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Sample records for maladaptive cardiomyopathic outcome

  1. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  2. When Do Adaptive Developmental Mechanisms Yield Maladaptive Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses 3 ways in which adaptive developmental mechanisms may produce maladaptive outcomes. First, natural selection may favor risky strategies that enhance fitness on average but which have detrimental consequences for a subset of individuals. Second, mismatch may result when organisms experience environmental change during…

  3. Inflammatory Cardiomyopathic Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, Barry H; Hare, Joshua M

    2017-09-15

    Inflammatory activation occurs in nearly all forms of myocardial injury. In contrast, inflammatory cardiomyopathies refer to a diverse group of disorders in which inflammation of the heart (or myocarditis) is the proximate cause of myocardial dysfunction, causing injury that can range from a fully recoverable syndrome to one that leads to chronic remodeling and dilated cardiomyopathy. The most common cause of inflammatory cardiomyopathies in developed countries is lymphocytic myocarditis most commonly caused by a viral pathogenesis. In Latin America, cardiomyopathy caused by Chagas disease is endemic. The true incidence of myocarditis is unknown to the limited utilization and the poor sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsies (especially for patchy diseases such as lymphocytic myocarditis and sarcoidosis) using the gold-standard Dallas criteria. Emerging immunohistochemistry criteria and molecular diagnostic techniques are being developed that will improve diagnostic yield, provide additional clues into the pathophysiology, and offer an application of precision medicine to these important syndromes. Immunosuppression is recommended for patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, giant cell myocarditis, and myocarditis associated with connective tissue disorders and may be beneficial in chronic viral myocarditis once virus is cleared. Further trials of immunosuppression, antiviral, and immunomodulating therapies are needed. Together, with new molecular-based diagnostics and therapies tailored to specific pathogeneses, the outcome of patients with these disorders may improve. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Perceived Parental Bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Outcome in Schema Therapy of Cluster C Personality Problems.

    PubMed

    Hoffart Lunding, Synve; Hoffart, Asle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the relationships between perceived parental bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas (Young et al., 2003), and outcome of schema therapy of Cluster C personality problems and whether the perceptions of parental bonding could be influenced by schema therapy. The sample consisted of 45 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week inpatient programme consisting of two phases; the first was a 5-week panic/agoraphobia-focused cognitive therapy, whereas the second phase was a personality-focused schema therapy. The patients were assessed at pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Opposite to our hypothesis, lower paternal care at pre-treatment was related to more reduction in Cluster C personality traits from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up. Maternal protection was related to the schema domains of impaired autonomy and exaggerated standards. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition at pre-treatment were associated with less change in Cluster C traits. Perceived maternal care was reduced from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up, and more reduction in maternal care was related to less reduction in Cluster C traits. Parental bonding failed to predict treatment outcome in the expected direction, but maternal protection was related to two of the schema domains. Overall schema severity and the particular schema emotional inhibition predicted outcome. Furthermore, perceived maternal care was reduced from before to after treatment. Future studies should examine these questions in larger samples of Cluster C patients receiving schema therapy of a longer duration. Most schemas within the impaired autonomy domain and the schema self-sacrifice seem to be related to low perceived maternal protection. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition

  5. A regressional analysis of maladaptive rumination, illness perception and negative emotional outcomes in Asian patients suffering from depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanxia; Tang, Catherine; Liow, Chiew Shan; Ng, Winnie Wei Ni; Ho, Cyrus Su Hui; Ho, Roger Chun Mun

    2014-12-01

    Although illness perception has been shown to be associated with illness outcomes in various chronic physical diseases, the association of illness perception and rumination are not well elucidated in mental disorders. This study aims to investigate the mediational effects of adaptive and maladaptive rumination in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions (depression, anxiety and stress) in male and female patients (N=110) suffering from depressive disorders. The results showed that maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between illness perception and negative emotions in both male and female depressive patients. However, no mediating effects of adaptive rumination were found in the relationship between illness perception and negative emotion. Maladaptive rumination mediated the relationship between perceived identity, chronicity of illness, consequences of illness and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in males. It also mediated the relationship between perceived identity and emotional representation of illness and negative emotions in females. The results, possible clinical implications and limitations of this study are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The prediction of treatment outcomes by early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Nicola; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Herbst, Nirmal; Külz, Anne Katrin; Nissen, Christoph; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Gross, Ellen; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-12-25

    Higher levels of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and schema modes according to schematherapy by Jeffrey Young are present in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) compared to healthy controls. This study examines the relationship of EMS and schema modes to OC symptom severity and the predictive value of EMS and schema modes on treatment outcome in inpatients receiving Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) with Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP). The main assumption was a negative association between the EMS of the domain 'disconnection' and dysfunctional coping and parent schema modes and the treatment outcome. EMS, schema modes, depression and traumatic childhood experiences were measured in 70 patients with OCD. To analyze the predictors, two regression analyses were conducted considering multiple variables, such as depression, as covariates. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher scores on the EMS named failure and emotional inhibition and depressive symptom severity at pretreatment were significantly related to poor outcome and explained a high percentage of the variance in OC symptoms at posttreatment. No influence on the treatment outcome was observed for schema modes, other EMS or other covariates. The results support the approach to extend the CBT with ERP treatment with therapeutic elements focusing on maladaptive schemas, particularly in non-responders.

  7. Protective effects of aspirin from cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rong; Yin, David; Sadekova, Nataliya; Deschepper, Christian F; de Champlain, Jacques; Girouard, Helene

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of chronic ASA therapy to prevent cardiac alterations and increased oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Male Syrian cardiomyopathic and age-matched inbred control hamsters received ASA orally from the age of 60 days. Animals were sacrificed at the age of 150, 250, and 350 days to evaluate the time course of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular tissue superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production. At the age of 150 days, the ventricular weight over body weight ratio, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular O(2)(-) production were much higher in cardiomyopathic hamsters than those in control. At the age of 250 days, in addition to the continual deterioration of these parameters with age, the blood pressure started to fall and the signs of heart failure appeared. In these cardiomyopathic hamsters, chronic ASA treatment (a) completely prevented elevated O(2)(-) production and the NAD(P)H oxidase activity, (b) significantly slowed down the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Chronic ASA treatment significantly prevents the deterioration of cardiac function and structure as well as the increased oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Our findings suggest that ASA presents a therapeutic potential to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Liu, Dong-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Song, Jian-Tao; Ji, Xian-Fei; Hou, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Zhen-Hai

    2016-05-01

    In this study we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequencing of a heart failure model of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) for the first time. The total length of the mitogenome was 16,267 bp. It harbored 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 1 non-coding control region.

  9. Role of KATP channels in the maintenance of ventricular fibrillation in cardiomyopathic human hearts.

    PubMed

    Farid, Talha A; Nair, Krishnakumar; Massé, Stephéne; Azam, Mohammed Ali; Maguy, Ange; Lai, Patrick F H; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Chauhan, Vijay; Varró, András; Al-Hesayen, Abdul; Waxman, Menashe; Nattel, Stanley; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2011-11-11

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) leads to global ischemia. The modulation of ischemia-dependent pathways may alter the electrophysiological evolution of VF. We addressed the hypotheses that there is regional disease-related expression of K(ATP) channels in human cardiomyopathic hearts and that K(ATP) channel blockade promotes spontaneous VF termination by attenuating spatiotemporal dispersion of refractoriness. In a human Langendorff model, electric mapping of 6 control and 9 treatment (10 μmol/L glibenclamide) isolated cardiomyopathic hearts was performed. Spontaneous defibrillation was studied and mean VF cycle length was compared regionally at VF onset and after 180 seconds between control and treatment groups. K(ATP) subunit gene expression was compared between LV endocardium versus epicardium in myopathic hearts. Spontaneous VF termination occurred in 1 of 6 control hearts and 7 of 8 glibenclamide-treated hearts (P=0.026). After 180 seconds of ischemia, a transmural dispersion in VF cycle length was observed between epicardium and endocardium (P=0.001), which was attenuated by glibenclamide. There was greater gene expression of all K(ATP) subunit on the endocardium compared with the epicardium (P<0.02). In an ischemic rat heart model, transmural dispersion of refractoriness (ΔERP(Transmural)=ERP(Epicardium)-ERP(Endocardium)) was verified with pacing protocols. ΔERP(Transmural) in control was 5 ± 2 ms and increased to 36 ± 5 ms with ischemia. This effect was greatly attenuated by glibenclamide (ΔERP(Transmural) for glibenclamide+ischemia=4.9 ± 4 ms, P=0.019 versus control ischemia). K(ATP) channel subunit gene expression is heterogeneously altered in the cardiomyopathic human heart. Blockade of K(ATP) channels promotes spontaneous defibrillation in cardiomyopathic human hearts by attenuating the ischemia-dependent spatiotemporal heterogeneity of refractoriness during early VF.

  10. α-Linolenic Acid-Enriched Diet Prevents Myocardial Damage and Expands Longevity in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Fiaccavento, Roberta; Carotenuto, Felicia; Minieri, Marilena; Masuelli, Laura; Vecchini, Alba; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea; Binaglia, Luciano; Fusco, Angelo; Bertoli, Aldo; Forte, Giancarlo; Carosella, Luciana; Di Nardo, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that the increased intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly reduces the risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, but no investigations have been performed in hereditary cardiomyopathies with diffusely damaged myocardium. In the present study, δ-sarcoglycan-null cardiomyopathic hamsters were fed from weaning to death with an α-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched versus standard diet. Results demonstrated a great accumulation of ALA and eicosapentaenoic acid and an increased eicosapentaenoic/arachidonic acid ratio in cardiomyopathic hamster hearts, correlating with the preservation of myocardial structure and function. In fact, ALA administration preserved plasmalemma and mitochondrial membrane integrity, thus maintaining proper cell/extracellular matrix contacts and signaling, as well as a normal gene expression profile (myosin heavy chain isoforms, atrial natriuretic peptide, transforming growth factor-β1) and a limited extension of fibrotic areas within ALA-fed cardiomyopathic hearts. Consequently, hemodynamic indexes were safeguarded, and more than 60% of ALA-fed animals were still alive (mean survival time, 293 ± 141.8 days) when all those fed with standard diet were deceased (mean survival time, 175.9 ± 56 days). Therefore, the clinically evident beneficial effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are mainly related to preservation of myocardium structure and function and the attenuation of myocardial fibrosis. PMID:17148657

  11. Dual tracer autoradiographic study with thallium-201 and radioiodinated fatty acid in cardiomyopathic hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Kurata, C.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of myocardial scintigraphy with radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) in cardiomyopathy, quantitative dual tracer autoradiographic study with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed in 27 cardiomyopathic Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters and eight normal hamsters. Furthermore, 16 Bio 14.6 Syrian hamsters aged 21 days were divided into verapamil-treated (during 70 days) and control groups (respectively, n = 8), and autoradiography with /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP was performed. Quantitative autoradiography demonstrated an uncoupling of /sup 201/Tl and (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions and a regional heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution in cardiomyopathic hamsters aged more than 2 mo, while normal hamsters showed only mild heterogeneity of (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distribution without an uncoupling of tracers. Age-matched comparison between normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters (5-8 mo old) demonstrated that a difference between their (/sup 125/I)BMIPP distributions are more marked than that between their /sup 201/Tl distributions. Furthermore, (/sup 125/I)BMIPP visualized effects of verapamil on cardiomyopathy more distinctly than did /sup 201/Tl. In conclusion, myocardial imaging with (/sup 123/I)BMIPP could be useful for investigating cardiomyopathy and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic intervention in patients with cardiomyopathy.

  12. Predicting negative life outcomes from early aggressive-disruptive behavior trajectories: gender differences in maladaptation across life domains.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Schaeffer, Cindy M; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-08-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to determine whether different trajectories of aggressive and disruptive behavior problems were associated with a range of negative life outcomes in young adulthood. General growth mixture modeling was used to classify the youths' patterns of aggressive-disruptive behavior across elementary school. These trajectories were then used to predict early sexual activity, early pregnancy, school dropout, unemployment, and drug abuse in young adulthood. The trajectories predicted the number but not type of negative life outcomes experienced. Girls with the chronic high aggression-disruption (CHAD) pattern experienced more negative outcomes than girls with consistently moderate levels, who were at greater risk than nonaggressive-nondisruptive girls. Boys with CHAD and boys with an increasing pattern had equal levels of risk for experiencing negative outcomes. The findings are consistent with transactional models of development and have implications for preventive interventions.

  13. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  14. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  15. T-1032, a novel phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, increases the survival of cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hirotaka; Yano, Koji; Noto, Tsunehisa; Takagi, Michino; Ikeo, Tomihiro; Kikkawa, Kohei

    2002-05-17

    To evaluate the influence of T-1032 (methyl2-(4-aminophenyl)-1,2-dihydro-1-oxo-7-(2-pyridylmethoxy)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxylate sulfate), a potent and relatively selective phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, on chronic heart failure, we examined the acute hemodynamic profile of T-1032 and its chronic effect on the survival of Bio 14.6 cardiomyopathic hamsters. In the acute study, T-1032 (1, 10, 100 microg/kg) was administered intravenously by means of a dose-escalating procedure in 55-week-old hamsters. T-1032 significantly reduced both the right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in a dose-dependent manner. T-1032 modestly reduced the systemic arterial pressure at the highest dose (100 microg/kg i.v.). T-1032 did not change the heart rate or left ventricular dp/dt(max). In the survival study, chronic administration of T-1032 (50 and 500 ppm in a diet) increased survival, and the survival rate was 24.2%, 45.4% and 48.5% in the control, 50 and 500 ppm-treated groups, respectively. The median survival was 55, 58 and 58 weeks in control, 50 and 500 ppm-treated groups, respectively. Analysis of the survival curves revealed that T-1032 (500 ppm) significantly increased the survival of these hamsters (P<0.05 vs. control). It was concluded that T-1032 had beneficial hemodynamic effects on heart failure in Bio 14.6 cardiomyopathic hamsters, and the favorable hemodynamic changes induced by T-1032 were partly related to the increase in the survival of these hamsters. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic heart failure.

  16. The Relation between Trait Mindfulness and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has examined the relation between mindfulness and substance use, demonstrating that lower trait mindfulness is associated with increased substance use, and that mindfulness-based interventions help to reduce substance use. Research has also demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas are prevalent among individuals seeking substance use treatment and that targeting early maladaptive schemas in treatment may improve outcomes. However, no known research has examined the relation between mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas despite theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect their association. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas among adult men seeking residential substance abuse treatment (N = 82). Findings demonstrated strong negative associations between trait mindfulness and 15 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Moreover, men endorsing multiple early maladaptive schemas reported lower trait mindfulness than men with fewer early maladaptive schemas. The implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:26085852

  17. The Relation between Trait Mindfulness and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Recent research has examined the relation between mindfulness and substance use, demonstrating that lower trait mindfulness is associated with increased substance use, and that mindfulness-based interventions help to reduce substance use. Research has also demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas are prevalent among individuals seeking substance use treatment and that targeting early maladaptive schemas in treatment may improve outcomes. However, no known research has examined the relation between mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas despite theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect their association. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas among adult men seeking residential substance abuse treatment (N = 82). Findings demonstrated strong negative associations between trait mindfulness and 15 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Moreover, men endorsing multiple early maladaptive schemas reported lower trait mindfulness than men with fewer early maladaptive schemas. The implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed.

  18. Maladaptive Repetition and Career Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The role of repeated maladaptive relationship patterns established early in life has been widely studied with the goal of understanding the various factors and processes that contribute to and occur during development and psychological adaptation. The effects of maladaptive patterns have also been studied with regard to the goal of guiding…

  19. Maladaptive Repetition and Career Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The role of repeated maladaptive relationship patterns established early in life has been widely studied with the goal of understanding the various factors and processes that contribute to and occur during development and psychological adaptation. The effects of maladaptive patterns have also been studied with regard to the goal of guiding…

  20. Intrinsic connective tissue abnormalities in the heart muscle of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Gould, L.; Robinson, T. F.; Factor, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    Significant connective tissue abnormalities occurring in hearts of cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters are reported. These abnormalities include a pronounced loss of the intrinsic connective tissue skeletal framework around foci of myocytolytic necrosis within the non-necrotic myocardium. These changes were demonstrated by a silver impregnation technique, and they were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Quantitation demonstrated more than a twofold increase in the area of ventricular wall affected by pathologic changes, when the connective tissue alterations were included with the myocardial necrosis. In addition, the authors also observed focal, thick "tethering" connective tissue fibers at the termini of necrotic lesions, seemingly connecting them to normal muscle. These connective tissue abnormalities may contribute to the progressive loss of ventricular function that occurs in this model of cardiomyopathy. They may permit greater wall thinning than would occur with focal necrosis alone, and they may increase focal mural stiffness in the tethered regions. Further investigation of the pathogenesis of these changes and their mechanical significance is indicated. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3578490

  1. Alterations in apoptotic signaling in human idiopathic cardiomyopathic hearts in failure.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Charles; Afshari, Cynthia A; Petranka, John G; Collins, Jennifer; Martin, Karla; Bennett, Lee; Haugen, Astrid; Bushel, Pierre; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy, a disease of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, is associated with heart failure and compensatory hypertrophy. Although cell and animal models suggest a role for altered gene expression in the transition to heart failure, there is a paucity of data derived from the study of human heart tissue. In this study, we used DNA microarray profiling to investigate changes in the expression of genes involved in apoptosis that occur in human idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathic hearts that had progressed to heart failure. We observed altered gene expression consistent with a proapoptotic shift in the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Specifically, we found decreased expression of TNF-alpha- and NF-kappaB-induced antiapoptotic genes such as growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible (GADD)45beta, Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), and TNF-induced protein 3 (A20). Consistent with a role for apoptosis in heart failure, we also observed a significant decrease in phosphorylation of BAD at Ser-112. This study identifies several pathways that are altered in human heart failure and provides new targets for therapy.

  2. Adaptive versus maladaptive coping and beliefs and their relation to chronic pain adjustment.

    PubMed

    Tan, Gabriel; Teo, Irene; Anderson, Karen O; Jensen, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    Coping and beliefs are cornerstones to our understanding of adjustment to chronic pain. This study sought to test the hypothesis that maladaptive pain-related coping and beliefs are more strongly related to measures of patient adjustment than are adaptive coping and beliefs. A sample of 106 veterans with mixed chronic pain diagnoses in a multidisciplinary pain treatment program were administered measures of pain beliefs and pain coping, and composite scores were computed to reflect adaptive and maladaptive responses. Correlations between the composite scores and outcomes (pain intensity, pain interference, depression) were examined. Hierarchical multiple regressions were also conducted to estimate the independent contributions of adaptive and maladaptive responses. The maladaptive response composite score was found to be significantly related to pain interference and depression, whereas both adaptive and maladaptive response composite scores were found to be significantly related to pain intensity. The maladaptive response composite showed stronger independent associations with pain interference and depression after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and adaptive responses. Contrary to expectations, only the adaptive response composite showed an independent association with pain intensity. The findings suggest that the relative importance of adaptive versus maladaptive beliefs and coping may differ as a function of the outcome domain in question. The findings support current cognitive-behavioral interventions that focus on reducing the frequency of maladaptive coping responses and beliefs as a way to improve patient functioning.

  3. Maladaptive decision making and substance use outcomes in high-risk individuals: preliminary evidence for the role of 5-HTTLPR variation.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jessica W; Lichenstein, Sarah D; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-07-01

    Individuals with multiple alcohol-dependent (AD) relatives are at increased risk for substance use disorders (SUDs). Prospective, longitudinal studies of high-risk (HR) individuals afford the opportunity to determine potential risk markers of SUDs. The current study assessed the effect of familial risk and genetic variation on Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance and tested for an association between IGT performance and SUD outcomes. Individuals from multiplex AD families (n = 63) and low-risk (LR; n = 45) control families, ages 16-34 years, were tested using a computerized version of the IGT. SUD outcomes were assessed at approximately yearly intervals. 5-HTTLPR and COMT genotypes were available for the majority of participants (n = 86). HR offspring showed poorer performance overall on the IGT and especially poor performance on the final trial block (Block 5), indicating a failure to improve decision making with previous experience. The 5-HTTLPR short-allele homozygote participants performed worse than long-allele carriers, with HR S/S carriers exhibiting particularly poor performance. There was no main effect of COMT on IGT performance and no significant COMT by Risk interaction. Significantly more individuals in the HR than LR group met criteria for SUD. Importantly, disadvantageous performance on IGT Block 5 was significantly associated with an earlier age at SUD onset. This is the first study to show that both familial risk of SUD and 5-HTTLPR variation impact performance on the IGT. Poorer IGT performance was associated with earlier onset of SUD, suggesting that HR individuals who fail to appropriately attend to long-term costs and benefits during a decision-making task are especially at risk for developing SUD in adolescence and young adulthood.

  4. Decreased atrial natriuretic factor receptors and impaired cGMP generation in glomeruli from the cardiomyopathic hamster.

    PubMed

    Levin, E R; Frank, H J; Chaudhari, A; Kirschenbaum, M A; Bandt, A; Mills, S

    1989-03-15

    To determine a possible basis for the decreased action of atrial natriuretic factors (ANF) in congestive heart failure, we compared the cardiomyopathic hamster (CMH) in frank congestive failure, and the age-matched, normal, F1B strain of Golden Syrian Hamsters. Scatchard analysis of competitive binding studies revealed two classes of glomerular receptors. The CMH exhibited decreased binding overall and a markedly decreased number of high affinity receptors but comparable receptor affinity compared to the F1B. In contrast, the low affinity receptor population in the CMH had a much greater affinity compared to the F1B while receptor number was similar. Plasma ANF levels were substantially elevated in the CMH compared to the F1B and in-vitro generation of cGMP was significantly lower in the CMH. Such abnormalities could contribute to the resistance to ANF in this disease.

  5. The Role of Maladaptive Beliefs in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Evidence from Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; John, Oliver P.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs that are negatively biased, inaccurate, and rigid are thought to play a key role in the mood and anxiety disorders. Our goal in this study was to examine whether a change in maladaptive beliefs mediated the outcome of individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a sample of 47 individuals with SAD receiving CBT, we measured maladaptive interpersonal beliefs as well as emotional and behavioral components of social anxiety, both at baseline and after treatment completion. We found that (a) maladaptive interpersonal beliefs were associated with social anxiety at baseline and treatment completion; (b) maladaptive interpersonal beliefs were significantly reduced from baseline to treatment completion; and (c) treatment-related reductions in maladaptive interpersonal beliefs fully accounted for reductions in social anxiety after CBT. These results extend the literature by providing support for cognitive models of mental disorders, broadly, and SAD, specifically. PMID:22445947

  6. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  7. Role of early maladaptive schemas on addiction potential in youth.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi Bojed, Fereshteh; Nikmanesh, Zahra

    2013-09-01

    Drug abuse in juveniles is one of the most serious problems which lead to different physical, social and educational damages and outcomes. The aim of the present study is to predict the addiction Potential in youths by their early maladaptive schemas. The research sample included students of the University of Sistan and Baluchistan, Zahedan, Iran, with average age of 19-24 years. Participants were 260 undergraduate students (159 girls and 101 boys) that were selected by probability proportional cluster random sampling. The instruments were the Addiction Potential Scale (APS) and Early Maladaptive Schemas SQ-SF (short form questionnaires). The result showed that there are positive and significant relationships among early maladaptive schemas include Disconnection/ Rejection, Impaired autonomy / Performance, Impaired Limits, Other-Directedness and Over vigilance / Inhibition, and addiction Potential. Also, results of regression showed the highest Addiction Potential predicted by the following schemas: Disconnection / Rejection, impaired autonomy and performance other-Directedness. Therefore, Addiction Potential is one of the areas which can be used in planning and preventive activities, through identifying the groups with Early Maladaptive Schemas.

  8. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  9. An examination of the impact of maladaptive coping on the association between stressor type and alcohol use in college.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Isha W; Blevins, Claire; Calhoun, Casey D; Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Gilmore, Amanda K; Stewart, Regan; Bountress, Kaitlin E

    2017-07-14

    Examine the impact of maladaptive coping style on the association between source of stress (academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, environmental) and alcohol use (consumption, heavy episodic drinking, driving under the influence) among college students. 1,027 college students completed an online survey in April 2014. To test the mediating effects of maladaptive coping on the association between academic stress and alcohol use variables, indirect effects were examined using the PROCESS analytical framework for SPSS. Maladaptive coping and academic stress were associated with alcohol use outcomes. Moreover, maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between academic stress and two of three alcohol use outcomes (consumption, heavy episodic drinking). Among college students, the association between academic stress and alcohol use may be driven by maladaptive coping. College students may benefit from interventions that seek to improve coping skills, potentially alleviating the burden of academic stress and decreasing problematic alcohol use.

  10. Carvedilol-Afforded Protection against Daunorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathic Rats In Vivo: Effects on Cardiac Fibrosis and Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Arozal, Wawaimuli; Sari, Flori R.; Watanabe, Kenichi; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Veeraveedu, Punniyakoti T.; Ma, Meilei; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.; Sukumaran, Vijayakumar; Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Mito, Sayaka; Soetikno, Vivian; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Anthracyclines, most powerful anticancer agents, suffer from their cardiotoxic effects, which may be due to the induction of oxidative stress. Carvedilol, a third-generation, nonselective β-adrenoreceptor antagonist, possesses both reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and ROS suppressive effects. It showed protective effects against daunorubicin- (DNR-) induced cardiac toxicity by reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study therefore was designed to examine the effects of carvedilol on DNR-induced cardiomyopathic rats, focused on the changes of left ventricular function, cardiac fibrosis, and hypertrophy. Carvedilol increased survival rate, prevented systolic and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy. DNR alone treated rats showed upregulated myocardial expression of ANP, PKC-α, OPN, and TGF-β1 and downregulation of GATA-4 in comparison with control, and treatment with carvedilol significantly reversed these changes. The results of the present study add the available evidences on the cardioprotection by carvedilol when associated with anthracyclines and explain the mechanisms underlying the benefits of their coadministration. PMID:22084713

  11. Maladaptive Coping as a Mediator of Family Stress

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Barbara C.; Biegel, David E.; McMahon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Family members of women substance users may be at risk for stress-related problems. Family coping responses may affect outcomes for both families and women in treatment. Eighty-two women in treatment for substance use disorders (56 with comorbid psychiatric conditions) and 82 family members were interviewed. Stressors related to women’s disorders were significantly related to increased family member burden. Women’s behavioral problems predicted greater family member Worry, Displeasure, and Impact. Extent of women’s drug or alcohol use predicted greater family member Stigma and Impact. Family member maladaptive coping partially mediated relationships between family member stressors and family member Displeasure and Impact. Family member maladaptive coping also functioned as a moderator between the stressors and Impact. PMID:21499498

  12. Hydrogen gas attenuates embryonic gene expression and prevents left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kato, Ryuji; Nomura, Atsuo; Sakamoto, Aiji; Yasuda, Yuki; Amatani, Koyuha; Nagai, Sayuri; Sen, Yoko; Ijiri, Yoshio; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of sleep apnea is very high in patients with heart failure (HF). The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the failing heart and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of hydrogen gas. Normal male Syrian hamsters (n = 22) and cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters (n = 33) were exposed to IH (repeated cycles of 1.5 min of 5% oxygen and 5 min of 21% oxygen for 8 h during the daytime) or normoxia for 14 days. Hydrogen gas (3.05 vol/100 vol) was inhaled by some CM hamsters during hypoxia. IH increased the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annulus velocity (E/e', 21.8 vs. 16.9) but did not affect the LV ejection fraction (EF) in normal Syrian hamsters. However, IH increased E/e' (29.4 vs. 21.5) and significantly decreased the EF (37.2 vs. 47.2%) in CM hamsters. IH also increased the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (672 vs. 443 μm(2)) and interstitial fibrosis (29.9 vs. 9.6%), along with elevation of oxidative stress and superoxide production in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Furthermore, IH significantly increased the expression of brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, c-fos, and c-jun mRNA in CM hamsters. Hydrogen gas inhalation significantly decreased both oxidative stress and embryonic gene expression, thus preserving cardiac function in CM hamsters. In conclusion, IH accelerated LV remodeling in CM hamsters, at least partly by increasing oxidative stress in the failing heart. These findings might explain the poor prognosis of patients with HF and sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss.

  14. The Enduring Impact of Maladaptive Personality Traits on Relationship Quality and Health in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Marci E. J.; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1630 adults aged 55–64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals’ relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current paper we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality on social and health outcomes with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. PMID:23998798

  15. The enduring impact of maladaptive personality traits on relationship quality and health in later life.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Marci E J; Weinstein, Yana; Balsis, Steve; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2014-12-01

    Over the past 5 years, the St. Louis Personality and Aging Network (SPAN) has been collecting data on personality in later life with an emphasis on maladaptive personality, social integration, and health outcomes in a representative sample of 1,630 adults aged 55-64 living in the St. Louis area. This program has confirmed the importance of considering both the normal range of personality and in particular the role of maladaptive traits in order to understand individuals' relationships, life events, and health outcomes. In the current article, we discuss the explanatory benefits of considering maladaptive traits or traits associated with personality disorders when discussing the role of personality in social and health outcomes, with an emphasis on adults in middle to later life, and integrate these findings into the greater literature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Construction of Maladaptive Behavior Scale in Japanese].

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Keita; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma, Kozue; Satoh, Hiroshi; Hosokawa, Toru

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate child development, social competence, like intellectual ability, is an important aspect. The social competence of a child is prescribed by behaviors suitable for the society (adaptive behaviors) and behaviors not suitable for the society (maladaptive behaviors). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) have been widely administered to children in a semi-structural interview to evaluate social competence. The Social Competence test (S-M test) widely used in Japan is a translated version of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for adaptive behaviors. Since only the region of adaptive behaviors was translated into Japanese, we attempted to develop a Maladaptive Behavior Scale in Japanese based on the VABS to evaluate the social competence of children. The Maladaptive Behavior Scale of the VABS was translated into Japanese and back-translated to ensure appropriate translation. It was administered to children belonging to the birth cohort of the Tohoku Study of Child Development at the age of 66 months. The subjects for analysis in this study were 451 children (230 boys, 221 girls). To assess internal consistency, we used the standardized Cronbach alpha coefficient and the result was 0.81. The correlation coefficient between the scores of the S-M test and those of the Maladaptive Behavior Scale was -0.15. The correlation coefficient between the scores of the Child Behavior Checklist at 30 months and those of the Maladaptive Behavior Scale was 0.44. These results suggest that the Maladaptive Behavior Scale may be a reliable instrument for assessing maladaptive behavior in Japanese children.

  17. Mindfulness Therapy for Maladaptive Interpersonal Dependency: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Andrew S; Anderson, Timothy; Cranston, Saryn

    2015-11-01

    Existing treatments for maladaptive interpersonal dependency and dependent personality disorder do not meet basic scientific standards for effectiveness. The present investigation tested the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach: mindfulness therapy for maladaptive interpersonal dependency (MT-MID). Forty-eight participants who reported consistently high levels of maladaptive dependency (i.e., scored higher than 1 standard deviation above the mean on the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory at two separate assessments) were randomized to either 5 sessions of MT-MID or a minimal contact control. Five self-reported outcomes (mindfulness, maladaptive interpersonal dependency, helplessness, fears of negative evaluation, and excessive reassurance seeking) were assessed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 4-week follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that MT-MID yielded greater improvements than the control on all 5 outcomes at posttreatment (median d=1.61) and follow-up (median d=1.51). Participants assigned to MT-MID were more likely than control participants to meet criteria for clinically significant change at posttreatment (56.5% vs. 0%) and follow-up (42.9% vs. 0%). There was also evidence that increases in mindfulness mediated the dependency-related improvements. These results provide preliminary support for the efficacy of a mindfulness-based approach for treating the symptoms of maladaptive dependency. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Understanding College Students' Problems: Dysfunctional Thinking, Mental Health, and Maladaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandracchia, Jon T.; Pendleton, Shandrea

    2015-01-01

    Many college students experience mental health problems and engage in risky behavior. These problems perpetuate negative outcomes such as poor academic performance and health problems, which may ultimately result in dropping out of college. Maladaptive cognitions, such as criminogenic thinking, have been established as an important contributor to…

  19. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice.

    PubMed

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment, and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence, and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission, and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice.

  20. The Detrimental Impact of Maladaptive Personality on Public Mental Health: A Challenge for Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hengartner, Michael Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Experts in personality psychology and personality disorders have long emphasized the pervasive and persistent detrimental impact of maladaptive personality traits on mental health and functioning. However, in routine psychiatric practice, maladaptive personality is readily ignored and personality traits are seldom incorporated into clinical guidelines. The aim of this narrative review is to outline how pervasively personality influences public mental health and how personality thereby challenges common psychiatric practice. A comprehensive search and synthesis of the scientific literature demonstrates that maladaptive personality traits and personality disorders, in particular high neuroticism and negative affectivity, first, are risk factors for divorce, unemployment, and disability pensioning; second, relate to the prevalence, incidence, and co-occurrence of common mental disorders; third, impair functioning, symptom remission, and recovery in co-occurring common mental disorders; and fourth, predispose to treatment resistance, non-response and poor treatment outcome. In conclusion, maladaptive personality is not only involved in the development and course of mental disorders but also predisposes to chronicity and re-occurrence of psychopathology and reduces the efficacy of psychiatric treatments. The pernicious impact of maladaptive personality on mental health and functioning demands that careful assessment and thorough consideration of personality should be compulsory in psychiatric practice. PMID:26106335

  1. Evaluating a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for maladaptive perfectionism in university students.

    PubMed

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban university. The data were collected from July 2009 to August 2010. Forty-seven maladaptive perfectionists were randomly assigned to a 12-week CBT or a wait-list control group and assessed via questionnaires at pre- and postintervention. Statistical procedures included t tests, Pearson correlations, and analysis of covariance. At the postintervention measure, the CBT group demonstrated significant decreases in anxiety sensitivity and negative automatic thoughts compared to the control group. Within the CBT group, changes in perfectionism scores were significantly correlated with positive changes in depression, anxiety, stress, and automatic thoughts. The treatment group improved on psychological outcomes, demonstrating the effectiveness of a Web-based CBT for perfectionism in a university setting.

  2. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  3. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  4. [Influence between early maladaptive schemas and depression].

    PubMed

    Cormier, A; Jourda, B; Laros, C; Walburg, V; Callahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas developed during childhood are relatively stable. Once activated, these early maladaptive schemas could influence reality perceptions and create cognitive distortions. Previous studies showed that early maladaptive schemas are linked to depression: early maladaptive schemas could be a risk factor for depression (Young, 2001) and a vulnerability marker for depression (Dozoïs, 2007). The main objective of the present study was to explore the influence of early maladaptive schemas on depression severity among a French adult population. One hundred and sixty-two participants (mean age 29 years; SD=13.86) were enrolled, 66 men (mean age 29 years; SD=13.65) and 106 women (mean age 30; SD=14.07). Participants were invited to complete the Young Schema Questionnaire, short version (YSQ-S1-Young 1994) and the Beck depression Inventory, 2nd version (BDI-II-Beck 1994). Fifty-six participants were randomly selected to complete a paper version of the scales, and 95 participants completed an online electronic version. Fifty-two percent of the participants were not depressed, 15% slightly depressed, 17% moderately depressed and 16% met criteria of severe depression. All 15 schemas scores were positively correlated to depression scores. Comparing schema scores and depression severity it can be noted that for severely depressed participants all schema scores were significantly higher, and six of 15 schemas were significantly higher in the case of moderate depression. In addition, three schemas (imperfection, vulnerability, fusional relation) are significantly and positively linked to depression scores, whereas one schema (everything is owed to me) appears to be a significantly negative predictor of associated depression. This study confirms results of previous research concerning the link between early maladaptive schemas and depression. What is more, the results show that the importance of these schemas increases with depression severity. The most

  5. Maladaptive variants of conscientiousness and agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Gore, Whitney L

    2012-12-01

    Although reasonably strong support has been obtained for the Five-Factor Model's (FFM) ability to account for the existing personality disorder (PD) constructs, the support for obsessive-compulsive PD (OCPD) and dependent PD (DPD) has been relatively less consistent. Specifically, the expected correlation between OCPD and the FFM trait of Conscientiousness has varied in magnitude across studies while DPD has, at times, also evinced rather weak relationships with FFM Agreeableness. We determined that these inconsistencies were due primarily to the reliance on FFM measures that lack adequate fidelity to assess the maladaptive aspects of high Conscientiousness and Agreeableness. When alternative measures were utilized, the correlations were generally large and in line with expectations. We conclude that OCPD and DPD can be fruitfully conceptualized within the FFM but encourage the use of measures that provide a comprehensive assessment of both the adaptive and maladaptive aspects of the FFM traits. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Humans In Hypoxia: A Conspiracy Of Maladaptation?!

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    We address adaptive vs. maladaptive responses to hypoxemia in healthy humans and hypoxic-tolerant species during wakefulness, sleep, and exercise. Types of hypoxemia discussed include short-term and life-long residence at high altitudes, the intermittent hypoxemia attending sleep apnea, or training regimens prescribed for endurance athletes. We propose that hypoxia presents an insult to O2 transport, which is poorly tolerated in most humans because of the physiological cost. PMID:26136544

  7. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships Among Adaptive and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychopathology During the Treatment of Comorbid Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Laren R.; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C. Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J.; Ciraulo, Domenic A.; Barlow, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. PMID:26310363

  9. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots.

  10. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Airline Pilots seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research has begun to examine the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as it is believed that targeting these core beliefs in treatment may result in improved substance use outcomes. One special population that has received scant attention in the research literature, despite high levels of substance use, is airline pilots. Aims The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of a sample of airline pilots (n = 64) who were seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence and whether they differed in early maladaptive schemas from non-pilot substance abusers who were also seeking residential treatment for alcohol dependence (n = 45). Method Pre-existing medical records from patients of a residential substance abuse treatment facility were reviewed for the current study. Results Of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, results demonstrated that pilots scored higher than non-pilots on the early maladaptive schema of unrelenting standards (high internalized standards of behavior), whereas non-pilots scored higher on insufficient self-control (low frustration tolerance and self-control). Conclusions Early maladaptive schemas may be a relevant treatment target for substance abuse treatment seeking pilots and non-pilots. PMID:24701252

  11. Motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke: a review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Brain plasticity can be classified as adaptive and maladaptive. Maladaptive plasticity indicates hindered functional recovery or the development of an unwanted symptom. Although a considerable amount is known about adaptive plasticity in stroke, relatively little is known of maladaptive plasticity. In the current study, previous studies on motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke are reviewed in terms of compensatory movement pattern (CMP), delayed-onset involuntary abnormal movements (IAMs), and the ipsilateral motor pathway as a motor recovery mechanism. For successful stroke rehabilitation, it is important that the characteristics of maladaptive plasticity are accurately recognized. However, there is a lack of definitive evidence regarding the recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity, although it seems that each of the three above-mentioned topics are involved. As for CMP, patients with a good neurological state as much as having a normal movement pattern, should be considered to have maladaptive plasticity, and in terms of the ipsilateral motor pathway, patients with bilateral innervations can be considered to have maladaptive plasticity. On the other hand, IAMs due to delayed neuronal degeneration should be ruled out in patients with delayed-onset IAMs. Therefore, for the accurate recognition of motor function-related maladaptive plasticity in stroke, a thorough evaluation of neurological state using brain mapping techniques is necessary, and subsequently, the prevention or intensive management of maladaptive plasticity is needed.

  12. The interaction between the superhero ideal and maladaptive perfectionism as predictors of unhealthy eating attitudes and body esteem.

    PubMed

    Dour, Halina J; Theran, Sally A

    2011-01-01

    Unhealthy eating attitudes and poor body esteem often lead to adverse outcomes (e.g., eating disorders). Prior research has identified two risk factors for these outcomes--endorsement of the superhero ideal and maladaptive perfectionism--and has suggested that these factors may interact to predict unhealthy eating attitudes and body esteem. The current study examined the interaction between the superhero ideal and maladaptive perfectionism as predictors of unhealthy eating attitudes and body esteem among 161 12- to 14-year-olds (74 males, 87 females). Maladaptive perfectionism moderated the relation between endorsement of the superhero ideal and unhealthy eating attitudes for girls only, such that endorsement of the superhero ideal was significantly associated with unhealthy eating attitudes only for adolescents with high levels of maladaptive perfectionism. The moderation model was not significant for body esteem. Prevention strategies should focus on reducing endorsement of the superhero ideal when there are high levels of maladaptive perfectionism. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Compensatory and maladaptive responses to cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Francis, G S; Chu, C

    1994-05-01

    The past few years have witnessed an extraordinary number of important developments in the study of compensatory and maladaptive responses to cardiac dysfunction. It now seems clear that the process whereby the heart remodels in response to left ventricular injury is of paramount importance in the expression of clinical heart failure. There have been parallel attempts by basic scientists and clinical investigators to understand better the fundamental biologic processes that underlie remodeling and to assess numerous new treatments--especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. A general consensus seems to be emerging that holds that the response of the heart to acute injury includes a number of highly compensatory and adaptive mechanisms that ultimately become maladaptive and contribute to cardiomegaly and severe congestive heart failure. Such mechanisms undoubtedly include local and systemic release of cytokines, peptides, and neurohormones, and altered loading conditions leading to unusual mechanical forces on cardiac myocytes and other cells of the heart. At the organ level there is hypertrophy, dilatation and growth of the interstitium. Preliminary evidence also suggests there may be some "remodeling" at the cardiac myocyte level. Reduction in peripheral vasodilator reserve is seen in experimental animal models of heart failure. Patients with heart failure also develop an endothelial-dependent form of peripheral vascular dysfunction expressed clinically as an attenuated ability to dilate in response to such stimuli as acetylcholine. The transition point whereby these myocardial and peripheral vascular abnormalities become clearly dysfunctional and contribute toward the full clinical expression of heart failure remains to be further investigated.

