Medical anthropological research on science, biotechnology, and religion has focused on the “local moral worlds” of men and women as they make difficult decisions regarding their health and the beginnings and endings of human life. This paper focuses on the local moral worlds of infertile Muslims as they attempt to make, in the religiously correct fashion, Muslim babies at in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics in Egypt and Lebanon. As early as 1980, authoritative fatwas issued from Egypt’s famed Al-Azhar University suggested that IVF and similar technologies are permissible as long as they do not involve any form of third-party donation (of sperm, eggs, embryos, or uteruses). Since the late 1990s, however, divergences in opinion over third-party gamete donation have occurred between Sunni and Shi’ite Muslims, with Iran’s leading ayatollah permitting gamete donation under certain conditions. This Iranian fatwa has had profound implications for the country of Lebanon, where a Shi’ite majority also seeks IVF services. Based on three periods of ethnographic research in Egyptian and Lebanese IVF clinics, this paper explores official and unofficial religious discourses surrounding the practice of IVF and third-party donation in the Muslim world, as well as the gender implications of gamete donation for Muslim marriages. PMID:17051430
The scene for this paper is set in the USA immediately post-9/11 when the meaning of nation shifted dramatically, in turn shaping Muslim American identity. I examine Muslim American undergraduate women's performance of immigrant, gendered, youthful, Muslim and American identities. The findings are framed within symbolic interactionist, Foucauldian…
Barnes, Susan Kubic
Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…
Nanji, Michelle Mojgan
The Muslim population in the United States has faced numerous challenges in the aftermath of September 11th, including increased negative portrayal of Muslims in the media. While there is increased understanding that the social environment in the US has become more Islamophobic, there is little research in applied psychology fields to understand…
Shea, Jan Fisher
This booklet was designed to aid parents in making things at home to develop their newborn to 2-year-old children's skills. Suggested are easy-to-make visual stimuli for infants up to 6 weeks of age and 6 weeks to 3 months of age. For the latter, tactile stimuli also are considered. For infants 3 to 6 months of age, objects providing visual,…
America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1% of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Many Muslim students face discrimination and some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. Muslim groups have reported widespread bias as well. For many Muslim…
This paper is a report of a study of how nurses at a national telephone triage centre in England (NHS Direct) make different use of the algorithms and organizational protocols to make decisions and give advice to parents with crying babies, how their clinical knowledge and experience influences these decisions, and the techniques used to enhance parental coping ability. Parents of persistently crying babies state that they need to be listened to, understood, believed and reassured to help them cope. Nurses at NHS Direct use their clinical judgement in decision-making, and see the software as a guide that can be both valuable and problematic. The study design was influenced by grounded theory and incorporated discourse and thematic analysis. It had two phases involving data collection and analysis over the period 2002-2006. A theoretical sample of 11 calls was analysed and later a focus group of six nurses at the same site. NHS Direct nurses used the 'crying baby' algorithm in various ways, influenced by their experience and confidence to use the algorithm to support their clinical knowledge. Its medical elements were regarded as safe but its non-medical elements, including questions about the likelihood of shaking a child, were treated differently. Nurses were reluctant to deviate from the algorithm when dealing with child-focused calls. However, this reluctance did not apply when they were prompted to ask the caller if they felt that they were reaching a point where they might shake their baby, or when prompted to give related advice.
Kridli, Suha Al-Oballi
There are clear exemptions in Islam from fasting in Ramadan during sickness, pregnancy, and breastfeeding. Yet, some Muslim women still elect to fast while sick, pregnant, or breastfeeding because of a confluence of social, religious, and cultural factors. Little is known about the physiological effects of fasting during Ramadan on the mother or her unborn baby, and thus nurses and other healthcare providers are faced with the difficult task of providing appropriate medical advice to Muslim women regarding the safety and impact of their fasting. This article describes what is known about this topic and suggests that healthcare professionals learn as much as possible about the multicultural best practices and research-driven information about fasting in order to help Muslim women make informed decisions.
Merrill, Sarah; Britt, Donna
The authors discuss three steps to helping babies with transitions: observe, ask, and respond (OAR). They advise teachers about how to ask a family questions about their baby and how to give the family suggestions to alleviate the baby's stress, without offending family members. This column includes a list of recommended resources. (Contains 7…
Brase, Gary L; Brase, Sandra L
Baby fever-a visceral physical and emotional desire to have a baby-is well known in popular culture, but has not been empirically studied in psychology. Different theoretical perspectives suggest that desire for a baby is either superfluous to biological sex drives and maternal instincts, a sociocultural phenomenon unrelated to biological or evolutionary forces, or an evolved adpatation for regulating birth timing, proceptive behavior, and life history trajectories. A series of studies (involving 337 undergraduate participants and 853 participants from a general population Internet sample) found that: (a) a simple scale measure could elicit ratings of desire frequency; (b) these ratings exhibited significant sex differences; (c) this sex difference was distinct from a general desire for sexual activity; and (d) these findings generalize to a more diverse online population. Factor analyses of ratings for desire elicitors/inhibitors identified three primary factors underlying baby fever. Baby fever appears to be a real phenomenon, with an underlying multifactorial structure.
America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1 percent of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Anecdotally, educators know that many Muslim students face discrimination. Unfortunately, no group or government agency keeps statistics on the subject. But some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of…
Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is it safe to hold a baby in a baby sling? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. A baby sling — a one-shouldered baby ... sling's weight minimum before placing your newborn in it. Keep your baby's airways unobstructed. Make sure your ...
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. A Citizens' Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens' Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Fourteen young people aged 16-19 in Wales. Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose-specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents' age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term 'designer baby' was not useful. Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision-making processes.
Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; Manniën, Judith; Ghaly, Mohammed M; Verhoeven, Pieternel S; Hutton, Eileen K; Reinders, Hans S
to explore what role religious beliefs of pregnant Muslim women play in their decision-making on antenatal screening, particularly regarding congenital abnormalities and termination, and whether their interpretations of the religious doctrines correspond to the main sources of Islam. qualitative pilot study using in-depth interviews with pregnant Muslim women. one midwifery practice in a medium-sized city near Amsterdam participated in the study. 10 pregnant Muslim women of Turkish origin who live in a high density immigrant area and who attended primary midwives for antenatal care were included in the study. to explore the role of religion in decision-making on antenatal screening tests, a topic list was constructed, including four subjects: being a (practising) Muslim, the view on unborn life, the view on disabled life and the view on termination. To analyse the interviews, open and axial coding based on the Grounded Theory was used and descriptive and analytical themes were identified and interpreted. all 10 interviewees stated that their faith played a role in their decision-making on antenatal screening, specific to the combined test. They did not consider congenital anomalies as a problem and did not consider termination to be an option in case of a disabled fetus. However, the Islamic jurisprudence considers that termination is allowed if the fetus has serious abnormalities, but only before 19 weeks plus one day of gestation. religious convictions play a role regarding antenatal screening in pregnant Muslim women of Turkish origin. The interviewees did not consider a termination in case of an affected child. Women were unaware that within Islamic tradition there is the possibility of termination if a fetus has serious anomalies. Incomplete knowledge of religious doctrines may be influencing both decisions of antenatal screening and diagnostic tests uptake and of terminating a pregnancy for fetuses with serious anomalies. counsellors should be aware of the
Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shahbari, Nour Abed Elhadi
This study focused on decision-making on terminating pregnancy for Arab Muslim women in Israel who were pregnant with fetuses diagnosed with congenital anomalies. It examined the impact of the doctor-patient interaction on the women's decision, especially in light of social and religious pressures not to terminate under any circumstances. Our goal was to identify perceptions and attitudes of Muslim Arab women who choose to continue their pregnancy following the detection of congenital anomalies in prenatal tests. Specific objectives included (1) To examine the Muslim Arab women's perceptions on genetic testing, and ascertain the reasons for their decision to continue the pregnancy following the detection of a congenital anomaly in the fetus; and (2) To examine risk communication of gynecologists regarding genetic testing and abortions, and regarding the decision of continuing or terminating a pregnancy following detection of a congenital anomaly. The research framework used the constructivist classical qualitative method to understand the experience of women at high risk for congenital anomalies and their experience of how doctors communicate the risk. It showed that the emotional element is no less dominant than religious and social elements. The findings emphasized the disparities between doctors and women regarding emotional involvement (non-directive counselling). The women interviewees (N = 24) felt that this expressed insensitivity. As far as we know, the emotional component has not been raised in previous studies of Muslim women at high risk for congenital defects in their fetus, and therefore comprises a significant contribution of the present study. To mitigate gaps, doctors should take affect into consideration in their communication with patients. It is important for doctors to understand the emotional element in risk communication, both in how they respect women's emotions and in creating an emotional interaction between themselves and the women.
Hamman, Mary Kathryn
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children receive six well-baby visits between ages 1 month and 1 year, yet by age 14 months less than 10% of infants have received all six visits. Cost sharing under public and private insurance is very low. Low compliance rates despite the low cost of care suggest other factors, such as time costs, may be important. This paper examines the relationship between maternal employment and receipt of well-baby care. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey contains rich information on use of preventive care, maternal employment, and other economic and non-economic factors that may influence care decisions. Several approaches, including a proxy variable strategy and instrumental variables analysis, are used to attempt to address the potential endogeneity of maternal employment and examine the sensitivity of findings. Findings indicate mothers who work full-time take their children to 0.18 fewer visits (or 9% fewer at the mean) than those who have quit their jobs. Mothers with employer provided paid vacation leave take their children to 0.20 more visits (or 9% more at the mean) than other working mothers. Time appears to be an important factor in determining well-baby care receipt. Policies that extend paid leave to more employed women may improve compliance with preventive care recommendations.
The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.
Stern, Alexandra Minna
In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard-Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, "race betterment," and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing.
Stern, Alexandra Minna
In 1920, Indiana's Division of Infant and Child Hygiene inaugurated its first Better Babies Contest at the state fair. For the next 12 years, these contests were the centerpiece of a dynamic infant and maternal welfare program that took shape in Indiana during the decade of the federal Sheppard–Towner act. More than just a lively spectacle for fairgoers, these contests brought public health, “race betterment,” and animal breeding together in a unique manner. This article describes one of the most popular expressions of public health and race betterment in rural America. It also raises questions about the intersections between hereditarian and medical conceptions of human improvement during the early 20th century, especially with respect to child breeding and rearing. PMID:11988439
Iredale, Rachel; Longley, Marcus; Thomas, Christian; Shaw, Anita
Abstract Background Young people will increasingly have the option of using new technologies for reproductive decision making but their voices are rarely heard in debates about acceptable public policy in this area. Capturing the views of young people about potentially esoteric topics, such as genetics, is difficult and methodologically challenging. Design A Citizens’ Jury is a deliberative process that presents a question to a group of ordinary people, allows them to examine evidence given by expert witnesses and personal testimonies and arrive at a verdict. This Citizens’ Jury explored designer babies in relation to inherited conditions, saviour siblings and sex selection with young people. Participants Fourteen young people aged 16–19 in Wales. Results Acceptance of designer baby technology was purpose‐specific; it was perceived by participants to be acceptable for preventing inherited conditions and to create a child to save a sibling, but was not recommended for sex selection. Jurors stated that permission should not depend on parents’ age, although some measure of suitability should be assessed. Preventing potential parents from going abroad was considered impractical. These young people felt the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority should have members under 20 and that the term ‘designer baby’ was not useful. Conclusions Perspectives on the acceptability of this technology were nuanced, and based on implicit value judgements about the extent of individual benefit derived. Young people have valuable and interesting contributions to make to the debate about genetics and reproductive decision making and a variety of innovative methods must be used to secure their involvement in decision‐making processes. PMID:16911135
Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H
Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post
Contemporary global events of the War on Terror, the War on ISIS, and the United States contentious relationship with Muslim societies make it crucial to teach about Islam and Muslims in school. However, negative representations of Islam and Muslims often impede this process. Overcoming these challenges is critical for the development of…
Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.
Rodkey, Elissa N
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk's famous visual cliff experiment is one of psychology's classic studies, included in most introductory textbooks. Yet the famous version which centers on babies is actually a simplification, the result of disciplinary myth-making. In fact the visual cliff's first subjects were rats, and a wide range of animals were tested on the cliff, including chicks, turtles, lambs, kid goats, pigs, kittens, dogs, and monkeys. The visual cliff experiment was more accurately a series of experiments, employing varying methods and a changing apparatus, modified to test different species. This paper focuses on the initial, nonhuman subjects of the visual cliff, resituating the study in its original experimental logic, connecting it to the history of comparative psychology, Gibson's interest in comparative psychology, as well as gender-based discrimination. Recovering the visual cliff's forgotten menagerie helps to counter the romanticization of experimentation by focusing on the role of extrascientific factors, chance, complexity, and uncertainty in the experimental process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Khalil, Aliaa; Buffin, Rachel; Sanlaville, Damien; Picaud, Jean-Charles
The development of human milk banks in Muslim countries is challenging because of the tradition of milk kinship. In other countries, this tradition imposes restrictions on Muslim mothers with regard to donating their milk or receiving donor milk for their preterm baby. However, Muslim law does allow the use of donated human milk under certain conditions, for example if it comes from a single known donor or is pooled from the milk of at least three donors. Muslim parents need to be made aware that human milk banks can be used for preterm babies if strict conditions are met. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kass, Leon R.
This article discusses the ethical issues involved in research on human "in vitro" fertilization, laboratory experimentation with human embryos, and the intrauterine transfer of such embryos for the purpose of assisting human reproduction. (Author/MC)
Schechter, Daniel S.
This article summarizes the scant existing research on the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mothers and their babies during the peripartum period and describes a pilot research project within the Infant-Family Service (IFS) at the New York-Presbyterian Hospital, an outpatient mental health service for inner-city families with…
al-Naqeeb, N A; Azab, A; Eliwa, M S; Mohammed, B Y
Breast milk donation (wet-nursing) for full-term babies is a well-known practice in Kuwait, but it has never been organized formally in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for preterm babies. Donor milk banking as conducted in Western society is not considered to be ethical in Muslim society, where the milk donor and the recipient are required to know each other. Human milk is known to decrease the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis; improve host defenses, digestion, absorption of nutrients, gastrointestinal function, and neurodevelopment of the child; and contribute to maternal physical and psychological well-being. A culturally accepted approach to donor milk banking is proposed as a means of overcoming the ethical issues surrounding milk donation in Muslim society. This report addresses the first step in raising awareness of the valuable contribution of donor milk to preterm babies and the organization of human milk donation for use in an NICU.
High-profile claims about the problem of the 'Baby Boomer' generation, made in media and policy circles in recent years, have contributed to an awakened interest in the sociology of generations. While many claims focus on resource issues arising from the existence of a relatively large cohort (for example, pensions and healthcare), they contain an implicit moral critique of the generation associated with the postwar 'boom' of the Sixties. This article examines the development of the cultural script of the Baby Boomer problem in British newspapers over a 26-year period, to examine how shifts in the discourse about the Boomer generation relate to wider social, economic, cultural and political trends. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.
Dorall, R F
This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between
Bari, Muhammad Abdul
The Islamic and Western worlds have rarely been at ease with one another. In the Middle Ages, Christians travelled from Europe to the Middle East to wrestle the holy lands from Muslim control. Muslims, meanwhile, conquered much of Spain and in 1683 were knocking on the door of Vienna. Throughout history there has been mistrust between the Western and Islamic worlds - a situation made much worse in recent years by the invasion of Iraq and terrorist attacks on New York, London and elsewhere.
Bradshaw, Debbie; Chopra, Mickey; Kerber, Kate; Lawn, Joy E; Bamford, Lesley; Moodley, Jack; Pattinson, Robert; Patrick, Mark; Stephen, Cindy; Velaphi, Sithembiso
South Africa is one of the few developing countries with a national confidential inquiry into maternal deaths. 164 health facilities obtain audit data for stillbirths and neonatal deaths, and a new audit network does so for child deaths. Three separate reports have been published, providing valuable information about avoidable causes of death for mothers, babies, and children. These reports make health-system recommendations, many of which overlap and are intertwined with the scarcity of progress in addressing HIV/AIDS. The leaders of these three reports have united to prioritise actions to save the lives of South Africa's mothers, babies, and children. The country is off-track for the health-related Millennium Development Goals. Mortality in children younger than 5 years has increased, whereas maternal and neonatal mortality remain constant. This situation indicates the challenge of strengthening the health system because of high inequity and HIV/AIDS. Coverage of services is fairly high, but addressing the gaps in quality and equity is essential to increasing the number of lives saved. Consistent leadership and accountability to address crosscutting health system and equity issues, and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, would save tens of thousands of lives every year. Audit is powerful, but only if the data lead to action.
Muslims are folk-devils that mark the ubiquitous moral panic. For some, the idea of the "Muslim problematic" signifies a long and worrying trend of creeping "Islamification" of state schools. For others, the discourse of the "Muslim problematic" reflects the ongoing racial patholigisation of Britain's minoritised…
... for Educators Search English Español Bringing Your Baby Home KidsHealth / For Parents / Bringing Your Baby Home What's ... recall your baby's seemingly endless crying episodes. The Home Front Introducing your baby to others at home ...
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
In this article I ask a seemingly simple question--How can a Muslim be a liberal citizen? In order to explore this question I define who and what was indexed by the term "Muslim" at various points in United States history. I argue that the figure of the Muslim has existed as an existential other upon which otherness, violence, and…
Aroian, Karen J.
Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…
Moore, Leslie C.
Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…
Boucher, Nathan A; Siddiqui, Ejaz A; Koenig, Harold G
Religion is an important part of many patients’ cultural perspectives and value systems that influence them during advanced illness and toward the end of life when they directly face mortality. Worldwide violence perpetrated by people identifying as Muslim has been a growing fear for people living in the US and elsewhere. This fear has further increased by the tense rhetoric heard from the recent US presidential campaign and the new presidential administration. For many, this includes fear of all Muslims, the second-largest religious group in the world with 1.6 billion adherents and approximately 3.5 million in the US alone. Patient-centered care requires health professionals to look past news headlines and unchecked social media so they can deliver high-quality care to all patients. This article explores areas of importance in the context of advanced illness for practitioners of Islam. These include the conditions needed for prayer, the roles of medical treatment and religious authority, the importance of modesty, the religious concordance of clinicians, the role of family in medical decision making, advance care planning, and pain and symptom management. Initial recommendations to optimize care for Muslim patients and their families, informed by the described tenets of Muslim faith, are provided for clinicians and health systems administrators. These include Islamic cultural awareness training for staff, assessment of patients and families to determine needs, health education and decision-making outreach, and community health partnerships with local Islamic institutions. PMID:28609264
Dean, Marleah; Rauscher, Emily A
Women who test positive for a BRCA genetic mutation are at an increased risk for developing hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and have a 50% chance of passing on their genetic mutation to their children. The purpose of this study was to investigate how women who test positive for a BRCA mutation but have not been diagnosed with cancer make decisions regarding family planning. Analysis of interviews with 20 women revealed they engage in logical and emotional decision-making styles. Although women want to be logical to reduce their hereditary cancer risk, emotions often complicate their decision-making. Women experience fear and worry about a future cancer diagnosis, yet also desire to create a family, particularly having children through natural conception. That is, women negotiate having preventative surgeries in a logical doctor-recommended timeframe but also organize those decisions around emotional desires of motherhood. Overall, this study demonstrates the complex decisions women who test positive for a BRCA mutation must make in regards to genetic testing timing, family planning, and overall quality of life.
... by-color guide for newborns: Black or dark green. After birth, a baby's first bowel movements are ... of baby poop is known as meconium. Yellow-green. As the baby begins digesting breast milk, meconium ...
... prefold diapers) a container of warm water and cotton balls (for babies with sensitive skin) or a ... ability to roll. Wiping Using the wet washcloth, cotton balls, or baby wipes, gently wipe your baby ...
... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...
Afrouz, Rojan; Crisp, Beth R; Taket, Ann
Women from different backgrounds and cultures are at risk of domestic violence. Disclosing the abusive experience and seeking help is not straightforward and easy and might be a complicated and long-term process. Muslim women, like other groups of women, may face various barriers to disclose abusive relationships and for seeking help. Some of the barriers may be common for the majority of Muslim women in different contexts, while others might be related to women's situations and the wider society they live. To identify these barriers and make recommendations for future studies, this article reviews related papers conducted in both Muslim-majority and non-Muslim-majority countries. A critical systematic review of the literature was conducted for identifying Muslim women's barriers in disclosing abuse and seeking help. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The main identified barriers are discussed into under four themes: social context, family context, individual factors, and expectations of service providers. Although the researchers tried to investigate various barriers in seeking help, many of them have not focused on structural obstacles. Besides, in many Muslim-majority countries, the issue has not been explored. Therefore, the results of the current article will not apply to those countries. Recommendation for future research comprises more qualitative research compatible with the women's cultures and backgrounds in different societies, focusing more on structural and cultural factors to explore and find women's barriers to seek help.
It is widely accepted in academia and state policies that recent years have seen an increasing stress on publicly enacted Muslim identity in Britain and in many other parts of the world. Less recognised is the fact that many among those who call themselves Muslims do not share religion as a predominant identity-attribute for themselves. Such…
This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…
Since 9/11, the lives of some Muslim students, and those perceived to be Muslim, have changed across the country, shaped in part by the distrust and harassment Muslims have endured from fellow Americans. In the months immediately following the attacks, accounts of harassment of Muslim students mounted in the news media, as did efforts by Muslim…
In June, NASA plans to launch the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) to survey the ancient radiation in unprecedented detail. MAP will map slight temperature fluctuations within the microwave background that vary by only 0.00001 C across a chilly radiation that now averages 2.73 C above absolute zero. The temperature differences today point back to density differences in the fiery baby universe, in which there was a little more matter here and a little less matter there. Areas of slightly enhanced density had stronger gravity than low-density areas. The high-density areas pulled back on the background radiation, making it appear slightly cooler in those directions.
This paper describes two studies about the determinants of attitudes to pre-implantation genetic screening in a multicultural sample of medical students from the United States. Sample sizes were 292 in study 1 and 1464 in study 2. Attitudes were of an undifferentiated nature, but respondents did make a major distinction between use for disease prevention and use for enhancement. No strong distinctions were made between embryo selection and germ line gene manipulations, and between somatic gene therapy and germ line gene manipulations. Religiosity was negatively associated with acceptance of "designer baby" technology for Christians and Muslims but not Hindus. However, the strongest and most consistent influence was an apparently moralistic stance against active and aggressive interference with natural processes in general. Trust in individuals and institutions was unrelated to acceptance of the technology, indicating that fear of abuse by irresponsible individuals and corporations is not an important determinant of opposition.
Mason, Mary Ann; Goulden, Marc
Even though women make up nearly half of the PhD population, they are not advancing at the same rate as men to the upper ranks of the professoriate; many are dropping out of the race. Our first "Do Babies Matter?" article, published in the November-December 2002 issue of Academe, examined the effect of family formation on academic careers. It was…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.
We examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. We make two contributions. First, we present a conceptual model, which has been lacking in the…
Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.
The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…
Inhorn, Marcia C; Serour, Gamal I
Islam is the world's second largest religion, representing nearly a quarter of the global population. Here, we assess how Islam as a religious system shapes medical practice, and how Muslims view and experience medical care. Islam has generally encouraged the use of science and biomedicine for the alleviation of suffering, with Islamic authorities having a crucial supportive role. Muslim patients are encouraged to seek medical solutions to their health problems. For example, Muslim couples who are infertile throughout the world are permitted to use assisted reproductive technologies. We focus on the USA, assessing how Islamic attitudes toward medicine influence Muslims' engagement with the US health-care system. Nowadays, the Arab-Muslim population is one of the fastest growing ethnic-minority populations in the USA. However, since Sept 11, 2001, Arab-Muslim patients--and particularly the growing Iraqi refugee population--face huge challenges in seeking and receiving medical care, including care that is judged to be religiously appropriate. We assess some of the barriers to care--ie, poverty, language, and discrimination. Arab-Muslim patients' religious concerns also suggest the need for cultural competence and sensitivity on the part of health-care practitioners. Here, we emphasise how Islamic conventions might affect clinical care, and make recommendations to improve health-care access and services for Arab-Muslim refugees and immigrants, and Muslim patients in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . ... health educators. GO Your baby's shots Learn about vaccines that help keep baby healthy. GO News Moms ...
... is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can easily lead ...
... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...
... baby. Sometimes your baby may awaken because of gas — simply picking your little one up to burp ... a day of continued crying) might also have gas from swallowing too much air during crying spells, ...
... a Member Home Resources & Services Professional Resource Baby Brain Map Mar 17, 2016 The Brain Map was adapted in 2006 by ZERO TO ... supports Adobe Flash Player. To view the Baby Brain Map, please visit this page on a browser ...
... of swallowing too much air while crying. Some theories suggest that colic happens when food moves too ... baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's ...
For the baby's clothes you will need: One-piece sleepers (4 to 6). Gown-types are the easiest for changing diapers and cleaning baby up. Mittens for the baby's hands to keep them from ... daytime outfits that snap (easiest for changing diapers ...
Sirois, M L; Darby, M; Tolle, S
Healthcare providers who understand the basic pillars of Islamic beliefs and common religious practices can apply these concepts, anticipate the needs of the Muslim patient and family, and attract Muslim patients to the practice. Cross cultural knowledge can motivate dental hygienists to adopt culturally acceptable behaviors, strengthen patient-provider relationships and optimize therapeutic outcomes. Trends in Muslim population growth, Islamic history and beliefs, modesty practices, healthcare beliefs, contraception, childbearing, childrearing, pilgrimage, dietary practices, dental care considerations and communication are explained. This paper reviews traditional Muslim beliefs and practices regarding lifestyle, customs, healthcare and religion as derived from the literature and study abroad experiences. Recommendations are offered on how to blend western healthcare with Islamic practices when making introductions, appointments, eye contact, and selecting a practitioner. The significance of fasting and how dental hygiene care can invalidate the fast are also discussed. The ultimate goal is for practitioners to be culturally competent in providing care to Muslim patients, while keeping in mind that beliefs and practices can vary widely within a culture. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Lou, Alina; Hammoud, Maya
To investigate Muslim women's attitudes concerning Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and determine how healthcare providers can better serve this population. A cross-sectional study targeted Muslim patients with active obstetric records within the University of Michigan Health System who received care at clinics in metro Detroit (MI, USA) during Ramadan in 2013. Patients aged 18-50 years were approached between July 7 and August 15, and asked to complete a written survey on perceptions of fasting, influences on decision making, and healthcare expectations. Among the 37 women who completed the survey, 26 (70%) did not fast in their current or most recent pregnancy during Ramadan. Overall, 23 (62%) women believed that fasting was harmful to themselves, their fetus, or both. Seven (19%) women reported consulting others about fasting during pregnancy, with the most influential individuals being Muslim scholars, followed by family/relatives and healthcare providers. The most important characteristics desired in a physician included being respectful of Islamic beliefs and possessing knowledge about Ramadan. Most women chose not to fast during pregnancy. Although few consulted healthcare providers, pregnant Muslim women valued their opinions. Healthcare providers need to educate themselves about which topics to discuss with Muslim patients to provide care on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…
Explores whether public schools can accommodate the religious needs of Muslim students. Provides background information on the migration of Muslims to the United States from the Middle East and on Islamic beliefs and practices. Identifies the various needs and challenges in adapting the schools to fit Muslim students' lifestyle and religious…
Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy
A number of Muslim countries have stepped up plans for revising school textbooks as part of the continuing U.S. driven campaign to combat terrorism. Critics maintain that the efforts are superficial and that the books continue to portray dangerous stereotypes and promote extremist views. Some books for religious and social sciences classes in use…
the spirituality and vitality of the rooted, human, national cultures of Germans and other ‘authentic’ peoples” (Lewis 2003, 70 ). Lewis further...Eventually, cinema and later television brought the American way of life, or a certain version of it, to millions of Arab Muslims. Simultaneously, a wide...
... feeding, please see our CPF booklet and video series, Feeding Your Baby . An infant born with a cleft lip and/or palate should be ready to eat solid foods at the same time as any other baby. Foods should be offered ...
