as well as…

  5. Cognitive dysfunction in major depression and bipolar disorder: Assessment and treatment options.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Glenda M; Memedovich, Katherine A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a recognized feature of mood disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Cognitive impairment is associated with poor overall functional outcome and is therefore an important feature of illness to optimize for patients' occupational and academic outcomes. While generally people with BD appear to have a greater degree of cognitive impairment than those with MDD, direct comparisons of both patient groups within a single study are lacking. There are a number of methods for the assessment of cognitive function, but few are currently used in clinical practice. Current symptoms, past course of illness, clinical features, such as the presence of psychosis and comorbid conditions, may all influence cognitive function in mood disorders. Despite the general lack of assessment of cognitive function in clinical practice, clinicians are increasingly targeting cognitive symptoms as part of comprehensive treatment strategies. Novel pharmacological agents may improve cognitive function, but most studies of standard mood stabilizers, such as lithium and the anticonvulsants, have focused on whether or not the medications impair cognition. Non-pharmacological strategies, such as cognitive remediation and exercise, are increasingly studied in patients with mood disorders. Despite the growing interest in strategies to manage cognitive function, there is a paucity of high-quality trials examining either pharmacological or non-pharmacological modes of intervention.

  6. Is recycling the best policy option? Insights from life cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Stodolsky, F.

    1996-03-01

    The public perceives that the more we recycle, the better off we are. However, both the concept of recycling and the benefits to be achieved from recycling are somewhat vague. To determine the best option for disposition of a material at the end of its first use, we need to first define the available options and then clarify the possible goals that can be achieved by them. The best option will depend on the material, goals to be achieved, and location-dependent factors, such as costs, resources, and regulations. This paper presents the results of a life-cycle energy analysis of kraft paper and newsprint by Argonne National Laboratory. They indicate that under some circumstances, the option of fiber-energy recovery will maximize the benefits that can. be realized from the U.S. used paper resource.

  7. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Budy, Fidel C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia. PMID:27622002

  8. Policy Options for Addressing Health System and Human Resources for Health Crisis in Liberia Post-Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Budy, Fidel C T

    2015-01-01

    Qualified healthcare workers within an effective health system are critical in promoting and achieving greater health outcomes such as those espoused in the Millennium Development Goals. Liberia is currently struggling with the effects of a brutal 14-year long civil war that devastated health infrastructures and caused most qualified health workers to flee and settle in foreign countries. The current output of locally trained health workers is not adequate for the tasks at hand. The recent Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) exposed the failings of the Liberian healthcare system. There is limited evidence of policies that could be replicated in Liberia to encourage qualified diaspora Liberian health workers to return and contribute to managing the phenomenon. This paper reviews the historical context for the human resources for health crisis in Liberia; it critically examines two context-specific health policy options to address the crisis, and recommends reverse brain drain as a policy option to address the immediate and critical crisis facing the health care sector in Liberia.

  9. Internationalization of University Curricula in Japan: Major Policies and Practice since the 1980s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Futao

    2006-01-01

    This article begins by discussing the context and major policies as well as the rationales related to internationalization of the university curricula in Japan. It then touches on internationalization of the curricula in Japanese higher education institutions at home and on development of cross-border curricula that are both imported into Japan…

  10. Major General Spurgeon Neel and the Army Physician Assistant: A Case Study of Policy Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    1 Major General Spurgeon Neel and the Army Physician Assistant: A Case Study of Policy Change Richard Glade ...a survey, which interestingly, made no attempt to study it. In 2005, Captain John Hughes surveyed every battalion and brigade commander at Fort

  11. California Policy Options to Accelerate Latino Student Success in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2006-01-01

    California policy makers and institutional leaders are making critical policy, programmatic, and budgetary decisions affecting segments of the state's population that lack sufficient levels of formal training and education. These decisions are occurring at a time when five critical trends are converging in the state. These trends are: (1)…

  12. Communication Options--The Need for Increased Awareness of These Amongst Policy Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Andrew

    This paper considers how various technologies such as telephone conferencing, computer conferencing, and BOM (Brainstorming on Microfiche) could be used by policy developers. It is argued that many of these technologies are efficient in cost/benefit terms, but are often not being used in organizations because policy developers are not aware of…

  13. Trends in Connectivity Technologies and Their Socioeconomic Impacts. Final Report of the Study: Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cave, Jonathan; van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Shehabi, Ala'a; Brutscher, Philipp-Bastian; Robinson, Neil

    2009-01-01

    This report is intended to inform the European Commission's DG Information Society and Media in developing its policies for the period 2010-2020. It is targeted to policymakers with expert knowledge of the field. The report summarises the work conducted in the study: "Policy Options for the Ubiquitous Internet Society". It builds on…

  14. Health policy in France: a major issue in the 1978 legislative elections.

    PubMed

    Canone, F; Guyot, J C

    1978-01-01

    For the 1978 legislative elections, all French political parties have, for the first time, a relatively detailed health policy. The right-wing parties of the present government concentrate on the reduction of medical expenditure and the maintenance of the free enterprise tradition of French medicine. The left-wing parties concentrate more on the development of public health institutions and suggest nationalization of the pharmaceutical industry. Within the Left, there is, however, a difference of emphasis: the Socialists propose the setting up of medicosocial centers and abolition of the fee-for-service system; the Communists concentrate rather on industrial health and believe that an improved health service can only come from changes in overall social economic policy. None of these policies is particularly adventurous but their mere existence shows that health is now a major political preoccupation in France. Some of these policies are mainly concerned with individual and public welfare and others with the necessity of maintaining a certain social order. The debate surrounding health policy usually turns around these two issues.

  15. Development of On-Orbit Servicing Concepts, Technology Option and Roadmap (Part III) - Policy Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeden, C.; Pastena, M.; Morley, S.; Abbasi, V.; Cree, D.; Grover, D.; Hay, J.; He, W.; Huang, X.; Jacobs, S.; Jun, Z.; Kearney, S.; Kuwahara, T.; Lenzi, F.; Mirahmetoglu, H.; Otani, M.; Pinni, M.; Schwartz, J.; Shala, K.; Shi, J.-F.; Singh Khoral, J.; Steinkellner, M.; Treat, D.; Ulrich, S.; Verheyden, P.; Wang, X. V.

    Specific policy challenges of On-Orbit Servicing threaten to stagnate this potential industry. One subject that must be addressed is that of the standardization: how the space industry and policy makers alike need to ensure spacecraft are manufactured with design standards in mind. Encouragement of standards can come from government or voluntary practices of industry, such as adherence to a commercial space standards board. Ultimately, standardization will encourage an On-Orbit Servicing industry and provide an alternative to discontinuing space services in failing spacecraft.

  16. Options for management of municipal solid waste in New York City: A preliminary comparison of health risks and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Pearl; Krishnan, Nikhil; Ulloa, Priscilla; Cohen, Steven; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W.

    2008-01-01

    Landfill disposal and waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration remain the two principal options for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). One critical determinant of the acceptability of these options is the different health risks associated with each. In this analysis relying on published data and exposure modeling, we have performed health risk assessments for landfill disposal versus WTE treatment options for the management of New York City’s MSW. These are based on the realistic scenario of using a waste transfer station (WTS) in Brooklyn and then transporting the untreated MSW by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania or using a WTE facility in Brooklyn and then transporting the resultant ash by truck to a landfill in Pennsylvania. The overall results indicate that the individual cancer risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, although the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment; the individual non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally unacceptable, although once again the risk from landfilling is approximately 5 times greater than from WTE treatment. If one considers only the population in Brooklyn that would be directly affected by the siting of either a WTS or a WTE facility in their immediate neighborhood, individual cancer and non-cancer health risks for both options would be considered generally acceptable, but risks for the former remain considerably higher than for the latter. These results should be considered preliminary due to several limitations of this study such as: consideration of risks only from inhalation exposures; assumption that only volume and not composition of the waste stream is altered by WTE treatment; reliance on data from the literature rather than actual measurements of the sites considered, assuming comparability of the sites. However, the results of studies such as this, in conjunction with ecological, socioeconomic and equity considerations

  17. 3 CFR 13493 - Executive Order 13493 of January 22, 2009. Review of Detention Policy Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to develop policies for the... Justice, and the Department of Justice shall, to the extent permitted by law and subject to the... necessary, and shall provide periodic preliminary reports during those 180 days. (h) Termination. The...

  18. Reinforcing Obligations and Responsibilities between Generations: Policy Options from Cross-National Comparisons. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Maureen

    This discussion paper addresses two policy questions: (1) Can Canada afford to maintain its income security programs and social services, given the higher costs expected with an aging population? and (2) Do generous social programs discourage family responsibility or reinforce expectations of assistance within and between generations? The paper…

  19. Containing Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez: United States Foreign Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-16

    Ecuadorian President Rafeal Correa and Bolivian President Evo Morales , offer little tangible support. Notably, the South American countries most able to...the FARC shares common socialist values with Chavez‟ Bolivarian Revolution. Venezuela also supports socialist regimes in Ecuador and Bolivia ...controversial foreign policies. With the exception of the state leaders of Iran, Cuba, Ecuador and Bolivia , Chavez has few supporters. Arguably, Russia

  20. Lay People's Views of School Food Policy Options: Associations with Confidence, Personal Values and Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worsley, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    A random population survey administered by mail to examine lay people's views of children's food policies and their associations with demographics, personal values and confidence in authorities was conducted among adults in Victoria, Australia. Three hundred and seventy-seven people responded (response rate 57.6%). The questionnaire contained 35…

  1. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  2. Improving The Affordable Care Act: An Assessment Of Policy Options For Providing Subsidies.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Evan A; Eibner, Christine; Enthoven, Alain C

    2015-12-01

    A key challenge of health reform efforts is to make health insurance affordable for individuals and families who lack coverage without harming those with coverage or increasing federal spending. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) addresses this challenge in part by providing tax subsidies to qualified individuals for purchasing individual insurance and retaining tax exemptions for employer and employee contributions to the cost of premiums of employer-sponsored insurance. These tax exemptions cost approximately $250 billion annually in lost tax revenue and have been criticized for favoring higher earners and conferring preferential treatment of employer-sponsored over individual insurance. We analyzed three options for leveling the financial playing field between the two insurance markets by reallocating the value of tax benefits of employer coverage. We found that one option that uses the subsidy formula employed in the insurance Marketplaces under the ACA for both the individual and employer-sponsored insurance markets, and additionally requires the subsidy to be at least $1,250 without an upper income limit on subsidy eligibility imposed, could expand insurance coverage and reduce individual market premiums relative to the ACA with no additional federal spending.

  3. Policy Options for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Application in Healthcare; a Prospective View

    PubMed Central

    van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie; Botterman, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the state of play of European markets and applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in healthcare in Europe. Based on the current situation the study presents three scenarios for 2020, to describe futures in which the technology and health care sectors develop in different ways. The scenarios were discussed in expert workshops to derive issues that need to be addressed by future policies of the European Union and other stakeholders. The market assessment is based on a review of literature and an analysis of proprietary market data. The information on the state of RFID applications in Health in Europe summarises the results of a literature review, an online Delphi survey, expert interviews and seven cases studies in Europe and the US. The policy analysis is based on the outcomes of a scenario gaming workshop with experts from academia, industry, healthcare providers, policymakers and representatives of patient organisations. PMID:28083212

  4. A third option for climate policy within potential limits to growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Jeroen C. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has revived debates around the concept of limits to growth, 45 years after it was first proposed. Many citizens, scientists and politicians fear that stringent climate policy will harm economic growth. Some are anti-growth, whereas others believe green growth is compatible with a transition to a low-carbon economy. As the window to curb warming at 2 °C closes, this debate will intensify. This Review critically reflects on both positions, providing an overview of existing literature on the growth versus climate debate. Both positions are argued here to jeopardize environmental or social goals. A third position, labelled an 'agrowth' strategy, is proposed to depolarize the debate and reduce resistance to climate policies.

  5. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  6. Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California. Issues, Policy Options, and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Massachusetts, New Mexico , Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. 6 Preschool Adequacy and Efficiency in California Table 1.1 Preschool Policy Domains and...evaluated only for programs in Fresno, Los Angeles, and Sacramento), Michigan, New Jersey, New Mexico (evaluated in two different program years...for Arkansas (Hustedt, Barnett, Jung, and Thomas, 2007), California (Barnett, Howes, and Jung, forthcoming), and New Mexico (Hustedt, 28 Presch o o

  7. [Options for a future-oriented innovation policy in the medical devices industry].

    PubMed

    Nusser, Michael; Lindner, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    From an innovation systems perspective the performance of the German medical devices industry, future challenges and barriers to innovation are assessed. Current performance indicators (e.g., R&D intensity, export growth rates) paint a favourable picture. Nonetheless, a number of innovation barriers are identified: in particular, insufficient network integration of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and ineffective policy coordination. Finally, recommendations addressing identified future challenges and innovation barriers are developed.

  8. Sensitive But Unclassified Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-14

    Report RL31547, Critical Infrastructure Information Disclosure and Homeland Security, by John D. Moteff and Gina Marie Stevens.) In the predecessor...federal agencies.116 (For additional information, see CRS Report RL33670, Protection of Security-Related Information, by Gina Marie Stevens and Todd B...Panel,” Research Policy Alert, Dec. 6, 2005. The document is “IAP Statement on Biosecurity,” Nov. 7, 2005. 182 Margaret A. Somerville and Ronald M

  9. Who Owns Renewable Energy Certificates? An Exploration of PolicyOptions and Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, Edward A.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-04-05

    Renewable energy certificates (RECs) represent the bundle of information that describes the characteristics of renewable electricity generation, and may be (and increasingly are) sold separately from the underlying electricity itself. RECs are a relatively new phenomenon, emerging as a tradable commodity in voluntary markets in the late 1990s, and gaining strength as a means of compliance with various state policy requirements affecting renewable generation in the early 2000s (Holt and Bird 2005). Twenty states and Washington, D.C. now have mandatory renewables portfolio standard (RPS) obligations, and most of these may be satisfied by owning and retiring RECs. Many states also have fuel source and emissions disclosure requirements, for which RECs are useful. Even where state policy does not allow unbundled and fully tradable RECs to meet these requirements, RECs may still be used as an accounting and verification tool (REC tracking systems are in place or under development in many regions of the U.S.). These applications, plus REC trading activity in support of voluntary green claims, give rise to potential ''double counting'' to the extent that the purchaser of the RECs and the purchaser of the underlying electricity both make claims to the renewable energy attributes of the facility in question (Hamrin and Wingate 2003). When renewable electricity is sold and purchased, an important question therefore arises: ''Who owns the RECs created by the generation of renewable energy?'' In voluntary transactions, most agree that the question of REC ownership can and should be negotiated between the buyer and the seller privately, and should be clearly established by contract. Claims about purchasing renewable energy should only be made if REC ownership can be documented. In many other cases, however, renewable energy transactions are either mandated or encouraged through state or federal policy. In these cases, the issue of REC ownership must often be answered by

  10. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  11. Abortion law in Muslim-majority countries: an overview of the Islamic discourse with policy implications.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Gilla K

    2014-07-01

    Religion plays a significant role in a patient’s bioethical decision to have an abortion as well as in a country’s abortion policy. Nevertheless, a holistic understanding of the Islamic position remains under-researched. This study first conducted a detailed and systematic analysis of Islam’s position towards abortion through examining the most authoritative biblical texts (i.e. the Quran and Sunnah) as well as other informative factors (i.e. contemporary fatwas, Islamic mysticism and broader Islamic principles, interest groups, and transnational Islamic organizations). Although Islamic jurisprudence does not encourage abortion, there is no direct biblical prohibition. Positions on abortion are notably variable, and many religious scholars permit abortion in particular circumstances during specific stages of gestational development. It is generally agreed that the least blameworthy abortion is when the life of the pregnant woman is threatened and when 120 days have not lapsed; however, there is remarkable heterogeneity in regards to other circumstances (e.g. preserving physical or mental health, foetal impairment, rape, or social or economic reasons), and later gestational development of the foetus. This study secondly conducted a cross-country examination of abortion rights in Muslim-majority countries. A predominantly conservative approach was found whereby 18 of 47 countries do not allow abortion under any circumstances besides saving the life of the pregnant woman. Nevertheless, there was substantial diversity between countries, and 10 countries allowed abortion ‘on request’. Discursive elements that may enable policy development in Muslim-majority countries as well as future research that may enhance the study of abortion rights are discussed. Particularly, more lenient abortion laws may be achieved through disabusing individuals that the most authoritative texts unambiguously oppose abortion, highlighting more lenient interpretations that exist in

  12. Technological and policy options for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from mobile sources

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents issues and explores options for reducing emissions of carbonaceous pollutants from mobile sources. It discusses first what can be expected from current and proposed emission control system designed chiefly to reduce the output of regulated pollutants, then explores opportunities for incremental control of emissions of carbon (bound in gaseous form) that appear at this time to have good potential for success. The presentation of current and anticipated control technologies is organized by vehicle type, considering, in turn, passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks, medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, and non-highway vehicular modes. The discussion of incremental control opportunities focuses first on hardware and (existing) fuels modification for reduced emissions and improved fuel efficiency, then turns to advanced vehicular technologies and fuels, new refrigerants (to replace CFCs, which, in addition to being implicated in the destruction of stratospheric ozone, are molecule for molecule more potent than carbon dioxide as greenhouse gases), and in-use emissions testing and travel reduction strategies. Finally, opportunities for continuation of the current (net) downward trend in fuel consumption by most non-highway transportation activities are described. The paper concludes that evolutionary developments in most transportation activities-- developments driven in large measure by simple economics--could be at least as effective in mitigating the contribution of (domestic) mobile sources to greenhouse warming'' as any specific revolutionary change. 41 refs.

  13. Health issues and the practicing radiologist: defining concepts and developing recommendations for leave options and policies.

    PubMed

    Heilbrun, Marta E; Bender, Claire E; Truong, Hang B; Bluth, Edward I

    2013-09-01

    Radiologists today are faced with the challenges of maintaining and balancing individual and family health needs and the demands of the workplace. To provide the highest quality and safest care of our patients, a corresponding ethos of support for a healthy workforce is required. There is a paucity of targeted information describing protections for and maintenance of the health of the practicing radiologist, in both private and academic settings. However, a review of existing family and medical leave policies may be helpful to practice leaders and practicing radiologists as a platform for the development of strategic workforce plans. This writing, by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources, addresses the following areas: (1) medical leave, (2) maternity and/or paternity leave, and (3) disability.

  14. Health services financing and delivery: analysis of policy options for Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi, Samer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A national health account (NHA) provides a systematic approach to mapping the flow of health sector funds within a specified health system over a defined time period. This article attempts to present a profile of health system financing in Dubai, United Arab Emirates using data from NHAs, and to compare the functional structures of financing schemes in Dubai with schemes in Qatar and selected member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Methods The author analyzed secondary data published in NHAs of Dubai and Qatar and data collected by the OECD countries and publicly available from Eurostat (Statistical Office of the European Union) of 25 OECD countries for comparative analysis. All health financing indicators used were as defined in the international System of Health Accounts (SHA). Results In Dubai, spending on inpatient care was the highest-costing component, with 30% of current health expenditures (CHE). Spending on outpatient care was the second highest-costing component and accounted for about 23% of the CHE. Household spending accounted for about 22% of CHE (equivalent to US$187 per capita), compared to an average of 20% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent 0.02% of CHE on long-term care, compared to an average of 11% of CHE of OECD countries. Dubai spent about 6% of CHE on prevention and public health services, compared to an average of 3.2% of CHE of OECD countries. Conclusion The findings point to potential opportunities for growth and improvement in several health policy issues in Dubai, including increasing focus and funding of preventive services; shifting from inpatient care to day surgery, outpatient, and home-based services and strengthening long-term care; and introducing cost-containment measures for pharmaceuticals. More investment in the translation of NHA data into policy is suggested for future researchers. PMID:25750545

  15. Low-income energy assistance programs: a profile of need and policy options

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This second report of the Fuel Oil Marketing Advisory Committee (FOMAC) of DOE is twofold: to update information on the energy needs of low-income persons and governmental response to such needs; and to emphasize the need for energy-conservation programs that may alleviate the enormous financial burden placed on low-income people by rising energy prices. FOMAC has continued to develop further and refine its initial energy-conservation recommendations. Mainly, the updated assessment document finds that the poor will expend at least 35% of their income directly on energy and will spend at least 21% of their income on household energy. Other economic impacts of rising energy costs on low-income groups are summarized. Appropriations and stipulations by Congress to aid the lo-income people are reviewed. After careful review of various program designs, FOMAC continues to support the income indexing/vendor line of credit approach. This design provides assistance to elgible households based on: energy needed, cost of fuel, and percentage of income. The cost of implementing the FOMAC design nationally would, according to estimates, range from $3.5 to $4.6 billion for the 1980-1981 winter heating season. A figure of $1.6 to $2.2 billion is being discussed in the Congress. Meeting the ongoing energy needs of the poor will require a coherent national policy which consists of aid in paying energy bills and aid in the poor's effort to conserve energy. The report seeks to promote such policies. Needs assessment, government response, FOMAC model, comments on the programs, projected cost of 1980-1981 Energy Assistance Program, need for conservation programs, and program financing are discussed.

  16. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  17. Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2010-12-01

    The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

  18. Overview: Bellagio Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B; Monteiro, C; Swinburn, B

    2013-11-01

    The Bellagio 'Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries' (LMICs) was organized to pull together the current. We need not reiterate the importance of this topic or the speed of change in eating, drinking and moving facing us across the globe. The conference emerges from need to significantly step up the policies and programs to reduce obesity by learning from some current examples of best practice and strengthening the role of the academic and civil society players in translating global evidence and experience into action at the national level. There is also a need to empower the younger generation of scholars and activists in these countries to carry on this effort. The meeting was also timely because a number of funding agencies in the United States, Canada and the UK, at least, are beginning to focus attention on this topic. This set of papers provides not only examples of existing best practice but also a road map ahead for LMICs in the various areas of action needed to reduce obesity across LMICs. The meeting highlighted critical barriers to implementation that have blocked many initiatives.