  14. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  15. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  16. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  17. Developmental Trajectories of Maladaptive Perfectionism among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Keith C.; Wang, Kenneth; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the developmental trajectories of maladaptive perfectionism over a 7-year period among African American youth living in an urban setting (N = 547). In particular, the study attempted to determine whether two maladaptive aspects of perfectionism (socially prescribed and self-critical) changed over time and could be distinguished…

  18. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    PubMed

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Early Maladaptive Schemas of an Opioid Dependent Sample of Treatment Seeking Young Adults: A Descriptive Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Opioid dependence is an increasingly prevalent problem throughout the world, particularly for young adults (e.g., ages 17–25). Opioid dependence is associated with a wealth of negative consequences and is often a chronic, relapsing condition. Research on factors that may contribute to the etiology of opioid dependence could result in improved treatment outcomes. Using pre-existing patient records, the current study examined the early maladaptive schemas among young adult opioid dependent residential treatment patients (N = 169), as it is theorized that early maladaptive schemas may underlie or maintain substance use. Results showed that all 18 early maladaptive schemas were endorsed at various levels among male and female patients, with insufficient self-control being the most prevalent schema. In addition, females scored significantly higher than males on 11 of the 18 schemas. Findings from the current study are discussed in terms of future research and implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22014405

  20. More adaptive versus less maladaptive coping: What is more predictive of symptom severity? Development of a new scale to investigate coping profiles across different psychopathological syndromes.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Steffen; Jahns, Anna Katharina; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Lincoln, Tania M; Klein, Jan Philipp; Göritz, Anja S

    2016-02-01

    Lack of adaptive and enhanced maladaptive coping with stress and negative emotions are implicated in many psychopathological disorders. We describe the development of a new scale to investigate the relative contribution of different coping styles to psychopathology in a large population sample. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the supposed positive correlation between maladaptive coping and psychopathology would be stronger than the supposed negative correlation between adaptive coping and psychopathology. We also examined whether distinct coping style patterns emerge for different psychopathological syndromes. A total of 2200 individuals from the general population participated in an online survey. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory revised (OCI-R) and the Paranoia Checklist were administered along with a novel instrument called Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Styles (MAX) questionnaire. Participants were reassessed six months later. MAX consists of three dimensions representing adaptive coping, maladaptive coping and avoidance. Across all psychopathological syndromes, similar response patterns emerged. Maladaptive coping was more strongly related to psychopathology than adaptive coping both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The overall number of coping styles adopted by an individual predicted greater psychopathology. Mediation analysis suggests that a mild positive relationship between adaptive and certain maladaptive styles (emotional suppression) partially accounts for the attenuated relationship between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms. Results should be replicated in a clinical population. Results suggest that maladaptive and adaptive coping styles are not reciprocal. Reducing maladaptive coping seems to be more important for outcome than enhancing adaptive coping. The study supports transdiagnostic approaches advocating that maladaptive coping is a common factor across different psychopathologies

  1. The importance and acceptability of general and maladaptive personality trait computerized assessment feedback.

    PubMed

    Lengel, Gregory J; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-01-01

    Personality traits are a useful component of clinical assessment, and have been associated with positive and negative life outcomes. Assessment of both general and maladaptive personality traits may be beneficial practice, as they may complement each other to comprehensively and accurately describe one's personality. Notably, personal preferences regarding assessment feedback have not been studied. The current study examined the acceptability of personality assessment feedback from the perspective of the examinee. Treatment-seeking participants from a university (n = 72) and Amazon.com MTurk (n = 101) completed measures of the 5-factor model and the DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorder, and were then provided feedback on their general and maladaptive personality traits. Individuals then provided feedback on which aspects they found most useful. Results demonstrated strong participant agreement that the personality trait feedback was accurate and relevant. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Effect of chronic treatment with bovine recombinant growth hormone on cardiac dysfunction and lesion progression in UM-X7.1 cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Marleau, Sylvie; Lapointe, Nathalie; Massicotte, Julie; Céméus, Catia; Jasmin, Gaëtan; Dumont, Louis; Sirois, Martin G; Rouleau, Jean-Lucien; Du Souich, Patrick; Ong, Huy

    2002-12-01

    In view of the potentially beneficial effect of GH on ventricular function of humans suffering from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, we undertook a study to evaluate the optimal time to initiate treatment with GH and its duration in UM-X7.1 cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH). GH (1 mg/kg.d) therapy was initiated either in the early or late (30 and 160 d old, respectively) phases of the disease and continued until death at 240 d of age. Age- and sex-matched Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) were used as controls. Basal IGF-1 levels in serum were reduced by nearly half in CMH compared with GSH but were increased within a physiological range in male hamsters. In contrast, female hamsters presented elevated basal serum IGF-1 levels that were not further elevated by GH administration, as reported in experimental models and humans. Accordingly, the present study will focus on the effects of GH therapy on cardiac performance in male hamsters. GH did not improve ventricular function when starting at a late stage of the disease compared with CMH controls. Maximum rate of left ventricular pressure development decreased by approximately 64% in CMH treated early with recombinant bovine GH. Ventricular dysfunction was associated with morphologic indices of hypertrophy, ventricular dilatation, and extensive fibrosis. Mortality was strikingly increased in GH-treated CMH for 210 d (four males and eight females), as opposed to four females (and no male) in the vehicle-treated group. These results suggest that chronic treatment with recombinant bovine GH in CMH, starting at an early stage of lesion development, is associated with a reduced cardiac performance at the terminal stage of the disease.

  3. Impact of maladaptive behavior on school function in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Will, Elizabeth A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Fidler, Deborah J; Daunhauer, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are at an increased risk for certain maladaptive behaviors. This study characterized maladaptive behavior in school-aged children with DS and examined the extent to which maladaptive behaviors are associated with school function. Participants were 24 students with DS [mean nonverbal mental age (NVMA)=43.83months; mean chronological age (CA)=77.58months] who completed the Leiter Scales of Performance- Revised (Leiter-R; Roid & Miller, 1997). Their teachers completed the Behavior Assessment Scales for Children Version 2 (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004), and the School Function Assessment (Coster et al., 1998), measures of maladaptive and adaptive behavior as observed in the school setting. Findings reveal a maladaptive behavior profile of elevated areas including Aggression, Attention Problems, and Somatization. When examining the association between maladaptive behavior and school function, multivariate regression results indicated a significant association between Aggression and Compliance, and Attention Problems and Task Completion. Results underscore the importance of developing training for educators regarding the potential impact of maladaptive behavior on school function for students with Down syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, John B.; Porges, Eric C.; Lamb, Damon G.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    A core manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disconnection between physiological state and psychological or behavioral processes necessary to adequately respond to environmental demands. Patients with PTSD experience abnormal oscillations in autonomic states supporting either fight and flight behaviors or withdrawal, immobilization, and dissociation without an intervening “calm” state that would provide opportunities for positive social interactions. This defensive autonomic disposition is adaptive in dangerous and life threatening situations, but in the context of every-day life may lead to significant psychosocial distress and deteriorating social relationships. The perpetuation of these maladaptive autonomic responses may contribute to the development of comorbid mental health issues such as depression, loneliness, and hostility that further modify the nature of cardiovascular behavior in the context of internal and external stressors. Over time, changes in autonomic, endocrine, and immune function contribute to deteriorating health, which is potently expressed in brain dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. In this theoretical review paper, we present an overview of the literature on the chronic health effects of PTSD. We discuss the brain networks underlying PTSD in the context of autonomic efferent and afferent contributions and how disruption of these networks leads to poor health outcomes. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches based on our theoretical model of PTSD. PMID:25653631

  5. Maladaptive autonomic regulation in PTSD accelerates physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Williamson, John B; Porges, Eric C; Lamb, Damon G; Porges, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    A core manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disconnection between physiological state and psychological or behavioral processes necessary to adequately respond to environmental demands. Patients with PTSD experience abnormal oscillations in autonomic states supporting either fight and flight behaviors or withdrawal, immobilization, and dissociation without an intervening "calm" state that would provide opportunities for positive social interactions. This defensive autonomic disposition is adaptive in dangerous and life threatening situations, but in the context of every-day life may lead to significant psychosocial distress and deteriorating social relationships. The perpetuation of these maladaptive autonomic responses may contribute to the development of comorbid mental health issues such as depression, loneliness, and hostility that further modify the nature of cardiovascular behavior in the context of internal and external stressors. Over time, changes in autonomic, endocrine, and immune function contribute to deteriorating health, which is potently expressed in brain dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. In this theoretical review paper, we present an overview of the literature on the chronic health effects of PTSD. We discuss the brain networks underlying PTSD in the context of autonomic efferent and afferent contributions and how disruption of these networks leads to poor health outcomes. Finally, we discuss treatment approaches based on our theoretical model of PTSD.

  6. Microgeographic maladaptive performance and deme depression in response to roads and runoff

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite theoretical understanding and empirical detection of local adaptation in natural environments, our knowledge of such divergence in fragmented habitats remains limited, especially in the context of microgeographic spatial scales and contemporary time scales. I used a combination of reciprocal transplant and common garden exposure experiments to evaluate potential microgeographic divergence in a pool-breeding amphibian occupying a landscape fragmented by roads. As indicated by reduced rates of survival and increased rates of malformation, I found evidence for maladaptation in road adjacent populations. This response is in direct counterpoint to recently described local adaption by a cohabiting species of amphibian. These results suggest that while divergence might commonly follow habitat modification, the direction of its outcome cannot be generalized even in identical habitats. Further, maladaptive responses can be associated with a more generalized depression effect that transcends the local environment. Alongside recent reports, these results suggest that maladaptive responses may be an emerging consequence of human-induced environmental change. Thus future studies should carefully consider the population unit as a key level for inference. PMID:24109548

  7. Pharmacotherapies for decreasing maladaptive choice in drug addiction: Targeting the behavior and the drug.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Frank N; Freeman, Kevin B

    2017-06-27

    Drug addiction can be conceptualized as a disorder of maladaptive decision making in which drugs are chosen at the expense of pro-social, nondrug alternatives. The study of decision making in drug addiction has focused largely on the role of impulsivity as a facilitator of addiction, in particular the tendency for drug abusers to choose small, immediate gains over larger but delayed outcomes (i.e., delay discounting). A parallel line of work, also focused on decision making in drug addiction, has focused on identifying the determinants underlying the choice to take drugs over nondrug alternatives (i.e., drug vs. nondrug choice). Both tracks of research have been valuable tools in the development of pharmacotherapies for treating maladaptive decision making in drug addiction, and a number of common drugs have been studied in both designs. However, we have observed that there is little uniformity in the administration regimens of potential treatments between the designs, which hinders congruence in the development of single treatment strategies to reduce both impulsive behavior and drug choice. The current review provides an overview of the drugs that have been tested in both delay-discounting and drug-choice designs, and focuses on drugs that reduced the maladaptive choice in both designs. Suggestions to enhance congruence between the findings in future studies are provided. Finally, we propose the use of a hybridized, experimental approach that may enable researchers to test the effectiveness of therapeutics at decreasing impulsive and drug choice in a single design. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Comorbidity of Daydreaming Disorder (Maladaptive Daydreaming).

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Ross, Colin A

    2017-07-01

    To determine the comorbidity profile of individuals meeting criteria for a proposed new disorder, daydreaming disorder (more commonly known as maladaptive daydreaming [MD]), the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders were administered to 39 participants who met criteria for MD on a structured interview. We determined high rates of comorbidity: 74.4% met criteria for more than three additional disorders, and 41.1% met criteria for more than four. The most frequent comorbid disorder was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (76.9%); 71.8% met criteria for an anxiety disorder, 66.7% for a depressive disorder, and 53.9% for an obsessive-compulsive or related disorder. Notably, 28.2% have attempted suicide. Individuals meeting criteria for MD have complex psychiatric problems spanning a range of DSM-5 disorders. This finding provides evidence that MD is different than normal daydreaming and that these individuals experience considerable distress and impairment.

  9. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  10. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child's age. Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed.

  11. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  12. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescence and Adulthood: The Role of Positive Family Processes

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into adulthood. Several characteristics of individuals with ASD predict long-term outcomes, and the family environment may also play a role. The present study uses a prospective, longitudinal design to describe and predict trajectories of autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors over 8.5 years in a large, community-based sample of adolescents and adults with ASD. Overall, autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors were observed to improve over the study period. Above and beyond the adult’s gender, age, and level of intellectual disability, greater improvements were associated with higher levels of maternal praise (based on maternal speech samples) and higher quality mother-child relationships. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:25070471

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas of Substance Abusers and their Intimate Partners

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple’s functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:24175492

  14. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  15. Experts' Recommendations for Treating Maladaptive Aggression in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Correll, Christoph U.; Findling, Robert L.; Lucas, Judith; Crystal, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychiatric treatment for children and adolescents with clinically significant aggression is common and often involves the use of antipsychotic medications. Increasingly, pediatricians are initiating or managing such treatments despite limited evidence on optimal diagnostic, psychosocial, and medication approaches for pediatric aggression. Aims The objective of this study was to gather clinicians' and researchers' expertise concerning the treatment of maladaptive aggression, using expert consensus survey methods to aid the development of guidelines for pediatricians and psychiatrists on the outpatient treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth (T-MAY). Methods Forty-six experts (psychiatrists, pediatricians, and researchers) with >10 years of clinical and/or research experience in the treatment of pediatric aggression completed a 27-item survey (>400 treatment alternatives) about optimal diagnostic, psychosocial, and medication treatments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. Results Expert consensus methodology clearly differentiated optimal versus nonoptimal treatment strategies for maladaptive aggression. In contrast to current practice trends, results indicated that experts support the use of psychosocial interventions and parent education and training before the use of medication for maladaptive aggression at every stage of medication treatment, from diagnosis to maintenance to medication discontinuation. Conclusion Overall findings indicate that evidence-informed strategies for outpatient treatment of pediatric maladaptive aggression, guided by systematically derived expert opinions, are attainable. In light of the gap between the research literature and clinical practice, expert consensus opinion supports specific practices for optimal outpatient management in children and adolescents with severe and persistent behavioral difficulties. PMID:22196314

  16. Maladaptively high and low openness: the case for experiential permeability.

    PubMed

    Piedmont, Ralph L; Sherman, Martin F; Sherman, Nancy C

    2012-12-01

    The domain of Openness within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) has received inconsistent support as a source for maladaptive personality functioning, at least when the latter is confined to the disorders of personality included within the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; APA, ). However, an advantage of the FFM relative to the DSM-IV-TR is that the former was developed to provide a reasonably comprehensive description of general personality structure. Rather than suggest that the FFM is inadequate because the DSM-IV-TR lacks much representation of Openness, it might be just as reasonable to suggest that the DSM-IV-TR is inadequate because it lacks an adequate representation of maladaptive variants of both high and low Openness. This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of these maladaptive variants, the Experiential Permeability Inventory. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Neural mechanisms supporting maladaptive food choices in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Foerde, Karin; Steinglass, Joanna E; Shohamy, Daphna; Walsh, B Timothy

    2015-11-01

    People routinely make poor choices, despite knowledge of negative consequences. The authors found that individuals with anorexia nervosa, who make maladaptive food choices to the point of starvation, engaged the dorsal striatum more than healthy controls when making choices about what to eat, and that activity in fronto-striatal circuits was correlated with their actual food consumption in a meal the next day.

  18. Effects of Differential Scheduling of Timeout to Reduce Maladaptive Responding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Lyle E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A differential schedule of time-out was effective in reducing target maladaptive behaviors in three mentally retarded students (ages 5-9). In addition, by permitting one behavior to occur within an interval which occasioned only a warning, students were allowed to develop self-control within a structured setting. (Author)

  19. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  20. Maladaptive Plasticity for Motor Recovery after Stroke: Mechanisms and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Naoyuki; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies in human and animal models have shown that neural plasticity compensates for the loss of motor function after stroke. However, neural plasticity concerning compensatory movement, activated ipsilateral motor projections and competitive interaction after stroke contributes to maladaptive plasticity, which negatively affects motor recovery. Compensatory movement on the less-affected side helps to perform self-sustaining activity but also creates an inappropriate movement pattern and ultimately limits the normal motor pattern. The activated ipsilateral motor projections after stroke are unable to sufficiently support the disruption of the corticospinal motor projections and induce the abnormal movement linked to poor motor ability. The competitive interaction between both hemispheres induces abnormal interhemispheric inhibition that weakens motor function in stroke patients. Moreover, widespread disinhibition increases the risk of competitive interaction between the hand and the proximal arm, which results in an incomplete motor recovery. To minimize this maladaptive plasticity, rehabilitation programs should be selected according to the motor impairment of stroke patients. Noninvasive brain stimulation might also be useful for correcting maladaptive plasticity after stroke. Here, we review the underlying mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity after stroke and propose rehabilitation approaches for appropriate cortical reorganization. PMID:22792492

  1. Dating Violence Perpetration: Associations With Early Maladaptive Schemas.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Strauss, Catherine; Zapor, Heather; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-08-01

    Violence between dating couples is a serious and prevalent problem among college students (Shorey, Cornelius, & Bell, 2008). Social-cognitive theories of aggression (e.g., Berkowitz, 1990) propose that perpetrators may have more maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression than non-perpetrators. Thus, this study examined differences between perpetrators and non-perpetrators of dating violence on early maladaptive schemas, which are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). Within a sample of female (n = 242) and male (n = 193) college students, results demonstrated that many early maladaptive schema domains were associated with psychological and physical dating violence perpetration, although mostly for women. In addition, the schema domain of impaired autonomy showed medium-to-large differences between female perpetrators and non-perpetrators, whereas the domain of impaired limits showed a medium-to-large difference for male perpetrators and non-perpetrators of physical aggression. These findings add to a growing body of literature on risk factors for dating violence, suggesting that early maladaptive schemas may be associated with individual differences in aggression risk. The results also further support social-cognitive models of aggressive behavior.

  2. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  3. Self-Compassion as a Mediator of Maladaptive Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehr, Kristin E.; Adams, Aimee C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among maladaptive perfectionism, self-compassion, and depressive symptoms in college students. It was hypothesized that self-compassion would mediate the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms, with maladaptive perfectionism related to lower levels of…

  4. Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale: Evolution of the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Dawne S.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The Posttraumatic Maladaptive Beliefs Scale (PMBS) was developed to measure maladaptive beliefs about current life circumstances that may occur following trauma exposure. This scale assesses maladaptive beliefs within three domains: (a) Threat of Harm, (b) Self-Worth and Judgment, and (c) Reliability and Trustworthiness of Others. Items for the…

  5. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  6. Self-Compassion as a Mediator of Maladaptive Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehr, Kristin E.; Adams, Aimee C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among maladaptive perfectionism, self-compassion, and depressive symptoms in college students. It was hypothesized that self-compassion would mediate the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depressive symptoms, with maladaptive perfectionism related to lower levels of…

  7. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of maladaptive cognitions in hypersexuality among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-05-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and a measure of problematic hypersexuality. Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one's sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one's ability to control his sexual behavior.

  9. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  10. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  11. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P; Krohn, Marvin D

    2014-06-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood.

  12. Gang Membership and Pathways to Maladaptive Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Megan Bears; Thornberry, Terence P.; Krohn, Marvin D.

    2014-01-01

    A limited amount of research examines the short-term consequences of gang membership. Rarer, though, is the examination of more distal consequences of gang membership. This is unfortunate because it understates the true detrimental effect of gang membership across the life course, as well as the effects it may have on children of former gang members. Using data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, this work investigates the impact of gang membership in adolescence (ages 12-18) on a particularly problematic style of parenting, child maltreatment. Using discrete time survival analysis, this study finds that gang membership increases the likelihood of child maltreatment and this relationship is mediated by the more proximal outcomes of gang membership during adolescence, precocious transitions to adulthood. PMID:24883000

  13. Maladaptive cognitions predict changes in problematic gaming in highly-engaged adults: A 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Cameron J; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the role of maladaptive gaming-related cognitions may assist in screening and interventions for problematic gaming, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Cognitive-behavioural interventions that target specific cognitions related to gaming may be more effective than more general approaches that focus only on preoccupation with games. Although past research has identified cross-sectional associations between maladaptive cognitions and problematic gaming, it is less clear whether these cognitions can predict future changes in problematic gaming behaviour. The present study employed an 18-item measure of gaming cognition, assessing perfectionism, cognitive salience, regret, and behavioural salience, to investigate potential changes in problematic gaming over a 12-month period. The sample included 465 Australian adults (84% male, Mage=26.2years). It was found that individuals who became problematic gamers over 12months had higher baseline scores on perfectionism (d=1.20), cognitive salience (d=0.74) and regret (d=0.69) than those who remained non-problematic gamers. Problematic gamers who became non-problematic gamers had lower baseline perfectionism scores (d=0.62) than those who remained problematic gamers. Cognitive change accounted for an additional 28% of variance in problematic gaming scores beyond gender, age, and frequency of gaming. These findings suggest that maladaptive gaming-related cognitions could be screened in clinical trials to aid in case formulation and inform decisions on needed interventions to deliver optimal client outcomes.

  14. Coping with jealousy: the association between maladaptive aspects of jealousy and drinking problems is mediated by drinking to cope.

    PubMed

    Dibello, Angelo M; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Lindgren, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study was aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N=657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood.

  15. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  16. Maladaptive Synaptic Plasticity in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wangming

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) could be due to maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal synapses in response to L-DOPA treatment. A series of recent studies has revealed that LID is associated with marked morphological plasticity of striatal dendritic spines, particularly cell type-specific structural plasticity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. In addition, evidence demonstrating the occurrence of plastic adaptations, including aberrant morphological and functional features, in multiple components of cortico-basal ganglionic circuitry, such as primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei. These adaptations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of LID. Here, we briefly review recent studies that have addressed maladaptive plastic changes within the cortico-BG loop in dyskinetic animal models of PD and patients with PD. PMID:28066191

  17. Adaptive and maladaptive personality traits in high-risk gamblers.

    PubMed

    Carlotta, Davide; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Frera, Fernanda; Somma, Antonella; Maffei, Cesare; Fossati, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Gambling Disorder (GD) is an addictive disorder resulting in significant impairment in occupational and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of GD risk to adaptive and maladaptive personality dimensions in a sample of nonreferred Italian gamblers. The authors found the risk for GD to show significant associations with the Openness and Conscientiousness scales of the Big Five Inventory (BFI); however, these effects were not significant after controlling for alcohol and drug use. GD risk showed significant associations with the Detachment and Antagonism domains of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), as well as with the PID-5 facet scales of Hostility, Callousness, Deceitfulness, Manipulativeness, Irresponsibility, and (low) Rigid Perfectionism, even when controlling for alcohol and drug use. Maladaptive personality dispositions may serve as risk factors for pathological gambling, even beyond their impact on frequently concomitant problems with alcohol and other drugs.

  18. Neural Mechanisms Supporting Maladaptive Food Choices in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Foerde, Karin; Steinglass, Joanna; Shohamy, Daphna; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2015-01-01

    People routinely make poor choices, despite knowledge of negative consequences. We found that individuals with Anorexia Nervosa, who make maladaptive food choices to the point of starvation, engaged the dorsal striatum more than healthy controls when making choices about what to eat, and that activity in fronto-striatal circuits was correlated with their actual food consumption in a meal the next day. PMID:26457555

  19. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and postoperative maladaptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kain, Zeev N; Caldwell-Andrews, Alison A; Maranets, Inna; McClain, Brenda; Gaal, Dorothy; Mayes, Linda C; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Heping

    2004-12-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the clinical phenomena of preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative maladaptive behavioral changes were closely related. We examined this issue using data obtained by our laboratory over the past 6 years. Only children who underwent surgery and general anesthesia using sevoflurane/O(2)/N(2)O and who did not receive midazolam were recruited. Children's anxiety was assessed preoperatively with the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (mYPAS), emergence delirium was assessed in the postanesthesia care unit, and behavioral changes were assessed with the Post Hospital Behavior Questionnaire (PHBQ) on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Regression analysis showed that the odds of having marked symptoms of emergence delirium increased by 10% for each increment of 10 points in the child's state anxiety score (mYPAS). The odds ratio of having new-onset postoperative maladaptive behavior changes was 1.43 for children with marked emergence status as compared with children with no symptoms of emergence delirium. A 10-point increase in state anxiety scores led to a 12.5% increase in the odds that the child would have a new-onset maladaptive behavioral change after the surgery. This finding is highly significant to practicing clinicians, who can now predict the development of adverse postoperative phenomena, such as emergence delirium and postoperative behavioral changes, based on levels of preoperative anxiety.

  20. Development and validation of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS).

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Lehrfeld, Jonathan; Bigelsen, Jayne; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development of the Maladaptive Daydreaming Scale (MDS), a 14-item self-report instrument designed to gauge abnormal fantasizing. Our sample consisted of 447 English-speaking individuals from 45 different countries. A 3-correlated-factors model best presented the underlying dimensions Yearning, Kinesthesia and Impairment, capturing related rewarding experiences as well as psychological impairment of maladaptive daydreaming. MDS scores were associated with obsessive-compulsive behavior and thoughts, dissociative absorption, attention deficit, and high sense of presence during daydreaming, but less with psychotic symptoms. The MDS and its subscale demonstrated good validity, sound internal consistency and temporal stability and discriminated well between self-identified individuals with and without maladaptive daydreaming. Considering the instrument's high sensitivity and specificity levels, it seems an excellent measure for future investigation of MD that will, hopefully, shed light on the etiology and psycho-biological mechanisms involved in this mental condition, as well as on the development of effective MD treatment methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Interference, Symptoms, and Maladaptive Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Doron, Guy; Derby, Danny; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Nahaloni, Elad; Moulding, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive preoccupation, doubts, and compulsive behaviors focusing on one's romantic relationship and partner are receiving increasing clinical, theoretical, and empirical attention. Commonly referred to as relationship obsessive-compulsive disorder (ROCD), such symptoms have been linked with decreased relational and sexual functioning and lower mood, even after controlling for other obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. To date, however, these symptoms have been studied in community samples alone. In the present study, we compared levels of interference, OCD, and mood symptoms between clinical participants with ROCD, OCD, and community controls. We also examined group differences in maladaptive beliefs previously linked with OCD and ROCD. Participants included 22 ROCD clients, 22 OCD clients, and 28 community controls. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to attain clinical diagnoses of OCD and ROCD. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate primary-symptoms severity. All participants completed measures of symptoms and dysfunctional beliefs. ROCD clients reported more severe ROCD symptoms than the OCD and control groups. ROCD and OCD clients did not differ in severity of their -primary-symptoms. ROCD clients scored higher than the other groups on maladaptive OCD-related and relationship-related beliefs. Finally, ROCD clients showed more severe depression symptoms than community controls. ROCD is a disabling presentation of OCD that warrants research attention. Maladaptive OCD-related and relationship-related beliefs may be implicated in the development and maintenance of ROCD.

  2. Changes in early maladaptive schemas after residential treatment for substance use.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott; Strong, David R

    2013-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are cognitive and behavioral patterns that cause considerable distress and are theorized to underlie mental health problems. Research suggests that early maladaptive schemas may underlie substance abuse and that the intensity of early maladaptive schemas may decrease after brief periods of abstinence. The current study examined changes in early maladaptive schemas after a 4-week residential substance use treatment program. Preexisting records of a sample of male alcohol- and opioid-dependent treatment seeking adults (N = 97; mean age = 42.55) were reviewed for the current study. Pre-post analyses demonstrated that 8 of the early maladaptive schemas significantly decreased by the end of the 4-week treatment. Findings indicate that early maladaptive schemas can be modified during brief substance use treatment and may be an important component of substance use intervention programs. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Hardan, Antonio Y; Lee, Ihno A; Phillips, Jennifer M; Gross, James J

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants. Thirty-one individuals with ASD and 28 TD participants and their parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion experience, regulation, and maladaptive behavior. Compared to TD participants, individuals with ASD used cognitive reappraisal less frequently, which was associated with increased negative emotion experience, which in turn was related to greater levels of maladaptive behavior. By decreasing negative emotions, treatments targeting adaptive emotion regulation may therefore reduce maladaptive behaviors in individuals with ASD.

  4. Changes in Early Maladaptive Schemas After Residential Treatment for Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott; Strong, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early maladaptive schemas are cognitive and behavioral patterns that cause considerable distress and are theorized to underlie mental health problems. Research suggests that early mal-adaptive schemas may underlie substance abuse and that the intensity of early maladaptive schemas may decrease after brief periods of abstinence. The current study examined changes in early maladaptive schemas after a 4-week residential substance use treatment program. Method Preexisting records of a sample of male alcohol- and opioid-dependent treatment seeking adults (N = 97; mean age = 42.55) were reviewed for the current study. Results Pre-post analyses demonstrated that 8 of the early maladaptive schemas significantly decreased by the end of the 4-week treatment. Conclusions Findings indicate that early maladaptive schemas can be modified during brief substance use treatment and may be an important component of substance use intervention programs. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment are discussed. PMID:23381835

  5. Maladaptive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D.; Ismael, Sofyan; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Firmansyah, Agus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Various gastrointestinal factors may contribute to maladaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine the association between maladaptive behavior in children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms such as severity, intestinal microbiota, inflammation, enterocyte damage, permeability and absorption of opioid peptides. Methods This observational cross-sectional study compared children with ASD to healthy controls, aged 2-10 years. Maladaptive behavior was classified using the Approach Withdrawal Problems Composite subtest of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory. Dependent variables were gastrointestinal symptom severity index, fecal calprotectin, urinary D-lactate, urinary lactulose/mannitol excretion, urinary intestinal fatty acids binding protein (I-FABP) and urinary opioid peptide excretion. Results We did not find a significant difference between children with ASD with severe or mild maladaptive behavior and control subjects for gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal calprotectin, urinary D-lactate, and lactulose/mannitol ratio. Urinary opioid peptide excretion was absent in all children. Children with ASD with severe maladaptive behavior showed significantly higher urinary I-FABP levels compared to those with mild maladaptive behavior (p=0.019) and controls (p=0.015). Conclusion In our series, maladaptive behavior in ASD children was not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, intestinal inflammation (no difference in calprotectin), microbiota (no difference in urinary D-lactate) and intestinal permeability (no difference in lactulose/manitol ratio). ASD children with severe maladaptive behavior have significantly more enterocyte damage (increased urinary I-FABP) than ASD children with mild maladaptive behavior and normal children. PMID:26770897

  6. Maladaptive Behavior and Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Ismael, Sofyan; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Firmansyah, Agus; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-12-01

    Various gastrointestinal factors may contribute to maladaptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To determine the association between maladaptive behavior in children with ASD and gastrointestinal symptoms such as severity, intestinal microbiota, inflammation, enterocyte damage, permeability and absorption of opioid peptides. This observational cross-sectional study compared children with ASD to healthy controls, aged 2-10 years. Maladaptive behavior was classified using the Approach Withdrawal Problems Composite subtest of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory. Dependent variables were gastrointestinal symptom severity index, fecal calprotectin, urinary D-lactate, urinary lactulose/mannitol excretion, urinary intestinal fatty acids binding protein (I-FABP) and urinary opioid peptide excretion. We did not find a significant difference between children with ASD with severe or mild maladaptive behavior and control subjects for gastrointestinal symptoms, fecal calprotectin, urinary D-lactate, and lactulose/mannitol ratio. Urinary opioid peptide excretion was absent in all children. Children with ASD with severe maladaptive behavior showed significantly higher urinary I-FABP levels compared to those with mild maladaptive behavior (p=0.019) and controls (p=0.015). In our series, maladaptive behavior in ASD children was not associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, intestinal inflammation (no difference in calprotectin), microbiota (no difference in urinary D-lactate) and intestinal permeability (no difference in lactulose/manitol ratio). ASD children with severe maladaptive behavior have significantly more enterocyte damage (increased urinary I-FABP) than ASD children with mild maladaptive behavior and normal children.

  7. Juvenile maladaptive aggression: a review of prevention, treatment, and service configuration and a proposed research agenda.

    PubMed

    Connor, Daniel F; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Chang, Kiki D; Daniolos, Peter T; Ferziger, Reuven; Findling, Robert L; Hutchinson, Janice G; Malone, Richard P; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Plattner, Belinda; Post, Robert M; Reynolds, Diane L; Rogers, Kenneth M; Saxena, Kirti; Steiner, Hans

    2006-05-01

    To review prevention programs, psychosocial and psychopharmacologic treatments, and service delivery configurations for children and adolescents with maladaptive aggression. To propose a research agenda for disorders of aggression in child and adolescent psychiatry. Recent empirical studies were reviewed using searches of MEDLINE and PsycINFO (text terms: aggression, antisocial, violence, conduct, oppositional, psychosocial treatment, psychopharmacology, and prevention), relevant books, review articles, and bibliographies. Articles met the following criteria: published in an English-language, peer-reviewed journal between 1980 and 2005, included a focus on individuals < 18 years old, and included an outcome measure of relevant significance. Results of 154 randomized, controlled psychosocial treatment trials, 20 controlled psychopharmacology studies, 4 open-label medication studies, and 2 psychopharmacology meta-analyses were reviewed. Prevention programs show promise for reducing future aggression in at-risk populations. Empirical support is available for the effectiveness of multifocused psychosocial treatments in reducing aggression in children and adolescents. Atypical antipsychotics, lithium, divalproex sodium, and stimulants for conduct problems associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have empirical support for reducing aggression in selected patient populations. Therapeutic nihilism in the treatment of aggressive children and adolescents with conduct problems is no longer warranted. Multifocused psychosocial interventions given early in life to at-risk children have the most support for effectiveness. However, treatments for children who routinely present to the child psychiatrist with already well-established disorders of aggression are neither robust nor well-established. Further research into maladaptive aggression in referred children and adolescents within and across psychiatric diagnoses is important for the field of child and

  8. The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory proposed by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (2010). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one’s ability to control his sexual behavior. PMID:24558123

  9. Botulinum toxin modulates cortical maladaptation in post-stroke spasticity.

    PubMed

    Huynh, William; Krishnan, Arun V; Lin, Cindy S-Y; Vucic, Steve; Katrak, Pesi; Hornberger, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-07-01

    Maladaptive plasticity involving the unaffected hemisphere (UH) in stroke patients may contribute to post-stroke deficits, including spasticity. We investigated the central and peripheral effects of botulinum toxin in post-stroke spasticity to determine whether there is modulation of cortical processes in the UH. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and peripheral nerve excitability studies were undertaken in 5 stroke patients with upper limb spasticity before (T1) and 6 weeks after (T2) botulinum injection. Transcranial magnetic stimulation demonstrated inexcitable motor cortices of the affected hemisphere at T1 and T2, and short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) in the UH was significantly reduced at T1. At T2, SICI in the UH increased significantly compared with T1, normalizing to controls, and was found to be associated with clinical improvements in spasticity. Peripheral excitability parameters were unchanged after injection. Cortical excitability changes were demonstrated in UH, suggesting that the clinical benefits of botulinum toxin relate to modulation of abnormal central reorganization (maladaptive plasticity) in post-stroke spasticity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  10. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning.

    PubMed

    Stuke, Heiner; Stuke, Hannes; Weilnhammer, Veith Andreas; Schmack, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain's learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors). Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning.

  11. Imprinting can cause a maladaptive preference for infectious conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing and associating with specific individuals, such as conspecifics or kin, brings many benefits. One mechanism underlying such recognition is imprinting: the long-term memory of cues encountered during development. Typically, juveniles imprint on cues of nearby individuals and may later associate with phenotypes matching their ‘recognition template’. However, phenotype matching could lead to maladaptive social decisions if, for instance, individuals imprint on the cues of conspecifics infected with directly transmitted diseases. To investigate the role of imprinting in the sensory ecology of disease transmission, we exposed juvenile guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to the cues of healthy conspecifics, or to those experiencing disease caused by the directly transmitted parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli. In a dichotomous choice test, adult ‘disease-imprinted’ guppies preferred to associate with the chemical cues of G. turnbulli-infected conspecifics, whereas ‘healthy-imprinted’ guppies preferred to associate with cues of uninfected conspecifics. These responses were only observed when stimulus fish were in late infection, suggesting imprinted fish responded to cues of disease, but not of infection alone. We discuss how maladaptive imprinting may promote disease transmission in natural populations of a social host. PMID:27072405

  12. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  13. Psychotic Experiences and Overhasty Inferences Are Related to Maladaptive Learning

    PubMed Central

    Stuke, Heiner; Stuke, Hannes; Weilnhammer, Veith Andreas; Schmack, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical accounts suggest that an alteration in the brain’s learning mechanisms might lead to overhasty inferences, resulting in psychotic symptoms. Here, we sought to elucidate the suggested link between maladaptive learning and psychosis. Ninety-eight healthy individuals with varying degrees of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences performed a probabilistic reasoning task that allowed us to quantify overhasty inferences. Replicating previous results, we found a relationship between psychotic experiences and overhasty inferences during probabilistic reasoning. Computational modelling revealed that the behavioral data was best explained by a novel computational learning model that formalizes the adaptiveness of learning by a non-linear distortion of prediction error processing, where an increased non-linearity implies a growing resilience against learning from surprising and thus unreliable information (large prediction errors). Most importantly, a decreased adaptiveness of learning predicted delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences. Our current findings provide a formal description of the computational mechanisms underlying overhasty inferences, thereby empirically substantiating theories that link psychosis to maladaptive learning. PMID:28107344

  14. Imprinting can cause a maladaptive preference for infectious conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Jessica F; Reynolds, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Recognizing and associating with specific individuals, such as conspecifics or kin, brings many benefits. One mechanism underlying such recognition is imprinting: the long-term memory of cues encountered during development. Typically, juveniles imprint on cues of nearby individuals and may later associate with phenotypes matching their 'recognition template'. However, phenotype matching could lead to maladaptive social decisions if, for instance, individuals imprint on the cues of conspecifics infected with directly transmitted diseases. To investigate the role of imprinting in the sensory ecology of disease transmission, we exposed juvenile guppies,Poecilia reticulata, to the cues of healthy conspecifics, or to those experiencing disease caused by the directly transmitted parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli In a dichotomous choice test, adult 'disease-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with the chemical cues of G. turnbulli-infected conspecifics, whereas 'healthy-imprinted' guppies preferred to associate with cues of uninfected conspecifics. These responses were only observed when stimulus fish were in late infection, suggesting imprinted fish responded to cues of disease, but not of infection alone. We discuss how maladaptive imprinting may promote disease transmission in natural populations of a social host. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  16. Beyond pain: predictors of postoperative maladaptive behavior change in children.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Michelle A; Del Rosario, Antonio M; Rosenbaum, Abraham; Kain, Zeev N

    2010-05-01

    OBJECTIVES & AIM: Using well-validated measures and controlling for potential confounding variables such as pain and surgical and anesthetic technique, the goal of this project was to identify the incidence of and risk factors for the development of behavior change in children after surgery. Although researchers have described maladaptive behavior change following surgery, many previous studies are limited by potential confounding variables, including postoperative pain, type of surgery, and surgical and anesthetic procedure. Participants included 260 children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Baseline and demographic data were collected prior to surgery and pain and behavioral recovery were recorded for 2 weeks following surgery. A standardized approach to anesthesia and surgical procedure was implemented and well-validated assessment measures were used. On the first day at home following surgery, 80.4% of children exhibited negative behavior change. Nearly one-third of children continued to exhibit behavior changes 2 weeks after surgery. Logistic regression analyses that controlled for pain severity identified several predictors of behavior change: preexisting somatic and anxious/depressed problems predicted new onset postoperative general anxiety, chi(2) (8) = 20.10, P = 0.010; younger age predicted separation anxiety, chi(2) (4) = 20.41, P < 0.01; and inhibited temperament predicted postoperative sleep disturbance, chi(2) (2) = 9.19, P = 0.010. Individual child factors above and beyond pain predict maladaptive postoperative behavior change; identification of these predictors may be helpful in both preventing and ameliorating difficulties with behavioral recovery following surgery.

  17. Cluster B maladaptive personality traits in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and expression of Cluster B personality disorders during adolescence have been poorly analyzed. The main aim of this research was to analyze the rate of Cluster B maladaptive personality traits in Spanish adolescents. We also examined dimensional structure underlying the influence of sex and age in its phenotypic expression, was also examined. The sample consisted of a total of 1440 participants (Mean=15.9 years, SD=1.2). The self-reporting questionnaire used was the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + (PDQ-4 +). Maladaptative «dramatic» or «erratic» personality traits are common among adolescents, particularly antisocial and borderline facets. Using the PDQ-4+ cut-off points, 20.3% of the sample submitted had a Cluster B personality disorder. The analysis of the internal structure of the Cluster B items of the PDQ-4 + yielded a factorial solution centred on three interrelated factors, including: Antisocial, Borderline and Histrionic/Narcissistic. There were differences by gender in the subscales of Cluster B, but not in function of age. These data yield new insights that improve the understanding of the Cluster B personality disorders and traits in this sector of the population. Future studies should use measurement tools that take into account the concern, conviction and distress associated with such experiences. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  19. Maladaptive and Compulsive Behavior in Prader-Willi Syndrome: New Insights from Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2004-01-01

    Although maladaptive and compulsive behaviors are increasingly well-described in young persons with Prader-Willi syndrome, it is unclear how these problems manifest in older adults with this syndrome. In Part I, I compared maladaptive and compulsive behaviors in 45 older adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (ages 30 to 50 years) to 195 children,…

  20. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    PubMed Central

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  1. Maladaptive and Compulsive Behavior in Prader-Willi Syndrome: New Insights from Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2004-01-01

    Although maladaptive and compulsive behaviors are increasingly well-described in young persons with Prader-Willi syndrome, it is unclear how these problems manifest in older adults with this syndrome. In Part I, I compared maladaptive and compulsive behaviors in 45 older adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (ages 30 to 50 years) to 195 children,…

  2. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Dementia Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Changes in maladaptive behaviors related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 251 adults 45 years of age and older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate clear differences in maladaptive behaviors at various stages of dementia. Generally, individuals with no signs or symptoms of dementia displayed fewer and less severe maladaptive…

  3. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  4. Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

  5. Adaptive Perfectionism, Maladaptive Perfectionism and Statistics Anxiety in Graduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comerchero, Victoria; Fortugno, Dominick

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined if correlations between statistics anxiety and dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive) were present amongst a sample of psychology graduate students (N = 96). Results demonstrated that scores on the APS-R Discrepancy scale, corresponding to maladaptive perfectionism, correlated with higher levels of…

  6. Evaluating a Web-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhu, Natasha; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Arpin-Cribbie, Chantal A.; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed a Web-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for maladaptive perfectionism, investigating perfectionism, anxiety, depression, negative automatic thoughts, and perceived stress. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students defined as maladaptive perfectionists through a screening questionnaire at an urban…

  7. Adaptive Perfectionism, Maladaptive Perfectionism and Statistics Anxiety in Graduate Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comerchero, Victoria; Fortugno, Dominick

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined if correlations between statistics anxiety and dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive) were present amongst a sample of psychology graduate students (N = 96). Results demonstrated that scores on the APS-R Discrepancy scale, corresponding to maladaptive perfectionism, correlated with higher levels of…

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Medical Students: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Chand, Suma P; Chibnall, John T; Slavin, Stuart J

    2017-04-10

    Maladaptive perfectionism is associated with psychological distress and psychopathology. Medical students have been found to be particularly prone to maladaptive perfectionism. Recent research has indicated that Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) that targets unhealthy perfectionism leads to reductions in perfectionism and related distress. This preliminary investigation aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a CBT program directed at medical students who had significant levels of maladaptive perfectionism. The impact on associated psychological distress was also assessed. The study used a case series methodology with an A-B design plus follow-up. First-year medical students who screened positive for maladaptive perfectionism and consented for the study (N = 4) were assessed at baseline to evaluate the levels of maladaptive perfectionism, anxiety, and depression. They participated in an eight-session CBT program for reducing maladaptive perfectionism after a waiting period. Assessments were repeated post CBT and at 3- and 6-month follow up periods. Results indicated positive and durable effects on maladaptive perfectionism among program participants. The current research provides promising results for the use of CBT in at risk medical students with maladaptive perfectionism.

  9. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    PubMed

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  10. Do Acceptance and Mindfulness Moderate the Relationship Between Maladaptive Beliefs and Posttraumatic Distress?

    PubMed

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn

    2017-01-09

    Maladaptive pre- and posttraumatic beliefs are reliable predictors of distress in the wake of trauma. Acceptance and mindfulness skills may be associated with less distress in the presence of these beliefs, but few studies have explored these relationships. This study examined whether individual differences in acceptance and mindfulness moderate the relationship between maladaptive thoughts and distress in postdeployment soldiers. We explored the relationships between posttraumatic maladaptive beliefs, acceptance, mindfulness, and posttraumatic distress (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and general psychological symptoms) in a sample of recently postdeployed active duty U.S. Army Soldiers (N = 1,524). Maladaptive thoughts, acceptance, and mindfulness predicted posttraumatic distress, adjusted for combat exposure. In addition, mindfulness partially moderated the relationship between maladaptive thoughts and PTSD symptoms, and acceptance partially moderated the relationship between maladaptive thoughts and general psychological symptoms. Moderation effects were small. These findings suggest that individual differences in acceptance and mindfulness may weakly mitigate the relationship between maladaptive thinking and posttraumatic distress, but additional skills may be necessary to fully address maladaptive beliefs in Soldier postdeployment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Etiologic relationships between anxiety and dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism in young adult female twins.

    PubMed

    Moser, Jason S; Slane, Jennifer D; Alexandra Burt, S; Klump, Kelly L

    2012-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that maladaptive perfectionism, specifically, concerns about mistakes (CM) and doubts about actions (DA), may be important etiologic and maintenance mechanisms for anxiety and its disorders. However, no studies speaking directly to the origins of the relationship, i.e. what etiologic factors underlie the phenotypic association between anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism, exist. The current study aimed to address this gap in the literature by exploring genetic and environmental relationships between anxiety symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism. The sample consisted of 292 young adult same-sex female twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version and an anxiety problems scale derived from the Young Adult Self Report. Maladaptive perfectionism was measured using the CM and DA subscales of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism were both moderately heritable, with estimates ranging from. 45 to .66. Moreover, multivariate analyses revealed that genetic factors were primarily responsible for associations between anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism (r(g) =.59-.88). This is the first study to demonstrate the role of genetic factors in the relationship between anxiety and maladaptive perfectionism. Future studies are needed to uncover the specific biologic and genetic factors that contribute to this relationship and to evaluate whether maladaptive perfectionism represents an intermediate trait or risk factor for anxiety. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Relationships of Personal and Ethnic Identity Exploration to Indices of Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Rodriguez, Liliana

    2009-01-01

    Identity exploration has often been associated with maladaptive aspects of psychosocial functioning such as anxiety and depression. It is not known, however, whether maladaptive psychosocial functioning is related to both personal and ethnic identity exploration. In the present study, we examined the relationships of personal and ethnic identity…

  14. The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A Construct Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Brian A.; Campbell, Linda F.; Calhoun, Georgia B.; Bates, Jeffrey M.; Petrocelli, John V.