Many women quit smoking when they become pregnant. However, about 40 percent start smoking again 6 months after they have their baby. Quitting smoking has benefits for you and your baby that last longer than the 9 months of your pregnancy.
... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse × What research is being done? The National ... baby syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus Child Abuse See More About Research The National Institute ...
States share the same characteristics as any other immigrant group coming to America looking for a chance at prosperity. Immigrants form close...populations. Muslims in the United States share the same characteristics as any other immigrant group coming to America looking for a chance at prosperity...The characteristics of extremist ideology attract and repel potential participants. The discussion of the role of the ideological movements is
Ahmad, Mirza Masroor
Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...
Interviewed British Muslim adolescent boys and girls regarding their views on Muslim girls' education and employment, addressing how students understood notions of post-16 choice through themes of culture, change, identity, and inequality. Boys tended to construct young Muslim women in passive terms, believing that girls' post-16 participation was…
Bawany, Mohammad H; Padela, Aasim I
Hymenoplasty, commonly called "revirginization," is a controversial procedure that pushes the scope of medical practice to satisfy cultural and/or religious "needs." To outline the sociocultural contexts underlying patient requests for hymenoplasty and present Islamic juridical views on the moral status of hymenoplasty for Muslim patients. Narrative review of the extant bioethics literature and leading Islamic ethico-legal verdicts. We identified "Western" and Islamic bioethical debates on hymenoplasty and the critical concepts that underpin ethical justifications for and against the procedure. From a Western-ethics perspective, the life-saving potential of the procedure is weighed against the role of the surgeon in directly assisting in a deception and in indirectly promoting cultural practices of sexual inequality. From an Islamic bioethical vantage point, jurists offer two opinions. The first is that the surgery is always impermissible. The second is that although the surgery is generally impermissible, it can become licit when the risks of not having postcoital bleeding harm are sufficiently great. Patient requests for hymenoplasty should be approached by surgeons with a willingness to understand patients' social contexts and reasons for pursuing the procedure and are ethically justified by leading Islamic jurists in particular circumstances. This article presents emic and etic perspectives on hymenoplasty in Muslim patients, although our review of the Islamic bioethical stances might have missed some juridical opinions and important considerations. Further, Muslims, even devout ones, might not be beholden to Islamic juridical views on medical procedures and thus physicians should not make assumptions about the rationale for, and ethical views of, patients seeking hymenoplasty. This article provides critical insight into how Muslim patients, and Islamic jurists, evaluate the moral contexts of hymenoplasty. Bawany MH, Padela AI. Hymenoplasty and Muslim Patients
... and fragrances that can irritate skin. Note: Cloth diapers do need to be separated from your regular laundry because harsh detergents can cause diaper rash . Wash these with mild baby detergent in ...
Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.
Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)
... choking and those with little nutritional value. Choking Hazards Parents and caregivers can help prevent choking by ... the baby during eating. Foods that are choking hazards include: pieces of raw vegetables or hard fruits ...
... bit first. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends sponge baths until the umbilical cord stump falls off — ... week or two. To give your baby a sponge bath, you'll need: A warm place with ...
... preterm babies with a minimum birth weight of 2000 grams (about 4 lbs., 6 oz.) be treated ... immunization schedule. If birth weight is less than 2000 g, the AAP recommends administering the hepatitis B ...
... Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and text description ... 2AZh9Bn Supporting research to better understand sleep-related deaths and strategies to improve safe sleep practices. Healthcare ...
... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Can Baby Hear? Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table ... to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD). Prior to this, the average age ...
... comfort in knowing that the drone of the engines usually limits how far a crying baby can ... the tympanic membrane, or ear drum. Experiencing a difference in pressure across this membrane causes a sensation ...
... occurs in babies when the pores of the sweat glands become blocked. This happens most often when ... weather is hot or humid. As your infant sweats, little red bumps, and possibly tiny blisters, form ...
... Environment? Babies Need Tummy Time! FAQs Myths and Facts Campaign Materials Explore the Campaign Key Moments in Campaign History Outreach Activities The Science of SIDS and Safe Infant Sleep Collaborators and ...
... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of breastfeeding? Breastfeeding gives you and your baby time to ... Basics: Common Questions If you are worried about breastfeeding, you aren't alone. It's normal to have ...
... meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs Pets, such as dogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, and lizards. Soil Washing ... Not able to keep anything down due to vomiting In these cases, take your baby to a ...
Honig, Alice Sterling
By three to four months of age, most babies placed on their tummies on a safe, warm surface push down with their arms and raise their chests, so that they can turn their heads to look about at the world around them. By five months, babies stretch both feet and hands upward in order to swipe at interesting mobiles placed overhead. At seven to nine…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in The Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim participants were less in favor of freedom of speech if it involved the offending of religious beliefs and were more in favor of Muslim minority rights. There were also cross-group gender differences whereby parental practices that negatively affect females were more strongly rejected by Muslim females than by Muslim males and non-Muslim females and males. The findings are discussed with reference to social-cognitive domain theory and intergroup theories.
Kabir, Nahid Afrose
Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…
Sibley, Chris G.; Osborne, Danny; Bulbulia, Joseph
News coverage of Islamic extremism is reigniting debates about the media’s role in promoting prejudice toward Muslims. Psychological theories of media-induced prejudice date to the 1950’s, and find support from controlled experiments. However, national-scale studies of media effects on Muslim prejudice are lacking. Orthogonal research investigating media-induced prejudice toward immigrants has failed to establish any link. Moreover, it has been found that people interpret the news in ways that confirm pre-existing attitudes, suggesting that media induced Muslim prejudice in liberal democracies is unlikely. Here, we test the association between news exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice in a diverse national sample from one of the world’s most tolerant societies, where media effects are least likely to hold (N = 16,584, New Zealand). In support of media-induced Islamophobia, results show that greater news exposure is associated with both increased anger and reduced warmth toward Muslims. Additionally, the relationship between media exposure and anti-Muslim prejudice does not reliably vary with political ideology, supporting claims that it is widespread representations of Muslims in the news, rather than partisan media biases, that drives anti-Muslim prejudice. PMID:28362823
Ali, Arshad Imtiaz
Reflecting upon a decade of research with Muslim youth across the United States, this article highlights the fears and concerns Muslim communities have expressed in the wake of Donald Trump's 2016 U.S. presidential victory. In explicating the concerns expressed by these youth, the author examines the context of Trump's rise and its relationship to…
There is good reason to believe that anti-Semitism is rife in Muslim communities across the world. Consequently, one might expect that teaching the Holocaust in schools with a substantial Muslim presence would prove a difficult and stressful experience. In this article, I draw on a diverse body of literature to argue for a more nuanced approach to…
Moore, Charles Guy
Presenting the Baby Boom (1946-1965) as both a potential social problem and opportunity for American leadership, this monograph discusses the following aspects of this population concern: (1) its immediate and long-term impact on career opportunities for those college graduates who make up the baby boom generation; (2) its impact on those whose…
Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J
Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.
discussed earlier in Chapter III, use of this head covering, typically the hijab is a controversial issue in many Western states. France has the...voluntarily adopted the hijab , these women are making a statement that they are proud of their Muslim heritage. They are demonstrating an act of...Muslims must make a conscious effort to adapt their own individual beliefs to the environment in which they find themselves. The hijab is one
Erkan, Serdar; Walker, Keith D.
The purpose of this article is to examine the perceptions and experiences of fairness amongst Muslim post-secondary students based on our gathering of data using a web-based survey. The participants, 189 Muslim students, were reached via student organizations, national and local Muslim organizations, and Muslim student groups organized on…
In this article, I offer a qualitative study of three spaces created by and for young Muslim women in Toronto, Canada: an after-school drop-in programme for Muslim girls, a Somali women's group and a Muslim women's collective. I focus on data gathered from interviews of seven Muslim women in their 20s who created the spaces, which offered refuge…
Muishout, George; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Wiegers, Gerard; Popp-Baier, Ulrike
Muslim norms concerning palliative sedation can differ from secular and non-Muslim perceptions. Muslim physicians working in a Western environment are expected to administer palliative sedation when medically indicated. Therefore, they can experience tension between religious and medical norms. To gain insight into the professional experiences of Muslim physicians with palliative sedation in terms of religious and professional norms. Interpretative phenomenological study using semi-structured interviews to take a closer look at the experiences of Muslim physicians with palliative sedation. Data were recorded, transcribed and analysed by means of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Ten Muslim physicians, working in the Netherlands, with professional experience of palliative sedation. Two main themes were identified: professional self-concept and attitudes towards death and dying. Participants emphasized their professional responsibility when making treatment decisions, even when these contravened the prevalent views of Islamic scholars. Almost all of them expressed the moral obligation to fight their patients' pain in the final stage of life. Absence of acceleration of death was considered a prerequisite for using palliative sedation by most participants. Although the application of palliative sedation caused friction with their personal religious conceptions on a good death, participants followed a comfort-oriented care approach corresponding to professional medical standards. All of them adopted efficient strategies for handling of palliative sedation morally and professionally. The results of this research can contribute to and provide a basis for the emergence of new, applied Islamic ethics regarding palliative sedation.
Gellerson, Daphne; Hornsby, Paige P; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie A; Bressler, Colleen J; Burns, Whitney R; Friedman, Caroline F; Vaughn, Natalie H; Marshall, Stephanie P; Marshall, Trisha L; Park, Jennie; Kellams, Ann
This study surveyed the prevalence of bottle versus breastfeeding graphic images on products marketed for pregnant mothers and young children available for purchase in national chain stores. This was a product survey/content analysis. Eighteen national chain stores located in a 10-mile radius of Charlottesville, VA were visited. In total, 2,670 individual items in 11 categories of baby shower and baby gift merchandise (shower invitations, greeting cards, gift wrap, shower decorations, baby dolls, baby books, infant clothing, bibs, nursery decorations, baby blankets, and disposable diapers) were assessed. The main outcome measures were prevalences of baby bottle and breastfeeding graphic images. Baby bottle images were found on products in eight of the 11 categories of items surveyed. Thirty-five percent of baby dolls were marketed with a baby bottle. The prevalence of bottle images on items in all other categories, however, was low. Of the 2,670 items surveyed, none contained a breastfeeding image. The low prevalence of baby bottle images on commonly purchased baby gift and baby shower items is encouraging. However, the absence of breastfeeding images and the relatively high prevalence of baby dolls marketed with a baby bottle demonstrate that breastfeeding is not portrayed as the physiologic norm on these products. Product designers should explore ways to promote breastfeeding, consumers should make informed choices in product selection, and advocacy groups should promote guidelines for these products.
Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne; Pichl, Elmar; Wallner, Bernard; Seidler, Horst
For modern Western societies with a regime of monogamy, it has recently been demonstrated that the socioeconomic status of men is positively associated with being or having been married. This study aims to compare marriage patterns (if a person has been married at least once) for cultures with a tradition of monogamy and polygyny. As no worldwide data on polygyny exist, religion was used as a proxy for monogamy (Christians) vs polygyny (Muslims). The analyses were based on 2000-2011 census data from 39 countries worldwide for 52,339,594 men and women, controlling for sex, sex ratio, age, education, migration within the last 5 years and employment. Overall, a higher proportion of Muslims were married compared with Christians, but the difference in the fraction of married men compared with married women at a certain age (the 'marriage gap') was much more pronounced in Muslims than in Christians, i.e. compared with Christians, a substantially higher proportion of Muslim women than men were married up to the age of approximately 31 years. As expected for a tradition of polygyny, the results indicate that the socioeconomic threshold for entering marriage is higher for Muslim than Christian men, and Muslim women in particular face a negative effect of socioeconomic status on the probability of ever being married. The large 'marriage gap' at a certain age in Muslim societies leads to high numbers of married women and unmarried young men, and may put such polygenic societies under pressure.
Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O
The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Baby Healthy. Washington, DC: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center. A Healthy Smile for Your Baby: ... Healthy © 2009 by the National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center, Georgetown University. Fourth printing. This publication ...
... Size Email Print Share Protecting Your Baby from RSV Page Content Article Body RSV is the most ... Your Baby's Chances of Developing a More Serious RSV Infection: Having people wash their hands with warm ...
... but the process of getting your baby to sleep during the day can be just the opposite. ... It takes awhile for newborns to develop a sleep schedule. During the first month, babies usually sleep ...
... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...
... Quality Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems ... to our health educators. GO On your baby's team Meet the people caring for your baby in ...
... infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies and infants; Formula feeding - babies and infants ... You can see milk leaking or dripping while nursing. Your baby starts to gain weight; about 4 ...
Ghuman, Sharon J
In this article, I evaluate the hypothesis that higher infant and child mortality among Muslim populations is related to the lower autonomy of Muslim women using data from 15 pairs of Muslim and non-Muslim communities in India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Women's autonomy in various spheres is not consistently lower in Muslim than in non-Muslim settings. Both across and within communities, the association between women's autonomy and mortality is weak, and measures of autonomy or socioeconomic status are generally of limited import for understanding the Muslim disadvantage in children's survival.
Church, Martha Jo; And Others
Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…
"No Baby Left Behind" was created to have an impact on the school readiness of children in the community today and in the future. Each year, there are an increasing number of students who have learning difficulties. Many of these problems are preventable. Accidents, poor nutrition (of the mother and/or child), drug use, alcohol use, and lack of…
... for intimate relationships and foster a sense of security and positive self-esteem . And parents' responsiveness to an infant's signals can affect the child's social and cognitive development. Why Is Bonding Important? Bonding is essential for a baby. Studies of ...
Bachleda, Amelia R.; Thompson, Ross A.
Babies think differently than adults, and understanding how they think can help us see their explosive brain growth in everyday behavior. Infants learn language faster than adults do, use statistics to understand how the world works, and even reason about the minds of others. But these achievements can be hidden by their poor self-regulatory…
A baby eagle perches in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.
Two baby eagles perch in a nest in a tree along State Road 3 at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The center shares a border with the 140,000-acre Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge. More than 330 native and migratory bird species, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles call Kennedy and the wildlife refuge home.
Zerguini, Yacine; Ahmed, Qanta A; Dvorak, Jiri
Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic faith characterised by devotional orthopraxy. The actions expected of followers of Islam are closely prescribed in the Qur'an. Muslims understand Ramadan as a mandatory requirement, excused only in the event of illness, infirmity or extremes of age. Due to the increasing popularity of football among Muslims, more and more Muslim football players of all levels make the decision to follow the Ramadan fast while they need to practise and compete. Sports medicine clinicians and scientists have the responsibility to provide them with the knowledge and evidence on how exactly Ramadan fasting impacts on their performance and how to optimise their eating, drinking and sleeping in order to minimise negative effects of their religious practice, should any have been demonstrated. The first International Federation of Football Associations (FIFA) Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) study concluded that biochemical, nutritional, subjective well-being and performance variables were not adversely affected in young male national level players who followed Ramadan fasting in a controlled environment. Match performance was however not measured and the study did not include elite level players, leading to the Ramadan consensus meeting in order to answer the remaining questions. The conclusions and recommendations published in this supplement suggest that the best coping strategies will remain individual - as is the choice to fast.
Engel-Smothers, Holly; Heim, Susan M.
With more than 100 billion neurons that would stretch more than 60,000 miles, a newborn baby's brain is quite phenomenal! These neurons must generally form connections within the first eight months of a baby's life to foster optimal brain growth and lifelong learning. Mommies, daddies, and caregivers are extremely vital to ensuring babies reach…
... place? With equipment designed for infants and medical staff specially trained in newborn care, the NICU is ... without having to repeatedly stick the baby. NICU staff try to make the infants' stay in the ...
Tariq, Shema; Elford, Jonathan; Tookey, Pat; Anderson, Jane; de Ruiter, Annemiek; O'Connell, Rebecca; Pillen, Alexandra
UK guidance advises HIV-positive women to abstain from breast feeding. Although this eliminates the risk of postnatal vertical transmission of HIV, the impact of replacement feeding on mothers is often overlooked. This qualitative study examines, for the first time in the UK, decision-making about infant feeding among African women living with HIV. Between 2010 and 2011, we conducted semistructured interviews with 23 HIV-positive African women who were pregnant or had recently given birth. We recruited participants from three HIV antenatal clinics in London. Women highlighted the cultural importance of breast feeding in African communities and the social pressure to breast feed, also describing fears that replacement feeding would signify their HIV status. Participants had significant concerns about physical and psychological effects of replacement feeding on their child and felt their identity as good mothers was compromised by not breast feeding. However, almost all chose to refrain from breast feeding, driven by the desire to minimise vertical transmission risk. Participants' resilience was strengthened by financial assistance with replacement feeding, examples of healthy formula-fed children and support from partners, family, peers and professionals. The decision to avoid breast feeding came at considerable emotional cost to participants. Professionals should be aware of the difficulties encountered by HIV-positive women in refraining from breast feeding, especially those from migrant African communities where breast feeding is culturally normative. Appropriate financial and emotional support increases women's capacity to adhere to their infant-feeding decisions and may reduce the emotional impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Emeagwali, N. Susan
A 2005 MetLife Foundation/Civic Ventures New Face of Work Survey found that many baby boomers are eager to make career changes that can launch a new chapter in their working lives while they make social contribution. The survey found that 50 percent of Americans age 50 to 70 want jobs that contribute to the greater good. It found that more than 53…
Currie, Thayne; Grady, Carol
What did our solar system look like in its infancy,...... when the planets were forming? We cannot travel back in time to take an image of the early solar system, but in principle we can have the next best thing: images of infant planetary systems around Sun-like stars with ages of 1 to 5 million years, the time we think it took for the giant planets to form. Infant exoplanetary systems are critically important because they can help us understand how our solar system fits within the context of planet formation in general. More than 80% of stars are born with gas- and dust-rich disks, and thus have the potential to form planets. Through many methods we have identified more than 760 planetary systems around middle-aged stars like the Sun, but many of these have architectures that look nothing like our solar system. Young planetary systems are important missing links between various endpoints and may help us understand how and when these differences emerge. Well-known star-forming regions in Taurus, Scorpius. and Orion contain stars that could have infant planetary systems. But these stars are much more distant than our nearest neighbors such as Alpha Centauri or Sirius, making it extremely challenging to produce clear images of systems that can reveal signs of recent planet formation, let alone reveal the planets themselves. Recently, a star with the unassuming name LkCa 15 may have given us our first detailed "baby picture" of a young planetary system similar to our solar system. Located about 450 light-years away in the Taurus starforming region. LkCa 15 has a mass comparable to the Sun (0.97 solar mass) and an age of l to 5 million years, comparable to the time at which Saturn and perhaps Jupiter formed. The star is surrounded by a gas-rich disk similar in structure to the one in our solar system from which the planets formed. With new technologies and observing strategies, we have confirmed suspicions that LkCa 15's disk harbors a young planetary system.
Ahmad, Mahjabeen; Khan, Shamsul
Spirituality's influence on general well-being and its association with healthy ageing has been studied extensively. However, a different perspective has to be brought in when dealing with spirituality issues of ageing Muslims. Central to this perspective is the intertwining of religion and spirituality in Islam. This article will contribute to the understanding of the nature of Islamic spirituality and its immense importance in the life of a practicing ageing Muslim. Consequently, it will help care providers to include appropriate spiritual care in the care repertoire of a Muslim care recipient. It is assumed that the framework for a model of spirituality based on Islamic religious beliefs would help contextualise the relationship between spirituality and ageing Muslims. Not only challenges, but also the opportunities that old age provides for charting the spiritual journey have underpinned this model.
Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A
Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.
Hadden, D R
The concept of prediabetes has come to the fore again with the worldwide epidemic of Type 2 diabetes. The careful observations of W. P. U. Jackson and his colleagues in Cape Town, South Africa 50 years ago still deserve attention. Maternal hyperglycaemia cannot be the only cause of fetal macrosomia, and the pathophysiological reason for the unexplained stillbirth in late diabetic pregnancy still eludes us. The biochemical concepts of 'facilitated anabolism' and 'accelerated starvation' were developed by Freinkel as explanations of the protective mechanisms for the baby during the stresses of pregnancy. Some of these nutritional stresses may also occur in the particular form of early childhood malnutrition known in Africa as kwashiorkor, where subcutaneous fat deposition, carbohydrate intolerance, islet hyperplasia and sudden death may follow a period of excess carbohydrate and deficient protein intake. Different feeding practices in different parts of the world make comparisons uncertain, but there is evidence for insulin resistance in both the macrosomic fetus of the hyperglycaemic mother and in the child with established kwashiorkor. These adaptive changes in early development may play both a physiological and a pathological role. Worldwide studies of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy are gradually establishing acceptable diagnostic criteria, appropriate screening procedures and an evidence base for treatment. Nevertheless the challenge of prediabetes and the big baby is still with us--in Jackson's words--'diabetes mellitus is a fascinating condition-the more we know about it the less we understand it'.
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.
Hamzeh, Manal Z.; Oliver, Kimberly
This paper explores the process of gaining research access into the lives of Muslim girls in the southwest USA. We discuss four emerging "entry markers" that challenged the process of gaining and sustaining access over a period of 14 months. These included being Muslim enough, being modest enough, "inshallah" ("Allah"…
Verkuyten, Maykel; Slooter, Luuk
An experimental questionnaire study, conducted in the Netherlands, examined adolescents' reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Muslim minority and non-Muslim majority adolescents (12-18 years) made judgments of different types of behaviors and different contexts. The group membership of participants had a clear effect. Muslim…
Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an "interventions tournament" to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The "winning" intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims-but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)-for individual group members' actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior.
Blank, Robert H.
Advances in technology are not only changing human reproduction but raising perplexing questions of law and ethics. The reproduction-aiding technologies are discussed and possible scenarios for the future are described. (Author/RM)
Notes that infants and toddlers are particularly vulnerable to hazards around the home or child-care center. Explains how caregivers can protect children from the potential hazards of buckets and bathtubs; buttons, balloons, and bottle caps; stoves and heaters; firearms; stairs and stools; medicines, cleaners, and paint; cords; doors; and other…
Suggests that the trend toward detracking and inclusion in schools is socio-politically motivated. Rebuts arguments that tracking is racist and damages self-esteem and identifies harmful effects of heterogeneous grouping. Concludes that tracking and ability grouping have a place in education. (SK)
... uterus. One option is to rest in the child’s pose for 10 to 15 minutes. A second option is to gently rock back and forth on your hands and knees. You also can make circles with your pelvis to promote activity. Music: Certain sounds may appeal to your baby. Place ...
Bloomer, Melissa J; Al-Mutair, Abbas
Australia is a diverse and multicultural nation, made up of a population with a predominant Christian faith. Islam, the second largest religion in the world, has demonstrated significant growth in Australia in the last decade. Coming from various countries of origin and cultural backgrounds, Muslim beliefs can range from what is considered 'traditional' to very 'liberal'. It is neither possible nor practical for every intensive care clinician to have an intimate understanding of Islam and Muslim practices, and cultural variations amongst Muslims will mean that not all beliefs/practices will be applicable to all Muslims. However, being open and flexible in the way that care is provided and respectful of the needs of Muslim patients and their families is essential to providing culturally sensitive care. This discussion paper aims to describe the Islamic faith in terms of Islamic teachings, beliefs and common practices, considering how this impacts upon the perception of illness, the family unit and how it functions, decision-making and care preferences, particularly at the end of life in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne
Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283
Carbaugh, Suzanne Franklin
Health care professionals involved in the care of infants are in an ideal position to identify and to educate families, the public, and other health care professionals about the risk factors, dangers, and consequences of infant shaking. The purpose of this article is to review the incidence, biomechanics, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and prognosis of shaken baby syndrome (SBS), as well as to encourage involvement in SBS prevention through the use of a family teaching tool. Education is essential to decrease the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of SBS.
Fermilab’s first director, Robert Wilson, established the bison herd in 1969 as a symbol of the history of the Midwestern prairie and the laboratory’s pioneering research at the frontiers of particle physics. The herd remains a major attraction for families and wildlife enthusiasts. A herd of pure bison is a natural fit for a prairie ecosystem, like the kind that exists on the Fermilab site. Fermilab hosts 1,100 acres of reconstructed tall-grass prairie. A baby bison was born at Fermilab on April 20, 2017. Here is that story.
Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro
The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.
This research explores the maternal and career progression decisions of different generations of women professors in Canada. Nineteen women, interviewed in-depth, reveal how they carefully plan childbearing and childrearing experiences around their demanding work schedules, by having May babies or posttenure babies. Results demonstrate the need…
Keddie, Nikki R.
Traces the history of Muslim women from ancient times to the present. Discusses the practice of veiling and its significance. Compares the status of women before and after the Qur'an. Delineates the class differences between Muslim women. Analyzes Muslim women under Islamic law, concentrating on laws governing marriage, sex, and divorce. (RW)
Laird, Lance Daniel; de Marrais, Justine; Barnes, Linda L
The growing number and diversity of Muslims in the United States and Western Europe challenge clinicians and researchers to understand this population's perspectives and experiences regarding health and biomedicine. For information about Muslim patient populations, clinicians and researchers routinely consult medical literature. To examine how this literature portrays Muslims, we conducted an ethnographic content analysis of 2342 OVID MEDLINE-indexed abstracts from 1966 through August 2005, derived from a Boolean search for "islam or muslim or muslims." Manifest (explicitly stated) themes included Muslim religious practices, Islamic law and ethics, history of Islamic medicine, public health, social medicine, and cultural competence. Latent (underlying) themes implied that being an observant Muslim poses health risks; Muslims are negatively affected by tradition, and should adopt modernity; and that "Islam" is a problem for biomedical healthcare delivery. A countervailing latent theme implies that being Muslim may promote good health. We discuss ambiguities in uses of the term "Muslim;" implications of Muslim practices for health management and healthcare delivery; and ways in which MEDLINE-indexed literature intersects with orientalist and colonialist discourse about religious Others. Such intersections highlight connections with potential structural inequalities in healthcare delivery to Muslim patients.
There are currently over 100 independent and seven state-funded Muslim schools in Britain yet their place within the British education system remains a hotly debated issue. This article argues that Muslim mobilisations for the institutional and financial incorporation of more Muslim schools into the national framework are best understood as an…
transition within Egypt . Numerous studies have examined the Muslim Brotherhood’s political ideology to objectively assess its consistency with...within Egypt . This thesis will attempt to fill that gap by subjectively measuring the Muslim Brotherhood’s democratic intentions as perceived by... Egypt . Numerous studies have examined the Muslim Brotherhood’s political ideology to objectively assess its consistency with democracy. However
Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah
Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…
Baggerly, Jennifer; Abugideiri, Salma Elkadi
This article describes Sunni Muslims' view of death, mourning and burial rituals, and accepted healing practices. Interventions for addressing death with Muslim children, group counseling, play therapy, and community outreach are discussed. A case study of interventions for coping with a preschool Muslim boy's death is provided.
Shah, Sayyed Farooq; Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; ud-Din, Miraj; Shahzad, Saqib; Ullah, Irfan
The major purpose of this article was to disclose the quality of education in the Muslim world and try to clarify the misperceptions in the West and in the Muslim world about Islamic education. It also tries to highlight the efforts of Islamic scholars in filling the gaps between them. Education in the Muslim world and Islamic education have…
... studies are needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides organic seals for products that contain various percentages of organic ingredients — but the USDA makes no claims or guarantees that organic foods ...
... the baby. This can seem scary to new parents. They are not hurting the baby. Some tubes and wires are connected to monitors. They check the baby's breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature at all times. A tube through ...
Fingerman, Karen L; Pillemer, Karl A; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J Jill
As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65-75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42-60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3-5 years from 1985 to 2005. These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers' personal values, family members' needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future.
Mefodiev, A. V.; Kudenko, Yu. G.; Mineev, O. V.; Khotjantsev, A. N.
The main objective of the Baby-MIND detector (Magnetized Iron Neutrino Detector) is the study of muon charge identification efficiency for muon momenta from 0.3 to 5 GeV/ c. This paper presents the results of measurement of the Baby-MIND parameters.
... Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Growth: 5 Months What's ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical ...
... Search English Español Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Growth: 3 Months What's ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical ...