  19. Policies To Help Disadvantaged Children: Financing Options for the 1990s. Changing Domestic Priorities Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Roberta Ott; And Others

    This paper estimates the costs of several approaches to increasing federal assistance to disadvantaged children and evaluates major funding strategies that could overcome the restrictions posed by the federal budget deficit. Approaches favored by conservatives, such as strengthening behavioral standards for children, sponsoring demonstration…

  20. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. PMID:27053828

  1. TRIPS, the Doha Declaration and increasing access to medicines: policy options for Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, JC; Gyansa-Lutterodt, M; Torpey, K; Esmail, LC; Kurokawa, G

    2005-01-01

    There are acute disparities in pharmaceutical access between developing and industrialized countries. Developing countries make up approximately 80% of the world's population but only represent approximately 20% of global pharmaceutical consumption. Among the many barriers to drug access are the potential consequences of the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement. Many developing countries have recently modified their patent laws to conform to the TRIPS standards, given the 2005 deadline for developing countries. Safeguards to protect public health have been incorporated into the TRIPS Agreement; however, in practice governments may be reluctant to exercise such rights given concern about the international trade and political ramifications. The Doha Declaration and the recent Decision on the Implementation of Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health may provide more freedom for developing countries in using these safeguards. This paper focuses on Ghana, a developing country that recently changed its patent laws to conform to TRIPS standards. We examine Ghana's patent law changes in the context of the Doha Declaration and assess their meaning for access to drugs of its population. We discuss new and existing barriers, as well as possible solutions, to provide policy-makers with lessons learned from the Ghanaian experience. PMID:16336685

  2. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters.

    PubMed

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-09-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S.

  3. Household demand for insecticide-treated bednets in Tanzania and policy options for increasing uptake.

    PubMed

    Gingrich, Chris D; Hanson, Kara G; Marchant, Tanya J; Mulligan, Jo-Ann; Mponda, Hadji

    2011-03-01

    There has been considerable controversy about the most appropriate means of delivering insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to prevent malaria. Household demand for ITNs is a key factor influencing the choice of delivery strategy, but evidence to date about price and income elasticities comes either from studies of hypothetical willingness to pay or small-scale policy experiments. This study estimates the price and income elasticities of demand for ITNs using nationally representative household survey data and actual consumer choices, in the context of a national scheme to provide vouchers for subsidized nets to pregnant women in Tanzania. Under this distribution system, the estimated price elasticity of demand for subsidized ITNs equals -0.12 and the income elasticity estimates range from zero to 0.47, depending on household socio-economic status. The model also shows a substantial decline in short-term ITN purchases for women whose household received a free ITN. These findings suggest that if the Tanzanian government continues to use a mixed public-private model to distribute ITNs, increasing the consumer subsidy alone will not dramatically improve ITN coverage. A concerted effort is required including an increase in the subsidy amount, attention to income growth for poor households, increases in women's and girls' education levels, and expansion of the retail ITN distribution network. Use of a catch-up campaign to distribute free ITNs would increase coverage but raises questions about the effect of households' long-term purchase decisions for ITNs.

  4. A Review of the Major School Counseling Policy Studies in the United States: 2000-2014. Research Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John C.; Martin, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the major policy studies concerning school counseling in the United States that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014. In all, reviewers located 37 documents that were disseminated between 2000 and 2014, and that were either intentionally written with a focus on policy implications or were…

  5. Establishing Teacher Competencies in Early Care and Education: A Review of Current Models and Options for California. Building California's Preschool for All Workforce. A Series of Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief provides guidelines grouped into five areas: personal and professional behavior; classroom environment; health, safety and nutrition; working with families and communities; and administration and management. The document discusses the topics that teacher competencies generally cover, options for how they might be developed and…

  6. A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources

  7. Predicting the impact of measles vaccination in England and Wales: model validation and analysis of policy options.

    PubMed Central

    Babad, H. R.; Nokes, D. J.; Gay, N. J.; Miller, E.; Morgan-Capner, P.; Anderson, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Measles incidence in England and Wales has fallen to an all-time low. Attention is now focused on preventing local outbreaks, and, in the long run, on the elimination of indigenous measles. A realistic age-structured (RAS) mathematical model of measles transmission is used to reconstruct the impact of measles vaccination in England and Wales from 1968 to the present and to evaluate the merits of future policy options. In general, the predictions of the model show good agreement with long-term age stratified case reports and seroprevalence surveys. The model underestimates the proportion of cases that are notified in 0-2-year-old children. However, recent work suggests a high degree of misdiagnosis in this age group. Projections on the basis of the existing vaccination strategy in the UK suggest that the present level of measles vaccine coverage will be insufficient to eliminate small seasonal outbreaks of measles. This result is, however, sensitive to the assumed level of vaccine efficacy. Explorations of a variety of changes to current vaccination strategy favour a 2-dose schedule with the second dose administered at age 4 years irrespective of vaccination history. A vaccination campaign in school-age children, to reduce deficits in herd immunity, would accelerate progress towards measles elimination. PMID:7705494

  8. Information Technology; Initiatives for Today--Decisions That Cannot Wait. Some Major Problem Areas and Leadership Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, DuBois S., Jr., Ed.

    The Conference Board's Special Executive Council has commissioned a series of studies into the implications and effects of information technology. This report is a formulation of the more compelling issues in these studies that call for immediate policy-level attention. The propositions and initiatives which were formulated are discussed in…

  9. Evidence on the Effect of DoD Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Evidence on the Effect of DoD Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs Naval Postgraduate School 12th...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evidence on the Effect of DoD Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth...There are no obvious candidates.  The paper (Appendix B) provides evidence that PAUC growth is not systematically influenced by changes in budget

  10. Major depressive disorder in the perinatal period: using data linkage to inform perinatal mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenglian; Austin, Marie-Paule; Reilly, Nicole; Hilder, Lisa; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2012-10-01

    This study aims to investigate hospital admission of major depressive disorders (MDD) before and after birth. Population data for all primiparous women admitted to the hospital with depressive disorders before and after birth were used. The comparison group consisted of 10 % of primiparous women not admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder or substance use. A total of 728 women had a first admission with depressive disorders (501 in the first postpartum year). The rate of first hospital admission for depressive disorders decreased during pregnancy and increased markedly in the first three months after birth (peaking in the second month with a rate of 10.74/1,000 person year and rate ratio of 12.56) compared with the 6 months prior to pregnancy. Admission remained elevated in the second postpartum year. Older maternal age, smoking, elective caesarian section and admission to a neonatal intensive care unit or special care nursery were associated with a higher rate of admission. Women born outside Australia and those most socioeconomically disadvantaged were less likely to be admitted to the hospital in the first postpartum year. Overall risk of hospital admission with depressive disorders rose significantly across the entire first postpartum year. This has significant implications for policy and service planning for women with mood disorders in the perinatal period.

  11. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    PubMed Central

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  12. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  13. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  14. 12 CFR 225.142 - Statement of policy concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and... concerning bank holding companies engaging in futures, forward and options contracts on U.S. Government and agency securities and money market instruments. (a) Purpose of financial contract positions....

  15. The Benin experience: How computational modeling can assist major vaccine policy changes in low and middle income countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R; Connor, Diana L; Dicko, Hamadou M; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A; Brown, Shawn T

    2015-06-09

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country "champions," directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries.

  16. The Benin Experience: How Computational Modeling can lead to Major Vaccine Policy Changes in Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Schreiber, Benjamin; Wateska, Angela R.; Connor, Diana L.; Dicko, Hamadou M.; Jaillard, Philippe; Mvundura, Mercy; Levin, Carol; Avella, Mélanie; Haidari, Leila A.; Brown, Shawn T.

    2015-01-01

    While scientific studies can show the need for vaccine policy or operations changes, translating scientific findings to action is a complex process that needs to be executed appropriately for change to occur. Our Benin experience provided key steps and lessons learned to help computational modeling inform and lead to major policy change. The key steps are: engagement of Ministry of Health, identifying in-country “champions,” directed and efficient data collection, defining a finite set of realistic scenarios, making the study methodology transparent, presenting the results in a clear manner, and facilitating decision-making and advocacy. Generating scientific evidence is one component of policy change. Enabling change requires orchestration of a coordinated set of steps that heavily involve key stakeholders, earn their confidence, and provide them with relevant information. Our Benin EVM+CCEM+HERMES Process led to a decision to enact major changes and could serve as a template for similar approaches in other countries. PMID:25900134

  17. Conflicting Ideologies and Language Policy in Adult ESL: Complexities of Language Socialization in a Majority-L1 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Miki

    2014-01-01

    This study looks at how language ideologies affect and are revealed in language socialization practices in a majority-L1 adult ESL classroom, particularly looking at language use and policy. It draws on recent theories and critiques of language socialization (Bayley & Langman, 2011; Bronson & Watson-Gegeo, 2008; Garrett &…

  18. 76 FR 50813 - Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Projects; Guidance on News Starts/Small Starts Policies and Procedures AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This.... Section 5309(d)(6) of Title 49, U.S. Code, requires the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) to...

  19. [Social cohesion and regional integration: the MERCOSUR social agenda and the integrationist social policy major challenges].

    PubMed

    Draibe, Sônia Miriam

    2007-01-01

    In the consolidation of the Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR), social policies are still in the embryonic stage. However, since the latter half of the 1990s there has been a speedup in the creation of institutions dedicated to such policies with the Common Market's framework. This article focuses on health policy and the broader social policy system in order to identify the reasons for the imbalance, through three movements: reconstitution of the history of the institutional construction of social policies in MERCOSUR; identification and comparison of the successive strategies for the formulation and implementation of the social integration agenda; and reflection on the current dilemmas and challenges faced by the process. According to the study, MERCOSUR operates with strategies that are difficult to mutually reconcile. On the institutional level, it follows a minimalist strategy, while on the conceptual/ discursive level it adopts a maximalist strategy for supranational unification of social policies. The fact is that it operates a minimalist social policy strategy, since it fails to bring to the field of social integration the debate and proposals on economic and social development models that could sustain the effective construction of regional social citizenship.

  20. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  1. Energy metabolic disorder is a major risk factor in severe influenza virus infection: Proposals for new therapeutic options based on animal model experiments.

    PubMed

    Kido, Hiroshi; Indalao, Irene L; Kim, Hyejin; Kimoto, Takashi; Sakai, Satoko; Takahashi, Etsuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Severe influenza is characterized by cytokine storm and multiorgan failure. Influenza patients with underlying diseases show a rapid progression in disease severity. The major mechanism that underlies multiorgan failure during the progressive stage of infection, particularly in patients with underlying risk factors, is mitochondrial energy crisis. The relationship between the factors that determine infection severity, such as influenza virus, cytokines, cellular trypsin as a hemagglutinin processing protease for viral multiplication, accumulation of metabolic intermediates and ATP crisis in mitochondria, is termed the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle. This occurs during the initial stages of infection, and is interconnected with the "metabolic disorders-cytokine" cycle in the middle to late phase of infection. Experiments using animal models have highlighted the complex relationship between these two cycles. New treatment options have been proposed that target the ATP crisis and multiorgan failure during the late phase of infection, rather than antiviral treatments with neuraminidase inhibitors that work during the initial phase. These options are (i) restoration of glucose oxidation in mitochondria by diisopropylamine dichloroacetate, which inhibits infection-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 activity, and (ii) restoration of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in mitochondria by l-carnitine and bezafibrate, an agonist of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors-β/δ, which transcriptionally upregulates carnitine palmitoyltransferase II. The latter is particularly effective in patients with influenza-associated encephalopathy who have thermolabile and short half-life compound variants of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II.

  2. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  3. When the Majority Rules: Ballot Initiatives, Race-Conscious Education Policy, and the Public Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Michele S.; Saenz, Lauren P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines the following central question: How do direct democratic ballot initiatives affect the public good? A second, related question is this: When voters collectively make policy decisions, what responsibilities do researchers have to contribute to informing public deliberation about the relevant issues? In an attempt to answer…

  4. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  5. NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

  6. Future electricity generation: An economic and environmental life cycle perspective on near-, mid- and long-term technology options and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergerson, Joule Andrea

    This thesis evaluates the cost and environmental tradeoffs of current and future electricity generation options from a life cycle perspective. Policy and technology options are considered for each critical time horizon (near-, mid-, and long-term). The framework developed for this analysis is a hybrid life cycle analysis which integrates several models and frameworks including process and input-output life cycle analysis, an integrated environmental control model, social costing, forecasting and future energy scenario analysis. The near-term analysis shows that several recent LCA studies of electricity options have contributed to our understanding of the technologies available and their relative environmental impacts. Several promising options could satisfy our electricity demands. Other options remain unproven or too costly to encourage investment in the near term but show promise for future use (e.g. photovoltaic, fuel cells). Public concerns could impede the use of some desirable technologies (e.g. hydro, nuclear). Finally, less tangible issues such as intermittency of some renewable technologies, social equity and visual and land use impacts, while difficult to quantify, must be considered in the investment decision process. In the mid-term analysis, this thesis explores alternative methods for transport of coal energy. A hybrid life cycle analysis is critical for evaluating the cost, efficiency and environmental tradeoffs of the entire system. If a small amount of additional coal is to be shipped, current rail infrastructure should be used where possible. If entirely new infrastructure is required, the mine mouth generation options are cheaper but have increased environmental impact due to the increased generation required to compensate for transmission line losses. Gasifying the coal to produce methane also shows promise in terms of lowering environmental emissions. The long-term analysis focuses on the implications of a high coal use future. This scenario

  7. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  8. Educational Policy and the Two Major Approaches to Disaster Relief in the Third World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Christopher

    In this paper, two major schools of thought regarding disaster and disaster assistance are identified and examined in order to bring to light their underlying assumptions about assistance and development in the Third World. The first section discusses the context of the problem, citing figures and presenting charts to illustrate the scope and…

  9. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  10. "Sensitive But Unclassified" Information and Other Controls: Policy and Options for Scientific and Technical Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-29

    Gina Marie Stevens.) In the predecessor memorandum issued by Attorney General Janet Reno in 1993, agencies were encouraged to release documents...For additional information, see CRS Report RL33670, Protection of Security-Related Information, by Gina Marie Stevens and Todd B. Tatelman.) Sensitive...Policy Alert, Dec. 6, 2005. The document is “IAP Statement on Biosecurity,” Nov. 7, 2005. 182 Margaret A. Somerville and Ronald M. Atlas, “Ethics: A

  11. How citizen advisory boards provide input into major waste policy decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, E.; Murakami, L.; Hanson, L.

    1995-12-31

    Volunteer citizen boards, such as Site Specific Advisory Boards, can be a very important key to success for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Waste Management program. These boards can provide informed, independent recommendations reflecting the diversity of the community and its values. A successful volunteer process requires collaboration among regulators, DOE and other Boards; knowing how and when to interface with the broader public; understanding the diversity and representational issues of a citizens group; knowing the {open_quotes}ins and outs{close_quotes} of working with volunteers; education and training and most importantly, planning. Volunteers on a citizens board were created to tackle the big picture, policy decisions. The chair of the Rocky Flats Citizens Advisory Board will describe her Board`s successes, including the challenges in reaching consensus agreements, as well as the need for integration with other boards and the sites` on-going public involvement programs to provide the input the department is seeking. Finally, one of the greatest challenges for the boards is interfacing with the greater public-at-large, seeing how the CAB has overcome this challenge and integrating broader public input into its decisions.

  12. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  13. Analysis of policy options for meeting the demand for wood fuels in the province of Ilocos Norte, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ilocos Norte is the second most deforested province in the Philippines. It has a high demand for wood fuels for household cooking and tobacco curing. The government has constructed a 3-MW wood-fired electric power plant and is planning two pig iron furnaces that will require large amounts of wood charcoal. Key options for producing or saving large quantities of wood fuels are tree farming, improved woodstoves, bamboo substitution, and kerosene substitution. At realistic rather than ideal implementation effectiveness, the present value of net economic benefits (PVNB) is highest for woodstoves. Tree farming has the second highest PVNB when fuelwood is valued at the market price, but bamboo substitution does when fuelwood is shadow priced at the value of collection time. Kerosene substitution has a negative PVNB, and LPG or electricity are even more expensive fuels.

  14. Education and the energy crisis: policies and actions for the Department of Energy. [Options and alternatives, DOE Education Programs Div

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-22

    This report is the result of a study carried out to determine options and alternatives for the Education Programs Division (EPD) of the Department of Energy. In the conduct of this study, numerous individuals from various concerned institutions were interviewed. While the project scope clearly precluded contact with every involved or potentially involved party, a concerted effort was made to obtain a representative sampling of the opinions and views of relevant government, academic and private sector agencies and organizations. A listing of those contacted, excluding the Department of Energy, is provided. In addition to interviews, an extensive range of literature was drawn upon including memoranda, brochures, program statements, school-enrollment data, speeches and the like. It was determined during this study that a wide range of public and private institutions are actively involved in the energy-education field. Oil companies, utilities, public interest groups, schools, agencies at every level of government, and others are formulating and delivering education which is enormously varied. It was concluded, however, that the public is not being reached, partially because current efforts are unfocused and partially because the public has become inured to problems and resistant to many of the traditional means of education. The study found that within this crowded and varied energy education field the Department of Energy is well placed to begin to provide direction and focus to the widespread activity now occurring.

  15. Budgeting of major nutrients and the mitigation options for nutrient mining in semi-arid tropical agro-ecosystem of Tamil Nadu, India using NUTMON model.

    PubMed

    Surendran, U; Rama Subramoniam, S; Raja, P; Kumar, V; Murugappan, V

    2016-04-01

    Mining of nutrients from soil is a major problem in developing countries causing soil degradation and threaten long-term food production. The present study attempts to apply NUTrient MONitoring (NUTMON) model for carrying out nutrient budgeting to assess the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in defined geographical unit based on the inputs, viz., mineral fertilizers, manures, atmospheric deposition, and sedimentation, and outputs, viz., harvested crop produces, residues, leaching, denitrification, and erosion losses. The study area covers Coimbatore and Erode Districts, which are potential agricultural areas in western agro-ecological zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The calculated nutrient balances for both the districts at district scale, using NUTMON methodology, were negative for nitrogen (N -3.3 and -10.1 kg ha(-1)) and potassium (K -58.6 and -9.8 kg ha(-1)) and positive for phosphorus (P +14.5 and 20.5 kg ha(-1)). Soil nutrient pool has to adjust the negative balance of N and K; there will be an expected mining of nutrient from the soil reserve. A strategy was attempted for deriving the fertilizer recommendation using Decision Support System for Integrated Fertilizer Recommendation (DSSIFER) to offset the mining in selected farms. The results showed that when DSSIFER recommended fertilizers are applied to crops, the nutrient balance was positive. NUTMON-Toolbox with DSSIFER would serve the purpose on enhancing soil fertility, productivity, and sustainability. The management options to mitigate nutrient mining with an integrated system approach are also discussed.

  16. Policy options for stabilizing global climate. Draft report to Congress. Volume 2: Chapters VII-IX. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The report discusses different energy sources, fuels, and substitutes in different scenarios to either reduce or control the pollution which causes the greenhouse effect therefore changes the climate of the world. It describes the substitute technologies and other means by which greenhouse gas emissions could be reduced relative to the scenarios described. A range of policies that might be used to promote such reductions are described, which address domestic and international issues. The report discusses the diverse sources and economic activities responsible for greenhouse gas emissions. The primary means of accomplishing the goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the development and use of technologies that reduce energy requirements (i.e., improve energy efficiency), use less carbon-intensive fuels, or that replace or reduce emissions of other greenhouse gases. In addition to this technological approach, there are also several areas in which management strategies are the means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly with respect to the buildup of gases resulting from some agricultural practices and forest resources.

  17. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    PubMed Central

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future. PMID:25360435

  18. Energy drink consumption in europe: a review of the risks, adverse health effects, and policy options to respond.

    PubMed

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences, and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long-term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  19. University Examinations and Standardized Testing: Principles, Experience, and Policy Options. World Bank Technical Paper Number 78. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Uses of Standardized Tests and Selection Examinations (Beijing, China, April 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P., Ed.; Fagerlind, Ingemar, Ed.