    2002-01-01

    N.B. Schmidt, T.E. Joiner, J.E. Young, and M.J. Telch (1995) provided preliminary construct validity for scores from J.E. Young's (1990) 205-item Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire. The present study extends this work by examining the construct validity of scores from the shorter 75-item version of this instrument-the Early Maladaptive Schema…

  15. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  16. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

  17. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Dementia Status in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Changes in maladaptive behaviors related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 251 adults 45 years of age and older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate clear differences in maladaptive behaviors at various stages of dementia. Generally, individuals with no signs or symptoms of dementia displayed fewer and less severe maladaptive…

  18. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-12-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas.

  19. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas. PMID:23493841

  20. An Examination of Early Maladaptive Schemas among Substance Use Treatment Seekers and their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, which are cognitive and behavioral patterns of viewing oneself and the world that result in substantial distress, are gradually being documented as important vulnerabilities for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on early maladaptive schemas among substance abusers and their family members. Research on this topic may carry important implications for family-focused substance use interventions. The current study examined similarities and differences in early maladaptive schemas among a sample of substance abuse treatment seeking adults (n = 47) and at least one parent (n = 58). Results demonstrated that the substance abusers scored higher than their parents on 17 of 18 early maladaptive schemas, with most differences falling into the large effect size range. There were some similarities in the specific early maladaptive schemas endorsed by both groups despite substance abusers scoring higher on all schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and family-focused substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23162210

  1. Adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style: a mediational model of sexual coercion in intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Four hundred and fifty-three married or cohabitating couples participated in the current study. A meditational model of men's perpetration of sexual coercion within an intimate relationship was examined based on past theories and known correlates of rape and sexual coercion. The latent constructs of adjustment problems and maladaptive relational style were examined. Adjustment problem variables included perceived stress, perceived low social support, and marital discord. Maladaptive relational style variables included psychological aggression, dominance, and jealousy. Sexual coercion was a combined measure of men's reported perpetration and women's reported victimization. As hypothesized, adjustment problems significantly predicted sexual coercion. Within the meditational model, adjustment problems were significantly correlated with maladaptive relational style, and maladaptive relational style significantly predicted sexual coercion. Once maladaptive relational style was introduced as a mediator, adjustment problems no longer significantly predicted sexual coercion. Implications for treatment, limitations, and future research are discussed.

  2. Recombinant bovine growth hormone-induced reduction of atrial natriuretic peptide is associated with improved left ventricular contractility and reverse remodeling in cardiomyopathic UM-X7.1 hamsters with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Mulumba, Mukandila; Céméus, Catia; Dumont, Louis; du Souich, Patrick; Ong, Huy; Marleau, Sylvie

    2007-04-01

    To assess the effect of short-term treatment with GH on left ventricular contractility and remodeling, after the development of heart failure in cardiomyopathic hamsters (CMH). Two groups of 200-day-old UM-X7.1 CMH received daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant bovine (rb) GH (1mg/kg/day) or 0.9% NaCl for 40 days. Golden Syrian hamsters (GSH) were used as controls. At 240-day-old, the hamsters were randomly subjected to (i) assessment of left ventricular systolic function in a Langendorff perfused mode followed by the determination of the passive diastolic pressure-volume relationship and morphometric measurements; (ii) assessment of left ventricular mRNA expression of genes belonging to the fetal gene program including atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptides and cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms and of the circulating levels of the natriuretic peptides. Hearts from CMH were hypertrophied and dilated (p<0.05) compared to hearts from GSH, along with a approximately 10-fold increase in the circulating ANP and BNP levels. Left ventricular BNP and ANP mRNAs were elevated by 2- and 3-fold, respectively, compared to GSH. rbGH reduced both ANP mRNA and ANP circulating levels by 34% (p<0.01) but did not significantly modulate BNP levels. This effect was associated with a preserved systolic function and reverse remodeling as assessed by a leftward shift of the passive diastolic pressure-volume relationship indicating reduced ventricular dilatation. The data show that a short-term administration of GH in the terminal phase of the disease confers cardioprotection by attenuating systolic dysfunction and by inducing beneficial reverse remodeling.

  3. Amygdala-prefrontal interactions in (mal)adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Likhtik, Ekaterina; Paz, Rony

    2015-03-01

    The study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders has been shaped by learning models that frame anxiety as maladaptive learning. Pavlovian conditioning and extinction are particularly influential in defining learning stages that can account for symptoms of anxiety disorders. Recently, dynamic and task related communication between the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has emerged as a crucial aspect of successful evaluation of threat and safety. Ongoing patterns of neural signaling within the mPFC-BLA circuit during encoding, expression and extinction of adaptive learning are reviewed. The mechanisms whereby deficient mPFC-BLA interactions can lead to generalized fear and anxiety are discussed in learned and innate anxiety. Findings with cross-species validity are emphasized.

  4. Evolutionary traps as keys to understanding behavioral maladaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Bruce A.; Chalfoun, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary traps are severe cases of behavioral maladaptation that occur when, due to human activity, the cues animals use to guide their behavior become uncoupled from their fitness consequences. The result is that animals can prefer the most dangerous resources or behaviors, even when better options are available. Traps are increasingly common and represent a significant wildlife conservation problem. Understanding of the more proximate sensory-cognitive mechanisms underpinning traps remains poor, which highlights the need for interdisciplinary and collaborative approaches to investigating traps. Key to advancing basic trap theory and its conservation applications will be the development of appropriate and tractable model systems to investigate the mechanisms that cause traps within species, and how mechanisms vary across species.

  5. Childhood Antecedents and Maintaining Factors in Maladaptive Daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the fantasy activity of 16 individuals who were seeking online peer-support and advice for maladaptive daydreaming (MD). MD is an under-researched mental activity described as persistent vivid fantasy activity that replaces human interaction and/or interferes with important areas of functioning. We employed a grounded theory methodology that yielded seven common themes presented as a sequential descriptive narrative about the nature, precursors, and consequences of MD. The presented "storyline" included the following themes: (1) daydreaming as an innate talent for vivid fantasy; (2) daydreaming and social isolation-a two-way street; (3) the role of trauma in the development of MD; (4) the rewards of daydreaming; (5) the insatiable yearning for daydreaming; (6) shame and concealment; (7) unsuccessful treatment attempts. A main conclusion of our study is that there is an urgent need for early identification of MD and its correct diagnoses in adulthood.

  6. Identity formation and social maladaptation in foster adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yancey, A K

    1992-01-01

    The literature on identity formation in individuals from socially devalued racial and ethnic groups in the United States is summarized. Implications are discussed for a particular segment of at-risk adolescents--those in foster care residential group homes--who have received little published attention. The majority, in large urban centers, are African-American or Latino. These young people bear a disproportionate burden of such societal problems as unintended pregnancy and childbearing, academic underachievement and early educational discontinuation, substance abuse, and, ultimately, homelessness and more individually and socially costly forms of dependency (criminal justice, welfare, or mental health systems). It is postulated that their social maladaptation is reflective of identity disturbances created by the negative images of African-Americans and Latinos perpetuated by the dominant society and unfiltered by optimal parental racial socialization.

  7. Amygdala-prefrontal interactions in (mal)adaptive learning

    PubMed Central

    Likhtik, Ekaterina; Paz, Rony

    2015-01-01

    The study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders has been shaped by learning models that frame anxiety as maladaptive learning. Pavlovian conditioning and extinction are particularly influential in defining learning stages that can account for symptoms of anxiety disorders. Recently, dynamic and task related communication between the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has emerged as a crucial aspect of successful evaluation of threat and safety. Ongoing patterns of neural signaling within the mPFCBLA circuit during encoding, expression and extinction of adaptive learning are reviewed. The mechanisms whereby deficient mPFC-BLA interactions can lead to generalized fear are discussed in learned and innate anxiety. Findings with crossspecies validity are emphasized. PMID:25583269

  8. Trouble ahead, trouble behind: Narcissism and early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Green, Bradley A; Arnau, Randolph C; Sisemore, Teddi B; Myers, Erin M

    2011-03-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted construct that is inconsistently defined and assessed between clinical psychology and social-personality psychology. The purpose of the present study was to examine the similarities and differences in the cognitive schemas underlying various forms of narcissism. This was accomplished by examining the associations of normal and pathological forms of narcissism with the early maladaptive schemas. The results showed important similarities in these associations (e.g., all of the narcissism scales were positively associated with the entitlement schema) as well as differences (e.g., vulnerable narcissism was the only form of narcissism that was positively associated with subjugation). Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the ways in which individuals with these forms of narcissism perceive and navigate their social environments.

  9. Maladaptive behavior reinforces a recruitment bottleneck in newly settled fishes.

    PubMed

    Fuiman, Lee A; Meekan, Mark G; McCormick, Mark I

    2010-09-01

    Settlement from the plankton ends the major dispersive stage of life for many marine organisms and exposes them to intense predation pressure in juvenile habitats. This predation mortality represents a life-history bottleneck that can determine recruitment success. At the level of individual predator-prey interactions, prey survival depends upon behavior, specifically how behavior affects prey conspicuousness and evasive ability. We conducted an experiment to identify behavioral traits and performance levels that are important determinants of which individuals survive or die soon after settlement. We measured a suite of behavioral traits on late stage, pre-settlement Ward's damsel (Pomacentrus wardi) collected using light traps. These behavioral traits included two measures of routine swimming (indicators of conspicuousness) and eight measures of escape performance to a visual startle stimulus. Fish were then released onto individual patch reefs, where divers measured an additional behavioral trait (boldness). We censused each patch reef until approximately 50% of the fish were missing (~24 h), which we assumed to be a result of predation. We used classification tree analysis to discriminate survivors from fish presumed dead based on poor behavioral performance. The classification tree revealed that individuals displaying the maladaptive combination of low escape response speed, low boldness on the reef, and high routine swimming speed were highly susceptible to predation (92.4% with this combination died within 24 h). This accounted for 55.2% of all fish that died. Several combinations of behavioral traits predicted likely survival over 24 h, but there was greater uncertainty about that prediction than there was for fish that were predicted to die. Thus maladaptive behavioral traits were easier to identify than adaptive traits.

  10. Perceived incompetence moderates the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Martens, Matthew P

    2009-01-01

    Maladaptive perfectionism and perceived incompetence are two factors associated with disordered eating. In this study, we examined whether perceived incompetence moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating. Three hundred fifteen college women completed surveys assessing eating habits and levels of perceived incompetence and perfectionism. Results supported a moderating effect of perceived incompetence such that as levels of perceived incompetence increased, the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating became increasingly strong. These results imply that clinicians may want to focus efforts on helping clients learn to set healthy goals and improve their perception of competence in life domains.

  11. Maladaptive schemas mediate poor parental attachment and suicidality in college students.

    PubMed

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Thompson, Kali; Selwyn, Candice; Finnegan, Heather; Misra, Tiffany

    2017-07-01

    In college-aged adults (n = 766), the transition to adulthood may aggravate risk factors for suicidal behavior such as poor parental attachment and maladaptive self-schemas. Because poor parental attachment may facilitate developing maladaptive self-related schemas, this study was designed to determine whether specific maladaptive schemas mediate the relation between poor parental attachment and college students' suicide proneness and ideation. Findings supported this hypothesis. Defectiveness and emotional deprivation schemas, which are consistent with "perceived burdensomeness" and "thwarted belonging," may be important intervention targets for suicide prevention programs. The ongoing role of parental attachment during early adult development is highlighted.

  12. Relational benefits of relational aggression: adaptive and maladaptive associations with adolescent friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Banny, Adrienne M; Heilbron, Nicole; Ames, Angharad; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2011-07-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined associations between relational aggression and friendship quality during adolescence. In Study 1, 62 adolescents in Grades 6 (25.8%), 7 (32.3%), and 8 (41.9%) completed assessments of friendship affiliations, relational and overt aggression, and friendship quality at 2 time points, 1 year apart. Results using actor partner interdependence modeling indicated that high levels of relational aggression predicted increases in self-reported positive friendship quality 1 year later. In Study 2, 56 adolescents in Grades 9 (66.7%) and 10 (33.3%) attended a laboratory session with a friend in which their conversations were videotaped and coded for relationally aggressive talk. Target adolescents completed measures of positive and negative friendship quality during the laboratory session and during a follow-up phone call 6 months later. Analyses revealed that high levels of relationally aggressive talk at Time 1 predicted increases in negative friendship quality 6 months later. In addition, among adolescents involved in a reciprocal best friendship, high levels of observed relationally aggressive talk predicted increases in positive friendship quality over time. Taken together, these studies provide support for the idea that relational aggression may be associated with adaptive as well as maladaptive outcomes within the dyadic context of adolescent friendship. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Enhancement of shortening velocity, power, and acto-myosin crossbridge (CB) kinetics following long-term treatment with propionyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and omega-3 fatty acids in BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters papillary muscle.

    PubMed

    Vargiu, Romina; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Fraschini, Matteo; Perinu, Anna; Tiano, Luca; Capra, Alessandro; Mancinelli, Rino

    2010-01-01

    Impaired functions of myocardial muscle cells in human and animals, is a primary defect associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the DCM are yet to be clarified and an effective therapy is still not available. The BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian Hamsters (CMSHs) represent an animal model of idiopathic DCM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term treatment (2 months) with propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), coenzyme Q(10), omega-3 fatty acids and a combination of these three agents (formulation HS12607) on mechanical properties and acto-myosin crossbridges (CBs) kinetics of left ventricular (LV) papillary muscle from control and treated 10 month old BIO TO-2 CMSHs. Isometric and isotonic contractile properties of isolated papillary muscle from control and treated CMSHs were investigated, and acto-myosin CB number, force and kinetics were calculated using Huxley's equations. Mechanical parameter values were higher in treated than in control hamsters, particularly when substances were administered together in a coformulation (HS12607). Compared to control, HS12607-treated papillary muscles showed a significant increase of maximum peak isometric tension (P(o)) (30.06 +/- 4.91 vs. 19.74 +/- 5.00 mN/mm(2)), maximum extent of muscle shortening (0.13 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.02 L/L(max)), maximum unloaded shortening velocity (1.18 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.13 L/L(max) s(-1)) and maximum peak of power output (5.52 +/- 1.61 vs. 1.58 +/- 0.83). The curvature of the hyperbolic force-velocity relationships did not differ between control and treated hamsters. When compared to controls, acto-myosin CB number increased in treated hamsters [(6.67 +/- 1.91) 10(10)/mm(2) vs. (3.55 +/- 2.08) 10(10)/mm(2)], whereas the unitary force of single CB was similar in control and treated animals. The peak value of the rate constant for CB attachment (f(1)) and detachment (g(2)) was higher in treated animals when

  14. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n = 74) and no history of major mental disorders (n = 75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. PMID:23827087

  15. A general and maladaptive personality perspective on youth obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Wolf, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Based on Krueger's (2005) conceptual model of the personality-psychopathology relationship, this study examines how personality predicts different youth obsessive-compulsive symptoms, comparing the relative contribution of general and maladaptive personality traits. Three-hundred forty-four adolescents provided self-reports on an obsessive-compulsive scale, and their mothers rated their child's general and maladaptive personality. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that personality differentially predicts obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, and that the relative significance of general versus maladaptive personality predictors differs across various forms of obsessive-compulsive pathology. The results are discussed in terms of the value of including both general and maladaptive personality measures in the assessment of early obsessive-compulsive difficulties.

  16. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, a Tool to Revert Maladaptive Plasticity in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Russo, Margherita; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Calabro, Rocco S.; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic pain. A hypothetic mechanism of action would be to prevent or revert the ongoing maladaptive plasticity within the pain matrix. In this review, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of maladaptive plasticity in patients with chronic pain and the putative mechanisms of NIBS in modulating synaptic plasticity in neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:27512368

  17. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, adult attachment, and big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Inci Pinar; Tezer, Esin

    2010-01-01

    The author examined the role of anxiety and avoidance dimensions of attachment and Big Five personality traits in adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism among 604 (377 male, 227 female) Turkish university students. The results of 2 separate multiple regression analyses yielded that adaptive perfectionism was significantly predicted by conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion. Maladaptive perfectionism was significantly predicted by the neuroticism, anxiety, and avoidance dimensions of attachment. The authors discuss the implications, limitations, and future directions for research.

  18. Early maladaptive schemas and sexual dysfunction in men.

    PubMed

    Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the role played by early maladaptive schemas (EMS) on male sexual functioning and clarify the way these nuclear cognitive structures discriminate men with and without sexual dysfunction. A total of 242 men participated in the study (a community sample of 200 men and a clinical sample of 42 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction). The community sample was divided into a control group (n=147) and a sub-clinical group (n=53), according to the cutoff scores of the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction (Rosen et al., 1997). All participants completed a set of measures assessing EMS (Young & Brown, 1989), sexual functioning (Rosen et al., 1997), psychopathology (Derogatis & Spencer, 1982), and cognitive schemas activated in hypothetical unsuccessful sexual situations (Nobre & Pinto-Gouveia, 2009a). Findings supported the hypothesis of a typical cognitive pattern in men with sexual difficulties. After controlling for psychopathology, men with sexual dysfunction reported more dependence/incompetence EMS and activated more difference, helpless, and particularly incompetence schemas in hypothetical unsuccessful sexual situations, in comparison to sexually healthy men. These results have important therapeutic implications for sex therapy.

  19. Recapitulating maladaptive, multiscale remodeling of failing myocardium on a chip.

    PubMed

    McCain, Megan L; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Goss, Josue A; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2013-06-11

    The lack of a robust pipeline of medical therapeutic agents for the treatment of heart disease may be partially attributed to the lack of in vitro models that recapitulate the essential structure-function relationships of healthy and diseased myocardium. We designed and built a system to mimic mechanical overload in vitro by applying cyclic stretch to engineered laminar ventricular tissue on a stretchable chip. To test our model, we quantified changes in gene expression, myocyte architecture, calcium handling, and contractile function and compared our results vs. several decades of animal studies and clinical observations. Cyclic stretch activated gene expression profiles characteristic of pathological remodeling, including decreased α- to β-myosin heavy chain ratios, and induced maladaptive changes to myocyte shape and sarcomere alignment. In stretched tissues, calcium transients resembled those reported in failing myocytes and peak systolic stress was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that failing myocardium, as defined genetically, structurally, and functionally, can be replicated in an in vitro microsystem by faithfully recapitulating the structural and mechanical microenvironment of the diseased heart.

  20. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings. PMID:24511281

  1. Specific dysphoric symptoms are predicted by early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Trincas, Roberta; Ottaviani, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  2. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Maladaptive plasticity in tinnitus-triggers, mechanisms and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Susan E; Roberts, Larry E.; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions worldwide and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases are associated with hearing loss caused by the aging process or noise exposure. Because exposure to loud recreational sound is common among youthful populations, young persons are at increasing risk. Head or neck injuries can also trigger the development of tinnitus, as altered somatosensory input can affect auditory pathways and lead to tinnitus or modulate its intensity. Emotional and attentional state may play a role in tinnitus development and maintenance via top-down mechanisms. Thus, military in combat are particularly at risk due to combined hearing loss, somatosensory system disturbances and emotional stress. Neuroscience research has identified neural changes related to tinnitus that commence at the cochlear nucleus and extend to the auditory cortex and brain regions beyond. Maladaptive neural plasticity appears to underlie these neural changes, as it results in increased spontaneous firing rates and synchrony among neurons in central auditory structures that may generate the phantom percept. This review highlights the links between animal and human studies, including several therapeutic approaches that have been developed, which aim to target the neuroplastic changes underlying tinnitus. PMID:26868680

  4. Maladaptive plasticity in tinnitus--triggers, mechanisms and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shore, Susan E; Roberts, Larry E; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-03-01

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions of people worldwide, and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases of tinnitus are associated with hearing loss caused by ageing or noise exposure. Exposure to loud recreational sound is common among the young, and this group are at increasing risk of developing tinnitus. Head or neck injuries can also trigger the development of tinnitus, as altered somatosensory input can affect auditory pathways and lead to tinnitus or modulate its intensity. Emotional and attentional state could be involved in the development and maintenance of tinnitus via top-down mechanisms. Thus, military personnel in combat are particularly at risk owing to combined risk factors (hearing loss, somatosensory system disturbances and emotional stress). Animal model studies have identified tinnitus-associated neural changes that commence at the cochlear nucleus and extend to the auditory cortex and other brain regions. Maladaptive neural plasticity seems to underlie these changes: it results in increased spontaneous firing rates and synchrony among neurons in central auditory structures, possibly generating the phantom percept. This Review highlights the links between animal and human studies, and discusses several therapeutic approaches that have been developed to target the neuroplastic changes underlying tinnitus.

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the risk for bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-10-01

    The hypomanic personality style is a risk factor for bipolar spectrum disorders and shares many cognitive and affective features with the bipolar spectrum. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in association with the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum risk. A sample of 966 participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Hypomanic Personality Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Participants deemed at risk of developing a bipolar disorder (N=107) were compared to low-risk controls (N=681). The Entitlement/Grandiosity and Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline positively predicted the risk of developing a bipolar disorder, while Emotional Inhibition negatively predicted risk. High-risk participants demonstrated higher mean scores on all EMSs except Emotional Inhibition. These three EMSs, combined with Vulnerability to Harm or Illness, significantly predicted group membership. A bipolar spectrum EMS profile was identified, consisting of Entitlement/Grandiosity, Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline and the absence of Emotional Inhibition. These EMSs are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. This study supports the application of schema theory to the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum. Future research should explore the possible interaction between EMSs, life events and affective symptoms and the applicability of schema therapy to the bipolar spectrum. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood trauma is associated with maladaptive personality traits.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Hudson W; Pereira, Rebeca; Frozi, Julia; Bisol, Luísa W; Ottoni, Gustavo L; Lara, Diogo R

    2015-06-01

    The association between childhood trauma and personality traits has been poorly characterized and reported. Our aim was to evaluate whether distinct types of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with various personality dimensions using data from a large web-based survey. A total of 12,225 volunteers responded anonymously to the Internet versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) via our research website, but only 8,114 subjects (75.7% women, mean age 34.8±11.3yrs) who met the criteria for validity were included in the analysis. Childhood trauma was positively associated with harm avoidance and was negatively associated with self-directedness and, to a lesser extent, with cooperativeness. The associations were robust with emotional abuse and neglect but were non-significant or mild with physical trauma. Emotional neglect was associated with reduced reward dependence and persistence. All types of abuse, but not neglect, were associated with increased novelty seeking scores. Reporting of childhood trauma, especially of an emotional nature, was associated with maladaptive personality traits. Further investigation of the effects of different types of childhood trauma on psychological and neurobiological parameters is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed. PMID:25897180

  9. Status update: maladaptive Facebook usage predicts increases in body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L; Joiner, Thomas E

    2013-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of online social evaluations and comparisons on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. We tested the effects of maladaptive Facebook usage (defined as the tendency to seek negative social evaluations and/or engage in social comparisons via Facebook) on body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in a sample of 232 college females followed for approximately 4 weeks. Results provided evidence that maladaptive Facebook usage significantly predicted increases in bulimic symptoms and episodes of over-eating approximately four weeks later. Body dissatisfaction was found to fully mediate the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in over-eating episodes, whereas body dissatisfaction partially mediated the relationship between maladaptive Facebook usage and increases in bulimic symptoms more broadly. Limitations include the use of a novel measure of maladaptive Facebook usage due to the absence of an existing measure and a non-clinical sample. The results of this study suggest that reducing maladaptive Facebook usage may be a fruitful target for interventions aimed at reducing body dissatisfaction and symptoms of eating pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Correspondence between alternate measures of maladaptive exercise, and their associations with disordered eating symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Haidee J.; Bond, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study sought to contribute to the measurement of maladaptive exercise by examining the psychometric properties of a variety of instruments and classification algorithms. The primary aim was to identify the items or scales necessary and sufficient to quantify the construct. A secondary aim was to comment on the construct validity of these measures by examining their relationships with disordered eating symptomatology. Methods: Questionnaire booklets comprising the Exercise Dependence Scale, the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, the Frequency, Intensity, Time Index, and the Eating Attitudes Test were distributed to women attending health and fitness centres. Self-reported age, height, current and desired weight, and length of time as a regular exerciser were also sought. Data were obtained from 302 regular exercisers. Results: While there were statistically significant associations among the measures, no two operationalised maladaptive exercise in the same manner. The Frequency-Intensity-Time Index (FIT) was found to be particularly poor. While variation in the size of relationships between maladaptive exercise and disordered eating was noted, all measures were strongly correlated with the exception of FIT, which demonstrated a modest correlation. Conclusions: Different conceptualisations of maladaptive exercise have led to alternative operational definitions, resulting in its classification being instrument dependent. Further exploration using samples with differing characteristics (e.g., high/low probability of dependence) may allow more specific recommendations to be made about the optimal measurement of maladaptive exercise. Further, the question of whether maladaptive exercise is more likely a cause or consequence of eating disorders remains. PMID:25215197

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  12. Maladaptive Plasticity Masks the Effects of Natural Selection in the Red-Shouldered Soapberry Bug.

    PubMed

    Cenzer, Meredith L

    2017-10-01

    Natural selection can produce local adaptation, but local adaptation can be masked by maladaptive plasticity. Maladaptive plasticity may arise as a result of gene flow producing novel gene combinations that have not been exposed to selection. In the 1980s, populations of the red-shouldered soapberry bug (Jadera haematoloma) were locally adapted to feed on the seeds of a native host plant and an introduced host plant; by 2014, local differentiation in beak length had been lost, likely as a consequence of increased gene flow. In this study, I assess the relative contributions of natural selection and plasticity to beak length on these two hosts. I confirm the earlier hypothesis that the host plant seedpod drives divergent natural selection on beak length. I then demonstrate that the proximate cause of the loss of observable differentiation in beak length is maladaptive plasticity, which masks persistent genetic differences between host-associated populations. Maladaptive plasticity is highest in areas where the two plants co-occur; in combination with historical measures of plasticity in hybrids, this indicates that maladaptive plasticity may be a consequence of ongoing gene flow. Although natural selection produced locally adapted genotypes in soapberry bugs, maladaptive plasticity is masking phenotypic differences between populations in nature.

  13. Correspondence between alternate measures of maladaptive exercise, and their associations with disordered eating symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Lease, Haidee J; Bond, Malcolm J

    2013-09-01

    The study sought to contribute to the measurement of maladaptive exercise by examining the psychometric properties of a variety of instruments and classification algorithms. The primary aim was to identify the items or scales necessary and sufficient to quantify the construct. A secondary aim was to comment on the construct validity of these measures by examining their relationships with disordered eating symptomatology. Questionnaire booklets comprising the Exercise Dependence Scale, the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, the Frequency, Intensity, Time Index, and the Eating Attitudes Test were distributed to women attending health and fitness centres. Self-reported age, height, current and desired weight, and length of time as a regular exerciser were also sought. Data were obtained from 302 regular exercisers. While there were statistically significant associations among the measures, no two operationalised maladaptive exercise in the same manner. The Frequency-Intensity-Time Index (FIT) was found to be particularly poor. While variation in the size of relationships between maladaptive exercise and disordered eating was noted, all measures were strongly correlated with the exception of FIT, which demonstrated a modest correlation. Different conceptualisations of maladaptive exercise have led to alternative operational definitions, resulting in its classification being instrument dependent. Further exploration using samples with differing characteristics (e.g., high/low probability of dependence) may allow more specific recommendations to be made about the optimal measurement of maladaptive exercise. Further, the question of whether maladaptive exercise is more likely a cause or consequence of eating disorders remains.

  14. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    PubMed

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  15. Cardiovascular maladaptation to exercise in young hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Cusmà Piccione, Maurizio; Zito, Concetta; Khandheria, Bijoy; Madaffari, Antonio; Oteri, Alessandra; Falanga, Gabriella; Donato, Domenica; D'Angelo, Myriam; Carerj, Maria Ludovica; Di Bella, Gianluca; Imbalzano, Egidio; Pugliatti, Pietro; Carerj, Scipione

    2017-04-01

    Impairment of the adaptive mechanisms that increase cardiac output during exercise can translate to a reduced functional capacity. We investigated cardiovascular adaptation to exertion in asymptomatic hypertensive patients, aiming to identify the early signs of cardiac and vascular dysfunction. We enrolled 54 subjects: 30 patients (45.1±11.9years, 19 males) and 24 age-matched healthy controls (44.4±9.6years, 14 males). Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and echo-tracking were performed at rest and during exertion to assess myocardial deformation and arterial stiffness. E/E' increased from rest to peak exercise more in patients than in controls (peak stage: p=0.024). Global longitudinal strain increased significantly from rest to peak stage in controls (p=0.011) whereas it remained unchanged in patients (p=0.777). Left atrial (LA) reservoir was significantly increased throughout the exercise only in controls (p=0.001) whereas it was almost unchanged in patients (p=0.293). LA stiffness was significantly higher in patients than in controls both at rest (p=0.023) and during exercise (p<0.001). Beta index and pulse wave velocity (PWV) increased during exercise in both groups, showing higher values in patients in each step. Our study showed a more pronounced maladaptation during exercise, with respect to rest, of the cardiovascular system with impaired cardiac-vessel coupling in hypertensive patients compared to healthy subjects. Exercise echocardiography implemented by STE and echo-tracking is invaluable in the early detection of these cardiovascular abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing maladaptive weight management practices: developing a psychoeducational intervention program.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karina M; LeBow, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data.

  17. Adventitious Reinforcement of Maladaptive Stimulus Control Interferes with Learning.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Kathryn J; Hine, Kathleen; Hayashi, Yusuke; Williams, Dean C

    2016-09-01

    Persistent error patterns sometimes develop when teaching new discriminations. These patterns can be adventitiously reinforced, especially during long periods of chance-level responding (including baseline). Such behaviors can interfere with learning a new discrimination. They can also disrupt already learned discriminations, if they re-emerge during teaching procedures that generate errors. We present an example of this process. Our goal was to teach a boy with intellectual disabilities to touch one of two shapes on a computer screen (in technical terms, a simple simultaneous discrimination). We used a size-fading procedure. The correct stimulus was at full size, and the incorrect-stimulus size increased in increments of 10 %. Performance was nearly error free up to and including 60 % of full size. In a probe session with the incorrect stimulus at full size, however, accuracy plummeted. Also, a pattern of switching between choices, which apparently had been established in classroom instruction, re-emerged. The switching pattern interfered with already-learned discriminations. Despite having previously mastered a fading step with the incorrect stimulus up to 60 %, we were unable to maintain consistently high accuracy beyond 20 % of full size. We refined the teaching program such that fading was done in smaller steps (5 %), and decisions to "step back" to a smaller incorrect stimulus were made after every 5-instead of 20-trials. Errors were rare, switching behavior stopped, and he mastered the discrimination. This is a practical example of the importance of designing instruction that prevents adventitious reinforcement of maladaptive discriminated response patterns by reducing errors during acquisition.

  18. Employee stress management: An examination of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies on employee health.

    PubMed

    Holton, M Kim; Barry, Adam E; Chaney, J Don

    2015-01-01

    Employees commonly report feeling stressed at work. Examine how employees cope with work and personal stress, whether their coping strategies are adaptive (protective to health) or maladaptive (detrimental to health), and if the manner in which employees cope with stress influences perceived stress management. In this cross-sectional study, a random sample of 2,500 full-time university non-student employees (i.e. faculty, salaried professionals, and hourly non-professionals) were surveyed on health related behaviors including stress and coping. Approximately 1,277 completed the survey (51% ). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to assess the ability of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies to predict self-reported stress management, while controlling for multiple demographic variables. Over half of employees surveyed reported effective stress management. Most frequently used adaptive coping strategies were communication with friend/family member and exercise, while most frequently used maladaptive coping strategies were drinking alcohol and eating more than usual. Both adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies made significant (p < 0.05) contributions to predicting employee's perceived stress management. Only adaptive coping strategies (B = 0.265) predicted whether someone would self-identify as effectively managing stress. Use of maladaptive coping strategies decreased likelihood of self-reporting effective stress management. Actual coping strategies employed may influence employees' perceived stress management. Adaptive coping strategies may be more influential than maladaptive coping strategies on perceived stress management. Results illustrate themes for effective workplace stress management programs. Stress management programs focused on increasing use of adaptive coping may have a greater impact on employee stress management than those focused on decreasing use of maladaptive coping. Coping is not only a reaction to stressful experiences but also

  19. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  20. Maladaptive health beliefs, illness-related self-regulation and the role of the information provided by physicians.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Paschali, Antonia; Hadjulis, Michael; Papadimitriou, Angela

    2016-06-01

    This prospective study in 119 patients with cardiovascular diseases aimed to examine whether (a) illness representations mediate the relation of general maladaptive health beliefs to patients' coping behaviours and (b) these relations are moderated by the patients' perception of the amount of information provided by their physicians. Personal control and illness coherence mediated the relation of maladaptive health beliefs to coping behaviour. The amount of the provided information buffered the negative relation of maladaptive health beliefs to illness representations and coping. Thus, the detrimental effect of general maladaptive health beliefs may be counterbalanced by the amount of information provided by physicians. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Integrating the theories of Darwin and Bernoulli: maladaptive baroreceptor network dysfunction may explain the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Conley, Buford R; Doux, John D; Lee, Patrick Y; Bazar, Kimberly A; Daniel, Stephanie M; Yun, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Current treatment options for aortic aneurysms are suboptimal and their pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. We propose the existence of a coordinated multi-node baroreceptor network that measures pressures at all vascular bifurcations and enables system-wide hemodynamic coordination and vasomotor regulation, in accordance with the principle of Bernoulli. While the presence of baroreceptors at bifurcations remains unknown, behavior at the level of systems predicts their existence, possibly as glomus cell derivatives. We propose that pressure misregistration among sensor nodes at different vascular bifurcations can precipitate feed-forward dysfunctions that promote thrombosis, inflammation, and vasomotor dysregulation resulting in aneurysm formation. One example of this phenomenon is aortic aneurysm, which is currently attributed to focal anatomic defects. As plaque builds in the infrarenal aorta, the increased blood velocity through this segment can widen the difference between pressures sensed at the iliac and the renal artery bifurcations. Due to the Bernoulli effect, this change creates an incorrect impression of reduced dynamic pressure at the kidneys. The erroneous perception of hypovolemia can induce a pernicious cycle of maladaptive adrenergia and associated coagulation and thrombosis, particularly in the infrarenal aortic segment as the body attempts to normalize renal perfusion. Atherosclerosis can further exacerbate baroreceptor dysfunction by interfering with sensor biology in feed-forward fashion. Hypertension may be a consequence as well as a source of atherosclerosis and aneurysm. The described system may have evolved when trauma-related hypovolemia was a far more prevalent driver of natural selection but may be rendered maladaptive in the setting of modern stressors. Failure to address these factors may explain the suboptimal long-term outcomes with current surgical and endovascular treatments for aneurysms. Implications for other potential sensor

  2. Coevolution of adaptive technology, maladaptive culture and population size in a producer–scrounger game

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2009-01-01

    Technology (i.e. tools, methods of cultivation and domestication, systems of construction and appropriation, machines) has increased the vital rates of humans, and is one of the defining features of the transition from Malthusian ecological stagnation to a potentially perpetual rising population growth. Maladaptations, on the other hand, encompass behaviours, customs and practices that decrease the vital rates of individuals. Technology and maladaptations are part of the total stock of culture carried by the individuals in a population. Here, we develop a quantitative model for the coevolution of cumulative adaptive technology and maladaptive culture in a ‘producer–scrounger’ game, which can also usefully be interpreted as an ‘individual–social’ learner interaction. Producers (individual learners) are assumed to invent new adaptations and maladaptations by trial-and-error learning, insight or deduction, and they pay the cost of innovation. Scroungers (social learners) are assumed to copy or imitate (cultural transmission) both the adaptations and maladaptations generated by producers. We show that the coevolutionary dynamics of producers and scroungers in the presence of cultural transmission can have a variety of effects on population carrying capacity. From stable polymorphism, where scroungers bring an advantage to the population (increase in carrying capacity), to periodic cycling, where scroungers decrease carrying capacity, we find that selection-driven cultural innovation and transmission may send a population on the path of indefinite growth or to extinction. PMID:19692409

  3. Relationship between maladaptive cognitions about sleep and recovery in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Plante, David T; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Zanarini, Mary C

    2013-12-30

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with maladaptive cognitive processes including dysfunctional attitudes and a negative attribution style. Comorbid insomnia affects the course of multiple psychiatric disorders, and has been associated with the absence of recovery from BPD. Because dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes are common among patients with insomnia, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between maladaptive sleep-related cognitions and recovery status (symptomatic remission plus good concurrent psychosocial functioning) in patients with BPD. Two hundred and twenty three BPD patients participating in the McLean Study of Adult Development (MSAD) were administered the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep questionnaire (DBAS-16) as part of the 16-year follow-up wave. Maladaptive sleep cognitions were compared between recovered (n=105) and non-recovered (n=118) BPD participants, in analyses that adjusted for age, sex, depression, anxiety, and primary sleep disorders. Results demonstrated that non-recovered BPD patients had significantly more severe maladaptive sleep-related cognitions as measured by the overall DBAS-16 score. These results demonstrate an association between dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep and recovery status among BPD patients. Further research is warranted to evaluate treatments targeted towards maladaptive sleep-related cognitions, and their subsequent effects on the course of BPD. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Local maladaptation in the soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Brian

    2006-09-01

    Local adaptation has often been documented in herbivorous insects. The potential for local maladaptation in phytophagous insects, however, has not been widely considered. I performed a two-generation reciprocal cross-transplant experiment with the generalist soft scale insect Saissetia coffeae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on two common species of host plants in rain forest habitat in Costa Rica. In this system, S. coffeae showed significant local maladaptation at the level of the host species. Lineages originally collected from Witheringia enjoyed a strong advantage over those collected from Lomariopsis when both sets of lineages were placed on Lomariopsis; however, when both sets of lineages were raised on Witheringia, their fitnesses were statistically indistinguishable. While some aspects of the biology of S. coffeae may impair its ability to adapt to local selection pressures, scale insects are often locally adapted on fine spatial scales, and local maladaptation is therefore especially surprising. Other documented cases of local maladaptation in parasites appear to be due to evolution on the part of the host. The possibility that hosts or natural enemies may place local genotypes at a disadvantage, producing a pattern of local maladaptation, is one that deserves more consideration in the context of plant-insect interactions.

  5. Neuronal Correlates of Maladaptive Coping: An EEG-Study in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, S. L.; Sikora, D. M.; McCoy, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children with Autistic Disorder (AD) evidence more co-occurring maladaptive behaviours than their typically developing peers and peers with intellectual disability because of other aetiologies. The present study investigated the prevalence of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours during early childhood and identified at-risk subgroups of young children with AD. Method Parents rated their child’s maladaptive behaviours on the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in 169 children with AD aged 1.5 to 5.8 years. Results One-third of young children with AD had a CBCL Total Problems score in the Clinically Significant range. The highest percentage of Clinically Significant scores were in the Withdrawal, Attention, and Aggression CBCL syndrome scales. There was a high degree of co-morbidity of Clinically Significant maladaptive behaviours. Several subject characteristic risk factors for maladaptive behaviours were identified. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to include behavioural management strategies aimed at increasing social engagement, sustained attention and decreasing aggressive behaviour in comprehensive intervention programmes for young children with AD. PMID:18444989

  7. Maladaptive behaviors of children with autism: parent support, stress, and coping.

    PubMed

    Hall, Heather R; Graff, J Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    The estimated prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one in 88. Autism Spectrum Disorders are nearly five times more common among boys than girls. Children with autism may develop a variety of socially unacceptable maladaptive behaviors beyond the defining symptoms of the spectrum disorder. It is necessary to conduct research to examine maladaptive behaviors of children with autism, family supports, parental stress, and parental coping. Data used were collected during an earlier descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study. Using the Double ABCX Model of family behavior as the framework, this study evaluated parents' views of the adaptive behaviors of their children diagnosed with autism using the networks of support for their family, parental stress, and parental coping patterns. Results indicate an association between increased Internalizing maladaptive behaviors and increased parental stress (r = .547, p = .000). The findings of this study suggest that parents of children with autism report that their children have clinically significant maladaptive behaviors. Healthcare providers could use results from this study to provide appropriate intervention for maladaptive behaviors to support children with autism and their families.

  8. Coevolution of adaptive technology, maladaptive culture and population size in a producer-scrounger game.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W

    2009-11-07

    Technology (i.e. tools, methods of cultivation and domestication, systems of construction and appropriation, machines) has increased the vital rates of humans, and is one of the defining features of the transition from Malthusian ecological stagnation to a potentially perpetual rising population growth. Maladaptations, on the other hand, encompass behaviours, customs and practices that decrease the vital rates of individuals. Technology and maladaptations are part of the total stock of culture carried by the individuals in a population. Here, we develop a quantitative model for the coevolution of cumulative adaptive technology and maladaptive culture in a 'producer-scrounger' game, which can also usefully be interpreted as an 'individual-social' learner interaction. Producers (individual learners) are assumed to invent new adaptations and maladaptations by trial-and-error learning, insight or deduction, and they pay the cost of innovation. Scroungers (social learners) are assumed to copy or imitate (cultural transmission) both the adaptations and maladaptations generated by producers. We show that the coevolutionary dynamics of producers and scroungers in the presence of cultural transmission can have a variety of effects on population carrying capacity. From stable polymorphism, where scroungers bring an advantage to the population (increase in carrying capacity), to periodic cycling, where scroungers decrease carrying capacity, we find that selection-driven cultural innovation and transmission may send a population on the path of indefinite growth or to extinction.

  9. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  10. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  11. Neuronal correlates of maladaptive coping: an EEG-study in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus.

  12. Treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth: CERT guidelines II. Treatments and ongoing management.

    PubMed

    Scotto Rosato, Nancy; Correll, Christoph U; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Chait, Alanna; Crystal, Stephen; Jensen, Peter S

    2012-06-01

    To develop guidelines for management and treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth in the areas of psychosocial interventions, medication treatments, and side-effect management. Evidence was assembled and evaluated in a multistep process, including systematic reviews of published literature; an expert survey of recommended practices; a consensus conference of researchers, policymakers, clinicians, and family advocates; and review by the steering committee of successive drafts of the recommendations. The Center for Education and Research on Mental Health Therapeutics Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines reflect a synthesis of the available evidence, based on this multistep process. This article describes the content, rationale, and evidence for 11 recommendations. Key treatment principles include considering psychosocial interventions, such as evidence-based parent and child skills training as the first line of treatment; targeting the underlying disorder first following evidence-based guidelines; considering individual psychosocial and medical factors, including cardiovascular risk in the selection of agents if medication treatment (ideally with the best evidence base) is initiated; avoiding the use of multiple psychotropic medications simultaneously; and careful monitoring of treatment response, by using structured rating scales, as well as close medical monitoring for side effects, including metabolic changes. Treatment of children with maladaptive aggression is a "moving target" requiring ongoing assimilation of new evidence as it emerges. Based on the existing evidence, the Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines provide a framework for management of maladaptive aggression in youth, appropriate for use by primary care clinicians and mental health providers.

  13. Do maladaptive behaviors exist at one or both ends of personality traits?

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Erik; Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Horn, Erin E; Ford, Derek C; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2014-06-01

    In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) personality disorder trait model, maladaptive behavior is located at one end of continuous scales. Widiger and colleagues, however, have argued that maladaptive behavior exists at both ends of trait continua. We propose that the role of evaluative variance differentiates these two perspectives and that once evaluation is isolated, maladaptive behaviors emerge at both ends of nonevaluative trait dimensions. In Study 1, we argue that evaluative variance is worthwhile to measure separately from descriptive content because it clusters items by valence regardless of content (e.g., lazy and workaholic; apathetic and anxious; gullible and paranoid; timid and hostile, etc.), which is unlikely to describe a consistent behavioral style. We isolate evaluation statistically (Study 2) and at the time of measurement (Study 3) to show that factors unrelated to valence evidence maladaptive behavior at both ends. We argue that nonevaluative factors, which display maladaptive behavior at both ends of continua, may better approximate ways in which individuals actually behave.