Iqbal, Javed; Hardaker, Glenn; Sabki, Aishah Ahmad; Elbeltagi, Ibrahim
This paper is grounded in a qualitative approach, to call forth the views of Muslim teenage girls on their access and use of learning technologies for inclusive educational practice. The 45 Muslim teenage girls, aged 14-19 years old, from three British Muslim girls schools participated in this empirical study. Semi-structured interviews were used…
Robison, Steve G
Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.
Oberoi, Ashmeet Kaur; Trickett, Edison J
Islamic norms and Islamophobia present unique challenges for Muslim adolescents in Western countries. For Muslim students, even "secular" public schools are not a religion-free space because their religious beliefs and values are central in their manner of living. To inquire more about these issues, an exploratory sequential design mixed-method study was conducted that included focus groups and a survey addressing the public school experiences of Muslim adolescents in a Midwestern state in the United States and how those experiences are related to their academic achievement, educational aspirations, and psychological adjustment. Overall, the findings characterize this study's sample as coping well in the school context in terms of academic achievement, high educational expectations, and relatively low levels of psychological distress. However, those who experience greater frequency and severity of hassles at school report higher levels of psychological distress. In particular, the frequency of hassles associated with representing Islam, limited English competency, relations with both Muslim and non-Muslim peers, and religious discrimination at school related to increased distress. Together, these findings suggest the importance of considering both individual and ecological determinants of wellbeing for Muslim adolescents. The findings also suggest the importance of looking more carefully at the sample, context, and time when the data were collected before making generalizations within or across cultural and/or religious groups. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn
Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.
Al-Mateen, Cheryl S
This article reviews the basic tenets of Islam, the second-most populous religion in the world. The practice of Islam can be affected by ethnic and cultural factors; therefore, the influence of various cultures (such as Arab, Pakistani, and African American) as seen in practice with Muslim children and their families is discussed.
This article appreciates Muhammad as an educator based on the primary sources of Islam with a view to establish teaching as a "sunnah" (practice) of Muhammad in particular and of other messengers in general. In so doing it advocates a reconceptualization for prospective and contemporary Muslim teachers. Consequently such a stance then becomes a…
Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad
The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans.
Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht
A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…
Basit, Abdul; Hamid, Mohammad
The underpinning of all research leading to various schools of thought in the field of psychiatry and psychology is without doubt a product of Western professionals who represent the religio-cultural traditions, historical symbols, and narratives of Western society. Also, the major schools of psychotherapy emerged during an era of individualism and logical positivism reflecting the religious, ethical, and cultural heritage that has shaped the modern Western society. Consequently, the methods and techniques developed in the West may not be always suitable and effective for Muslim Americans. To respond to the growing needs of psychiatric problems encountered by Muslim Americans, many community social service centers have been established in the United States during the past two decades. We now have a growing body of research data suggesting how to tailor our field to the specific needs of this population. We will discuss what kind of emotional and psychiatric problems are most prevalent in Muslim Americans and explain the therapeutic approaches mental health professionals have used and the treatment strategies which have been found effective in the psychosocial rehabilitation of Muslim Americans. PMID:23864761
This article reports on the imprisonment of a Muslim former student on charges related to terrorism that has struck a chord among academics and public intellectuals. Syed Fahad Hashmi, a 28-year-old naturalized U.S. citizen born in Pakistan, is being held in solitary confinement at the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan, on multiple…
Schlein, Candace; Chan, Elaine
This article discusses the findings of a study examining the challenges and opportunities of supporting Muslim students in secular public schools. Education is explored as a multifaceted interplay between home and family life, community resources, school programs and policies, and classroom lessons to investigate the curricular experiences of…
Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu
This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…
This paper considers the consequences that modernization has had on Islamic education in Thailand among the minority Muslim population. The major themes include: (1) an account of how modern secular developments were incorporated and combined with political policies established by Thai authorities as a nation-building device; (2) the consequences…
Holtz, Peter; Dahinden, Janine; Wagner, Wolfgang
Based on five focus groups (total N = 56) with German Muslims, we analyze discourses on the experience of discrimination and feelings of national and religious attachment. The focus groups took place in mid to late 2010 in four German cities. Whereas only few participants describe personal discrimination by non-Muslim Germans, almost all participants complain about being collectively discriminated and rejected. This perception triggers processes of confirming their original cultural identity, primarily their Muslim affiliation and of strengthening the boundary towards the wider society. The analysis of the discourse shows the participants to fall back into an essentialized way of thinking that makes their ethnic being incompatible with being German; and they resort to their Muslim roots as a cultural resource for identity construction and self-worth. Others cope with their feeling of rejection by engaging in local politics and sports activities that allows them to attribute themselves a hyphenated identity as Turkish-Germans. The findings are discussed in terms of social identity, psychological essentialism, transnationalized religion, and boundary making.
Gennari, Marialuisa; Giuliani, Cristina; Accordini, Monica
This study aims to study the attitudes towards Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in a group of Muslim immigrants. To this end, six focus-groups were conducted involving 42 first-generation Muslim immigrants (21 males and 21 females) from Pakistan, Egypt and Morocco. Focus groups transcripts were then analyzed using the software ATLAS.ti. Irrespectively of nationality, couples replicate relational models learnt in their country of origin, implying a rigid gender-based role division. Women are considered less socially competent if compared to men and therefore in need of protection. Divorce is possible only in case of severe danger: women have to stand beside their husbands and maintain family unity. Even though they are not directly related to IPV, these factors may be key in determining its onset and perpetration. With regards to ethnic background, Pakistani interviewees not only seem to acknowledge the possible occurrence of violence within couple relationships, they also accept it as a mean to regulate socially dysfunctional behaviors. Both Moroccan males and females denounce the impact of post migration stressors as potential triggers of IPV. The distance from one’s family of origin in migration is perceived as problematic by both men and women, however, while males’ distance from their kin might make them feel overwhelmed with family responsibilities and give way to deviant behaviors, women suffer from the lack of support and protection by their extended family. Implications for practice are also discussed. PMID:29358982
Gattinoni, Luciano; Pesenti, Antonio
The "baby lung" concept originated as an offspring of computed tomography examinations which showed in most patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome that the normally aerated tissue has the dimensions of the lung of a 5- to 6-year-old child (300-500 g aerated tissue). The respiratory system compliance is linearly related to the "baby lung" dimensions, suggesting that the acute respiratory distress syndrome lung is not "stiff" but instead small, with nearly normal intrinsic elasticity. Initially we taught that the "baby lung" is a distinct anatomical structure, in the nondependent lung regions. However, the density redistribution in prone position shows that the "baby lung" is a functional and not an anatomical concept. This provides a rational for "gentle lung treatment" and a background to explain concepts such as baro- and volutrauma. From a physiological perspective the "baby lung" helps to understand ventilator-induced lung injury. In this context, what appears dangerous is not the V(T)/kg ratio but instead the V(T)/"baby lung" ratio. The practical message is straightforward: the smaller the "baby lung," the greater is the potential for unsafe mechanical ventilation.
Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nafstad, Per; Magnus, Per
To estimate the effect of baby swimming in the first 6 months of life on respiratory diseases from 6 to 18 months. We used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in children born between 1999 and 2005 followed from birth to the age of 18 months (n = 30,870). Health outcomes: lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), wheeze and otitis media between 6 and 18 months of age. baby swimming at the age of 6 months. The effect of baby swimming was estimated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. About 25% of the children participated in baby swimming. The prevalence of LRTI was 13.3%, wheeze 40.0% and otitis media 30.4%. Children who were baby swimming were not more likely to have LRTI, to wheeze or to have otitis media. However, children with atopic mothers who attended baby swimming had an increased risk of wheeze, adjusted odds ratios (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI 1.11, 1.39), but not LRTI or otitis media. This was also the case for children without respiratory diseases before 6 months aOR 1.08 (95%CI 1.02-1.15). Baby swimming may be related to later wheeze. However, these findings warrant further investigation.
Bundey, S; Alam, H; Kaur, A; Mir, S; Lancashire, R J
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of consanguinity on children's health. DESIGN--The study is a prospective survey from birth to five years of a cohort of babies born in a multiracial community. This report details the initial findings on consanguinity. SETTING--Participating families live predominantly in three health districts of Birmingham, and were recruited in three local maternity hospitals. PARTICIPANTS--Babies of 2432 European mothers, 509 Afro-Caribbean mothers, 625 Indian mothers, 956 Pakistani mothers, and 216 Bangladeshi mothers have been enrolled in the study. Eighty mothers refused to participate. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS--Sociodemographic information was obtained using a structured questionnaire administered at interview. Interview data were supplemented with obstetric information from the medical records. The highest prevalence of parental consanguinity was in Pakistani Muslims (69%), whereas in Muslims from other countries it was 23%, and it was less than 1% in non-Muslims. In the majority of consanguineous Muslim pedigrees the degree of inbreeding was greater than that for first cousin parents. CONCLUSIONS--This prospective study will allow an assessment to be made about any ill health in childhood arising from parental consanguinity, about whether screening programmes are indicated for particular autosomal recessive diseases, and about whether premarital health education might be beneficial. The study has also documented parental ages in different races and this, together with the levels of parental consanguinity in all races, will be useful in genetic methods for assessing the frequency of recessive genes, the possibility of genetic heterogeneity, and whether or not parental age effect exists for new mutations of specific genetic disorders. PMID:2370500
Riverin, Bruno; Li, Patricia; Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Rourke, James
Abstract Objective To update the 2011 edition of the Rourke Baby Record (RBR) by reviewing current best evidence on health supervision of infants and children from birth to 5 years of age. Quality of evidence The quality of evidence was rated with the former (until 2006) Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care classification system and GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Main message New evidence has been incorporated into the 2014 RBR recommendations related to growth monitoring, nutrition, education and advice, development, physical examination, and immunization. Growth is monitored with the World Health Organization growth charts that were revised in 2014. Infants’ introduction to solid foods should be based on infant readiness and include iron-containing food products. Delaying introduction to common food allergens is not currently recommended to prevent food allergies. At 12 months of age, use of an open cup instead of a sippy cup should be promoted. The education and advice section counsels on injuries from unstable furniture and on the use of rear-facing car seats until age 2, and also includes information on healthy sleep habits, prevention of child maltreatment, family healthy active living and sedentary behaviour, and oral health. The education and advice section has also added a new environmental health category to account for the effects of environmental hazards on child health. The RBR uses broad developmental surveillance to recognize children who might be at risk of developmental delays. Verifying tongue mobility and patency of the anus is included in the physical examination during the first well-baby visit. The 2014 RBR also provides updates regarding the measles-mumps-rubella, live attenuated influenza, and human papillomavirus vaccines. Conclusion The 2014 RBR is the most recent update of a longstanding evidence-based, practical knowledge translation tool with related Web-based resources
'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.
This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
... first feeding. In fact, the initial phase of breastfeeding is a learning process for both mother and baby. Some newborns show little initial interest in nursing. Fortunately, newborns do not need much fluid, and ...
... they leave the hospital for home. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) What It Is: ROP is an eye ... sometimes seen in preterm babies include anemia of prematurity (a low red blood cell count) and heart ...
Lee, S J; Nelson, L P; Lin, J; Tom, F; Brown, R S; Jones, J A
We are constantly reminded of the exploding elderly population and the increasing demand to meet their needs. But do we fully understand and appreciate the impact that this fastest-growing segment of the population will have upon our profession? Whether we realize it or not, today's dental student is training for tomorrow's elderly baby boomer. The baby boomer generation is 76 million strong, representing 19 years worth of births spanning from 1946-1964. That makes the oldest baby boomer 55 years old and the youngest 37 years old. What does this all mean? That from 2011-2030, the age group of 65 years of age and older will make up approximately 22% of the population, vastly changing our patient population, not to mention a significant increase in patient load. The future holds promise for not only a busy career, but also potentially a financially rewarding one as well. To some extent, we are all going to be geriatric clinicians. There is little doubt that there will be a great demand for services in restorative dentistry, prosthodontic dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral surgery, and perhaps orthodontics. As the baby boomers benefited from fluoride and sanitation, more people have been able to maintain their dentition and health into their older years. Dental students graduating today will be only beginning the prime of their careers as the baby boomers make their introduction in full force in the year 2011.
This book explores the educational needs of Muslim children. Based on 6 years of research into the educational needs of Muslim children, the discussion highlights the perceptions of both Muslim and non-Muslim teachers. Beginning with an historical overview of Muslim communities in Britain, Chapter 1 addresses issues concerning statistics and…
Jäykkä, Juha; Speight, Martin
The baby Skyrme model is studied with a novel choice of potential, V=(1)/(2)ϕ32. This “easy plane” potential vanishes at the equator of the target two-sphere. Hence, in contrast to previously studied cases, the boundary value of the field breaks the residual SO(2) internal symmetry of the model. Consequently, even the unit charge Skyrmion has only discrete symmetry and consists of a bound state of two half lumps. A model of long-range inter-Skyrmion forces is developed wherein a unit Skyrmion is pictured as a single scalar dipole inducing a massless scalar field tangential to the vacuum manifold. This model has the interesting feature that the two-Skyrmion interaction energy depends only on the average orientation of the dipoles relative to the line joining them. Its qualitative predictions are confirmed by numerical simulations. Global energy minimizers of charges B=1,…,14,18,32 are found numerically. Up to charge B=6, the minimizers have 2B half lumps positioned at the vertices of a regular 2B-gon. For charges B≥7, rectangular or distorted rectangular arrays of 2B half lumps are preferred, as close to square as possible.
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three studies: (a) the Within Family Differences Study (WFDS) of mothers aged 65–75 and their multiple grown children (primarily Baby Boomers) ongoing since 2001; (b) the Family Exchanges Study (FES) of Baby Boomers aged 42–60, their spouses, parents, and multiple grown children ongoing since 2008; and (c) the Longitudinal Study of Generations (LSoG) of 351 three-generation families started when the Baby Boomers were teenagers in 1971, with interviews every 3–5 years from 1985 to 2005. Results: These studies show that the Baby Boomers in midlife navigate complex intergenerational patterns. The WFDS finds aging parents differentiate among Baby Boomer children in midlife, favoring some more than others. The FES shows that the Baby Boomers are typically more involved with their children than with their aging parents; Boomers’ personal values, family members’ needs, and personal rewards shape decisions about support. The LSoG documents how divorce and remarriage dampen intergenerational obligations in some families. Moreover, loosening cultural norms have weakened family bonds in general. Implications: Reviews of these studies provide insights into how the Baby Boomers may negotiate caregiving for aging parents as well as the likelihood of family care they will receive when their own health declines in the future. PMID:22250130
Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd
Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.
countries that inhabit large parts of the vast area ranging from Morocco to Malaysia , and from Turkmenistan to Nigeria. In addition, in many Western...is why this book, just like Adolf Hitler’s “Mein Kampf”, must be banned .”38 His words clearly resonated, because in that same year Wilders was...Turkey, Indonesia, and Malaysia , which work fairly well.45 Furthermore, many in the Muslim world agree that political freedom, liberty, and freedom of
Iqbal, Fareed; Zaman, Shafquat; Karandikar, Sharad; Hendrickse, Charles; Bowley, Douglas M
Intestinal stomas are common. Muslims report significantly lower quality of life following stoma surgery compared to non-Muslims. A fatwā is a ruling on a point of Islamic law according to a recognised religious authority. The use of fatawās to guide health-related decision-making has becoming an increasingly popular practice amongst Muslims, regardless of geographic location. This project aimed to improve the quality of life of Muslim ostomates by addressing faith-specific stoma concerns. Through close collaboration with Muslim ostomates, a series of 10 faith-related questions were generated, which were posed to invited local faith leaders during a stoma educational event. Faith leaders received education concerning the realities of stoma care before generating their fatawās. The event lead to the formulation of a series of stoma-specific fatawās representing Hanafi and Salafi scholarship, providing faith-based guidance for Muslim ostomates and their carers. Enhanced communication between healthcare providers and Islamic faith leaders allows for the delivery of informed fatawās that directly benefit Muslim patients and may represent an efficient method of improving health outcomes in this faith group.
Wiebe, Ellen; Najafi, Roya; Soheil, Naghma; Kamani, Alya
Abstract Objective To improve understanding of the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Design Exploratory study in which participants completed questionnaires about their attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Setting Two urban, free-standing abortion clinics. Participants Fifty-three self-identified Muslim patients presenting for abortion. Main outcome measures Women’s background, beliefs, and attitudes toward their religion and toward abortion; levels of anxiety, depression, and guilt, scored on a scale of 0 to 10; and degree of pro-choice or anti-choice attitude toward abortion, assessed by having respondents identify under which circumstances a woman should be able to have an abortion. Results The 53 women in this study were a diverse group, aged 17 to 47 years, born in 17 different countries, with a range of beliefs and attitudes toward abortion. As found in previous studies, women who were less pro-choice (identified fewer acceptable reasons to have an abortion) had higher anxiety and guilt scores than more pro-choice women did: 6.9 versus 4.9 (P = .01) and 6.9 versus 3.6 (P = .004), respectively. Women who said they strongly agreed that abortion was against Islamic principles also had higher anxiety and guilt scores: 9.3 versus 5.9 (P = .03) and 9.5 versus 5.3 (P = .03), respectively. Conclusion Canadian Muslim women presenting for abortion come from many countries and schools of Islam. The group of Muslim women that we surveyed was so diverse that no generalizations can be made about them. Their attitudes toward abortion ranged from being completely pro-choice to believing abortion is wrong unless it is done to save a woman’s life. Many said they found their religion to be a source of comfort as well as a source of guilt, turning to prayer and meditation to cope with their feelings about the abortion. It is important that physicians caring for Muslim women understand that their patients come from a variety of
this protection. Joel S. Fetzer and J. Christopher Soper , Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany. (New York: Cambridge University...Press, 2005), 16. 3 Joel S. Fetzer and J. Christopher Soper , Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany. (New York: Cambridge University...Oxford University Press, 2006), 5. 5 Fetzer and Soper , Muslims and the State, 3. 6 Ibid. 3 This concern developed as they settled permanently in
Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy
Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J(*)(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula.
Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Haque, Ikramul; Ravesh, Zeinab; Romero, Irene Gallego; Meganathan, Poorlin Ramakodi; Dubey, Bhawna; Khan, Faizan Ahmed; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy
Islam is the second most practiced religion in India, next to Hinduism. It is still unclear whether the spread of Islam in India has been only a cultural transformation or is associated with detectable levels of gene flow. To estimate the contribution of West Asian and Arabian admixture to Indian Muslims, we assessed genetic variation in mtDNA, Y-chromosomal and LCT/MCM6 markers in 472, 431 and 476 samples, respectively, representing six Muslim communities from different geographical regions of India. We found that most of the Indian Muslim populations received their major genetic input from geographically close non-Muslim populations. However, low levels of likely sub-Saharan African, Arabian and West Asian admixture were also observed among Indian Muslims in the form of L0a2a2 mtDNA and E1b1b1a and J*(xJ2) Y-chromosomal lineages. The distinction between Iranian and Arabian sources was difficult to make with mtDNA and the Y chromosome, as the estimates were highly correlated because of similar gene pool compositions in the sources. In contrast, the LCT/MCM6 locus, which shows a clear distinction between the two sources, enabled us to rule out significant gene flow from Arabia. Overall, our results support a model according to which the spread of Islam in India was predominantly cultural conversion associated with minor but still detectable levels of gene flow from outside, primarily from Iran and Central Asia, rather than directly from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:19809480
This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the…
Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.
2008-01-01NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
There is an emerging global discourse on female selective abortion (FSA) as several Asian countries witness an increasing imbalance in their sex ratios in favour of boys. While there is an attendant increase in demographic and social surveys on the issue, little is understood about FSA as either a desired or contested practice of family making in the contexts in which it is practiced. Drawing on the accounts of feminists, doctors and lower, middle-class Hindu and Muslim women and their families in Rajasthan, Northern India, the paper explores differing perceptions and attitudes to FSA in the region. Focusing on the agency of pregnant women who resort to FSA, the paper suggests that gender inequality and marriage anxieties shape especially lower-middle-class women's engagement with reproductive technologies, including those of sex selection. The paper also concludes that the decisions of both Hindu and Muslim lower-middle-class women to abort female babies is informed by their shared, pragmatic understanding of the economic realities of gender discrimination and of their social obligation as wives to reproduce a particular quality of patriarchal family.
Mueller, Joanne; Sherr, Lorraine
Although infant abandonment is a historical problem, we know remarkably little about the conditions or effects of abandonment to guide evidence driven policies. This paper briefly reviews the existing international evidence base with reference to potential mental health considerations before mapping current UK guidelines and procedures, and available incidence data. Limitations arising from these findings are discussed with reference to international practice, and interpreted in terms of future pathways for UK policy. A systematic approach was utilized to gather available data on policy information and statistics on abandoned babies in the UK. A review of the limited literature indicates that baby abandonment continues to occur, with potentially wide-ranging mental health ramifications for those involved. However, research into such consequences is lacking, and evidence with which to understand risk factors or motives for abandonment is scarce. International approaches to the issue remain controversial with outcomes unclear. Our systematic search identified that no specific UK policy relating to baby abandonment exists, either nationally or institutionally. This is compounded by a lack of accurate of UK abandonment statistics. Data that does exist is not comprehensive and sources are incompatible, resulting in an ambiguous picture of UK baby abandonment. Available literature indicates an absence of clear provision, policy and research on baby abandonment. Based on current understanding of maternal and child mental health issues likely to be involved in abandonment, existing UK strategy could be easily adapted to avoid the 'learning from scratch' approach. National policies on recording and handling of baby abandonments are urgently needed, and future efforts should be concentrated on establishing clear data collection frameworks to inform understanding, guide competent practice and enable successfully targeted interventions.
Musharraf, Muhammad Nabeel; Nabeel, Fatima Bushra
Islamic education of children is a common problem faced by Muslims living in western, European and other developed countries as minority. It can be due to a number of factors such as unavailability of Islamic schools at a particular location, lack of enough number of students to warrant opening a full-fledged Islamic school, curriculum legislated…
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these units of study for use in health education courses will help secondary-level Filipino students understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions…
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these elementary-level social studies units will help Filipino children understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…
Department of Education and Culture, Manila (Philippines).
Revised to be in accordance with the customs, traditions, beliefs, and practices of the Muslim Filipinos, these social studies units will help secondary-level Filipino students understand world population problems and develop the necessary skills, attitudes, and values that will lead them to make rational decisions about population matters,…
Antonova, M.; et al.
Baby MIND is a magnetized iron neutrino detector, with novel design features, and is planned to serve as a downstream magnetized muon spectrometer for the WAGASCI experiment on the T2K neutrino beam line in Japan. One of the main goals of this experiment is to reduce systematic uncertainties relevant to CP-violation searches, by measuring the neutrino contamination in the anti-neutrino beam mode of T2K. Baby MIND is currently being constructed at CERN, and is planned to be operational in Japan in October 2017.
This article describes a project related to babies undertaken by preschoolers in a university-affiliated child care center in the Midwest. Following a description of the class, the author discusses the three phases of the project. Photographs taken during the project are included throughout the article. The article concludes with the author's…
Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo
This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…
Daun, Holger, Ed.; Walford, Geoffrey, Ed.
This volume deals with Islamic conceptualization of knowledge, various types of Islamic education; and educational strategies among selected groups of Muslims in Islamized countries (Pakistan, Iran, Morocco, Senegal, and so on) as well as countries in Europe where Muslims form important minorities. The first chapter gives an overview of Islamic…
Etengoff, Chana; Daiute, Colette
Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in America, with approximately 6 to 7 million Muslims living in America within the past decade. However, there has been little psychological research conducted focusing on the development of the Muslim American self. This inquiry addresses that gap by focusing on how familial religious affiliation…
Rumbaugh, Andrew E.
This study investigated what were the most highly-valued reasons among Muslim caregivers for sending their children to Lebanese evangelical Christian schools. Muslim caregivers (N = 1,403) from four Lebanese evangelical Christian schools responded to determine what were the most highly-valued reasons for sending their children to an evangelical…
Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Sanford, Gretchen
This article is based on a small qualitative case study that examined the perceptions of undergraduate Muslim American and Muslim international female students regarding the campus religious climate in a predominantly Christian four-year research university. Specifically, it seeks to understand the opportunities and challenges of female Muslim…
Myers, Martin; Bhopal, Kalwant
The number of families who choose to home educate has significantly increased in the last decade. This article explores the experiences of British Muslims who home educate using data from a larger study exploring the views of a diverse range of families. Drawing on the work of Beck, we discuss how 'risk' is understood in relation to Muslim home…
Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.
Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…
Hutnik, Nimmi; Street, Rebecca Coran
By asking students to fill in 10 statements beginning with "I am..." and a further 10 statements beginning with "I am not..." we constructed profiles of British Muslim ethnic and national identity. Participants were 108 British Muslim girls of mean age 12.6 years studying in a single sex girls' school in Birmingham, UK. Using…
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding FAQs: Sleep - Yours and Your Baby's KidsHealth / For ... to sleep sooner. My baby falls asleep while nursing. What can I do? Newborns often fall asleep ...
... best when fed more often and on a demand schedule. They tend to tire quickly during the ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ...
Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin
Interest in babies was assessed in 30 high school seniors and 32 college freshmen. Measures varied from passive perceptual responses to pictures, to behavioral reactions to a live baby in the presence and in the absence of an adult. (JMB)
Bhalotra, Sonia; Valente, Christine; van Soest, Arthur
The socioeconomic status of Indian Muslims is, on average, considerably lower than that of upper-caste Hindus. Muslims nevertheless exhibit substantially higher child survival rates, and have done for decades. This paper analyses this seeming puzzle. A decomposition of the survival differential confirms that some compositional effects favour Muslims but that, overall, differences in characteristics and especially the Muslim deficit in parental education predict a Muslim disadvantage. The results of this study contribute to a recent literature that debates the importance of socioeconomic status (SES) in determining health and survival. They augment a growing literature on the role of religion or culture as encapsulating important unobservable behaviours or endowments that influence health, indeed, enough to reverse the SES gradient that is commonly observed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay
We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.
Rosen, Susan; Mestas, Leonard
Prepared mainly for paraprofessional staff of the Colorado Migrant Council, this 1970 handbook, available in either English or Spanish, presents information on caring fo r the migrant child. Three sections -- Baby, Child, and Sick Child -- discuss general care and specific care for such topics as hand washing, bathing, diapering, rashes, weight,…
Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…
Fenichel, Emily, Ed.
"Zero to Three" is a single-focus bulletin of the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families providing insight from multiple disciplines on the development of infants, toddlers, and their families. Noting that America's babies and toddlers live in a world full of television sets, VCRs, computers, videogames, and interactive…
... Your Baby - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Choosing ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Choosing ...
Fingerman, Karen L.; Pillemer, Karl A.; Silverstein, Merril; Suitor, J. Jill
Purpose: As Baby Boomers enter late life, relationships with family members gain importance. This review article highlights two aspects of their intergenerational relationships: (a) caregiving for aging parents and (b) interactions with adult children in the context of changing marital dynamics. Design and Methods: The researchers describe three…
... little one). What's Next? For the remainder of this year and next year, expect that your baby's growth ... Gavin, MD Date reviewed: December 2014 More on this topic for: ... and Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Your Child's Checkup: 1 Year (12 Months) Movement, Coordination, and Your 8- to ...
Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony
This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…
Bruneau, Emile; Kteily, Nour; Falk, Emily
Collectively blaming groups for the actions of individuals can license vicarious retribution. Acts of terrorism by Muslim extremists against innocents, and the spikes in anti-Muslim hate crimes against innocent Muslims that follow, suggest that reciprocal bouts of collective blame can spark cycles of violence. How can this cycle be short-circuited? After establishing a link between collective blame of Muslims and anti-Muslim attitudes and behavior, we used an “interventions tournament” to identify a successful intervention (among many that failed). The “winning” intervention reduced collective blame of Muslims by highlighting hypocrisy in the ways individuals collectively blame Muslims—but not other groups (White Americans, Christians)—for individual group members’ actions. After replicating the effect in an independent sample, we demonstrate that a novel interactive activity that isolates the psychological mechanism amplifies the effectiveness of the collective blame hypocrisy intervention and results in downstream reductions in anti-Muslim attitudes and anti-Muslim behavior. PMID:29251246
... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...