    In September 1984, the Chinese government asked the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank to assist the officials of the Chinese Ministry of Education in thinking through some policy options for examinations and standardized testing. This document summarizes the descriptions of testing programs and advice provided to these Chinese…

  20. Is irrigation with partial desalinated seawater a policy option for saving freshwater in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Multsch, Sebastian; Alquwaizany, Abdulaziz S.; Lehnert, Karl-H.; Frede, Hans-Georg; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The agriculture sector consumes with 88 % a majority of the almost fossil water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Irrigation with saline water has been highlighted to be a promising technique to reduce fresh water consumption. Current desalination techniques, further developments, salt tolerant crop types and improved irrigation systems can potentially redesign future perspectives for irrigation agriculture, in particular by considering the growing desalination capacity in KSA (5 million m3 day-1 in 2003). Hence, we have analyzed the potential of using desalinated and partial desalinated seawater for growing crops in KSA by considering scenarios of salinity levels and desalination costs. The desalination process has been modelled with the ROSA© software considering a reverse osmosis (RO) plant. The spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER has been applied to assess the water footprint of crops (WFcrop). In order to maintain high crop yields, salts need to be washed out from the rooting zone, which requires the application of additional salt-free water. Therefore, high crop yields come along with additional water requirements and increased desalination effort and increased costs for proving high quality water. As an example, growing wheat with partial desalinated seawater from the Arabian Gulf with a RO plant has been investigated. Desalination reduces the salinity level from 76 dS m-1 to 0.5 dS m-1 considering two RO cycles, with cost of desalinized water in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 m-3. We acknowledge that cost only refer to desalination without considering others such as transport, water pumping or crop fertilization. The study shows that Boron is the most problematic salt component, because it is difficult to remove by RO and toxic in high concentrations for crops (wheat threshold of 0.5 to 1.0 mg l-1). The nationwide average WFcrop of wheat under surface irrigation is 2,628 m3 t-1 considering high water quality of 1 dS m-1 and 3,801 m3 t-1 at

  1. The healthy options for nutrition environments in schools (Healthy ONES) group randomized trial: using implementation models to change nutrition policy and environments in low income schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Healthy Options for Nutrition Environments in Schools (Healthy ONES) study was an evidence-based public health (EBPH) randomized group trial that adapted the Institute for Healthcare Improvement’s (IHI) rapid improvement process model to implement school nutrition policy and environmental change. Methods A low-income school district volunteered for participation in the study. All schools in the district agreed to participate (elementary = 6, middle school = 2) and were randomly assigned within school type to intervention (n = 4) and control (n =4) conditions following a baseline environmental audit year. Intervention goals were to 1) eliminate unhealthy foods and beverages on campus, 2) develop nutrition services as the main source on campus for healthful eating (HE), and 3) promote school staff modeling of HE. Schools were followed across a baseline year and two intervention years. Longitudinal assessment of height and weight was conducted with second, third, and sixth grade children. Behavioral observation of the nutrition environment was used to index the amount of outside foods and beverages on campuses. Observations were made monthly in each targeted school environment and findings were presented as items per child per week. Results From an eligible 827 second, third, and sixth grade students, baseline height and weight were collected for 444 second and third grade and 135 sixth grade students (51% reach). Data were available for 73% of these enrolled students at the end of three years. Intervention school outside food and beverage items per child per week decreased over time and control school outside food and beverage items increased over time. The effects were especially pronounced for unhealthy foods and beverage items. Changes in rates of obesity for intervention school (28% baseline, 27% year 1, 30% year 2) were similar to those seen for control school (22% baseline, 22% year 1, 25% year 2) children. Conclusions

  2. Rehabilitation Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  3. A Window of Opportunity for the Transformation of National Mental Health Policy in Turkey Following Two Major Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Kerim; Ergene, Tuncay; Tunaligil, Verda; Erol, Nese

    2011-01-01

    Striking at the nation’s highly populated industrial heartlands, two massive earthquakes in 1999 killed over 25,000 people in Turkey. The economic cost and the humanitarian magnitude of the disaster were unprecedented in the country’s history. The crisis also underscored a major flaw in the organization of mental health services in the provinces that were left out of the 1961 reforms that aimed to make basic health services available nationwide. In describing the chronology of the earthquakes and the ensuing national and international response, this article explains how the public and governmental experience of the earthquakes has created a window of opportunity, and perhaps the political will, for significant reform. There is an urgent need to integrate mental health and general health services, and to strengthen mental health services in the country’s 81 disparate provinces. As Turkey continues her rapid transformation in terms of greater urbanization, higher levels of public education, and economic and constitutional reforms associated with its projected entry into the European Union, there have also been growing demands for better, and more equitably distributed, health care. A legacy of the earthquakes is that they exposed the need for Turkey to create a coherent, clearly articulated national mental health policy. PMID:15371066

  4. Pricing Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a recent survey of over 100 public and academic libraries about pricing options from online companies. Most options fall into three categories: pay-as-you-go, fixed-rate, and user-based. Results are discussed separately for public and academic libraries and for consortial discounts. Trends in pricing options preferred by…

  5. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  6. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    PubMed

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  7. Improving Dementia Long-Term Care: A Policy Blueprint.

    PubMed

    Shih, Regina A; Concannon, Thomas W; Liu, Jodi L; Friedman, Esther M

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, 15 percent of Americans older than age 70 had dementia, and the number of new dementia cases among those 65 and older is expected to double by the year 2050. As the baby boomer generation ages, many older adults will require dementia-related long-term services and supports (LTSS). This blueprint is the only national document to date that engages local, state, and national stakeholders to specifically focus on policy options at the intersection of dementia and LTSS. The authors undertook five major tasks that resulted in a prioritized list of policy options and research directions to help decisionmakers improve the dementia LTSS delivery system, workforce, and financing. These were to (1) identify weaknesses in the LTSS system that may be particularly severe for persons with dementia; (2) review national and state strategies addressing dementia or LTSS policy; (3) identify policy options from the perspective of a diverse group of stakeholders; (4) evaluate the policy options; and (5) prioritize policy options by impact and feasibility. Stakeholders identified 38 policy options. RAND researchers independently evaluated these options against prespecified criteria, settling on 25 priority options. These policy options can be summarized into five objectives for the dementia LTSS system: (1) increase public awareness of dementia to reduce stigma and promote earlier detection; (2) improve access to and use of LTSS; (3) promote high-quality, person- and caregiver-centered care; (4) provide better support for family caregivers of people with dementia; and (5) reduce the burden of dementia LTSS costs on individuals and families. This policy blueprint provides a foundation upon which to build consensus among a larger set of stakeholders to set priorities and the sequencing of policy recommendations.

  8. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  9. Quality Assurance Mechanisms and Their Use as Policy Instruments: Major International Approaches and the Australian Experience since 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Grant

    1998-01-01

    Explores quality-assurance mechanisms for higher education and their use as a government policy instrument. Outlines several national or system-level approaches adopted worldwide; reviews an Australian quality-assurance program conducted from 1993 to 1995 and its successor program; and comments on ways in which the government used quality…

  10. The Effect of the Lowered Age of Majority and Relaxed Dormitory Policies on Drug Usage by Dormitory Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznik, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    In 1973, the state of Minnesota passed legislation lowering the legal age of adulthood from 21 to 18; this gave 18-year olds the opportunity to legally consume alcoholic beverages. At the same time, the University of Minnesota made policy changes which enabled dormitory residents to consume alcoholic beverages in their rooms. To ascertain the…

  11. When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

    Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

  12. Student Response to Tuition Increase by Academic Majors: Empirical Grounds for a Cost-Related Tuition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Milton, Sande

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the responses of students in different academic majors to tuition increase, with a particular focus on the relationship between tuition increase, and future earnings and college expenditures. We analyzed effects of tuition increase on enrollment in six academic majors--Engineering, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Business, and…

  13. Career options.

    PubMed

    2011-06-24

    Practitioners at all levels can plan their future career options through the NHS Nursing Career Framework interactive tool. The tool builds on the pathway-based framework set out in the post-registration career framework for nurses. Career pathways are outlined under each branch and the specialties within the branches, and cover topics including clinical careers, management and moving into education or research.

  14. Options for fuel management

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, L.D. Jr.; Chance, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    The key to cofiring wood or other biomass with coal in existing power stations is fuel management. Fuel management includes the procurement, receiving, processing, storage, and blending of the biomass with coal. Procurement options may include the purchase of lower cost biomass fuels, receipt of subsidies to make capital modifications to cofire biomass {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} fuels or receive tipping fees where biomass waste disposal options for a particular area are expensive. Biomass receiving options include delivery methods, unloading, measurement, and inspection. Processing options are associated with screen types, drying systems, final particle size required, and associated questions of fuel supply reliability. Issues include the ability of the coal yard to accept this processing operation, handling convenience, traffic patterns, staffing requirements, and ultimately the cost of fuel at the burner. Issues associated with storage include locating the facility, managing dust, managing moisture pick-up, and managing runoff. Blending options include pre-blending or designing a system to blend the fuels as they are transported from the coal yard to the bunkers. This paper reviews the major decisions that have to be made, and discusses some of the options available. It draws upon existing experience in cofiring systems to achieve a low cost, high reliability system to use biomass at coal-fired electricity generating stations.

  15. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  16. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    several changes that may prove to be consequential. B. Funding Climates The amount appropriated to DoD each year for procurement over the period FY...important to realize that the turns in the funds appropriated for procurement are a lagging indicator of a change in budget climate . Funding and...each of the events identified to signal major and sustained changes in the defense funding climate , which in fact they did. Analysis of surrounding

  17. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  18. The Future of Older Workers in America: New Options for an Extended Working Life. A Work in America Institute Policy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work in America Inst., Scarsdale, NY.

    A study was conducted to determine the role of the older worker in the American labor force, to analyze reasons behind the changing role of the older worker, and to make recommendations for employers, unions, and the government on age-neutral personnel policies responsive to the needs of an increasingly older work force. Data on the demographic,…

  19. The effect of major income sources on rural household food (in)security: Evidence from Swaziland and implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Mabuza, Majola L; Ortmann, Gerald F; Wale, Edilegnaw; Mutenje, Munyaradzi J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the food (in)security effect of household income generated from major economic activities in rural Swaziland. From a sample of 979 households, the results of a multinomial treatment regression model indicated that gender of household head, labor endowment, education, size of arable land, and location significantly influenced the households' choice of primary economic activity. Further results suggested that off-farm-income-dependent households were less likely to be food insecure when compared with on-farm-income-dependent households. However, on-farm-income-dependent households had a better food security status than their counterparts who depended on remittances and nonfarm economic activities.

  20. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and

  1. Pakistan’s Nuclear Proliferation Activities and the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission: U.S. Policy Constraints and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-25

    longer critical to U.S. regional security policy.15 India and Pakistan’s May 1998 Nuclear Tests and the Decline of Sanctions as a U.S. Nonproliferation...strained relations to a critical regional ally, but they put the U.S. Government once again at a disadvantage in dealing with Pakistan’s nuclear ...activities. A number of nonproliferation experts agree with the critical importance of keeping Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and materials out of the reach of

  2. Pakistan’s Nuclear Proliferation Activities and the Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission: U.S. Policy Constraints and Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-16

    Pakistan no longer critical to U.S. regional security policy.15 India and Pakistan’s May 1998 Nuclear Tests and the Decline of Sanctions as a U.S... nuclear activities. A number of nonproliferation experts agree with the critical importance of keeping Pakistan’s nuclear weapons and materials out of...plans for an uranium enrichment facility, this is only one — albeit a critical one — of many steps required in the production of nuclear weapons

  3. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technolgical, and socioeconomic futures in a regional intergrated-assessment model.

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-05-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of the building stock, commercial equipment and household appliances can have a major impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Subnational regions such as U.S. states wish to increase their energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions or adapt to climate change. Evaluating subnational policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change may undercut such policies. Assessing these uncertainties can be a significant modeling and computation burden. As part of this uncertainty assessment, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy using fractional factorial methods can be applied to reveal the important drivers for detailed uncertainty analysis.

  4. National policy in a deregulated marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, V.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is one of three keynote presentations given at the conference. It briefly discusses government policy issues regarding electric utility deregulation. Three major questions are examined: (1) policies and institutions required to ensure a free market, (2) allocation of stranded assets and ensuring that consumers benefit from restructuring, and (3) continuation of collateral utility activities such as low income program investments, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. Types of policy options under consideration are reviewed, and potential state and federal roles are described.

  5. Changes in Regional Variation of Medicare Home Health Care Utilization and Service Mix for Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Procedures in Response to Changes in Reimbursement Policy

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, John D; Boscardin, W John; Ettner, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    Background Significant variation in regional utilization of home health (HH) services has been documented. Under Medicare's Home Health Interim and Prospective Payment Systems, reimbursement policies designed to curb expenditure growth and reduce regional variation were instituted. Objective To examine the impact of Medicare reimbursement policy on regional variation in HH care utilization and type of HH services delivered. Research Design We postulated that the reimbursement changes would reduce regional variation in HH services and that HH agencies would respond by reducing less skilled HH aide visits disproportionately compared with physical therapy or nursing visits. An interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine regional variation in the month-to-month probability of HH selection, and the number of and type of visits among HH users. Subjects A 100 percent sample of all Medicare recipients undergoing either elective joint replacement (1.6 million hospital discharges) or surgical management of hip fracture (1.2 million hospital discharges) between January 1996 and December 2001 was selected. Results Before the reimbursement changes, there was great variability in the probability of HH selection and the number of HH visits provided across regions. In response to the reimbursement changes, though there was little change in the variation of probability of HH utilization, there were marked reductions in the number and variation of HH visits, with greatest reductions in regions with highest baseline utilization. HH aide visits were the source of the baseline variation and accounted for the majority of the reductions in utilization after implementation. Conclusions The HH interim and prospective payment policies were effective in reducing regional variation in HH utilization. PMID:19500167

  6. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trask, Newell J.

    1994-01-01

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  7. Implications of theories of asteroid and comet impact for policy options for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trask, N.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concern with the threat posed by terrestrial asteroid and comet impacts has heightened as the catastrophic consequences of such events have become better appreciated. Although the probabilities of such impacts are very small, a reasonable question for debate is whether such phenomena should be taken into account in deciding policy for the management of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The rate at which asteroid or comet impacts would affect areas of surface storage of radioactive waste is about the same as the estimated rate at which volcanic activity would affect the Yucca Mountain area. The Underground Retrievable Storage (URS) concept could satisfactorily reduce the risk from cosmic impact with its associated uncertainties in addition to providing other benefits described by previous authors.

  8. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    in health were emphasised in the WHO declaration of Alma-Ata, and were the focus of the United Kingdom Black Report. The Jakarta Conference on Health Promotion in 1997 urged international action on poverty, as it is the major threat to health. International acceptance of the need to tackle inequalities took longer than the acceptance of health targets, but it is now an important feature of public health policy. The advent of the 21st century marked the coming of age of public health. The renewed version of 'Health for All', 'Health for All in the 21st Century', emphasised the one constant goal of WHO that all individuals should achieve their full health potential. Public health is now regarded internationally as being a priority with this WHO goal being adopted as the overarching goal of policy. The challenges it faces in tackling problems such as obesity, inequalities in health, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse are great and will require policies which tackle the economic, social and environmental determinants of health.

  9. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  10. Implementing a Resource-Based Relative Value Scale Fee Schedule for Physician Services: An Assessment of Policy Options for the California Workers' Compensation Program.

    PubMed

    Wynn, Barbara O; Liu, Hangsheng; Mulcahy, Andrew W; Okeke, Edward N; Iyer, Neema; Painter, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    A RAND study used 2011 medical data to examine the impact of implementing a resource-based relative value scale to pay for physician services under the California workers' compensation system. Current allowances under the Official Medical Fee Schedule are approximately 116 percent of Medicare-allowed amounts and, by law, will transition to 120 percent of Medicare over four years. Using Medicare policies to establish the fee-schedule amounts, aggregate allowances are estimated to decrease for four types of service by the end of the transition in 2017: anesthesia (-16.5 percent), surgery (-19.9 percent), radiology (-16.5 percent), and pathology (-29.0 percent). Aggregate allowances for evaluation and management visits are estimated to increase by 39.5 percent. Allowances for services classified as "medicine" in the Current Procedural Terminology codebook will increase by 17.3 percent. In the aggregate, across all services, allowances are projected to increase 11.9 percent. Because most specialties furnish different types of services, the impacts by specialty are generally less than the impacts by type of service.

  11. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone.

  12. Assessing land degradation and acknowledging adaptive policy options to face with changes: an integrated approach applied to a semiarid agropastoral system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarrasón, D.; Ravera, F.; Reed, M.; Dougill, A.

    2009-04-01

    . The study reveals that the ecosystem services' exploration with local actors is a good method to reveal the multiple and sometimes conflictive local strategies and interests at stake. Ecosystem services assessment has also been used as an entry to discuss with local land users about adaptive management strategies to improve soil functions involved in the maintenance of the provision and regulation processes and land productivity that support local livelihoods face to changes. The integrated methodological framework adopted has a positive impact to empower local users, enlarging the access to adequate information and channels of communication between experts/local users, and improving their capacity to use the co-constructed hybrid knowledge. We argue that engaging the relevant and interested actors in the process is key to understand margin of flexibility for dialogue between local users, scientific and policy makers and it is a base for ownership of local actors in decision making processes that facilitates effective soil-land governance. Finally, we discuss how wide institutional changes at different levels are needed to support agro-environmental policies for communities, small and medium farmers and to undertake new adaptive management strategies to cope with uncertainties of future changes.

  13. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  14. Patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1999-03-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information they need to accept care in your office. The HCCC simply offers the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using a HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry.

  15. Patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2000-01-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information that they need to accept care in your office. The HCCC simply offers you the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using an HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry.

  16. Building EOS capability for Malaysia - the options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subari, M. D.; Hassan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Earth observation satellite (EOS) is currently a major tool to monitor earth dynamics and increase human understanding of earth surface process. Since the early 80s, Malaysia has been using EOS images for various applications, such as weather forecasting, land use mapping, agriculture, environment monitoring and others. Until now, all EOS images were obtained from foreign satellite systems. Realising on the strategic need of having its own capability, Malaysia embarked into EOS development programs in the early 90s. Starting with TiungSAT-1, a micro-satellite carrying small camera, then followed by RazakSAT, a small satellite carrying 2.5 m panchromatic (PAN) medium-aperture-camera, the current satellite program development, the RazakSAT-2, designed to carry a 1.0 m high resolution PAN and 4.0m multi-spectral camera, would become a strategic initiative of the government in developing and accelerating the nation's capability in the area of satellite technology and its application. Would this effort continue until all needs of the remote sensing community being fulfilled by its own EOS? This paper will analyze the intention of the Malaysian government through its National Space Policy and other related policy documents, and proposes some policy options on this. Key factors to be considered are specific data need of the EOS community, data availability and the more subjective political motivations such as national pride.

  17. Implementation of power barrier option valuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahyani, Agatha C. P.; Sumarti, Novriana

    2015-09-01

    Options are financial instruments that can be utilized to reduce risk in stock investment. Barrier options are one of the major types of options actively used in financial markets where its life period depends on the path of the underlying stock prices. The features of the barrier option can be used to modify other types of options. In this research, the barrier option will be implemented into power option, so it is called power barrier option. This option is an extension of the vanilla barrier options where the Call payoff being considered is defined as P C =max (STβ-Kβ,0 ) , and the Put payoff being considered is defined as P P =max (Kβ-STβ,0 ) . Here β > 0 and β ≠ 1, K is the strike price of the option, and ST is the price of the underlying stock at time maturity T. In this paper, we generate the prices of stock using binomial method which is adjusted to the power option. In the conclusion, the price of American power barrier option is more expensive than the price of European power barrier option.

  18. Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Attributable to Major Risk Factors is Similar in Argentina and the United States: the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Andrew; DeGennaro, Vincent; Ferrante, Daniel; Coxson, Pamela G.; Palmas, Walter; Mejia, Raul; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Goldman, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Argentina and the U.S. Argentina is 92% urban, with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels approximating the U.S. Methods The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model is a national-scale computer model of CHD and stroke. Risk factor data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America Study (2003–04), Argentina National Risk Factor Survey (2005) and U.S. national surveys. Proportions of cardiovascular events over 2005–2015 attributable to risk factors were simulated by setting risk factors to optimal exposure levels [systolic blood pressure (SBP) 115 mm Hg, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) 2.00 mmol/l (78 mg/dl), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) 1.03 mmol/l (60 mg/dl), absence of diabetes, and smoking]. Cardiovascular disease attributable to body mass index (BMI) > 21 kg/m2 was assumed mediated through SBP, LDL, HDL, and diabetes. Results Cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors was similar between Argentina and the U.S., except for elevated SBP in men (CHD 8 % points higher in Argentine men, 6% higher for stroke). CHD attributable to BMI > 21 kg/m2 was substantially higher in the U.S. (men 10–11 % points higher; women CHD 13–14% higher). Conclusions Projected cardiovascular disease attributable to major risk factors appeared similar in Argentina and the U.S., though elevated BMI may be responsible for more of U.S. cardiovascular disease. A highly urbanized middle-income nation can have cardiovascular disease rates and risk factor levels comparable to a high income nation, but fewer resources for fighting the epidemic. PMID:21550675

  19. Population-Based Studies Should not be Used to Justify a Policy of Routine Cholangiography to Prevent Major Bile Duct Injury During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, A Peter

    2017-01-01

    Iatrogenic bile duct injury at time of cholecystectomy is a rare but devastating event. A twofold higher frequency of bile duct injury during cholecystectomy without cholangiography is reported in population-based studies. Some interpret this as a cause-and-effect relationship and thus mandate routine cholangiography. A critical appraisal of population studies is required to determine whether these studies are suitable in determining the role of routine cholangiography. The literature search was performed using combinations of the forced search terms "duct injury", "population" and "cholangiography" to identify population-based studies assessing the relationship between cholangiography and iatrogenic bile duct injury. All seven population-based studies reported a numerically higher rate of bile duct injury when an intraoperative cholangiogram was not obtained during cholecystectomy. Five predate the critical view technique. Only one was limited to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All studies identified cholangiography as a likely marker for disease severity or surgical technique. Six studies did not demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship by not including effect modifiers. The only study to address confounders reported the same rate of injury irrespective of the use of cholangiography. Critical appraisal of population-based studies does not support their use in justifying a policy of routine cholangiography to prevent major bile duct injury.

  20. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  1. Control of cervical cancer: women's options and rights.

    PubMed

    Cain, Joanna M; Ngan, Hextan; Garland, Suzanne; Wright, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Cervical cancer takes the lives of more than 250,000 women each year globally, particularly in under-resourced areas of low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Options for cancer control and treatment have reached a point that there are interventions for control that could be adopted for virtually every resource and demographic situation. Women die despite the availability of attractive control options, which means that educating policy makers, women's health professionals, as well as women themselves, must become a major focus for ongoing control of this disease. The human right to life, to prevention of suffering, and to education are all key rights linked to improving the control of cervical cancer and saving the lives of women, particularly in resource-poor parts of the world.