  14. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A.; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser. PMID:28092194

  15. Aetiological pathways to Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in early adolescence: childhood dysregulated behaviour, maladaptive parenting and bully victimisation.

    PubMed

    Winsper, Catherine; Hall, James; Strauss, Vicky Y; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Developmental theories for the aetiology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) suggest that both individual features (e.g., childhood dysregulated behaviour) and negative environmental experiences (e.g., maladaptive parenting, peer victimisation) may lead to the development of BPD symptoms during adolescence. Few prospective studies have examined potential aetiological pathways involving these two factors. We addressed this gap in the literature using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We assessed mother-reported childhood dysregulated behaviour at 4, 7 and 8 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); maladaptive parenting (maternal hitting, punishment, and hostility) at 8 to 9 years; and bully victimisation (child and mother report) at 8, 9 and 10 years. BPD symptoms were assessed at 11 years using the UK Childhood Interview for DSM-IV BPD. Control variables included adolescent depression (assessed with the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire-SMFQ) and psychotic symptoms (assessed with the Psychosis-Like Symptoms Interview-PLIKS) at 11 to 14 years, and mother's exposure to family adversity during pregnancy (assessed with the Family Adversity Scale-FAI). In unadjusted logistic regression analyses, childhood dysregulated behaviour and all environmental risk factors (i.e., family adversity, maladaptive parenting, and bully victimisation) were significantly associated with BPD symptoms at 11 years. Within structural equation modelling controlling for all associations simultaneously, family adversity and male sex significantly predicted dysregulated behaviour across childhood, while bully victimisation significantly predicted BPD, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Children displaying dysregulated behaviour across childhood were significantly more likely to experience maladaptive parenting (β = 0.075, p < 0.001) and bully victimisation (β = 0.327, p < 0.001). Further, there was a

  16. Maladaptive effects of learning with the less-affected forelimb after focal cortical infarcts in rats

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Rachel P.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2009-01-01

    It is common following stroke to focus early rehabilitation efforts on developing compensatory use of the less-affected body side. Here we used a rat model of focal cortical infarct to examine how motor skill acquisition with the less-affected (“intact”) forelimb influences sensorimotor function of the infarct-impaired forelimb and neural activity in peri-infarct cortex. Rats proficient in skilled reaching with one forelimb were given focal ischemic lesions in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Recovery in this forelimb was tested following a period of reach training focused on the intact forelimb or control procedures. Quantitative measures of the cumulatively expressed transcription factor, FosB/ΔFosB, were used to assay intact forelimb training effects on neuronal activity in remaining SMC of the infarcted hemisphere. Intact forelimb training worsened behavioral recovery in the impaired forelimb following unilateral focal ischemia. Furthermore, it decreased neuronal FosB/ΔFosB expression in layer II/III of peri-infarct SMC. These effects were not found in sham-operated rats trained sequentially with both forelimbs or in animals receiving bilateral forelimb training after unilateral infarcts. Thus, focused use of the intact forelimb has detrimental effects on recovery of impaired forelimb function following a focal ischemic injury and this is linked to reduced neuronal activation in remaining cortex. These results suggest that peri-infarct cortex becomes vulnerable to early post-stroke experience with the less-affected forelimb and that this experience may drive neural plasticity here in a direction that is maladaptive for functional outcome. PMID:18054917

  17. Mechanisms of Change in Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Role of Maladaptive Beliefs and Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A.; Steketee, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Method Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results Perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. Conclusions Cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. PMID:25544403

  18. Perceived parental psychological control and eating-disordered symptoms: maladaptive perfectionism as a possible intervening variable.

    PubMed

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Vandereycken, Walter; Luyten, Patrick; Sierens, Eline; Goossens, Luc

    2008-02-01

    Recent developmental theorizing conceptualizes perfectionism as a mediator of the relation between intrusive parenting and psychopathology. Research addressing this hypothesis in relation to eating disorders (EDs), however, is lacking. This case-control study (a) examined mean-level differences between ED patients and normal controls in psychologically controlling parenting and perfectionism and (b) addressed the intervening role of perfectionism in associations between psychological control and ED symptoms, distinguishing between maladaptive and relatively more adaptive types of perfectionism. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of normal controls (N = 85) and a sample of ED patients (N = 60). Findings indicate that ED patients and bulimics in particular show elevated levels of paternal (but not maternal) psychological control and elevated levels of maladaptive perfectionism compared with normal controls. Mediation analyses show that maladaptive perfectionism is a significant intervening variable between parental psychological control and ED symptoms. Directions for future research on controlling parenting, perfectionism, and ED are outlined.

  19. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maladaptive daydreaming: Evidence for an under-researched mental health disorder.

    PubMed

    Bigelsen, Jayne; Lehrfeld, Jonathan M; Jopp, Daniela S; Somer, Eli

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the recently described phenomenon of Maladaptive Daydreaming (MD) and attempts to enhance the understanding of its features. It documents the experiences of 340 self-identified maladaptive daydreamers who spend excessive amounts of time engaged in mental fantasy worlds, in comparison to 107 controls. Our sample included a total of 447 individuals, aged 13-78, from 45 countries who responded to online announcements. Participants answered quantitative and qualitative questions about their daydreaming habits and completed seven questionnaires assessing mental health symptoms. Findings demonstrated that MD differs significantly from normative daydreaming in terms of quantity, content, experience, controllability, distress, and interference with life functioning. Results also demonstrated that Maladaptive Daydreamers endorsed significantly higher rates of attention deficit, obsessive compulsive and dissociation symptoms than controls. In sum, findings suggested that MD represents an under-acknowledged clinical phenomenon that causes distress, hinders life functioning and requires more scientific and clinical attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  2. Does maladaptive coping mediate the relationship between borderline personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Archer, John; Jackson, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify associations between borderline personality (BP) traits and reactive and proactive aggression, and to compare the meditational effects of maladaptive coping in samples of older adolescents (n = 133) and young adults (n = 93), which has not hitherto been explored. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-report measures to assess BP traits on a continuum, trait-based reactive and proactive aggression, and coping strategies. In adults, maladaptive emotional coping significantly mediated the relationship between BP and reactive aggression, and maladaptive avoidant coping mediated the relationship between BP and proactive aggression; no significant mediational effects were found for adolescents. These findings highlight potential explanations for associations between BP traits and reactive and proactive aggression in young adults, and indicate that reactive aggression in adult BPs could be decreased by reducing emotional coping, and proactive aggression by reducing avoidant coping. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of inbred mouse substrains reveals segregation of maladaptive fear phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Temme, Stephanie J; Bell, Ryan Z; Pahumi, Reciton; Murphy, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive fear, such as fear that is persistent or easily generalized to a nonthreatening stimuli, is associated with anxiety-related disorders in humans. In the laboratory, maladaptive fear can be modeled in rodents using Pavlovian fear conditioning. Recently, an inbred mouse strain known as 129S1/SvImJ, or 129S1 has been reported as exhibiting impairments in fear extinction and enhanced fear generalization. With a long-term goal of identifying segregating genetic markers of maladaptive fear, we used Pavlovian fear conditioning to characterize a closely related substrain designated as 129S6/SvEvTac, or 129S6. Here we report that, like 129S1 animals, 129S6 mice exhibit appropriate levels of fear upon conditioning, but are unable to extinguish fear memories once they are consolidated. Importantly, the maladaptive fear phenotype in this inbred stain can be segregated by sub-strain when probed using conditioning protocols designed to assess generalized fear. We find that unlike the 129S1 substrain, mice from the 129S6 sub-strain do not generalize conditioned fear to previously novel contexts and can learn to discriminate between two similar contexts when trained using a discrimination protocol. These results suggest that at least two forms of maladaptive fear (deficits in fear extinction and fear generalization) can be can be functionally segregated, further suggesting that the underlying neurobiology is heritable. Given the observation that two closely related sub-strains can exhibit different constellations of maladaptive fear suggests that these findings could be exploited to facilitate the identification of candidate genes for anxiety-related disorders.

  4. Adaptive and maladaptive neural compensatory consequences of sensory deprivation-From a phantom percept perspective.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Anusha; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-06-01

    It is suggested that the brain undergoes plastic changes in order to adapt to changing environmental needs. Sensory deprivation results in decreased input to the brain leading to adaptive or maladaptive changes. Although several theories hypothesize the mechanism of these adaptive and maladaptive changes, the course of action taken by the brain heavily depends on the age of incidence of damage. The growing body of literature on the topic proposes that maladaptive changes in the brain are instrumental in creating phantom percepts, defined as the perception of a sensory experience in the absence of a physical stimulus. The current article reviews the mechanisms of adaptive and maladaptive plasticity in the brain in congenital, early, and late-onset sensory deprivation in conjunction with the phantom percepts in the different sensory domains. We propose that the mechanisms of adaptive and maladaptive plasticity fall under a universal construct of updating hierarchical Bayesian prediction errors. This theory of the Bayesian brain hypothesizes that the brain constantly compares its internal milieu with changing environmental cues and either adjusts its predictions or discards the change, depending on the novelty or salience of the external stimulus. We propose that adaptive plasticity reflects both successful bottom-up compensation and top-down updating of the model while maladaptive plasticity reflects failure in one or both mechanisms, resulting in a constant prediction-error. Finally, we hypothesize that phantom percepts are generated by the brain as a solution to this prediction error and are thus a manifestation of unsuccessful adaptation to sensory deprivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maladaptive personality functioning within the big five and the five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Coker, Linda Anne; Samuel, Douglas B; Widiger, Thomas A

    2002-10-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) of general personality functioning was derived originally from lexical studies of trait terms within the English language. Many studies have been conducted on the relationship of the FFM to personality disorder symptomatology but, as yet, no lexical study of the representation of maladaptive personality functioning within a language has been conducted. The current study identified the distribution of socially undesirable trait terms within each of the poles of the Big Five and compared this distribution to findings obtained with FFM personality disorder measures. The implications of the results for a FFM of personality disorders and for the FFM assessment of maladaptive personality functioning are discussed.

  6. [Effect of schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety and maladaptive cognitive schemas in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Kindynis, S; Burlacu, S; Louville, P; Limosin, F

    2013-12-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders in older people, known to increase rates of disability and mortality. Depression in late life, commonly accompanied by multiple medical illnesses, reduces quality of life and is a strong risk factor for suicide. Despite its clinical significance, depression remains underdiagnosed and inadequately treated in older patients. Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies have the most empirical support in treating late-life depression, and are recommended by numerous guidelines in this indication. Group interventions are also recommended for older adults because they offer peer support, mitigate social isolation, encourage shared empathy and provide a context for peer feedback help from the group. Previous studies have shown that maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of depression and anxiety in older people, either as risk factors or as vulnerability markers, but there are no studies that have examined the effectiveness of schema-focused therapy to improve depression in late life. The main goals of the present study were to explore the relationship of maladaptive schemas with depression and anxiety severity in aged inpatients, and to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural individual and group treatment program that includes schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety, and cognitive schemas activation. The sample consisted of aged depressed inpatients (n=51) treated in a psychiatric unit. Participants completed measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) severity and maladaptive schemas (Cognitive Inventory of Subjective Distress [CISD]) at pre- and post-intervention (mean hospital stay: 4weeks). The maladaptive schemas Loss of Individuality, Refusal of Assistance and Vulnerability are more activated in our sample of depressed subjects with regard to the reference population. Most of specific maladaptive

  7. Psychometric Properties and Normative values of Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS).

    PubMed

    Güner, Olcay

    2017-03-01

    The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS) was developed to assess early maladaptive schemas in children between the ages of 10 and 16 in Turkey. The SQS consists of five questionnaires that represent five schema domains in Young's schema theory. Psychometric properties (n = 983) and normative values (n = 2250) of SQS were investigated in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results revealed 15 schema factors under five schema domains, with good fit indexes. A total of 14 schema factors were in line with Young's early maladaptive schemas. In addition to these factors, one new schema emerged: self-disapproval. Reliability analyses showed that SQS has high internal consistency and consistency over a 1-month interval. Correlations of SQS with the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Symptom Assessment (SA-45) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) were investigated to assess criterion validity, and the correlations revealed encouraging results. SQS significantly differentiated between children who have clinical diagnoses (n = 78) and children who have no diagnosis (n = 100). Finally, general normative values (n = 2,250) were determined for age groups, gender and age/gender groups. In conclusion, the early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire with standard scores.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents (SQS) is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure of early maladaptive schemas for children between the ages of 10 and 16. SQS consists of five schema domains that represent Young's schema domains including 15 early maladaptive schemas and 97 items. Normative values for each schema were determined for age, gender and

  8. A Description of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, M. C. T. V.; Emerich, D. R.; Orsati, F. T.; Rimerio, R. C.; Gatto, K. R.; Chappaz, I. O.; Kim, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychological tests can be useful to record adaptive and maladaptive behaviours of children with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to describe the adaptive and maladaptive behaviour of children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat syndrome. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat…

  9. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  10. A Description of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviour in Children and Adolescents with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, M. C. T. V.; Emerich, D. R.; Orsati, F. T.; Rimerio, R. C.; Gatto, K. R.; Chappaz, I. O.; Kim, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychological tests can be useful to record adaptive and maladaptive behaviours of children with intellectual disability. The objective of this study was to describe the adaptive and maladaptive behaviour of children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat syndrome. Methods: The sample consisted of 10 children and adolescents with Cri-du-chat…

  11. A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Emotion Differentiation in the Relationship between Borderline Personality and Urges for Maladaptive Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L; Chapman, Alexander L; Weiss, Nicole H; Rosenthal, M Zachary

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive, maladaptive, and potentially self-damaging behaviors are a hallmark feature of borderline personality (BP) pathology. Difficulties with emotion regulation have been implicated in both BP pathology and maladaptive behaviors. One facet of emotion regulation that may be particularly important in the relation between BP pathology and urges for maladaptive behaviors is emotion differentiation. Over one day, 84 participants high (n = 34) and low (n = 50) in BP pathology responded to questions regarding state emotions and urges to engage in maladaptive behaviors using handheld computers, in addition to a measure of emotion-related difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors. Results revealed that individuals high in BP pathology reported greater emotion-related impulsivity as well as daily urges to engage in maladaptive behaviors. However, the association between BP group and both baseline emotion-related impulsivity and daily urges for maladaptive behaviors was strongest among individuals who had low levels of positive emotion differentiation. Conversely, negative emotion differentiation did not significantly moderate the relationships between BP group and either emotion-related difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors or state urges for maladaptive behaviors. Limitations to the present study include the reliance upon an analogue sample and the relatively brief monitoring period. Despite limitations, these results suggest that, among individuals with high BP pathology, the ability to differentiate between positive emotions may be a particularly important target in the reduction of maladaptive behaviors.

  12. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  13. A Preliminary Examination of the Role of Emotion Differentiation in the Relationship between Borderline Personality and Urges for Maladaptive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L.; Chapman, Alexander L.; Weiss, Nicole H.; Rosenthal, M. Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Impulsive, maladaptive, and potentially self-damaging behaviors are a hallmark feature of borderline personality (BP) pathology. Difficulties with emotion regulation have been implicated in both BP pathology and maladaptive behaviors. One facet of emotion regulation that may be particularly important in the relation between BP pathology and urges for maladaptive behaviors is emotion differentiation. Methods Over one day, 84 participants high (n = 34) and low (n = 50) in BP pathology responded to questions regarding state emotions and urges to engage in maladaptive behaviors using handheld computers, in addition to a measure of emotion-related difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors. Results Results revealed that individuals high in BP pathology reported greater emotion-related impulsivity as well as daily urges to engage in maladaptive behaviors. However, the association between BP group and both baseline emotion-related impulsivity and daily urges for maladaptive behaviors was strongest among individuals who had low levels of positive emotion differentiation. Conversely, negative emotion differentiation did not significantly moderate the relationships between BP group and either emotion-related difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors or state urges for maladaptive behaviors. Limitations Limitations to the present study include the reliance upon an analogue sample and the relatively brief monitoring period. Conclusions Despite limitations, these results suggest that, among individuals with high BP pathology, the ability to differentiate between positive emotions may be a particularly important target in the reduction of maladaptive behaviors. PMID:25750478

  14. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  15. The Predictive Utility of Narcissism among Children and Adolescents: Evidence for a Distinction between Adaptive and Maladaptive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Adler, Kristy K.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the predictive utility of narcissism among a community sample of children and adolescents (N=98) longitudinally. Analyses focused on the differential utility between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism for predicting later delinquency. Maladaptive narcissism significantly predicted self-reported delinquency at one-, two-, and…

  16. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  17. The Relationship Between Early Maladaptive Schemas, Depression, and Generalized Anxiety among Adults Seeking Residential Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that early maladaptive schemas (EMS) play an important role in substance use, depression, and anxiety. However, few studies have examined the role of EMS within the context of all three concurrently. The goal of this study was to determine the role of EMS in predicting symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) among adults in residential treatment for substance dependence. We used pre-existing patient records of adults diagnosed with a substance use disorder from a residential substance use treatment facility (N=122). The EMS domains of disconnection and rejection and impaired limits were associated with symptoms of MDD and the domain of impaired autonomy and performance was associated with symptoms of GAD, even after controlling for age, gender, years of education, alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of MDD (when predicting GAD) and GAD (when predicting MDD). Findings suggest that EMS may play an important role in comorbid mental health problems among men and women in residential substance use treatment. Continued treatment outcome research is needed to examine whether modification of EMS results in improved mental health and substance use outcomes.

  18. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  19. Adaptive Skills and Maladaptive Behavior of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Attending Special Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the profile of and relationships between adaptive skills and the maladaptive behaviors exhibited by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending special schools in Singapore. Parents of 20 adolescents with ASD attending special schools completed the Development Behavior Checklist (DBC; Einfeld & Tonge, 1995;…

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  1. Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Later Psychological Distress among College Students: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Crawford, Emily; Del Castillo, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Theoretically, exposure to experiences of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in childhood may threaten the security of attachment relationships and result in maladaptive models of self and self-in-relation to others. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which EA and EN treatment by parents contributed…

  2. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  3. Association of adaptive and maladaptive narcissism with personal burnout: findings from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    VON Känel, Roland; Herr, Raphael Manfred; VAN Vianen, Annelies Elizabeth Maria; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-06-08

    Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism. In linear regression analysis, when mutually adjusting for the maladaptive and adaptive narcissism scales, higher adaptive narcissism was associated with lower burnout scores (ß=-0.04, p<0.05), whereas higher maladaptive narcissism was associated with higher burnout scores (ß=0.04, p<0.05). Additionally, younger age (ß=-0.07), female gender (ß=0.11), depressive symptoms (ß=0.42), sleep problems (ß=0.30), stress at work (ß=0.23) and at home (ß=0.09) were all independently associated with increased burnout scores (all p-values<0.01). Narcissistic personality attributes may play an important role in personal burnout. While maladaptive narcissism was associated with increased levels of burnout symptoms, adaptive narcissism was associated with fewer burnout symptoms.

  4. Association of adaptive and maladaptive narcissism with personal burnout: findings from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    VON KÄNEL, Roland; HERR, Raphael Manfred; VAN VIANEN, Annelies Elizabeth Maria; SCHMIDT, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is associated with poor mental and physical functioning and high costs for societies. Personality attributes may critically increase the risk of personal burnout. We specifically examined whether narcissism associates with personal burnout in a working population. We studied n=1,461 employees (mean age 41.3 ± 9.4 yr, 52% men) drawn from a random sample of a pharmaceutical company in Germany. All participants completed the personal burnout subscale of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory and the Narcissistic Personality Inventory to assess maladaptive (entitlement/exploitativeness) and adaptive (leadership/authority) narcissism. In linear regression analysis, when mutually adjusting for the maladaptive and adaptive narcissism scales, higher adaptive narcissism was associated with lower burnout scores (ß=−0.04, p<0.05), whereas higher maladaptive narcissism was associated with higher burnout scores (ß=0.04, p<0.05). Additionally, younger age (ß=−0.07), female gender (ß=0.11), depressive symptoms (ß=0.42), sleep problems (ß=0.30), stress at work (ß=0.23) and at home (ß=0.09) were all independently associated with increased burnout scores (all p-values<0.01). Narcissistic personality attributes may play an important role in personal burnout. While maladaptive narcissism was associated with increased levels of burnout symptoms, adaptive narcissism was associated with fewer burnout symptoms. PMID:28123136

  5. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  6. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  7. Functions of Maladaptive Behavior in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Behavior Categories and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Turygin, Nicole; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that different maladaptive behavior categories may be maintained by different contingencies. We examined whether behavior categories or behavior topographies determine functional properties. The "Questions about Behavioral Function" with its five subscales ("Attention", "Escape", "Nonsocial", "Physical", and "Tangible") was…

  8. Relax and Try This Instead: Abbreviated Habit Reversal for Maladaptive Self-Biting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin M.; Swearer, Susan M.; Friman, Patrick C.

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of an abbreviated habit reversal procedure to reduce maladaptive oral self-biting in an adolescent boy in residential care. Treatment involved a combination of relaxation and two competing responses (gum chewing and tongue-lip rubbing). The intervention eliminated the biting and the tissue damage it caused.…

  9. Maladaptive Perfectionism, Adult Attachment, and Self-Esteem in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    Extending an earlier study that found high self-esteem to modify the impact of otherwise maladaptive perfectionism on depression, the current study used adult attachment theory to explore the link between perfectionism, self-esteem, and depression in college students. Results indicated that self-esteem buffered the effects of maladaptive…

  10. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  11. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  12. Perfectionism and Children's Self-Concept: Further Validation of the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Kubal, Anne E.; Preusser, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) for children measures different dimensions of perfectionism. In this study, subscales derived from the AMPS were compared with results of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS) in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade students (9 to 11 years old). The AMPS dimensions accounted for significant…

  13. Exploring Young Women's Perceptions of the Effectiveness and Safety of Maladaptive Weight Control Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Subich, Linda Mezydlo

    2002-01-01

    Despite emerging awareness that maladaptive perceptions regarding weight control techniques may be important in the development of women's disturbed eating behaviors, no research has examined perceptions of weight control techniques as a function of women's placement on the eating disorder continuum. Study examines perceptions of the effectiveness…

  14. Adaptive and Maladaptive Aspects of Self-Oriented versus Socially Prescribed Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibert, Jeffrey J.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Saito, Motoko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism can be differentiated by their correlations with adaptive versus maladaptive constructs (i.e., self-esteem, perceived self-control, achievement motivation, depression, anxiety, suicidal proneness, shame, guilt, and…

  15. Mutual Best Friendship Involvement, Best Friends' Rejection Sensitivity, and Psychological Maladaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Thomas, Katelyn K.; Norman, Kelly E.; Spencer, Sarah V.

    2011-01-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when…

  16. Dissociation and Variability of Adult Attachment Dimensions and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Sexual and Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability…

  17. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  18. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  19. The Effects of Sociodrama on the Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors of Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Steven Harvey

    The effects of sociodrama on the adaptive and maladaptive behaviors of elementary school boys were examined in three groups of six boys each. One group was used as a control for the Hawthorne effect; the second, as a control for teacher expectation effects and for changes as a function of involvement with a male counselor. In the experimental…

  20. Genetic maladaptation of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings to future climates

    Treesearch

    Brad St. Clair;  Glenn T. Howe

    2007-01-01

    Climates are expected to warm considerably over the next century, resulting in expectations that plant populations will not be adapted to future climates.We estimated the risk of maladaptation of current populations of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to future climates as the proportion of nonoverlap between two normal...

  1. The role of parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in the risk of suicidal behavior repetition.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rosanna; Power, Kevin; Kane, Scott; Stewart, Alex Mitchell; Murray, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of perceived parental bonding and early maladaptive schemas in suicidal behavior. Participants completed measures of perceived parental bonding; schemas; risk of repeating suicidal behavior; anxiety; and depression following their presentation at Accident and Emergency with suicidal behavior. A suicidal behavior group (n = 60) differed from a comparison clinical (n = 46) and non-clinical (n = 48) group on measures of early maladaptive schemas, anxiety, and depression. No significant difference was noted between the suicidal behavior group and the comparison clinical group on a measure of parental bonding. Within the suicidal behavior group, significant associations were indicated between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior; and early maladaptive schemas and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior. Early maladaptive schemas were found to mediate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and risk of repetition of suicidal behavior, with schemas of Social Alienation and Defectiveness/Shame offering mediator roles. The findings of the current study emphasize the complexities of suicidal behavior and factors that are associated with suicidal behavior. Although causality cannot be assumed, the findings highlight the importance and inter-relationships of not only perceived early experiences, but of underlying schemas in relation to suicidal behavior.

  2. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  3. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  4. Central Role of Maladapted Astrocytic Plasticity in Ischemic Brain Edema Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Feng; Parpura, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Brain edema formation and the ensuing brain damages are the major cause of high mortality and long term disability following the occurrence of ischemic stroke. In this process, oxygen and glucose deprivation and the resulting reperfusion injury play primary roles. In response to the ischemic insult, the neurovascular unit experiences both intracellular and extracellular edemas, associated with maladapted astrocytic plasticity. The astrocytic plasticity includes both morphological and functional plasticity. The former involves a reactive gliosis and the subsequent glial retraction. It relates to the capacity of astrocytes to buffer changes in extracellular chemical levels, particularly K+ and glutamate, as well as the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The latter involves the expression and activity of a series of ion and water transport proteins. These molecules are grouped together around glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to form functional networks, regulate hydromineral balance across cell membranes and maintain the integrity of the BBB. Intense ischemic challenges can disrupt these capacities of astrocytes and result in their maladaptation. The maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke cannot only disrupt the hydromineral homeostasis across astrocyte membrane and the BBB, but also leads to disorders of the whole neurovascular unit. This review focuses on how the maladapted astrocytic plasticity in ischemic stroke plays the central role in the brain edema formation. PMID:27242440

  5. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  6. Impact of Language Deficits on Maladaptive Behavior of Inner-City Early Adolescents: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    This study examined language development as a precursor of maladaptive behavior in inner-city early adolescents. Participating were 256 adolescents from the graduation classes of 2000 and 2001 who had previously attended District of Columbia prekindergarten/Head Start and kindergarten. The sample was 98 percent African American and 56 percent…

  7. Adaptive Flexibility and Maladaptive Routines in Selecting Fast and Frugal Decision Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Arndt; Schiffer, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Decision routines unburden the cognitive capacity of the decision maker. In changing environments, however, routines may become maladaptive. In 2 experiments with a hypothetical stock market game (n = 241), the authors tested whether decision routines tend to persist at the level of decision strategies rather than at the level of options in…

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Aspects of Self-Oriented versus Socially Prescribed Perfectionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klibert, Jeffrey J.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Saito, Motoko

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the extent to which self-oriented versus socially prescribed perfectionism can be differentiated by their correlations with adaptive versus maladaptive constructs (i.e., self-esteem, perceived self-control, achievement motivation, depression, anxiety, suicidal proneness, shame, guilt, and…

  9. Maladaptive Perfectionism and Disordered Eating in College Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Disordered eating has been recognized as a concern on college campuses, particularly among college women. Maladaptive perfectionism has consistently been identified as a risk factor for disordered eating, and may present challenges to effective treatment and intervention. As a result, increased effort has gone into developing intervention…

  10. Continued Bullying Victimization in Adolescents: Maladaptive Schemas as a Mediational Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Fernández-González, Liria; González-Cabrera, Joaquín M; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2017-04-22

    Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization. Social anxiety was also considered, as previous research suggests that it can increase the risk of victimization. The participants were 1328 adolescents (45% female) with a mean age of 15.05 years (SD = 1.37), who completed questionnaires at three time points with a 6-month interval between them. Time 2 maladaptive schemas of rejection significantly mediated the predictive association from Time 1 bullying victimization, family abuse and social anxiety to Time 3 bullying victimization. The findings pertaining to potentially malleable factors, such as maladaptive schemas that maintain continued interpersonal victimization, have important implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.

  11. Maladaptive perfectionism's link to aggression and self-harm: Emotion regulation as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Merwin, Lauren M; DeWall, C Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The negative affect that results from negative feedback is a substantial, proximal cause of aggression. People high in maladaptive perfectionism, the tendency to focus on the discrepancy between one's standards and performance, are characterized by an exaggerated negative affective response to negative feedback. This exacerbated affective response to failure may then dispose them to hurt others and themselves as aggression and self-harm are often perceived as a means to regulate negative affect. In Study 1, we demonstrated that maladaptive perfectionism was linked to greater aggressive behavior towards others after receiving negative feedback. Suggesting the presence of an emotion regulation strategy, this effect was mediated by the motivation to use aggression to improve mood. In Study 2, maladaptive perfectionism was linked to self-harm, an effect exacerbated by negative feedback and mediated by negative affect. These findings suggest that maladaptive perfectionists are at risk for greater harm towards others and the self because negative feedback has a stronger affective impact and harming others and the self is perceived a means to alleviate this aversive state. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Maladaptive perfectionism's link to aggression and self-harm: Emotion regulation as a mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; Merwin, Lauren M; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-12-12

    The negative affect that results from negative feedback is a substantial, proximal cause of aggression. People high in maladaptive perfectionism, the tendency to focus on the discrepancy between one's standards and performance, are characterized by an exaggerated negative affective response to negative feedback. This exacerbated affective response to failure may then dispose them to hurt others and themselves as aggression and self-harm are often perceived as a means to regulate negative affect. In Study 1, we demonstrated that maladaptive perfectionism was linked to greater aggressive behavior towards others after receiving negative feedback. Suggesting the presence of an emotion regulation strategy, this effect was mediated by the motivation to use aggression to improve mood. In Study 2, maladaptive perfectionism was linked to self-harm, an effect exacerbated by negative feedback and mediated by negative affect. These findings suggest that maladaptive perfectionists are at risk for greater harm towards others and the self because negative feedback has a stronger affective impact and harming others and the self is perceived a means to alleviate this aversive state. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. What changes in cognitive therapy for depression? An examination of cognitive therapy skills and maladaptive beliefs.

    PubMed

    Adler, Abby D; Strunk, Daniel R; Fazio, Russell H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined effortful cognitive skills and underlying maladaptive beliefs among patients treated with cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. Depressed patients (n=44) completed cognitive measures before and after 16 weeks of CT. Measures included an assessment of CT skills (Ways of Responding Scale; WOR), an implicit test of maladaptive beliefs (Implicit Association Test; IAT), and a self-report questionnaire of maladaptive beliefs (Dysfunctional Attitude Scale; DAS). A matched sample of never-depressed participants (n=44) also completed study measures. Prior to treatment, depressed patients endorsed significantly more undesirable cognitions on the WOR, IAT, and DAS compared with never-depressed participants. Patients displayed improvement on the WOR and DAS over the course of treatment, but showed no change on the IAT. Additionally, improvements on the WOR and DAS were each related to greater reductions in depressive symptoms. Results suggest that the degree of symptom reduction among patients participating in CT is related to changes in patients' acquisition of coping skills requiring deliberate efforts and reflective thought, but not related to reduced endorsement of implicitly assessed maladaptive beliefs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Testing Three-Item Versions for Seven of Young's Maladaptive Schema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Pred, Robert S.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in either long-form (205- item) or short-form (75-item or 90-item) versions has demonstrated its clinical usefulness for assessing early maladaptive schemas. However, even a 75 or 90-item "short form", particularly when combined with other measures, can represent a lengthy…

  15. Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Comparison Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Nielsen Straarup, Krista; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear how bipolar disorder (BD) differentiates from major depressive disorder (MDD) outside major mood episodes. To further elucidate this area, the present study compared the two mood disorders in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) during remission. The sample consisted of 49 participants with BD and 30 participants with MDD who were currently in remission. The participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire. The BD group scored significantly higher than the MDD group on seven EMSs: abandonment, failure to achieve, insufficient self-control, subjugation, unrelenting standards, enmeshment and entitlement. By suggesting that EMSs are more severe in BD compared with MDD, the findings highlight potential vulnerabilities in BD, which merit further examination in terms of their underlying causes and potential treatment implications. Early maladaptive schemas are relevant psychological dimensions to consider in remitted phases of major mood disorders. Findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are more prevalent in adults with bipolar disorder compared to adults with major depressive disorder when measured during remission. Interventions targeting early maladaptive schemas may be valuable in treatment of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Maladaptive Perfectionism and Disordered Eating in College Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Disordered eating has been recognized as a concern on college campuses, particularly among college women. Maladaptive perfectionism has consistently been identified as a risk factor for disordered eating, and may present challenges to effective treatment and intervention. As a result, increased effort has gone into developing intervention…

  17. Parenting behaviours associated with the development of adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey G; Liu, Lydia; Cohen, Patricia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the associations of beneficial parenting behaviours with adaptive and maladaptive offspring personality traits that persist into adulthood among individuals in the community. Families (n = 669) participating in the Children in the Community Study were interviewed during the childhood, adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood of the offspring at the mean ages of 6, 14, 16, 22, and 33 years. Twelve types of beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviour, reported by offspring at the mean age of 16 years, were associated with elevated offspring personality resiliency, at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years, and with low offspring personality disorder trait levels. These longitudinal associations remained significant when histories of childhood behaviour problems and parental psychiatric disorder were controlled statistically. Similar linear (that is, dose-dependent) associations were observed between the number of beneficial parenting behaviours during childhood and adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits at the mean ages of 22 and 33 years. Maternal and paternal behaviours were independently associated with both adaptive and maladaptive offspring traits. Beneficial maternal and paternal child-rearing behaviours may promote the development of adaptive offspring personality traits that endure into adulthood, and they may be prospectively associated with reduced levels of maladaptive offspring traits. These associations may not be attributable to childhood behaviour problems or parental psychiatric disorders, and they may be equally evident during early and middle adulthood.

  18. TRPC3 positively regulates reactive oxygen species driving maladaptive cardiac remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Naoyuki; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kuroda, Takuya; Nishimura, Akiyuki; Miyano, Kei; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Sato, Yoji; Ide, Tomomi; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Sumimoto, Hideki; Mori, Yasuo; Nishida, Motohiro

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) function as key mediators of mechanotransduction during both physiological adaptation to mechanical load and maladaptive remodeling of the heart. This is despite low levels of cardiac Nox2 expression. The mechanism underlying the transition from adaptation to maladaptation remains obscure, however. We demonstrate that transient receptor potential canonical 3 (TRPC3), a Ca2+-permeable channel, acts as a positive regulator of ROS (PRROS) in cardiomyocytes, and specifically regulates pressure overload-induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling in mice. TRPC3 physically interacts with Nox2 at specific C-terminal sites, thereby protecting Nox2 from proteasome-dependent degradation and amplifying Ca2+-dependent Nox2 activation through TRPC3-mediated background Ca2+ entry. Nox2 also stabilizes TRPC3 proteins to enhance TRPC3 channel activity. Expression of TRPC3 C-terminal polypeptide abolished TRPC3-regulated ROS production by disrupting TRPC3-Nox2 interaction, without affecting TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx. The novel TRPC3 function as a PRROS provides a mechanistic explanation for how diastolic Ca2+ influx specifically encodes signals to induce ROS-mediated maladaptive remodeling and offers new therapeutic possibilities. PMID:27833156

  19. Adaptive Flexibility and Maladaptive Routines in Selecting Fast and Frugal Decision Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Arndt; Schiffer, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Decision routines unburden the cognitive capacity of the decision maker. In changing environments, however, routines may become maladaptive. In 2 experiments with a hypothetical stock market game (n = 241), the authors tested whether decision routines tend to persist at the level of decision strategies rather than at the level of options in…

  20. Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Later Psychological Distress among College Students: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Crawford, Emily; Del Castillo, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Theoretically, exposure to experiences of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in childhood may threaten the security of attachment relationships and result in maladaptive models of self and self-in-relation to others. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which EA and EN treatment by parents contributed…

  1. Relations among Chronic Peer Group Rejection, Maladaptive Behavioral Dispositions, and Early Adolescents' Peer Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Gary W.; Ettekal, Idean; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Rudolph, Karen D.; Andrews, Rebecca K.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of peers' relational characteristics (e.g., support, trustworthiness) were examined for subtypes of youth who evidenced chronic maladaptive behavior, chronic peer group rejection, or combinations of these risk factors. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants within a normative…

  2. Functions of Maladaptive Behavior in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Behavior Categories and Topographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Turygin, Nicole; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that different maladaptive behavior categories may be maintained by different contingencies. We examined whether behavior categories or behavior topographies determine functional properties. The "Questions about Behavioral Function" with its five subscales ("Attention", "Escape", "Nonsocial", "Physical", and "Tangible") was…

  3. Reported maladaptive decision-making in unipolar and bipolar depression and its change with treatment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lara F; Oliver, Alison; Burdine, Lauren K; Tang, Yilang; Dunlop, Boadie W

    2017-11-01

    Mood disorder patients frequently experience difficulty making decisions and may make sub-optimal decisions with adverse life consequences. However, patients' styles for decision-making when ill and after treatment have received little study to date. We assessed healthy controls (HC, n = 69) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 61) or bipolar disorder (BP, n = 26) in a current major depressive episode using the Melbourne Decision-making Questionnaire. A subset of participants was re-evaluated after completing six weeks of pharmacotherapy. HC demonstrated significantly greater use of the healthy vigilance style, and significantly lower use of maladaptive decision-making styles, than the MDD and depressed BP patients. After six weeks of treatment, neither the MDD nor BP patients reported meaningful improvements in the vigilance style of decision-making, but scores on most maladaptive decision-making styles declined. BP patients who remitted reported significantly lower buckpassing and procrastination scores than healthy controls. Among MDD patients, however, the maladaptive passive buckpassing style of decision-making did not significantly diminish. For MDD patients, reported decision-making styles may remain impaired even after achieving remission. Among BP patients, low levels of adaptive vigilance decision-making may be a trait component of the illness, whereas for MDD patients, reported maladaptive passive decision-making styles are persistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Perfectionism and Children's Self-Concept: Further Validation of the Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Kubal, Anne E.; Preusser, Karen J.

    2004-01-01

    The Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS) for children measures different dimensions of perfectionism. In this study, subscales derived from the AMPS were compared with results of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale (PHSCS) in a sample of fourth- and fifth-grade students (9 to 11 years old). The AMPS dimensions accounted for significant…

  5. Testing Three-Item Versions for Seven of Young's Maladaptive Schema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Pred, Robert S.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in either long-form (205- item) or short-form (75-item or 90-item) versions has demonstrated its clinical usefulness for assessing early maladaptive schemas. However, even a 75 or 90-item "short form", particularly when combined with other measures, can represent a lengthy…

  6. Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Staci C.; Wolters, Pamela L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the…

  7. Predicting one and three month postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF).

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Presurgical psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates includes some form of standardized psychological assessment. However, associations between presurgical psychological screening and postoperative outcome have not been extensively studied. Here, we explore associations between presurgical Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and early postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors. The sample consisted of male (n = 238) and female (n = 621) patients who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their presurgical psychological evaluation and received bariatric surgery. Patients were evaluated at their 1- and 3-month postoperative appointments. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that three latent constructs-somatic concerns, psychological distress, and maladaptive eating behaviors-were represented by responses to a postoperative assessment and that these constructs could be measured consistently over time. Presurgical scores on MMPI-2-RF scales measuring internalizing dysfunction were associated with more psychological distress at postoperative follow-ups, scores on scales measuring somatization were associated with more postoperative somatic concerns, and scores on scales assessing emotional/internalizing, behavioral/externalizing, cognitive complaints, and thought dysfunction prior to surgery were associated with maladaptive eating behaviors after surgery. In conjunction with a presurgical psychological interview, the MMPI-2-RF provides information that can assist in anticipating postoperative outcomes and inform efforts to prevent them.

  8. Bidirectional Associations Between Externalizing Behavior Problems and Maladaptive Parenting Within Parent-Son Dyads Across Childhood.

    PubMed

    Besemer, Sytske; Loeber, Rolf; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Pardini, Dustin A

    2016-10-01

    Coercive parent-child interaction models posit that an escalating cycle of negative, bidirectional interchanges influences the development of boys' externalizing problems and caregivers' maladaptive parenting over time. However, longitudinal studies examining this hypothesis have been unable to rule out the possibility that between-individual factors account for bidirectional associations between child externalizing problems and maladaptive parenting. Using a longitudinal sample of boys (N = 503) repeatedly assessed eight times across 6-month intervals in childhood (in a range between 6 and 13 years), the current study is the first to use novel within-individual change (fixed effects) models to examine whether parents tend to increase their use of maladaptive parenting strategies following an increase in their son's externalizing problems, or vice versa. These bidirectional associations were examined using multiple facets of externalizing problems (i.e., interpersonal callousness, conduct and oppositional defiant problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity) and parenting behaviors (i.e., physical punishment, involvement, parent-child communication). Analyses failed to support the notion that when boys increase their typical level of problem behaviors, their parents show an increase in their typical level of maladaptive parenting across the subsequent 6 month period, and vice versa. Instead, across 6-month intervals, within parent-son dyads, changes in maladaptive parenting and child externalizing problems waxed and waned in concert. Fixed effects models to address the topic of bidirectional relations between parent and child behavior are severely underrepresented. We recommend that other researchers who have found significant bidirectional parent-child associations using rank-order change models reexamine their data to determine whether these findings hold when examining changes within parent-child dyads.

  9. Risk of genetic maladaptation due to climate change in three major European tree species.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aline; Howe, Glenn T; Sperisen, Christoph; Brang, Peter; Clair, J Bradley St; Schmatz, Dirk R; Heiri, Caroline

    2017-07-04

    Tree populations usually show adaptations to their local environments as a result of natural selection. As climates change, populations can become locally maladapted and decline in fitness. Evaluating the expected degree of genetic maladaptation due to climate change will allow forest managers to assess forest vulnerability, and develop strategies to preserve forest health and productivity. We studied potential genetic maladaptation to future climates in three major European tree species, Norway spruce (Picea abies), silver fir (Abies alba), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). A common garden experiment was conducted to evaluate the quantitative genetic variation in growth and phenology of seedlings from 77 to 92 native populations of each species from across Switzerland. We used multivariate genecological models to associate population variation with past seed source climates, and to estimate relative risk of maladaptation to current and future climates based on key phenotypic traits and three regional climate projections within the A1B scenario. Current risks from climate change were similar to average risks from current seed transfer practices. For all three climate models, future risks increased in spruce and beech until the end of the century, but remained low in fir. Largest average risks associated with climate projections for the period 2061-2090 were found for spruce seedling height (0.64), and for beech bud break and leaf senescence (0.52 and 0.46). Future risks for spruce were high across Switzerland. However, areas of high risk were also found in drought-prone regions for beech and in the southern Alps for fir. Genetic maladaptation to future climates is likely to become a problem for spruce and beech by the end of this century, but probably not for fir. Consequently, forest management strategies should be adjusted in the study area for spruce and beech to maintain productive and healthy forests in the future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Insecure attachment and maladaptive schema in disordered eating: The mediating role of rejection sensitivity.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Tara; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Krug, Isabel

    2017-05-09

    The current study aimed to assess insecure attachment and the disconnection and rejection domain of maladaptive schema in the context of disordered eating. Rejection sensitivity (RS) was proposed as a mediator between maladaptive schema and disordered eating. The sample consisted of 108 female participants with a lifetime eating disorder diagnosis and 508 female control participants. Participants were asked to complete a number of self-report measures related to insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant), maladaptive schema (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, social isolation, and defectiveness), RS (interpersonal and appearance-based), and disordered eating. Path analysis indicated that anxious attachment was associated with disordered eating through multiple pathways involving emotional deprivation, abandonment, interpersonal RS, and appearance-based RS. Avoidant attachment was not related to disordered eating behaviours. The results indicate that both interpersonal and appearance-based RS are important mediators for the relationships between insecure attachment, maladaptive schema, and disordered eating. The results from the current study suggest that insecure attachment leads to maladaptive schema, which in turn leads to sensitivity to rejection and subsequent disordered eating behaviour. Attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was related to greater endorsement of all five schemas in the disconnection and rejection domain. Path analysis revealed that, of the schema in the disconnection and rejection domain, only emotional deprivation and abandonment were related to disordered eating. Interpersonal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity were significant mediators of the relationship between emotional deprivation and disordered eating as well as the relationship between abandonment and disordered eating. Differentiating between schemas within schema domains has clinical value in further understanding the pathway to disordered eating. The

  11. Effects of daily maladaptive coping on nightly sleep in mothers.

    PubMed

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa S; Coccia, Michael; Puterman, Eli; Prather, Aric A

    2017-04-09

    We examined effects of daily rumination and suppression in response to stressors on objective and subjective sleep among mothers. Participants were 183 mothers, including chronically stressed mothers of children with an autism spectrum disorder (M-ASD; n = 92) and age-matched mothers of neurotypical children (M-NT; n = 91). In an intensive longitudinal design, participants provided reports of daily rumination and suppression, nightly objective actigraphy-defined sleep and nightly subjective sleep quality for seven consecutive days at baseline, 9 months and 18 months. Total sleep time, sleep fragmentation, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality. Among M-NT with above average depressive symptoms, higher daily rumination was associated with shorter total sleep time. Rumination was associated with more sleep fragmentation among M-NT at the trend level. Rumination was not associated with sleep onset latency among M-NT, or with any sleep outcomes among M-ASD. Suppression was not associated with any sleep outcomes. We provide novel evidence of the effect of rumination on objectively measured sleep duration among M-NT. Coping was not related to sleep among M-ASD. Given the prevalence of poor sleep among mothers, future work should examine modifiable factors perpetuating sleep disturbance.