Honig, Alice Sterling
Language is a great communication system. Through language, humans can express logical reasoning, grief, happiness, wishes, descriptions, and a rich array of feelings and ideas. Every baby deserves the gift of language power! In this article, the author discusses how babies build language skills and presents activities to help babies build…
Segal, Marilyn M.
This easy-to-read manual for parents describes what a baby learns in the first year of life and suggests specific things parents or caregivers can do to encourage a baby to use his body, senses, and mind to communicate. Each chapter is concerned with 1 month of the infant's life and includes sections on (1) Baby's Viewpoint (discussion of the…
Feldman, S. Shirley; Nash, Sharon Churnin
Interest in babies was studied in 120 young adult males and females belonging to four stages of life: cohabiting singles, childless-married couples, expecting first child, and parents of an infant. Measures included responsivity to an unfamiliar baby, interest in pictures of babies, and a sex-role self-concept inventory. (Author/JMB)
Myers, Casey Y.
Through multimodal retellings of kindergarten children's performances of "baby," this article aims to contribute to the emerging "posthuman conversation" within early childhood studies. Specifically, this work makes moves toward reconceptualizing children's becomings within educational contexts by, first, interrogating the ways…
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.
In today's world, the plurality of values is considered to be a constitutive feature of modern societies. In these societies, transcultural patient-physician relationships are a part of daily medical practice. Culturally determined value systems can be crucial for understanding the perception of notions such as "health" and "illness", leading to fundamental differences in assessing medical interventions and therapeutic objectives. Therefore, transcultural conflicts of interest are presenting medical ethical decision-making with new challenges. Time and again, medical practice demonstrates that cultural differences between physician and patient are correlated with the complexity of medical ethical conflicts, as can be seen in the relationship between Muslim patients and non-Muslim physicians in the German health care system. This paper discusses some of the central issues in these relationships like communication, sense of shame, religious duties, and medical end-of-life decisions, analyzing some concrete cases. Subsequently, a number of medical ethical theses relevant for multicultural societies will be discussed.
Hamzeh, Manal; Oliver, Kimberly L
Drawing on the works of postcolonial critical feminist and Arab Muslim feminist scholars, we discuss in this paper how 4 muslim girls (ages 14- 17 years) negotiated their participation in opportunities for physical activity. Data collection methods included self mapping questionnaires, digital photos, private journal entries, and recordings of informal conversations. We discuss (a) how three discursive challenges emerged in veiling-off opportunities for physical activity, and (b) how the girls uncovered alternative ways of being physically active. To promote active life practices with muslim girls, we need to (a) navigate the diversity of young muslims within the intersecting discourses in their lives that potentially challenge their participation in physical activities, and (b) honor young muslims' choices while negotiating their chances of maintaining physical activities.
DeTample, Darrell R.
Most Americans misunderstand the terms "Arab" and "Muslim," while also casting Arabs and Muslims as threats to national security. These perceived threats have led to the justification of the oppression of Arab and Muslim Americans similar to other minority groups in the United States, as non-Arab and non-Muslim Americans have…
This paper discusses challenges and opportunities facing Muslims in the United States, where between 5 to 8 million Muslims live (the fastest growing religion in the country). American Muslims face many challenges, and the public has little understanding of the teachings and practice of Islam. Muslims are prone to negative stereotypes, ethnic…
Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…
Padela, A I; Shanawani, H; Greenlaw, J; Hamid, H; Aktas, M; Chin, N
Islam and Muslims are underrepresented in the medical literature and the influence of physician's cultural beliefs and religious values upon the clinical encounter has been understudied. To elicit the perceived influence of Islam upon the practice patterns of immigrant Muslim physicians in the USA. Ten face-to-face, in-depth, semistructured interviews with Muslim physicians from various backgrounds and specialties trained outside the USA and practising within the the country. Data were analysed according to the conventions of qualitative research using a modified grounded-theory approach. There were a variety of views on the role of Islam in medical practice. Several themes emerged from our interviews: (1) a trend to view Islam as enhancing virtuous professional behaviour; (2) the perception of Islam as influencing the scope of medical practice through setting boundaries on career choices, defining acceptable medical procedures and shaping social interactions with physician peers; (3) a perceived need for Islamic religious experts within Islamic medical ethical deliberation. This is a pilot study intended to yield themes and hypotheses for further investigation and is not meant to fully characterise Muslim physicians at large. Immigrant Muslim physicians practising within the USA perceive Islam to play a variable role within their clinical practice, from influencing interpersonal relations and character development to affecting specialty choice and procedures performed. Areas of ethical challenges identified include catering to populations with lifestyles at odds with Islamic teachings, end-of-life care and maintaining a faith identity within the culture of medicine. Further study of the interplay between Islam and Muslim medical practice and the manner and degree to which Islamic values and law inform ethical decision-making is needed.
Mankiw, N G; Weil, D N
This paper explores the impact of demographic changes on the housing market in the US, 1st by reviewing the facts about the Baby Boom, 2nd by linking age and housing demand using census data for 1970 and 1980, 3rd by computing the effect of demand on price of housing and on the quantity of residential capital, and last by constructing a theoretical model to plot the predictability of the jump in demand caused by the Baby Boom. The Baby Boom in the U.S. lasted from 1946-1964, with a peak in 1957 when 4.3 million babies were born. In 1980 19.7% of the population were aged 20-30, compared to 13.3% in 1960. Demand for housing was modeled for a given household from census data, resulting in the finding that demand rises sharply at age 20-30, then declines after age 40 by 1% per year. Thus between 1970 and 1980 the real value of housing for an adult at any given age jumped 50%, while the real disposable personal income per capita rose 22%. The structure of demand is such that the swelling in the rate of growth in housing demand peaked in 1980, with a rate of 1.66% per year. Housing demand and real price of housing were highly correlated and inelastic. If this relationship holds in the future, the real price of housing should fall about 3% per year, or 47% by 2007. The theoretical model, a variation of the Poterba model, ignoring inflation and taxation, suggests that fluctuations in prices caused by changes in demand are not foreseen by the market, even though they are predictable in principle 20 years in advance. As the effects of falling housing prices become apparent, there may be a potential for economic instability, but people may be induced to save more because their homes will no longer provide the funds for retirement.
Shahawy, Sarrah; Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M
With the growing number of Muslim patients in the United States, there is a greater need for obstetrician-gynecologists (ob-gyns) to understand the health care needs and values of this population to optimize patient rapport, provide high-quality reproductive care, and minimize health care disparities. The few studies that have explored Muslim women's health needs in the United States show that among the barriers Muslim women face in accessing health care services is the failure of health care providers to understand and accommodate their beliefs and customs. This article outlines health care practices and cultural competency tools relevant to modern obstetric and gynecologic care of Muslim patients, incorporating emerging data. There is an exploration of the diversity of opinion, practice, and cultural traditions among Muslims, which can be challenging for the ob-gyn who seeks to provide culturally competent care while attempting to avoid relying on cultural or religious stereotypes. This commentary also focuses on issues that might arise in the obstetric and gynecologic care of Muslim women, including the patient-physician relationship, modesty and interactions with male health care providers, sexual health, contraception, abortion, infertility, and intrapartum and postpartum care. Understanding the health care needs and values of Muslims in the United States may give physicians the tools necessary to better deliver high-quality care to this minority population.
Pasupuleti, Samba Siva Rao; Pathak, Prasanta; Jatrana, Santosh
Hindus and Muslims together account for 94% of the population of India. The fertility differential between these two religious groups is a sensitive and hotly debated issue in political and academic circles. However, the debate is mostly based on a period approach to fertility change, and there have been some problems with the reliability of period fertility data. This study investigated cohort fertility patterns among Hindus and Muslims and the causes of the relatively higher level of fertility among Muslims. Data from the three National Family Health Surveys conducted in India since the early 1990s were analysed using a six-parameter special form of the Gompertz model and multiple linear regression models. The results show a gap of more than 1.3 children per woman between those Muslim and Hindu women who ended/will end their reproductive period in the calendar years 1993 to 2025. The socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of Muslims explain 31.2% of the gap in fertility between Muslims and Hindus, while the desire for more children among Muslims explains an additional 18.2% of the gap in fertility.
Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C
Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.
Katsova, M. M.; Livshits, M. A.; Mishenina, T. V.; Nizamov, B. A.
An analysis of the X-ray radiation of G-stars shows that the youngest fast rotating stars are characterized by saturation of activity, but part of stars demonstrate the solar-type activity, starting from rotational periods of 1.4 days. This type of activity, the level of which is determined by the rate of axial rotation, includes the formation of spots, flares and etc; first, activity is irregular, and only then there are conditions for the formation of cycles. The Kepler data show that stars of the same spectral type demonstrate two activity levels. This bimodality of different distributions of stars, change in a character of cycles and a level of Жiзнь i Bceлeннaya flare activity are evidences for an evolution of activity versus the age. By the nature of activity, we call conditionally G-dwarfs with rotation periods from 1 day to 5-6 days by the term "the Baby Sun" (the maximal number of these stars has Prot = 3 d), and we refer G-stars with Prot from 10 to 18 days to "the Young Suns". Ages of the main amount of the Baby Sun are around 200-600 Myr and the Young Sun are of about 1-2 Gyr. The Baby Suns are characterized by enhanced lithium content. We estimate the quasi-stationary X-ray and farultraviolet radiation of the outer atmosphere of the Baby Sun. From the GALEX data we obtain the FUV flux in the range 1350-1750 A for this kind of stars at the distance of 1 AU is 12.8 ± 4.2 erg/(cm^2 c), that exceeds the FUV-flux of the contemporary Sun by more than 6 times. The Kepler data demonstrate that the superflares happen more often namely on the Baby Suns. Our estimate is that superflares of the total energies 10^35 erg occur on the Baby Sun of about one per year.
Pazhoohi, Farid; Hosseinchari, Masoud
Hijab and other Islamic veiling clothing are important social and political symbols for Muslim women's identity. Although recently there has been a large body of literature on the social and political aspects of hijab in Western countries, there has been no investigation of the origin and function of veiling itself. This article hypothesized that religious veiling, which eliminates the estrogen-induced body curves of reproductive age women, decreases men's perceptions of women's physical attractiveness, thereby serving mate guarding functions against rival men. To test this hypothesis. Measures of the motivational appeal and self-reported perceived attractiveness of women exhibiting different degrees of veiling were obtained from 80 Muslim male participants. The results showed that men were more motivated to view women exhibiting the less veiling and rated them more attractive than those women whose bodily curves were less apparent. These results support veiling serving a mate guarding function and reinforcing the marital bond.
Gatrad, A. R.
Muslims are always buried, never cremated. It is a religious requirement that the body be ritually washed and draped before burial, which should be as soon as possible after death. Those carrying out this duty should be immunised against hepatitis B and be aware of the hazards of AIDS. Muslim women never attend burials and it is rare for funeral directors to be involved. Muslim jurists from the Arab world can justify organ transplantation, but those from the Indian subcontinent are against it. They are united in the belief of the sacredness of the human body and thus deplore postmortem examinations. Images p522-a PMID:7848419
In this paper wormholes defined on a Minkowski signature manifold are considered, both at the classical and quantum levels. It is argued that causality in quantum gravity may best be imposed by restricting the functional integral to include only causal Lorentzian spacetimes. Subject to this assumption, one can put very tight constraints on the quantum behavior of wormholes, their cousins the baby universes, and topology-changing processes in general. Even though topology-changing processes are tightly constrained, this still allows very interesting geometrical (rather than topological) effects. In particular, the laboratory construction of baby universes is not prohibited provided that the ``umbilical cord'' is never cut. Methods for relaxing these causality constraints are also discussed.
The southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field plays a key role in many space weather-related phenomena. However, thus far, it has proven difficult to predict it with any degree of fidelity. In this talk I outline the difficulties in making such forecasts, and describe several promising techniques that may ultimately prove successful. In particular, I focus on predictions of magnetic fields embedded within interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), which are the cause of most large, non-recurrent geomagnetic storms. I discuss three specific techniques that are already producing modest, but promising results. First, a pattern recognition approach, which matches observed coherent rotations in the magnetic field with historical intervals of similar variations, then forecasts future variations based on the historical data. Second, a novel flux rope fitting technique that uses an MCMC algorithm to find a best fit to the partially observed ICME. And third, an empirical modular CME model (based on the approach outlined by N. Savani and colleagues), which links several ad hoc models of coronal properties of the flux rope, its kinematics and geometry in the corona, dynamic evolution, and time of transit to 1 AU. We highlight the uncertainties associated with these predictions, and, in particular, identify those that we believe can be reduced in the future.
Pierce, Anne R
Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome.
Zeilani, Ruqayya; Seymour, Jane E
To explore experiences of Jordanian Muslim women in relation to bodily change during critical illness. A longitudinal narrative approach was used. A purposive sample of 16 Jordanian women who had spent a minimum of 48 hr in intensive care participated in one to three interviews over a 6-month period. Three main categories emerged from the analysis: the dependent body reflects changes in the women's bodily strength and performance, as they moved from being care providers into those in need of care; this was associated with experiences of a sense of paralysis, shame, and burden. The social body reflects the essential contribution that family help or nurses' support (as a proxy for family) made to women's adjustment to bodily change and their ability to make sense of their illness. The cultural body reflects the effect of cultural norms and Islamic beliefs on the women's interpretation of their experiences and relates to the women's understandings of bodily modesty. This study illustrates, by in-depth focus on Muslim women's narratives, the complex interrelationship between religious beliefs, cultural norms, and the experiences and meanings of bodily changes during critical illness. This article provides insights into vital aspects of Muslim women's needs and preferences for nursing care. It highlights the importance of including an assessment of culture and spiritual aspects when nursing critically ill patients. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben
After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly tomore » the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.« less
Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-S.
After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly tomore » the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.« less
Lin, Tzu-Chen; Lai, Yu-Hung; Guo, Su-Er; Liu, Chin-Fang; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Hsin-Tien
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of chilled/un-chilled baby oil therapy for treating uremic pruritus in haemodialysis patients. Uremic pruritus affects 50-90% of haemodialysis patients, which makes it one of the most common medical problems in this population. Pruritus can cause skin infection, desquamation, pathological skin change, sleep disorder, anxiety, depression and social dysfunction. A prospective, pretest-post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Haemodialysis patients with uremic pruritus were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental group 1 (chilled baby oil treatment; n = 30), experimental group 2 (un-chilled baby oil treatment; n = 31) and a control group (routine care only; n = 32). Participants in experimental group 1 and experimental group 2 were treated with chilled and un-chilled baby oil, respectively, for 15 minutes at least once daily for three weeks. The control group received no intervention other than standard care. Data collection included demographic data and itch severity. Medical records were also reviewed. The baseline characteristics of subjects in this study were as follows: 59% were male, mean age was 61·88 (SD 12·7) years, mean duration of haemodialysis was 5·31 years, mean duration of uremic pruritus was 40·58 (SD 37·8) months and mean intensity of uremic pruritus was mild. The anti-pruritic effects were significantly larger in subjects treated with either chilled or un-chilled baby oil than in those who received routine care. Anti-pruritic effects did not significantly differ between experimental group 1 and experimental group 2. The study confirmed that, for relieving pruritus in haemodialysis patients, either chilled or un-chilled baby oil is as effective as moisturising lotions and cooling soothing agents. Applying baby oil is a simple, safe, inexpensive and easily administered treatment for itchy skin in haemodialysis patients. By preventing or reducing uremic
‘THEY SAY ISLAM HAS A SOLUTION FOR EVERYTHING, SO WHY ARE THERE NO GUIDELINES FOR THIS?’ ETHICAL DILEMMAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF INFANTS WITH FATAL ABNORMALITIES FROM A SMALL SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI MUSLIM COUPLES IN BRITAIN
This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685
Knickman, James R; Snell, Emily K
Objective To assess the coming challenges of caring for large numbers of frail elderly as the Baby Boom generation ages. Study Setting A review of economic and demographic data as well as simulations of projected socioeconomic and demographic patterns in the year 2030 form the basis of a review of the challenges related to caring for seniors that need to be faced by society. Study Design A series of analyses are used to consider the challenges related to caring for elders in the year 2030: (1) measures of macroeconomic burden are developed and analyzed, (2) the literatures on trends in disability, payment approaches for long-term care, healthy aging, and cultural views of aging are analyzed and synthesized, and(3)simulations of future income and assets patterns of the Baby Boom generation are developed. Principal Findings The economic burden of aging in 2030 should be no greater than the economic burden associated with raising large numbers of baby boom children in the 1960s. The real challenges of caring for the elderly in 2030 will involve: (1) making sure society develops payment and insurance systems for long-term care that work better than existing ones, (2) taking advantage of advances in medicine and behavioral health to keep the elderly as healthy and active as possible, (3) changing the way society organizes community services so that care is more accessible, and (4) altering the cultural view of aging to make sure all ages are integrated into the fabric of community life. Conclusions To meet the long-term care needs of Baby Boomers, social and public policy changes must begin soon. Meeting the financial and social service burdens of growing numbers of elders will not be a daunting task if necessary changes are made now rather than when Baby Boomers actually need long-term care. PMID:12236388
elements Samal violently missionary Davonigno Muslim lite less strict non-extremists populace from Jolo Arab poor strict ones extremist...dominant tribes are the warriors and they look down on the peace-loving Samal and Badjao. So the term may resonate with some communities but not with...look down on them. The Tausug think the Samal and Badjao are 2nd class citizens. (RP-Muslim) 60 But Maybe They Support the Extremists Some
Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.
America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…
Sweet, Linda; Darbyshire, Philip
to explore fathers' experiences of the breast feeding of their very-low-birthweight preterm babies from birth to 12 months of age. a qualitative study using interpretive phenomenology. Data were collected via longitudinal in-depth individual interviews. publicly funded tertiary level hospital, Australia. a purposive sample of 17 Australian parents took part in the broader study. This paper reports on data from the seven participant fathers. this paper explores the discursive changes in fathers' accounts of their perspectives on and support of the breast feeding of their preterm baby. The fathers' accounts highlight their marked influence on breast feeding, their ambivalent experiences related to breast feeding and their struggle in negotiating a parenting role related to baby feeding. this study highlights the role and influence that fathers of preterm babies have on breast feeding, and explores the tensions and paradoxes inherent in promoting the ideology of breast feeding while valuing the practice of bottle feeding. this study highlights the need to encourage and involve fathers in breast-feeding education including the impact of bottle feeding on breast-feeding outcomes. The active and positive contribution that fathers make towards preterm breast feeding should be acknowledged and encouraged.
The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 14% of the total nursing students at this college. Results indicated a moderate prevalence of anxiety and high prevalence of depression among Muslim nursing students. Stress (β = .42) was positively associated with anxiety, while self-esteem (β = -.42) was negatively associated with anxiety; together this model accounted for 46% of the variance in anxiety. Self-esteem (β = -.41) and social support (β = -.17) were negatively associated with depression, while stress (β = .37) was positively correlated with depression; together this model accounted for 57% of the variance in depression. Recommendations were given to help train Muslim nursing students to be competent nurses with good mental health and well-being who will succeed and contribute to the nursing profession. PMID:22792481
Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhdi; Che Soh, Mazlan
Malaysia, a country of Muslim majority, is suffering from a severe organ shortage due to the lack of donors. Mosques are the main gateways into the Muslim community. Hence, it is imperative to explore their role in facilitating organ donation. A self-administered survey was conducted between October and December 2013. We distributed 700 pilot-tested questionnaires to 82 mosques in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs. The respondents were stratified into 2 groups: the mosque committees and the Muslim Jama'ah (individuals who come regularly to mosque for prayer). Data collected from a survey on 653 Malaysian Muslims reveals that the main factors that hamper organ donation-related activities at the mosques in Malaysia are the lack of experts and financial resources. The level of autonomy of the mosque is also another main issue. The respondents believe that talks and dialogues are the best methods for organ donation campaigns at the mosques. Conclusions We argue that if the mosques are to play a role in imparting knowledge on organ donation, there should be ample opportunity for the mosque committee to choose the content of religious talks held in their community. The mosques in Malaysia are not sufficiently facilitated to channel the information on organ donation to the Muslim community. Providing financial support and expert campaigners are expected to increase organ donation-related activities at the mosques and subsequently could increase awareness regarding organ donations among Malaysian Muslims.
Pannor, R; Baran, A; Sorosky, A D
The fact that adoption records may be opened by court decree to enable adoptees to have access to identifying information about their birth parents makes it incumbent upon those concerned with adoption practices to study the impact of this on adoptees, adoptive parents, birth parents, and professional practice. This paper reports on research addressed to the attitudes and feelings of birth parents years after they relinquished babies for adoption.
... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during the...
Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J
The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.
Liese, Kylea Laina; Maeder, Angela B
The greatest variation in maternal mortality is among poor countries and wealthy countries that rely on emergency obstetric technology to save a woman's life during childbirth. However, substantial variation in maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) exists within and among poor countries with uneven access to advanced obstetric services. This article examines MMRs across the Muslim world and compares the impact of national wealth, female education, and skilled birth attendants on maternal mortality. Understanding how poor countries have lowered MMRs without access to expensive obstetric technologies suggests that certain social variables may act protectively to reduce the maternal risk for life-threatening obstetric complications that would require emergency obstetric care.
Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle
Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…
Craig, J W; Glick, C; Phillips, R; Hall, S L; Smith, J; Browne, J
Family involvement is a key to realize the potential for long-lasting positive effects on physical, cognitive and psychosocial development of all babies, including those in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Family-centered developmental care (FCDC) recognizes the family as vital members of the NICU health-care team. As such, families are integrated into decision-making processes and are collaborators in their baby's care. Through standardized use of FCDC principles in the NICU, a foundation is constructed to enhance the family's lifelong relationship with their child and optimize development of the baby. Recommendations are made for supporting parental roles as caregivers of their babies in the NICU, supporting NICU staff participation in FCDC and creating NICU policies that support this type of care. These recommendations are designed to meet the basic human needs of all babies, the special needs of hospitalized babies and the needs of families who are coping with the crisis of having a baby in the NICU. PMID:26597804
Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric
While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations. We discuss the multiple difficulties these men face in relation to religious intolerance and ethnic heteronormativity, and reflect upon the possibilities and obstacles of using Western identity politics towards the promotion of social justice within a framework of growing homohysteria. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Dahiya, Neha; Garg, Suneela
The UK was the first country to legalise mitochondrial donation in October 2015 (1). In 2016, the first three-parent baby was born in Mexico (2) and the US Food and Drug Administration declared that further research on mitochondrial donation is ethically permissible (3). It has now become an important issue, raising as it does, the spectre of "genetically modified designer babies".
Baird, Stephen L.
"Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Babies thrive on security. In early months, secure feelings stem from being warm, cuddled closely, and comfortable in their tummies (and in having clean bottoms!). In this article, the author discusses how to soothe infants and toddlers. The strategies to help ease babies' distress are described. Some of the recommended strategies include: (1) to…
Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara
Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…
Gillespie, Linda; Parlakian, Rebecca
This article reminds infant care teachers of the ways thoughtful interactions between adults and very young children teach babies and toddlers who they are as individuals. "When teachers take the time to respond respectfully and thoughtfully, babies and young children learn and thrive."
Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa
The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…
‘Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...
Boujaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian
In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among members of three Muslim sects—Sunni, Shiite, and Druze—in two cultural contexts; one in which the overwhelming majority of the population is Muslim (Egypt) and another in which there is a sizable Christian community (Lebanon). Data were collected via surveys that examined students' scientific and religious understandings of evolution among 162 Egyptian students (all Sunni Muslims; 63% females and 37% males) and 629 Lebanese students (38.5% Sunni, 38% Shiite, and 23.5% Druze; 49% females and 51% males). Additional data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 30 Lebanese students to allow triangulation of data for accuracy and authenticity. Results indicate that many Egyptian and Lebanese Muslim students have misconceptions about evolution and the nature of science which often lead to rejection of evolution. Also, Lebanese Sunni and Shiite students and Egyptian Sunni students tend to exhibit high levels of religiosity, and these students report that their religious beliefs influence their positions regarding evolution. Finally, Sunni and Shiite Lebanese students have religious beliefs, conceptions of evolution, and positions regarding evolution similar to those of Sunni Egyptian students. These conceptions and positions, however, are substantially different from those of Druze Lebanese students.
Cleminson, J; Oddie, S; Renfrew, M J; McGuire, W
Breast feeding improves important outcomes for mothers and infants. In the UK, breastfeeding rates have historically been low, particularly among socially disadvantaged young women. Although there have been gradual increases in breastfeeding initiation rates since 2000, rates of exclusive breast feeding and continuation until 6 months remain lower than those in similar countries. This review summarises the evidence for effective and cost-effective strategies to help women, particularly those in low income groups, make informed choices, overcome barriers and establish and maintain breast feeding. We describe the development and impact of the Unicef Baby Friendly Initiative, and the roles and responsibilities, and challenges and opportunities that clinicians have in promoting breast feeding and maintaining a baby-friendly culture and environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
This study explores the extent to which Baby Boomers and older adults take mobility and : transportation issues into consideration as they make individual residential and lifestyle plans for : their future older years. While transportation and urban ...
Dharmalingam, A; Morgan, S Philip
Using the 1993 Indian Family and Health Survey, we examined Muslim-Hindu differences in (1) the parity-specific intent to have another child and (2) given a stated intent for no more children, reports of the current use of contraceptives. We found that Muslims are much more likely than Hindus to intend to have additional children and, among those who do not want more children, Muslims are much less likely than Hindus to use contraceptives. These findings are robust to model specification and pervasive across the states of India. This national study provides the context within which local studies should be enmeshed and begs for general (as opposed to place-specific) explanations for these pervasive differences.
Sutan, Rosnah; Miskam, Hazlina Mohd
Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.
Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed. PMID:22708998
Hankir, Ahmed; Carrick, Frederick R; Zaman, Rashid
The allegation that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' is often made. In view of this, we conducted a small survey (n=75) utilising purposive sampling on Muslims residing in the United Kingdom. Participants were recruited in a King's College London Islamic Society event in November 2014 in Guy's Hospital, London. 75/75 (100%) of the participants recruited responded. 69/75 (94%) of respondents either disagreed or strongly disagreed that, 'Being Muslim means that you cannot be British' (75/75 (100%) Muslim participants, 43/75 (57.3%) female participants, 32/75 (42.7%) male participants, mean Age 20.5 years, (Std. Dev. ±2.5)). This paper broadly seeks to answer two related questions. Firstly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and the West?' and secondly, 'What is the relationship between Islam and mental health?' In relation to the former, the rise of radicalization over recent years and the Islamophobia that has ensued have brought Islam and Muslims under intense scrutiny. Hence we feel it is both timely and important to offer a brief background of Islam and its relevance to the Western world. In relation to the latter, for many people religion and mental health are deeply and intimately intertwined. For example, religion can enable a person to develop mental health resilience and Islam has been reported to be a protective factor against suicidal behaviour. We conclude our paper by illustrating how the two questions are interrelated. We do so by offering an autobiographical narrative from a Muslim healthcare professional residing in the UK who developed a mental health problem precipitated by war in the country of his origin. His narrative includes descriptions of the role Islam that played in his recovery as well as his attempts to reconcile seemingly disparate aspects of his identity.
Khalifa, Muhammad; Gooden, Mark A.