  2. Out of the Closet: Addressing Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    gays should have equal rights in terms of job opportunities. Eighty-three percent of Americans support lesbians and gays having equal rights to job...provisions of the1964 Civil Rights Act, local commanders helped open thousands of theaters, bowling alleys, restaurants, and bathing beaches to black...effectiveness, as well as damage “cohesion, morale, discipline, leadership, recruiting, medical fitness, and the rights to privacy of other members”.42

  3. Expanding Policy Options for Educating Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading…

  4. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, <1% of this information was available at the point-of-purchase. Therefore, there is huge potential for improving nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

  5. Introductory Geology: Aspects and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John E.; And Others

    Included are essays presenting diversified views on questions related to problems, procedures and the impact of the Introductory Course Program (ICP) in geology. The papers of this issue deal with such factors as the financial survival in curricular design and introductory course options, the problems of transfer of majors which may place…

  6. An Option in Applied Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William E., III

    1988-01-01

    Describes a program option for undergraduate chemical engineering students interested in biotechnology. Discusses how this program is deployed at the University of Southern Florida. Lists courses which apply to this program. Discusses the goals of teaching applied microbiology to engineering majors. (CW)

  7. CHRONIC URTICARIA AND TREATMENT OPTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Godse, Kiran Vasant

    2009-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and causes. Still, despite our best efforts no cause may be found in the majority of cases. The treatment options are: Primary prevention in the form of avoidance of aggravating factors; counseling; antihistamines; leukotriene receptor antagonists; prednisolone; sulfasalazine and a host of immunosuppressives like methotrexate, cyclosporine, omalizumab etc. PMID:20101328

  8. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  9. Evidence on the Effect of DoD Acquisition Policy and Process and Funding Climate on Cancellations of Major Defense Acquisitions Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    growth and changes over time in acquisition policies and processes, after taking funding climate into account. McN-W (2014) found that there is not a...reasonable summary conclusion is that neither acquisition policy and process changes nor changes in funding climate have had much, if any, effect on... changes in funding climate are strongly associated with cancellations. They arguably have been crucial. DoD force structure, the capabilities that

  10. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that can facilitate or thwart

  11. 5 CFR 870.102 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The policy. 870.102 Section 870.102... EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 870.102 The policy. Basic, Option A, Option B, and Option C benefits are payable according to a contract with the company...

  12. 5 CFR 870.102 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The policy. 870.102 Section 870.102... EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 870.102 The policy. Basic, Option A, Option B, and Option C benefits are payable according to a contract with the company...

  13. 5 CFR 870.102 - The policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The policy. 870.102 Section 870.102... EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Administration and General Provisions § 870.102 The policy. Basic, Option A, Option B, and Option C benefits are payable according to a contract with the company...

  14. 75 FR 56628 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Policy .13 to Rule 5.3 to: (a) permit trading options on leveraged (multiple or inverse) exchange-traded... Interpretation and Policy .13 to Rule 5.3 to: (a) Permit trading options on leveraged (multiple or inverse... proposes to amend Rule 5.3.13 to permit the listing of options on leveraged (multiple or inverse)...

  15. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  16. Disposition options for separated plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Hippel, F. von; Feiveson, H. )

    1993-01-01

    Russia and the United States expect to dismantle [approximately]50,000 nuclear warheads containing [approximately]150 tonnes of plutonium as a result of the drastic reductions in tactical nuclear weapons announced by Presidents Bush and Gorbachev during the fall of 1991 and the reductions in strategic weapons agreed to in the START I and START II Treaties. In addition, if current plans for reprocessing spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel are carried out (mainly in Britain and France) [approximately]200 tonnes of civilian plutonium will be separated during the 1990s. This paper addresses the public-policy issues in the U.S. and abroad regarding disposition options as well as some technical aspects for options.

  17. Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, David

    This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

  18. An end to lifetime blood donation ban in Israel for MSM would be a major step toward a science-based policy that reduces stigma.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sean; Wang, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, countries around the world have revised their blood donation policies regarding gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The United States lifted the lifetime ban on MSM from donating blood in 2015, replacing it with a 1 year deferral policy allowing MSM to donate if they abstain from sex for 12 months. Other countries followed suit, while Italy and Spain have implemented deferral policies based on individual risk assessments regardless of sexual orientation. If Israel were to adopt a one year deferral policy for MSM, as recommended by Drs. Ginsberg et al. in this issue, the increase in risk to the blood supply would be minimal. Moving to a 1 year deferral policy would be an important step forward, but it could still be seen as stigmatizing to gay and bisexual men. We recommend that Israel consider a deferral policy based on individual risk assessment rather than a blanket deferral for all MSM. MSM can engage in low- and high-risk sexual behaviors. Those who consistently engage in low-risk behaviors, such as using condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis consistently, pose little risk to the blood supply. An individual risk assessment policy would screen potential donors of all sexual orientations for low-, medium-, and high-risk behaviors. Potential donors identified as high-risk, such as injection drug users, would justifiably be subject to lengthy or permanent bans. MSM who engage in low-risk sexual behaviors would be allowed to donate without deferral. Medium-risk donors, such as men who have recently had unprotected anal sex with another man, would be subject to a deferral period of 1 month, which is in line with the window period of current HIV screening technology. Most fourth generation HIV tests can detect HIV within a month, and the nucleic acid test used to screen blood can detect HIV in just 9-11 days. Various studies have developed questions for ascertaining HIV risk among MSM which could be used in blood donor

  19. Financing Long-Term Services And Supports: Options Reflect Trade-Offs For Older Americans And Federal Spending.

    PubMed

    Favreault, Melissa M; Gleckman, Howard; Johnson, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    About half of older Americans will need a high level of assistance with routine activities for a prolonged period of time. This help is commonly referred to as long-term services and supports (LTSS). Under current policies, these individuals will fund roughly half of their paid care out of pocket. Partly as a result of high costs and uncertainty, relatively few people purchase private long-term care insurance or save sufficiently to fully finance LTSS; many will eventually turn to Medicaid for help. To show how policy changes could expand insurance's role in financing these needs, we modeled several new insurance options. Specifically, we looked at a front-end-only benefit that provides coverage relatively early in the period of disability but caps benefits, a back-end benefit with no lifetime limit, and a combined comprehensive benefit. We modeled mandatory and voluntary versions of each option, and subsidized and unsubsidized versions of each voluntary option. We identified important differences among the alternatives, highlighting relevant trade-offs that policy makers can consider in evaluating proposals. If the primary goal is to significantly increase insurance coverage, the mandatory options would be more successful than the voluntary versions. If the major aim is to reduce Medicaid costs, the comprehensive and back-end mandatory options would be most beneficial.

  20. Academic research: policies and practice.

    PubMed

    Bertha, S L

    1996-04-01

    The Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 allowed universities in the US to own and manage inventions obtained using federal funds. This Act laid the foundation for university technology transfer activities in most major research universities of the country. Consequently, the interaction between universities and industry has increased, and so has the sophistication in university intellectual property management. UIC's model for managing its intellectual property is efficient and successful, and is the one increasingly used by university technology transfer offices. The model deals with all aspects of UIC's intellectual property: disclosure, protection, marketing, negotiating and licensing, as well as intellectual property provisions in UIC's research agreements, material transfer agreements, option agreements, licensing agreements and others. In a pioneer effort, UIC has developed a policy on contracts for collecting natural product samples for drug discovery which includes royalty sharing and other important provisions. Accompanying this policy we have also drafted a standard contractual agreement for collectors.

  1. Universal Basic Education in Nigeria: Adult Literacy Practice and Policy Reform Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazeem, Kolawole; Oduaran, Akpovire

    2006-01-01

    Innovative policies and practices in mainstreaming adult education on the basis of UNESCO's model of Education for All (EFA) among member states take different forms. In Nigeria, EFA has been conceptualised as the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme. UBE has dominated some of the major political options that governments have had to make in…

  2. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  3. Rethinking Worklife Options for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Jack, Ed.; Nusberg, Charlotte, Ed.

    This volume contains 19 papers that were presented at a conference addressing critical issues related to employment options for older persons. They are arranged in four sections that cover early retirement policies and their implications; older workers of Asia and the Pacific; the impact of technological change on the employment prospects of older…

  4. Evaluating State Options for Reducing Medicaid Churning

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Katherine; Short, Pamela Farley; Graefe, Deborah R.; Uberoi, Namrata

    2015-01-01

    Medicaid churning - the constant exit and re-entry of beneficiaries as their eligibility changes - has long been a problem for both Medicaid administrators and recipients. Churning will continue under the Affordable Care Act, because despite new federal rules, Medicaid eligibility will continue to be based on current monthly income. We developed a longitudinal simulation model to evaluate four policy options for modifying or extending Medicaid eligibility to reduce churning. The simulations suggest that two options, extending Medicaid eligibility either to the end of a calendar year or for twelve months after enrollment, would be far more effective in reducing churning than the other options of a three-month extension or eligibility based on projected annual income. States should consider implementation of the option that best balances costs, including both administration and services, with improved health of Medicaid enrollees. PMID:26153313

  5. Combination of real options and game-theoretic approach in investment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasteh, Abdollah

    2016-02-01

    Investments in technology create a large amount of capital investments by major companies. Assessing such investment projects is identified as critical to the efficient assignment of resources. Viewing investment projects as real options, this paper expands a method for assessing technology investment decisions in the linkage existence of uncertainty and competition. It combines the game-theoretic models of strategic market interactions with a real options approach. Several key characteristics underlie the model. First, our study shows how investment strategies rely on competitive interactions. Under the force of competition, firms hurry to exercise their options early. The resulting "hurry equilibrium" destroys the option value of waiting and involves violent investment behavior. Second, we get best investment policies and critical investment entrances. This suggests that integrating will be unavoidable in some information product markets. The model creates some new intuitions into the forces that shape market behavior as noticed in the information technology industry. It can be used to specify best investment policies for technology innovations and adoptions, multistage R&D, and investment projects in information technology.

  6. Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public Policy Issues, Options, and Strategies. A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing, and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane, Comp.; O'Brien, Colleen, Comp.

    This collection of papers is the result of a project by the Institute for Higher Education Policy designed to explore the public policy aspects of higher education cost measurement (expenditure analysis). Papers come from a 1-day seminar in 1999 that brought together individuals knowledgeable about cost measurement with institutional leaders and…

  7. Microenterprise Development: An Employment Option for Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    This document examines microenterprise development as an employment option for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) recipients. The document begins with a brief discussion of the feasibility of self-employment as an option for TANF recipients, particularly in a slow economy. The next section answers policy questions pertaining to the…

  8. Federal Policies in Barrier Island Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, H. Crane

    1980-01-01

    Current federal policy towards barrier islands is ambivalent, both favoring and regulating development. Alternate policies are presently being examined by Congress and the Department of Interior. Several of these options are discussed in this article. (WB)

  9. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  10. Pediatric Glaucoma: Pharmacotherapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Samant, Monica; Medsinge, Anagha; Nischal, Ken K

    2016-06-01

    Childhood glaucoma is a major therapeutic challenge for pediatric ophthalmologists and glaucoma specialists worldwide. Management depends on the etiology and age at presentation. A variety of drugs are available for the control of intraocular pressure in children; however, none of these drugs have been licensed by the regulatory agencies for use in children. Furthermore, evidence gained from randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population is sparse, and little is known regarding the use of newer anti-glaucoma preparations. This evidence-based review aims to discuss the available pharmacotherapeutic options for glaucoma in children. Topical adrenoceptor blockers, topical and systemic carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin (PG) analogs, adrenoceptor agonists, parasympathomimetics, and combined preparations are available for use in children, but usually as an off-label indication. Therefore, it is important to recognize that serious side effects have been reported, even with topical drops, and measures to reduce systemic absorption should be taken. Most drugs have been shown to have comparable ocular hypotensive effects, with the lowest occurrence of systemic side effects with PG analogs. Whereas a newly introduced prostaglandin analog, tafluprost, and some other preservative-free preparations have shown promising results in adult glaucoma patients, no pediatric reports are available as yet. Future studies may describe their role in treating pediatric glaucoma. This review also shares some suggested treatment pathways for primary congenital glaucoma (PCG), juvenile open angle glaucoma (JOAG), developmental glaucoma, aphakic/pseudophakic glaucoma, and uveitic glaucoma.

  11. Ozone (O3) Standards - Policy Assessments from Current Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy assessment (PA) provides a transparent staff analysis of the scientific basis for alternative policy options for consideration by senior EPA management prior to rulemaking. These are the policy assessments used to develop the ozone NAAQS.

  12. Your Language or Ours? Inclusion and Exclusion of Non-Indigenous Majorities in Maori and Sámi Language Revitalization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albury, Nathan John

    2015-01-01

    Since the second half of the twentieth century, post-colonial governments have commonly sought to revitalize the indigenous languages their imperialist predecessors hoped to eradicate. Although the impetus to revitalize is shared, the question of excluding or including the non-indigenous majority in the revitalization process, and encouraging them…

  13. Family Life and the Impact of Previous and Present Residential and Day Care Support for Children with Major Cognitive and Behavioural Challenges: A Dilemma for Services and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, R. I.; Geider, S.; Primrose, A.; Jokinen, N. S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Since the development of inclusion and integration, parents have increasingly become the major, and sometimes the only, carers of their children with disabilities. Many families speak of stress and frustration with service and community support, and some have turned to residential and specialised day care services to overcome…

  14. Controlled Free Choice Method: A Proposal for a New Undergraduate Major Selection Policy at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dosarya, Adel S.; Rahman, Syed Masiur

    2006-01-01

    The prevalent undergraduate major selection at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) mostly depends on the student's choice regardless of academic abilities and qualifications. Owing to the adoption of this Free Choice Method (FCM), the number of students will continue to grow and external pressures at the national level may…

  15. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  16. The Origins of Options

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.; Richerson, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one’s current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options. PMID:22514515

  17. Providing patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    2000-01-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information that they need to accept care in your office. The HCCC simply offers you the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using a HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry.

  18. Providing patient-friendly financial options.

    PubMed

    Levin, R P

    1998-10-01

    Having flexible payment options ensures that patients will have all of the motivation and information that they need to accept care in your office. An HCCC simply offers you the chance to make more expensive treatment available to those who need or want it. The small cost of using a HCCC program more than pays for itself--in fact, it costs less than one-third of what you would spend if you were to bill these patients instead. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options can dramatically increase your office's productivity and profitability, while expressing your commitment to customer service and high-quality dentistry.

  19. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post

  20. Expensing options solves nothing.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  1. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  2. Treatment Options Summary

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging Typical Advantages of Microsurgery over Radiation Typical Advantages of Microsurgery over Radiation Surgery removes the tumor ... area. Typical Advantages of Radiation over Microsurgery Typical Advantages of Radiation over Microsurgery Good option for patients ...

  3. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research-based fact ... sheets are also available in Spanish! Vaccination Education Materials Easy-to-read patient education fact sheets will ...

  4. Strategy as a portfolio of real options.

    PubMed

    Luehrman, T A

    1998-01-01

    In financial terms, a business strategy is much more like a series of options than like a single projected cash flow. Executing a strategy almost always involves making a sequence of major decisions. Some actions are taken immediately while others are deliberately deferred so that managers can optimize their choices as circumstances evolve. While executives readily grasp the analogy between strategy and real options, until recently the mechanics of option pricing was so complex that few companies found it practical to use when formulating strategy. But advances in both computing power and our understanding of option pricing over the last 20 years now make it feasible to apply real-options thinking to strategic decision making. To analyze a strategy as a portfolio of related real options, this article exploits a framework presented by the author in "Investment Opportunities as Real Options: Getting Started on the Numbers" (HBR July-August 1998). That article explained how to get from discounted-cash-flow value to option value for a typical project; in other words, it was about reaching a number. This article extends that framework, exploring how, once you've worked out the numbers, you can use option pricing to improve decision making about the sequence and timing of a portfolio of strategic investments. Timothy Luehrman shows executives how to plot their strategies in two-dimensional "option space," giving them a way to "draw" a strategy in terms that are neither wholly strategic nor wholly financial, but some of both. Such pictures inject financial discipline and new insight into how a company's future opportunities can be actively cultivated and harvested.

  5. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  6. Nevada Transportatoion Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-05-25

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  7. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  8. State Registries of the Early Care and Education Workforce: A Review of Current Models and Options for California. Building California's Preschool for all Workforce. A Series of Policy Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellm, Dan; Whitebook, Marcy

    2004-01-01

    The term "registry" has become a catchall phrase for various vehicles that states are using to build more coherent professional development systems for the early care and education (ECE) field. This policy brief presents the results of a recent nationwide survey of ECE workforce registries, brief profiles of registries in nine states, an…

  9. The City House and the Country House: Land-Use Policies and Rural Poverty in the Northeast. Coal, Poverty, and Development Policy in Eastern Kentucky. Development and Management of Forest Resources for Rural Development in the Pacific Northwest. Natural and Human Resources: Major Public Policy and Minority Rural Land Ownership, Management, and Use. Rural Development, Poverty, and Natural Resources Workshop Paper Series, Part V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popper, Frank J.; And Others

    This workshop collection contains four case studies regarding particular relationships between specific resources and clientele or user groups, and three discussions based on those four papers and/or conference discussions. The first paper discusses urban land use origins and compares urban policies with rural policies suggesting that future rural…

  10. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  11. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  12. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  13. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State...

  14. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State...

  15. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State...

  16. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State...

  17. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State...

  18. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  19. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  20. Global plutonium management: A security option

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, K.W.B.

    1998-12-31

    The US surplus plutonium disposition program was created to reduce the proliferation risk posed by the fissile material from thousands of retired nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy has decided to process its Put into a form as secure as Pu in civilian spent fuel. While implementation issues have been considered, a major one (Russian reciprocity) remains unresolved. Russia has made disposition action conditional on extracting the fuel value of its Pu but lacks the infrastructure to do so. Assistance in the construction of the required facilities would conflict with official US policy opposing the development of a Pu fuel cycle. The resulting stagnation provides impetus for a reevaluation of US nonproliferation objectives and Pu disposition options. A strategy for satisfying Russian fuel value concerns and reducing the proliferation risk posed by surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is proposed. The effectiveness of material alteration (e.g., isotopic, chemical, etc.{hor_ellipsis}) at reducing the desire, ability and opportunity for proliferation is assessed. Virtually all the security benefits attainable by material processing can be obtained by immobilizing Pu in large unit size/mass monoliths without a radiation barrier. Russia would be allowed to extract the Pu at a future date for use as fuel in a verifiable manner. Remote tracking capability, if proven feasible, would further improve safeguarding capability. As an alternate approach, the US could compensate Russia for its Pu, allowing it to be disposed of or processed elsewhere. A market based method for pricing Pu is proposed. Surplus Pu could represent access to nuclear fuel at a fixed price at a future date. This position can be replicated in the uranium market and priced using derivative theory. The proposed strategy attempts to meet nonproliferation objectives by recognizing technical limitations and satisfying political constraints.

  1. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

    2007-01-01

    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors-the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, optining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services.

  2. Towards sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Sabri, B; Siddiqi, S; Ahmed, A M; Kakar, F K; Perrot, J

    2007-09-01

    Disruption caused by decades of war and civil strife in Afghanistan has led many international and national nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to assume responsibility for the delivery of health services through contracts with donor agencies. Recently the Afghan Government has pursued the policy of contracting for a basic package of health services (BPHS) supported by funds from three major donors - the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the European Commission. With the gradual strengthening of the public health ministry, options for the future include pursuing the contracting option or increasing public provision of health services. Should contracting with NGOs be pursued, a clear strategy is required that includes developing accreditation instruments, better contracting mechanisms and a system for monitoring and evaluating the entire process. Should the government opt for an increasing role, problems to be solved include securing the transition to public provision, obtaining guarantees that appropriate financing will be provided and reconfiguration of the public health delivery system. Large-scale contracting with the private for-profit sector cannot be recommended at this stage, although this option could be explored via subcontracting by larger NGOs or small-scale trial contracts initiated by the public health ministry. Irrespective of the option chosen, an important challenge remaining is the recalcitrant problem of high out-of-pocket payments. Sustainable delivery of health services in Afghanistan can only be achieved with a clear national strategy in which all stakeholders have roles to play in the financing, regulation and delivery of services.

  3. Watch for pitfalls when analyzing lease options.

    PubMed

    Grant, L; O'Donnell, D

    1990-07-01

    Seemingly minor provisions included in leases of major equipment can substantially increase a healthcare organization's expenses. When reviewing lease bids, financial managers should beware of commitment fees, progress payment interest, residual value, and other variables in the agreement. On the whole, the costs of leasing options should be viewed for their effects on a hospital's cash flow at various points during the rental period.

  4. The diet game. Weighing the options.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, D.

    1993-01-01

    As a major source of nutrition information for the public, physicians have a responsibility to assist their patients to make safe choices about weight loss programs. While most diet programs result in weight loss, the "quick fix" potentially is harmful. This article describes weight control options and their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:8471909

  5. Our Energy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Paul A.; Witt, Frank C.

    Presented is an analysis of alternatives available to the United States in dealing with energy problems. Options explained and evaluated include coal, solar, hydroelectric, nuclear, geothermal, wind, biomass, and energy conservation. The booklet is part of Project APEC (America's Possible Energy Choices), a nationally validated Title IVc project…

  6. Treatment Options in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Dantow, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease with a variety of clinical presentations. Fortunately, many treatment options are available to the patient and to the physician. Topical, systemic, and physical therapies can be tailored to the patient's needs. Patient compliance and a knowledgeable, caring physician are vital to successful control of the disease. Continuing research offers hope for the chronically disabled. PMID:21221381

  7. Alternative Education Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide deals with various areas of alternative education programs, including current practices and different options available to school and community personnel. Steps are outlined to assess present educational settings, design new programs, select the participants, and implement and evaluate the new program. The first appendix contains…

  8. CFB repowering options

    SciTech Connect

    Gittinger, J.