  12. Adaptive and maladaptive rumination after loss: A three-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Eisma, Maarten C; Schut, Henk A W; Stroebe, Maggie S; Boelen, Paul A; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Rumination is a risk factor after bereavement, predicting higher concurrent and prospective symptom levels of complicated grief and depression in mourners. Research has shown that rumination may consist of adaptive and maladaptive subtypes, but there has been a paucity of research in this topic in the bereavement area. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether functional and dysfunctional forms of rumination can be distinguished after loss. Two-hundred and forty-two adults, who lost a first-degree family member on average 10 months previously, filled out questionnaires at three time points with 6 months between each time point. Multiple regression analyses, controlled for loss-related variables, neuroticism, and baseline symptoms, were run to examine associations of subtypes of depressive rumination (brooding, reflection) and grief rumination (rumination about injustice, meaning, reactions, relationships and counterfactual thinking) with concurrent and prospective symptom levels of complicated grief and depression. Overall, grief rumination explained more variance in symptom levels than depressive rumination. Other major findings were that grief rumination about injustice predicted higher concurrent and prospective symptom levels of complicated grief and higher prospective symptom levels of depression. In contrast, grief rumination about emotional reactions was related to prospective reductions in symptoms of complicated grief. Reflection was also associated with prospective reductions of complicated grief and depressive symptom levels. Results indicate that adaptive and maladaptive forms of ruminative thinking can be distinguished in bereaved individuals. Therapeutic interventions for complicated grief could potentially be improved by including techniques aimed at reducing maladaptive rumination and increasing adaptive rumination. Clinical implications: Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination after loss can be distinguished. They are differentially

  13. Maladaptive plasticity, memory for pain and phantom limb pain: review and suggestions for new therapies.

    PubMed

    Flor, Herta

    2008-05-01

    A number of studies have shown that phantom limb pain is associated with plastic changes along the neuraxis, with a close correlation between changes in the cortical representation of the affected limb and phantom limb pain. Mechanisms underlying these maladaptive plastic changes are related to a loss of GABAergic inhibition, glutamate-mediated long-term potentiation-like changes and structural alterations such as axonal sprouting. These plastic changes and phantom limb pain seem to be more extensive when chronic pain precedes the amputation. Behavioral interventions, stimulation, feedback and pharmacological interventions that are designed to reverse these maladaptive memory traces and enhance extinction may be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of phantom limb pain.

  14. [Relationship between early maladaptive schemas, attachment quality and fear of darkness].

    PubMed

    Kopcsó, Krisztina; Láng, András

    2014-12-07

    Although fear of darkness is most common in childhood, it is also a remarkable phenomenon in young adulthood. To examine the relationship between fear of darkness, early maladaptive schemas and attachment quality in young adults and assess fear related sex differences. A self-developed scale was used to measure fear of darkness' intensity and frequency. Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form and two scales that measure attachment dimensions were also applied. 120 university students (68 women, 52 men) filled in the tests. Fear of darkness' frequency correlated with avoidant attachment, and intensity with independent and anxious attachment. Fear of darkness variables correlated with several early maladaptive schemas. Women reported more frequent and intensive fear of darkness than men. These results indicated that the elevated level of fear of darkness is related to specific cognitive style and attachment quality. This highlights the potential clinical relevance of fear of darkness.

  15. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    PubMed

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  16. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  17. Adolescent insecure attachment as a predictor of maladaptive coping and externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Anne E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Marston, Emily G.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Schad, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether insecure adolescent attachment organization (i.e., preoccupied and dismissing) longitudinally predicted self- and peer-reported externalizing behavior in emerging adulthood. Secondarily, maladaptive coping strategies were examined for their potential role in mediating the relationship between insecure attachment and future externalizing behaviors. Target participants (N = 184) were given the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) at age 14 and re-interviewed seven and eight years later with their closest peer. Qualities of both preoccupied and dismissing attachment organization predicted self-reported externalizing behaviors in emerging adulthood eight years later, but only preoccupation was predictive of close-peer reports of emerging adult externalizing behavior. Maladaptive coping strategies only mediated the relationship between a dismissing stance toward attachment and future self-reported externalizing behaviors. Understanding the role of coping and emotional regulation in attachment may help us to understand the unique aspects of both dismissing and preoccupied stances toward attachment. PMID:24995478

  18. Pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Rice, Simon M; Oliffe, John L

    2017-10-01

    Clinical observation has linked externalizing coping strategies such as substance overuse and aggressive behaviours with narcissistic personality dysfunction. This study examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and maladaptive self-regulatory behaviours among Canadian men. An online survey was distributed among a stratified, nationally representative sample of 1000 men from across Canada. The survey included brief self-report measures of pathological narcissism, maladaptive externalizing coping behaviours, and general psychological distress. After controlling for the effects of age and general psychological distress, pathological narcissism was found to be significantly associated with alcohol overuse and aggressive behaviour. Significant though modest interaction effects were found between pathological narcissism and age - with regards to drug use - and distress - with regards to risk-taking behaviour. The findings point to the need for attention to narcissistic dysfunction as a clinical and public health issue among men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eating disorder behavior and early maladaptive schemas in subgroups of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Unoka, Zsolt; Tölgyes, Tamás; Czobor, Pál; Simon, Lajos

    2010-06-01

    To examine relationship between Eating Disorder Behaviors (EDB) and Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS) across eating disorder (ED) subgroups. EMS and ED behaviors were measured by Young Schema Questionnaire and Eating Behavior Severity Scale, respectively, among patients diagnosed with Restrictive or Binge/purging Anorexia, or bulimia nervosa. Canonical component analysis showed significant association between ED behaviors and EMSs. Canonical factor-pairs (EDB and EMS) revealed specific associations between certain patterns of EDBs, including binge-purging and physical exercise, and certain patterns of maladaptive cognitive schema, including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment, Enmeshments, Subjugation, and Emotional inhibition. ED subgroups significantly differred between the EMS and EDB canonical factors, respectively. Our findings indicate that EMS and EDB are associated, and that the factors that potentially mediate the association differ significantly among ED subgroups. These results are consistent with the notion that EMSs play a specific role in the development and maintenance of ED behaviors.

  20. Chronic maladaptive pain in cats: A review of current and future drug treatment options.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Derek; Papich, Mark; Baynes, Ron; Murrell, Jo; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2017-08-20

    Despite our increasing understanding of the pathophysiology underlying chronic or maladaptive pain, there is a significant gap in our ability to diagnose and treat the condition in domestic cats. Newer techniques being used to identify abnormalities in pain processing in the cat include validated owner questionnaires, measurement of movement and activity, and measurement of sensory thresholds and somatomotor responses. While some data are available evaluating possible therapeutics for the treatment of chronic pain in the cat, most data are limited to normal cats. This review details our current understanding of chronic or maladaptive pain, techniques for the detection and measurement of the condition and the associated central nervous changes, as well as an overview of the data evaluating potential therapeutics in cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Local adaptation and maladaptation to pollinators in a generalist geographic mosaic.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José M; Abdelaziz, M; Camacho, J P M; Muñoz-Pajares, A J; Perfectti, F

    2009-07-01

    The Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution predicts the occurrence of mosaics of interaction-mediated local adaptations and maladaptations. Empirical support to this prediction has come mostly from specialist interactions. In contrast, local adaptation is considered highly unlikely in generalist interactions. In this study, we experimentally test local adaptation in a generalist plant-pollinator geographic mosaic, by means of a transplant experiment in which plants coming from two evolutionary hotspots and two coldspots were offered to pollinators at the same four localities. Plants produced in the hotspots attracted more pollinators in all populations, whereas coldspot plants attracted fewer pollinators in all populations. Differences in adaptation were not related to genetic similarity between populations, suggesting that it was mainly due to spatial variation in previous selective regimes. Our experiment provides the first strong support for a spatially structured pattern of adaptation and maladaptation generated by a generalist free-living mutualism.

  2. Addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in adults seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lent, Michelle R; Swencionis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between addictive personality and maladaptive eating behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates. Ninety-seven bariatric surgery candidates completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Addiction Scale, the Overeating Questionnaire (OQ), binge-eating questions from the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns (QEWP-R), and the Eating Attitudes and Behaviors Questionnaire. Participants with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) displayed addictive personality scores comparable to individuals addicted to substances (M=17.5, SD=5.3). Addictive personality was associated with Overeating (r=.45, p<.001), Cravings (r=.31, p=.005), Affective Disturbances (r=.62, p<.001) and Social Isolation (r=.53, p<.001). Addictive personality was associated with maladaptive eating behaviors, suggesting the potential for addictive eating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular Dysfunction in Diabetes as Maladaptive Response to Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Naudi, Alba; Jove, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Cassanye, Anna; Serrano, Jose; Gonzalo, Hugo; Boada, Jordi; Prat, Joan; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Pamplona, Reinald

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in diabetes long-term complications. In this paper, we summarize the growing evidence suggesting that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by mitochondrial electron transport chain triggers a maladaptive response by affecting several metabolic and signaling pathways involved in the pathophysiology of cellular dysfunction and diabetic complications. In particular, it is our goal to describe physiological mechanisms underlying the mitochondrial free radical production and regulation to explain the oxidative stress derived from a high intracellular glucose concentration and the resulting maladaptive response that leads to a cellular dysfunction and pathological state. Finally, we outline potential therapies for diabetes focused to the prevention of mitochondrial oxidative damage. PMID:22253615

  4. Relationships among maladaptive cognitive content, dysfunctional cognitive processes, and borderline personality features.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Paul J; Peters, Jessica R; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon E; Baer, Ruth A

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that maladaptive cognitive content, including dysfunctional attitudes and negative automatic thoughts, is associated with emotional distress. Similarly, dysfunctional cognitive processes, including thought suppression and rumination, have been shown to intensify psychological difficulties. Although maladaptive cognitive content and dysfunctional processes have been linked to borderline personality disorder (BPD), most research has been conducted with Axis I disorders. This study examined the incremental validity of dysfunctional cognitive content and processes in predicting BPD symptom severity, controlling for trait negative affect, in a sample of undergraduate students (N = 85), including many with high levels of BPD features. Although nearly all variables were significantly correlated with BPD features, final regression models suggest that rumination and thought suppression are stronger independent predictors of BPD features than automatic thoughts, dysfunctional attitudes, and trait negative affect. These results suggest the importance of targeting thought suppression and rumination in BPD.

  5. General and maladaptive personality dimensions and the assessment of callous-unemotional traits in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara

    2011-10-01

    Associations between callous-unemotional traits and general and maladaptive personality dimensions are examined in adolescence. More specifically, it was investigated to what extent general and maladaptive personality dimensions can account for the variance in callous-unemotional (CU) scores. Adolescents (N = 509) and their mothers completed the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU; Frick, 2003), the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC; Mervielde & De Fruyt, 1999, 2002), and the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI; De Clercq, De Fruyt, Van Leeuwen, & Mervielde, 2006). Both personality measures accounted for substantial variance in ICU scores and the overall CU profile in terms of the HiPIC and DIPSI was consistent with psychopathy conceptualizations and consistent across informant. Implications for the assessment of early externalizing trait pathology are discussed.

  6. The mediatory role of maladaptive schema modes between parental care and non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Saldias, Amber; Power, Kevin; Gillanders, David T; Campbell, Claire W; Blake, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is being increasingly recognised as a behaviour of significant clinical importance. Yet, there remains uncertainty regarding the underlying mechanisms of NSSI. This study aimed to explore the relationship between maladaptive schema modes, parental bonding, and NSSI. Seventy psychiatric outpatients with a history of NSSI completed the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory, Schema Mode Inventory, and Parental Bonding Inventory. Results revealed that maladaptive schema modes were significantly associated with low parental care and with an earlier age of onset, longer duration, and higher number of methods of NSSI. Maladaptive schema modes also significantly mediated the relationship between parental care and age of onset of NSSI and between parental care and duration of NSSI. Two maladaptive schema modes (namely, Punitive Parent and Angry Child) were also found to be significant mediators in this relationship. The clinical implications of this research are discussed.

  7. Thrombospondin-1 contributes to slower aortic aneurysm growth by inhibiting maladaptive remodeling of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Mamoru; Nasu, Takahito; Osaki, Takuya; Hitomi, Sho

    2017-06-01

    In this issue of Clinical Science, Krishna and colleagues describe recent work on thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) maturation and its association with slower growth of aortic aneurysm in TSP-1 knockdown mouse models. The authors conclude that TSP-1 deficiency promotes maladaptive remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) leading to accelerated aortic aneurysm progression. We comment on a causal relation between TSP-1 and the progression of aortic aneurysm. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Yoosefi, Afsaneh; RajeziEsfahani, Sepideh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahee, Behrooz; Assadi, Abbasali; Maleki, Fahime; Momeni, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of this study is comparing early maladaptive schemas which are active in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders together, considering recent DSM-5 changes through which OCD has been placed in a separate and new diagnostic level. This research is a causal-comparative study. 151 persons were categorized in three groups of people suffering from OCD (50), suffering from anxiety disorders (50), and control group (51). Early diagnosis of disorders in two clinical groups were verified based on structured clinical interview for DSM )SCID-I) and Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). General health questionnaire (GHQ-28), the short versions of the Young schemas questionnaire (YSQ), and Padua inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) were also implemented. Findings revealed that mean scores of all schemas of those suffering from anxiety disorders, except for Self-Sacrifice, Unrelenting-Standards/Hypercriticalness, Entitlement/Grandiosity schemas, and mean scores of all early maladaptive schemas of those suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder are significantly higher than those of control group. OCD group had significantly higher scores in Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, and Defectiveness/Shame schemas than anxiety disorders group. Defectiveness/Shame and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness schemas can explain 38 percent of variance of obsessive compulsive symptoms. The dominant and specific early maladaptive schemas of OCD are Defectiveness/Shame, Mistrust/Abuse, and Emotional Deprivation Schemas. This study besides supporting the theory of early maladaptive schemas, suggests that interventions based on specific schemas can be useful methods in treatment of OCD and anxiety disorders.

  9. Severity of affective temperament and maladaptive self-schemas differentiate borderline patients, bipolar patients, and controls.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Astrid Kristine Kahr; Jørgensen, Carsten René; Straarup, Krista Nielsen; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer

    2010-01-01

    There is an unsettled debate on whether borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder should be considered related or distinct. This study aimed to further the understanding of the similarities and differences between the 2 disorders by comparing borderline patients, bipolar patients, and controls in terms of various affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas. The sample consisted of 85 participants (31 borderline patients, 25 bipolar patients and 29 student controls) who completed 2 questionnaires: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire and the Young Schema Questionnaire. All of the patients were in remission from affective episodes. Compared to the bipolar patients and the controls, the borderline patients were characterized by significantly higher mean scores on most of the maladaptive self-schemas and affective temperaments. The bipolar patients differed significantly from controls by higher mean scores on the cyclothymic temperament and insufficient self-control. The study suggests that affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas are more severe in borderline patients than in bipolar patients. These findings point to phenomenological differences between the 2 disorders and therefore question their degree of kinship. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maladaptive dependency schemas, posttraumatic stress hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate partner aggression perpetration.

    PubMed

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Taft, Casey T; Holowka, Darren W; Woodward, Halley; Marx, Brian P; Burns, Anthony

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between maladaptive dependency-related schemas, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) hyperarousal symptoms, and intimate-partner psychological and physical aggression in a sample of court-referred men (N = 174) participating in a domestic-abuser-intervention program. The men were largely African American; average age was 33.5 years. The extent to which hyperarousal symptoms moderated the association between dependency schemas and aggression was also examined. Maladaptive dependency-related schemas were positively associated with severe psychological, and mild and severe physical aggression perpetration. Hyperarousal symptoms were positively associated with mild and severe psychological aggression, and mild physical aggression perpetration. Multiple regression analyses showed a significant interaction for mild physical aggression: For those with high levels of hyperarousal symptoms, greater endorsement of maladaptive dependency schemas was associated with the perpetration of aggression (B = 0.98, p = .001). For those with low levels of hyperarousal symptoms, there was no association between dependency schemas and aggression (B = 0.04, ns). These findings suggest that focusing on problematic dependency and PTSD-hyperarousal symptoms in domestic-abuser-intervention programs may be helpful, and that examining related variables as possible moderators between dependency schemas and intimate aggression would be a fruitful area for future research.

  11. Is inbreeding depression lower in maladapted populations? A quantitative genetics model.

    PubMed

    Ronce, Ophélie; Shaw, Frank H; Rousset, François; Shaw, Ruth G

    2009-07-01

    Despite abundant empirical evidence that inbreeding depression varies with both the environment and the genotypic context, theoretical predictions about such effects are still rare. Using a quantitative genetics model, we predict amounts of inbreeding depression for fitness emerging from Gaussian stabilizing selection on some phenotypic trait, on which, for simplicity, genetic effects are strictly additive. Given the strength of stabilizing selection, inbreeding depression then varies simply with the genetic variance for the trait under selection and the distance between the mean breeding value and the optimal phenotype. This allows us to relate the expected inbreeding depression to the degree of maladaptation of the population to its environment. We confront analytical predictions with simulations, in well-adapted populations at equilibrium, as well as in maladapted populations undergoing either a transient environmental shift, or gene swamping in heterogeneous habitats. We predict minimal inbreeding depression in situations of extreme maladaptation. Our model provides a new basis for interpreting experiments that measure inbreeding depression for the same set of genotypes in different environments, by demonstrating that the history of adaptation, in addition to environmental harshness per se, may account for differences in inbreeding depression.

  12. Loss of control eating in adolescents: Associations with adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Lien; Van Malderen, Eva; Van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    To examine differences in the use of emotion regulation strategies in adolescents with and without loss of control over eating (LOC). A community-based sample of 524 adolescents from 12 to 18years old (70.6% girls; Mage=15.08; SD=1.59) reported on LOC and the use of several maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Adolescents who experience LOC (28%) report more use of maladaptive strategies. With regard to adaptive strategies a significant group X gender interaction effect was found with girls who report LOC using less adaptive strategies. More specifically, based on the FEEL-KJ less problem-oriented action, distraction, humor enhancement, acceptance and cognitive problem solving were observed in girls who report LOC compared to those who do not report LOC. Boys with LOC report more use of adaptive strategies compared to those who do not report LOC. LOC in adolescents is associated with increased use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies as well as a decreased use of adaptive strategies although the latter is only specific for girls. These results may inform prevention and treatment of emotion regulation problems in adolescents with LOC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Viscidi, Emma W; Johnson, Ashley L; Spence, Sarah J; Buka, Stephen L; Morrow, Eric M; Triche, Elizabeth W

    2014-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. Objectives To examine the association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors in children with ASD. Methods Cross-sectional study of 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. The relationship between epilepsy and parent-reported autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors was examined using Poisson regression. Results Children with ASD and epilepsy had significantly more autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors than children without epilepsy. However, only hyperactivity symptoms remained significantly increased (13% higher) after adjusting for IQ. Among children with ASD without intellectual disability, children with epilepsy had significantly more irritability (20% higher) and hyperactivity (24% higher) symptoms. Conclusions This is the largest study to date comparing the autism phenotype in children with ASD with and without epilepsy. Children with ASD and epilepsy showed greater impairment than children without epilepsy, which was mostly explained by the lower IQ of the epilepsy group. However, children with ASD and epilepsy had significantly more hyperactivity symptoms even after accounting for differences in IQ. These findings have important clinical implications for patients with ASD. PMID:24165273

  14. Modulation of the Maladaptive Stress Response to Manage Diseases of Protein Folding

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Daniela Martino; Hutt, Darren M.; Tong, Jiansong; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Wang, Ning; Seeley, Theo; Dekkers, Johanna F.; Beekman, Jeffrey M.; Garza, Dan; Drew, Lawrence; Masliah, Eliezer; Morimoto, Richard I.; Balch, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of protein folding arise because of the inability of an altered peptide sequence to properly engage protein homeostasis components that direct protein folding and function. To identify global principles of misfolding disease pathology we examined the impact of the local folding environment in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), Niemann-Pick type C1 disease (NPC1), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). Using distinct models, including patient-derived cell lines and primary epithelium, mouse brain tissue, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that chronic expression of misfolded proteins not only triggers the sustained activation of the heat shock response (HSR) pathway, but that this sustained activation is maladaptive. In diseased cells, maladaptation alters protein structure–function relationships, impacts protein folding in the cytosol, and further exacerbates the disease state. We show that down-regulation of this maladaptive stress response (MSR), through silencing of HSF1, the master regulator of the HSR, restores cellular protein folding and improves the disease phenotype. We propose that restoration of a more physiological proteostatic environment will strongly impact the management and progression of loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic-function phenotypes common in human disease. PMID:25406061

  15. Ethnic identity and maladaptive eating: expectancies about eating and thinness in African American women.

    PubMed

    Henrickson, Heather C; Crowther, Janis H; Harrington, Ellen F

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated cultural factors and expectancies about eating and thinness among 93 African American women. Participants completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), Eating Expectancy Inventory and Thinness and Restricting Expectancy Inventory (EEI, TREI), and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). The MEIM assessed affective and developmental aspects of one's own cultural identity, along with attitudes toward other groups. Further, expectancies that eating manages negative affect and thinness leads to life improvement were examined using the EEI and TREI. As hypothesized, those with strong expectancies about eating and thinness showed a significant negative relationship between ethnic identity and maladaptive eating patterns, whereas those with strong expectancies regarding thinness showed a significant positive relationship between other group orientation and maladaptive eating patterns. The results suggest one's identification with their own culture versus another culture is important to developing maladaptive eating patterns, if they feel that eating and thinness play a role in their affect management and life improvement. These factors may help understand who is more vulnerable to the development of disordered eating patterns, and therefore direct treatment among African American women.

  16. Resident and attending physician perception of maladaptive response to stress in residents.

    PubMed

    Riesenberg, Lee Ann; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J; Davis, Joshua; Davis, Robyn; Schaeffer, Arielle; Hargraves, Robert; Little, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    Background Residency stress has been shown to interfere with resident well-being and patient safety. We developed a survey research study designed to explore factors that may affect perception of a maladaptive response to stress. Methods A 16-item survey with 12 Likert-type perception items was designed to determine how often respondents agreed or disagreed with statements regarding the resident on the trigger tape. A total of 438 respondents from multiple institutions completed surveys. Results Attending physicians were more likely than residents to agree that the resident on the trigger tape was impaired, p<0.0001; needed to seek professional counseling, p=0.0003; should be removed from the service, p=0.002; was not receiving adequate support from the attending physician, p=0.007; and was a risk to patient safety, p=0.02. Attending physicians were also less likely to agree that the resident was a good role model, p=0.001, and that the resident should be able to resolve these issues herself/himself, p<0.0001. Conclusion Our data suggest that resident physicians may not be able to adequately detect maladaptive responses to stress and that attending physicians may be more adept at recognizing this problem. More innovative faculty and resident development workshops should be created to teach and encourage physicians to better observe and detect residents who are displaying maladaptive responses to stress.

  17. A novel cognitive intervention for compulsive checking: Targeting maladaptive beliefs about memory.

    PubMed

    Alcolado, Gillian M; Radomsky, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Compulsive checking is one of the most common symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Recently it has been proposed that those who check compulsively may believe their memory is poor, rather than having an actual memory impairment. The current study sought to develop and assess a brief cognitive intervention focused on improving maladaptive beliefs about memory, as they pertain to both checking symptoms and memory performance. Participants (N = 24) with a diagnosis of OCD and clinical levels of checking symptomatology were randomly assigned either to receive two weekly 1-hour therapy sessions or to self-monitor during a similar waitlist period. Time spent checking, checking symptoms, maladaptive beliefs about memory, and visuospatial memory were assessed both pre- and post-treatment/waitlist. Results showed that compared to the waitlist condition, individuals in the treatment condition displayed significant decreases in their maladaptive beliefs about memory and checking symptoms from pre- to post-intervention. They also exhibited increased recall performance on a measure of visuospatial memory. Changes in beliefs about memory were predictors of reduced post-intervention checking, but were not predictive of increased post-intervention memory scores. The lack of long term follow-up data and use of a waitlist control leave questions about the stability and specificity of the intervention. Findings provide preliminary evidence that strategies targeting beliefs about memory may be worthy of inclusion in cognitive-behavioural approaches to treating compulsive checking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotion regulation across childhood and adolescence: evidence for a maladaptive shift in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cracco, Emiel; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important predictor of psychopathology. Although many clinical programs focus on emotion regulation skills, the successful application of these programs in children and adolescents requires knowledge on the normative use of emotion regulation strategies over age. To this end, the current cross-sectional study examined changes in emotion regulation throughout childhood and adolescence. The use of seven adaptive and five maladaptive emotion regulation strategies was measured with the FEEL-KJ in a representative sample (N = 1397) of Dutch children and adolescents between 8 and 18 years old. Overall, the results indicated reduced use of adaptive strategies and increased use of maladaptive strategies in participants between 12 and 15 years old compared with younger or older participants. The findings of the current study indicate that adolescence is characterized by a maladaptive shift in emotion regulation. Given that the continued use of dysfunctional emotion regulation plays an important role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology, these results highlight the importance of prevention and treatment programs focused on emotion regulation to shield vulnerable adolescents against mental illness.

  19. Processes discriminating adaptive and maladaptive Internet use among European adolescents highly engaged online.

    PubMed

    Tzavela, Eleni C; Karakitsou, Chryssoula; Dreier, Michael; Mavromati, Foteini; Wölfling, Klaus; Halapi, Eva; Macarie, George; Wójcik, Szymon; Veldhuis, Lydian; Tsitsika, Artemis K

    2015-04-01

    Today adolescents are highly engaged online. Contrary to common concern, not all highly engaged adolescents develop maladaptive patterns of internet use. The present qualitative study explored the experiences, patterns and impact of use of 124 adolescents (M(age) = 16.0) reporting signs of internet addictive behaviors. The focus was to discern adaptive and maladaptive use patterns, which promote or interfere with adolescents' development, respectively. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, Netherlands and Iceland) and qualitatively analyzed using grounded theory. Considerable variability emerged in the way adolescents satisfied their personal needs online and offline, in the experienced impact from high online engagement and functional value ascribed to the internet, and in the self-regulatory processes underlying use. Variability in these discriminating processes was linked to adaptive or maladaptive adolescent internet use patterns. The emerged processes can provide direction for designing prevention and intervention programs promoting adaptive use. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cluster C maladaptive personality traits in a general population of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of the Cluster C traits and personality disorders in adolescents has been poorly analyzed. The main goal of this research was to analyze the rate of the Cluster C traits and maladaptive personality patterns in a community sample of adolescents. We also examined the dimensional structure and the influence of sex and age in its phenotypic expression. The sample comprised a total of 1443 participants (48.2% male) with a mean age of 15.92 years (SD = 1.18). We used the Cluster C subscales of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 + (PDQ-4+). The results showed that the traits of personalities "anxious" or "inhibited" are common among adolescents. As the cut-offs PDQ-4+, 28.3% of the sample showed at least one maladaptive personality pattern of Cluster C. The analysis of the internal structure of the items yielded a one-dimensional solution called Inhibited-Anxious personality. We found statistically significant differences by gender in mean scores in the Avoidant subscale and by age in the Dependent subscale. These data yield new clues that improve the understanding of the Cluster C traits and maladaptive patterns of personality in this sector of the population.

  1. Cluster A maladaptive personality patterns in a non-clinical adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Paino, Mercedes; Santarén-Rosell, Marta; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence and expression of Cluster A personality disorders in adolescence is poorly analyzed and understood. The main goal was to analyze the rate of Cluster A traits and maladaptive personality patterns in adolescents. In addition, the underlying dimensional structure and the possible influence of sex and age in its phenotypic expression were examined. The final sample was comprised of a total of 1,443 participants (M = 15.9 years, SD = 1.2). The instrument used was the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Cluster A maladaptive personality traits are common among adolescents. According to the PDQ-4+, 13.1% (n = 189) of the sample reported a Cluster A maladaptive personality pattern. Analysis of the internal structure yielded two interrelated factors, namely Paranoid and Schizotypal-Schizoid. Males, compared with females, obtained higher scores on the schizotypal subscale when the score was dimensional and on the schizotypal and schizoid subscales when items were dichotomized. These data yield new clues that improve the understanding of Cluster A traits in this sector of the population, and advance in early detection of adolescents at risk of personality disorders.

  2. New DSM-5 PTSD guilt and shame symptoms among Italian earthquake survivors: Impact on maladaptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Gesi, Camilla; Conversano, Ciro; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2016-11-22

    Important changes were introduced concerning posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD) by the DSM-5 recognizing the role of negative emotions such as guilt and shame, but little evidence is yet available on their prevalence in population assessed by means of DSM-5 criteria. In this study we explored the rates of guilt and shame DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic symptoms among Italian survivors to a massive earthquake and their possible correlation with PTSD and maladaptive behaviors. 869 residents of the town of L'Aquila exposed to the earthquake of April 6th, 2009 were investigated by the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) with particular attention to guilt and shame feelings. DSM-5 symptomatological PTSD was reported by 41.7% of survivors, further 11.6% endorsed at least one guilt/shame symptoms, with significantly higher rates of endorsement were in PTSD respect to No-PTSD subjects, and in the subgroup with at least one maladaptive behavior respect to those with none. There was a significant main effects of PTSD and at least one guilt/shame symptom on TALS-SR symptomatological domains. Mean TALS-SR Maladaptive coping domain score appeared significantly higher in the subgroup with at least one guilt/shame symptom. Further study are needed to investigate guilt and shame feelings in survivors to a natural disaster.

  3. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery. PMID:27429808

  4. Maladaptive Plasticity in Aphasia: Brain Activation Maps Underlying Verb Retrieval Errors.

    PubMed

    Spielmann, Kerstin; Durand, Edith; Marcotte, Karine; Ansaldo, Ana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Anomia, or impaired word retrieval, is the most widespread symptom of aphasia, an acquired language impairment secondary to brain damage. In the last decades, functional neuroimaging techniques have enabled studying the neural basis underlying anomia and its recovery. The present study aimed to explore maladaptive plasticity in persistent verb anomia, in three male participants with chronic nonfluent aphasia. Brain activation maps associated with semantic verb paraphasia occurring within an oral picture-naming task were identified with an event-related fMRI paradigm. These maps were compared with those obtained in our previous study examining adaptive plasticity (i.e., successful verb naming) in the same participants. The results show that activation patterns related to semantic verb paraphasia and successful verb naming comprise a number of common areas, contributing to both maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms. This finding suggests that the segregation of brain areas provides only a partial view of the neural basis of verb anomia and successful verb naming. Therefore, it indicates the importance of network approaches which may better capture the complexity of maladaptive and adaptive neuroplasticity mechanisms in anomia recovery.

  5. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  6. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  7. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD. PMID:24847474

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  9. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    PubMed

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  10. Reversal of Alcohol-Induced Dysregulation in Dopamine Network Dynamics May Rescue Maladaptive Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Abigail G; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S; Clark, Jeremy J

    2016-03-30

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents, promoting the development of substance use disorders and compromised decision-making in adulthood. We have previously demonstrated, with a preclinical model in rodents, that adolescent alcohol use results in adult risk-taking behavior that positively correlates with phasic dopamine transmission in response to risky options, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we show that adolescent alcohol use may produce maladaptive decision-making through a disruption in dopamine network dynamics via increased GABAergic transmission within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Indeed, we find that increased phasic dopamine signaling after adolescent alcohol use is attributable to a midbrain circuit, including the input from the pedunculopontine tegmentum to the VTA. Moreover, we demonstrate that VTA dopamine neurons from adult rats exhibit enhanced IPSCs after adolescent alcohol exposure corresponding to decreased basal dopamine levels in adulthood that negatively correlate with risk-taking. Building on these findings, we develop a model where increased inhibitory tone on dopamine neurons leads to a persistent decrease in tonic dopamine levels and results in a potentiation of stimulus-evoked phasic dopamine release that may drive risky choice behavior. Based on this model, we take a pharmacological approach to the reversal of risk-taking behavior through normalization of this pattern in dopamine transmission. These results isolate the underlying circuitry involved in alcohol-induced maladaptive decision-making and identify a novel therapeutic target. One of the primary problems resulting from chronic alcohol use is persistent, maladaptive decision-making that is associated with ongoing addiction vulnerability and relapse. Indeed, studies with the Iowa Gambling Task, a standard measure of risk-based decision-making, have reliably shown that alcohol-dependent individuals make riskier, more maladaptive

  11. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  12. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas between a Sample of Young Adult Female Substance Abusers and a Non-clinical Comparison Group

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, defined as cognitive and behavioural patterns of viewing oneself and the world that cause considerable distress, are increasingly being recognized as an important underlying correlate of mental health problems. Recent research has begun to examine early maladaptive schemas among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on whether substance abusers score higher on early maladaptive schemas than non-clinical controls. Thus, the current study examined whether a sample of young adult female substance abuse treatment seekers (n = 180) scored higher than a non-clinical group of female college students (n = 284) on early maladaptive schemas. Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical group on 16 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. In addition, a number of differences in early maladaptive schemas were large in effect size. Implications of these findings for future research and substance abuse treatment programmes are discussed. PMID:22615132

  13. Differences in early maladaptive schemas between a sample of young adult female substance abusers and a non-clinical comparison group.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, defined as cognitive and behavioural patterns of viewing oneself and the world that cause considerable distress, are increasingly being recognized as an important underlying correlate of mental health problems. Recent research has begun to examine early maladaptive schemas among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on whether substance abusers score higher on early maladaptive schemas than non-clinical controls. Thus, the current study examined whether a sample of young adult female substance abuse treatment seekers (n = 180) scored higher than a non-clinical group of female college students (n = 284) on early maladaptive schemas. Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical group on 16 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. In addition, a number of differences in early maladaptive schemas were large in effect size. Implications of these findings for future research and substance abuse treatment programmes are discussed. Young adult female substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may be contributing to the onset and maintenance of substance use. Findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are more prevalent among young adult female substance abusers than a non-clinical control group, even after controlling for demographic differences between groups. The treatment of substance abuse among young adults should consider targeting early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Adaptive and maladaptive functioning in Kleefstra syndrome compared to other rare genetic disorders with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Karlijn; de Boer, Anneke; Janzing, Joost G E; Koolen, David A; Ockeloen, Charlotte W; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Verhoef, Floor M; van Deurzen, Patricia A M; van Dongen, Linde; van Bokhoven, Hans; Egger, Jos I M; Staal, Wouter G; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2017-05-12

    Detailed neurobehavioural profiles are of major value for specific clinical management, but have remained underexposed in the population with intellectual disabilities (ID). This was traditionally classified based on IQ level only. Rapid advances in genetics enable etiology based stratification in the majority of patients, which reduces clinical heterogeneity. This paper illustrates that specific profiles can be obtained for rare syndromes with ID. Our main aim was to study (mal)adaptive functioning in Kleefstra Syndrome (KS) by comparing and contrasting our findings to three other subgroups: Koolen-de Vries Syndrome, GATAD2B-related syndrome, and a mixed control group of individuals with ID. In total, we studied 58 individuals (28 males, 30 females) with ID; 24 were diagnosed with KS, 13 with Koolen-de Vries Syndrome, 6 with the GATAD2B-related syndrome, and 15 individuals with undefined neurodevelopmental disorders. All individuals were examined with a Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, mini PAS-ADD interview, and an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule to obtain measures of adaptive and maladaptive functioning. Each of the three distinctive genetic disorders showed its own specific profile of adaptive and maladaptive functioning, while being contrasted mutually. However, when data of the subgroups altogether are contrasted to the data of KS, such differences could not be demonstrated. Based on our findings, specific management recommendations were discussed for each of the three syndromes. It is strongly suggested to consider the genetic origin in individuals with congenital neurodevelopmental disorders for individual based psychiatric and behavioral management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Human-assisted spread of a maladaptive behavior in a critically endangered bird.

    PubMed

    Massaro, Melanie; Sainudiin, Raazesh; Merton, Don; Briskie, James V; Poole, Anthony M; Hale, Marie L

    2013-01-01

    Conservation management often focuses on counteracting the adverse effects of human activities on threatened populations. However, conservation measures may unintentionally relax selection by allowing the 'survival of the not-so-fit', increasing the risk of fixation of maladaptive traits. Here, we report such a case in the critically-endangered Chatham Island black robin (Petroica traversi) which, in 1980, was reduced to a single breeding pair. Following this bottleneck, some females were observed to lay eggs on the rims of their nests. Rim eggs left in place always failed to hatch. To expedite population recovery, rim eggs were repositioned inside nests, yielding viable hatchlings. Repositioning resulted in rapid growth of the black robin population, but by 1989 over 50% of all females were laying rim eggs. We used an exceptional, species-wide pedigree to consider both recessive and dominant models of inheritance over all plausible founder genotype combinations at a biallelic and possibly sex-linked locus. The pattern of rim laying is best fitted as an autosomal dominant Mendelian trait. Using a phenotype permutation test we could also reject the null hypothesis of non-heritability for this trait in favour of our best-fitting model of heritability. Data collected after intervention ceased shows that the frequency of rim laying has strongly declined, and that this trait is maladaptive. This episode yields an important lesson for conservation biology: fixation of maladaptive traits could render small threatened populations completely dependent on humans for reproduction, irreversibly compromising the long term viability of populations humanity seeks to conserve.

  16. Initial Construction of a Maladaptive Personality Trait Model and Inventory for DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Robert F.; Derringer, Jaime; Markon, Kristian E.; Watson, David; Skodol, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Background DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder, and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 personality and personality disorders workgroup and workgroup advisors. Methods An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR personality disorders (PDs). The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g., item response theory models). Results Twenty-five reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. Conclusions We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the supplementary materials, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5. PMID:22153017

  17. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  18. FKBP5 moderation of the relationship between childhood trauma and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Thorhildur; de Matos, Ana Paula Soares; Awaloff, Yvonne; Arnarson, Eiríkur Örn; Craighead, W Edward; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2017-10-01

    Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as rumination and catastrophizing, are transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology. FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5) has been found to moderate the relationship between stressful life events and various psychiatric disorders. Given the cross-disorder moderation effect of FKBP5 at the diagnostic level, the aim of the current study was to examine whether the relationship between exposure to childhood trauma and transdiagnostic maladaptive emotion regulation processes would also be moderated by genetic FKBP5 variation in a community sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescent carriers of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype composed of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080, that has been associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders in adulthood, would also show higher levels of rumination and catastrophizing. Participants included 1345 genotyped adolescents (Mage=13.95, 64.2% female; 100% European Caucasians of Portuguese descent) who completed self-report measures on exposure to childhood trauma and emotion regulation strategies. Genotypes of rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080 were used to estimate the CATT haplotype (carriers versus non-carriers). Consistent with our hypotheses and previous findings, adolescent CATT haplotype carriers with higher levels of childhood trauma endorsed higher levels of both rumination and catastrophizing compared to non-carriers. Given the association of these maladaptive emotion regulation processes and psychiatric disorders, the findings suggest possible psychological mechanisms why FKBP5 haplotype carriers exposed to childhood trauma are more vulnerable to developing a psychiatric disorder later in life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Increased prevalence of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits after long-term cure of Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; Middelkoop, Huub A M; van der Mast, Roos C; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-10-01

    Psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits are often observed during the active phase of Cushing's disease (CD). We hypothesized that patients with long-term cure of CD show persistent psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits. Four questionnaires on frequently occurring psychopathology in somatic illnesses were used, including the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form. Personality was assessed using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). We included 51 patients cured of CD (16% men, 53 ± 13 yr) and 51 matched controls. In addition, we included 55 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (55% men, 62 ± 10 yr), and 55 matched controls. Mean duration of remission was 11 yr (range 1-32 yr). Compared with matched controls, patients cured from CD scored significantly worse on virtually all questionnaires. Compared with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma patients, patients treated for CD scored worse on apathy (P < 0.001), irritability (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), negative affect and lack of positive affect (P < 0.001 on both scales), somatic arousal (P < 0.001), and 11 of 18 subscales of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (P < 0.05). Patients with long-term cured CD show an increased prevalence of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits. These observations suggest irreversible effects of previous glucocorticoid excess on the central nervous system rather than an effect of pituitary tumors and/or their treatment in general. This may also be of relevance for patients treated with high doses of exogenous glucocorticoids.

  20. Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Krueger, R F; Derringer, J; Markon, K E; Watson, D; Skodol, A E

    2012-09-01

    DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors. An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models). A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.

  1. Dissociation and variability of adult attachment dimensions and early maladaptive schemas in sexual and violent offenders.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elina; Beech, Anthony R

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of constructs that may indicate the presence of disorganized attachment style in sexual and violent offenders. Constructs measured were dissociation, variability on self-report measures of attachment style and early maladaptive schemas, and variability in observed behavior. Data on variability was collected at four time intervals, approximately 3 weeks apart. No differences between the groups were found in variability of self-reported attachment style. Both offending groups showed greater variability in early schemas and higher levels of dissociation than the nonoffending group. Sex offenders showed greater variability than violent offenders in behaviors related to distress.

  2. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on.

  3. Type D personality is associated with maladaptive health-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Julie; Williams, Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Type D personality (the combination of negative affect and social inhibition) is associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between Type D and health-related behaviours. In a cross-sectional study, 200 healthy participants completed measures of Type D personality, and health-related behaviours. The results showed that Type D individuals engaged in more unhealthy behaviours including smoking, poor diet and lack of physical activity than non-Type D individuals. The association between Type D personality and maladaptive health behaviours may represent one mechanism to explain the link between Type D and ill-health.

  4. Measures to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model.

    PubMed

    Widiger, Thomas A; Lynam, Donald R; Miller, Joshua D; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    The five-factor model (FFM) is the predominant dimensional model of general personality structure. A considerable body of research supports the hypothesis that personality disorders can be conceptualized as extreme or maladaptive variants of the domains and facets of the FFM. However, existing measures of the FFM are confined largely to the normal variants. The purpose of this special section of the Journal of Personality Assessment is to provide the development and initial validation of self-report inventory scales to assess obsessive-compulsive, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, and dependent personality traits from the perspective of the FFM, which complement the similarly constructed existing measures for psychopathic, histrionic, and schizotypal personality traits.

  5. Differentiating adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on the MMPI-2 and MIPS revised.

    PubMed

    Rice, Kenneth G; Stuart, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Although conceptualizations of perfectionism have emphasized adaptive as well as maladaptive expressions of the construct, how these different dimensions or types of perfectionists might be reflected in comprehensive personality assessment instruments is unknown. An initial sample of 267 university students completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 2001), Millon Index of Personality Styles Revised (MIPS-R; Millon, 2004), and Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Analyses indicated that dimensions and types of perfectionism were associated, in expected directions, with select scores on the MMPI-2 and MIPS-R.