This article investigates the relationship between religious identities of African American Muslims and school performance. We examined how understandings of religion inform how American Muslims view, behave, and imagine their role in school. The first author conducted interviews over the course of a year with four American Muslims, two of whom…
The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…
Examines explanations for lack of progress by Muslims in English education in East Bengal, colonial British India (now Bangladesh). Argues that urban-based, elitist English education failed to provide opportunities to rural Muslim farmers, and that, after the British formulated educational policies meeting Muslim needs, that community responded…
Shah, Saeeda; Shaikh, Jalil
The paper focuses on perceived barriers to the career progression of Muslim male teachers to leadership positions in English secondary schools, exploring the impact of ethnicity, faith and Muslim visibility in the post 9/11 scenario. It draws on a small study of Muslim male teachers (MMTs) from five boroughs in London to explore their experiences…
Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin; Haywood, Chris
The last 15 years have seen a remarkable shift in the educational representation of British-born Muslim young men. In the media-led reclassification of them, from South Asian to Muslim, they have moved from ideal student to potential jihadist. This article draws upon a three-year ethnographic study with young Muslim men located within the West…
McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…
While much research has considered the way Muslims are represented in the mass media in recent years, there has been little exploration of the way Muslims and Islam are discussed in U.S. public schools. This article considers how Muslims and Islam are represented in educational standards, textbooks, and supplementary resources, with an eye to the…
Le Monde (LM), Jan. 16, 2004, p. V. 47 Dounia Bouzar, “La Première génération de Français de confession musulman ,” in French Politics, Culture, and...Herald Tribune (IHT), April 14, 2005, p. 2. 50 Alain Boyer, “La Représentation du culte musulman en France,” p. 11-12, and Jonathan Lawrence, “From the...français du culte musulman , or CFCM). CFCM represents the Muslim religion, but is not meant to represent all Muslims in France. Rather, it is a
Anderson, W W; Anderson, D D
The focus of the study was an examination of the structure of the concept of self of Thai Muslim adolescents with whom research was conducted on their physical, social, and psychological development from 1982 to 1983. The self was defined as the related components of the physical self and the psychological self. A research strategy of fallibility reduction through a multiplicity of indexes was used based on six indexes of their formulation of self. The data were obtained from Nipa Island in Krabi province from 115 adolescents in 82 of the households located at the center of the island. 78 adolescents were used in testing the communalities of 29 attributes. Factor analysis (analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of variance) showed that there was little difference between the sexes except on Factor 1 (philandering, hippyish, boastful, and leading others astray) (p 0.05). Both sexes wanted to develop themselves to be less regarded as having the above attributes in the future; but the degree of desired change was more pronounced among males than among females (p 0.05). Males also scored themselves as being more philandering than did females (p 0.01). Regarding the issue of autonomous self, females expressed stronger desire than males to be oneself in their future self-orientation (p 0.05). Age was categorized into four groups: 10.0-13.9 years old, 14.0-16.9 years old, 17.0-19.9 years old, and 20.0-22.9 years old. Birth order was coded as first-born, middle-born, and last-born. The second age group rated themselves higher than the other age groups on Factor 3 attributes (swaggering, indolent, and flirtatious). Middle-born sons were more imbued with a negative set of behavioral attributes on Factor 1, while last-born adolescents expressed the strongest desire to improve themselves regarding Factor 2 (gossipy, abusive, gullible, and leading others astray) (p = 0.060). Early maturers, who had the early onset of puberty, expressed more negative behaviors contained
Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda
Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018
Koshy, L M
During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus.
The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.
Wartella, Ellen; Richert, Rebekah A.; Robb, Michael B.
Baby media have exploded in the past decade, and children younger than 2 are showing increased use of these baby media. This paper examines the historical evidence of babies' use of television since the 1950s as well as the various factors that have given rise to the current increase in screen media for babies. We also consider the ubiquitous role…
Poulos, Stacy; Nightingale, Demetra Smith
By the end of 2005, the oldest baby boomers will begin turning 60. Although baby boomers have generally done better than any previous generation in terms of income and education, not all baby boomers have been successful. As baby boomers age, the total economically disadvantaged population will increase. Consequently, over the next decade, the…
... many hours does your baby sleep during the day? At night? How often do you feed your baby? If you're breast-feeding, are you having any trouble? How many diapers does your baby wet and soil in a day? How active is your baby? Are you including ...
Schwartz, Lita Linzer
Discusses the "Baby M" surrogate motherhood case which has produced heated debate in popular media, legal publications, and other professional journals. Summarizes arguments offered and reasoning behind actions of judiciary. (Author/ABL)
... heart for the doctor to evaluate. The sound waves can also detect blood flow throughout the baby's heart. This enables the doctor to evaluate the structure and function of the fetal heart. Who needs one? Fetal ...
... older children. Also, they have yet to develop immunity to many common infections. Within the first year ... lifetime. Also, some viruses don't produce lasting immunity. A common cold virus enters your baby's mouth, ...
... baby against these diseases? No. Breastfeeding offers temporary immunity against some minor infections like colds, but it ... preferable to “artificial” vaccination, leading to a “natural” immunity. Some even arrange chickenpox “parties” to ensure their ...
Bacon, C J; Bell, S A; Clulow, E E; Beattie, A B
Details of room temperature, clothing, and bedding used by night and by day and in winter and in summer were recorded for 649 babies aged 8 to 26 weeks. Room temperature at night was significantly related to outside temperature and duration of heating. Total insulation was significantly related to outside temperature and to minimum room temperature, but there was wide variation in insulation at the same room temperature. High levels of insulation for a given room temperature were found particularly at night and in winter, and were associated with the use of thick or doubled duvets and with swaddling. At least half the babies threw off some or all of their bedding at night, and at least a quarter sweated. Younger mothers and mothers in the lower social groups put more bedclothes over their babies, and the latter also kept their rooms warmer. Many mothers kept their babies warmer during infections. PMID:2039255
... of SCD are: Sickle cell anemia (also called hemoglobin SS). Hemoglobin is the part of red blood cells that ... one sickle cell gene change from each parent. Hemoglobin SC. This condition is caused when a baby ...
... lie; Fetal attitude; Fetal descent; Fetal station; Cardinal movements; Labor-birth canal; Delivery-birth canal ... are used to describe your baby's position and movement through the birth canal. FETAL STATION Fetal station ...
... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... the hind milk, which is highest in the fat calories your baby needs. Pump for a minute ...
... the directions on the product » Dress in loose cotton clothing that covers your arms and legs Protect ... months of age • Dress your baby in loose cotton clothing that covers arms and legs How to ...
... for a new sibling include Look at picture books about a new baby . At the very least, ... he starts asking about mom's growing "stomach." Picture books for preschoolers can be very helpful. So can ...
New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.
A witch appears to be screaming out into space in this new image from NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. The infrared portrait shows the Witch Head nebula, named after its resemblance to the profile of a wicked witch. Astronomers say the billowy clouds of the nebula, where baby stars are brewing, are being lit up by massive stars. Dust in the cloud is being hit with starlight, causing it to glow with infrared light, which was picked up by WISE's detectors. The Witch Head nebula is estimated to be hundreds of light-years away in the Orion constellation, just off the famous hunter's knee. WISE was recently "awakened" to hunt for asteroids in a program called NEOWISE. The reactivation came after the spacecraft was put into hibernation in 2011, when it completed two full scans of the sky, as planned. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Angemeer, Alicia Dorothea
Since September 11, 2001, Western readers have been turning to bestselling texts written by or about Muslims in their need to learn more about Muslims. These texts promise an insider's view of predominantly Muslim countries and peoples and are informally influencing and educating many Western readers in their perceptions of Muslims because…
Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah
In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1,482 Muslim Malaysian and 1,971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts. PMID:19695758
Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah
In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.
Homosexuality is widely perceived among many Muslims as a "western disease", a natural outcome of the West's secularity and cultural degeneracy. In spite of the emergence of more liberal attitudes towards sexual differences in modern times, moral issues have not lost their relevance in polemical discourse against homosexuality among many…
Using a life history approach, this paper explores spirituality in the life and work of Muslim teachers employed in state schools of England. Background for discussion includes a rationale for the methodology and its advantages. The findings highlight their conceptualisation of God and purpose of life, and draw attention to their views and…
Jandali, Ameena K.
"Terrorist," "son of bin Laden," "camel jockey," "raghead," "towel-head"--variations of the same epithets resurface in each generation with the same painful impact. While Muslim students in public schools were objects of derision and harassment long before 9/11, the situation in the past decade has become markedly worse. Bullying and harassment…
In the contemporary period, the persistence of the dual system of state and "madrasa" education in many Muslim countries has raised for policymakers the dilemma of what form Islam ought to assume as a pedagogic category in these contexts. At one extreme, in the syllabi of traditionalist "madrasas", we find Islam being deployed as an overarching…
Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).
This paper discusses the relationship between the religious practices of Muslim employees and the requirements of the workplace. It is designed to provide information on the norms of Islam and the difficulties involved in its workplace practice, and to propose suggestions for resolving these difficulties that can form the basis for discussion and…
teens . In the survey, 73 Mirza, Policy Exchange: p. 5. 74 Ibid. 30 …almost one-third agreed that...a naked secularism that estranges Muslims and other believers. One thing is certain…Europe needs to develop an integration policy that works. But
Abolaban, Heba; Al-Moujahed, Ahmad
Fasting Ramadan, in which Muslims abstain from specific habits and behaviors from dawn to sunset, is one of the five Pillars of Islam. While there are several exemptions from fasting, many Muslim patients with acute or chronic medical conditions still choose to fast, which may adversely affect their health if not addressed properly. Some patients may not be well educated about the effects of some medical treatments and procedures on the validity of their fast, which can unnecessarily lead to suboptimal management of their conditions or treatment nonadherence. Since spirituality, religiosity, and personal beliefs affect patients' health behaviors and adherence to treatments, health-care providers need to learn how fasting Ramadan can affect the health of their Muslim patients, especially those with chronic medical conditions, and how to help them achieve safe fasting. This article aims to provide an overview of the main topics that primary care physicians may need to know in order to improve their cultural competence when caring for their fasting Muslim patients. PMID:28791239
BouJaoude, Saouma; Wiles, Jason R.; Asghar, Anila; Alters, Brian
In this study, we investigated distinctions among the diversity of religious traditions represented by Lebanese and Egyptian Muslim high school students regarding their understanding and acceptance of biological evolution and how they relate the science to their religious beliefs. We explored secondary students' conceptions of evolution among…
Muslim boys, once regarded as passive, hard working and law-abiding, have been recast in the public imagination in recent years. Now the stereotypical image is of volatile, aggressive hotheads who are in danger of being brainwashed into terrorism, or of would-be gangsters who are creating no-go areas in English towns and cities. This timely and…
Faith identity is emerging as significant for Muslim students in the post 9/11 scenario, with implications for their education and wider social cohesion. This poses challenges to school leaders, raising issues not only linked to student achievement and performance, but also with regard to students' identity constructions and their educational…
Much educational literature and professional development deals with issues of African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native American, and low-income groups. However, religious diversity is rarely discussed among educators. There is not much literature on the experiences of Muslim children and families and research on the teaching and learning of…
Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem
The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…
Ladjal, Tarek; Bensaid, Benaouda
As one of the oldest surviving educational religious models in the history of Muslim education, Mahdara remains a poorly studied desert-based religious institution of traditional learning. In its Bedouin context, the Mahdara produced religious scholars no less competent in the mastery of religious Islamic sciences than graduates of other reputable…
Hodge, David R; Zidan, Tarek; Husain, Altaf
This study validates an existing spirituality measure--the intrinsic spirituality scale (ISS)--for use with Muslims in the United States. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with a diverse sample of self-identified Muslims (N = 281). Validity and reliability were assessed along with criterion and concurrent validity. The measurement model fit the data well, normed χ2 = 2.50, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07, and SRMR = 0.02. All 6 items that comprise the ISS demonstrated satisfactory levels of validity (λ > .70) and reliability (R2 > .50). The Cronbach's alpha obtained with the present sample was .93. Appropriate correlations with theoretically linked constructs demonstrated criterion and concurrent validity. The results suggest the ISS is a valid measure of spirituality in clinical settings with the rapidly growing Muslim population. The ISS may, for instance, provide an efficient screening tool to identify Muslims that are particularly likely to benefit from spiritually accommodative treatments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Seward, Derek X.; Khan, Shaza
The researchers conducted a grounded theory study to explore the experiences of Muslim American adolescents in high school. Findings indicate that students had to navigate unique challenges because of their religious faith, but those obstacles presented opportunities to confront bias and discrimination. Recommendations for how school counselors…
Baer, Allison L.; Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Although United States citizens generally pride themselves on their understanding and acceptance of diversity, all too many of them harbor a fear of Muslims, which transformed into widespread bigotry after September 11, 2001. Knowing that young adult literature can be a powerful means of negotiating understanding of the other, this article…
Atiyat, Zareen Niazi
In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…
Limage, Leslie J.
Background for understanding the experience of Muslim immigrant students in French schools. Discusses the philosophy of equal education as equal access to the same knowledge (defined exclusively by the state and teachers); lack of teacher accountability; examination-based selection; and church-state separation. Describes government responses to…
Zecha, Stefanie; Popp, Stephan; Yasar, Aysun
This paper investigates the Islam and Muslim life in German textbooks. The study is based on the analysis of current Geography textbooks in Bavarian secondary schools. As a first step, the authors developed a system for objective analysis of the textbooks that structures the content in categories. In a second step, the authors used the qualitative…
The "pondok pesantren" education is a "traditional" form of Muslim education in Indonesia. This boarding school system can be traced back to the 18th century or further. However, it was not until 1930 that the "pesantren" officially admitted female students, beginning with the Pesantren Denanyar of Jombang. The…
Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Mohd Satar, Nurulhuda; Chin-Sieng, Chong; Soo-Kun, Lim; Abdullah, Nawi; Kok-Peng, Ng
The aim of this paper is to look into the factors influencing Malaysian Muslims' decision to become deceased organ donors in Malaysia. We approached 900 Malaysian Muslims and 779 participated in our survey, conducted in Kuala Lumpur and its suburb. We examined their willingness to become donors and the willing donors were asked why they did not pledge to become donors. Non-donors were asked why they refuse to become donors. The survey found the main reason for Malaysian Muslims not pledging their organs was due to their lack of information on organ donation and/or their lack of confidence in the government's ability to properly administer organ donation procedures. Another interesting finding is that religion is not a main deterrent to organ donation. The survey suggests that Malaysia can explore many ways to encourage organ donation without having to resort to the highly controversial financial incentive option. A key to Malaysia's success or failure to increase organ donation rate lies in its ability to persuade its Muslim population (its largest population) to donate organs. This can be done by adopting a segmented, focused, and highly localized form of public education and by leveraging on existing networks involving local religious and community leaders as well as government and non-governmental institutions.
and maci]ine tools, petrol - chemicals, agro-processing and textiles. ’’~ 14 THE NEW GREAT GAME IN MUSLIM CENTRAL ASIA Kazakhstan is well endowed...Algeria, Tunisia , and Morocco---are keeping a wary eye. But at the popular level, this pan-Islmnism has the potential to attract a considerable amount of
Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim
Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…
The paper discusses the effectiveness of Islamic spiritual and religious care based on the ethnographic research with 15 Muslim spiritual caregivers. Six themes emerged from the interviews with fifteen Muslim spiritual caregivers. These six themes describe what the spiritual care providers see as effective Muslim spiritual care: (1) The most effective Muslim spiritual care is rooted in the Qur'an and the Hadith; (2) Effective Muslim spiritual care also means creating a caring relationship with the patient; (3) Muslim scholars are one of the important sources of effective Islamic spiritual care; (4) The insights of psychology and the social sciences are a necessary part of effective Islamic spiritual care; (5) There is a need for continuing education; (6). Styles of effective Muslim spiritual care are varied.
Thompson, Anne, Ed.
The Smart Beginnings project in Arizona is designed to increase public awareness and parent education about early childhood development and family support resources. The program is intended to identify, link, establish, and expand a public/private family support system and improve the quality and increase availability of infant and toddler child…
Anandalakshmy, P N; Mittal, S
In India, a simple scoring method was used to select winners at 18 well-baby shows over the last five years in low-income areas of Kotla Mubarakpur and Gautam Nagar, in the Rajeev Gandhi Resettlement Colony, in jhuggi jhopri clusters around the All Institute of Medical Sciences (AAIMS) in New Delhi, and in the Bangladeshi refugee colony (Kidwai Nagar). The parameters used to select ideal babies were parents' age at marriage and educational status, mother's age at first birth, number of living children in relation to marriage duration, immunization status of living children, birth interval, contraceptive use, and routine criteria on general health and hygiene. Winners were chosen among infants, toddlers (1-2 years), and preschool children (2-5). Health promotional activities, maternal and child health (MCH) services, and family planning (FP) services were featured at the health camps where the well-baby shows occurred. 60-90 children and 100-2000 couples participated in the well-baby shows. Health workers explained to parents of children with a poor score why their children had a poor score. At the health camps, parents adopted FP methods and had their children immunized, regardless of score, so as to improve their score for the next show and to win prizes. The well-baby scores improved over time (24.64-31.2 for Kotla Mubarakpur, 19-24.6 for Gautam Nagar, 20.9-22.4 for Rajeev Gandhi, 20.6-23.6 for AIIMS jhuggi, and 13.6-21.4 for Kidwai Nagar). A weekly clinic operating in Kotla Mubarakpur accounted for the high initial mean score. Gautam Nagar had only periodic health services. A weekly mobile health van provided services in the Rajeev Gandhi colony. Door to door contacts were conducted in the jhuggi jhopri clusters to promote MCH/FP services. The scoring method reinforced integration of MCH/FP services. It allowed local health workers to make rapid analyses and MCH decision making. It also served as a tool to monitor the efficacy of local MCH/FP services.
Listyani, RH; Sadewo, FX S.; Legowo, M.
This research examines practices of beautification by urban middle-class Muslim women using an ethnomethodology approach. Several theories are employed in this research including the theory of consumption (leisure class), sociology of body, middle-class theory and the concept of modern Islam. Results indicate that the beautiful concept according to Muslim middle-class urban women is white skin without stains, face without wrinkles, nose sharp, eyelashes and thick eyebrows and red lips. To be said to be beautiful, they took various efforts through beauty treatment, diet, fashion and dress up. In this study also revealed that their goal to self-care is pride and recognition in front of other fellow female friends and to happy partner (husband). This shows that the consumption through the body (fashions, diets, make up) and consumption around the body (beauty treatments) represent symbolic and material ways of positioning themselves within contemporary society - thus becoming ‘visible’. The implications of this research are this study is expected to contribute information and enrich the repertoire of social science especially sociology also for the development of research on body and beauty.
Albert, Terri C; Johnson, Edward; Gasperino, Daniel; Tokatli, Pinar
Will the impact of baby boomers, as they age, be a bonanza or a bust for the healthcare system? A range of perspectives prevail, from increasing in-patient admissions capacity to accommodate the sheer numbers, to the creation of a variety of healthcare services and delivery channels that address their unique requirements. This case study presents a top 100, regional hospital's approach to this dilemma. The strategic marketing process using segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) was employed to guide the administration's planning and decision making.
A witch appears to be screaming out into space in this new image from NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. The infrared portrait shows the Witch Head nebula, named after its resemblance to the profile of a wicked witch. Astronomers say the billowy clouds of the nebula, where baby stars are brewing, are being lit up by massive stars. Dust in the cloud is being hit with starlight, causing it to glow with infrared light, which was picked up by WISE's detectors. The Witch Head nebula is estimated to be hundreds of light-years away in the Orion constellation, just off the famous hunter's knee. WISE was recently "awakened" to hunt for asteroids in a program called NEOWISE. The reactivation came after the spacecraft was put into hibernation in 2011, when it completed two full scans of the sky, as planned. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech NASA image use policy. ( http://www.nasa.gov/audience/formedia/features/MP_Photo_Guidelines.html ) NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ( http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/home/index.html ) enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter ( http://twitter.com/NASA_GoddardPix ) Like us on Facebook ( http://www.facebook.com/pages/Greenbelt-MD/NASA-Goddard/395013845897?ref=tsd ) Find us on Instagram ( http://instagram.com/nasagoddard?vm=grid )
In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center.
This book provides fathers with specific developmental theory and practical skills and advice concerning how babies grow and what they need from fathers from the time they are born until they turn 18 months. Each chapter provides information and theory on age appropriate play activities and specific information on a baby's growth and developmental…
... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10 to...
Kopelman, Loretta M
Two incompatible policies exist for guiding medical decisions for extremely premature, sick, or terminally ill infants, the Best Interests Standard and the newer, 20-year old "Baby Doe" Rules. The background, including why there were two sets of Baby Doe Rules, and their differences with the Best Interests Standard, are illustrated. Two defenses of the Baby Doe Rules are considered and rejected. The first, held by Reagan, Koop, and others, is a "right-to-life" defense. The second, held by some leaders of the American Academy of Pediatrics, is that the Baby Doe Rules are benign and misunderstood. The Baby Doe Rules should be rejected since they can thwart compassionate and individualized decision-making, undercut duties to minimize unnecessary suffering, and single out one group for treatment adults would not want for themselves. In these ways, they are inferior to the older Best Interests Standard. A "negative" analysis of the Best Interests Standard is articulated and defended for decision-making for all incompetent individuals.
Wilson, A L; Witzke, D B; Volin, A
Discussion concerning spoiling a baby frequently takes place in pediatric-care settings and may occur without a clear understanding of how parents define the word "spoil" when baby care is discussed. This study presents data from 531 parents asked to respond to a questionnaire on spoiling babies. The majority of mothers and fathers believe a baby can be spoiled, but considerable variation exists in perceptions of how this takes place, what a spoiled baby is like, and the present and future effects of spoiling. The younger and less educated parents have more rigid and negative views about the effects of spoiling babies.
Poling, Devereaux A.; Hupp, Julie M.
The authors designed an active learning project for a child development course in which students apply core concepts to a hypothetical baby they "raise" during the term. Students applied developmental topics to their unique, developing child. The project fostered student learning and enthusiasm for the material. The project's versatility makes it…
Ashcroft, Jennifer; Haberichter, Mareike; Krusch, Steffen
We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as the standard baby Skyrme model must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons while at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I
Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p < 0.01) and modesty levels (OR = 1.4, p < 0.001) were positively associated with delayed care seeking. Having lived in the United States for >20 years (OR = 0.22, p < 0.05) was negatively associated with delayed care seeking. Many American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.
Psalms and Proverbs from the Bible . There are six canonical versions (the Sahih Sittah) of Hadith in Sunni Islam: the works of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu...guidance provided by God; to abolish all the Satanic forces 58 Al-Naqib, “o9.0 Jihad...Washington, DC: Center for Security Policy Press, 2010), 49. 60 Mashur, 5 61 Lopez, 45. 62 Ali, “Surah 9:5”, 438. 24 and Satanic systems of life
This paper reports a study the aim of which was to further understanding of cultural safety by focusing on the social health of a small immigrant community of Muslims in a relatively homogeneous region of Canada following the terror attacks on 11 September 2001 (9/11). The aftermath of 9/11 negatively affected Muslims living in many centers of Western Europe and North America. Little is known about the social health of Muslims in smaller areas with little cultural diversity. Developed by Maori nurses, the cultural safety concept captures the negative health effects of inequities experienced by the indigenous people of New Zealand. Nurses in Canada have used the concept to understand the health of Aboriginal peoples. It has also been used to investigate the nursing care of immigrants in a Canadian metropolitan centre. Findings indicated, however, that the dichotomy between culturally safe and unsafe groups was blurred. The methodology was qualitative, based on the constructivist paradigm. A purposive sample of 26 Muslims of Middle Eastern, Indian or Pakistani origin and residing in the province of New Brunswick, Canada were interviewed in 2002-2003. Findings. Participants experienced a sudden transition from cultural safety to cultural risk following 9/11. Their experience of cultural safety included a sense of social integration in the community and invisibility as a minority. Cultural risk stemmed from being in the spotlight of an international media and becoming a visible minority. Cultural risk is not necessarily rooted in historical events and may be generated by outside forces rather than by longstanding inequities in relationships between groups within the community. Nurses need to think about the cultural safety of their practices when caring for members of socially disadvantaged cultural minority groups as this may affect the health services delivered to them.
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala
Abstract Background: Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Materials and Methods: Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement “I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me.” Results: Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p < 0.01) and modesty levels (OR = 1.4, p < 0.001) were positively associated with delayed care seeking. Having lived in the United States for >20 years (OR = 0.22, p < 0.05) was negatively associated with delayed care seeking. Conclusion: Many American Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims. PMID:26890129
Rice, Neil E; Lang, Iain A; Henley, William; Melzer, David
The baby-boom generation is entering retirement. Having experienced unprecedented prosperity and improved medical technology, they should be the healthiest generation ever. We compared prevalence of disease and risk factors at ages 50-61 years in baby boomers with the preceding generation and attributed differences to period or cohort effects. Data were from the Health Survey for England (HSE) from 1994 to 2007 (n = 48,563). Logistic regression models compared health status between birth cohorts. Age-period-cohort models identified cohort and period effects separately. Compared to the wartime generation, the baby-boomer group was heavier (3.02 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.42-3.63; p < 0.001) and reported more diagnoses of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; CI, 1.27-1.72; p < 0.001), diabetes (OR = 1.71; CI, 1.37-2.12; p < 0.001), and mental illness (OR = 1.90; CI, 1.54-2.53; p < 0.001). Baby boomers reported fewer heart attacks (OR = 0.61; CI, 0.47-0.79; p < 0.001) and had lower measured blood pressures (systolic -9.51 mmHg; CI, -8.7 to -10.31; p <0.001; diastolic, -2.5 mmHg; CI, -1.99 to -3.01; p < 0.001). Higher diagnosed mental disorder prevalence was attributable to a cohort effect (prevalence for 1935-1939 cohort, 2.5%, vs.1950-1954 cohort, 4.7%), whereas changes in diagnoses of diabetes and hypertension and measured body mass index were primarily period effects. English baby boomers are moving toward retirement with improved cardiovascular health. However, the baby-boomer cohort has a higher prevalence of mental illness diagnoses and shows no improvement in self-rated health compared to the wartime birth cohort. There remains substantial scope to reduce health risks and future disability.
Queiruga, J. M.
In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.
Killawi, Amal; Heisler, Michele; Hamid, Hamada; Padela, Aasim I.
Background American Muslims are understudied in health research, and there are few studies documenting community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts among American Muslim mosque communities. Objectives We highlight lessons learned from a CBPR partnership that explored the health care beliefs, behaviors, and challenges of American Muslims. Methods We established a collaboration between the University of Michigan and four Muslim-focused community organizations in Michigan. Our collaborative team designed and implemented a two-phase study involving interviews with community stakeholders and focus groups and surveys with mosque congregants. Lessons Learned Although we were successful in meeting our research goals, maintaining community partner involvement and sustaining the project partnership proved challenging. Conclusions CBPR initiatives within mosque communities have the potential for improving community health. Our experience suggests that successful research partnerships with American Muslims will utilize social networks and cultural insiders, culturally adapt research methods, and develop a research platform within the organizational infrastructures of the American Muslim community. PMID:25981426
Recent popular works have represented Muslim fertility as dangerously high, both a cause and consequence of religious fundamentalism. This article uses comparative, statistical methods to show that this representation is empirically wrong, at least in West Africa. Although religion strongly inflects reproductive practice, its effects are not constant across different communities. In West African countries with Muslim majorities, Muslim fertility is lower than that of their non-Muslim conationals; in countries where Muslims are in the minority, their apparently higher reproductive rates converge to those of the majority when levels of education and urban residence are taken into account. A similar pattern holds for infant mortality. By contrast, in all seven countries, Muslim women are more likely to report that their most recent child was wanted. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship between autonomy and fertility desires.
Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J
Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.
distinction within an autonomous relationship with China, and others are integrating into the Chinese system. There is no single Uyghur agenda. The...the Uyghur groups make claims that are difficult to substantiate. Nonetheless, the Uyghur grievances against the Chinese government have old roots...multiple “strike hard” campaigns by the central Chinese government in Xinjiang simultaneously tamps down violence in the short- run but fuels a sense of
This paper examines fatherhood among the Malay Muslims of Southern Thailand (representing a minority at the national level, but constituting the majority population in the region). Traditional practices related to birth and the postpartum period are upheld as a marker of ethnic and religious identity by such groups. Building on the concept of patrescence as 'becoming a father', proposed by Dana Raphael, the data presented show how the process of assuming fatherhood develops during pregnancy and continues after birth through a series of ritual practices in which a man contributes to female postpartum practices. The medicalisation of birth in synergy with recent literalist interpretations of Islam has impacted on these practices, making it difficult to comply with the ritual burial of the afterbirth, which constitutes the cosmological and physical anchoring of individual and ethnic identity to the soil.