    1996-12-31

    Circulating fluidized bed CFB repowering options are summarized. The following topics are discussed: why repower with CFB technology; advantages of repowering; two forms of of repowering; B and N`s internal recirculation CFB; space-saving design features; cost-saving design features; Ukrainian repowering project; and candidates for repowering.

  9. Option Y, Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Arlene

    This guide outlines a one semester Option Y course, which has seven learner objectives. The course is designed to provide students with an introduction to the concerns and methods of statistics, and to equip them to deal with the many statistical matters of importance to society. Topics covered include graphs and charts, collection and…

  10. Exploring Career Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellerman, Susan B., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue offers advice to academically talented youth on exploring career options. It begins with an article titled "How To Think about Your Career When You Haven't Even Decided Where To Go to College." The article notes the hazards of early career choice and recognizes the career indecision often brought on by…

  11. Teletext: Assessing the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John; Nisenholtz, Martin

    1980-01-01

    This discussion of broadcast teletext explores some of the options available to public broadcasters and potential obstacles to implementing a teletext service. Topics covered include transmission alternatives, factors affecting service, design specifications, marketing possibilities, financial support, editorial control of information, standards…

  12. Projecting Trends in Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart S.

    Looking back over the past 40 years, one can observe at least seven trends in public policy substance and in the study of public policy: (1) There is a trend toward higher goals for society in economic, social, political, and science policy. (2) Major changes in almost all fields of public policy have resulted in increased benefits for the less…

  13. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  14. Evaluating technology service options.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, D F

    1997-05-01

    Four service and support options are available to healthcare organizations for maintaining their growth arsenals of medical and information technology. These options include maintaining and servicing all equipment using a facility-based biomedical engineering and MIS service department; using a combination of facility-based service and subcontracted service; expanding facility-based biomedical and MIS service departments to provide service to other healthcare organizations to achieve economies of scale; and outsourcing all maintenance, repair, and technical support services. Independent service companies and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are offering healthcare organizations a wider array of service and support capabilities than ever before. However, some health systems have successfully developed their own independent service organizations to take care of their own--and other healthcare organizations'--service and support needs.

  15. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2015-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized.

  16. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  17. Ten Things Everyone Should Know about Welfare Reform. New Federalism: Issues and Options for States, Series A, No. A-52. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    This brief presents 10 key findings about welfare reform, using research from the Urban Institute's Assessing the New Federalism project. Welfare reform has taken hold, and, in the immediate aftermath of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), states have made major changes to their welfare systems that…

  18. The safeguards options study

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  19. Policy Capacity for Health Reform: Necessary but Insufficient: Comment on "Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity".

    PubMed

    Adams, Owen

    2015-09-04

    Forest and colleagues have persuasively made the case that policy capacity is a fundamental prerequisite to health reform. They offer a comprehensive life-cycle definition of policy capacity and stress that it involves much more than problem identification and option development. I would like to offer a Canadian perspective. If we define health reform as re-orienting the health system from acute care to prevention and chronic disease management the consensus is that Canada has been unsuccessful in achieving a major transformation of our 14 health systems (one for each province and territory plus the federal government). I argue that 3 additional things are essential to build health policy capacity in a healthcare federation such as Canada: (a) A means of "policy governance" that would promote an approach to cooperative federalism in the health arena; (b) The ability to overcome the "policy inertia" resulting from how Canadian Medicare was implemented and subsequently interpreted; and (c) The ability to entertain a long-range thinking and planning horizon. My assessment indicates that Canada falls short on each of these items, and the prospects for achieving them are not bright. However, hope springs eternal and it will be interesting to see if the July, 2015 report of the Advisory Panel on Healthcare Innovation manages to galvanize national attention and stimulate concerted action.

  20. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  1. Variable speed generator technology options for wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, T. A.

    1995-01-01

    The electrical system options for variable speed operation of a wind turbine generator are treated in this paper. The key operating characteristics of each system are discussed and the major advantages and disadvantages of each are identified

  2. Achilles tendinosis: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L; Jung, Hong-Geun

    2015-03-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options.

  3. Achilles Tendinosis: Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Roberto Gabriel L.

    2015-01-01

    Athletes usually complain of an ongoing or chronic pain over the Achilles tendon, but recently even non-athletes are experiencing the same kind of pain which affects their daily activities. Achilles tendinosis refers to a degenerative process of the tendon without histologic or clinical signs of intratendinous inflammation. Treatment is based on whether to stimulate or prevent neovascularization. Thus, until now, there is no consensus as to the best treatment for this condition. This paper aims to review the common ways of treating this condition from the conservative to the surgical options. PMID:25729512

  4. Options for commercial tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1986-07-01

    Systems studies have been performed at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) to assess commercial tokamak options. One study investigates the economics of high-beta operation and determines an optimum operating range of 10 to 20% beta, with a corresponding neutron wall loading of 6 to 8 MW/m/sup 2/. A second study determines conditions under which small, low-power tokamaks can be economically combined into a 1200-MW(electric) multiplex power plant. The results of these studies have directed future efforts at the FEDC toward a high-beta, tokamak design using a modular maintenance configuration.

  5. Adolescent pregnancy options.

    PubMed

    Resnick, M D

    1992-09-01

    The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.

  6. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered.

  7. Procurement Options for New Renewable Electricity Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Kreycik, C. E.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    State renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies require utilities and load-serving entities (LSEs) to procure renewable energy generation. Utility procurement options may be a function of state policy and regulatory preferences, and in some cases, may be dictated by legislative authority. Utilities and LSEs commonly use competitive solicitations or bilateral contracting to procure renewable energy supply to meet RPS mandates. However, policymakers and regulators in several states are beginning to explore the use of alternatives, namely feed-in tariffs (FITs) and auctions to procure renewable energy supply. This report evaluates four procurement strategies (competitive solicitations, bilateral contracting, FITs, and auctions) against four main criteria: (1) pricing; (2) complexity and efficiency of the procurement process; (3) impacts on developers access to markets; and (4) ability to complement utility decision-making processes. These criteria were chosen because they take into account the perspective of each group of stakeholders: ratepayers, regulators, utilities, investors, and developers.

  8. Mixed waste management options

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  9. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  10. Policy implications for familial searching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  11. Policy implications for familial searching

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens. PMID:22040348

  12. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  13. Wake Forest U. Joins Ranks of Test-Optional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric; Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Wake Forest University will no longer require applicants to submit standardized test scores, the university announced last week. The move makes Wake Forest, in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, one of the most prominent institutions with a "test optional" admissions policy. The university's decision reveals the increasing complexity of the…

  14. Outcomes from Flexible Learning Options for Disenfranchised Youth: What Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    te Riele, Kitty; Wilson, Kimberley; Wallace, Valda; McGinty, Sue; Lewthwaite, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Flexible Learning Options (FLOs) are common across many countries to enable secondary school completion by young people for whom mainstream schooling has not worked well. Access to high-quality education through FLOs is a social justice issue. In the context of an inclination among governments for accountability and evidence-based policy, as well…

  15. Life Story Work: Optional Extra or Fundamental Entitlement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwool, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    In Aotearoa New Zealand the importance of life story books is outlined in the policy of our statutory care and protection agency Child, Youth and Family. Many children in care do not have access to such a resource, however, suggesting that social workers view this as an optional extra or "nice to have" rather than integral to good…

  16. Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

  17. Packaging policies to reform the water sector: The case of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischhendler, Itay; Zilberman, David

    2005-07-01

    Existing water policies often deviate from measures suggested by economic and environmental analysis. This is particularly true in the case of drought response policies, where effective policies are rarely adopted. This study focuses on how to enhance the political feasibility of options rather than identifying the optimal water policies. It argues that a legislative policy package may be a mechanism both to unite divergent interest groups into a coalition with common policy agendas and also to fragment or realign existing and traditional alliances. This majority building approach may have a greater chance of obtaining the required political support to advance water reforms. The negotiation over the Central Valley Project Improvement Act in California is used as an example. The case study illustrates how the policy packaging strategy split the traditional power alliance between the agricultural sector and the urban sector in California and between the agricultural sector in California and their allies in other U.S. western states. At the same time, policy packaging has created new regional and sectoral advocacy coalitions in support of water reform. As a result, the Bureau of Reclamation changed its policies in the Central Valley in California relating to the establishment of water markets, water pricing, and wildlife restoration fund and allocating water for the environment.

  18. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-15

    the potential for long-term sustainability are presented. Galveston Island is a 47 km long sand barrier island along the upper Texas coast (Figure...1 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT OPTIONS FOR GALVESTON ISLAND , TEXAS ASHLEY E. FREY1, ANDREW MORANG1, DAVID B. KING1, ROBERT C. THOMAS2 1. U.S. Army...Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the

  19. TOPEX satellite option study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic design of the fleet satellite communication spacecraft (FLTSATCOM) can easily accommodate any of the three payload options for the ocean dynamic topography experiment (TOPEX). The principal mission requirements as well as the payload accommodations and communications systems needed for launching this payload are reviewed. The existing FLTSATCOM satellite design is identified and the approaches for the proposed propulsion system are described in addition to subsystems for mechanical; power; attitude and velocity control; and telemetry, tracking and control are described. The compatability of FLTSATCOM with the launch vehicle is examined and its capabilities vs TOPEX requirements are summarized. Undetermined changes needed to meet data storage, thermal control, and area to mass ratio requirements are discussed. Cost estimates are included for budgetary and planning purposes. The availability of the described design is assessed based on the continuing production of FLTSATCOM spacecraft during the schedule span planned for TOPEX.

  20. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  1. Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications and An Appendix to Student Tuition Charges: Comparisons, Options, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Porfirio R.

    National and state comparisons of tuition and fee charges, as well as various policy options presented to the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education, are provided. An introduction to tuition and fee calculation is followed by definitions of tuition, required student fees, and student residency status. A study of tuition and fees at New Mexico…

  2. Early amplification options.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed.

  3. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  4. Peak load management: Potential options

    SciTech Connect

    Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

    1989-10-01

    This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

  5. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    SciTech Connect

    Gehin, Jess C; Holcomb, David Eugene; Flanagan, George F; Patton, Bruce W; Howard, Rob L; Harrison, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  6. Toward a National Ocean Policy, 1976 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Robert E.; And Others

    Each chapter in this publication takes up a specific issue, analyzes its importance to the United States, discusses its evolution in the international negotiating process, and considers the various policy options in the context of the treaty making exercise. The criteria for evaluating policy options are included. The eight chapters are: (1) The…

  7. Follow the (Outer Solar System) Water: Program Options to Explore Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, B.; Lunine, J.; Sotin, C.; Cwik, T.; Naderi, F.

    2017-02-01

    The envisioned Ocean Worlds Exploration Program cannot match the success of the Mars Exploration Program since 2001. Programmatic and technical constraints, policy gaps, and options with high leverage over program viability and velocity are analyzed.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  9. Postmission disposal options for upper stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, Peter; Reynolds, Robert C.; Zhang, Jingchang; Bade, Anette; Jackson, A. A.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; McNamara, Roger

    1997-10-01

    NASA Management Instruction (NMI) 1700.8 directs each project office to limit orbital debris generation if this action is cost-effective and consistent with achieving mission objectives. To implement this policy, the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance, the sponsor of NMI 1700.8, tasked NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to develop the NASA Safety Standard 1740.14: Guidelines and Assessment Procedures for Limiting Orbital Debris, August 1995. To mitigate the accumulation of mass in Earth orbit, NSS 1740.14 addresses the issues of postmission disposal of spacecraft and upper stages. According to the guidelines, these systems in general should be left in an orbit in which, using conservative projections for solar activity, atmospheric drag and gravitational perturbations will limit the lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) to no longer than 25 years after completion of mission. Consequently, JSC undertook a series of studies to investigate the most efficient and cost effective options for reducing orbit lifetime. In this paper we present an overview of the various options and give hints for the choice of the option best suited for specific mission types, e.g., depending on initial orbit, existing propulsion systems, existing electrical power level, electrical power and attitude control lifetime, and acceptable maneuver time and mass penalties.

  10. Public Policy to Promote Healthy Nutrition in Schools: Views of Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Mat; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to identify policy options to support nutrition promotion in New Zealand primary schools. In achieving this aim, the study sought to identify framing by policymakers regarding child diet and obesity; views on the role of schools in nutrition promotion; policy options and degree of support for these options. Issue…

  11. Handbook of Education Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Gary, Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.; Plank, David N., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Educational policy continues to be of major concern. Policy debates about economic growth and national competitiveness, for example, commonly focus on the importance of human capital and a highly educated workforce. Defining the theoretical boundaries and methodological approaches of education policy research are the two primary themes of this…

  12. Options for Change: A Flexible Vehicle for Curriculum Evolution and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Roger G.; Baumann, Melissa J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine a flexible curricular approach known as the "Option." The Option enables students to supplement traditional majors with a coherent set of courses and other educational experiences in a related, often interdisciplinary field. Options can act as curricular bridges between mainstream academic fields and problems of…

  13. Option price and market instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  14. Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Major in The Earth System, Environment and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Humanity faces great challenges in the 21st Century to understand and limit our impact on the Earth System. To address these challenges, it is essential to understand the nature and implications of environmental change, and the complexity of the Earth system. We need to educate citizens that have the background to make new developments in understanding technical aspects of the Earth System, and to develop an understanding the interactions between society and the Earth System sufficient to make informed policy choices. Traditional disciplinary departments and majors don't fully address this; teaching and research talent in the study of the Earth System is spread over many disciplinary-oriented departments. At the University of Illinois, we are currently developing a new cross-disciplinary undergraduate major being called The Earth system, environment and Society. This development is co-sponsored by a number of departments centered in the College of Liberal Arts & Sciences (but including other departments throughout the university). Our intention is that this major will be a catalyst for bringing together the many disciplines involved in Earth System Science education. The curriculum and course for study will focus on the science and human dimensions of the Earth system, with special emphasis on the processes and issues related to the environment across a range of spatial scales from local and regional to global. Along with meeting the requirements expected of all students in a liberal arts and sciences major, students in The Earth System, Environment and Society major will be required to complete a core set of courses designed to introduce students to all of the different components of the Earth System (students will choose from course options in both the sciences and the social sciences). After completing the core courses, students will then focus their studies on one of the two options within the major, Science of the Earth System (this option will emphasize the

  15. Selected Energy Conservation Options for Homeowners: Options, Expenses and Payoffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengyel, Dorothy L.; And Others

    This publication is a check list for homeowners and renters to help them reduce energy costs. The list consists of 126 energy conservation options. These options range from "change clothes instead of adjusting thermostat" and "air conditioners turned off when not home" to "use sink stopper" and "weatherstripping…

  16. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  17. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  18. AFCI Options Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2009-09-01

    This report describes the background and framework for both organizing the discussion and providing information on the potential for nuclear energy R&D to develop alternative nuclear fuel cycles that would address the issues with the current implementations of nuclear power, including nuclear waste disposal, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics, and sustainability. The disposition of used fuel is the cause of many of the concerns, and the possible approaches to used fuel management identify a number of basic technology areas that need to be considered. The basic science in each of the technology areas is discussed, emphasizing what science is currently available, where scientific knowledge may be insufficient, and especially to identify specific areas where transformational discoveries may allow achievement of performance goals not currently attainable. These discussions lead to the wide range of technical options that have been the basis for past and current research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles in the United States. The results of this work are then briefly reviewed to show the extent to which such approaches are capable of addressing the issues with nuclear power, the potential for moving further, and the inherent limitations.

  19. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  20. Maintenance and supply options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The object of the Maintenance and Supply Option was to develop a high level operational philosophy related to maintenance and supply operations and incorporate these concepts into the Lunar Base Study. Specific products to be generated during this task were three trade studies and a conceptual design of the Logistic Supply Module. The crew size study was performed to evaluate crew sizes from the baseline size of four to a crew size of eight and determine the preferred crew size. The second trade study was to determine the impact of extending surface stay times and recommend a preferred duration of stay time as a function of crew, consumables, and equipment support capabilities. The third trade study was an evaluation of packaging and storage methods to determine the preferred logistics approach to support the lunar base. A modified scenario was developed and served as the basis of the individual trade studies. Assumptions and guidelines were also developed from experience with Apollo programs, Space Shuttle operations, and Space Station studies. With this information, the trade studies were performed and a conceptual design for the Logistic Supply Module was developed.

  1. Arsenic Contaminated Groundwater and Its Treatment Options in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Ashekuzzaman, S. M.; Jiang, Anlun; Sharifuzzaman, S. M.; Chowdhury, Sayedur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) causes health concerns due to its significant toxicity and worldwide presence in drinking water and groundwater. The major sources of As pollution may be natural process such as dissolution of As-containing minerals and anthropogenic activities such as percolation of water from mines, etc. The maximum contaminant level for total As in potable water has been established as 10 µg/L. Among the countries facing As contamination problems, Bangladesh is the most affected. Up to 77 million people in Bangladesh have been exposed to toxic levels of arsenic from drinking water. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to provide As-free drinking water in rural households throughout Bangladesh. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the recent data on arsenic contamination status, its sources and reasons of mobilization and the exposure pathways in Bangladesh. Very little literature has focused on the removal of As from groundwaters in developing countries and thus this paper aims to review the As removal technologies and be a useful resource for researchers or policy makers to help identify and investigate useful treatment options. While a number of technological developments in arsenic removal have taken place, we must consider variations in sources and quality characteristics of As polluted water and differences in the socio-economic and literacy conditions of people, and then aim at improving effectiveness in arsenic removal, reducing the cost of the system, making the technology user friendly, overcoming maintenance problems and resolving sludge management issues. PMID:23343979

  2. Choosing the cooperative option

    SciTech Connect

    English, G. )

    1999-06-01

    Cooperatives do not ask to be exempted from the law. They do ask that laws and regulations be designed to allow them to meet the needs of their consumer-owners in accordance with cooperative principles, at a time that the marginal consumers being abandoned by for-profit utilities may be ready to gravitate toward cooperatives. The cooperative principles are worth reviewing because they explain the focus on the consumer and the cooperative concept of service: cooperatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership; cooperatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting policies and making decisions, the elected representatives are accountable to the membership; members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their cooperative; cooperatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members, if they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy; cooperatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their cooperatives, they inform the general public, particularly young people and opinion leaders, about the nature and benefits of cooperation; cooperatives serve their members most effectively and strength the cooperative movement by working together through local, national, regional, and international structures; and while focusing on member needs, cooperatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies accepted by their members.

  3. Energy Options for Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tratner, Karen Lee

    Produced for public interest, the Environmental Education Group has prepared this two-part review of the current state of energy utilization, the nature of the energy crisis, and approaches to energy production. The major section is a presentation of alternative sources of energy that are neglected, are of possible aid in the near future, or are…

  4. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  5. Use of evidence to support healthy public policy: a policy effectiveness-feasibility loop.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Unwin, Nigel; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon; Husseini, Abdullatif; Maziak, Wasim; Zaman, Shahaduz; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Fouad, Fouad; Phillimore, Peter; Unal, Belgin; Khatib, Rana; Shoaibi, Azza; Ahmad, Balsam

    2012-11-01

    Public policy plays a key role in improving population health and in the control of diseases, including non-communicable diseases. However, an evidence-based approach to formulating healthy public policy has been difficult to implement, partly on account of barriers that hinder integrated work between researchers and policy-makers. This paper describes a "policy effectiveness-feasibility loop" (PEFL) that brings together epidemiological modelling, local situation analysis and option appraisal to foster collaboration between researchers and policy-makers. Epidemiological modelling explores the determinants of trends in disease and the potential health benefits of modifying them. Situation analysis investigates the current conceptualization of policy, the level of policy awareness and commitment among key stakeholders, and what actually happens in practice, thereby helping to identify policy gaps. Option appraisal integrates epidemiological modelling and situation analysis to investigate the feasibility, costs and likely health benefits of various policy options. The authors illustrate how PEFL was used in a project to inform public policy for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes in four parts of the eastern Mediterranean. They conclude that PEFL may offer a useful framework for researchers and policy-makers to successfully work together to generate evidence-based policy, and they encourage further evaluation of this approach.

  6. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  7. A Smorgasbord of Assessment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of assessment options that exists offers teachers and students a "menu" of selections. Just as matching appetite needs with appropriate food selection is fundamental to a successful dining experience, matching assessment options to targeted achievement needs is crucial to an effective assessment experience. The author uses a…

  8. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-10-03

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels.

  9. NCLB Transfer Policy Seen as Flawed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This article examines what some people see as flaws in the transfer policy provision of the No Child Left Behind law. Advocates of the policy are calling for providing schools with incentives to accept transfers and for giving parents more time, information, and options, among other changes. States need to hold districts' feet to the fire, those…

  10. Expanding contraceptive options.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The goals of Family Health International (FHI) have been to introduce a variety of birth control options to people in developing countries, and to provide information to the user on the advantages and disadvantages of each method. FHI has worked with many developing countries in clinical trials of established as well as new contraceptive methods. These trials played an important part in making 2 sterilization procedures, laparoscopy and minilaparotomy popular for women. Further research improved the methods and have made them the most popular in the world, chosen by 130 million users. FHI is doing clinical trials on a new IUD, that is a copper bearing T-shaped device called the TCu380A. they have collected data on over 10,000 women using IUD's and early analysis indicates TCu380A is more effective than others. FHI is also evaluating devices such as Norplant that will prevent pregnancy up to 5 years by implanting the capsules in the arm. More than 8,000 women are being tested to determine the acceptability of implants in different geographical locations. Other research groups are doing work in 10 additional countries: Bangladesh will expand its program to 24,000 women and Nepal to 8,000 women. Trials are also being conducted on progestogen pills, since they do not lesson the volume of milk in breast feeding. FHI has also worked to introduce creative community-based distribution channels. In one case, specially trained health workers delivered contraceptives door-to-door in over 150,000 households. They found that 2 of 3 women accepted the pills and in a follow up survey 90% were still using them. FHI is now focusing on ways to improve moving new contraceptives from clinical testing on everyday use. They will coordinate training programs, educational material, media campaigns, and efforts with other international organizations, government agencies, and family planning groups.