  6. Individual risk factors for physician boundary violations: the role of attachment style, childhood trauma and maladaptive beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kai; Sciolla, Andrés F; Folsom, David; Bazzo, David; Searles, Chris; Moutier, Christine; Thomas, Michael L; Borton, Katherine; Norcross, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and remediation of boundary-challenged healthcare professionals is enhanced through examination of individual risk factors. We assessed three such factors--attachment style, childhood trauma and maladaptive beliefs--in 100 attendees (mostly physicians) of a CME professional boundaries course. We propose a theoretical model which draws a causal arc from childhood maltreatment through insecure attachment and maladaptive beliefs to elevated risk for boundary violations. We administered the Experiences in Close Relationship Questionnaire (ECR-R), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) to 100 healthcare professionals (mostly physicians) attending a CME course on professional boundaries. Experts rated participant autobiographies to determine attachment style and early adversities. Correlations and relationships among self- and expert ratings and between different risk factors were examined. Five percent of participants reported CTQ total scores in the moderate to severe range; eleven percent reported moderate to severe emotional neglect or emotional abuse. Average attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were low, and more than half of participants were rated “secure” by experts. Childhood maltreatment was correlated with attachment anxiety and avoidance and predicted expert-rated insecure attachment and maladaptive beliefs. Our findings support a potential link between childhood adversity and boundary difficulties, partly mediated by insecure attachment and early maladaptive beliefs. Furthermore, these results suggest that boundary education programs and professional wellness programs may be enhanced with a focus on sequelae of childhood maltreatment, attachment and common maladaptive thinking patterns.

  7. Individual risk factors for physician boundary violations: the role of attachment style, childhood trauma and maladaptive beliefs.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kai; Sciolla, Andrés F; Folsom, David; Bazzo, David; Searles, Chris; Moutier, Christine; Thomas, Michael L; Borton, Katherine; Norcross, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and remediation of boundary-challenged health care professionals is enhanced through examination of individual risk factors. We assessed three such factors - attachment style, childhood trauma and maladaptive beliefs - in 100 attendees (mostly physicians) of a continuing medical education (CME) professional boundaries course. We propose a theoretical model that draws a causal arc from childhood maltreatment through insecure attachment and maladaptive beliefs to elevated risk for boundary violations. We administered the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire Revised (ECR-R), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) to 100 health care professionals attending a CME course on professional boundaries. Experts rated participant autobiographies to determine attachment style and early adversities. Correlations and relationships between self-ratings and expert ratings and among different risk factors were examined. One fifth of participants reported moderate to severe childhood abuse; sixty percent reported moderate to severe emotional neglect. Despite this, average attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance were low, and more than half of participants were rated "secure" by experts. Childhood maltreatment was correlated with attachment anxiety and avoidance and predicted expert-rated insecure attachment and maladaptive beliefs. Our findings support a potential link between childhood adversity and boundary difficulties, partly mediated by insecure attachment and early maladaptive beliefs. Furthermore, these results suggest that boundary education programs and professional wellness programs may be enhanced with a focus on sequelae of childhood maltreatment, attachment and common maladaptive thinking patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unraveling the role of perfectionism in chronic fatigue syndrome: is there a distinction between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism?

    PubMed

    Kempke, Stefan; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; Luyten, Patrick; Goossens, Lutgarde; Bekaert, Patrick; Van Wambeke, Peter

    2011-04-30

    In the current study, we investigated whether the distinction between adaptive (i.e. high personal standards) and maladaptive (i.e. concern over mistakes and doubt about actions) perfectionism that has been found in the literature, is also valid in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We hypothesized that maladaptive, but not adaptive, perfectionism would be significantly and positively related to severity of fatigue and depression in CFS. We examined this hypothesis in a sample of 192 CFS patients using structural equation modelling (SEM). Although the two perfectionism dimensions were related to each other, results supported a model in which only maladaptive perfectionism was positively related to severity of fatigue and depression. Further, we found that depression fully mediated the effect of maladaptive perfectionism on fatigue. The results suggest that adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism are two distinct, albeit related, dimensions in CFS. Findings of this study have important implications for theory and treatment of CFS, particularly for cognitive-behavioral treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In cognitive therapy for depression, early focus on maladaptive beliefs may be especially efficacious for patients with personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Keefe, John R; Webb, Christian A; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2016-04-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a comorbid personality disorder (PD) have been found to exhibit relatively poor outcomes in cognitive therapy (CT) and other treatments. Adaptations of CT focusing heavily on patients' core beliefs have yielded promising findings in the treatment of PD. However, there have been no investigations that have specifically tested whether increased focus on maladaptive beliefs contributes to CT's efficacy for these patients. CT technique use from an early CT session was assessed for 59 patients (33 without PD, 26 with PD-predominantly Cluster C) who participated in a randomized controlled trial for moderate to severe MDD. Scores were calculated for directive CT techniques (CT-Concrete) and a set of belief-focused items (CT-Belief) as rated by the Collaborative Study Process Rating Scale. Robust regressions were conducted to estimate relations between scores on each of these measures and change in depressive and PD symptoms. A PD status by CT-Belief use interaction tested the hypothesis that therapist use of CT-Belief techniques would exhibit a stronger association with symptom change in the PD group relative to the non-PD group. As hypothesized, a significant interaction between PD status and use of CT-Belief techniques emerged in the prediction of depressive and PD symptom change. Among PD patients, higher early CT-Belief interventions were found to predict significantly greater improvement. CT-Belief use did not predict greater symptom change among those without PD. Early focus on CT-Belief interventions may facilitate changes in depression and PD symptoms for patients with MDD-PD comorbidity. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Parenting Origins in Patients with Opioid Abuse and Non-Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Zargar, Mohammad; Salavati, Mojgan; Kakavand, Ali Reza

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the difference of early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers. Method The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins were compared in 56 opioid abusers and 56 non-opioids abusers. Schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire 3rd (short form); and parenting origins were assessed by the Young Parenting Inventory. Results Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The analysis showed that the means for schemas between opioid abusers and non-opioid abusers were different. Chi square test showed that parenting origins were significantly associated with their related schemas. Conclusion The early maladaptive schemas and parenting origins in opioid abusers were more than non-opioid abusers; and parenting origins were related to their Corresponding schemas. PMID:22952522

  11. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  12. [The effect of "hospital clowns" on distress and maladaptive behaviours of children who are undergoing minor surgery].

    PubMed

    Meisel, Victoria; Chellew, Karin; Ponsell, Esperança; Ferreira, Ana; Bordas, Leonor; García-Banda, Gloria

    2009-11-01

    The presence of clowns in health care settings is a program used in many countries to reduce distress in children who are undergoing surgery. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of the presence of clowns on children's distress and maladaptive behaviours while in hospital for minor surgery. The sample consisted of 61 pediatric patients (aged 3-12 years) undergoing general anesthesia for minor surgery. Participants were assigned to two groups: experimental and control group. The child's distress was assessed using FAS (Facial Affective Scale). Postoperative maladaptive behaviors were evaluated one week after surgery, using the PHBQ (Post-Hospital Behavior Questionnaire). Our results suggest that clowns are not able to reduce the child's level of distress. However, postoperative maladaptive behaviours in the experimental group decreased, but the decrease was not statistically significant. Further research is needed to determine the effects of clowns in hospitals, taking into account age, sex, parents' presence, and diverse hospital settings.

  13. Danger-early maladaptive schemas at work!: The role of early maladaptive schemas in career choice and the development of occupational stress in health workers.

    PubMed

    Bamber, Martin; McMahon, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The schema-focused model of occupational stress and work dysfunctions (Bamber & Price, 2006; Bamber, 2006) hypothesizes that individuals with EMS (unconsciously) gravitate toward occupations with similar dynamics and structures to the toxic early environments and relationships that created them. They subsequently re-enact these EMS and their associated maladaptive coping styles in the workplace. For most individuals, this results in 'schema healing', but for some individuals with more rigid and severe EMS, schema healing is not achieved and the structures and relationships of the workplace, together with the utilization of maladaptive coping styles, serve to perpetuate their EMS. The model hypothesizes that it is these individuals who are most vulnerable to developing occupational stress syndromesTo date, this model has been subjected to very little empirical investigation, so the main aim of this study was to address this gap in the literature by testing out some of its main assumptions and to provide empirical data, which would either support or reject the model using a population of health workers. Specifically, it was hypothesized that 'occupation-specific' EMS would be found in health workers from a range of different healthcare professions. It was also hypothesized that the presence of higher levels of EMS would be predictive of raised levels of occupational stress, psychiatric caseness and increased sickness absence in those individuals.A cross-sectional study design was employed and a total of 249 staff working within a NHS Trust, belonging to one of five occupational groups (medical doctors, nurses, clinical psychologists, IT staff and managers), participated in the study. All participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1998); the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Form (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), and the General Health Questionnaire-28-item version (Goldberg, 1978). A demographic questionnaire and sickness absence data

  14. Maladaptation in wild populations of the generalist plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    PubMed Central

    Kniskern, Joel M.; Barrett, Luke G.; Bergelson, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Multi-host pathogens occur widely on both natural and agriculturally managed hosts. Despite the importance of such generalists, evolutionary studies of host-pathogen interactions have largely focused on tightly coupled interactions between species pairs. We characterized resistance in a collection of Arabidopsis thaliana hosts, including 24 accessions collected from the Midwest USA and 24 from around the world, and patterns of virulence in a collection of Pseudomonas syringae strains, including 24 strains collected from wild Midwest populations of A. thaliana (residents) and 18 from an array of cultivated species (non-residents). All of the non-resident strains and half of the resident strains elicited a resistance response on one or more A. thaliana accessions. The resident strains that failed to elicit any resistance response possessed an alternative type III secretion system (T3SS) that is unable to deliver effectors into plant host cells; as a result, these seemingly non-pathogenic strains are incapable of engaging in gene for gene interactions with A. thaliana. The remaining resident strains triggered greater resistance compared to non-resident strains, consistent with maladaptation of the resident bacterial population. We weigh the plausibility of two explanations: general maladaptation of pathogen strains and a more novel hypothesis whereby community level epidemiological dynamics result in adaptive dynamics favoring ephemeral hosts like A. thaliana. PMID:21044058

  15. Is Distraction an Adaptive or Maladaptive Strategy for Emotion Regulation? A Person-Oriented Approach.

    PubMed

    Wolgast, Martin; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Distraction is an emotion regulation strategy that has an ambiguous status within cognitive-behavior therapy. According to some treatment protocols it is counterproductive, whereas according to other protocols it is seen as a quite useful strategy. The main purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that distraction is adaptive when combined with active acceptance, but maladaptive when combined with avoidant strategies. A non-clinical community sample of adults (N = 638) and a clinical sample (N = 172) completed measures of emotion regulation and well-being. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups with different profiles on six emotion regulation variables, and these subgroups were then compared on well-being (positive and negative emotionality, and life quality) and on clinical status. A nine-cluster solution was chosen on the basis of explained variance and homogeneity coefficients. Two of these clusters had almost identical scores on distraction, but showed otherwise very different profiles (distraction combined with acceptance vs. distraction combined with avoidance). The distraction-acceptance cluster scored significantly higher than the distraction-avoidance cluster on all measures of well-being; it was also under-represented in the clinical sample, whereas the distraction-avoidance cluster was over-represented. Limitations include a cross-sectional design, and use of self-report measures. The findings suggest that distraction may be either adaptive or maladaptive, depending on whether it is combined with an attitude of acceptance or avoidance.

  16. Functions of maladaptive behavior in intellectual and developmental disabilities: behavior categories and topographies.

    PubMed

    Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H; Turygin, Nicole; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that different maladaptive behavior categories may be maintained by different contingencies. We examined whether behavior categories or behavior topographies determine functional properties. The Questions about Behavioral Function with its five subscales (Attention, Escape, Nonsocial, Physical, and Tangible) was completed by direct care staff for one target behavior for each of 115 adults with varying degrees of intellectual disabilities. In the first step we examined the functional properties of three broad behavior categories (self-injurious behavior [SIB], stereotypic behavior, and aggressive/destructive behavior). Consistent with previous research stereotyped behaviors and SIB had significantly higher QABF Nonsocial (i.e., automatic positive reinforcement or self-stimulation) subscale scores than aggressive behavior, while none of the other subscales showed differences across the three behavior categories. Contrary to earlier studies, escape (or negative social reinforcement) was an important function not only for aggressive behavior, but also for SIB and stereotypies. A second analysis examined functional properties depending on two factors: the behavior topography (hitting vs. non-hitting behaviors) and their respective behavior category (SIB vs. aggression). SIB topographies had higher ratings than aggressive behavior on the QABF Nonsocial subscale. Of the five QABF subscales, only the subscale Nonsocial differed between categories of maladaptive behavior. Furthermore it was the behavior categories rather than the topographies that determined functional properties.

  17. Local Adaptation Interacts with Expansion Load during Range Expansion: Maladaptation Reduces Expansion Load.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kimberly J; Sharp, Nathaniel P; Angert, Amy L; Conte, Gina L; Draghi, Jeremy A; Guillaume, Frédéric; Hargreaves, Anna L; Matthey-Doret, Remi; Whitlock, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors that facilitate or hinder species range expansions are many and complex. We examine the impact of two genetic processes and their interaction on fitness at expanding range edges: local maladaptation resulting from the presence of an environmental gradient and expansion load resulting from increased genetic drift at the range edge. Results from spatially explicit simulations indicate that the presence of an environmental gradient during range expansion reduces expansion load; conversely, increasing expansion load allows only locally adapted populations to persist at the range edge. Increased maladaptation reduces the speed of range expansion, resulting in less genetic drift at the expanding front and more immigration from the range center, therefore reducing expansion load at the range edge. These results may have ramifications for species being forced to shift their ranges because of climate change or other anthropogenic changes. If rapidly changing climate leads to faster expansion as populations track their shifting climatic optima, populations may suffer increased expansion load beyond previous expectations.

  18. One of early maladaptive schemas' causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns.

    PubMed

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012-2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns.

  19. Maladaptive cognitions and physical health of the caregivers of dementia: An interpretative phenomenological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sidra; Bokharey, Iram Z.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct in-depth analyses of the lived experiences of the caregivers of dementia and their maladaptive thinking patterns and how their physical health was influenced and compromised. The main method used was interpretative phenomenological analysis and involved in-depth analysis of eight participants screened through homogenous purposive sampling. After taking written consent from the participants, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather the data that were transcribed later on to carry out free textual analysis. The themes were generated from the transcripts through the funneling approach in order to arrive at the themes that were common, frequent, and reflected the experiences shared by the participants. The verification was done through peer review and rich thick description. The most significant themes regarding maladaptive cognitions were catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and blaming, whereas fatigue and sleep disturbances were the most significant themes regarding physical health. The emergent themes point towards a need to devise indigenous therapeutic intervention for the caregivers of dementia in the Pakistani sociocultural context as the literature available on caregiving is quite scanty in our culture. PMID:26384522

  20. Genetic Correlates of Maladaptive Beliefs: COMT VAL(158)MET and Irrational Cognitions Linked Depending on Distress.

    PubMed

    Podina, Ioana; Popp, Radu; Pop, Ioan; David, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Maladaptive/irrational beliefs are significant cognitive vulnerability mechanisms in psychopathology. They are more likely to be associated with a genetic vulnerability marker under conditions of emotional distress when irrational beliefs are more salient. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the COMT Val(158)Met gene variation in relation to irrational beliefs, assuming this relationship depended on the level of emotional distress. Two hundred and sixty-seven genotyped volunteers were assessed for core/general maladaptive beliefs, as well as trait emotional distress. We focused on context-independent measures of irrational beliefs and emotional distress in the absence of a stressor. As expected, the relationship between COMT Val(158)Met and irrational beliefs depended on the level of emotional distress (f(2)=.314). The COMT Val(158)Met-irrationality association was significant only when individuals fell in the average to above average range of emotional distress. Furthermore, within this range the Met allele seemed to relate to higher irrational beliefs. These results were significant for overall irrational beliefs and its subtypes, but not for rational beliefs, the functional counterpart of irrationality. In light of the study's limitations, the results should be considered as preliminary. If replicable, these findings have potential implications for therapygenetics, changing the view that COMT Val(158)Met might be of greater relevance when treatment modality does not rely on cognitive variables.

  1. Maladapted gene complexes within populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus?

    PubMed

    Edmands, Suzanne; Northrup, Sara L; Hwang, Annmarie S

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of F2 hybrid breakdown in interpopulation crosses of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus can be explained by disruption of coadapted gene complexes. This study further dissects the nature of hybrid gene interactions, revealing that parental populations may also harbor maladapted gene complexes. Diagnostic molecular markers (14) were assayed in reciprocal F2 hybrids to test for gene interactions affecting viability. Results showed some evidence of nuclear-nuclear coadaptation. Although there were no significant examples of pairwise linkage disequilibrium between physically unlinked loci, one of the two reciprocal crosses did show an overall excess of parental double homozygotes and an overall dearth of nonparental double homozygotes. In contrast, the nuclear-cytoplasmic data showed a stronger tendency toward maladaptation within the specific inbred lines used in this study. For three out of four loci with significant frequency differences between reciprocal F2, homozygotes were favored on the wrong cytoplasmic background. A separate study of reciprocal backcross hybrids between the same two populations (but different inbred lines) revealed faster development time when the full haploid nuclear genome did not match the cytoplasm. The occurrence of such suboptimal gene complexes may be attributable to effects of genetic drift in small, isolated populations.

  2. Maladaptive cognitions and physical health of the caregivers of dementia: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sidra; Bokharey, Iram Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct in-depth analyses of the lived experiences of the caregivers of dementia and their maladaptive thinking patterns and how their physical health was influenced and compromised. The main method used was interpretative phenomenological analysis and involved in-depth analysis of eight participants screened through homogenous purposive sampling. After taking written consent from the participants, semi-structured interviews were conducted to gather the data that were transcribed later on to carry out free textual analysis. The themes were generated from the transcripts through the funneling approach in order to arrive at the themes that were common, frequent, and reflected the experiences shared by the participants. The verification was done through peer review and rich thick description. The most significant themes regarding maladaptive cognitions were catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and blaming, whereas fatigue and sleep disturbances were the most significant themes regarding physical health. The emergent themes point towards a need to devise indigenous therapeutic intervention for the caregivers of dementia in the Pakistani sociocultural context as the literature available on caregiving is quite scanty in our culture.

  3. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Maladaptive Plasticity, and Bayesian Analysis in Phantom Limb Pain.

    PubMed

    Morales-Quezada, Leon

    2017-08-01

    Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common and poorly understood pathology of difficult medical control that progressively takes place after amputation occurs. Objective: This article discusses the multifactorial bases of PLP. These bases involve local changes at the stump level, spinal modifications of excitability, deafferentation, and central sensitization, leading to the development of maladaptive plasticity, and consequentially, defective processing of sensory information by associative neural networks. These changes can be traced by neurophysiology and imaging topographical studies, indicating a degree of cortical reorganization that perpetuates pain and discomfort. Intervention: Noninvasive brain stimulation can be an alternative way to manage PLP. This article discusses two techniques-transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)-that have shown promising results for controlling PLP. The modulation that both techniques rely on is based on synaptic mechanisms linked to long-term potentiation and long-term depression phenomena. By applying tDCS or rTMS, clinicians can target processes associated with central sensitization and maladaptive plasticity, while promoting adequate sensory information processing by integrative cognitive behavioral techniques in a comprehensive rehabilitation program. Conclusions: Understanding PLP from a dynamic neurocomputational perspective will help to develop better treatments. Furthermore, Bayesian analysis of sensory information can help guide and monitor therapeutic interventions directed toward PLP resolution.

  4. Paternal malparenting and offspring personality disorders: Mediating effect of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Batool, Naila; Shehzadi, Humaira; Riaz, Muhammad Naveed; Riaz, Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    To examine the mediating role of maladaptive schemas between permissive/authoritarian parenting by fathers and personality disorders, including histrionic, antisocial, narcissistic and depressive attitudes among adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, and comprised university students. Data was collected by administering the parental authority questionnaire, the young schema questionnaire and the personality diagnostic questionnaire. SPSS 23 was used for data analysis. The study was completed in one year. It was started from June 2014 and ended in June 2015. Of the 200 participants who were handed the questionnaires, 100(50%) returned it fully filled up. Of them, 87(87%) were women and 13(13%) were men. All scales had greater than 0.70 alpha reliability coefficients. The values of skewness for all scales ranged from 0.10 to 0.86.Permissive parenting style had positive correlation with histrionic (p<0.05), narcissistic (p<0.05) and antisocial personality disorders (p<0.01). Authoritarian parenting had positive correlation with early maladaptive schemas (p<0.01) and depressive personality disorder (p<0.05). Both permissive and authoritarian parenting styles led to personality disorders among offspring in the adult phase of their lives.

  5. Maladaptive interpersonal schemas as sensitive and specific markers of borderline personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Tanis, Thachell; Ardalan, Firouz; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor

    2016-08-30

    Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mood and psychotic disorders characterized by major mood episodes (i.e., major depressive, bipolar and schizoaffective disorder) share marked overlap in symptom presentation, complicating differential diagnosis. The current study tests the hypothesis that maladaptive interpersonal schemas (MIS) are characteristic of BPD, but not of the major mood disorders. One hundred psychiatric inpatients were assessed by SCID I, SCID II and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2). Logistic regression analyses tested the association between MIS (measured by the YSQ-S2) and BPD, bipolar, major depressive and schizoaffective disorder. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses assessed the sensitivity and specificity of MIS as a marker of BPD. After covariation for comorbidity with each of the 3 mood disorders, BPD was robustly associated with 4 out of 5 schema domains. In contrast, only one of fifteen regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between any mood disorder and schema domain after covariation for comorbid BPD. ROC analyses of the 5 schema domains suggested Disconnection/Rejection had the greatest power for identification of BPD cases. These data support the specific role of maladaptive interpersonal schemas in BPD and potentially contribute to greater conceptual clarity about the distinction between BPD and the major mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. General and maladaptive personality dimensions in pediatric obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; De Clercq, Barbara; De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing clinical disorder in childhood, often characterized by a heterogeneous symptomatic profile and high co-occurrence with other disorders. The present study introduces a new perspective on the description of OCD symptoms in youth, and empirically examines the value of a personality framework (e.g. Five Factor of Personality; FFM) for understanding early OCD symptomatology in a referred sample of 274 children and adolescents, relying on age-specific measures of general and maladaptive personality. Differences in general and maladaptive personality traits for high versus low-scoring children and adolescents on the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-OCS) were explored. The discriminant validity of both higher-and lower-order personality traits was supported, showing that high CBCL-OCS scorers are characterized by specific personality features ranging from adaptive to pathological, especially in terms of Conscientiousness. In addition, personality traits contributed to the accurate classification of high- versus low-scorers on the CBCL-OCS. Implications for clinical practice and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  7. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Suboptimal choice in rats: Incentive salience attribution promotes maladaptive decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jonathan J; Smith, Aaron P; Wilson, A George; Zentall, Thomas R; Beckmann, Joshua S

    2017-03-01

    Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats. One group of rats had lights associated with goal-tracking as the reward-predictive stimuli and another had levers associated with sign-tracking as the reward-predictive stimuli. All rats were first trained on a choice procedure in which the expected value across both alternatives was equivalent but differed in their stimulus-reward predictive utility. Next, the expected value across both alternatives was systematically changed so that the alternative with greater stimulus-reward predictive utility was suboptimal in regard to primary reinforcement. The results demonstrate that in order to obtain suboptimal choice behavior, incentive salience alongside strong stimulus-reward predictive utility may be necessary; thus, maladaptive decision-making can be driven more by the value attributed to stimuli imbued with incentive salience that reliably predict a reward rather than the reward itself.

  9. The relation between antisocial and borderline personality symptoms and early maladaptive schemas in a treatment seeking sample of male substance users.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. Antisocial (ASPD) and Borderline (BPD) personality disorder symptoms are prevalence among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. Early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie the development of ASPD and BPD symptoms, and are also prevalence among individuals seeking substance use treatment. Findings from the current study suggest that specific early maladaptive schema domains predict ASPD and BPD symptoms in a substance abuse treatment seeking sample of adult males. The treatment of ASPD and BPD among men seeking substance use treatment may want to focus on early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  11. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  12. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L' Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors.

    PubMed

    Dell'osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. 900 residents of the town of L'Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.

  13. Do gender differences in depression remain after controlling for early maladaptive schemas? An examination in a sample of opioid dependent treatment seeking adults.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of opioids is a serious and prevalent problem and research is needed on factors that may place individuals at risk for misusing opioids. Depression is a common co-morbid mental health problem among opioid users. Theory and research suggest that early maladaptive schemas may underlie mental health problems including depression and substance abuse. The current study sought to determine whether early maladaptive schemas were associated with depression among a treatment seeking sample of male and female opioid users (n = 194). We also examined whether depression, as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition, varied by gender and whether gender differences in depression remained after controlling for early maladaptive schemas. Results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on three of the five early maladaptive schema domains and that gender did not predict depression after controlling for schema domains. Early maladaptive schemas were also more strongly associated with depression for men than women. Implications of these findings for interventions and future research are discussed. Individuals with opioid dependence have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may be contributing to the onset and maintenance of substance use. Although there are generally broad gender differences in major depression, findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are a better predictor of depressive symptoms than gender among opioid dependent adults. The treatment of opioid dependence, with or without co-morbid depressive symptoms, should target early maladaptive schemas. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Comparing Service Delivery Models for Children with Developmental Delays in Canada: Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviours, Parental Perceptions of Stress and of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Fontil, Laura; Miodrag, Nancy; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Amar, Daniel; Amos, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study compares two service delivery models (community-based and centre-based), examining them in light of children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours, and parental perceptions of stress and of care. More specifically, parents of 96 children with developmental delays assessed their children's adaptive and maladaptive behaviours and rated…

  15. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Maladaptive Behaviors and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A Study on 900 L’ Aquila 2009 Earthquake Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Osso, Liliana; Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Akiskal, Kareen K.; Akiskal, Hagop S.; Maremmani, Icro; Rossi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviors and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviors and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3) were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR). Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behavior prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behavior among PTSD survivors. Further, among survivors with PTSD significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing, and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviors among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviors among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach. PMID:23293608

  16. The Relation Between Antisocial and Borderline Personality Symptoms and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Substance Users

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are more likely to have antisocial and borderline personality disorder than non-substance abusers. Recently, research has examined the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders, as early maladaptive schemas are believed to underlie personality disorders. However, there is a dearth of research on the relations between early maladaptive schemas and personality disorders among individuals seeking treatment for substance abuse. The current study examined the relations among early maladaptive schemas and antisocial and borderline personality within in a sample of men seeking substance abuse treatment (n = 98). Results demonstrated that early maladaptive schema domains were associated with antisocial and borderline personality symptoms. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment and research are discussed. PMID:23650153

  17. Behavioral inhibition, maladaptive pain cognitions, and function in patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Mark P; Solé, Ester; Castarlenas, Elena; Racine, Mélanie; Roy, Rubén; Miró, Jordi; Cane, Douglas

    2017-07-26

    Trait behavioral inhibition represents a tendency to react with negative emotions - primarily worry - to cues which signal potential threats. This tendency has been hypothesized by a two-factor model of chronic pain to have direct effects on psychological and physical function in individuals with chronic pain, as well as to influence the associations between pain-related maladaptive cognitions and function. Our aim was to test these hypothesized associations in a sample of individuals who were being screened for possible interdisciplinary chronic pain treatment. Eighty-eight patients referred to an interdisciplinary chronic pain management program were administered measures of average pain intensity, trait behavioral inhibition, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, depressive symptoms, and pain interference. We then performed two linear regression analyses to evaluate the direct effects of trait behavioral inhibition on depressive symptoms and pain interference and the extent to which behavioral inhibition moderated the associations between kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing, and the criterion variables. In partial support of the study hypotheses, the results showed significant (and independent) direct effects of trait behavioral inhibition on depressive symptoms, and behavioral inhibition moderated the association between kinesiophobia and depression, such that there were stronger associations between kinesiophobia and depressive symptoms in those with higher dispositional sensitivity to fear-inducing stimuli. However, neither direct nor moderating effects of behavioral inhibition emerged in the prediction of pain interference. If replicated in additional studies, the findings would indicate that chronic pain treatments which target both reductions in maladaptive cognitions (to decrease the direct negative effects of these on depressive symptoms) and the individual's tendency to respond to pain with worry (as a way to buffer the potential effects of

  18. The Role of Career Stress in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Career Attitude Maturity in South Korean Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heerak; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    Given the central role of career stress in college students' lives, this research examined whether career stress mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and career attitude maturity in a sample of 185 undergraduate students in South Korea. The results indicated that career ambiguity stress, as measured by a career stress…

  19. Exploring the Interplay of Adaptive and Maladaptive Strategies: Prevalence and Functionality of Anger Regulation Profiles in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In emotion regulation research, it is common to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. However, little is known about their interactional impact (compensational or interfering effects) on adolescents' adjustment. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant questionnaire data from N = 608 adolescents and their…

  20. Psychological Distress as a Mediator of the Relation between Perceived Maternal Parenting and Normative Maladaptive Eating among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; McEnery, Amanda M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2007-01-01

    Burgeoning research on the adolescent (e.g., middle-school) years suggests that this is a particularly vulnerable period for the development of maladaptive eating patterns. Prior research has established a link between perceptions of maternal parenting practices and adolescent onset of problematic eating behaviors. The authors hypothesized that…

  1. The Role of Career Stress in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Career Attitude Maturity in South Korean Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Heerak; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    Given the central role of career stress in college students' lives, this research examined whether career stress mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and career attitude maturity in a sample of 185 undergraduate students in South Korea. The results indicated that career ambiguity stress, as measured by a career stress…

  2. Maladaptive behavioral consequences of conditioned fear-generalization: a pronounced, yet sparsely studied, feature of anxiety pathology.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, Brian; Wiggert, Nicole; Wicker, Isaac; Lissek, Shmuel

    2014-06-01

    Fear-conditioning experiments in the anxiety disorders focus almost exclusively on passive-emotional, Pavlovian conditioning, rather than active-behavioral, instrumental conditioning. Paradigms eliciting both types of conditioning are needed to study maladaptive, instrumental behaviors resulting from Pavlovian abnormalities found in clinical anxiety. One such Pavlovian abnormality is generalization of fear from a conditioned danger-cue (CS+) to resembling stimuli. Though lab-based findings repeatedly link overgeneralized Pavlovian-fear to clinical anxiety, no study assesses the degree to which Pavlovian overgeneralization corresponds with maladaptive, overgeneralized instrumental-avoidance. The current effort fills this gap by validating a novel fear-potentiated startle paradigm including Pavlovian and instrumental components. The paradigm is embedded in a computer game during which shapes appear on the screen. One shape paired with electric-shock serves as CS+, and other resembling shapes, presented in the absence of shock, serve as generalization stimuli (GSs). During the game, participants choose whether to behaviorally avoid shock at the cost of poorer performance. Avoidance during CS+ is considered adaptive because shock is a real possibility. By contrast, avoidance during GSs is considered maladaptive because shock is not a realistic prospect and thus unnecessarily compromises performance. Results indicate significant Pavlovian-instrumental relations, with greater generalization of Pavlovian fear associated with overgeneralization of maladaptive instrumental-avoidance.

  3. Exploring the Interplay of Adaptive and Maladaptive Strategies: Prevalence and Functionality of Anger Regulation Profiles in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otterpohl, Nantje; Schwinger, Malte; Wild, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In emotion regulation research, it is common to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. However, little is known about their interactional impact (compensational or interfering effects) on adolescents' adjustment. We collected longitudinal, multiple informant questionnaire data from N = 608 adolescents and their…

  4. Pilot study to evaluate the effects of tetrahydrobiopterin on adult individuals with phenylketonuria with measurable maladaptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Kathryn D; Ottina, Martha J; Azen, Colleen G; Yano, Shoji

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on maladaptive behavior in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). In an effort to determine if BH4 has any effects on the central nervous system, we studied 10 individuals with PKU and measurable maladaptive behaviors for 1 year. Behavioral assessments using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition and a PKU Behavior Checklist were obtained at baseline, 6 months, and at the end of the study. Biochemical measures including plasma amino acids were obtained quarterly, and phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) were obtained monthly. Out of the 10 subjects, 2 were responders to BH4, as determined by a blood Phe reduction >30%. While blood Phe in the 8 nonresponders did not change significantly throughout the study, their Tyr levels were significantly higher at 6 months (p=0.012), but not at 12 months (p=0.23). By the end of the study, 8 subjects exhibited fewer maladaptive behaviors on the components of the Vineland Maladaptive Behavior Index, and all 10 had lower total scores on the PKU Behavior Checklist. These findings suggest that there may be direct effects of BH4 on the central nervous system, independent of lowering blood Phe.

  5. Attachment insecurities, maladaptive perfectionism, and eating disorder symptoms: a latent mediated and moderated structural equation modeling analysis across diagnostic groups.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Timko, C Alix; Zanetti, M Assunta; Rinaldi, Lucio; Prunas, Antonio; Carrà, Giuseppe; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo

    2014-01-30

    Although 96-100% of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) report insecure attachment, the specific mechanisms by which adult insecure attachment dimensions affect ED symptomatology remain to date largely unknown. This study examined maladaptive perfectionism as both a mediator and a moderator of the relationship between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and ED symptomatology in a clinical, treatment seeking, sample. Insecure anxious and avoidant attachment, maladaptive perfectionism, and ED symptomatology were assessed in 403 participants from three medium size specialized care centres for EDs in Italy. Structural equation modeling indicated that maladaptive perfectionism served as mediator between both insecure attachment patterns and ED symptomatology. It also interacted with insecure attachment to predict higher levels of ED symptoms - highlighting the importance of both insecure attachment patterns and maladaptive aspects of perfectionism as treatment targets. Multiple-group comparison analysis did not reveal differences across diagnostic groups (AN, BN, EDNOS) in mediating, main and interaction effects of perfectionism. These findings are consistent with recent discussions on the classification and treatment of EDs that have highlighted similarities between ED diagnostic groups and could be viewed through the lens of the Trans-theoretical Model of EDs. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.

  6. Psychological Distress as a Mediator of the Relation between Perceived Maternal Parenting and Normative Maladaptive Eating among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; McEnery, Amanda M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2007-01-01

    Burgeoning research on the adolescent (e.g., middle-school) years suggests that this is a particularly vulnerable period for the development of maladaptive eating patterns. Prior research has established a link between perceptions of maternal parenting practices and adolescent onset of problematic eating behaviors. The authors hypothesized that…

  7. Human SH2B1 mutations are associated with maladaptive behaviors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Doche, Michael E; Bochukova, Elena G; Su, Hsiao-Wen; Pearce, Laura R; Keogh, Julia M; Henning, Elana; Cline, Joel M; Saeed, Sadia; Dale, Anne; Cheetham, Tim; Barroso, Inês; Argetsinger, Lawrence S; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Rui, Liangyou; Carter-Su, Christin; Farooqi, I Sadaf

    2012-12-01

    Src homology 2 B adapter protein 1 (SH2B1) modulates signaling by a variety of ligands that bind to receptor tyrosine kinases or JAK-associated cytokine receptors, including leptin, insulin, growth hormone (GH), and nerve growth factor (NGF). Targeted deletion of Sh2b1 in mice results in increased food intake, obesity, and insulin resistance, with an intermediate phenotype seen in heterozygous null mice on a high-fat diet. We identified SH2B1 loss-of-function mutations in a large cohort of patients with severe early-onset obesity. Mutation carriers exhibited hyperphagia, childhood-onset obesity, disproportionate insulin resistance, and reduced final height as adults. Unexpectedly, mutation carriers exhibited a spectrum of behavioral abnormalities that were not reported in controls, including social isolation and aggression. We conclude that SH2B1 plays a critical role in the control of human food intake and body weight and is implicated in maladaptive human behavior.

  8. Can settlement in natal-like habitat explain maladaptive habitat selection?

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Walter H.; Palmer, Michael W.; Banfield, Nathan; Meyer, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    The study of habitat selection has long been influenced by the ideal free model, which maintains that young adults settle in habitat according to its inherent quality and the density of conspecifics within it. The model has gained support in recent years from the finding that conspecifics produce cues inadvertently that help prebreeders locate good habitat. Yet abundant evidence shows that animals often fail to occupy habitats that ecologists have identified as those of highest quality, leading to the conclusion that young animals settle on breeding spaces by means not widely understood. Here, we report that a phenomenon virtually unknown in nature, natal habitat preference induction (NHPI), is a strong predictor of territory settlement in both male and female common loons (Gavia immer). NHPI causes young animals to settle on natal-like breeding spaces, but not necessarily those that maximize reproductive success. If widespread, NHPI might explain apparently maladaptive habitat settlement. PMID:23804619

  9. Adaptive and maladaptive behavior in children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Staci C; Wolters, Pamela L; Smith, Ann C M

    2006-05-01

    Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) exhibit deficits in adaptive behavior but systematic studies using objective measures are lacking. This descriptive study assessed adaptive functioning in 19 children with SMS using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Maladaptive behavior was examined through parent questionnaires and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Cognitive functioning was evaluated with an age-appropriate test. Children scored below average on VABS Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization scales. Learning problems and hyperactivity scales on the Conner's Parent Rating Scale were elevated, and girls were more impulsive than boys. Stereotypic and self-injurious behaviors were present in all children. Cognitive functioning was delayed and consistent with communication and daily living skills, while socialization scores were higher than IQ.

  10. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2014-05-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people's ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD.

  11. Healthy and maladaptive dependency and its relationship to pain management and perceptions in physical therapy patients.

    PubMed

    Huprich, Steven K; Hoban, Patrick; Boys, Ashley; Rosen, Alexandra

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the association among healthy and maladaptive aspects of interpersonal dependency and the management of pain in physical therapy outpatients. Ninety-eight patients were administered the Relationship Profile Test, West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and Pain Catastrophizing Scale. Results indicated that Destructive Overdependence was positively associated with an increased number of office visits, pain interference in one's daily life, pain severity, affective distress, and receiving positive partner responses. Dysfunctional Detachment was associated with affective distress, pain interference in one's daily life, and rumination about pain. Healthy Dependency was only associated with receiving distracting responses from others. Believing that a spouse/partner is supportive and caring about one's pain partially mediated the relationship between overdependency and pain interfering in one's life. These results support the clinical utility of assessing interpersonal dependency for its relationship to managing one's pain and health care utilization.

  12. Maladaptation and phenotypic mismatch in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon Salmo salar released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Stringwell, R; Lock, A; Stutchbury, C J; Baggett, E; Taylor, J; Gough, P J; Garcia de Leaniz, C

    2014-12-01

    Changes in body shape, fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and crypsis were compared among Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fry kept as controls in captivity and those released and subsequently recaptured in the wild according to a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design. Hatchery fish that survived in the wild became more cryptic and displayed a much lower incidence of fin erosion and of asymmetric individuals than control fish kept in captivity. Significant differences in body shape were also apparent, and survivors had longer heads, thicker caudal peduncles and a more streamlined body shape than hatchery controls as early as 20 days following stocking, most likely as a result of phenotypic plasticity and non-random, selective mortality of maladapted phenotypes. Hatchery-reared fish typically perform poorly in the wild and the results of this study indicate that this may be due to phenotypic mismatch, i.e. because hatcheries generate fish that are phenotypically mismatched to the natural environment.

  13. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment.

  14. Changes in Maladaptive Behaviors from Mid-Childhood to Young Adulthood in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deborah K.; Maye, Melissa P.; Lord, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined trajectories of change in symptoms of irritability, hyperactivity, and social withdrawal, as well as predictors of such behaviors from age 9 to 18 for youths with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a comparison group with nonspectrum developmental delays. Children with more severe core features of autism had consistently higher irritability and hyperactivity scores over time than those with broader ASD and nonspectrum delays. Across all diagnoses, behaviors related to hyperactivity showed the greatest improvement. Social withdrawal worsened with age for a substantial proportion of youths with ASD but not for the nonspectrum comparison group. Compared with nonspectrum youths, children with ASD showed greater heterogeneity in trajectories for maladaptive behaviors. PMID:21905806

  15. Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-12-01

    According to Young's schema model (Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press), innate personality tendencies are important for the understanding of early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The current study examined the relations between EMS and the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). One hundred and forty-seven adult outpatients completed the NEO PI-R, the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlational analyses showed a substantial overlap between EMS and the FFM, neuroticism in particular. EMS predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond the FFM personality dimensions. Implications of these findings are discussed. 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aldao, Amelia; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a increasing interest in understanding emotion regulation deficits in social anxiety disorder (SAD; e.g., Hofmann, Sawyer, Fang, & Asnaani, 2012). However, much remains to be understood about the patterns of associations among regulation strategies in the repertoire. Doing so is important in light of the growing recognition that people’s ability to flexibly implement strategies is associated with better mental health (e.g., Kashdan et al., 2014). Based on previous work (Aldao & Nolen-Hoeksema, 2012), we examined whether putatively adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies interacted with each other in the prediction of social anxiety symptoms in a sample of 71 participants undergoing CBT for SAD. We found that strategies interacted with each other and that this interaction was qualified by a three-way interaction with a contextual factor, namely treatment study phase. Consequently, these findings underscore the importance of modeling contextual factors when seeking to understand emotion regulation deficits in SAD. PMID:24742755

  17. Nrf2-mediated cardiac maladaptive remodeling and dysfunction in a setting of autophagy insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qingyun; Qu, Chen; Niu, Ting; Zang, Huimei; Qi, Lei; Lyu, Linmao; Wang, Xuejun; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Janicki, Joseph S; Wang, Xing Li; Cui, Taixing

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) appears to exert either a protective or detrimental effect on the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Herein, we uncovered a novel mechanism for turning off the Nrf2-mediated cardioprotection while switching on Nrf2-mediated cardiac dysfunction. In a murine model of pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction via transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC), knockout of Nrf2 enhanced myocardial necrosis and death rate during an initial stage of cardiac adaptation when myocardial autophagy function is intact. However, knockout of Nrf2 turned out to be cardioprotective throughout the later stage of cardiac maladaptive remodeling when myocardial autophagy function became insufficient. TAC-induced activation of Nrf2 was dramatically enhanced in the heart with impaired autophagy which is induced by cardiomyocyte-specific knockout of autophagy related gene (Atg)5. Notably, Nrf2 activation coincided with upregulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) only in the autophagy impaired heart after TAC. Agt5 and Nrf2 gene loss of function approaches in combination with Jak2 and Fyn kinase inhibitors revealed that suppression of autophagy inactivated Jak2 and Fyn as well as nuclear translocation of Fyn while enhancing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-driven Agt expression in cardiomyocytes. Taken together; these results indicate that the pathophysiological consequences of Nrf2 activation are closely linked with the functional integrity of myocardial autophagy during cardiac remodeling. When autophagy is intact, Nrf2 is required for cardiac adaptive responses; however, autophagy impairment most likely turns off Fyn-operated Nrf2 nuclear export thus activating Nrf2-driven Agt transcription, which exacerbates cardiac maladaptation leading to dysfunction. PMID:26573705

  18. [Examination of the Young maladaptive schemes in a group of Gamblers Anonymous].

    PubMed

    Katona, Zsuzsa; Körmendi, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Literature of gambling addiction has become widespread in last years. Many studies were written about the vulnerability factors helping the development of addiction, theoretical models, comorbid problems and therapy possibilities. Currently there is no integrated theoretical model that could explain sufficiently the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The treatment issue is also unresolved. Cognitive psychology is a dynamically developing field of psychology and good results are achieved in gambling treatment with applying cognitive techniques. Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy is a recent theoretical and therapeutic direction within cognitive psychology which emphasizes the necessity of emotional changes beside rational ones in the interest of efficiency. The purpose of our research is to examine and analyse active maladaptive schemas among gamblers who are members of Gamblers Anonymous self-help group. 23 control persons and 23 gamblers associated with support group of Gamblers Anonymous took part in our research. The severity of gambling behaviour was measured by Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. For exploring maladaptive schemas we used the shorter 114-item version of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). All the examined gamblers were considered as problem gamblers based on Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions. In the control group there where no active schemas while in the group of gamblers several schemas (Emotional deprivation, Self-sacrifice, Recognition seeking, Emotional inhibition, Unrelenting standards, Self-punitiveness, Insufficient self-control) showed activity. Active schemas show similarity in their matter with main establishments of researches about gamblers and support the role of impulsivity, narcissistic traits, self-medicalization and emotional deprivation in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  20. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Franck A; Van Dyck, Hans; San Martin, Gilles; Titeux, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio), as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals) and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human-created open habitats in

  1. A Population Based Twin Study of DSM-5 Maladaptive Personality Domains.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Aggen, Steven H; Neale, Michael C; Gillespie, Nathan A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2016-10-31

    Personality disorders (PDs) can be partly captured by dimensional traits, a viewpoint reflected in the most recent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Alternative (Section III) Model for PD classification. The current study adds to the literature on the Alternative Model by examining the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on 6 domains of maladaptive personality: negative emotionality, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, compulsivity, and psychoticism. In a large, population-based sample (N = 2,293) of Norwegian male and female twin pairs, we investigated (a) if the domains demonstrated measurement invariance across gender at the phenotypic level, meaning that the relationships between the items and the latent factor were equivalent in men and women; and (b) if genetic and environmental influences on variation in these domains were equivalent across gender. Multiple group confirmatory factor modeling provided evidence that all 6 domain scale measurement models were gender-invariant. The best fitting biometric model for 4 of the 6 domains (negative emotionality, detachment, disinhibition, and compulsivity) was one in which genetic and environmental influences could be set invariant across gender. Evidence for sex differences in psychoticism was mixed, but the only clear evidence for quantitative sex differences was for the antagonism scale, with greater genetic influences found for men than women. Genetic influences across domains were moderate overall (19-37%), in line with previous research using symptom-based measures of PDs. This study adds to the very limited knowledge currently existing on the etiology of maladaptive personality traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Living environment and activation of early maladaptive schemas specific to the elderly: Comparative study among 80 individuals].