David Herlihy proposed "that we seek to evaluate, and on occasion even to measure, the psychological and economic investment which families and societies in the past were willing to make in their children" and suggested an alternative to both the "theory of discovered childhood [in Europe]," as introduced by Philippe Ariès and the notion of Lloyd DeMause that the historical evolution of child-parent relations in general formed a continuous and irreversible process of progress. This article shows that although we lack some of the archival sources that are essential for reconstructing the real lives of children in the premodern Mediterranean Muslim world, we are still able, with the "investment" criterion in mind, to assess attitudes toward children, at least in some defined periods of time and geographical regions.
Padela, Aasim I; Pruitt, Liese; Mallick, Saleha
Trust in physicians and the healthcare system underlies some disparities noted among minority populations, yet a descriptive typology of different types of trust informing healthcare decisions among minority populations is limited. Using data from 13 focus groups with 102 American Muslims, we identified the types and influence of trust in healthcare decision-making. Participants conveyed four types of trust implicating their health-seeking behaviors-(I) trust in allopathic medicine, (II) trust in God, (III) trust in personal relationships, and (IV) trust in self. Healthcare disparity research can benefit from assessing how these types of trust are associated with health outcomes among minority populations so as to inform intervention programs that seek to enhance trust as a means to improve community health.
Muslim conscripts into effective soldiers. The types of problems that a Muslim conscript presents for the Soviet military can be narrowed to two categories ... categories : ability and reliability. ETHNICITY AND DEMOGRAPHICS The major Soviet Muslim ethnic groups are creations of the Soviet regime, dating back to...avoid such embarrassments in the future. viii SOVIET MILITARY REFORM The predominantly coercive type of compliance previously used by the Soviet military
There has been an increasing medical interest in Muslim religious practices in promoting well-being. Central to Muslim religious practices are salat (prayer) and dhikr (chanting). These two religious forms may be argued as comprising elements of mind/body medicine due to their positive effect on the psychoneuroimmunological response. The aim of this article was to further understand the mind/body aspects of Muslim salat and dhikr.
Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D
The admission of an infant to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can produce significant stress for mothers and may contribute to a difficult transition following discharge. Past research has primarily focused on Caucasian women. Mexican-Americans are the fastest growing ethnic population in the U.S. with the highest fertility rate; therefore, the purpose of this grounded theory study was to gain a better understanding of the NICU experience for Mexican-American mothers. Fifteen women were recruited and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. A theoretical model, taking care of my baby, was developed. The mothers' experiences began with the unexpected event of having an infant admitted to the NICU and played out in a context that fluctuated between being supportive (making meaningful connections) or inhibitive (struggling to mother). The women developed strategies to help them take care of their babies during the NICU stay: balancing responsibilities, leaving part of me with my baby, and watching over. The process concluded in one of two ways: bringing my baby home or losing my baby. These findings offer insight for neonatal nurses who provide care for Mexican-American NICU mothers and may help inform their practice. Further research is needed with this growing population to ensure supportive nursing care and influence positive outcomes.
Wallois, F; Vecchierini, M-F; Héberlé, C; Walls-Esquivel, E
EEG recording techniques in early premature babies are not very different from those used for full-term neonates. Here, we emphasise the most important points: asepsis precautions, full knowledge of the clinical data and drug therapies, the fundamental role of a well-trained technician in supervising the EEG recording and monitoring the baby. The best electrode positions, the most informative montages and their standardisation between neurophysiological laboratories, are suggested. Artifact detection constitutes an important aspect of EEG signal analysis in preterm babies of less than 30 weeks. It is obviously necessary to discriminate between meaningful information and artefacts. The complexity of the signal in neonates makes artifact detection difficult. We present some characteristic features and describe some methods for eliminating them. We underline the positive aspect of some artifacts and their clinical use. We emphasise the crucial role of the technicians.
... Release Thursday, June 1, 2017 Baby teeth link autism and heavy metals, NIH study suggests Cross-section ... Sinai Health System Baby teeth from children with autism contain more toxic lead and less of the ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Babies & Preschoolers What's in this article? Step ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 7 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 7 Months Print en ...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 11 Months KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Baby's Hearing, Vision, and Other Senses: 11 Months Print en ...
LeRouge, Cynthia M; Tao, Donghua; Ohs, Jennifer; Lach, Helen W; Jupka, Keri; Wray, Ricardo
"Baby Boomers" (adults born between the years of 1946 and 1964) make up the largest segment of the population in many countries, including the United States (about 78 million Americans) . As Baby Boomers reach retirement age and beyond, many will have increasing medical needs and thus demand more health care resources that will challenge the healthcare system. Baby Boomers will likely accelerate the movement toward patient self-management and prevention efforts. Consumer Health Information Technologies (CHIT) hold promise for empowering health consumers to take an active role in health maintenance and disease management, and thus, have the potential to address Baby Boomers' health needs. Such innovations require changes in health care practice and processes that take into account Baby Boomers' personal health needs, preferences, health culture, and abilities to use these technologies. Without foundational knowledge of barriers and opportunities, Baby Boomers may not realize the potential of these innovations for improving self-management of health and health outcomes. However, research to date has not adequately explored the degree to which Baby Boomers are ready to embrace consumer health information technology and how their unique subcultures affect adoption and diffusion. This position paper describes an ecological conceptual framework for understanding and studying CHIT aimed at satisfying the personal health needs of Baby Boomers. We explore existing literature to provide a detailed depiction of our proposed conceptual framework, which focuses characteristics influencing Baby Boomers and their Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) and potential information problems. Using our ecological framework as a backdrop, we provide insight and implications for future research based on literature and underlying theories represented in our model.
LeRouge, Cynthia M.; Tao, Donghua; Ohs, Jennifer; Lach, Helen W.; Jupka, Keri; Wray, Ricardo
“Baby Boomers” (adults born between the years of 1946 and 1964) make up the largest segment of the population in many countries, including the United States (about 78 million Americans) . As Baby Boomers reach retirement age and beyond, many will have increasing medical needs and thus demand more health care resources that will challenge the healthcare system. Baby Boomers will likely accelerate the movement toward patient self-management and prevention efforts. Consumer Health Information Technologies (CHIT) hold promise for empowering health consumers to take an active role in health maintenance and disease management, and thus, have the potential to address Baby Boomers' health needs. Such innovations require changes in health care practice and processes that take into account Baby Boomers' personal health needs, preferences, health culture, and abilities to use these technologies. Without foundational knowledge of barriers and opportunities, Baby Boomers may not realize the potential of these innovations for improving self-management of health and health outcomes. However, research to date has not adequately explored the degree to which Baby Boomers are ready to embrace consumer health information technology and how their unique subcultures affect adoption and diffusion. This position paper describes an ecological conceptual framework for understanding and studying CHIT aimed at satisfying the personal health needs of Baby Boomers. We explore existing literature to provide a detailed depiction of our proposed conceptual framework, which focuses characteristics influencing Baby Boomers and their Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) and potential information problems. Using our ecological framework as a backdrop, we provide insight and implications for future research based on literature and underlying theories represented in our model. PMID:29546084
Steyn, Erika; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris
Many of the 15 million premature babies born worldwide every year survive because of advanced medical interventions. Their parents have intense experiences when their babies are in the intensive care unit (ICU), and these have an impact on their thoughts, feelings and relationships, including their relationships with their premature babies. The aim of the study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of parents of premature babies in an ICU. Research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. A purposive sample of parents with premature babies in an ICU in a private hospital in Johannesburg Gauteng in South Africa was used. Eight parents, four mothers and four fathers, married and either Afrikaans or English-speaking, were included in the study. Data were collected by conducting in-depth phenomenological interviews with them and making use of field notes. Trustworthiness was ensured by implementing the strategies of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice were adhered to throughout the research process. Thematic analyses were utilised to analyse the data. Two themes in the experiences of parents with premature babies in ICU became apparent. Parents experienced thoughts, emotions and hope while their premature babies were in the ICU as well as challenges in their relationships and these challenges influenced their experiences. Mindfulness of intensive care nurses should be facilitated so that intensive care nurses can promote the mental health of parents with premature babies in the ICU. Parents with premature babies in the ICU have thoughts and emotional experiences which include hope and they affect parents' relationships.
Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez
This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…
... anemia, prevalent among African Americans. 8 Great Information Sources About Baby and You 1. medlineplus.gov —"Teenage Pregnancy" and a vast array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. 2. www.kidshealth.org —"Exercising During ...
Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)
Cooper, Grace C.
This illustrated booklet on infant growth and development from 3 to 6 months of age is part of a self-instructional curriculum on parenting and child development for school-age mothers. Physical, motor, and social-emotional development of the infant are discussed, with emphasis on possible individual differences in babies. The emotional and social…
Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.
Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal…
... it's also OK if you miss the way things were before the baby came. If you feel left out or need some attention, tell your mom or dad. Also be sure to tell a parent if you're having trouble getting your homework done or you're not getting enough sleep. Before ...
Science News, 1977
Data for the period September 1976 through April 1977 indicate a rise in the United States birth rate; however, the rate is still below the replacement level. It is speculated that the increase is an "echo" effect to the post-World War II baby boom which peaked in 1957. (SL)
Hsu, Chen-chin; And Others
Investigated the usefulness of Carey's Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire in the Chinese culture and used the questionnaire to assess the temperamental characteristics of Chinese babies. While the general pattern of results resembled data from Carey's American sample, differences were found, which could be interpreted in terms of response…
Honig, Alice Sterling
It is important to understand that babies differ in temperament. Some are sensationally exuberant and loud. Others are more withdrawn and quiet. Babies also differ in tempo and style. Some eat with gusto. Others deliberately scoop a bit of cooked cereal onto a spoon and slowly munch on their food. Helping a baby learn to modulate voice tones means…
Junior League of St. Paul, MN.
Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…
Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.
Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…
Gordon, Ira J.
This non-technical book for parents discusses aspects of child care and family relations from the time of the baby's conception through the first year of its life, emphasizing ways of developing effective parent-child interaction. Topics covered include: preparing emotionally and physically for a baby; ways to "get to know" the baby during the…
This article discusses the vulnerability of U.S. professors of Islamic and Near Eastern studies, particularly if they are of Muslim origin. The author, a scholar of subjects related to literatures and cultures of the Muslim world, who is herself of Muslim origin, has found it more difficult in recent years to bring many topics to the classroom.…
Research on UK government counter-terrorism measures has claimed that Muslims are treated as a 'suspect community'. However, there is limited research exploring the divisive effects that membership of a 'suspect community' has on relations within Muslim communities. Drawing from interviews with British Muslims living in Leeds or Bradford, I address this gap by explicating how co-option of Muslim community members to counter extremism fractures relations within Muslim communities. I reveal how community members internalize fears of state targeting which precipitates internal disciplinary measures. I contribute the category of 'internal suspect body' which is materialized through two intersecting conditions within preventative counter-terrorism: the suspected extremist for Muslims to look out for and suspected informer who might report fellow Muslims. I argue that the suspect community operates through a network of relations by which terrors of counter-terrorism are reproduced within Muslim communities with divisive effects. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.
this paper explores changing messages about place of birth offered to women by Mother and Baby magazine, a UK publication aimed at a general readership DESIGN: the research uses an historical perspective to explore changing messages about place of birth in Mother and Baby magazine between 1956-1992. It analyses the content and medium of the magazine through a narrative and semiotic approach. the UK between the mid-1950s and 1990s. The period was a time of significant change in the maternity services, at both a philosophical and organisational level with a move towards hospital rather than home birth and a dominant discourse which privileged medical models of care over social ones. producers and consumers of Mother and Baby magazine FINDINGS: Mother and Baby moved from an assumption of home birth to a focus on hospital birth, reflecting national changes in policy. The magazine moved from a social to a risk focused medical view of birth, with an emphasis on the safety of the baby and the sacrifice of the mother. These changes can be traced through both the organisation and the language of content between 1956 and 1992. However, home birth was always offered to readers as a viable, if increasingly niche, option. This reflected the magazine's need to appeal to its readers as consumers; both in consumption of the magazine and of maternity care. the evidence suggests that Mother and Baby magazine mirrored elements of the prevailing policy discourse around place of birth. However, it always gave space to other narratives. In doing so it reminds us of the complexity about how messages about labour and birth are told and received. It gives insight into ways in which the media lead and reflect change and the impact this might have on decision making by women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lenell, Amy; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura
Well Babies at Walgreens is a unique community-based corporate partnership program that offers breastfeeding support by a lactation professional in a private room at the pharmacy. Walgreens is a community pharmacy chain with more than 8000 locations in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands. The primary goal of Well Babies is to support breastfeeding women using a model that is expandable to other Walgreens pharmacy sites. The Well Babies program offers drop-in services, with a professional consultation by a lactation consultant and baby weight check, if desired. Well Babies creators are developing a business plan for Walgreens and a toolkit that would help other stores implement the program. An additional goal is to improve continuity of care for breastfeeding by engaging pharmacists as vital members of the health care team. Offering breastfeeding support at a pharmacy improves access and encourages support persons to attend while simultaneously allowing the family to complete other errands. This initiative included education for pharmacists to improve the recommendations they make for breastfeeding mothers and to improve awareness among pharmacists of the benefits associated with breastfeeding and the need to preserve the breastfeeding relationship. The first drop-in location opened in April 2012. Grant funding from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, awarded to the Indiana State Department of Health, made it possible to open a second drop-in location in June 2013. Future plans include developing an employee lactation program and expanding Well Babies at Walgreens at other store locations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Karadag, Ayise; Baykara, Zehra Göçmen
Colostomy irrigation (CI) is a bowel management method in individuals with permanent colostomy, as an alternative to pouch use, which may provide continence. CI helps the individuals with an artificial stoma to adjust to the stoma and may increase their quality of life (QOL). An uncontrolled intestinal gas discharge invalidates ablution, and noisy gas discharge and smell prevents congregational prayers, which cause problems to Muslims with stomas. Therefore, CI may be an appropriate solution for this patient group. Using the example of one affected individual we discuss how the praying problem can be resolved with teaching to self-perform CI and emphasize the beneficial effects on QOL.
Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag
In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.
As part of a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on care of the preterm newborn. An estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and the survival gap between those born in high and low income countries is widening, with one million deaths a year due to direct complications of preterm birth, and around one million more where preterm birth is a risk factor, especially amongst those who are also growth restricted. Most premature babies (>80%) are between 32 and 37 weeks of gestation, and many die needlessly for lack of simple care. We outline a series of packages of care that build on essential care for every newborn comprising support for immediate and exclusive breastfeeding, thermal care, and hygienic cord and skin care. For babies who do not breathe at birth, rapid neonatal resuscitation is crucial. Extra care for small babies, including Kangaroo Mother Care, and feeding support, can halve mortality in babies weighing <2000 g. Case management of newborns with signs of infection, safe oxygen management and supportive care for those with respiratory complications, and care for those with significant jaundice are all critical, and are especially dependent on competent nursing care. Neonatal intensive care units in high income settings are de-intensifying care, for example increasing use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and this makes comprehensive preterm care more transferable. For health systems in low and middle income settings with increasing facility births, district hospitals are the key frontier for improving obstetric and neonatal care, and some large scale programmes now include specific newborn care strategies. However there are still around 50 million births outside facilities, hence home visits for mothers and newborns, as well as women's groups are crucial for reaching these families, often the poorest. A fundamental challenge is improving programmatic tracking data for coverage and quality, and measuring disability
Drawing upon Islamic epistemology to confront the challenges of a postcolonial world, some European Muslims are rejecting existing educational provision, seeking to formulate culturally-coherent pedagogy. This paper contributes to the debate on Islamic schools in Britain through the findings of a qualitative study of a British Muslim community…
Khan, Shabnam Syed
This hermeneutically crafted qualitative study examines how six university-educated middle-class Pakistani Muslim women negotiate the competing expectations of traditional Muslim culture and the emancipated ethos of the university. It uses Robert Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, whose Subject-Object scoring system distinguishes a…
This dissertation manuscript reports on a study that explored the ways in which the focal children in three Muslim immigrant families enacted identity by way of literacy practice. This study set out to construct a better understanding of Muslim American immigrant families by providing a "thick description" of their identity performance…
In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true…
Miklancie, Margaret A
You have been a nurse for many years, yet you have never cared for a patient who practices Islam until now. You are assigned to a Muslim family for a home visit. What aspects about Muslim beliefs and way of life might be helpful to know before your visit?
This article deals with the results and further consequences of my empirical investigation of Christian-Muslim families and their children in Germany. It gives an insight into the religious world of 4- to 12-year-old children in Christian-Muslim families through the analysis of evaluated interviews and drawings concerning religious practice and…
Gieling, Maike; Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel
This research, conducted in the Netherlands, examines whether native adolescents' tolerance of practices by Muslim immigrants (e.g., the founding of Islamic schools) is affected by the type of considerations (e.g., educational freedom vs. integration of Muslims in Dutch society). Using an experimental questionnaire design (N = 970), the findings…
Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai
The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…
Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan
Muslim education is not incommensurate with multiculturalism and, hence, does not pose a threat to multiculturalism at all. If Muslim education were to be perceived as a risk to multiculturalism then either such a form of education is not conceived appropriately or the claims of multiculturalism are false. Instead, the authors argue that Muslim…
Naji Amrani, Imane
The need to understand how Muslim students experience college is a growing concern, given the number of incidents that indicate a hostile environment after the events of September 11, and the subsequent war against terror. Muslim graduate students are more visible on campuses across the United States. This study examines the experiences of Muslim…
Hate crimes and incidents of bias against US Muslims have soared to their highest levels since the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, according to data collected by the FBI and other organizations. As Muslim youth search for a sense of security, counselors on both sides of the desk are called to ensure their institutions remain safe and…
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Bikmen, Nida; Mir, Madeeha; Fine, Michelle; Zaal, Mayida; Katsiaficas, Dalal
This mixed methods study explored dual identification among Muslim-American emerging adults of immigrant origin. A closer look was taken at the relationship between American and Muslim identifications and how this relationship was influenced by experiences of discrimination, acculturative and religious practices, and whether it varied by gender.…
There is growing media interest in how lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) Muslims negotiate their seemingly incompatible religious and sexual identities. Thus, there is a need to investigate how some LGBT Muslims utilise Islam as a resource for alternative pedagogical strategies to reconcile their personal beliefs and values. Their…
Kaushal, Neeraj; Kaestner, Robert; Reimers, Cordelia
We investigated whether the September 11, 2001 terrorists' attacks had any effect on employment, earnings, and residential mobility of first- and second-generation Arab and Muslim men in the United States. We find that September 11th did not significantly affect employment and hours of work of Arab and Muslim men, but was associated with a 9-11…
Possamai, Adam; Dunn, Kevin; Hopkins, Peter; Worthington, Lisa; Amin, Faroque
Although there has been much research about the growing ethnic and religious diversity on university campuses across the world, relatively little is known about the religious and cultural experiences of Muslim students on university campuses in Australia. We draw upon an analysis of a questionnaire that was completed by 323 Muslim students who…
The article will discuss Islamic philosophy of education to explain the role and aims of education for the Muslim "Ummah" (Community). It will then debate the needs of the UK Muslims with regard to the education of their children in the context of multi-locationality, and associated challenges of bringing up children while living between…
In the course of reviewing a recent quantitative survey of approximately 1300 Swedish youths on subjects like religion and leisure activities, I came across a finding which seemed intriguing to me: some 50% of those identifying themselves as Muslims reported that they confided in their teachers (compared to only 5% of non-Muslims) for help with…
This article suggests that the secular norms which influence much of the Swedish school system silence the voices and experiences of young Muslims who also attend Islamic supplementary education. It is based on interviews with 20 Muslim students in Sweden who reflected on their experiences of attending supplementary Islamic education in parallel…
Theorizations on Western Muslim identity that are multi-layered and grounded in actual Western Muslim experiences are hard to find. Two exceptions to this are "The Road to Mecca" by Muhammad Asad (1954/2005), and "Islam is a Foreign Country" by Zareena Grewal (2014), rich texts that span across six decades. Asad's classic…
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Katsiaficas, Dalal
The attacks on September 11, 2001, changed the lives of all Americans. For many immigrant Muslims in the United States this meant dealing with an elevated amount of discrimination. This study investigated how perceived discrimination influenced levels of community engagement among Muslim American emerging adults and whether it varied by gender.…
Ali, Lutfiye; Sonn, Christopher C.
Contemporary anti-Islamic discourses in Australia construct Islam as an uncivilised belief system and its Muslim followers as homogenous unassimilable Others. Within these discourses, the diversity among Muslim women has been overshadowed, and they are constructed as a monolithic "veiled" woman. Drawing on 20 conversational interviews…
Torres, Heidi J.
There are few empirical studies that examine the depiction of Muslims in children's literature. Given the influence of US media on perspectives of Muslims (Jackson, 2010), and the pervasive use of children's literature in American schools, it is important to investigate what viewpoints about Islam are being communicated to children through these…
Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress in part. In…
The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…
Saleemi, Abdul Hamid
This research examined two separate but related issues in Nigerian education. One, it attempted to assess the impact of Islamic and Western-type institutions upon the acquisition of religious knowledge and performance of religious duties among Hausa Muslim youth. Second, it addressed itself to measuring the religious devoutness of Muslims by…
This article describes a collaborative research project that took place in two south-western US border towns and sought to understand how four "muslim" girls (age 14-17) expressed and negotiated their bodily learning experiences. Drawing on both the work of "arab-muslim" critical feminist Fatima Mernissi who utilized classical Islamic tools of…
Eraqi, Monica M.
Arab-Americans and Muslim-Americans live within the United States surrounded by misconceptions about their culture and religion, in part because of the limited inclusion of positive contributions by these groups within the social studies curriculum. This article attempts to highlight Arab-American and Muslim-American contributions within the U.S.…
Islam is the fastest growing faith in the Republic of Ireland, with the number of adherents reported in 2012 at 50,000. However, despite this number there are only three Muslim primary schools. Empirical research on Muslim schools in Ireland is currently very limited. This article aims to provide insight and understanding into the role of ethos as…
This paper is concerned with the experiences of Muslim students attending secondary schools and an elite university in England. The research explores how Muslim young men's identities are defined by their social and cultural locations. It is argued that identity is multi-dimensional. It intersects and overlaps with several categories of difference…
Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS). Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group), multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months) that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine). The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier
As ethnic diversity rises across Europe, the Left faces a trade-off between incorporating new minorities while retaining support from settled, working-class voters. Focusing on the Labour Party’s selection of Muslims and employing a dataset containing over 42,000 local election candidates in England, this article argues that inclusion is less likely where core voters are most concerned about the representation of Muslims’ material and religious interests: economically deprived areas with sizable Muslim populations. It shows that in these areas Muslim candidates underperform at the polls and Labour Parties are less likely to choose Muslim candidates here as a result. Selection thus varies based on the economic and cultural threats that Muslim representation poses to the Left’s core constituency. These findings contribute to our understanding of the forces that shape ethnic minority political incorporation across contexts. PMID:24634537
Fok, T F; Hon, K L; So, H K; Ng, P C; Wong, E; Lee, A K Y; Chang, A
To provide a database of the auricular measurements of Chinese infants born in Hong Kong. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 2384 healthy singleton, born consecutively at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Union Hospital from October 1998 to September 2000, were included in the study. The range of gestation was 33-42 weeks. Measurements included ear width (EW), ear length (EL) and ear position (EP). The data show generally higher values for males in the parameters measured. When compared with previously published data for Caucasian and Jordanian term babies, Chinese babies have shorter EL. The ears were within normal position in nearly all our infants. The human ear appears to grow in a remarkably constant fashion. This study establishes the first set of gestational age-specific standard of the ear parameters for Chinese new-borns, potentially enabling early syndromal diagnosis. There are significant inter-racial differences in these ear parameters.
Storr, G B; Robinson, P
Sibling prenatal classes are a natural extension of nursing's interest and expertise in childbirth preparation for expectant couples. From parents' perspective, these classes have the potential to decrease sibling rivalry and facilitate parental coping with older children's concerns about a new baby. From a nurse educator's perspective, sibling prenatal classes offer a rich learning experience for students by providing an opportunity to integrate knowledge about pregnancy and birth with communication skills and child development knowledge.
Maleville, J; Derrien, A; Boineau, D; Mollard, S; Marc-Antoine, H; Guillet, G
The authors are reporting a new case of widespread scabies in a baby. They take this opportunity to emphasize on the atypical erythematous and excoriated papular rash which sometimes may be vesicular and hyper-keratotic. This widespread eruption may mimic generalised dermatitis, pustular psoriasis and even histiocytosis X. They also underline importancy of longlasting ointment with fluorinated steroid being responsible for this widespread eruption.
A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, stares at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.
A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, shows its fear and resentment of the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.
A baby owl, possibly a screech owl, displays its wings at the photographer snapping its picture. The owl was found on the stairs inside Hangar G, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. It had apparently tried to fly from a nest near the ceiling but couldn't get back to it. Workers called an Audubon rescue center near Orlando, which captured it and will ensure the bird is returned to the wild when it's ready.
Gutala, Ramana; Carvalho-Silva, Denise R; Jin, Li; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Avadhanula, Vasanthi; Nanne, Khaja; Singh, Lalji; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Tyler-Smith, Chris
Arab forces conquered the Indus Delta region in 711 AD: and, although a Muslim state was established there, their influence was barely felt in the rest of South Asia at that time. By the end of the tenth century, Central Asian Muslims moved into India from the northwest and expanded throughout the subcontinent. Muslim communities are now the largest minority religion in India, comprising more than 138 million people in a predominantly Hindu population of over one billion. It is unclear whether the Muslim expansion in India was a purely cultural phenomenon or had a genetic impact on the local population. To address this question from a male perspective, we typed eight microsatellite loci and 16 binary markers from the Y chromosome in 246 Muslims from Andhra Pradesh, and compared them to published data on 4,204 males from East Asia, Central Asia, other parts of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, the Middle East, Turkey, Egypt and Morocco. We find that the Muslim populations in general are genetically closer to their non-Muslim geographical neighbors than to other Muslims in India, and that there is a highly significant correlation between genetics and geography (but not religion). Our findings indicate that, despite the documented practice of marriage between Muslim men and Hindu women, Islamization in India did not involve large-scale replacement of Hindu Y chromosomes. The Muslim expansion in India was predominantly a cultural change and was not accompanied by significant gene flow, as seen in other places, such as China and Central Asia.
Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul
The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)- dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper wemore » present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.« less
Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.
Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among “Baby Boomer” caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state’s non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and 12,941 non-caregivers. Logistic regression models were estimated separately for four individual health-risk behaviors—smoking, sedentary behavior, and regular soda and fast-food consumption—as well as a global health-risk measure. Results: Controlling for psychological distress and personal characteristics and social resources such as age, gender, income and education, work and marital status, and neighborhood safety, caregivers had greater odds than non-caregivers of overall negative health behavior and of smoking and regular soda and fast-food consumption. We did not observe significant differences in odds of negative behavior related to stress for spousal caregivers and caregivers in the role for longer periods of time or those providing more hours of weekly care compared with other caregivers. Implications: Our study found evidence that Baby Boomer caregivers engage in poor health behaviors that are associated with exposure to caregiving. Baby Boomer caregivers may be at risk for certain behavioral factors that are associated with disability and chronic illness. PMID:22391873
Hoffman, Geoffrey J; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A
This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal caregivers and 12,941 non-caregivers. Logistic regression models were estimated separately for four individual health-risk behaviors-smoking, sedentary behavior, and regular soda and fast-food consumption-as well as a global health-risk measure. Controlling for psychological distress and personal characteristics and social resources such as age, gender, income and education, work and marital status, and neighborhood safety, caregivers had greater odds than non-caregivers of overall negative health behavior and of smoking and regular soda and fast-food consumption. We did not observe significant differences in odds of negative behavior related to stress for spousal caregivers and caregivers in the role for longer periods of time or those providing more hours of weekly care compared with other caregivers. Our study found evidence that Baby Boomer caregivers engage in poor health behaviors that are associated with exposure to caregiving. Baby Boomer caregivers may be at risk for certain behavioral factors that are associated with disability and chronic illness.