  11. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  12. US Policy Options Mitigating Venezuelan Sponsored Security Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-12

    Democratic Action Party ( Accion , Democratica - AD) and the Social Christian Party (Comite de Organizacion Politica Electoral Independiente-COPEI...forces, planning to seize control of the government. In 1992, he attempted a coup that failed and he was imprisoned for two years. Upon his release, he...globally. His domestic program has enjoyed popular support. Chavez’s social Plan Bolivar 2000 proposes ambitious programs to build or renovate schools

  13. U.S. Policy Options for Iraq: A Reassessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    would particularly like to thank RAND col- leagues David E. Thaler, Bruce R. Pirnie, Derek Eaton, Sara A. Daly , Jerry M. Sollinger, Sarah Harting...http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/070126%5Finsurgency%5Fupdate.pdf Costa Rica, El Salvador , Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, Draft

  14. US Policy Options in Syria: An Argument for Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    U.S. and International Response, 14-15. 34 Schreiner, “Subjects of Empire: U.S. Public Opinion on Syria”. 35 Daniel Bryman and Renanah Miles, “A...14, 2012. 48 Bryman and Miles, “A Modest Post-Assad Plan,” 49-51. 49 Mo Brooks, “U.S. Cannot Afford to Intervene in Syria’s Civil War,” The Hill...July 25, 2012. 23 50 Bryman and Miles, “A Modest Post-Assad Plan,” 56-57.

  15. United States Policy Options in the Western Indian Ocean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    production. The main food crops are cassava, sweet potatoes , rice and bananas. Practically all meat and vegetables must be imported along with additional...development will receive investment in the fishing and copra industries as well as basic infrastructure (housing, roads, water, electricty , etc

  16. Soldier-Portable Battery Supply: Foreign Dependence and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    supply chain for rechargeable batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles, from raw materials to components to cells to batteries to recycling ...Seth Fletcher, Bottled Lightning, New York: Hill and Wang, 2011; and Camille Grosjean, Pamela Herrera Miranda, Marion Perrin, and Philippe Poggi

  17. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    facilities from gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer...hazardous chemicals, such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence

  18. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    gaseous chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...chemicals, such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.29 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the presence of such

  19. Chemical Facility Security: Reauthorization, Policy Issues, and Options for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-10

    chlorine disinfection to chloramine disinfection—a change identified by some advocacy groups as being an inherently safer substitution—as being...Congressional Research Service 9 such as chlorine , for purposes such as disinfection.22 Advocates for their inclusion in security regulations cite the

  20. Policy Options for the Aircraft Turbine Engine Component Improvement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    should also investigate competing CIP tasks or functions within a CIP engine program ( FADEC fuel control for the F404 or accelerated mission testing...AH- I) Some. commercial coenhlp. pnmanly derived T55 (0,147) (tom military programs. Army discontinued CIP T63 (OHA6 OH-SI) for som older engines for...Army did not fund CIP and T55 (CH-47) company did proceed with improved commercial derivatives. T63 (OH-6, OH-58) T700 has CIP and also commercial

  1. An assessment of Hawaii's biomass enrgy options: Economics and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kasturi, P.

    1980-12-01

    The technology for converting agricultural biomass to generate electrical power by the direct combustion method has long been established on sugarcane plantations in the state of Hawaii. Increasing uncertainty over energy supplies and pyramidal escalation of energy prices in recent years have served to refocus both state and national attention on the operational feasibility and economic viability of alternate Biomass Energy Systems. This study scrutinizes the key parameters affecting the overall productivity and the cost of electricity from such systems. The conditions for obtaining net energy productivity and associated costs are examined for electrical power generation from wood yields of the giant koa haole (Leucaena leucocephala) as a reference point. Current technology involving direct combustion of biomass generates substantial net electrical energy though from a cost perspective it would appear that conditions for biomass production and harvest as a replacement for diesel fuel in utilities having conventional generator units are only now being met. Some potentials and constraints for three other candidate plant species using similar conversion system are also explored.

  2. Policy Options Analysis and the National Fire Operations Reporting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    fire marshal or another office located within the state bureaucracy . The fire data is then forwarded to the United States Fire Administration at a...process. Organizational • Provides leadership to the fire service in the consensus development process. Budgetary • Does not have any contribution to

  3. Long-Term Budgetary Pressures and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    acute medical treatment , but a rapidly growing component of Medi- care spending is for home health care and skilled nursing facil- ity (SNF) services...Spending, 1975-1995 ance (SMI), covers services provided by physicians, limited-license practitioners (such as chiropractors and podiatrists), hospital

  4. Veterans’ Disability Compensation: Trends and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    associated with exposure to certain herbi- cides, notably Agent Orange , are considered presumptive for veterans who served in Vietnam.7 If VA denies...to recognize as presumptive conditions several cancers and other medical conditions associated with exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides...outreach and access to veterans, new presumptions for exposure to Agent Orange , the aging of the veteran population, and a relatively weak U.S

  5. Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-26

    5 Earthquakes and Tsunamis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Infectious Disease ...22 Infectious Disease . Epidemics and pandemics of infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza (bird flu...Government Affairs Committee. Nov. 19, 2003. 28 General Accounting Office. Foot and Mouth Disease . GAO-02-808. July 2002. pp20-21. outbreak of infectious

  6. Vulnerability of Concentrated Critical Infrastructure: Background and Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-21

    5 Earthquakes and Tsunamis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Infectious Disease ...close the ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles for two months and cause $60 billion in economic losses.22 Infectious Disease . Epidemics and pandemics...of infectious diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza (bird flu) have the potential to disrupt critical

  7. Evaluation of Teacher Preparation Programs: Purposes, Methods, and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuer, Michael J.; Floden, Robert E.; Chudowsky, Naomi; Ahn, Judie

    2013-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs (TPPs) are where prospective teachers gain a foundation of knowledge about pedagogy and subject matter, as well as early exposure to practical classroom experience. Although competence in teaching, as in all professions, is shaped significantly by on-the-job experiences and continuous learning, the programs that…

  8. Human Resource Management and Army Recruiting. Analysis of Policy Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Probability Models of Enlisted Personnel Career Paths Probability of Not Becoming Recruiter by 2003 Probability of Not Making E-6 by 2003 Probability of...0.1833 0.0470 1992 cohort 2.1691 0.0567 0.6472 0.0536 Career Paths of Recruiters 119 Table 6.9—continued Probability of Not Making E-6 Probability...public and private sectors around the world. Purchase this document Browse Books & Publications Make a charitable contribution Support RAND Report

  9. Human Capital Development in Education: Challenges and Policy Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing student achievement and narrowing the achievement gap are challenges that states and districts continue to confront as they strive to develop talent that will contribute to our nation's economy. Some strategies to produce authentic improvement in learning are not entirely a mystery. A preponderance of research in recent years provides…

  10. Intellectual Property: Policies and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Diana W.

    2001-01-01

    Used modified version of 1978 National Association of College and University Business Officers survey instrument to investigate intellectual-property policies at 38 (of 210) 4-year institutions of higher education in the 15 Southern Regional Education Board states. Finds, for example, that in the majority of institutions, top administrators are…

  11. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  12. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice Regarding Option(s) (NOV 1992) The General Services Administration (GSA) has included an option to in order...

  13. Agriculture Policy Is Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Richard J.; Minjares, Ray; Naumoff, Kyra S.; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Martin, Lisa K.

    2009-01-01

    The Farm Bill is meant to supplement and secure farm incomes, ensure a stable food supply, and support the American farm economy. Over time, however, it has evolved into a system that creates substantial health impacts, both directly and indirectly. By generating more profit for food producers and less for family farmers; by effectively subsidizing the production of lower-cost fats, sugars, and oils that intensify the health-destroying obesity epidemic; by amplifying environmentally destructive agricultural practices that impact air, water, and other resources, the Farm Bill influences the health of Americans more than is immediately apparent. In this article, we outline three major public health issues influenced by American farm policy. These are (1) rising obesity; (2) food safety; and (3) environmental health impacts, especially exposure to toxic substances and pesticides. PMID:23144677

  14. Revisiting Graduation Requirements and Diploma Options for Youth with Disabilities: A National Study. Technical Report 49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Stout, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the results of a national study on the current status of state graduation policies and diploma options for youth with disabilities. It examines state policies in relation to their intended benefits as well as possible unintended consequences, and compared the findings with a similar study conducted by Johnson and Thurlow in…

  15. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  16. Making real options really work.

    PubMed

    van Putten, Alexander B; MacMillan, Ian C

    2004-12-01

    As a way to value growth opportunities, real options have had a difficult time catching on with managers. Many CFOs believe the method ensures the overvaluation of risky projects. This concern is legitimate, but abandoning real options as a valuation model isn't the solution. Companies that rely solely on discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis underestimate the value of their projects and may fail to invest enough in uncertain but highly promising opportunities. CFOs need not--and should not--choose one approach over the other. Far from being a replacement for DCF analysis, real options are an essential complement, and a project's total value should encompass both. DCF captures a base estimate of value; real options take into account the potential for big gains. This is not to say that there aren't problems with real options. As currently applied, they focus almost exclusively on the risks associated with revenues, ignoring the risks associated with a project's costs. It's also true that option valuations almost always ignore assets that an initial investment in a subsequently abandoned project will often leave the company. In this article, the authors present a simple formula for combining DCF and option valuations that addresses these two problems. Using an integrated approach, managers will, in the long run, select better projects than their more timid competitors while keeping risk under control. Thus, they will outperform their rivals in both the product and the capital markets.

  17. Pricing of swing options: A Monte Carlo simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leow, Kai-Siong

    We study the problem of pricing swing options, a class of multiple early exercise options that are traded in energy market, particularly in the electricity and natural gas markets. These contracts permit the option holder to periodically exercise the right to trade a variable amount of energy with a counterparty, subject to local volumetric constraints. In addition, the total amount of energy traded from settlement to expiration with the counterparty is restricted by a global volumetric constraint. Violation of this global volumetric constraint is allowed but would lead to penalty settled at expiration. The pricing problem is formulated as a stochastic optimal control problem in discrete time and state space. We present a stochastic dynamic programming algorithm which is based on piecewise linear concave approximation of value functions. This algorithm yields the value of the swing option under the assumption that the optimal exercise policy is applied by the option holder. We present a proof of an almost sure convergence that the algorithm generates the optimal exercise strategy as the number of iterations approaches to infinity. Finally, we provide a numerical example for pricing a natural gas swing call option.

  18. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  19. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... compliance with Executive Order 12114, “Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions.”...

  20. RTP as an Optional Service: It's Alive, But Is It Well?

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen; Neenan, Bernie

    2006-03-10

    Economists have advocated for real-time pricing (RTP) of electricity on the basis of the gains in economic efficiency that would result from charging customers the contemporaneous marginal cost of supplying electricity instead of the average cost. In recent years, RTP has also become the subject of interest in a variety of policy contexts, including integrated resource planning initiatives, ongoing efforts to improve efficiency and reliability in competitive electricity markets, and implementation of default service in states with retail choice. Most experience with RTP has been as an optional service, that is, a self-selecting alternative to the standard utility service. By our count, approximately 70 utilities in the U.S. offered an optional RTP program at some point over the past 20 years. However, many programs are now defunct. In 2003, 47 utilities in the U.S. were still offering an optional RTP program, on either a pilot or permanent basis (see Figure 1). In addition, 10 utilities in states with retail choice currently offer RTP as the default service for large customers that are not under contract with a competitive supplier. Another two utilities have received regulatory approval to do so in the next few years. Although the results of a few optional RTP programs have been publicized, the vast majority of programs have operated in relative obscurity. To provide a wider perspective on utility and customer experience with RTP, we surveyed 43 optional RTP programs offered in 2003. We interviewed RTP program managers and other utility staff, and reviewed publicly available sources, including key regulatory documents and program evaluations. Based on this research, we identified trends related to RTP program history and outlook, program design and implementation, customer participation, and participant price response. The results are both surprising and instructive. We conclude that RTP is indeed alive but is not prospering as well it could. Thus, we offer a

  1. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  2. A multi-site review of policies affecting opportunities for children with developmental disabilities to become bilingual.

    PubMed

    Pesco, Diane; MacLeod, Andrea A A N; Kay-Raining Bird, Elizabeth; Cleave, Patricia; Trudeau, Natacha; de Valenzuela, Julia Scherba; Cain, Kate; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H; Colozzo, Paola; Stahl, Hillary; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    This review of special education and language-in-education policies at six sites in four countries (Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Netherlands) aimed to determine the opportunities for bilingualism provided at school for children with developmental disabilities (DD). While research has demonstrated that children with DD are capable of learning more than one language (see Kay Raining Bird, Genesee, & Verhoeven, this issue), it was not clear whether recent policies reflect these findings. The review, conducted using the same protocol across sites, showed that special education policies rarely addressed second language learning explicitly. However, at all sites, the policies favoured inclusion and educational planning based on individual needs, and thus implied that students with DD would have opportunities for second language learning. The language-in-education policies occasionally specified the support individuals with special needs would receive. At some sites, policies and educational options provided little support for minority languages, a factor that could contribute to subtractive bilingualism. At others, we found stronger support for minority languages and optional majority languages: conditions that could be more conducive to additive bilingualism.

  3. Options for Heart Valve Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... which may include human or animal donor tissue) Ross Procedure — “Borrowing” your healthy valve and moving it ... Considerations for Surgery Medications Valve Repair Valve Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - What is TAVR? - Types ...

  4. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  5. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  6. Energy options: the practical and the promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    A review of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass, hydroelectric, geothermal, and ocean thermal gradients); advanced technologies for fuel cells, cogeneration, breeder reactors, and nuclear fusion; and synthetic fuels from coal gasification or liquefaction shale oil, and tar sands explores US options for supplanting fossil fuels and developing the electric power necessary for economic growth. The DOE projects that renewables will contribute only 3% of power generated by the year 2000, while the advanced technologies will only make a significant contribution in the 21st century. Coal and nuclear energy are the major energy sources for the interim until promising alternatives prove to be practical. 17 references.

  7. Emerging treatment options for type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Piya, Milan K; Tahrani, Abd A; Barnett, Anthony H

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is rapidly increasing in prevalence and is a major public health problem. It is a progressive disease which commonly requires multiple pharmacotherapy. Current options for treatment may have undesirable side effects (particularly weight gain and hypoglycaemia) and contraindications, and little effect on disease progression. Incretin based therapy is one of several newer therapies to improve glycaemia and is available in two different forms, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists. Use of these agents results in a ‘glucose-dependant’ increase in insulin secretion and glucagon suppression resulting in improved glycaemia with low incidence of hypoglycaemia. DPP-4 inhibitors are oral drugs which are weight neutral, while GLP-1 agonists are injected subcutaneously and help promote weight loss while improving glycaemia. GLP-1 agonists have also been shown to increase beta cell mass in rat models. Bariatric surgery is another option for the obese patient with T2DM, with blood glucose normalizing in over half of the patients following surgery. Other therapies in development for the treatment of T2DM include sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon receptor antagonists, glucokinase activators and sirtuins. In this article, we will review the various existing and emerging treatment options for T2DM. PMID:20831513

  8. Sweden beyond oil: nuclear commitments and solar options.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, M; Johansson, T B; Steen, P

    1980-05-09

    The project "Energy and Society," sponsored by the Swedish Secretariat for Futures Studies, has studied different indigenous energy sources as alternatives to imported oil in Sweden. One alternative is nuclear energy, antoer is renewable energy. Large uncertainties are associated with both alternatives today. The main characteristics of an energy policy for the rest of the century that does not foreclose either of these options have been identified. Such a policy will have to be based on an understanding of similarities and differences between the alternatives. A nuclear and a solar energy system have been outlined as a basis for an analysis of technical, economic, and institutional issues.

  9. Urinary incontinence. Noninvasive treatment options.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C; Cafiero, M R

    1999-06-01

    One in six women older than 45 experiences incontinence, but 31% of them never discuss their condition with anyone. A proactive approach on the part of all health care providers is needed to break this silence, particularly among clinicians who care for women. Urinary incontinence is classified as stress, urge, mixed, overflow or functional incontinence. Differential diagnosis of incontinence is essential to choosing appropriate treatment options. This article outlines noninvasive treatment options that are specific to diagnosis.

  10. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  11. Pro-poor health policies in poverty reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Laterveer, Leontien; Niessen, Louis W; Yazbeck, Abdo S

    2003-06-01

    Since 1999, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank have required low-income countries soliciting for debt relief and financial support to prepare a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). The objective of this study is to arrive at a systematic assessment of the extent to which the first batch of interim PRSPs actually addresses the health of the poor and vulnerable. A literature study was used to design and test a semi-quantitative approach to assess the pro-poor focus of health policies in national documents. The approach was applied to the existing interim proposals for 23 Highly Indebted Poor Countries. Results show that a majority of proposals lack country-specific data on the distribution and composition of the burden of disease, a clear identification of health system constraints and an assessment of the impact of health services on the population. More importantly, they make little effort to analyze these issues in relation to the poor. Furthermore, only a small group explicitly includes the interests of the poor in health policy design. Attention to policies aiming at enhancing equity in public health spending is even more limited. Few papers that include expenditure proposals also show pro-poor focused health budgets. We conclude that our systematic assessment of a new international development policy instrument, PRSP, raises strong concerns about the attributed role of health in development and the limited emphasis on the poor, the supposed primary beneficiaries of this instrument. There is a need and an opportunity for the international development community to provide assistance and inputs as poor countries shift their policy thinking from an interim stage to fully developed national policies. This paper presents a menu of analytical and policy options that can be pursued.

  12. Policy Problematization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, P. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This article places Michel Foucault's concept of "problematization" in relation to educational policy research. My goal is to examine a key assumption of policy related to "solving problems" through such technologies. I discuss the potential problematization has to alter conceptions of policy research; and, through this…

  13. Photovoltaic technology for sustainability: An investigation of the distributed utility concept as a policy framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letendre, Steven Emery

    The U.S. electric utility sector in its current configuration is unsustainable. The majority of electricity in the United States is produced using finite fossil fuels. In addition, significant potential exists to improve the nation's efficient use of energy. A sustainable electric utility sector will be characterized by increased use of renewable energy sources and high levels of end-use efficiency. This dissertation analyzes two alternative policy approaches designed to move the U.S. electric utility sector toward sustainability. One approach is labeled incremental which involves maintaining the centralized structure of the electric utility sector but facilitating the introduction of renewable energy and efficiency into the electrical system through the pricing mechanism. A second policy approach was described in which structural changes are encouraged based on the emerging distributed utility (DU) concept. A structural policy orientation attempts to capture the unique localized benefits that distributed renewable resources and energy efficiency offer to electric utility companies and their customers. A market penetration analysis of PV in centralized energy supply and distributed peak-shaving applications is conducted for a case-study electric utility company. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on incremental and structural policy orientations. The analysis provides compelling evidence which suggests that policies designed to bring about structural change in the electric utility sector are needed to move the industry toward sustainability. Specifically, the analysis demonstrates that PV technology, a key renewable energy option likely to play an important role in a renewable energy future, will begin to penetrate the electrical system in distributed peak-shaving applications long before the technology is introduced as a centralized energy supply option. Most policies to date, which I term incremental, attempt to encourage energy efficiency and renewables

  14. Mitigation Options in Forestry, Land-Use, Change and Biomass Burning in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Makundi, Willy R.

    1998-06-01

    Mitigation options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and sequester carbon in land use sectors are describe in some detail. The paper highlights those options in the forestry sector, which are more relevant to different parts of Africa. It briefly outlines a bottom-up methodological framework for comprehensively assessing mitigation options in land use sectors. This method emphasizes the application of end-use demand projections to construct a baseline and mitigation scenarios and explicitly addresses the carbon storage potential on land and in wood products, as well as use of wood to substitute for fossil fuels. Cost-effectiveness indicators for ranking mitigation options are proposed, including those, which account for non-carbon monetary benefits such as those derived from forest products, as well as opportunity cost of pursuing specific mitigation option. The paper finally surveys the likely policies, barriers and incentives to implement such mitigation options in African countries .

  15. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  16. NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration: Policy vs. practice

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, R.P. ); Wolff, T.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Overwhelmed with environmental protection documentation requirements, a number of Federal agencies are grappling with the complexities of attempting to integrate'' the documentation requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). While there is some overlap between the general environmental policy objectives of NEPA, and the much more specific waste cleanup objectives of CERCLA and RCRA, there are also major differences and outright conflicts. This paper identifies both problems and opportunities associated with implementing emerging and evolving Federal agency policy regarding integration of the procedural and documentation requirements of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA. The emphasis is on NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration policy and practice at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The paper provides a comparative analysis of NEPA, CERCLA, and RCRA processes and discusses special integration issues including scoping, development and analysis of alternatives, risk assessment, tiering, scheduling, and the controversy surrounding applicability of NEPA to CERCLA or RCRA cleanup activities. Several NEPA/CERCLA/RCRA integration strategy options are evaluated and an annotated outline of an integrated NEPA/CERCLA document is included.