    PubMed

    Obeid, S; Kazour, F; Kazour, G

    2015-06-01

    Early maladaptive schemas described by Young may be identified in the elderly. They represent models and themes of emotions, memories, thoughts and bodily sensations experienced by the individual. This study aims to evaluate the activation of early maladaptive thoughts in the elderly depending on their living environment. The Young Schema Questionnaire--short form--was administered to 80 elderly individuals (40 living in a nursing home, and 40 in their own home with at least one person). The studied schemas that were most relevant to the elderly were the maladaptive schemas of abandonment, emotional deprivation, mistrust, exclusion, dependency, vulnerability and emotional overcontrol. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to eliminate dementia or depression among individuals. Individuals living in a nursing home, compared to their controls had increased activation of schemas of emotional deprivation (22.5% vs. 7.5%), abandonment (15% vs. 0%), mistrust (32.5% vs. 2.5%), exclusion (7.5% vs. 0%), and emotional overcontrol (25% vs. 2.5%). The activation of maladaptive schemas was significantly elevated in nursing homes for those 5 schemas, while there was no difference in activation between the 2 groups concerning the schemas of dependency and vulnerability. The activation of early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, exclusion, and emotional overcontrol is higher in individuals living in nursing homes compared to a control group of individuals living in their homes with at least one companion. This schema activation may be related to a lack of emotional and family support in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Distraction/Suppression and Distress Endurance diminish the extent to which generalized conditioned fear is associated with maladaptive behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Christopher; Cooper, Samuel E; Hartnell, Melissa P; Lissek, Shmuel

    2017-09-01

    A central conditioning correlate of clinical anxiety is the over-generalization of Pavlovian fear to safe stimuli resembling conditioned danger cues (CS+). Though much of the pathogenic influence of such generalization may lie in the unnecessary behavioral avoidance it evokes, few studies have examined maladaptive avoidance associated with Pavlovian generalization. Lab-based assessments of this process, here referred to as instrumental avoidance from Pavlovian generalization (IAP-G), have recently begun. The current study represents a next step in this line of work by examining personality factors that may reduce maladaptive IAP-G. This is a clinically relevant effort, as such traits may reflect resilience factors, with high levels reducing the likelihood of maladaptive generalized avoidance following Pavlovian generalization. Here we focus on the effects of Distraction/Suppression (DS) and Distress Endurance (DE) on IAP-G. Results indicate that both DS and DE moderate IAP-G by weakening relations between Pavlovian generalization of fear-potentiated startle and maladaptive generalized avoidance. Further, moderating effects of DS were most pronounced for more ambiguous cues of threat (i.e., stimuli moderately resembling CS+), while moderating effects of DE were most pronounced for more certain cues of threat (i.e., stimuli highly resembling CS+, as well as the CS + itself). Results implicate DS and DE as protective factors against the maladaptive behavioral consequences of Pavlovian generalization, and further indicate that the protective influence of these traits may depend on the ambiguity of the threat at hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conditional knockout of activin like kinase-1 (ALK-1) leads to heart failure without maladaptive remodeling.

    PubMed

    Morine, Kevin J; Qiao, Xiaoying; Paruchuri, Vikram; Aronovitz, Mark J; Mackey, Emily E; Buiten, Lyanne; Levine, Jonathan; Ughreja, Keshan; Nepali, Prerna; Blanton, Robert M; Karas, Richard H; Oh, S Paul; Kapur, Navin K

    2017-05-01

    Activin like kinase-1 (AlK-1) mediates signaling via the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) family of ligands. AlK-1 activity promotes endothelial proliferation and migration. Reduced AlK-1 activity is associated with arteriovenous malformations. No studies have examined the effect of global AlK-1 deletion on indices of cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that reduced levels of AlK-1 promote maladaptive cardiac remodeling. To test this hypothesis, we employed AlK-1 conditional knockout mice (cKO) harboring the ROSA26-CreER knock-in allele, whereby a single dose of intraperitoneal tamoxifen triggered ubiquitous Cre recombinase-mediated excision of floxed AlK-1 alleles. Tamoxifen treated wild-type (WT-TAM; n = 5) and vehicle treated AlK-1-cKO mice (cKO-CON; n = 5) served as controls for tamoxifen treated AlK-1-cKO mice (cKO-TAM; n = 15). AlK-1 cKO-TAM mice demonstrated reduced 14-day survival compared to cKO-CON controls (13 vs 100%, respectively, p < 0.01). Seven days after treatment, cKO-TAM mice exhibited reduced left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening, progressive LV dilation, and gastrointestinal bleeding. After 14 days total body mass was reduced, but LV and lung mass increased in cKO-TAM not cKO-CON mice. Peak LV systolic pressure, contractility, and arterial elastance were reduced, but LV end-diastolic pressure and stroke volume were increased in cKO-TAM, not cKO-CON mice. LV AlK-1 mRNA levels were reduced in cKO-TAM, not cKO-CON mice. LV levels of other TGFβ-family ligands and receptors (AlK5, TBRII, BMPRII, Endoglin, BMP7, BMP9, and TGFβ1) were unchanged between groups. Cardiomyocyte area and LV levels of BNP were increased in cKO-TAM mice, but LV levels of β-MHC and SERCA were unchanged. No increase in markers of cardiac fibrosis, Type I collagen, CTGF, or PAI-1, were observed between groups. No differences were observed for any variable studied between cKO-CON and WT-TAM mice. Global deletion of AlK-1 is associated with the

  6. Disrupted reinforcement learning and maladaptive behavior in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: a high-density event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Pechtel, Pia; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2013-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with psychopathology, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD), and high-risk behaviors. Despite the epidemiological data available, the mechanisms underlying these maladaptive outcomes remain poorly understood. We examined whether a history of CSA, particularly in conjunction with a past episode of MDD, is associated with behavioral and neural dysfunction in reinforcement learning, and whether such dysfunction is linked to maladaptive behavior. Participants completed a clinical evaluation and a probabilistic reinforcement task while 128-channel event-related potentials were recorded. Academic setting; participants recruited from the community. Fifteen women with a history of CSA and remitted MDD (CSA + rMDD), 16 women with remitted MDD with no history of CSA (rMDD), and 18 healthy women (controls). Three or more episodes of coerced sexual contact (mean [SD] duration, 3.00 [2.20] years) between the ages of 7 and 12 years by at least 1 male perpetrator. Participants' preference for choosing the most rewarded stimulus and avoiding the most punished stimulus was evaluated. The feedback-related negativity and error-related negativity-hypothesized to reflect activation in the anterior cingulate cortex-were used as electrophysiological indices of reinforcement learning. No group differences emerged in the acquisition of reinforcement contingencies. In trials requiring participants to rely partially or exclusively on previously rewarded information, the CSA + rMDD group showed (1) lower accuracy (relative to both controls and the rMDD group), (2) blunted electrophysiological differentiation between correct and incorrect responses (relative to controls), and (3) increased activation in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (relative to the rMDD group). A history of CSA was not associated with impairments in avoiding the most punished stimulus. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors correlated with poorer performance of

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Danielle M.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children’s subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent’s child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers’ psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents’ potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents’ punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers’ psychological control on children’s externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers’ potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers’ psychological control on adolescent mothers’ punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children’s behavior. PMID:26521948

  8. Challenges and Developments in the Assessment of (Mal)adaptive Personality and Pathological States in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gina; Videler, Arjan; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-01-01

    Since older adults often show an atypical presentation of (mal)adaptive personality traits and pathological states, the articles in this special issue will concisely discuss some perennial issues in clinical assessment in older adults and thus outline the main challenges this domain faces. By bringing empirical work and meta-analytic studies from leading scholars in the field of geropsychology, the articles will also address these challenges by reporting the latest developments in the field. This way, we hope to reshape the way clinicians and researchers assess (mal)adaptive personality and pathological states in older adults into a more reliable and valid assessment method that integrates the specific biopsychosocial context of older age.

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Maladaptive Parenting Strategies in Families of Adolescent Mothers: Effects from Grandmothers to Young Children.

    PubMed

    Seay, Danielle M; Jahromi, Laudan B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2016-08-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the effect of the transmission of maladaptive parenting strategies from grandmothers to adolescent mothers on children's subsequent development. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 204) participated in home interviews when the adolescent's child (89 boys, 60 girls) was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. Grandmothers' psychological control toward the adolescent mother was positively related to adolescents' potential for abuse 1 year later, which was subsequently positively related to adolescents' punitive discipline toward their young child. In addition, adolescent mothers' punitive discipline subsequently predicted greater externalizing problems and less committed compliance among their children. Adolescent mothers' potential for abuse and punitive discipline mediated the effects of grandmothers' psychological control on children's externalizing problems. Finally, adolescent mothers' potential for abuse mediated the effect of grandmothers' psychological control on adolescent mothers' punitive discipline. Results highlight the salience of long-term intergenerational effects of maladaptive parenting on children's behavior.

  10. Stress-Related Sleep Vulnerability and Maladaptive Sleep Beliefs Predict Insomnia at Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Hung, Chih-Ying; Lee, Hsin-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbances and maladaptive sleep beliefs has been proposed to be predisposing factors for insomnia. Yet previous studies addressing these factors have been cross-sectional in nature and could not be used to infer the time sequences of the association. The current study used a six-year follow-up to examine the predisposing roles of these two factors and their interactions with major life stressors in the development of insomnia. Methods: One hundred seventeen college students recruited for a survey in 2006 participated in this follow-up survey in 2012. In 2006, they completed a packet of questionnaires including the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Questionnaire, 10-item version (DBAS-10), the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); in 2012 they completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and the modified Life Experiences Survey (LES). Results: Fourteen of the participants were found to suffer from insomnia as measured by the ISI. Logistic regression showed that scores on both DBAS-10 and FIRST could predict insomnia at follow-up. When the interaction of DBAS-10 and LES and that of FIRST and LES were added, both DBAS-10 and FIRST remained significant predictors, while the interaction of FIRST and LES showed a near-significant trend in predicting insomnia. Conclusions: The results showed that both vulnerability to stress-related sleep disturbances and maladaptive sleep beliefs are predisposing factors for insomnia. The hypothesized interaction effect between sleep vulnerability and major life stressors was found to be marginal. The maladaptive sleep beliefs, on the other hand, showed a predisposing effect independent from the influences of negative life events. Citation: Yang CM, Hung CY, Lee HC. Stress-related sleep vulnerability and maladaptive sleep beliefs predict insomnia at long-term follow-up. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(9):997-1001. PMID

  11. AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Synaptic Colocalization on Motor Neurons Drive Maladaptive Plasticity below Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Ellen D.; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by comorbid peripheral injury in 47% of patients. Human and animal modeling data have shown that painful peripheral injuries undermine long-term recovery of locomotion through unknown mechanisms. Peripheral nociceptive stimuli induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity in dorsal horn sensory systems through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and trafficking to synapses. Here we test whether ventral horn motor neurons in rats demonstrate similar experience-dependent maladaptive plasticity below a complete SCI in vivo. Quantitative biochemistry demonstrated that intermittent nociceptive stimulation (INS) rapidly and selectively increases AMPAR subunit GluA1 serine 831 phosphorylation and localization to synapses in the injured spinal cord, while reducing synaptic GluA2. These changes predict motor dysfunction in the absence of cell death signaling, suggesting an opportunity for therapeutic reversal. Automated confocal time-course analysis of lumbar ventral horn motor neurons confirmed a time-dependent increase in synaptic GluA1 with concurrent decrease in synaptic GluA2. Optical fractionation of neuronal plasma membranes revealed GluA2 removal from extrasynaptic sites on motor neurons early after INS followed by removal from synapses 2 h later. As GluA2-lacking AMPARs are canonical calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), their stimulus- and time-dependent insertion provides a therapeutic target for limiting calcium-dependent dynamic maladaptive plasticity after SCI. Confirming this, a selective CP-AMPAR antagonist protected against INS-induced maladaptive spinal plasticity, restoring adaptive motor responses on a sensorimotor spinal training task. These findings highlight the critical involvement of AMPARs in experience-dependent spinal cord plasticity after injury and provide a pharmacologically targetable synaptic mechanism by which early postinjury experience shapes motor plasticity. PMID:26668821

  12. AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Synaptic Colocalization on Motor Neurons Drive Maladaptive Plasticity below Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Huie, J Russell; Stuck, Ellen D; Lee, Kuan H; Irvine, Karen-Amanda; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Grau, James W; Ferguson, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by comorbid peripheral injury in 47% of patients. Human and animal modeling data have shown that painful peripheral injuries undermine long-term recovery of locomotion through unknown mechanisms. Peripheral nociceptive stimuli induce maladaptive synaptic plasticity in dorsal horn sensory systems through AMPA receptor (AMPAR) phosphorylation and trafficking to synapses. Here we test whether ventral horn motor neurons in rats demonstrate similar experience-dependent maladaptive plasticity below a complete SCI in vivo. Quantitative biochemistry demonstrated that intermittent nociceptive stimulation (INS) rapidly and selectively increases AMPAR subunit GluA1 serine 831 phosphorylation and localization to synapses in the injured spinal cord, while reducing synaptic GluA2. These changes predict motor dysfunction in the absence of cell death signaling, suggesting an opportunity for therapeutic reversal. Automated confocal time-course analysis of lumbar ventral horn motor neurons confirmed a time-dependent increase in synaptic GluA1 with concurrent decrease in synaptic GluA2. Optical fractionation of neuronal plasma membranes revealed GluA2 removal from extrasynaptic sites on motor neurons early after INS followed by removal from synapses 2 h later. As GluA2-lacking AMPARs are canonical calcium-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs), their stimulus- and time-dependent insertion provides a therapeutic target for limiting calcium-dependent dynamic maladaptive plasticity after SCI. Confirming this, a selective CP-AMPAR antagonist protected against INS-induced maladaptive spinal plasticity, restoring adaptive motor responses on a sensorimotor spinal training task. These findings highlight the critical involvement of AMPARs in experience-dependent spinal cord plasticity after injury and provide a pharmacologically targetable synaptic mechanism by which early postinjury experience shapes motor plasticity.

  13. Mechanisms of maladaptive repair after AKI leading to accelerated kidney ageing and CKD

    PubMed Central

    Ferenbach, David A.; Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is an increasingly common complication of hospital admission and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. A hypotensive, septic, or toxic insult can initiate a cascade of events, resulting in impaired microcirculation, activation of inflammatory pathways and tubular cell injury or death. These processes ultimately result in acutely impaired kidney function and initiation of a repair response. This Review explores the various mechanisms responsible for the initiation and propagation of acute kidney injury, the prototypic mechanisms by which a substantially damaged kidney can regenerate its normal architecture, and how the adaptive processes of repair can become maladaptive. These mechanisms, which include G2/M cell-cycle arrest, cell senescence, profibrogenic cytokine production, and activation of pericytes and interstitial myofibroblasts, contribute to the development of progressive fibrotic kidney disease. The end result is a state that mimics accelerated kidney ageing. These mechanisms present important opportunities for the design of targeted therapeutic strategies to promote adaptive renal recovery and minimize progressive fibrosis and chronic kidney disease after acute insults. PMID:25643664

  14. Rape-related cognitive distortions: Preliminary findings on the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the important focus on the notion of cognitive distortions in the sexual offending area, the relevance of underlying cognitive schemas in sexual offenders has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential relationship between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and cognitive distortions in rapists. A total of 33 men convicted for rape completed the Bumby Rape Scale (BRS), the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short form-3 (YSQ-S3), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Socially Desirable Response Set Measure (SDRS-5). Results showed a significant relationship between the impaired limits schematic domain and the Justifying Rape dimension of the BRS. Specifically, after controlling for psychological distress levels and social desirability tendency, the entitlement/grandiosity schema from the impaired limits domain was a significant predictor of cognitive distortions related to Justifying Rape themes. Overall, despite preliminary, there is some evidence that the Young's Schema-Focused model namely the impaired limits dimension may contribute for the conceptualization of cognitive distortions in rapists and further investigation is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human SH2B1 mutations are associated with maladaptive behaviors and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Doche, Michael E.; Bochukova, Elena G.; Su, Hsiao-Wen; Pearce, Laura R.; Keogh, Julia M.; Henning, Elana; Cline, Joel M.; Dale, Anne; Cheetham, Tim; Barroso, Inês; Argetsinger, Lawrence S.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Rui, Liangyou; Carter-Su, Christin; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2012-01-01

    Src homology 2 B adapter protein 1 (SH2B1) modulates signaling by a variety of ligands that bind to receptor tyrosine kinases or JAK-associated cytokine receptors, including leptin, insulin, growth hormone (GH), and nerve growth factor (NGF). Targeted deletion of Sh2b1 in mice results in increased food intake, obesity, and insulin resistance, with an intermediate phenotype seen in heterozygous null mice on a high-fat diet. We identified SH2B1 loss-of-function mutations in a large cohort of patients with severe early-onset obesity. Mutation carriers exhibited hyperphagia, childhood-onset obesity, disproportionate insulin resistance, and reduced final height as adults. Unexpectedly, mutation carriers exhibited a spectrum of behavioral abnormalities that were not reported in controls, including social isolation and aggression. We conclude that SH2B1 plays a critical role in the control of human food intake and body weight and is implicated in maladaptive human behavior. PMID:23160192

  16. Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases.

    PubMed

    Joormann, Jutta; Dkane, Marco; Gotlib, Ian H

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the two-factor solution of items selected from the Rumination Scale of the Response Style Questionnaire proposed by Treynor, Gonzalez, and Nolen-Hoeksema (2003). In the first part of this study we used samples of currently depressed (MDD), formerly depressed (FD), socially anxious (SP), and healthy control participants to examine whether the brooding and reflective pondering components differentiate participants with an anxiety disorder from participants with depression. In the second part of this study we examined whether these components of rumination were differentially related to cognitive biases in depression. Overall, the MDD group exhibited higher brooding scores than did all other groups; SP and FD groups did not differ from each other but obtained higher brooding scores than did the control participants. Only the MDD and the control groups differed on the reflective pondering factor. Importantly, brooding and reflective pondering were differentially related to cognitive biases. Specifically, the correlation between brooding/reflective pondering and memory bias was not significant when depressive symptoms were partialed out. The correlation between brooding and attentional bias for sad faces, however, remained significant even when current depressive symptoms were taken into account. In sum, our results support the formulation that rumination is composed of an adaptive reflective pondering factor and a maladaptive brooding factor.

  17. (Mal)Adaptive Psychological Functioning of Students Utilizing University Counseling Services.

    PubMed

    Biasi, Valeria; Cerutti, Rita; Mallia, Luca; Menozzi, Francesca; Patrizi, Nazarena; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Background: University students confront psychological difficulties that can negatively influence their academic performance. The present study aimed to assess several areas of adaptive and maladaptive psychological functioning among university students who request counseling services. Method: One hundred eighty-four young female students seeking professional psychological help (Counseling seekers) and 185 young female students who have never asked for psychological help (Non-counseling seekers) were asked to complete the Adult Self-Report (ASR) to evaluate both their internalizing and externalizing problems through DSM-oriented scales as well as their adaptive functioning. Results: ANOVA results indicated worse psychological functioning for the students who sought counseling. They reported lower score in ASR Adaptive Functioning Scales (i.e., friends, jobs, family, education), and higher scores in DSM-oriented scales (i.e., Depressive, Anxiety, Somatic, Avoidant Personality, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity symptoms) than the students who never asked psychological help. Furthermore, discriminant analysis successfully discriminated between the two groups of students on the basis of the ASR's adaptive and DSM-oriented scales. Conclusion: The study findings could be useful to guide university counseling services in their screening activities as well as useful for clinical practice.

  18. Early maladaptive schemas and aggressive sexual behavior: a preliminary study with male college students.

    PubMed

    Sigre-Leirós, Vera Lúcia; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-07-01

    The influence of adverse early attachment experiences on the development of aggressive sexual behavior has been demonstrated. Nonetheless, there is a gap in the literature regarding the conceptualization of this behavior according to developmental psychopathology models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate a potential association between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and aggressive sexual behavior. A total of 166 male college students participated in the study. Participants were divided into two comparative groups according to data from the Sexual Experiences Survey-Short Form Perpetration (SES-SFP): Group of individuals with history of aggressive sexual behavior (N = 37) and Group of individuals without history of aggressive sexual behavior (N = 129). Aggressive sexual behavior was measured by the SES-SFP, and EMSs were measured by the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3). Results showed that students who have committed any form of sexually aggressive behavior exhibited significantly higher levels of EMSs from the Disconnection and Rejection domain (namely, Mistrust/Abuse schema), from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain (namely, Dependence/Incompetence schema), and from the Overvigilance and Inhibition domain (namely, Negativity/Pessimism schema). These preliminary findings suggest that the EMSs were associated with aggressive sexual behavior, but further investigation is warranted. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    PubMed

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-08-25

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  1. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  2. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Felipe Q; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C; da S Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-02-28

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants-53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight-were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight.

  3. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Cognitive Distortions in Adults with Morbid Obesity: Relationships with Mental Health Status

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Felipe Q.; Sainsbury, Amanda; Hay, Phillipa; Roekenes, Jessica A.; Swinbourne, Jessica; da Silva, Dhiordan C.; da S. Oliveira, Margareth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitions may be associated with unhealthy eating behaviors seen in individuals with obesity. However, dysfunctional cognitions commonly occur in individuals with poor mental health independently of weight. We examined whether individuals with morbid obesity differed with regard to dysfunctional cognitions when compared to individuals of normal weight, when mental health status was controlled for. 111 participants—53 with morbid obesity and 58 of normal weight—were assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination, Young Schema Questionnaire, Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and a Demographic and Clinical Questionnaire. Participants with morbid obesity showed higher scores in one (insufficient self-control/self-discipline) of 15 early maladaptive schemas and in one (labeling) of 15 cognitive distortions compared to participants of normal weight. The difference between groups for insufficient self-control/self-discipline was not significant when mental health status was controlled for. Participants with morbid obesity showed more severe anxiety than participants of normal weight. Our findings did not show clinically meaningful differences in dysfunctional cognitions between participants with morbid obesity or of normal weight. Dysfunctional cognitions presented by individuals with morbid obesity are likely related to their individual mental health and not to their weight. PMID:28264484

  4. Convergent and discriminant validity of alternative measures of maladaptive personality traits.

    PubMed

    Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test empirically the convergent and discriminant validity of 3 recently developed, alternative measures of maladaptive personality traits: the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5, PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012), the Computerized Adaptive Test-Personality Disorder Static Form (CAT-PD-SF; Simms et al., 2011), and Five Factor Model Personality Disorder scales (FFMPD; Widiger, Lynam, Miller, & Oltmanns, 2012). These measures were constructed with different rationales and methods, yet the result was highly congruent. The PID-5 and CAT-PD-SF were administered to 286 community adults with current or a history of mental health treatment; the CAT-PD-SF and FFMPD scales to 262 such adults; and the PID-5 and FFMPD scales to 266. The results indicated good to excellent internal consistency, as well as good to excellent convergent and discriminant validity for most scales with a few notable exceptions. Suggestions for future research are provided, including the potential benefits of scales that are unique to a respective instrument, replication of a dependency factor, and exploration as to the basis for instances of questionable convergent or discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Eating Disordered Patients With or Without Non-Suicidal Self-Injury.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Els; Dierckx, Eva; Schoevaerts, Katrien; Claes, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) in function of eating disorder (ED) subtypes (restrictive/bulimic) and the presence/absence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Female inpatients (N = 491) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Self-Injury Questionnaire. The influence of ED subtype and the presence/absence of NSSI and their interaction on the EMS were investigated by means of a MANCOVA. The results showed main effects of ED subtype and the presence of NSSI on EMS. Patients with bulimia scored significantly higher on insufficient self-control and emotional deprivation, which are more related to cluster B compared with restrictive patients, whereas restrictive patients scored significantly higher on social undesirability, failure to achieve, subjugation and unrelenting standards compared with patients with bulimia that are more related to cluster C. Patients with ED with NSSI reported significantly higher EMS levels compared with patients without NSSI, suggesting that they could be of particular interest to benefit from schema therapy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Looking Inside the Matrix: Perineuronal Nets in Plasticity, Maladaptive Plasticity and Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Ciro; Papa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    The integrity of the central nervous system (CNS) matrix is crucial for its proper function. Loss of the lattice-like structure compromise synaptic stability and can lead to the disruption of the excitatory/inhibitory balance, astrocytosis, maladaptive plasticity and neuronal death. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide synaptic integration and control the functional wiring between neurons. These nets are significantly modified during CNS disorders, such as neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular and inflammatory diseases. The breakdown or the modification of PNNs could be due to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or to the deposition of proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and hyaluronic acid. The expression and the activity of ECM-degrading enzymes can be regulated with tissue inhibitors of MMPs or via transcriptional and epigenetic silencing or enhancement (i.e. via histone deacetylases). The identification of molecules and mechanisms able to modify these processes will be essential for a new perspective on brain functioning in health and disease, leading to a target-directed approach with drugs directly interfering with the molecular mechanism underlying neurological disorders.

  7. Error-preceding brain activity reflects (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Marco; Eichele, Heike; Juvodden, Hilde T; Huster, Rene J; Ullsperger, Markus; Eichele, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Errors in choice tasks are preceded by gradual changes in brain activity presumably related to fluctuations in cognitive control that promote the occurrence of errors. In the present paper, we use connectionist modeling to explore the hypothesis that these fluctuations reflect (mal-)adaptive adjustments of cognitive control. We considered ERP data from a study in which the probability of conflict in an Eriksen-flanker task was manipulated in sub-blocks of trials. Errors in these data were preceded by a gradual decline of N2 amplitude. After fitting a connectionist model of conflict adaptation to the data, we analyzed simulated N2 amplitude, simulated response times (RTs), and stimulus history preceding errors in the model, and found that the model produced the same pattern as obtained in the empirical data. Moreover, this pattern is not found in alternative models in which cognitive control varies randomly or in an oscillating manner. Our simulations suggest that the decline of N2 amplitude preceding errors reflects an increasing adaptation of cognitive control to specific task demands, which leads to an error when these task demands change. Taken together, these results provide evidence that error-preceding brain activity can reflect adaptive adjustments rather than unsystematic fluctuations of cognitive control, and therefore, that these errors are actually a consequence of the adaptiveness of human cognition.

  8. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  9. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder symptoms: An examination in a non-clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Carr, Steven N; Francis, Andrew J P

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the overall and specific relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and personality disorder (PD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. While a notable previous study has examined the relationship between EMSs and PD symptoms after statistically controlling for gender and within-cluster PD symptoms, they did not control for comorbid axis I and inter-cluster PD symptoms. Hence, we redressed this methodological problem by statistically controlling for these conditions in a series of multiple regressions. In a sample of 178 non-clinical participants, we obtained self-reports of PD symptoms, depression, anxiety, eating disorder, and EMSs. Results of a series of multiple regressions found that EMSs significantly predicted all PD symptoms apart from borderline and antisocial PDs and our hypotheses were largely consistent with hypotheses for cluster A and C PDs. We also found that specific EMSs differentially predicted PD subtypes even after controlling for other PD symptoms, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. This study supports the contention that PDs are related to EMSs and there are specific relationships between particular EMSs and particular PDs. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Assessing maladaptive traits in youth: An English-language version of the Dimensional Personality Symptom Itempool.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Clercq, Barbara; Tackett, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    The present study addresses the psychometric properties of the English version of the Dimensional Personality Symptom Item Pool (DIPSI), a comprehensive taxonomy of trait-related symptoms in childhood. The structural invariance of the English DIPSI and the original Flemish version was investigated in a large sample of Canadian (n = 341) and Flemish (n = 509) adolescents, using both self- and maternal ratings. The original 4-factor structure of the DIPSI, including the dimensions Emotional Instability, Disagreeableness, Introversion, and Compulsivity, was replicated in the Canadian sample across informants. Results provided support for metric invariance across the English and Flemish DIPSI version, indicating that associations between variables across samples can be confidently made, although the meaning of specific items may slightly differ across the different DIPSI versions. Across raters, the Flemish and English DIPSI dimensions showed a similar covariation pattern with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. High intercorrelations between the DIPSI dimensions in both the Flemish and English version suggest low discriminant validity, potentially resulting from lower variance on personality pathology in general populations, from a general pathology factor, or from developmental issues. To conclude, the English version of the DIPSI can be considered a promising tool for assessing maladaptive traits in younger age groups in internationally oriented research designs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Assessment of dependency by the FFDI: Comparisons to the PID-5 and maladaptive agreeableness.

    PubMed

    Gore, Whitney L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    The present study explores the validity of the Five Factor Dependency Inventory (FFDI), a measure of dependent personality traits from the perspective of the five factor model, examined across three separate samples and two studies. The first study examined the FFDI with respect to the traits assigned to assess dependent personality disorder (DPD) by the DSM-5 work group, two measures of DSM-IV-TR DPD and three measures of dependent traits, sampling 184 Mechanical Turk participants and 83 students (the latter oversampled for DPD features). Based on responses from an additional 137 students, the second study investigated the role of maladaptive agreeableness in dependency by examining the FFDI in relation to the interpersonal circumplex using three alternative measures. Discriminant validity was provided with respect to DSM-5 traits and the interpersonal circumplex. Incremental validity was provided with respect to the ability of the FFDI to account for variance within DPD measures beyond the variance explained by DSM-5 traits. Implications for the assessment of dependency and the proposed DSM-5 dimensional trait model are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Maladaptive schemas in adolescent females with anorexia nervosa and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Reece, John; Reid, Sophie; Atkins, Linsey; Patton, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted the presence of Young's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in individuals with an eating disorder (ED). This study assessed the EMSs reported by adolescent females with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) compared with a community group. Thirty-six adolescent females diagnosed with AN or subthreshold AN and 111 female secondary school students completed a questionnaire that included the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-report of Personality, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. Two independent AN subtypes and two community subtypes were derived from responses to the questionnaire, and significant differences between the four comparison groups were found. High Pathology AN participants reported the highest level of psychological maladjustment. Social Isolation and Emotional Inhibition appeared to be most characteristic of adolescent AN in this sample. The results suggest that EMSs may require attention in the treatment of AN in adolescent females, and that different AN subtypes may require individualized treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maladaptive emotion regulation is related to distressed personalities in cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen; von Känel, Roland; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Saner, Hugo; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2012-10-01

    Cardiac patients with Type D ('distressed') personality perceive more stress. It is unclear to what extent Type D personality might represent deficits in emotion regulation that are known to play an important role in the development of mental disorders. This study evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation and Type D personality and assessed the influence of mood and stress on Type D. Emotion regulation, mood, perceived stress and Type D personality were assessed in 163 cardiac patients. Maladaptive emotional regulation was more pronounced in Type D patients. Depressed mood and perceived partner-related stress were higher in patients with Type D than in those with Non-Type D. Regression models revealed a stronger association between emotion regulation and Type D personality (odds ratio=3.16; 95% confidence interval=1.53, 6.54) than for depressed mood (odds ratio=1.19; 95% confidence interval=1.02, 1.38). Patients with deficits in emotion regulation are more likely to have Type D personality. Deficits in emotion regulation might be an agent for future intervention studies to change Type D and its prognostic effect. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Non-Homicidal and Homicidal Sexual Offenders: Prevalence of Maladaptive Personality Traits and Paraphilic Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Beauregard, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine the psychopathological profile of non-homicidal sexual offenders (NHSOs) and homicidal sexual offenders (HSOs). Using an incarcerated sample of 96 NHSOs and 74 HSOs in a federal penitentiary in Canada, these offenders are compared in terms of their offending process, maladaptive personality traits, and paraphilic behaviors. A number of cross-tabular and sequential logistic regression analyses are performed. Relative to their counterpart, findings indicate that a higher percentage of HSOs select a victim of choice, report deviant sexual fantasies, mutilate their victim, and admit to their offense upon apprehension, whereas a higher percentage of NHSOs select victims with distinctive characteristics. In addition, a higher percentage of HSOs manifest paranoid, schizotypal, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, and impulsive personality traits, and overall odd and eccentric personality traits compared with NHSOs. Similarly, a higher percentage of HSOs engage in exhibitionism, fetishism, frotteurism, homosexual pedophilia, sexual masochism, and partialism compared with NHSO. These findings are discussed with their implications for offender profiling. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Relationship between early maladaptive schemas and symptom dimensions in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Sang Won; Lee, Seung Jae

    2014-01-30

    The aims of this study were to evaluate early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to clarify relationships between particular EMSs and the five factor-analyzed symptom dimensions and other clinical variables. Fifty-seven patients with OCD and 70 normal controls completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Y-BOCS symptom checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Patients with OCD had significantly higher scores for schema related to defectiveness/shame, social isolation/alienation, and failure than did normal controls. Among the five OCD symptom dimensions, the sexual/religious dimension was only significantly correlated with two schemas of vulnerability to harm or illness and enmeshment/undeveloped self. These two schemas were significant predictors of the sexual/religious dimension, accounting for 33% of the total variance in this dimension. Any EMSs in patients with OCD were not related to clinical variables such as severity of OCD and duration of illness. These findings may constitute evidence to improve our understandings of OCD from a perspective of schema theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing methods for scoring personality disorder types using maladaptive traits in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Douglas B; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Thomas, Katherine M; Ruggero, Camilo J

    2013-06-01

    The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.) Section III will include an alternative hybrid system for the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). This alternative system defines PD types partly through specific combinations of maladaptive traits, rather than by using a set of polythetic diagnostic criteria. The current report utilizes a large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,159) to examine three dimensional methods for comparing an individual's trait profile to each PD type. We found that the sum of an individual's scores on the assigned traits obtained large convergent correlations (Mdn r =.61) and best reproduced the patterns of PD discriminant correlations observed within the DSM-IV measure. We also tested the DSM-5 Section III model algorithms and compared them with different thresholds for assigning categorical diagnoses. Frequency rates using the algorithms were greatly reduced, whereas requiring half of the assigned traits produced rates that more closely approximated current prevalence estimates. Our research suggests that DSM-5 Section III trait model can reproduce the DSM-IV-TR PD constructs and identifies effective methods of doing so.

  17. Maladaptive personality traits increase subjectively during the course of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Katrin; Naber, Dieter; Huber, Christian G

    2014-04-01

    We assessed both current maladaptive personality traits (MPTs) and, retrospectively, premorbid MPTs in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). This was to examine whether the patients had the impression that their personality had changed and which traits were affected. We also wanted to determine whether the perceived changes could be explained by SSD psychopathology. MPTs were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnoses, axis II disorders, screening questionnaire and interview, integrating questions on subjective estimation of premorbid MPTs in moderately ill SSD patients. Forty-five patients were included. Premorbid MPTs were remembered as significantly less pronounced than current MPTs for the whole spectrum of personality traits (p < 0.001). Antisocial traits had worsened significantly less (p < 0.001), and borderline and obsessive-compulsive traits had worsened significantly more (both p < 0.01) than the mean increase. Associations between MPT increase and SSD psychopathology were significant for schizotypal, avoidant, and depressive traits. According to the patients' retrospective assessment, MPTs increased through onset and course of SSDs. Memory bias, depressed mood, and SSD symptoms alone could not sufficiently explain these differences. Subjective MPT increase may play a role for the patients' concept of illness, quality of life, and adherence to therapeutic interventions. It should be addressed in SSD treatment.

  18. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  19. (Mal)Adaptive Psychological Functioning of Students Utilizing University Counseling Services

    PubMed Central

    Biasi, Valeria; Cerutti, Rita; Mallia, Luca; Menozzi, Francesca; Patrizi, Nazarena; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Background: University students confront psychological difficulties that can negatively influence their academic performance. The present study aimed to assess several areas of adaptive and maladaptive psychological functioning among university students who request counseling services. Method: One hundred eighty-four young female students seeking professional psychological help (Counseling seekers) and 185 young female students who have never asked for psychological help (Non-counseling seekers) were asked to complete the Adult Self-Report (ASR) to evaluate both their internalizing and externalizing problems through DSM-oriented scales as well as their adaptive functioning. Results: ANOVA results indicated worse psychological functioning for the students who sought counseling. They reported lower score in ASR Adaptive Functioning Scales (i.e., friends, jobs, family, education), and higher scores in DSM-oriented scales (i.e., Depressive, Anxiety, Somatic, Avoidant Personality, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity symptoms) than the students who never asked psychological help. Furthermore, discriminant analysis successfully discriminated between the two groups of students on the basis of the ASR’s adaptive and DSM-oriented scales. Conclusion: The study findings could be useful to guide university counseling services in their screening activities as well as useful for clinical practice. PMID:28360880

  20. Construct Validity of the DSM-5 Section III Maladaptive Trait Domains in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; van Alphen, S P J

    2017-01-10

    The DSM-5 Section III model of personality disorders remains largely unexplored in older adults. More specifically, there is a need for further research on the generalizability of the five trait domains in old age. The development of a short operationalization to screen for maladaptive trait domains, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF), can stimulate the use of the alternative DSM-5 model in older adults by addressing the need for short instruments. The primary goal of this study was to examine the construct validity of the PID-5-BF by comparing its structural model and nomological network with the original PID-5 in terms of relations with domains of personality functioning and a gero-specific personality disorder indicator. A five-factor model was supported, but the domain Disinhibition was not replicated in the original PID-5, and some PID-5-BF items showed weak loadings. Nevertheless, the nomological network was similar and showed meaningful relations, supporting the use of the Brief PID-5 in older clinical samples.

  1. A Brief Cognitive Behavioural Intervention for Maladaptive Perfectionism in Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Arana, Fernán G; Miracco, Mariana C; Galarregui, Marina S; Keegan, Eduardo G

    2017-09-01

    Researchers focused on developing therapeutic strategies for perfectionism given its well-established link to the onset and maintenance of several mental disorders. Meta-analytical findings provided support for the efficacy of cognitive behavioural (CB) approaches. However, most studies have focused on the efficacy of interventions, without analysing their efficiency. To explore the feasibility of a brief (five weekly sessions) CB group intervention focused on reducing perfectionistic concerns in Argentine students. We also aimed to identify participants who benefited from the intervention and to explore their differences with non-respondents. A third aim was to explore the potential merits of the intervention in a different cultural context as this is the first attempt to adapt an English-spoken protocol to the Spanish language. A quasi-experimental design with two time points was used. Twenty-four out of 84 participants (mean age = 27.75 years, SD = 8.3) were classified as maladaptive perfectionists. Paired t-tests and reliable change index comparisons revealed that most students (75%) statistically and clinically reduced their levels of perfectionistic concerns as well as their perfectionistic strivings. General distress, operationalized as anxious and depressive symptoms, was also decreased. Students who completed and responded to the intervention were more dysfunctional in academic and psychological measures at baseline than non-completers and non-improvers. Findings support the feasibility, preliminary efficacy and efficiency of this five weekly session intervention when applied to a sample of Argentine university students.

  2. Professional Burnout, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Physical Health in Clinical and Counselling Psychology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Kaeding, April; Sougleris, Christina; Reid, Corinne; van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Hayes, Christopher; Dorrian, Jill; Simpson, Susan

    2017-05-15

    Little is known about the personal factors that increase vulnerability to job-related stress and burnout among psychologists in training. This study was based on a large international sample and aimed to explore the role of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) in predicting vulnerability to burnout, as well as attendant effects on short-term physical health, in clinical and counseling postgraduate psychology trainees. An online, quantitative, cross-sectional survey method design was used to collect self-report data that measured burnout, EMS, and physical health from 1,297 trainees. Only the unrelenting standards (US) schema predicted high burnout among trainees. The most commonly endorsed physical health symptoms were back and neck pain and tiredness, and were more severe for those experiencing high burnout. The current study contributes to our understanding of the role of the US EMS in the evolution of burnout in trainees and has implications for the development of self-awareness training programs for this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dimethyl α-ketoglutarate inhibits maladaptive autophagy in pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Kong, Yongli; Eisenberg, Tobias; Hill, Joseph A; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-05-01

    It has been a longstanding problem to identify specific and efficient pharmacological modulators of autophagy. Recently, we found that depletion of acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) induced autophagic flux, while manipulations designed to increase cytosolic AcCoA efficiently inhibited autophagy. Thus, the cell permeant ester dimethyl α-ketoglutarate (DMKG) increased the cytosolic concentration of α-ketoglutarate, which was converted into AcCoA through a pathway relying on either of the 2 isocitrate dehydrogenase isoforms (IDH1 or IDH2), as well as on ACLY (ATP citrate lyase). DMKG inhibited autophagy in an IDH1-, IDH2- and ACLY-dependent fashion in vitro, in cultured human cells. Moreover, DMKG efficiently prevented autophagy induced by starvation in vivo, in mice. Autophagy plays a maladaptive role in the dilated cardiomyopathy induced by pressure overload, meaning that genetic inhibition of autophagy by heterozygous knockout of Becn1 suppresses the pathological remodeling of heart muscle responding to hemodynamic stress. Repeated administration of DMKG prevents autophagy in heart muscle responding to thoracic aortic constriction (TAC) and simultaneously abolishes all pathological and functional correlates of dilated cardiomyopathy: hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, fibrosis, dilation of the left ventricle, and reduced contractile performance. These findings indicate that DMKG may be used for therapeutic autophagy inhibition.

  4. Parallel lives: A phenomenological study of the lived experience of maladaptive daydreaming.

    PubMed

    Somer, Eli; Somer, Liora; Jopp, Daniela S

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the lived experience of maladaptive daydreaming (MD), an excessive form of unwanted daydreaming that produces a rewarding experience based on a created fantasy of a parallel reality associated with a profound sense of presence. A total of 21 in-depth interviews with persons who self-identified as struggling with MD were analyzed utilizing a phenomenological approach. Interviewees described how their natural capacity for vivid daydreaming had developed into a time-consuming habit that resulted in serious dysfunction. The phenomenology of MD was typified by complex fantasized mental scenarios that were often laced with emotionally compensatory themes involving competency, social recognition, and support. MD could be activated if several requirements were met. Because social interaction seems to be incompatible with this absorbing mental activity, solitude was necessary. In addition, kinesthetic activity and/or exposure to evocative music also appeared to be essential features. Besides delivering a firsthand description of key characteristics of MD, the study also indicates that MD is associated with dysfunctionality for which participants expressed a substantial need for help.

  5. Longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between maladaptive trauma coping and distress: examination following the mass shooting at Virginia Tech.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather; Axsom, Danny; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E

    2011-05-01

    Growing evidence supports that the coping strategies that individuals utilize are a key predictor of distress following trauma. However, there is limited longitudinal research examining the relationship between psychological distress and coping over time, and even less research examining the possibility of reciprocal relationships between distress and coping, despite the fact that prior theoretical work posits such a relationship. The current study modeled the relationship between distress (PTSD and general distress) and maladaptive coping over time in a sample of 368 college women exposed to the mass shooting at Virginia Tech (VT). Participants completed web surveys regarding their distress, shooting-related coping, and shooting-related PTSD 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year following the shooting. They also completed measures of their psychological distress prior to the shooting as part of an unrelated study. A structural cross-lagged model with latent variables supported a reciprocal relationship between maladaptive coping and general psychological distress over time. In contrast, the cross-lagged model evaluating the relationship between PTSD and maladaptive coping supported that PTSD symptoms predicted coping over time, but there was no reciprocal relationship between coping and PTSD. Implications of the findings for future work examining adjustment following traumatic events are discussed.