This newspaper editorial reports that the UN Children's Fund's (UNICEF) executive director and recent US Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient believes that 1.5 million infants would survive annually if breast feeding declines worldwide were reversed. UNICEF adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes in the World Health Assembly in 1981. The code restricts direct advertising, inadequate labels, saleswomen dressed as nurses, and promotion of free samples. The Baby Food Action Network is reported to have released a report which states that baby food companies are still donating free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. The UNICEF position is that provision of free supplies is the most important disincentive to breast feeding. 81 governments adopted the guidelines, but 41 countries have hospitals which accept free samples. 28 of these 41 countries adopted the ban. The Nestle Company, which was cited 20 years age for this practice, won the legal battle and today defies the guidelines in 22 countries, including China, Zimbabwe, and Bangladesh. A US company, Mead Johnson, uses advertising on its label that shows Beatrice Potter's Peter Rabbit being bottle fed. The International Code restricts idealization of bottle feeding. Nutrician, a large conglomerate ownership of US and European infant formula companies, brazenly advertises in the Peruvian daily newspapers with photos of baby milk boxes being donated to hospitals. Dr. Derek Jelliffe, an infant nutritionist, is credited with being the first to publicize the dangers of commercialized malnutrition 21 years ago.
Salmi, Petja; Sutcliffe, Paul
The aloof baby Skyrme model is a (2+1)-dimensional theory with solitons that are lightly bound. It is a low-dimensional analogue of a similar Skyrme model in (3+1)-dimensions, where the lightly bound solitons have binding energies comparable to nuclei. A previous study of static solitons in the aloof baby Skyrme model revealed that multi-soliton bound states have a cluster structure, with constituents that preserve their individual identities due to the short-range repulsion and long-range attraction between solitons. Furthermore, there are many different local energy minima that are all well-described by a simple binary species particle model. In this paper we present the first results on soliton dynamics in the aloof baby Skyrme model. Numerical field theory simulations reveal that the lightly bound cluster structure results in a variety of exotic soliton scattering events that are novel in comparison to standard Skyrmion scattering. A dynamical version of the binary species point particle model is shown to provide a good qualitative description of the dynamics.
Alzahrani, Musaed; Ratelle, Justine; Cavel, Oren; Laberge-Malo, Marie; Saliba, Issam
To evaluate hearing in children diagnosed with shaken baby syndrome. A retrospective study conducted in a pediatric tertiary care center between 2006 and 2012. Children diagnosed with shaken baby syndrome were included for hearing evaluation by conventional audiometry, distortion product otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem responses. Twenty-eight children were included (22 boys and 6 girls). The mean age of children at presentation was 8 months (range 1-26 months) and the mean delay before audiometric evaluation was 30 months (range 1-87 months). One child was diagnosed as having a moderate sensorineural hearing loss. The tympanic membrane mobility was normal (type A) for both ears in 22 children, one child had a reduced tympanic mobility in one ear, two children had a negative pressure, one child had a functional trans-tympanic tube and test was not performed in 2 patients. This is the first study reporting hearing loss as a possible result of shaken baby syndrome. However, further studies with larger number of children would be preferable. We recommend hearing evaluation for these children to rule out hearing loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Three years ago, the Lancet’s frontispiece stated “Health is now the most important foreign policy issue of our time” and last year, the Director-General of WHO, Margaret Chan, in her opening address, to the Executive Board at its 132nd Session said “health diplomacy works”. The nascent field of health diplomacy provides a political framework which aims to deliver the dual goals of improved health in target populations and enhanced governmental relations between collaborating countries. Any government that offered tangible health improvement as a component of aid to a nation with whom they wished to develop stronger diplomatic links would have an advantage in developing a deeper relationship with its citizens. Here we suggest several different mechanisms through which such links could be developed or enhanced, including: provision of relevant health solutions, applied research, cultural alignment and the development of collaborative networks. The Islamic tradition promotes the practice of medicine as a service to humanity. Physical and spiritual wellbeing are intimately related in popular Muslim consciousness. Thoughtful Health Diplomacy therefore has the potential to bridge the perceived divides between Western and predominantly Muslim nations. PMID:24927759
Dafni, Amots; Lev, Efraim; Beckmann, Sabine; Eichberger, Christian
This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly Narcissus tazetta, Urginea maritima, Iris spp. and Pancratium spp.) and Cupressus sempervirens as the leading cemetery tree. As endemic use we can indicate the essential role of S. fruticosa as the main plant used in all human rites of passage symbolizing the human life cycle. The rosemary is of European origin while the use of basil is of Indian influence. The use of white flowers as cemeteries plants reflects an old European influence and almost the same species are used or their congeners. Most of the trees and shrubs that are planted in Muslim cemeteries in Israel have the same use in ancient as well in modern European cultures. In conclusion, our findings on the occurrence of plants in graveyards reflect the geographic situation of Israel as a crossroads in the cultural arena between Asia and Europe. Most of the traditions are common to the whole Middle East showing high relatedness to the classical world as well as to the present-day Europe. PMID:16961931
Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923
Cohain, Judy Slome
Techniques for turning a term breech baby are 1). External cephalic version (ECV) using hands and ultrasound only; 2). Acupuncture point stimulation, by needle or moxibustion; 3). Chiropractic "Webster" technique; 4). Hypnotherapy; and 5). Special exercises. Fifty % of breech fetuses at 34 weeks will turn by themselves to head down by 38 weeks. Therefore, to be considered effective, a technique for turning breech must turn the baby and keep it turned more than 50% of the time. Only ECV with an experienced practitioner has been documented to have a greater than 50% success rate at 37 weeks; in 95% of cases the head stays down. Most women experience the fetus turning by hand as quick but very painful. "Unstable lie" is sometimes used as a baseless excuse for inducing labor after the baby turns from breech to head down. (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Martín-Muñoz, M F; Pineda, F; García Parrado, G; Guillén, D; Rivero, D; Belver, T; Quirce, S
Food allergy is a rare disorder among breastfeeding babies. Our aim was to identify responsible allergens in human milk. We studied babies developing allergic symptoms at the time they were breastfeeding. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with breast milk and food allergens. Specific IgE was assessed and IgE Immunoblotting experiments with breast milk were carried out to identify food allergens. Clinical evolution was evaluated after a maternal free diet. Five babies had confirmed breast milk allergy. Peanut, white egg and/or cow's milk were demonstrated as the hidden responsible allergens. No baby returned to develop symptoms once mother started a free diet. Three of these babies showed tolerance to other food allergens identified in human milk. A maternal free diet should be recommended only if food allergy is confirmed in breastfed babies.
Eaaswarkhanth, M; Roy, Soma; Haque, Ikramul
Allele frequencies of the 15 autosomal STR loci: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D3S1358, THO1, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D5S818, and FGA were determined in two endogamous Muslim populations (Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims and Sunni Muslims) residing in Tamilnadu, India. The Loci D7S820, CSF1PO, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D13S317, D16S539, D5S818, and FGA in Dawoodi Bohra Muslims from Shiite Muslims, and CSF1PO, D19S433, TPOX, and D16S539 in Sunni Muslims were found to deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The power of discrimination of the analyzed markers was found to be high for the populations, thereby facilitating the validation and efficiency of these STR markers in human identification.
Munnik, Michael B
This article identifies a qualitative change in the diversity of actors who represent Muslims in British news media. Hitherto, the literature discussing Muslims and the media has tended to characterize media organizations as institutions which portray Muslims in an essentialized, monolithic way. In contrast, I propose in this article that the process of representation is more complex, including greater agency and engaging a wider diversity of Muslims than the prevailing literature suggests. Sociological studies distinguish between official and unofficial sources who help determine the representations that journalists employ in their texts, and I apply this to Muslim communities in Glasgow. Using qualitative methods drawn from media production analysis, including participant-observation and ethnographic interviews, I identify a shift from a 'gatekeeper' model of representing the community to that of a plurality of sources, which reveals and insists on the diversity of Muslim communities and voices. I will show why a wider range of actors emerged to speak publicly, what differentiates them and how they position themselves as representatives of Muslims. This focus on producers and on source strategies brings fresh insights into a field dominated by content analysis and a 'media-centric' approach.
Background This paper describes the results of an exploratory qualitative study on Muslim adolescents' views on sexuality in the Netherlands. Methods Data were gathered from an Internet forum on which 44 Muslim and 33 non-Muslim adolescents discussed sexuality as it relates to Islam. These discussions were subsequently analyzed for content using Nvivo 2.0. Results Our analysis revealed several issues that are relevant for the design of future sex education programs targeting Muslim youth. Apart from some expected outcomes regarding, for example, taboos on sexuality, sex outside marriage, abortion, homosexuality and conservative gender roles, our analyses showed that in cases of disputes 1) discussions were polarized, 2) opponents used the same Qur'anic passages to support their views, and 3) the authority of an Imam was questioned when his interpretation of Qur'anic passages was not in line with the views of participants. Conclusions Our findings show that current approaches to sex education among Muslim youth are likely to be unsuccessful given the rigidity of sexual norms in Muslim society. In addition, we also identified new barriers to sex education among Muslim youth (e.g. lack of respect for an Imam who opposes a youth's views on sexuality). PMID:20815921
Munnik, Michael B
This article identifies a qualitative change in the diversity of actors who represent Muslims in British news media. Hitherto, the literature discussing Muslims and the media has tended to characterize media organizations as institutions which portray Muslims in an essentialized, monolithic way. In contrast, I propose in this article that the process of representation is more complex, including greater agency and engaging a wider diversity of Muslims than the prevailing literature suggests. Sociological studies distinguish between official and unofficial sources who help determine the representations that journalists employ in their texts, and I apply this to Muslim communities in Glasgow. Using qualitative methods drawn from media production analysis, including participant-observation and ethnographic interviews, I identify a shift from a ‘gatekeeper’ model of representing the community to that of a plurality of sources, which reveals and insists on the diversity of Muslim communities and voices. I will show why a wider range of actors emerged to speak publicly, what differentiates them and how they position themselves as representatives of Muslims. This focus on producers and on source strategies brings fresh insights into a field dominated by content analysis and a ‘media-centric’ approach. PMID:29708127
Connor, Phillip; Koenig, Matthias
It is well-documented that Muslims experience economic disadvantages in Western European labor markets. However, few studies comprehensively test individual-level explanations for the Muslim employment gap. Using data from the European Social Survey, this research note briefly examines the role of individual-level differences between Muslims and non-Muslims in mediating employment differences. Results reveal that human capital, migration background, religiosity, cultural values, and perceptions of discrimination jointly account for about 40% of the employment variance between Muslims and non-Muslims. Model specifications for first- and second-generation Muslim immigrants reveal a similar pattern, with migration background and perceived discrimination being of key relevance in mediating employment difference. While individual-level effects are indeed relevant, unexplained variance suggests that symbolic boundaries against Islam may still translate into tangible ethno-religious penalties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baby massage has become increasingly popular in the West among parents and healthcare practitioners alike, with numerous studies continuing to hail the benefits of taking time to massage and bond with your baby. Newborn and infant massage is of particular interest to midwives in their primary role, helping families to bond and heal the pain of traumatic births, but now many midwives are offering baby massage sessions privately in their spare time also. Here's the low down.
Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha
It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p < 0.01) after controlling for birth weight. Exclusive breast feeding increased in all ethnic groups after Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.
Endelstein, Lucine; Ryan, Louise
In recent years religious clothing has become prevalent across many European cities, making religious bodies more visible in public spaces. This paper brings together our separate research on Jews in Paris and Muslims in London. While recognising the clear differences between these two socio-political contexts and distinct religious groups, we suggest that a focus on clothing allows us to consider some points of similarity and difference in the presentation of gendered religious bodies, particularly in situations of heightened stigmatisation. We draw upon Goffman's notion of impression management, in contexts of risks and threats, to explore how individuals experience and negotiate self presentation as members of stigmatised religious groups. We use rich qualitative data based on indepth interviews to consider how, when faced with collective stigmatisation, actors make deliberate and measured choices to present themselves and attempt to impression manage.
There has been growing discussion surrounding the phenomenon of Islamophobia in Western societies over the last few years. However, in-depth empirical research of the prevalence and patterns of prejudice toward Muslims remains scarce, especially in the Canadian context. With data from the 2011 Canadian Election Study and the 2014 General Social Survey, this study measures the extent to which negative feelings toward Muslims are present among the general adult population, and the extent to which Muslim Canadians themselves say they have experienced discrimination in recent years due to their religion, ethnicity, and culture. © 2018 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Detergents and other laundry products are generally effective and safe for all the family, but use carefully according to the maker's instructions and keep out of the reach of children. Rinse thoroughly to remove detergent residue from fabrics. If handwashing clothes, dissolve detergent before immersing hands. Wear rubber gloves if possible. Wash, rinse and dry hands thoroughly after contact with detergent. If a baby or parent has eczema, it may be necessary to try different products to see which one the client can tolerate. A non-perfumed, non-enzyme product may be found less irritating.
Maudlin, Julie G.; Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Thaller, Jonel
We focus on the recently emerging "baby culture" that is fostering a curriculum of consumption and consumerism among parents-to-be and infants aged zero-to-three. To gain insight into how the cultural artifacts, practices, and trends emerging from this demographic are shaping the way we think and act in a consumer culture, we investigate…
Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.
Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…
Okada, T; Satoh, S; Morita, N; Konishi, T; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, H; Oda, S
We report a case involving a 31-year-old Islamic male who murdered his associate under particular circumstances. We took the opportunity to test psychiatrically this man who has been diagnosed in his mother country as a schizophrenic. He came to Japan and was working as a laborer. He is an earnest practicing Muslim. We took an interest in this case because of his bizarre behavior previous to the actual crime. We are interested in the actual method of the murder in relation to Mr. A's cultural and religious background. We demonstrated the significance of the religious cultural knowledge relative to the indigenous ritual for expelling satan and the Islamic pilgrimage to Mekka (Hajj). We conclude that a cultural anthropological and religious viewpoint is necessary in objectively understanding the sources of suffering in patients with mental illness who are from foreign countries.
Doufesh, Hazem; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Safari, Mohammad
This study investigates the difference of mean gamma EEG power between actual and mimic Salat practices in twenty healthy Muslim subjects. In the actual Salat practice, the participants were asked to recite and performing the physical steps in all four stages of Salat; whereas in the mimic Salat practice, they were instructed to perform only the physical steps without recitation. The gamma power during actual Salat was statistically higher than during mimic Salat in the frontal and parietal regions in all stages. In the actual Salat practice, the left hemisphere exhibited significantly higher mean gamma power in all cerebral regions and all stages, except the central-parietal region in the sitting position, and the frontal area in the bowing position. Increased gamma power during Salat, possibly related to an increase in cognitive and attentional processing, supports the concept of Salat as a focus attention meditation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hatefnia, Effat; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Bazargan, Mohsen; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Lamyianm, Minoor; Alavi, Nasrien
Most countries in Middle East have been successful in establishing and furthering basic facilities for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of breast cancer. The rate of compliance with mammography screening, however, remains well below North American and Western European countries. We utilized the Health Belief Model (HBM) to explore factors associated with mammography screening behavior among a sample of 320 Muslim women aged > or = 35. Carrying out this cross-sectional study, we found that screening behavior was associated with older age, higher perceived benefit of breast cancer screening, and lower perceived barrier. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of religious beliefs in influencing mammography screening behavior and explaining the link between religious involvement and mammography behavior.
Habib, A. G.; Shepherd, J. C.; Eng, M. K. L.; Babashani, M.; Jumare, J.; Yakubu, U.; Gebi, U. I.; Saad, M.; Ibrahim, H.; Blattner, W. A.
Annual fasting during the month of Ramadan is observed in Muslim countries, some of which have widespread HIV infection. We studied treatment adherence and customary practices among 142 fasting `FT' and 101 non-fasting `NFT' patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Nigeria. Adherence on ART among FT and NFT patients was similar during Ramadan, 96% and 98%, and ever since commencement of ART, 80% and 88%, respectively. FT patients altered their typical daily behaviors by advancing morning and delaying evening doses thereby prolonging dosing intervals, eating heavier meals pre-dawn and on breakfast at sunset (78%), and changing or reducing their sleeping and waking times (40%). This preliminary study suggests that adherence and drug taking frequency appear uncompromised in FT HIV infected patients on ARVs. PMID:18521736
Paris, Wayne; Seidler, Rabbi Jerry H; FitzGerald, Kevin; Padela, Aasim I; Cozzi, Emanuele; Cooper, David K C
This paper is based on a theological symposium presented at the International Xenotransplantation Association's 14th Congress held in Baltimore, MD, September, 2017. The information explores the Jewish, Christian and Muslim theological perceptions and perspectives about cross-species (ie pig-to-human) organ transplantation, the genetic alterations required in the organ-source pig, and their potential to influence individual acceptance of the procedure. This work should not be considered as the ultimate word about individual theological views, but rather as part of an ongoing conversation that will hopefully lead to wider consideration and exploration of these issues as xenotransplantation science advances towards clinical trials. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohammed, Madadin; Kharoshah, Magdy A
Autopsy, or post-mortem examination, is the dissection of a dead body. It is performed for many reasons. Attitudes toward dead bodies vary with religious beliefs and cultural and geographical backgrounds. We have carried out an extensive literature review to determine the Islamic view and current practice of Autopsy, in at least four Arab countries which published their experiences. Several research articles have studied the history of Islamic Autopsy as well as the current situation and legal debates about it. The overwhelming conclusion is that data is lacking. More must be published from Arabic Muslim countries and more research done to correct misconceptions. We also recommend more application of non-invasive Autopsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Aarzoo, S Shabana; Afzal, Mohammad
North Indian Muslim populations have historical, linguistic, and socioreligious significance to the Indian subcontinent. Although sociocultural and political dimensions of their demography are well documented, no detailed genetic structure of the populations is available. We have undertaken a survey of the gene frequencies of the ABO, Rh, PTC taste ability, sickling, and G6PD systems for different endogamous groups: Sheikh, Syed, Pathan, Ansari, Saifi, and Hindu Bania. All the groups at most loci showed statistically nonsignificant differences, except for ABO and PTC traits, for which interpopulational differences were seen. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.048 to 0.617 among the Sheikh, 0.149 to 0.599 among the Pathan, 0.105 to 0.585 among the Ansari, 0.25 to 0.869 among the Syed, 0.107 to 0.565 among the Saifi, and 0.100 to 0.492 among the Hindu Bania. The average D(ST) and G(ST) values for the five marker loci were 0.0625 +/- 0.098 and 0.1072 +/- 0.041, respectively. A dendrogram was constructed using the UPGMA clustering method. Our results revealed that the Pathan and the Sheikh form one cluster, the Syed and the Hindu Bania form another cluster, and the two clusters join together (the so-called higher caste); also, the Saifi and the Ansari form a separate cluster (lower caste). The results of the genetic distance analysis are useful for understanding the pattern of genetic relationships between different endogamous groups of Muslims.
Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi
Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.
Fok, T F; Hon, K L; So, H K; Wong, E; Ng, P C; Lee, A K Y; Chang, A
To provide a database of the craniofacial measurements of Chinese infants born in Hong Kong. Prospective cross-sectional study. A total of 2371 healthy singleton, born consecutively at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Union Hospital from June 1998 to June 2000, were included in the study. The range of gestation was 33-42 weeks. Measurements included facial width (FW), facial height (FH), nasal length (NL), nasal width (NW), and length of the philtrum (PhilL). The facial, nasal, nasofacial and nasozygomatic indices were derived. The data show generally higher values for males in the parameters measured. The various indices remained remarkably constant and did not vary significantly between the two genders or with gestation. When compared with previously published data for white people term babies, Chinese babies have similar NW but shorter philtrum length. The human face appears to grow in a remarkably constant fashion as defined by the various indices of facial proportions. This study establishes the first set of gestational age-specific standard of such craniofacial parameters for Chinese new-borns, potentially enabling early syndromal diagnosis. There are significant inter-racial differences in these craniofacial parameters.
2004-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's 'birth-rate' over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer 'offspring,' and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals). Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or 'today' side of the timeline. The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away.
This artist's conception illustrates the decline in our universe's "birth-rate" over time. When the universe was young, massive galaxies were forming regularly, like baby bees in a bustling hive. In time, the universe bore fewer and fewer "offspring," and newborn galaxies (white circles) matured into older ones more like our own Milky Way (spirals). Previously, astronomers thought that the universe had ceased to give rise to massive, young galaxies, but findings from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer suggest that may not be the case. Surveying thousands of nearby galaxies with its highly sensitive ultraviolet eyes, the telescope spotted three dozen that greatly resemble youthful galaxies from billions of years ago. In this illustration, those galaxies are represented as white circles on the right, or "today" side of the timeline. The discovery not only suggests that our universe may still be alive with youth, but also offers astronomers their first close-up look at what appear to be baby galaxies. Prior to the new result, astronomers had to peer about 11 billion light-years into the distant universe to see newborn galaxies. The newfound galaxies are only about 2 to 4 billion light-years away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA07142
This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.
O’Toole, Therese; Meer, Nasar; DeHanas, Daniel Nilsson; Jones, Stephen H; Modood, Tariq
In this article, we consider the implications of the ‘Prevent’ strand of the government’s counter-terrorism strategy for the UK state’s engagement with Muslims. We argue that the logics of Prevent have been highly problematic for state–Muslim engagement. Nevertheless, we suggest that the characterisation of state approaches to engaging Muslims as a form of discipline is incomplete without an analysis of: first, differences in practices, habits and perspectives across governance domains; second, variations in approach and implementation between levels of governance; and third, the agency of Muslims who engage with the state. Through this approach we show how attention to the situated practices of governance reveals the contested nature of governing through Prevent. PMID:26877558
Khan, Ziasma Haneef; Watson, P J; Chen, Zhuo
Pakistani Muslim university students (N = 207) displayed Personal Distress, Public Distress, and Personal Defeat Reactions to Terrorism. All three reactions predicted poorer mental health with Personal Defeat being especially disturbed in its adjustment implications. In line with the assumptions of coping theory, scores on the Negative Religious Coping Scale correlated positively with Personal Distress and with Personal Defeat. However, Positive Religious Coping, the spirituality of Muslim Experiential Religiousness, and the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Personal Religious Orientations exhibited positive rather than the expected negative linkages with Personal Distress and Public Distress. Muslim Experiential Religiousness moderated associations of Positive and Negative Religious Coping with Public Distress. When spirituality was high, these relationships were negative. When spirituality was low, they became positive. These data documented the negative impacts that terrorism can have on Pakistanis and suggested that Muslim religious commitments may have an important role to play in resisting those influences.
Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Bofeng; Kang, Longli; Jin, Li; Li, Hui
There is a long-going debate on the genetic origin of Chinese Muslim populations, such as Uygur, Dongxiang, and Hui. However, genetic information for those Muslim populations except Uygur is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and ancestry of Chinese Muslims by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats in 652 individuals from Dongxiang, Hui, and Han Chinese populations in Gansu province. Both genetic distance and Bayesian-clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between the two Muslim populations and East Asian populations, suggesting a common genetic ancestry. Our analysis found no evidence of substantial gene flow from Middle East or Europe into Dongxiang and Hui people during their Islamization. The dataset generated in present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China. PMID:27924949
Alrawi, Sara; Fetters, Michael D; Killawi, Amal; Hammad, Adnan; Padela, Aasim
Despite growing numbers of American Muslims, little empirical work exists on their use of traditional healing practices. We explored the types of traditional healing practices used by American Muslims in southeast Michigan. Twelve semi-structured interviews with American Muslim community leaders identified through a community-academic steering committee were conducted. Using a framework coding structure, a multidisciplinary investigative team identified themes describing traditional healing practices. Traditional healing practices can be categorized into three domains: Islamic religious text based practices, Islamic worship practices, and folk healing practices. Each domain may further contain therapies such as spiritual healing, medicinal herbs, mind body therapy, and dietary prescriptions. Traditional healing practices are utilized in three capacities of care: primary, secondary, and integrative. Our findings demonstrate that American Muslims actively utilize traditional healing practices. Healthcare practitioners caring for this population should be aware of the potential influence of these practices on health behaviors.
Anderson, Joel; Antalíková, Radka
Denmark is currently experiencing the highest immigration rate in its modern history. Population surveys indicate that negative public attitudes toward immigrants actually stem from attitudes toward their (perceived) Islamic affiliation. We used a framing paradigm to investigate the explicit and implicit attitudes of Christian and Atheist Danes toward targets framed as Muslims or as immigrants. The results showed that explicit and implicit attitudes were more negative when the target was framed as a Muslim, rather than as an immigrant. Interestingly, implicit attitudes were qualified by the participants' religion. Specifically, analyses revealed that Christians demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward immigrants than Muslims. Conversely, Atheists demonstrated more negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims than Atheists. These results suggest a complex relationship between religion, and implicit and explicit prejudice. Both the religious affiliation of the perceiver and the perceived religious affiliation of the target are key factors in social perception. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Canadian Muslim women, as opposed to their Australian counterparts, have attained prominent social status not only in terms of their contribution to electoral politics but also in other political spheres. With its focus on the Sharia debate, this paper investigates one potential explanation for this difference. Challenging Okin's feminist perspective, which claims that multiculturalism is an undesirable policy for emancipation, it is argued that multiculturalism facilitates agency of female members of Muslim communities. A comparative examination of the Sharia debate between the two secular countries of Canada and Australia demonstrates that the former's more robust multicultural polity in terms of responding to requests to adopt the Sharia have not only culminated in Muslim women's empowerment but have enhanced their political representation. In contrast, Australian Muslim women have neither had the opportunity to articulate their position with regard to Sharia nor to contribute to an important issue that could have empowered them.
In this article the author explains the social role of Muslim woman in a postmodern society through a public symbol of her identity--the veil. The article's thesis is that the Muslim women's manifestation of their Islamic denomination through veiling and wearing appropriate clothes (in the case of men through growing beards and wearing clothes considered appropriate for them) signifies an expression of a new, Islamic shaped identity. This is a postmodern identity based on modernity rather than a fundamental reaction to modernity. The veil, a public symbol of Muslim identity, is often given a different meaning by its observers than the person actually wearing it. Therefore, the intention of this article is to analyze the elements of a particular, postmodern identity that a Muslim woman's veil, as a public symbol, represents.
Manufacturing the “Homegrown Threat” in the United States (New York University, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice, 2011), 2. 3 Petra ...Solving 4E. CQ Press, 2011. http://books.google.com/books?id=HQFBN3L7FRIC. Bartosiewicz, Petra . “Deploying Informants, the FBI Stings Muslims.” The...Demographic Perspective on the Muslim World. Springer, 2005. Jones, Seth G., and Martin C. Libicki. How Terrorist Groups End: Lessons for Countering Al
Shaver, John H.; Troughton, Geoffrey; Sibley, Chris G.; Bulbulia, Joseph A.