  17. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  18. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. Objectives: To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters – reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Materials and Methods: Participants were 3rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants’ option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Results: Students score more (P = 0.000) and took less time (P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more (P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Conclusion: Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs. PMID:27721545

  19. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  20. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald J.; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be considered which have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfers and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  1. Spatial analysis of agri-environmental policy uptake and expenditure in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Yang, Anastasia L; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Wilson, Ronald M; Haggett, Claire

    2014-01-15

    Agri-environment is one of the most widely supported rural development policy measures in Scotland in terms of number of participants and expenditure. It comprises 69 management options and sub-options that are delivered primarily through the competitive 'Rural Priorities scheme'. Understanding the spatial determinants of uptake and expenditure would assist policy-makers in guiding future policy targeting efforts for the rural environment. This study is unique in examining the spatial dependency and determinants of Scotland's agri-environmental measures and categorised options uptake and payments at the parish level. Spatial econometrics is applied to test the influence of 40 explanatory variables on farming characteristics, land capability, designated sites, accessibility and population. Results identified spatial dependency for each of the dependent variables, which supported the use of spatially-explicit models. The goodness of fit of the spatial models was better than for the aspatial regression models. There was also notable improvement in the models for participation compared with the models for expenditure. Furthermore a range of expected explanatory variables were found to be significant and varied according to the dependent variable used. The majority of models for both payment and uptake showed a significant positive relationship with SSSI (Sites of Special Scientific Interest), which are designated sites prioritised in Scottish policy. These results indicate that environmental targeting efforts by the government for AEP uptake in designated sites can be effective. However habitats outside of SSSI, termed here the 'wider countryside' may not be sufficiently competitive to receive funding in the current policy system.

  2. The PhD Option...and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Bob

    1985-01-01

    Two engineers with doctoral degrees weigh factors, pro and con, in pursuing their degree and the different career paths they have taken. One person outlines the steps in academia while the other has moved through several industrial positions. Indicates that the degree can open doors but can also limit options. (DH)

  3. Pharmaceutical policy reform in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Caroline; Vandoros, Sotiris; Antoun, Joseph George

    2014-06-01

    Of Russia's 142 million citizens, fewer than 20 million are enrolled in outpatient drug coverage plans. The current government aims to establish universal health insurance including outpatient medicines. Based on the current political and regulatory environment, this report explores pharmaceutical pricing options for Russia that balance greater access to medicines with achieving government plans of boosting local pharmaceutical production. To match innovative medicine prices with their health benefits, in the long run, we suggest that Russia consider adopting value-based pricing, and in the short term, that it introduce direct price negotiations and price drugs according to reference countries that use health technology assessment. Although generic market shares are high, generic medicine prices are higher than they should be. We propose tenders at the manufacturer level for the pricing of high-selling generics, and free pricing for products with sufficient market competition. These policy recommendations are a jumping-off point for further discussion about how pharmaceutical policy could aid this major economy to achieve its population health and health service goals.

  4. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  5. Newer Management Options in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P Narasimha; Jain, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Newer management options are needed for leprosy control even at present, as it is predicted that new cases of leprosy will continue to appear for many more years in future. This article detail newer methods of clinical grading of peripheral nerve involvement (thickening, tenderness and nerve pain which are subjective in nature) and the advances made in the use of Ultrasonography and Colour Doppler as an objective imaging tool for nerves in leprosy. It also briefly discusses the newer drugs and alternative regimens as therapeutic management options which hold promise for leprosy in future. PMID:23372204

  6. Alternative defence policy

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book considers key questions connected with the present crisis, questions such as Would conventional deterrence really be effective. Just what is the Labour Party's policy. How precisely might Britain be transformed into a non-aligned, non-military state. The future of British defence policy is an issue of major concern not just in Britain but throughout the world, especially in the United States where there are major anxieties in the Pentagon about what will happen if the Labour Party wins an election outright. British defence policy is currently in a state of crisis. The former position where a reasonably united establishment on one hand confronted nuclear disarmers on the other has been replaced by a position where a wide spectrum of different opinions is held not just by the peace movement and the opposition parties but by many people in the Conservative party and the military also.

  7. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  8. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  9. Educational Technology Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slakmon, Benzi

    2017-01-01

    The study examines Israel's educational technology policy in light of the coming-of-age of ICT. The study shows the ways it has been developing, and identifies two major shifts which have occurred in recent years: the introduction of the national educational cloud, and the enabling of the "bring your own device" (BYOD) policy. The way…

  10. Choosing the financing option that's right for your hospital.

    PubMed

    Henkel, A J

    1982-03-01

    THe major debt financing options available to hospitals may be evaluated according to two categories of factors: those involving the financing itself and those involving its subsequent operational impact. Structural considerations include the likely trend in interest rates, the time commitment necessary to complete multiple financings, the institutional operating climate, and the likelihood that a preferable vehicle will be available at a later date.

  11. The Test-Optional Movement at America's Selective Liberal Arts Colleges: A Boon for Equity or Something Else?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belasco, Andrew S.; Rosinger, Kelly O.; Hearn, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The test-optional movement in the United States emerged largely in response to criticism of standardized admissions tests as inadequate and potentially biased measures of postsecondary promise. Although anecdotal reports suggest that test-optional policies have improved campus diversity, empirical research has not yet confirmed this claim.…

  12. 77 FR 22022 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    .... Allocation Algorithms and Priority 1. COB and COA Allocation Algorithms Stock-option orders in COB and COA will execute according to an electronic allocation algorithm. Specifically, stock-option orders in COB... algorithm designated by C2 under C2 Rule 6.13, Interpretation and Policy .05.\\29\\ \\27\\ See C2 Rule...

  13. Document Delivery: Evaluating the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses options available to libraries for document delivery. Topics include users' needs; cost; copyright compliance; traditional interlibrary loan; types of suppliers; selection criteria, including customer service; new developments in interlibrary loan, including outsourcing arrangements; and the need to evaluate suppliers. (LRW)

  14. Academic Restructuring: Options and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freddo, Thomas F.

    1991-01-01

    For the primary eye care practitioner in the 1990s and beyond, the basic biomedical sciences have supplanted physiological optics as the primary academic discipline underlying the practice of optometry. Several curriculum development options are available to incorporate the needed material, but a core curriculum is essential at all institutions.…

  15. Tool for Ranking Research Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott, Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Research Enhancement Decision Support (TREDS) is a computer program developed to assist managers in ranking options for research aboard the International Space Station (ISS). It could likely also be adapted to perform similar decision-support functions in industrial and academic settings. TREDS provides a ranking of the options, based on a quantifiable assessment of all the relevant programmatic decision factors of benefit, cost, and risk. The computation of the benefit for each option is based on a figure of merit (FOM) for ISS research capacity that incorporates both quantitative and qualitative inputs. Qualitative inputs are gathered and partly quantified by use of the time-tested analytical hierarchical process and used to set weighting factors in the FOM corresponding to priorities determined by the cognizant decision maker(s). Then by use of algorithms developed specifically for this application, TREDS adjusts the projected benefit for each option on the basis of levels of technical implementation, cost, and schedule risk. Based partly on Excel spreadsheets, TREDS provides screens for entering cost, benefit, and risk information. Drop-down boxes are provided for entry of qualitative information. TREDS produces graphical output in multiple formats that can be tailored by users.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer that remains after treatment with external-beam radiation therapy. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ... cancer remains or comes back after treatment with radiation therapy and chemotherapy. ... options. Patients who have had treatment that saves the sphincter ...

  17. Alternative Level of Care: Canada's Hospital Beds, the Evidence and Options

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Jason M.; Crump, R. Trafford

    2013-01-01

    Patients designated as alternative level of care (ALC) are an ongoing concern for healthcare policy makers across Canada. These patients occupy valuable hospital beds and limit access to acute care services. The objective of this paper is to present policy alternatives to address underlying factors associated with ALC bed use. Three alternatives, and their respective limitations and structural challenges, are discussed. Potential solutions may require a mix of policy options proposed here. Inadequate policy jeopardizes new acute care activity-based funding schemes in British Columbia and Ontario. Failure to address this issue could exacerbate pressures on the existing bottlenecks in the community care system in these and other provinces. PMID:23968671

  18. Addition of flexible body option to the TOLA computer program. Part 2: User and programmer documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, J. W.; Benda, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    User and programmer oriented documentation for the flexible body option of the Takeoff and Landing Analysis (TOLA) computer program are provided. The user information provides sufficient knowledge of the development and use of the option to enable the engineering user to successfully operate the modified program and understand the results. The programmer's information describes the option structure and logic enabling a programmer to make major revisions to this part of the TOLA computer program.

  19. Land settlement policies and population redistribution in developing countries: performance, problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Oberai, A S

    1986-01-01

    The author describes and compares land settlement in various developing countries, focusing on the movement of people to underutilized agricultural areas. "The purpose of this article is fourfold: first, to discuss the performance of settlement programmes, concentrating on the extent to which they have achieved their population redistribution and other objectives; second, to analyse major economic and social problems confronting them; third, to identify factors that have contributed to their success or failure; and, fourth, to assess alternative policy options." This analysis of land settlement programs "suggests that so far they have made no more than a modest contribution to the solution of the problems of population distribution, unemployment and poverty."

  20. Internet Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-17

    activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure

  1. Industrial change and public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-02-01

    To examine recent changes affecting the US economy and the likely success of a government-managed industrial policy, the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City sponsored a symposium at Jackson Hole, WY on August 24-26, 1983 to discuss Industrial change and Public Policy. This article summarizes the presentations and discussions. The predominant view of symposium participants was that America is not deindustrializing. Neither are its economic problems due primarily to sweeping structural change in the economy. Rather, most of its problems are the results of sharp cyclical fluctuations that could have structural implications over time. More-appropriate and better coordinated monetary and fiscal policies, it was felt, offer a solution to the inadequate US economic performance. Additionally, a range of improved policy options were suggested at the sector and firm level. Symposium participants generally shared a common viewpoint - that the recent inadequate US economic performance has not been caused by structural or industrial change. Rather, it has been a combination of inappropriate macroeconomic policies, a prolonged cyclical downturn, and exogenous shocks. Therefore, changing policies at both the macro and sub-macro levels to mitigate their undesirable effects was believed to be a more promising alternative than identifying and implementing an entirely new industrial policy.

  2. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Vishal; Kim, Jong Joo; Benbrook, Doris Mangiaracina; Dwivedi, Anila; Rai, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH.

  3. Current treatment options for Dientamoeba fragilis infections

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Noriyuki; Marriott, Deborah; Harkness, John; Ellis, John T.; Stark, Damien

    2012-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis belongs to the trichomonad group of protozoan parasites and it has been implicated as a cause of gastrointestinal disease with world-wide prevalences ranging from 0.5% to 16%. The majority of patients with dientamoebiasis present with gastrointestinal complaints. Chronic symptoms are common with up to a third of patients exhibiting persistent diarrhoea. Numerous studies have successfully demonstrated parasite clearance, coupled with complete resolution of clinical symptoms following treatment with various antiparasitic compounds. Treatments reported to be successful for dientamoebiasis include carbarsone, diphetarsone, tetracyclines, paromomycin, erythromycin, hydroxyquinolines and the 5-nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, secnidazole, tinidazole and ornidazole. It is of note that most current treatment data is based only on small number of case reports. No large scale double blind randomised placebo controlled trials testing the efficacy of antimicrobial agents against D. fragilis has been undertaken highlighting the need for further study. In addition there is very little in vitro susceptibility data available for the organism making some current treatment options questionable. The aim of this review is to critically discuss all treatment options currently available for dientamoebiasis. PMID:24533282

  4. Therapeutic options for management of endometrial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) comprises a spectrum of changes in the endometrium ranging from a slightly disordered pattern that exaggerates the alterations seen in the late proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle to irregular, hyperchromatic lesions that are similar to endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Generally, EH is caused by continuous exposure of estrogen unopposed by progesterone, polycystic ovary syndrome, tamoxifen, or hormone replacement therapy. Since it can progress, or often occur coincidentally with endometrial carcinoma, EH is of clinical importance, and the reversion of hyperplasia to normal endometrium represents the key conservative treatment for prevention of the development of adenocarcinoma. Presently, cyclic progestin or hysterectomy constitutes the major treatment option for EH without or with atypia, respectively. However, clinical trials of hormonal therapies and definitive standard treatments remain to be established for the management of EH. Moreover, therapeutic options for EH patients who wish to preserve fertility are challenging and require nonsurgical management. Therefore, future studies should focus on evaluation of new treatment strategies and novel compounds that could simultaneously target pathways involved in the pathogenesis of estradiol-induced EH. Novel therapeutic agents precisely targeting the inhibition of estrogen receptor, growth factor receptors, and signal transduction pathways are likely to constitute an optimal approach for treatment of EH. PMID:26463434

  5. Discussion of Policies for Achieving Continuous Improvement in Community Colleges. Commission on Innovation Policy Discussion Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BW Associates, Berkeley, CA.

    Intended to provide background information and preliminary options for the California Community Colleges' Commission on Innovation, this document describes the principles of Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and describes policy options for implementation in the state's community colleges. Following introductory materials, the paper recommends…

  6. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  7. Treatment options for hyperemesis gravidarum.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Amy; Miller, Emily S; Wisner, Katherine L

    2017-01-09

    Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies. Mirtazapine acts on noradrenergic, serotonergic, histaminergic, and muscarinic receptors to produce antidepressant, anxiolytic, antiemetic, sedative, and appetite-stimulating effects. Mirtazapine is not associated with an independent increased risk of birth defects. Further investigation of mirtazapine as a treatment for HG holds promise to expand treatment options for women suffering from HG.

  8. United States Chemical Policy: Response Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    33. 1 0 Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, The Problem of Chemical and Biological Yearbook . 1985 (New York: Oxford University Press...Deterring Chemical Warfare: U.S. Policy Options for the 1990s. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon & Brassey , 1986. Stockholm International Peace Research...Policy: Response Considerations 6. AUTHOR( S ) MAJ Lewis L. VanDyke, USA 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  9. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting. PMID:27873975

  10. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  11. The 21st Century Challenge: Moving the Youth Agenda Forward. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Public Policy Issues Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, Marion, Ed.

    This document contains nine papers devoted to the labor market problems faced by out-of-school and other disadvantaged young people in the United States and policy options and strategies for addressing those problems. The papers update the data on out-of-school young adults, review the lessons learned from past youth programs and policies,…

  12. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have…

  13. Fertility options in transgender people.

    PubMed

    De Roo, Chloë; Tilleman, Kelly; T'Sjoen, Guy; De Sutter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Hormonal and surgical treatments for transgender people have a devastating effect on the possibility for these patients to reproduce. Additionally, transgender people tend to start sex reassignment treatment at a young age, when reproductive wishes are not yet clearly defined nor fulfilled. The most recent Standards of Care of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health recommend clearly informing patients regarding their future reproductive options prior to initiation of treatment. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques in the field of fertility preservation for transgender people. Where genital reconstructive surgery definitely results in sterility, hormone therapy on the other hand also has an important, but partially reversible impact on fertility. The current fertility preservation options for trans men are embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. For trans women, sperm cryopreservation, surgical sperm extraction and testicular tissue cryopreservation are possible. Although certain fertility preservation techniques could be applicable in a standardized manner based on clear biological criteria, the technique that eventually will be performed should be the preferred choice of the patient after extended explanation of all possible options.

  14. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Dichman, Don; Clark, Pamela; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these designs can be restricted by the selection of the Cubesat subsystem design such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can be designed with have a wide range of transfer durations, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several design options including deployment into low Earth orbit (LEO), geostationary transfer orbits (GTO), and higher energy direct lunar transfer orbits. In addition to direct transfer options from these initial orbits, we also investigate the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory. In this article we examine several design options that meet the above limited deployment and subsystem drivers. We study ways that both impulsive and low-thrust Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) engines can be used to place the Cubesat first into a highly eccentric Earth orbit, enter the Moon's Sphere of Influence, and finally achieve a highly eccentric lunar orbit. We show that such low-thrust transfers are feasible with a realistic micro-thruster model, assuming that the Cubesat can generate sufficient power for the SEP. Two examples are shown here: (1) A Cubestat injected by Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) then employing low thrust; and (2) a CubSat deployed in a GTO, then employing impulsive maneuvers. For the EM-1 injected initial design, we increase the EM-1 targeted lunar flyby distance to reduce the energy of the lunar flyby to match that of a typical lMoon system heteroclinic manifold. Figure 1 presents an option that encompasses the similar dynamics as that of the ARTEMIS

  15. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Marijke CM

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first choice. In this paper, an overview is presented of the present insights in SAD. Description of the syndrome, etiology, and treatment options are mentioned. Apart from light treatment, medication and psychotherapy are other treatment options. The predictable, repetitive nature of the syndrome makes it possible to discuss preventive treatment options. Furthermore, critical views on the concept of SAD as a distinct diagnosis are discussed. PMID:27942239

  16. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE's '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  17. Nonlethal weapons as force options for the Army

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J.B.

    1994-04-01

    This paper suggests that future challenges to US national security will be very different from those previously experienced. In a number of foreseeable circumstances, conventional military force will be inappropriate. The National Command Authority, and other appropriate levels of command, need expanded options available to meet threats for which the application of massive lethal force is counterproductive or inadvisable. It is proposed that nonlethal concepts be developed that provide additional options for military leaders and politicians. Included in this initiative should be exploration of policy, strategy, doctrine, and training issues as well as the development of selected technologies and weapons. In addition, civilian law enforcement agencies have similar requirements for less-than-lethal systems. This may be an excellent example for a joint technology development venture.

  18. Pants, policies and paranoia...

    PubMed

    Dancer, S J

    2010-01-01

    In response to the rising tide of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in UK hospitals, governmental health departments have introduced dress codes for healthcare staff. These include measures such as the use of short sleeves, no wristwatches or jewellery, and avoidance of ties and white coats. Although hospital pathogens have been found on such items, there is no evidence that they play a major role in transmitting HAIs and these policies have received much criticism. This Leader examines the evidence underpinning the new dress codes and concludes that there is insufficient evidence to justify recent policies. Dress codes appear to have been imposed more for political purposes than in deference to effective infection control. In addition, the UK 'zero tolerance' mandate towards HAI does not balance personal accountability against a failing healthcare system. These policies may try to impose good practice but over-reliance on cheap, short-term solutions will not adequately address longer-term problems with HAI.

  19. Cybersquatting and Your Legal Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Sheldon; Salomon, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the increasing problem of cybersquatting, the practice of registering an Internet domain name that is confusingly similar to a well-known name or institution (including colleges and universities). Explains two remedies: (1) the recent Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act and the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy of the Internet…

  20. Management of major system programs and projects. Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This Handbook establishes the detailed policies and processes for implementing NMI 7120.4, 'Management of Major System Programs and Projects'. It constitutes a comprehensive source of the specific policies and processes governing management of major development programs/projects and is intended as a resource to the entire program/project management (PPM) community.

  1. Options contracts in the nuclear fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, D.M.

    1995-04-01

    This article discusses options trading in the nuclear fuels industry. Although there now exists no formal options market in the nuclear industry, flexibilities, or embedded options, are actually quite common in the long-term supply contracts. The value of these flexibilities can be estimated by applying the methods used to evaluate options. The method used is the Black-Scholes Model, and it is applied to a number of examples.

  2. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Boxiang; Yu, Yang; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of Δ of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate Δ of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options.

  3. Social surveys and health policy implications for national health insurance.

    PubMed Central

    Aday, L A; Andersen, R; Anderson, O W

    1977-01-01

    The authors explore the utility of applying social survey data (a) to evaluate the impact of existing health programs and (b) to rank-order priorities concerning future health care policies. Based on national survey data from 1963, 1970, and 1976, they concluded that although Medicare and Medicaid have enabled more people to see a physician than ever before, a large proportion of the population still registers dissatisfaction with the health care they received--particularly with respect to their out-of-pocket costs for obtaining it. However, national health insurance options favored by the majority of the population--particularly those who can best afford the cost of care--suggest preferences for programs that incorporate some mix of existing modes of financing rather than those that provide for substantial restructuring of the current system. PMID:337340

  4. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  5. Modified Policy-Delphi study for exploring obesity prevention priorities

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Emily; Palermo, Claire; Reidlinger, Dianne P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Until now, industry and government stakeholders have dominated public discourse about policy options for obesity. While consumer involvement in health service delivery and research has been embraced, methods which engage consumers in health policy development are lacking. Conflicting priorities have generated ethical concern around obesity policy. The concept of ‘intrusiveness’ has been applied to policy decisions in the UK, whereby ethical implications are considered through level of intrusiveness to choice; however, the concept has also been used to avert government regulation to address obesity. The concept of intrusiveness has not been explored from a stakeholder's perspective. The aim is to investigate the relevance of intrusiveness and autonomy to health policy development, and to explore consensus on obesity policy priorities of under-represented stakeholders. Methods and analysis The Policy-Delphi technique will be modified using the James Lind Alliance approach to collaborative priority setting. A total of 60 participants will be recruited to represent three stakeholder groups in the Australian context: consumers, public health practitioners and policymakers. A three-round online Policy-Delphi survey will be undertaken. Participants will prioritise options informed by submissions to the 2009 Australian Government Inquiry into Obesity, and rate the intrusiveness of those proposed. An additional round will use qualitative methods in a face-to-face discussion group to explore stakeholder perceptions of the intrusiveness of options. The novelty of this methodology will redress the balance by bringing the consumer voice forward to identify ethically acceptable obesity policy options. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted by the Bond University Health Research Ethics Committee. The findings will inform development of a conceptual framework for analysing and prioritising obesity policy options, which will be relevant

  6. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  7. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  8. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  9. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  10. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  11. 32 CFR 48.201 - Options.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Options. 48.201 Section 48.201 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Election of Options § 48.201 Options. As provided in § 48.203, a member...