In the West, anti-Muslim sentiments are widespread. It has been theorized that inter-religious tensions fuel anti-Muslim prejudice, yet previous attempts to isolate sectarian motives have been inconclusive. Factors contributing to ambiguous results are: (1) failures to assess and adjust for multi-level denomination effects; (2) inattention to demographic covariates; (3) inadequate methods for comparing anti-Muslim prejudice relative to other minority group prejudices; and (4) ad hoc theories for the mechanisms that underpin prejudice and tolerance. Here we investigate anti-Muslim prejudice using a large national sample of non-Muslim New Zealanders (N = 13,955) who responded to the 2013 New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study. We address previous shortcomings by: (1) building Bayesian multivariate, multi-level regression models with denominations modeled as random effects; (2) including high-resolution demographic information that adjusts for factors known to influence prejudice; (3) simultaneously evaluating the relative strength of anti-Muslim prejudice by comparing it to anti-Arab prejudice and anti-immigrant prejudice within the same statistical model; and (4) testing predictions derived from the Evolutionary Lag Theory of religious prejudice and tolerance. This theory predicts that in countries such as New Zealand, with historically low levels of conflict, religion will tend to increase tolerance generally, and extend to minority religious groups. Results show that anti-Muslim and anti-Arab sentiments are confounded, widespread, and substantially higher than anti-immigrant sentiments. In support of the theory, the intensity of religious commitments was associated with a general increase in tolerance toward minority groups, including a poorly tolerated religious minority group: Muslims. Results clarify religion’s power to enhance tolerance in peaceful societies that are nevertheless afflicted by prejudice. PMID:26959976
Cardone, Ida; Gilkerson, Linda; Wechsler, Nick
"Teenagers and Their Babies" is a self-study and preparation guide for paraprofessional home-based visitors to engage expectant and new parents in an exploration of their baby's development and their expectations for parenthood. The guide includes service interventions--strategies, techniques, and activities--for home visitors and doulas to use…
Studies real household income after the birth of a baby reporting median child care expenses were zero in first and $6 in fourth quarter; mean expenses in fourth quarter were $210. Fertility rate of women aged 18-44 without high school education who had baby in 1988 was 87, compared to 63 for women with college degree. (LB)
Merkow, Carla H.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia
The distinct music genre known as baby music is based on the premise that infants benefit from music "re-orchestrated for their little ears" ("Baby Einstein Takealong Tunes". (2012). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.babyeinstein.com/en/products/product_explorer/theme/music/62350/Takealong_Tunes.html). We completed a…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Using Simple strategies, caregivers can learn to effectively communicate with infants through touch. This article offers suggestions and techniques for calming squirming babies of all types and ages who seem to be unable to find a comfortable position while being held. She begins by suggesting that care givers of very small babies be patient and…
Elfer, Peter; Page, Jools
The last 30 years have seen a significant increase in babies attending nursery, with corresponding questions about the aims and organisation of practice. Research broadly agrees on the importance of emotionally consistent, sensitive and responsive interactions between staff and babies. Policy objectives for nursery and expectations of parents and…
Elliot, Enid; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet
Self-regulation is a complex process that involves coordinating various systems of the body and mind, including feelings. It's not only about emotions but also about cognition. Self-regulation has an impact on social development, influencing how babies and toddlers get along with others. Through self-regulation, babies and toddlers learn to pay…
Cunningham, DiAnne H.
Scope and method of study. This descriptive case study was designed to describe the critical issues surrounding Baby Boomers and their motivations to attend community college, in addition to their perceptions of learning and curriculum needs. Additionally the study explored what these Baby Boomers plan to do after completing their courses and…
Mueller, Vannesa; Sepulveda, Amanda; Rodriguez, Sarai
Although Baby Sign is gaining in popularity, there is a scarcity of research supporting its use. The research that has been conducted is conflicting. In the current study, nine families with children ranging in age from six months to two years and five months participated in a baby sign workshop. A pre--post-test design was used to assess the…
The baby boom generation will place large demands on the Medicare program and the U.S. health care system. These demands may be extended by a large legal immigrant population that will become Medicare-eligible soon after the baby boom generation does. The U.S. health care system should be prepared for sustained stress from this again population.
Guberman, Nancy; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Blein, Laure; Olazabal, Ignace
Purpose: Many Baby Boomers are faced with the care of aging parents, as well as that of disabled or ill spouses or children. This study examines how Baby Boomers in Quebec, Canada, perceive and play their role as caregivers and how this might differ from their parents' generation. Design and methods: This was a qualitative and empirical study…
Hardy, Margaret; Oprescu, Florin; Millear, Prudence; Summers, Mathew
This study draws from interviews of baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) enrolled in a traditional university programme. Interviews focussed on the mental, social and physical benefits of university education, exploring the aspirations of baby boomers as well as the social and academic barriers and costs they encountered. This qualitative…
Gilkerson, Linda; Gray, Larry; Mork, Nancy
The authors document the conceptualization, over time, of "fussy baby syndrome" and the establishment of a Fussy Baby Clinic. Excessive infant crying (commonly called colic) typically subsides in the first 3 months but may set up a cycle of parent-infant distress. Families studied felt a high degree of emotional stress and physical exhaustion;…
Campbell, H; Gorman, D; Wigglesworth, A
The objective of this study was to assess the level of support given to breastfeeding mothers during their stay in maternity hospitals. The audit was carried out in maternity hospitals in Fife with the co-ordination of the Fife Joint Breastfeeding initiative. The subjects consisted of ten maternity hospital staff (medical and midwifery), and 12 antenatal and 21 postnatal women. The design of the study consisted of an audit of hospital policies and practices in comparison with ten internationally recognized standards. This was carried out by adapting the external evaluation instruments from the WHO-UNICEF "Baby Friendly Hospital" materials. Methods relied not only on reported practices but also on direct observation and enquiry. Action was taken to address areas of practice which fell below the WHO-UNICEF standards: supplementary feeding of breastfed babies, particularly overnight, was reduced; discharge "bounty packs" advertising baby milk manufacturer products were discontinued; a hospital breastfeeding support group was established; the hypoglycaemia policy was revised; and the need for an orientation session on breastfeeding policies for medical staff was recognized. This audit approach using "Baby Friendly Hospital' materials has helped to define policy, measure performance against recognized standards, identify quality specifications for maternity service agreements and has improved hospital support for breastfeeding mothers. This approach is suitable for maternity hospitals whose breastfeeding rates make them ineligible for "Baby Friendly Hospital" accreditation, and has the potential to be extended to encompass wider "health-promoting hospital" issues such as promotion of infant car seats.
Hey, E. N.; Katz, G.; O'Connell, Bridget
1. One hundred and seventeen healthy new-born babies weighing between 0·9 and 4·8 kg at delivery have been studied during the first ten days of life, and sixteen of these babies have been studied serially for 6 weeks after birth. The babies lay supine in a draught-free environment (air speed 4-5 cm/sec) of moderate humidity. The operative temperature was between 26 and 38° C for the babies who were studied naked. 2. Total non-evaporative heat loss was calculated from simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss and the concomitant change in mean body temperature. 3. Approximately 10% of the total body surface area was in contact with the mattress or floor. Conductive heat loss accounted for only about 5% of all non-evaporative heat loss when the naked baby was lying on a thick foam mattress, but for as much as 25% when the baby was lying in a water-jacketed chamber with a floor of clear plastic ∼ 5 mm thick. 4. Insulation to heat loss by convection and radiation varied with environmental temperature. Total specific insulation was low in a warm environment when the naked baby vasodilated, and rose by between 16 and 25% to a maximum in an environment of 31° C. It decreased significantly when the baby became physically active in environments with a temperature less than this. 5. Total specific insulation in an environment of 31° C varied with body size: it averaged 0·156° C.m2.hr/kcal in seven naked babies weighing 0·9-1·2 kg, rose to 0·190° C.m2.hr/kcal in twelve babies weighing 1·8-2·2 kg, and averaged 0·201° C.m2.hr/kcal in the thirty-four babies who weighed over 3 kg. Tissue insulation accounted for 23% of this total specific insulation in the smaller babies, and about 28% of the total in babies weighing over 3 kg. 6. Clothing ten babies in a vest, napkin and long cotton nightdress increased the total specific insulation by an average of 0·23° C.m2.hr/kcal. PMID:5503276
Alaloul, Fawwaz; Schreiber, Judith A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S; Andrykowski, Michael A
A cancer diagnosis and treatment can be a stressful, life-altering experience that can pose a threat to life and raise existential challenges. Spirituality may influence the process of coping with the stress of the cancer experience. Studies of the role of spirituality for Muslim cancer patients and survivors are limited. The aim of this study was to understand the role of spirituality in the cancer experience among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors. In this qualitative, descriptive study, 63 HSCT survivors (mean, 20.2 months) responded to 2 open-ended, self-report questions on the role of spirituality in their HSCT experience. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to spirituality. Three dimensions that helped patients cope with their experiences were identified: sickness viewed in light of belief in God, use of religious/spiritual resources, and support from family and community. Two general themes described changes in their faith as a result of having the HSCT procedure: strengthening of faith in God and greater reliance on religious/spiritual activities. Spirituality was important to the Arab Muslim survivors in coping with cancer and HSCT treatment. Muslim cancer survivors are often deeply connected to their religion. Healthcare providers in the United States and other Western countries need to be aware of the unique religious and spiritual needs of Muslim cancer survivors in order to provide them with culturally sensitive care. More research on the spiritual needs of Muslim cancer patients and survivors residing in Western countries is needed.
Isaacs, Shafieka; Geduld-Ullah, Tasneem; Benjeddou, Mongi
The earliest Cape Muslims were brought to the Cape (Cape Town - South Africa) from Africa and Asia from 1652 to 1834. They were part of an involuntary migration of slaves, political prisoners and convicts, and they contributed to the ethnic diversity of the present Cape Muslim population of South Africa. The history of the Cape Muslims has been well documented and researched however no in-depth genetic studies have been undertaken. The aim of the present study was to determine the respective African, Asian and European contributions to the mtDNA (maternal) and Y-chromosomal (paternal) gene pool of the Cape Muslim population, by analyzing DNA samples of 100 unrelated Muslim males born in the Cape Metropolitan area. A panel of six mtDNA and eight Y-chromosome SNP markers were screened using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Overall admixture estimates for the maternal line indicated Asian (0.4168) and African mtDNA (0.4005) as the main contributors. The admixture estimates for the paternal line, however, showed a predominance of the Asian contribution (0.7852). The findings are in accordance with historical data on the origins of the early Cape Muslims. PMID:23885197
Patel, Neesha R; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Rogers, Anne; Reeves, David; Chew-Graham, Carolyn
There are approximately 2.7 million Muslims in the UK, constituting 4.8% of the population. It is estimated that 325,000 UK Muslims have diabetes. Whilst dietary practices of Muslims with diabetes have been explored, little work has described the beliefs and decisions to fast during Ramadan, whereby Muslims with diabetes refrain from eating, drinking and taking medication between sunrise and sunset. To explore beliefs and experiences of fasting during Ramadan of Muslim respondents with diabetes and their perceptions of the role played by their general practitioner (GP) and/or practice nurse (PN) in supporting them. Qualitative study. General practices and community groups located in Greater Manchester. 23 South Asian Muslims. Semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the Collaboration of Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) programme, Greater Manchester. Respondents were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. Interviews were analysed thematically using a constant comparison approach. Thirteen respondents reported they fasted and altered diabetes medication and diet during Ramadan. The decision to fast was influenced by pressures from the family and the collective social aspect of fasting, and respondents made limited contact with primary care during fasting. Tensions exist between the respondent's personal desire to fast or not fast and their family's opinion on the matter, with a strong reluctance to disclose fasting to GP and/or PN. Future research needs to explore whether GPs or PNs feel competent enough to support patients who wish to fast. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Janků, Tomáš; Linhartová, Lenka; Topinka, Daniel
Authors deal with practice of nursing care provided to Muslim clients in the Czech Republic. They use the explorative research design. By means of analyses of 21 semi-structured interviews with important social actors in the area of health care (spa resorts and hospitals). The study shows that Muslims are not homogeneous in their behaviour in the field of health care. In the spa environment, three interpretation perspectives can be found: the economic interpretation of a Muslim as the source of income of the Czech spa industry, which faces economic problems, the cultural interpretation developed within the spas (the experience capital of the staff and other clients), and the (a) cultural interpretation of Muslims and Islam brought to spas from the outside (the public opinion). However, in the area of hospitals, Muslims are not separated from the remaining categories of students; Muslim patients represent a small group of persons, and their treatment being conditioned by the distance or closeness of cultures, language skills, adaptation, and experiences with treatment in the Czech environment as perceived by the staff.
Rassool, G Hussein
Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Hubert, Christophe; Groppi, Alexis; Houix, Bertrand; Deguilloux, Marie-France; Breuil, Jean-Yves
The rapid Arab-Islamic conquest during the early Middle Ages led to major political and cultural changes in the Mediterranean world. Although the early medieval Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is now well documented, based in the evaluation of archeological and historical sources, the Muslim expansion in the area north of the Pyrenees has only been documented so far through textual sources or rare archaeological data. Our study provides the first archaeo-anthropological testimony of the Muslim establishment in South of France through the multidisciplinary analysis of three graves excavated at Nimes. First, we argue in favor of burials that followed Islamic rites and then note the presence of a community practicing Muslim traditions in Nimes. Second, the radiometric dates obtained from all three human skeletons (between the 7th and the 9th centuries AD) echo historical sources documenting an early Muslim presence in southern Gaul (i.e., the first half of 8th century AD). Finally, palaeogenomic analyses conducted on the human remains provide arguments in favor of a North African ancestry of the three individuals, at least considering the paternal lineages. Given all of these data, we propose that the skeletons from the Nimes burials belonged to Berbers integrated into the Umayyad army during the Arab expansion in North Africa. Our discovery not only discusses the first anthropological and genetic data concerning the Muslim occupation of the Visigothic territory of Septimania but also highlights the complexity of the relationship between the two communities during this period. PMID:26910855
Ben Natan, Merav; Ashkenazi, Maayan; Masarwe, Safaa
Prenatal education has many benefits to both mother and child. In Israel, prenatal classes are offered to pregnant women in their third trimester from all cultures and sectors. However, Israeli Muslim Arab women often do not attend these classes. To explore factors influencing the intention of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was a cross-sectional quantitative correlational design. A convenience sample consisting of 200 Arab Muslim women completed a questionnaire based on the literature review and the theoretical model. The research findings indicate that women's intention to attend prenatal classes increases with more positive beliefs and attitudes toward prenatal education, greater subjective social pressure to attend classes, and with higher perceived control of attending such classes. The higher a woman's age and level of education, the greater her intention to attend classes. This study shows that the spouse is the most significant factor influencing women's decisions on this matter. In order to raise the intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, policy makers must design programs to increase the awareness of prenatal education among both women and men in the Muslim Arab sector, emphasizing its benefits for mothers, infants, and families as a whole. Classes should reflect the uniqueness of Israeli Muslim Arab culture and combine traditional and modern outlooks. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glocker, Melanie L; Langleben, Daniel D; Ruparel, Kosha; Loughead, James W; Valdez, Jeffrey N; Griffin, Mark D; Sachser, Norbert; Gur, Ruben C
Ethologist Konrad Lorenz defined the baby schema ("Kindchenschema") as a set of infantile physical features, such as round face and big eyes, that is perceived as cute and motivates caretaking behavior in the human, with the evolutionary function of enhancing offspring survival. The neural basis of this fundamental altruistic instinct is not well understood. Prior studies reported a pattern of brain response to pictures of children, but did not dissociate the brain response to baby schema from the response to children. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and controlled manipulation of the baby schema in infant faces, we found that baby schema activates the nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the mesocorticolimbic system mediating reward processing and appetitive motivation, in nulliparous women. Our findings suggest that engagement of the mesocorticolimbic system is the neurophysiologic mechanism by which baby schema promotes human caregiving, regardless of kinship.
Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Lin, Wan-Shiuan
Healthcare providers recognize the important role played by attachment theory in explaining the close relationship between mental health and social behavior in mothers and their children. This paper uses attachment theory in a socio-cultural context to ascertain the mechanism by which baby slings/carriers, a new technology, produced and reproduced the scientific motherhood. It further applies a social history of technology perspective to understand how baby carriers and attachment theory are socially constructed and historically contingent on three major transformations. These transformations include the use of attachment theory-based baby carriers to further scientific motherhood; the use of baby slings/carriers to further the medicalization of breastfeeding and enhance mother-infant attachment; and the use of baby slings/carriers to transform woman's identities by integrating scientific motherhood, independence and fashion. Implications for nursing clinical policy are suggested.
Alkhawari, Fawzi S; Stimson, Gerry V; Warrens, Anthony N
The worldwide shortage of organs for transplantation makes it important to understand why some oppose donation. Attitudes vary with religion and ethnicity. Accordingly, we undertook a qualitative study of the attitudes of 141 U.K. Muslim Indo-Asians to organ donation. Participants were observed, focus group discussions held and in-depth individual interviews conducted. We identified a high level of alienation from the health care system in general. With respect to organ donation in particular, its importance was generally discounted, often in deference to authority figures within the community who appeared negatively disposed. The culture-specific issues arguing against donation included a sense of the sacredness of the body, a fatalistic approach to illness, a belief that organs took on an independent role as 'witnesses' to an individual's life on Judgement Day and an anxiety that the donor would have no control of the probity of the recipient of an organ. We believe these data suggest a need to improve in a culturally sensitive fashion the provision of health information provided to this community.
Leo, Antonio; La Tegola, Donatella; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Carabellese, Felice
Multi-ethnicity has been persuading the healthcare professionals to increasingly learn new tools in terms of cultural and social skills, in order to cope with a diversified variety of patients. The coexistence of different cultures in Italy can be found in the migration flows over the last few decades. The cohabitations between individuals with different ethnicity in our territory has led the health professionals to address some anthropological, moral, religious and political issues implied in populations and cultures different from ours. Clinical literature has made us aware of the importance of correct communication between doctor and patient in order to determine the diagnostic-therapeutic plan, especially in the patients with a foreign origin due to the linguistic and intercultural differences implicated. In an emergency condition, it may occur to cure the patients neglecting their cultural identity and, in so doing, to create misunderstandings that, in turn, can lead to a lack of human relationship and frustrate the therapeutic project. An example is the treatment of Muslim people. The authors, through the description of a case observed during Ramadan, analyze the variables applying to the therapeutic decision making process.
... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...
... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four... fly traps with an approved protein bait must be placed inside a buffer area 500 meters wide around the...
... Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA'') requires the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 1508 and 1509 [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2010-0075] Revocation of Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs and Non-Full- Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product...
Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham
The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.
In much of the academic debate on the integration of Muslims into Western liberal democracies, Islam is often treated as one or the sole independent variable in the lives of Muslims. Offering to view Islam-or the understanding of Islam among Muslims-as the dependent variable, The Muslim Question in Canada discusses the influence of socioeconomic forces in shaping the Muslim immigrants' opinions, modes of thinking, and even interpretations of their faith. Drawing on this general approach, which is introduced and developed in the book using a variety of both quantitative and qualitative data, this article focuses on a school of thought within the Islamic jurisprudence known as fiqh al-aqalliyyat al-Muslema (the jurisprudence of Muslim minorities). The premise of the jurisprudence of Muslim minorities is that the lived realities of Muslims who reside in non-Muslim countries are so fundamentally different from those of the Muslim-majority nations that traditional Islamic jurisprudence cannot offer meaningful solutions for their problems. Therefore, there is a need to establish an entirely different jurisprudential approach centered around the lives of the Muslim minorities. The purpose of the bulk of jurisprudential theorization efforts in this line of reasoning is to facilitate the lives of the Muslim minorities; as well, they aim to create a foundation for the moral obligations of Muslims toward non-Muslims in such environments. I argue that a crucial element that triggers such a development is the existence of a positive relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims in immigrant-receiving countries. Souvent au sein des débats sur l'intégration des Musulmans dans des démocraties libérales de l'Ouest, l'Islam est traité comme un ou le seul enjeu dans la vie des fidèles. The Muslim Question in Canada examine l'Islam ou la compréhension de l'Islam chez les Musulmans comme un enjeu dépendent et aborde l'influence des forces socio-économiques sur les opinons des
Despite a number of contemporary theoretical works in sociology and moral philosophy arguing that the project of modern selfhood is necessarily a deeply moral endeavor, there are few empirical studies examining the specific ways in which social actors construct moral selves and lives. Utilizing ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews, this…
Despite 9/11, the seemingly endless Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the possibility of Iran developing nuclear weapons capabilities, and the Arab Spring and its aftermath, the social studies curricula of high schools throughout the nation generally put little emphasis on the Middle East and Islam as the foundation for understanding vital issues that…
Hennegan, Julie M; Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie
Objective To collate and critically appraise extant evidence for the impact of contact with the stillborn infant on parental mental health, well-being and satisfaction. Design Systematic review. Data sources A structured systematic search was conducted in 13 databases, complemented by hand-searching. Study eligibility criteria English language studies providing quantitative comparison of outcomes for parents who held their baby or engaged in other memory-making activities, such as having photos and handprints, compared to those who did not, were eligible for inclusion. Outcome measures Primary outcomes included clinically diagnosed mental health issues, standardised assessment of mental health issues or self-reported psychological distress. Secondary outcomes included poor health, relationship difficulties and satisfaction with the decision to have contact with the baby. Results Two authors independently screened abstracts, selected potentially eligible studies, extracted data and evaluated the quality of included papers. 11 eligible studies, reported in 18 papers, were included. Studies were heterogeneous, precluding quantitative synthesis, thus a narrative synthesis is presented. Studies presented high risks of bias, particularly in regard to sample representativeness, and confounder identification and adjustment. Results were mixed concerning the impact of holding the stillborn baby on mental health and well-being. One study found no significant effects, and two studies reported no impact on depression. Conflicting effects were found for anxiety and post-traumatic stress. Other memory-making activities were not found to have a significant association with mental health or well-being outcomes. Across studies, mothers were satisfied with their decision to hold their baby or engage in other memory making. Conclusions Evidence for the impact of holding the stillborn baby on mental health and well-being is sparse, and of poor quality. High-quality research guided by
In India, Hindu and Muslim differentials in fertility were examined using census data and the findings of 11 surveys. An explanation of the fertility differences was offered. The proportion of Muslims in the population increased and the proportion of Hindus decreased, both before and after partition of the country. After partition, and between 1951-71, the proportion of Muslims increased from 9.9%-11.2% while the proportion of Hindus decreased from 84.9%-82.7%. An examination of mortality and migration data suggests that these proportional changes cannot be attributed to differences in migration or mortality; therefore, they must be due to differences in fertility. Census and survey data provide considerable evidence that fertility is higher among Muslims than among Hindus. According to the 1971 census data, the total marital fertility rate for Muslim women was 11% higher in urban areas and 20% higher in rural areas than the rate for Hindus. Even when education was controlled, the Muslim rate remained higher. The findings of 11 demographic surveys consistently revealed higher fertility rates for Muslims compared to Hindus. Several studies demonstrated that these differences narrowed but remained significant when education and socioeconomic factors were controlled. Investigators generally offer 1 of 3 hypotheses to explain the differences. The 1st hypothesis attributes the fertility differences to differences in the background or socioeconomic characteristics of the 2 populations. This explanation is not supported by studies which have introduced socioeconomic controls. The 2nd hypothesis states that minority status itself is a sufficient cause of high fertility. There is considerable evidence with which to refute this hypothesis. For example, in predominantly Muslim countries, Hindu minorities tend to have lower fertility than Muslims. The 3rd hypothesis attributed the fertility differences to religious beliefs concerning reproduction. Both Islam and Hinduism are
Aroian, Karen J.; Katz, Anne; Kulwicki, Anahid
Purpose To describe successful and not-so-successful strategies for recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim immigrant women and their adolescent children for research. Design and Methods A longitudinal study of mother-child adjustment of Arab immigrants to the US is used for illustration. A panel of experts was assembled and provided culturally specific advice about gatekeepers, advertising, data collectors, data collection, and how to track and encourage participation at subsequent time points in the study. Findings Most of the strategies recommended by the panel were overwhelmingly positive, including advice about data collectors, how to collect data, financial incentives, avoiding offending families, and personal contacts. Hiring data collectors who were able to establish personal and culturally appropriate relationships with study participants was the single most successful recruitment and retention strategy. Advice from cultural experts about which gatekeepers to engage and how to advertise for study participants was not productive. Conclusions Researchers should not only assemble a panel of cultural experts to provide advice about group specific strategies to build trust and maintain cultural sensitivity, but also to budget generously for time for data collectors to build and maintain rapport with study populations who, like Arab immigrant women, highly value personal relationships. PMID:17044343
Chander Kapoor, Ramesh
Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.
Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira
This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642
Aroian, Karen J; Katz, Anne; Kulwicki, Anahid
To describe successful and not-so-successful strategies for recruiting and retaining Arab Muslim immigrant women and their adolescent children for research. A longitudinal study of mother-child adjustment of Arab immigrants to the US is used for illustration. A panel of experts was assembled and provided culturally specific advice about gatekeepers, advertising, data collectors, data collection, and how to track and encourage participation at subsequent time points in the study. Most of the strategies recommended by the panel were overwhelmingly positive, including advice about data collectors, how to collect data, financial incentives, avoiding offending families, and personal contacts. Hiring data collectors who were able to establish personal and culturally appropriate relationships with study participants was the single most successful recruitment and retention strategy. Advice from cultural experts about which gatekeepers to engage and how to advertise for study participants was not productive. Researchers should not only assemble a panel of cultural experts to provide advice about group specific strategies to build trust and maintain cultural sensitivity, but also to budget generously for time for data collectors to build and maintain rapport with study populations who, like Arab immigrant women, highly value personal relationships.
Mutia Faradillah Tukwain, Sitti; Fatimah, Fatimah; Suardi Wekke, Ismail
This research focuses on da’i (Muslim preacher) absence during Ramadhan at Darussalam Mosque Kampung Pisang that ffects its da’wah (preaching) activity schedule. The activity meant here is a routine Islamic preaching which is scheduled every night during Ramdhan by Sorong Ministry of Religious Affair. The researcher appoints three problems to discuss: what are the reasons behind da’i absence during Ramadhan at Darussalam Mosque Kampung Pisang, how the attendees (mad’u) respond to the absence and how Ministry of Religious Affair deals with it. The type of this research is qualitative research. The data are collected from researcher interview with subjected primary informants; they are Darussalam Mosque Kampung Pisang committee, the listed da’i/mubaligh on schedule, the attendants (mad’u) and Ministry of Religious Affair for scheduling matters. The researcher also conducts a direct observation on the primary informants. This research finding is significant enough to base any related party who attempt to cope with similar problem.
Islamic clerics, scholars, activists, and other authorities in Malaysia decided to lay in education for everyone as a solution to the AIDS epidemic in their country. In addition, they called on the community to be caring towards sufferers, which they believe is the way of Islam. This resolution was agreed upon during a meeting wherein religious officials recognized their role in AIDS prevention by equipping people with spiritual values and teaching everyone compassion. The resolution, however, has challenged the orthodoxy in some Islamic circles where AIDS is regarded as a "manifestation of God's punishment" which has consequently scared off many Muslim sufferers from approaching religious bodies. Religious advisers also admits that their call for full information about prevention, from urging abstinence and marital fidelity to promoting the use of condoms, still needs to be supported by individual state authorities. Among the AIDS council's future plans are to set up an information booth at a Kuala Lumpur mosque and to raise awareness in state religious departments through a booklet entitled AIDS Education Through Imams.
Mirza, Heidi Safia; Meetoo, Veena
This article draws on an analysis of the narratives of teachers, policy-makers and young Muslim working-class women to explore how schools worked towards producing the model neoliberal middle-class female student. In two urban case-study schools, teaching staff encouraged the girls to actively challenge their culture through discourses grounded in…
Physical inactivity surveillance informs policy and treatment options toward meeting the World Health Organization's (WHO) goal of a 10% reduction in its prevalence by 2025. We currently do not know the aggregate prevalence for Muslim-majority countries, many of which have extremely high rates of comorbidities associated with physical inactivity. Based on data for 163, 556 persons in 38 Muslim countries that were collected by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, unweighted and weighted physical inactivity prevalence estimates were calculated. I used two-proportion Z tests to determine gender and ethnic differences within the sample and between the sample and 94 non-Muslim countries and odds ratios to determine the magnitude of significant differences. Total physical inactivity prevalence was 32.3% (95% CI: 31.9, 32.7). Prevalence among males and females was 28.8% and 35.5%, respectively. Prevalence among non-Arabs and Arabs was 28.6% and 43.7%, respectively. Females and Arabs were more likely physically inactive than their respective counterparts [OR = 1.36 (1.33, 1.39) and OR = 1.94 (1.90, 1.98)]. Muslim countries were more likely physically inactive [OR = 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)] than non-Muslim ones, which was primarily due to the influence of Arabs [OR = 2.01 (1.97, 2.04)], and in particular female Arabs [OR = 2.22 (2.17, 2.27)]. Physical inactivity prevalence in the Muslim world is higher than non-Muslim countries and the difference is primarily due to higher rates among Arabs.