  12. Issues in Policy, Assessment, and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    National educational reform presents an unprecedented opportunity to combine policy options, the best technological knowledge, and American concerns about equity and fairness. There are three principal concerns regarding equity in assessment of Limited-English-proficient (LEP) and other student populations: (1) if students are not assessed because…

  13. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    18 Manual or Aerial Herbicide - based Eradication............................................................... 18...Aerial Herbicide - based Eradication Policy makers and Members of Congress may engage in further debate concerning options for using herbicides for...airframes and military support aircraft that exceed current U.S. capabilities in the region. An herbicide - based eradication program, if employed in the

  14. Afghanistan: Narcotics and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    38 Manual or Aerial Herbicide - based Eradication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39...efficiency. In January 2007, President Karzai announced that any herbicide - based eradication efforts would be delayed until 2008 at the earliest. Coalition...Manual or Aerial Herbicide - based Eradication. Policy makers are likely to engage in further debate concerning options for using herbicides for manual

  15. Energy policy in a changing social order

    SciTech Connect

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  16. Social Policy: Safety Net or Springboard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitta, Cosmas, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Cooperation South" looks at recent experiences in protecting and advancing human welfare in the south as well as the north. It presents a shared learning exercise about an array of social policy options; which decision makers in the south can consider in their efforts to shape a caring society, alleviate poverty, promote…

  17. Telemetry Options for LDB Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.; Field, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility provides Telemetry and Command systems necessary for balloon operations and science support. There are various Line-Of-Sight (LOS) and Over-The-Horizon (OTH) systems and interfaces that provide communications to and from a science payload. This presentation will discuss the current data throughput options available and future capabilities that may be incorporated in the LDB Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) such as doubling the TDRSS data rate. We will also explore some new technologies that could potentially expand the data throughput of OTH communications.

  18. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  19. Community Shared Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    This brochure explores the ways in which the shared solar business model interacts with existing policy and regulations, including net metering, tax credits, and securities regulation. It presents some of the barriers that shared solar projects may face, and provides options for creating a supportive policy environment.

  20. The Role of Public Policy in the New Television Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumler, Jay G.

    This paper, the first in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, argues that there is a continuing role for public policy in the electronic media marketplace. It contends that the role of television in our society is too important for it to be regarded as just another business, and the…

  1. Urban America: Policy Choices for Los Angeles and the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, James B., Ed.; And Others

    This volume presents 13 essays on urban problems in the United States, particularly in Los Angeles (California) following the 1992 riots, and policy options for the future. Part 1 addresses policies of the past three decades; Part 2 looks at children, youth, and families; Part 3 discusses crime and criminal justice; and Part 4 examines public…

  2. Energy from peatlands: options and impacts - executive summary. [Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mundale, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    A nine-member panel reports on issues related to peatland development. The report analyzes options for using peatlands and reviews the potential economic, social, and environmental impacts of developing peatlands for energy. It examines the existing legal and regulatory framework governing Minnesota peatlands. The panel's recommendations are designed to assist lawmakers and other government officials in formulating public policy and to suggest ways that industry can use the state's peatland resource that will enhance the state's economy and energy position while minimizing detrimental effects. 2 figures.

  3. Emigration to North America: the continuing option for the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Conway, D

    1990-01-01

    "A commonly held notion among Commonwealth Caribbean commentators on development prospects of the region, holds...that emigration options for the Caribbean are becoming more restrictive, and that traditional receiving countries such as Britain, the United States and Canada, have the will and purpose to restrict entry....Britain's effective immigration policies from 1962 to [the] present appear to amply demonstrate the situation, and exemplify a future restrictive international environment for future generations of Caribbean emigrant hopefuls seeking opportunities 'off the island' in traditional metropoles. This brief commentary argues the contrary."

  4. The use of vaccination as an option for the control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Capua, Ilaria; Marangon, Stefano

    2003-08-01

    Recent epidemics of highly contagious animal diseases included in list A of the Office International des Epizooties, such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza (AI), have led to the implementation of stamping-out policies resulting in the depopulation of millions of animals. The enforcement of a control strategy based on culling animals that are infected, suspected of being infected or suspected of being contaminated, which is based only on the application of sanitary restrictions on farms, may not be sufficient to avoid the spread of infection, particularly in areas that have high animal densities, thus resulting in mass depopulation. In the European Union, the directive that imposes the enforcement of a stamping-out policy (92/ 40/EC) for AI was adopted in 1992 but was drafted in the 1980s. The poultry industry has undergone substantial changes in the past 20 years, mainly resulting in shorter production cycles and in higher animal densities per territorial unit. Due to these organizational changes, infectious diseases are significantly more difficult to control because of the greater number of susceptible animals reared per given unit of time and due to the difficulties in applying adequate biosecurity measures. The slaughter and destruction of great numbers of animals is also questionable from an ethical point of view. For this reason, mass depopulation has raised serious concerns for the general public and has recently led to very high costs and economic losses for national and federal governments, stakeholders and, ultimately, for consumers. In the past, the use of vaccines in such emergencies has been limited by the impossibility of differentiating vaccinated/infected from vaccinated/non-infected animals. The major concern was that through trade or movement of apparently uninfected animals or products, the disease could spread further or might be exported to other countries. For this reason, export bans have been imposed on

  5. Differences in Food and Beverage Marketing Policies and Practices in US School Districts, by Demographic Characteristics of School Districts, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Brener, Nancy D.; Coffield, Edward; Kingsley, Beverly S.; Zytnick, Deena; Blanck, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foods and beverages marketed in schools are typically of poor nutritional value. School districts may adopt policies and practices to restrict marketing of unhealthful foods and to promote healthful choices. Students’ exposure to marketing practices differ by school demographics, but these differences have not yet been examined by district characteristics. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study to examine how food and beverage marketing and promotion policies and practices varied by district characteristics such as metropolitan status, size, and percentage of non-Hispanic white students. Results Most practices varied significantly by district size: a higher percentage of large districts than small or medium-sized districts restricted marketing of unhealthful foods and promoted healthful options. Compared with districts whose student populations were majority (>50%) non-Hispanic white, a higher percentage of districts whose student populations were minority non-Hispanic white (≤50% non-Hispanic white) prohibited advertising of soft drinks in school buildings and on school grounds, made school meal menus available to students, and provided families with information on school nutrition programs. Compared with suburban and rural districts, a higher percentage of urban districts prohibited the sale of soft drinks on school grounds and used several practices to promote healthful options. Conclusion Preliminary findings showing significant associations between district demographics and marketing policies and practices can be used to help states direct resources, training, and technical assistance to address food and beverage marketing and promotion to districts most in need of improvement. PMID:27978408

  6. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua

    1992-09-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  7. Global environmental security: Research and policy strategies for the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Lazaro, M.A.; Wang, Hua.

    1992-01-01

    The subject of global environmental change is emerging as one of the most hotly debated international issues for the 1990s. In fact, our earth system has undergone a nature-induced gradual change in climate on both a temporal scale that spans over millions of years and a spatial scale ranging from regional to transcontinental. Pollutant emissions associated with population growth and industrial activities manifest the anthropogenic climatic forcing that has been superimposed on the background of natural climate fluctuations. Our incomplete understanding of the global impacts of environmental pollution on the earth systems (atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere), however, make the prediction of the timing, magnitude, and patterns of future global change uncertain. This paper examines the science and policy background of global environmental change. The major scientific uncertainties and policy issues confronting decision makers are identified; and the scientific framework, as well as current national and international research programs aimed at resolving the scientific uncertainties, are discussed. A coherent, stable, and flexible policy is needed to provide a foundation for coordinated international-interagency programs of observation, research, analysis, and international negotiation toward a policy consensus concerning global environmental security. On the basis of what is currently known about global change, recommendations are presented on both near-term and long-term policy option decisions.

  8. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  9. Pricing and hedging Asian basket spread options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Petkovic, Alexandre; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2010-04-01

    Asian options, basket options and spread options have been extensively studied in the literature. However, few papers deal with the problem of pricing general Asian basket spread options. This paper aims to fill this gap. In order to obtain prices and Greeks in a short computation time, we develop approximation formulae based on comonotonicity theory and moment matching methods. We compare their relative performances and explain how to choose the best approximation technique as a function of the Asian basket spread characteristics. We also give explicitly the Greeks for our proposed methods. In the last section we extend our results to options denominated in foreign currency.

  10. Southern Growth Policies Board Task Force on Southern Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Growth Policies Board, Research Triangle Park, NC.

    This final report on southern American cities cites as its major recommendation the need for each southern State to have articulated urban policy. Findings are summarized in the areas of State urban policies, intergovernmental relationships, economic development policy, planning and growth policy, annexation policy, and energy policy. Background…

  11. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  12. 75 FR 29787 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Granting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Option Contracts Open for Trading, by adding new Interpretation and Policy .17 that would allow the... predictability for investors who may view these products as serving similar investment functions in the... regulatory issues and accelerating approval of this proposal should benefit investors by creating...

  13. Rethinking School Choice: Educational Options, Control, and Sovereignty in Indian Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castagno, Angelina E.; Garcia, David R.; Blalock, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of schooling options in Indigenous communities, the public policy debate, research, and discourse on school choice is almost entirely absent a specific engagement with how school choice intersects issues relevant to American Indian youth and tribal nations. This article suggests that Indian Country is an important and unique…

  14. 77 FR 60489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule To Eliminate Position and Exercise Limits for Physically- Settled... eliminate position and exercise limits for physically-settled options on the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (``SPY... Interpretation and Policy .07 to Rule 4.11 to eliminate position and exercise limits for physically-settled...

  15. 78 FR 9076 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend CBSX Rule 52.4 Relating to the Clearly Erroneous Policy February 1, 2013. Pursuant...

  16. 75 FR 81704 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... algorithm \\5\\ for HOSS and to make related changes to Interpretation and Policy .03. Currently, there are... applicable allocation algorithm for the HOSS and modified HOSS rotation procedures. Paragraph (c)(iv) of the... allocation algorithm in effect for the option class pursuant to Rule 6.45A or 6.45B), then to limit...

  17. Public Claims on U. S. Output: Federal Budget Options in the Last Half of the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    The volume focuses on the long-term outlook for the Federal budget in terms of the overall balance between outlays and receipts and the possible program options that might be considered in policy planning over the long term. Chapter 2 provides an overview of the budget outlook for the last half of the 1970's. Chapters 3-10 discuss possible program…

  18. 46 CFR 308.520 - Standard optional endorsement No. 3, Form MA-300-C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard optional endorsement No. 3, Form MA-300-C. 308.520 Section 308.520 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  19. 46 CFR 308.519 - Standard optional endorsement No. 2, Form MA-300-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard optional endorsement No. 2, Form MA-300-B. 308.519 Section 308.519 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  20. 46 CFR 308.518 - Standard optional endorsement No. 1, Form MA-300-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard optional endorsement No. 1, Form MA-300-A. 308.518 Section 308.518 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance §...

  1. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  2. Assessment of the mitigation options in the energy system in Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, C.; Vassilev, C.; Simenova, K.

    1996-12-31

    Bulgaria signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the UNCEP in Rio in June 1992. The parliament ratified the Convention in March 1995. In compliance with the commitments arising under the Convention, Bulgaria elaborates climate change polity. The underlying principles in this policy are Bulgaria to joint the international efforts towards solving climate change problems to the extent that is adequate to both the possibilities of national economy and the options to attract foreign investments. All policies and measures implemented should be as cost-effective as possible. The Bulgarian GHG emission profile reveals the energy sector as the most significant emission source and also as an area where the great potential for GHG emissions reduction exists. This potential could be achieved in many cases by relatively low cost or even no-cost options. Mitigation analysis incorporates options in energy demand and energy supply within the period 1992-2020.

  3. Prosthetic options available for the diabetic lower limb amputee.

    PubMed

    Chitragari, Gautham; Mahler, David B; Sumpio, Brandon J; Blume, Peter A; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2014-01-01

    Although the rate of lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes is decreasing, amputation still remains a major complication of diabetes. Prosthetics have been long used to help amputees ambulate. The last decade has seen many advances in prostheses with the enhanced understanding of the mechanics of ambulation and improved use of technology. This review describes the different types of prosthetic options available for below knee, ankle, and foot amputees, emphasizing the latest advances in prosthetic design.

  4. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  5. The State of Asian Pacific America: Policy Issues to the Year 2020. A Public Policy Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Asian American Studies Center.

    Nineteen chapters consider major public policy implications for demographic projections of the Asian Pacific American population to the year 2020. A preface by D. T. Nakanishi and J. D. Hokoyama introduces the studies. Policy recommendations from the Asian American Public Policy Institute follow, recommending multiculturalism and intracultural…

  6. Identifying the Barriers and Opportunities for Enhanced Coherence between Agriculture and Public Health Policies: Improving the Fat Supply in India.

    PubMed

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation.

  7. Therapeutic options for lip augmentation.

    PubMed

    Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F

    2007-11-01

    Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.

  8. Options to improve energy efficiency for educational building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahan, Mafruha

    The cost of energy is a major factor that must be considered for educational facility budget planning purpose. The analysis of energy related issues and options can be complex and requires significant time and detailed effort. One way to facilitate the inclusion of energy option planning in facility planning efforts is to utilize a tool that allows for quick appraisal of the facility energy profile. Once such an appraisal is accomplished, it is then possible to rank energy improvement options consistently with other facility needs and requirements. After an energy efficiency option has been determined to have meaningful value in comparison with other facility planning options, it is then possible to utilize the initial appraisal as the basis for an expanded consideration of additional facility and energy use detail using the same analytic system used for the initial appraisal. This thesis has developed a methodology and an associated analytic model to assist in these tasks and thereby improve the energy efficiency of educational facilities. A detailed energy efficiency and analysis tool is described that utilizes specific university building characteristics such as size, architecture, envelop, lighting, occupancy, thermal design which allows reducing the annual energy consumption. Improving the energy efficiency of various aspects of an educational building's energy performance can be complex and can require significant time and experience to make decisions. The approach developed in this thesis initially assesses the energy design for a university building. This initial appraisal is intended to assist administrators in assessing the potential value of energy efficiency options for their particular facility. Subsequently this scoping design can then be extended as another stage of the model by local facility or planning personnel to add more details and engineering aspects to the initial screening model. This approach can assist university planning efforts to

  9. Strategic Options Development and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Fran; Eden, Colin

    Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA) enables a group or individual to construct a graphical representation of a problematic situation, and thus explore options and their ramifications with respect to a complex system of goals or objectives. In addition the method aims to help groups arrive at a negotiated agreement about how to act to resolve the situation. It is based upon the use of causal mapping - a formally constructed means-ends network - as representation form. Because the picture has been constructed using the natural language of the problem owners it becomes a model of the situation that is ‘owned' by those who define the problem. The use of formalities for the construction of the model makes it amenable to a range of analyses as well as encouraging reflection and a deeper understanding. These analyses can be used in a ‘rough and ready' manner by visual inspection or through the use of specialist causal mapping software (Decision Explorer). Each of the analyses helps a group or individual discover important features of the problem situation, and these features facilitate agreeing agood solution. The SODA process is aimed at helping a group learn about the situation they face before they reach agreements. Most significantly the exploration through the causal map leads to a higher probability of more creative solutions and promotes solutions that are more likely to be implemented because the problem construction process is wider and more likely to include richer social dimensions about the blockages to action and organizational change. The basic theories that inform SODA derive from cognitive psychology and social negotiation, where the model acts as a continuously changing representation of the problematic situation - changing as the views of a person or group shift through learning and exploration. This chapter, jointly written by two leading practitioner academics and the original developers of SODA, Colin Eden and Fran Ackermann

  10. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  11. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost

  12. The use of individual and societal risk criteria within the Dutch flood safety policy--nationwide estimates of societal risk and policy applications.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sebastiaan N; Jongejan, Ruben; Maaskant, Bob

    2011-02-01

    The Dutch government is in the process of revising its flood safety policy. The current safety standards for flood defenses in the Netherlands are largely based on the outcomes of cost-benefit analyses. Loss of life has not been considered separately in the choice for current standards. This article presents the results of a research project that evaluated the potential roles of two risk metrics, individual and societal risk, to support decision making about new flood safety standards. These risk metrics are already used in the Dutch major hazards policy for the evaluation of risks to the public. Individual risk concerns the annual probability of death of a person. Societal risk concerns the probability of an event with many fatalities. Technical aspects of the use of individual and societal risk metrics in flood risk assessments as well as policy implications are discussed. Preliminary estimates of nationwide levels of societal risk are presented. Societal risk levels appear relatively high in the southwestern part of the country where densely populated dike rings are threatened by a combination of river and coastal floods. It was found that cumulation, the simultaneous flooding of multiple dike rings during a single flood event, has significant impact on the national level of societal risk. Options for the application of the individual and societal risk in the new flood safety policy are presented and discussed.

  13. Robotic lunar exploration: Architectures, issues and options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.; Valerani, Ernesto; Della Torre, Alberto

    2007-06-01

    The US ‘vision for space exploration’ articulated at the beginning of 2004 encompasses a broad range of human and robotic space missions, including missions to the Moon, Mars and destinations beyond. It establishes clear goals and objectives, yet sets equally clear budgetary ‘boundaries’ by stating firm priorities, including ‘tough choices’ regarding current major NASA programs. The new vision establishes as policy the goals of pursuing commercial and international collaboration in realizing future space exploration missions. Also, the policy envisions that advances in human and robotic mission technologies will play a key role—both as enabling and as a major public benefit that will result from implementing that vision. In pursuing future international space exploration goals, the exploration of the Moon during the coming decades represents a particularly appealing objective. The Moon provides a unique venue for exploration and discovery—including the science of the Moon (e.g., geological studies), science from the Moon (e.g., astronomical observatories), and science on the Moon (including both basic research, such as biological laboratory science, and applied research and development, such as the use of the Moon as a test bed for later exploration). The Moon may also offer long-term opportunties for utilization—including Earth observing applications and commercial developments. During the coming decade, robotic lunar exploration missions will play a particularly important role, both in their own right and as precursors to later, more ambitious human and robotic exploration and development efforts. The following paper discusses some of the issues and opportunities that may arise in establishing plans for future robotic lunar exploration. Particular emphasis is placed on four specific elements of future robotic infrastructure: Earth Moon in-space transportation systems; lunar orbiters; lunar descent and landing systems; and systems for long

  14. Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA): Issues and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanin, Thomas, Ed.

    This report presents relevant policy research, historical perspective, and an agenda of major issues involved in the complex process of reauthorizing the Higher Education Act (HEA). Like many other federal laws, the HEA is not permanent. It expires on September 30, 2004, and this expiration requires that the 108th Congress consider extending or…

  15. Greenhouse gases mitigation options and strategies for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Mwandosya, M.J.; Meena, H.E.

    1996-12-31

    Tanzania became a party to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UN FCCC) when she ratified the Convention in March, 1996. Now that Tanzania and other developing countries are Parties to the UN FCCC, compliance with its provisions is mandatory. The legal requirements therefore provide a basis for their participation in climate change studies and policy formulation. All parties to the Convention are required by Article 4.1 of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) to develop, periodically update, publish, and make available national inventories of anthropogenic emissions and removal of greenhouse gases that are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. This study on possible options for the mitigation of greenhouse gases in Tanzania is a preliminary effort towards the fulfilment of the obligation. In order to fulfil their obligations under the UN FCCC and have a meaningful mitigation assessment, identification and quantification of anthropogenic sources of atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases in the country was undertaken. In this respect, the study of anthropogenic emissions by source and removals by sink of GHGs in Tanzania was done with the main objective of increasing the quantity and quality of base-line data available in order to further scientific understanding of the relationship of greenhouse gas emissions to climate change. Furthermore, the study facilitated identification of national policy and technological options that could reduce the level of emissions in the country.

  16. TOPEX satellite concept. TOPEX option study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. P.; Case, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Candidate bus equipment from the Viking, Applications Explorer Mission, and Small Scientific Satellite programs for application to the TOPEX mission options is assessed. Propulsion module equipment and subsystem candidates from the Applications Explorer Mission satellites and the Small Scientific Satellite spacecraft are evaluated for those TOPEX options. Several subsystem concepts appropriate to the TOPEX options are described. These descriptions consider performance characteristics of the subsystems. Cost and availability information on the candidate equipment and subsystems are also provided.

  17. Automatic Extraction of JPF Options and Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luks, Wojciech; Tkachuk, Oksana; Buschnell, David

    2011-01-01

    Documenting existing Java PathFinder (JPF) projects or developing new extensions is a challenging task. JPF provides a platform for creating new extensions and relies on key-value properties for their configuration. Keeping track of all possible options and extension mechanisms in JPF can be difficult. This paper presents jpf-autodoc-options, a tool that automatically extracts JPF projects options and other documentation-related information, which can greatly help both JPF users and developers of JPF extensions.

  18. Novel Treatment Options for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Adam; Hurley, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Fecal incontinence (FI) is a devastating condition affecting a substantial portion of the population. The etiologies of FI are wide ranging, as are the treatment options. When conservative measures fail, often surgical intervention is required. As in any area where a wide range of treatment options exist, there is no one perfect solution. Fortunately, novel treatment options for FI are becoming available, namely, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, magnetic anal sphincter, stem cell transplant, pyloric transplantation, and acupuncture. PMID:25320572

  19. Natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma and current treatment options.

    PubMed

    Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2008-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent primary liver cancer and the most severe complication of chronic liver disease. The annual number of new cases worldwide is approximately 550,000, representing more than 5% of human cancers and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The stages of the malignancy as well as the severity of the underlying liver disease are essential factors in planning the therapeutic approach. Curative treatment options are represented mainly by surgery (ie, resection or transplantation), but most patients are not candidates for a curative option, and only palliative treatment could be given to these patients. Among palliative treatments, only chemoembolization has been proven to be effective, but other options are currently being investigated. Major risk factors for HCC are well known and are dependent on the geographic area. In Europe, the United States, and Japan, the main risk factors are liver cirrhosis, hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol, and tobacco; in contrast, in Africa and Asia, these factors are hepatitis B and C virus, tobacco use, and aflatoxin exposure. Cirrhosis from any cause is a predisposing factor for HCC and could be considered as a premalignant condition. The present concept of carcinogenesis in HCC is a multistage process. This article describes the natural history of HCC and discusses the various treatment options available at present.

  20. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…