  6. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = 8). Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients’ maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. Results: There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. Conclusions: This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms. PMID:28217649

  7. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    PubMed

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  8. Maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity mediate the relation between adverse life events and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Laloyaux, Julien; Dessart, Grégory; Van der Linden, Martial; Lemaire, Morgan; Larøi, Frank

    2016-01-01

    There is now solid evidence for a relation between adverse life events (ALE) and psychotic symptoms in patients with psychosis and in the general population. A recent study has shown that this relation may be partially mediated by stress sensitivity, suggesting the influence of other factors. The aim of this study was to assess the mediation effect of emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity in the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS) in the general population. Hundred and twelve healthy volunteers were evaluated with measures of APPS, emotion regulation strategies, ALE and stress sensitivity. Results demonstrated that the relation between ALE, hallucination and delusion proneness was completely mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, but not by stress sensitivity. However, in addition to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, stress sensitivity demonstrated a mediation effect between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic positive symptoms when positive psychotic symptoms were grouped together. There are probably several possible trajectories leading to the formation of positive psychotic symptoms and the results of the present study reveal that one such trajectory may involve the maladaptive regulation of negative emotions alongside a certain general vulnerability after experiencing ALE.

  9. Psychological Support for Young Adults with Down Syndrome: Dohsa-Hou Program for Maladaptive Behaviors and Internalizing Problems.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Haruo

    2017-01-01

    Psychological and psychiatric dysfunction is a major problem in a substantial proportion of young adults with Down syndrome. Some patients develop psychiatric issues, such as depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or psychotic-like disorders, in their late adolescence or young adulthood. Furthermore, these individuals may experience moderate to severe emotional and psychological distress. Development of a psychosocial treatment to address these issues is needed in addition to psychotropic medication. The current study reports two cases of young adults with Down syndrome, who presented psychiatric symptoms and marked disruption in their daily lives. These individuals participated in a Dohsa-hou treatment program. Following treatment, adaptive levels, maladaptive behaviors, and internalizing problems were evaluated by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Participants showed improvement in maladaptive behaviors and internalizing problems; however, improvement in these areas may be influenced by baseline severity of the problems. This case report suggests that Dohsa-hou could be an effective therapeutic approach for maladaptive and internalizing problems in adults with Down syndrome.

  10. Maladaptive Coping Mediates the Influence of Childhood Trauma on Depression and PTSD among Pregnant Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Karmel W.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Velloza, Jennifer; Marais, Adele; Jose, Cicyn; Stein, Dan J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Joska, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal mental disorders compromise maternal and child health, and women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at increased risk for such disorders. One hypothesis is that early trauma leads to the development and use of maladaptive coping strategies as an adult, which in turn could predict mental health difficulties during stressful transitions such as pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, this study examined the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health (depression, PTSD) in a sample of 84 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored whether maladaptive coping mediated this relationship. The majority of women (62%) met established criteria for antenatal depression and 30% for antenatal PTSD; in addition, 40% reported a history of childhood trauma. Childhood trauma, especially childhood sexual abuse and emotional abuse, was significantly associated with depression and PTSD. The relationships between childhood trauma and depression and PTSD were significantly mediated by maladaptive coping, even when adjusted for the woman’s age, gestational age, and HIV status. Findings highlight the need for coping-based interventions to prevent and treat antenatal mental disorders among women with childhood trauma, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. PMID:25578632

  11. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = 8). Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients' maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms.

  12. The mediating effect of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies on executive functioning impairment and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wante, Laura; Mezulis, Amy; Van Beveren, Marie-Lotte; Braet, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    Past research results suggest that executive functioning (EF) impairment represents an important vulnerability factor in depression. Little research, however, has examined mechanisms underlying this association. The current study investigates the associations between EF impairment, emotion regulation (ER) strategies, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 579 adolescents (320 females, mean age = 12.06 years). Parents reported on adolescents' EF and general psychopathology, and adolescents self-reported ER strategies and depressive symptoms. The results indicate that greater EF impairment is associated with more depressive symptoms. Youth with greater EF impairment reported more maladaptive ER and less adaptive ER, and maladaptive and adaptive ER strategies jointly mediated the association between EF impairment and depressive symptoms. The results highlight an important role of both maladaptive and adaptive ER in explaining the relationship between EF and depressive symptoms and suggest that clinical interventions targeting ER skills may provide one strategy for the prevention and treatment of depression. Further longitudinal research is needed to replicate these results and evaluate the causality of the relations.

  13. Post-stroke protection from maladaptive effects of learning with the non-paretic forelimb by bimanual home cage experience in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Abigail L.; Wolke, Malerie L.; Bell, Jared A.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experience, in the form of skilled limb use, has been found to impact the structure and function of the central nervous system, affecting post-stroke behavioral outcome in both adaptive and maladaptive ways. Learning to rely on the less-affected, or non-paretic, body side is common following stroke in both humans and rodent models. In rats, it has been observed that skilled learning with the non-paretic forelimb following ischemic insult leads to impaired or delayed functional recovery of the paretic limb. Here we used a mouse model of focal motor cortical ischemic injury to examine the effects of non-paretic limb training following unilateral stroke. In addition, we exposed some mice to increased bimanual experience in the home cage following stroke to investigate the impact of coordinated dexterous limb use on the non-paretic limb training effect. Our results confirmed that skilled learning with the non-paretic limb impaired functional recovery following stroke in C56BL/6 mice, as it does in rats. Further, this effect was avoided when the skill learning of the non-paretic limb was coupled with increased dexterous use of both forelimbs in the home cage. These findings further establish the mouse as an appropriate model in which to study the neural mechanisms of recovery following stroke and extend previous findings to suggest that the dexterous coordinated use of the paretic and non-paretic limb can promote functional outcome following injury. Keywords: experience-dependent plasticity, learned nonuse, motor cortex, motor rehabilitation, stroke PMID:23756140

  14. Post-stroke protection from maladaptive effects of learning with the non-paretic forelimb by bimanual home cage experience in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Abigail L; Wolke, Malerie L; Bell, Jared A; Jones, Theresa A

    2013-09-01

    Behavioral experience, in the form of skilled limb use, has been found to impact the structure and function of the central nervous system, affecting post-stroke behavioral outcome in both adaptive and maladaptive ways. Learning to rely on the less-affected, or non-paretic, body side is common following stroke in both humans and rodent models. In rats, it has been observed that skilled learning with the non-paretic forelimb following ischemic insult leads to impaired or delayed functional recovery of the paretic limb. Here we used a mouse model of focal motor cortical ischemic injury to examine the effects of non-paretic limb training following unilateral stroke. In addition, we exposed some mice to increased bimanual experience in the home cage following stroke to investigate the impact of coordinated dexterous limb use on the non-paretic limb training effect. Our results confirmed that skilled learning with the non-paretic limb impaired functional recovery following stroke in C56BL/6 mice, as it does in rats. Further, this effect was avoided when the skill learning of the non-paretic limb was coupled with increased dexterous use of both forelimbs in the home cage. These findings further establish the mouse as an appropriate model in which to study the neural mechanisms of recovery following stroke and extend previous findings to suggest that the dexterous coordinated use of the paretic and non-paretic limb can promote functional outcome following injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Productive procrastination: academic procrastination style predicts academic and alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Erin C; Wormington, Stephanie V; Oleson, Kathryn C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-03-01

    Productive procrastination replaces one adaptive behavior with another adaptive-albeit less important-behavior (e.g., organizing notes instead of studying for an exam). We identified adaptive and maladaptive procrastination styles associated with academic and alcohol outcomes in 1106 college undergraduates. Cluster analysis identified five academic procrastination styles-non-procrastinators, academic productive procrastinators, non-academic productive procrastinators, non-academic procrastinators, and classic procrastinators. Procrastination style differentially predicted alcohol-related problems, cravings, risk of alcohol use disorders, and GPA (all ps < .01). Non-procrastination and academic productive procrastination were most adaptive overall; non-academic productive procrastination, non-academic procrastination, and classic procrastination were least adaptive. Productive procrastination differed from other procrastination strategies, and maladaptive procrastination styles may be a useful risk indicator for preventative and intervention efforts.

  16. Evolutionary perspectives on the obesity epidemic: adaptive, maladaptive, and neutral viewpoints.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in modern societies has two major contributory factors-an environmental change that has happened in historical times and a genetic predisposition that has its origins in our evolutionary history. Understanding both aspects is complex. From an evolutionary perspective, three different types of explanation have been proposed. The first is that obesity was once adaptive and enabled us to survive (or sustain fecundity) through periods of famine. People carrying so-called thrifty genes that enabled the efficient storage of energy as fat between famines would be at a selective advantage. In the modern world, however, people who have inherited these genes deposit fat in preparation for a famine that never comes, and the result is widespread obesity. The key problem with this, and any other adaptive scenario, is to understand why, if obesity was historically so advantageous, many people did not inherit these thrifty genes and in modern society are able to remain slim, despite the environmental change favoring fat storage. The second type of explanation is that obesity is not adaptive and may never even have existed in our evolutionary past, but it is favored today as a maladaptive by-product of positive selection on some other trait. An example of this type of explanation is the suggestion that obesity results from variation in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Finally, a third class of explanation is that most mutations in the genes that predispose us to obesity are neutral and have been drifting over evolutionary time--so-called drifty genes, leading some individuals to be obesity prone and others obesity resistant. In this article, I review the current evidence for and against these three different scenarios and conclude that the thrifty gene hypothesis is untenable but the other two ideas may provide a cogent explanation of the modern obesity phenomenon.

  17. Molecular Proxies for Climate Maladaptation in a Long-Lived Tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H.; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; González-Martínez, Santiago C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP–climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change. PMID:25549630

  18. Mutual best friendship involvement, best friends' rejection sensitivity, and psychological maladaptation.

    PubMed

    Bowker, Julie C; Thomas, Katelyn K; Norman, Kelly E; Spencer, Sarah V

    2011-05-01

    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to experiences of possible rejection. RS is a clear risk factor for psychological maladaptation during early adolescence. However, there is growing evidence of significant heterogeneity in the psychological correlates of RS. To investigate when RS poses the greatest psychological risk during early adolescence, this study examines mutual best friendship involvement (or lack thereof) and the best friends' RS as potential moderators of the associations between RS and psychological difficulties. Participants were 150 7th grade students (58 boys; M age = 13.05 years) who nominated their best friends, and reported on their RS, social anxiety, and self-esteem. Results from a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that mutual best friendship involvement and best friends' RS were both significant moderators when fear of negative evaluation (a type of social anxiety) served as the dependent variable. The association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was stronger for adolescents without mutual best friends than adolescents with mutual best friends. In addition, the association between RS and fear of negative evaluation was the strongest for adolescents whose best friends were highly rejection sensitive (relative to adolescents whose best friends were moderately or low in RS). Findings highlight the importance of considering best friendships in studies of RS and strongly suggest that, although having mutual best friendships may be protective for rejection sensitive adolescents, having a rejection sensitive best friend may exacerbate difficulties. The significance of friends in the lives of rejection sensitive adolescents is discussed as well as possible applied implications of the findings and study limitations.

  19. Children's experiences of maternal incarceration-specific risks: predictions to psychological maladaptation.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Danielle H; Zeman, Janice L; Thrash, Todd M

    2015-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children's experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother's arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children's psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age = 9.8 years, range = 6-12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children's experiences related to maternal incarceration and children's internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children's incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children's exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration.

  20. Maladaptive exploratory behavior and neuropathology of the PS-1 P117L Alzheimer transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Zufferey, Valérie; Vallet, Philippe G; Moeri, Michaël; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Piotton, Françoise; Marin, Pascale; Savioz, Armand

    2013-05-01

    Patients with the early-onset Alzheimer's disease P117L mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PS-1) present pathological hallmarks in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex and the basal ganglia. In the present work we determined by immunohistochemistry which brain regions were injured in the transgenic PS-1 P117L mice, in comparison to their littermates, the B6D2 mice. Furthermore, as these regions are involved in novelty detection, we investigated the behavior of these mice in tests for object and place novelty recognition. Limited numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were detected in aged PS-1 P117L mice in the CA1 only, indicating that the disease is restrained to an initial neuropathological stage. Western blots showed a change in PSD-95 expression (p=0.03), not in NR2A subunit, NR2B subunit and synaptophysin expressions in the frontal cortex, suggesting specific synaptic alterations. The behavioral tests repeatedly revealed, despite a non-significant preference for object or place novelty, maladaptive exploratory behavior of the PS-1 P117L mice in novel environmental conditions, not due to locomotor problems. These mice, unlike the B6D2 mice, were less inhibited to visit the center of the cages (p=0.01) and they continued to move excessively in the presence of a displaced object (p=0.021). Overall, the PS-1 P117L mice appear to be in an initial Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathological stage, and they showed a lack of reaction toward novel environmental conditions.

  1. The role of the commensal microbiota in adaptive and maladaptive stressor-induced immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Mackos, Amy R; Maltz, Ross; Bailey, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly evident that there are extensive bidirectional interactions between the body and its microbiota. These interactions are evident during stressful periods, where it is recognized that commensal microbiota community structure is significantly changed. Many different stressors, ranging from early life stressors to stressors administered during adulthood, lead to significant, community-wide differences in the microbiota. The mechanisms through which this occurs are not yet known, but it is known that commensal microbes can recognize, and respond to, mammalian hormones and neurotransmitters, including those that are involved with the physiological response to stressful stimuli. In addition, the physiological stress response also changes many aspects of gastrointestinal physiology that can impact microbial community composition. Thus, there are many routes through which microbial community composition might be disrupted during stressful periods. The implications of these disruptions in commensal microbial communities for host health are still not well understood, but the commensal microbiota have been linked to stressor-induced immunopotentiation. The role of the microbiota in stressor-induced immunopotentiation can be adaptive, such as when these microbes stimulate innate defenses against bacterial infection. However, the commensal microbiota can also lead to maladaptive immune responses during stressor-exposure. This is evident in animal models of colonic inflammation where stressor exposure increases the inflammation through mechanisms involving the microbiota. It is likely that during stressor exposure, immune cell functioning is regulated by combined effects of both neurotransmitters/hormones and commensal microbes. Defining this regulation should be a focus of future studies.

  2. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

    2013-05-01

    must be considered in efforts to conserve wild animal resources, because such responses can become maladaptive.

  3. Maternal Cardiovascular Function in Normal Pregnancy: Evidence of Maladaptation to Chronic Volume Overload.

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, Karen; Sharma, Rajan; Khalil, Asma; Thilaganathan, Baskaran

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac functional status in pregnancy using a comprehensive approach taking into account the simultaneous changes in loading and geometry, as well as maternal age and anthropometric indices. This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 559 nulliparous pregnant women assessed at 4 time points during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum. All women underwent conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler velocities and strain rate analysis at multiple cardiac sites. Mean arterial pressure and total vascular resistance index significantly decreased (both P<0.001) during the first 2 trimesters of pregnancy and increased thereafter. Stroke volume index and cardiac index showed the opposite trend compared with mean arterial pressure and total vascular resistance index (both P<0.05). Myocardial and ventricular function were significantly enhanced in the first 2 trimesters but progressively declined thereafter. By the end of pregnancy, significant chamber diastolic dysfunction and impaired myocardial relaxation was evident in 17.9% and 28.4% of women, respectively, whereas myocardial contractility was preserved. There was full recovery of cardiac function at 1 year postpartum. Cardiovascular changes during pregnancy are thought to represent a physiological adaptation to volume overload. The findings of a drop in stroke volume index, impaired myocardial relaxation with diastolic dysfunction, and a tendency toward eccentric remodeling in a significant proportion of cases at term are suggestive of cardiovascular maladaptation to the volume-overloaded state in some apparently normal pregnancies. These unexpected cardiovascular findings have important implications for the management of both normal and pathological pregnancy states. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Molecular proxies for climate maladaptation in a long-lived tree (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan-Pablo; Rodríguez-Quilón, Isabel; Grivet, Delphine; Lepoittevin, Camille; Sebastiani, Federico; Heuertz, Myriam; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H; Alía, Ricardo; Plomion, Christophe; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C

    2015-03-01

    Understanding adaptive genetic responses to climate change is a main challenge for preserving biological diversity. Successful predictive models for climate-driven range shifts of species depend on the integration of information on adaptation, including that derived from genomic studies. Long-lived forest trees can experience substantial environmental change across generations, which results in a much more prominent adaptation lag than in annual species. Here, we show that candidate-gene SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) can be used as predictors of maladaptation to climate in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton), an outcrossing long-lived keystone tree. A set of 18 SNPs potentially associated with climate, 5 of them involving amino acid-changing variants, were retained after performing logistic regression, latent factor mixed models, and Bayesian analyses of SNP-climate correlations. These relationships identified temperature as an important adaptive driver in maritime pine and highlighted that selective forces are operating differentially in geographically discrete gene pools. The frequency of the locally advantageous alleles at these selected loci was strongly correlated with survival in a common garden under extreme (hot and dry) climate conditions, which suggests that candidate-gene SNPs can be used to forecast the likely destiny of natural forest ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Differential levels of forest decline are anticipated for distinct maritime pine gene pools. Geographically defined molecular proxies for climate adaptation will thus critically enhance the predictive power of range-shift models and help establish mitigation measures for long-lived keystone forest trees in the face of impending climate change.

  5. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  6. Pilot assessment of two disordered eating prevention programs. Preliminary findings on maladaptive beliefs related to eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Mora, Marisol; Penelo, Eva; Rosés, Rocío; González, Marcela L; Espinoza, Paola; Deví, Josep; Raich, Rosa M

    2017-04-01

    As eating disorders have severe consequences, they require prevention. We aimed to compare maladaptive beliefs related to eating disorders by following two programs based on media literacy in adolescents at post-test intervention, and after 6 and 12month-follow-ups. The Male and Female Nutrition and Media Literacy Model preventive program (NUT+MEF+MEM+ML in Spanish) and the Theater Alive program are both based on the same contents, the former being presented in a multimedia and interactive format and the latter in a drama format. Both were compared to a control group without intervention, whose participants received usual classes before the assessments. Participants were 178 adolescents in the second year of compulsory secondary education from fours schools of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). All participants in each school were assigned to the same group, depending on school schedules. A mixed 3 (group: Theater Alive, NUT+MEF+MEM+ML, control)×3 (time: post-test, 6-month-follow-up, 12-month-follow-up) factorial design was used to evaluate the effect on maladaptive beliefs measured using a CE-TCA tool. When compared to the control group, both Theater Alive (d=0.88) and NUT+MEM+MEF+ML (d=0.60) obtained lower scores over time, the latter being not statistically significant. The Theater Alive program may produce an effect of cognitive dissonance that might eliminate the discrepancy between the contents of the play and those that are internalized, thus modifying maladaptive beliefs. Participants in the Theater Alive program, as actors in front of an audience, had to defend certain content that was rehearsed over and over again to the point until it became internalized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing the Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attachment and Coping Styles in Opium and Stimulant Drugs Dependent Men in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi; Kaviani, Narjes

    2015-01-01

    Today, the society's need to find the roots of a few thousand-year old substance abuse and the drugs addiction crisis has increased to the extent that it has become a problem within our country. The problem of substance dependence is not only about drug abuse, but it is actually the interrelationship of the person and the dependency on drugs. This study aimed to compare early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in men dependent on opiates and stimulants in Kerman, Iran. This was a comparative descriptive study. The study population consisted of men dependent on opiates and stimulants who referred to addiction treatment clinics in Kerman. Therefore, 150 patients (75 opium addicted men and 75 men dependent on drugs) were selected. The participants completed the Young schema questionnaire-short form (YSQ-SF), adult attachment scale (AAS), and Young coping styles questionnaire (YCSQ). The research data were analyzed using independent t-test and SPSS software. Mean age of patients using opium was 27.9 ± 3.35 years and mean age of patients using stimulant drugs was 25.6 ± 3.41 years (18-60 years old). The results showed that there was no difference between the early maladaptive schemas and coping styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. However, there was a significant difference between attachment styles in men dependent on opium and stimulants. The mean score of avoidant and ambivalent styles in men dependent on stimulants was higher. Knowledge on the distinctions of early maladaptive schemas, attachment styles, and coping styles in substance abuse patients helps the therapists to conduct more effective treatment strategies tailored to the type of substance used in order to provide behavior modification.

  8. Wrinkly-Spreader fitness in the two-dimensional agar plate microcosm: maladaptation, compensation and ecological success.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Andrew J

    2007-08-15

    Bacterial adaptation to new environments often leads to the establishment of new genotypes with significantly altered phenotypes. In the Wrinkly Spreader (WS), ecological success in static liquid microcosms was through the rapid colonisation of the air-liquid interface by the production of a cellulose-based biofilm. Rapid surface spreading was also seen on agar plates, but in this two-dimensional environment the WS appears maladapted and rapidly reverts to the ancestral smooth (SM)-like colony genotype. In this work, the fitness of WS relative to SM in mixed colonies was found to be low, confirming the WS instability on agar plates. By examining defined WS mutants, the maladaptive characteristic was found to be the expression of cellulose. SM-like revertants had a higher growth rate than WS and no longer expressed significant amounts of cellulose, further confirming that the expression of this high-cost polymer was the basis of maladaptation and the target of compensatory mutation in developing colonies. However, examination of the fate of WS-founded populations in either multiple-colony or single mega-colony agar plate microcosms demonstrated that the loss of WS lineages could be reduced under conditions in which the rapid spreading colony phenotype could dominate nutrient and oxygen access more effectively than competing SM/SM-like genotypes. WS-like isolates recovered from such populations showed increased WS phenotype stability as well as changes in the degree of colony spreading, confirming that the WS was adapting to the two-dimensional agar plate microcosm.

  9. Wrinkly-Spreader Fitness in the Two-Dimensional Agar Plate Microcosm: Maladaptation, Compensation and Ecological Success

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial adaptation to new environments often leads to the establishment of new genotypes with significantly altered phenotypes. In the Wrinkly Spreader (WS), ecological success in static liquid microcosms was through the rapid colonisation of the air-liquid interface by the production of a cellulose-based biofilm. Rapid surface spreading was also seen on agar plates, but in this two-dimensional environment the WS appears maladapted and rapidly reverts to the ancestral smooth (SM)-like colony genotype. In this work, the fitness of WS relative to SM in mixed colonies was found to be low, confirming the WS instability on agar plates. By examining defined WS mutants, the maladaptive characteristic was found to be the expression of cellulose. SM-like revertants had a higher growth rate than WS and no longer expressed significant amounts of cellulose, further confirming that the expression of this high-cost polymer was the basis of maladaptation and the target of compensatory mutation in developing colonies. However, examination of the fate of WS-founded populations in either multiple-colony or single mega-colony agar plate microcosms demonstrated that the loss of WS lineages could be reduced under conditions in which the rapid spreading colony phenotype could dominate nutrient and oxygen access more effectively than competing SM/SM-like genotypes. WS-like isolates recovered from such populations showed increased WS phenotype stability as well as changes in the degree of colony spreading, confirming that the WS was adapting to the two-dimensional agar plate microcosm. PMID:17710140

  10. Maladaptive remodeling is associated with impaired survival in women but not in men after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Petrov, George; Dworatzek, Elke; Schulze, Tabea Marie; Dandel, Michael; Kararigas, Georgios; Mahmoodzadeh, Shokufeh; Knosalla, Christoph; Hetzer, Roland; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether adaptive or maladaptive remodeling is associated with survival in women and men after aortic valve replacement (AVR). Women with isolated aortic valve stenosis (AS) develop more concentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) than men in similar disease states. We recently reported less up-regulation of profibrotic genes at AVR and faster LVH regression post-operatively in women than in men, suggesting that there are sex differences in the adaptation to pressure overload and its regression. The study cohort included 128 patients (age 70.0 ± 9.6 years, 49% women) undergoing AVR for AS. Echocardiography was obtained before and 4.0 ± 1.6 years after surgery. Factor analysis was used to classify LVH as adaptive (combining smaller left ventricular [LV] mass/diameters and greater relative wall thicknesses) or maladaptive. Myocardial tissue samples from the LV septum were obtained during AVR to analyze cardiac fibrosis and associated key molecular regulators. Before AVR, LVH was classified as adaptive in 62% of women and 45% of men (p < 0.050). Four years after AVR, adaptive LVH was observed in 75% of women and 49% of men (p < 0.031). At surgery, more cardiac fibrosis was present in men compared with women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 (p < 0.01), SMAD2 phosphorylation (p < 0.001), and periostin expression (p < 0.05) were found in men than in women. Women with maladaptive LVH had worse survival than women with adaptive LVH (p < 0.050), whereas the pattern of LVH did not affect survival in men (p < 0.307). Women more frequently exhibit adaptive LV remodeling with less fibrosis than men. Maladaptive LVH is associated with worse survival in women. Thus, sex should be considered as a strong modulating factor when management of patients with AS is discussed. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neural Correlates of Maladaptive Pain Behavior in Chronic Neck Pain - A Single Case Control fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Beinert, Konstantin; Mouthon, Audrey; Keller, Martin; Mouthon, Michael; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Taube, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Chronic neck pain patients display functional impairments like decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and reduced sensorimotor function. In patients without structural damage, the reason for the persistence of pain is not well understood. Therefore, it is assumed that in chronic pain states, memory processes play an important role. We have now detected and tested a patient that might help us to better understand the neural correlates of maladaptive pain expectation/memory. This patient displays chronic neck pain and restricted unilateral motion of the cervical spine to the left. However, when the patient is distracted, she can perform head rotations without experiencing pain and without restricting her range of movement. Based on this observation, we asked her to imagine movements shown in a video: conscious, non-distracted head rotations (pain-provoking) versus distracted head rotations (pain-free) and compared these results with an age and gender matched control volunteer. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed distinct brain activation patterns that depended on the side of rotation (pain-free versus painful side) and the kind of movement (distracted versus non-distracted head rotation). Interestingly, brain areas related to the processing of pain such as primary somatosensory cortex, thalamus, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex were always more strongly activated in the non-distracted condition and when turning to the left. The age and gender matched control volunteer displayed no comparable activation of pain centers. In the patient, maladaptive pain behavior and the activity of pain-related brain areas during imagined head rotations were task-specific, indicating that the activation and/or recall of pain memories were context-dependent. These findings are important not only to improve the understanding of the neural organization of maladaptive

  12. Maladaptive cognitive appraisals mediate the evolution of posttraumatic stress reactions: A 6-month follow-up of child and adolescent assault and motor vehicle accident survivors.

    PubMed

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Dalgleish, Tim; Glucksman, Ed; Yule, William; Smith, Patrick

    2009-11-01

    A prospective longitudinal follow-up study (n = 59) of child and adolescent survivors of physical assaults and motor vehicle accidents assessed whether cognitive processes predicted posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) at 6 months posttrauma in this age group. In particular, the study assessed whether maladaptive posttraumatic appraisals mediated the relationship between initial and later posttraumatic stress. Self-report measures of PTSS, maladaptive appraisals, and other cognitive processes, as well as structured interviews assessing for acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were completed at 2-4 weeks and 6 months posttrauma. PTSS and PTSD at 6 months were associated with maladaptive appraisals and other cognitive processes but not demographic or objective trauma severity variables. Only maladaptive appraisals were found to associate with PTSS/PTSD after partialing out initial symptoms/diagnosis and to mediate between initial and later PTSS. It was argued that, on this basis, maladaptive appraisals are involved in the development and maintenance of PTSS over time, whereas other cognitive processes (e.g., subjective threat, memory processes) may have an effect only in the acute phase. The implications of this study for the treatment of PTSS in youths are discussed.

  13. Do Gender Differences in Depression Remain after Controlling for Early Maladaptive Schemas? An Examination in a Sample of Opioid Dependent Treatment Seeking Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The abuse of opioids is a serious and prevalent problem and research is needed on factors that may place individuals at risk for misusing opioids. Depression is a common co-morbid mental health problem among opioid users. Theory and research suggests that early maladaptive schemas may underlie mental health problems including depression and substance abuse. The current study sought to determine whether early maladaptive schemas were associated with depression among a treatment seeking sample of male and female opioid users (N = 194). We also examined whether depression, as assessed by the MMPI-2, varied by gender and whether gender differences in depression remained after controlling for early maladaptive schemas. Results showed that females scored significantly higher than males on 3 of the 5 early maladaptive schema domains, and that gender did not predict depression after controlling for schema domains. Early maladaptive schemas were also more strongly associated with depression for men than women. Implications of these findings for interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:22331546

  14. A Potential Animal Model of Maladaptive Palatable Food Consumption Followed by Delayed Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Moshe, Lital; Bekker, Liza; Weller, Aron

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Binging is the consumption of larger amounts of food in a briefer period of time than would normally be consumed under similar circumstances. Binging requires palatable food (PF) to trigger abnormal eating, probably reflecting gene × environment interactions. In this study we examined the impact of trait binge eating (BE) and its compulsive nature on the conflict between hedonic eating of PF and anticipation of a delayed aversive effect. We used female rats as an animal model similar to other models of BE. A novel aspect of this model in this paper is the use of a delayed internal aversive effect produced by lactose ingestion. Establishing this model will allow us to better understand the nature of the conflict between immediate reward and its delayed aversive implications. We hypothesized that BE prone (BEP) rats will demonstrate maladaptive decision making, presenting higher motivation toward PF even when this is associated with delayed discomfort. Method: (Phase 1) 52 female adult Wistar rats were divided to two eating profiles: resistant and prone binge eaters (BER/BEP) based on intake of liquid PF (Ensure). Next, all subjects underwent a Lactose Conditioning Protocol (LCP) that included 4 h tests, one baseline and 3 conditioning days (Phase 2), in which solid PF (Oreo cookies) was paired with glucose (control-no internal aversive effect) or lactose, dissolved in liquid PF. Index for PF motivation was PF consumption during the 4 h LCP. To test for memory of lactose conditioning, we performed another LCP with glucose only (anticipation, but no actual lactose-induced discomfort), a week after the last conditioning session. Results: Lactose conditioned BEP showed higher motivation toward PF compared to lactose conditioned BER faced with delayed aversive effects. Only lactose conditioned BER rats devaluated the PF over LCP days, indicating an association between PF and abdominal discomfort. In addition, only lactose conditioned BER presented an

  15. Transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obesity: role of apelin

    PubMed Central

    Alfarano, C; Foussal, C; Lairez, O; Calise, D; Attané, C; Anesia, R; Daviaud, D; Wanecq, E; Parini, A; Valet, P; Kunduzova, O

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Impaired energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of obesity-related heart failure. The adipocyte-derived peptide apelin has a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis and may contribute to the link between obesity, energy metabolism and cardiac function. Here we investigate the role of apelin in the transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obese state. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J, apelin knock-out (KO) or wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. To induce heart failure, mice were subjected to pressure overload after 18 weeks of HFD. Long-term effects of apelin on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, glucose metabolism, cardiac function and mitochondrial changes were evaluated in HFD-fed mice after 4 weeks of pressure overload. Cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed mice were isolated for analysis of metabolic responses. Results: In HFD-fed mice, pressure overload-induced transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is associated with reduced FA utilization (P<0.05), accelerated glucose oxidation (P<0.05) and mitochondrial damage. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with apelin for 4 weeks prevented pressure overload-induced decline in FA metabolism (P<0.05) and mitochondrial defects. Furthermore, apelin treatment lowered fasting plasma glucose (P<0.01), improved glucose tolerance (P<0.05) and preserved cardiac function (P<0.05) in HFD-fed mice subjected to pressure overload. In apelin KO HFD-fed mice, spontaneous cardiac dysfunction is associated with reduced FA oxidation (P<0.001) and increased glucose oxidation (P<0.05). In isolated cardiomyocytes, apelin stimulated FA oxidation in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was prevented by small interfering RNA sirtuin 3 knockdown. Conclusions: These data suggest that obesity-related decline in cardiac function is associated with defective myocardial energy metabolism and mitochondrial abnormalities. Furthermore, our work points for

  16. Transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obesity: role of apelin.

    PubMed

    Alfarano, C; Foussal, C; Lairez, O; Calise, D; Attané, C; Anesia, R; Daviaud, D; Wanecq, E; Parini, A; Valet, P; Kunduzova, O

    2015-02-01

    Impaired energy metabolism is the defining characteristic of obesity-related heart failure. The adipocyte-derived peptide apelin has a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and metabolic homeostasis and may contribute to the link between obesity, energy metabolism and cardiac function. Here we investigate the role of apelin in the transition from metabolic adaptation to maladaptation of the heart in obese state. Adult male C57BL/6J, apelin knock-out (KO) or wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. To induce heart failure, mice were subjected to pressure overload after 18 weeks of HFD. Long-term effects of apelin on fatty acid (FA) oxidation, glucose metabolism, cardiac function and mitochondrial changes were evaluated in HFD-fed mice after 4 weeks of pressure overload. Cardiomyocytes from HFD-fed mice were isolated for analysis of metabolic responses. In HFD-fed mice, pressure overload-induced transition from hypertrophy to heart failure is associated with reduced FA utilization (P<0.05), accelerated glucose oxidation (P<0.05) and mitochondrial damage. Treatment of HFD-fed mice with apelin for 4 weeks prevented pressure overload-induced decline in FA metabolism (P<0.05) and mitochondrial defects. Furthermore, apelin treatment lowered fasting plasma glucose (P<0.01), improved glucose tolerance (P<0.05) and preserved cardiac function (P<0.05) in HFD-fed mice subjected to pressure overload. In apelin KO HFD-fed mice, spontaneous cardiac dysfunction is associated with reduced FA oxidation (P<0.001) and increased glucose oxidation (P<0.05). In isolated cardiomyocytes, apelin stimulated FA oxidation in a dose-dependent manner and this effect was prevented by small interfering RNA sirtuin 3 knockdown. These data suggest that obesity-related decline in cardiac function is associated with defective myocardial energy metabolism and mitochondrial abnormalities. Furthermore, our work points for therapeutic potential of apelin to prevent myocardial

  17. Metabolic maladaptation: individual and social consequences of medical intervention in correcting endemic hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, G W

    1999-01-01

    constraint. It may be that hypothyroidism is conserved in such areas because it may confer adaptive advantage in such marginal environments as an effect, as well as a cause, of underdevelopment. Hypothyroidism may limit energy requirements, fertility, and consumer population pressure in closed ecosystems that could otherwise be outstripped. Single factor intervention in a vertical health care program not sensitive to the fragile biologic balance and not part of a culture-sensitive development program might result in medical maladaptation.

  18. Prospective study of family adversity and maladaptive parenting in childhood and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical population at 11 years.

    PubMed

    Winsper, C; Zanarini, M; Wolke, D

    2012-11-01

    Retrospective studies have consistently indicated an association between maladaptive parenting and borderline personality disorder (BPD). This requires corroboration with prospective, longitudinal designs. We investigated the association between suboptimal parenting and parent conflict in childhood and BPD symptoms in late childhood using a prospective sample. A community sample of 6050 mothers and their children (born between April 1991 and December 1992) were assessed. Mothers' family adversity was assessed during pregnancy and parenting behaviours such as hitting, shouting, hostility and parent conflict across childhood. Intelligence quotient (IQ) and DSM-IV Axis I diagnoses were assessed at 7-8 years. Trained psychologists interviewed children at 11 years (mean age 11.74 years) to ascertain BPD symptoms. After adjustment for confounders, family adversity in pregnancy predicted BPD probable 1 to 2 adversities: odds ratio (OR)=1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.77]; >2 adversities: OR 1.99 (95% CI 1.34-2.94) and definite 1 to 2 adversities: OR 2.48 (95% CI 1.01-6.08) symptoms. Each point increase in the suboptimal parenting index predicted BPD probable: OR 1.13 (95% CI 1.05-1.23) and definite: OR 1.28 (95% CI 1.03-1.60) symptoms. Parent conflict predicted BPD probable: OR 1.19 (95% CI 1.06-1.34) and definite: OR 1.42 (95% CI 1.06-1.91) symptoms. Within the path analysis, the association between suboptimal parenting and BPD outcome was partially mediated by DSM-IV diagnoses and IQ at 7-8 years. Children from adverse family backgrounds, who experience suboptimal parenting and more conflict between parents, have poor cognitive abilities and a DSM-IV diagnosis, are at increased risk of BPD symptoms at 11 years.

  19. Exploring correlation between perceived parenting styles, early maladaptive schemas, and depression among women with depressive symptoms in iran and India- role of early maladaptive schemas as mediators and moderatos.

    PubMed

    Khajouei Nia, Maryam; Sovani, Anuradha; Sarami Forooshani, Gholam Reza

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have reported that inadequate parental styles can contribute to depressive symptoms through dysfunctional cognitive styles. This study aimed to investigate the association of dysfunctional schemas and parenting style with depression, as well as the role of maladaptive schemas such as moderators and mediators in Iran and India. The study sample was selected randomly and consisted of 200 (age group 16-60 y) depressed females (mild to moderate); 100 from Tehran (Iran) and another 100 from Pune (India). The type of the research was causal-comparative. The data collection took place in hospitals and clinics in the targeted cities. Descriptive statistic tests and hierarchical multiple regression were executed (for the purpose of analyzing data) by SPSS 17. It was demonstrated that the association between parenting and depression was not moderated by early maladaptive schemas. On the contrary, the results supported meditational models in which parenting styles are associated with the cognitive schemas, and these in turn are related to depressive symptoms. It was also found that abandonment mediates the impacts of maternal style on depression in Iran. On the other hand, abandonment and punitiveness schemas mediated the relation between paternal style and depression in India. These findings suggest that the correlation between childhood experiences and depression in adulthood are mediated by dysfunctional schemas.

  20. Exploring Correlation Between Perceived Parenting Styles, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Depression Among Women With Depressive Symptoms in Iran and India- Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators and Moderatos

    PubMed Central

    Khajouei Nia, Maryam; Sovani, Anuradha; Sarami Forooshani, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have reported that inadequate parental styles can contribute to depressive symptoms through dysfunctional cognitive styles. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association of dysfunctional schemas and parenting style with depression, as well as the role of maladaptive schemas such as moderators and mediators in Iran and India. Patients and Methods:: The study sample was selected randomly and consisted of 200 (age group 16-60 y) depressed females (mild to moderate); 100 from Tehran (Iran) and another 100 from Pune (India). The type of the research was causal-comparative. The data collection took place in hospitals and clinics in the targeted cities. Descriptive statistic tests and hierarchical multiple regression were executed (for the purpose of analyzing data) by SPSS 17. Results: It was demonstrated that the association between parenting and depression was not moderated by early maladaptive schemas. On the contrary, the results supported meditational models in which parenting styles are associated with the cognitive schemas, and these in turn are related to depressive symptoms. It was also found that abandonment mediates the impacts of maternal style on depression in Iran. On the other hand, abandonment and punitiveness schemas mediated the relation between paternal style and depression in India. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the correlation between childhood experiences and depression in adulthood are mediated by dysfunctional schemas. PMID:25763238

  1. A multi-faceted workplace intervention targeting low back pain was effective for physical work demands and maladaptive pain behaviours, but not for work ability and sickness absence: Stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ørberg, Anders; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to test whether a multi-faceted intervention effective for low back pain was effective for physical capacity, work demands, maladaptive pain behaviours, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain. A stepped wedge cluster randomised, controlled trial with 594 nurses' aides was conducted. The intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of physical training (12 sessions), cognitive behavioural training (two sessions) and participatory ergonomics (five sessions). Occupational lifting, fear avoidance, physical exertion, muscle strength, support from management, work ability and sickness absence due to low back pain were measured every 3 months. Before and after the intervention we measured physical capacity, kinesiophobia and need for recovery. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline values of the outcome were used to estimate the effect. Significant reduction in occupational lifting (-0.35 (95% confidence interval -0.61 to -0.08)), and improvement in two measures of fear avoidance ((-0.75 (95% confidence interval -1.05 to -0.45) and -0.45 (95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.11)) were found for the intervention group compared to the control. There were no significant effects on physical exertion, muscle strength, support from management, work ability or sickness absence due to low back pain. After the intervention, significant increased physical capacity and improvements in kinesiophobia were found, but no change in need for recovery. CONCLUSIONS THE INTERVENTION WAS SIGNIFICANTLY EFFECTIVE FOR PHYSICAL WORK DEMANDS AND MALADAPTIVE PAIN BEHAVIOURS, BUT NOT FOR WORK ABILITY AND SICKNESS ABSENCE DUE TO LOW BACK PAIN TO IMPROVE WORK ABILITY OR REDUCE SICKNESS ABSENCE DUE TO LOW BACK PAIN MORE SPECIFIC INTERVENTIONS SHOULD PROBABLY BE DEVELOPED. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. A Comparison of Positive Outcome Expectancies: A Review of the Theories of M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, M. E. P. Seligman, and C. R. Snyder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, William A.

    Research has shown that optimistic and pessimistic outcome expectancy evaluations are associated with adaptive and maladaptive levels of psychological functioning, physical wellness, and health recovery issues. The research of M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, M. E. P. Seligman, and C. R. Snyder supports the hypothesis that elevated optimism or…

  3. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  4. An Investigation of the Association Between Shame and Problem Gambling: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Coping Motives.

    PubMed

    Schlagintweit, Hera E; Thompson, Kara; Goldstein, Abby L; Stewart, Sherry H

    2017-02-03

    Despite often being considered equivalent affective states, shame and guilt have differential associations with problem gambling with only shame showing a strong positive association with problem gambling. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the shame-problem gambling association. Further, shame and guilt are associated with distinct coping strategies, with shame motivating maladaptive coping (e.g., avoidance, escape) and guilt motivating adaptive coping (e.g., taking corrective action). This study aimed to examine whether maladaptive coping motives for gambling mediate the relationship between shame, but not guilt, and gambling problems. Participants were 196 (126 male) regular gamblers who completed a same and guilt scale, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, and a modified Gambling Motives Questionnaire, which assessed individual motives to engage in gambling for coping, enhancement, or social reasons. Results indicated that coping motives for gambling fully mediated the relationship between shame and problem gambling severity, but did not mediate the association between guilt and problem gambling severity. Experiencing shame contributes to problem gambling as a result of gambling to cope with negative affect. Cultivating more adaptive strategies to cope with shame may be effective in preventing and treating problem gambling.

  5. Relations between adaptive and maladaptive pain cognitions and within-day pain exacerbations in individuals with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon Stark; Davis, Mary C; Yeung, Ellen W; Zautra, Alex J; Tennen, Howard A

    2016-11-16

    The objectives of this study were to assess within-person hypotheses regarding temporal cognition-pain associations: (1) do morning pain flares predict changes in two afternoon adaptive and maladaptive pain-related cognitions, and (2) do these changes in afternoon cognitions predict changes in end-of-day pain reports, which in turn, carry over to predict next morning pain in individuals with fibromyalgia. Two hundred twenty individuals with fibromyalgia completed electronic assessments of pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and pain coping efficacy three times a day for three weeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling established that afternoon catastrophizing and coping efficacy were parallel mediators linking late morning with end-of-day pain reports (controlling for afternoon pain), in line with prediction. Catastrophizing was a stronger mediator than coping efficacy. Moreover, afternoon cognitions and end-of-day pain reports served as sequential mediators of the relation between same-day and next-day morning pain. These findings align with assertions of cognitive-behavioral theories of pain that pain flares predict changes in pain both adaptive and maladaptive cognitions, which in turn, predict further changes in pain.

  6. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and compulsive sexual behaviors in a substance-dependent population.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    Past research has consistently demonstrated high co-occurrence between substance use disorders (SUDs) and compulsive sexual behaviors (CSBs). Numerous studies have also indicated that maladaptive core beliefs and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are prevalent among individuals with SUDs and CSBs. However, research has yet to examine the relationship between EMS and CSBs among substance-dependent populations. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to examine this relationship in a sample of 198 men and 62 women in residential treatment for SUDs. Findings demonstrated that the five EMS domains were positively associated with CSBs. Results further demonstrated that patients meeting the cutoff score for CSBs scored significantly higher than patients not meeting the cutoff score for CSBs on the EMS domains of disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, and impaired limit. These findings suggest that there is an important and significant relationship between EMS and CSBs among adults in substance use treatment. Results from the current study indicate that EMS may provide a potentially important focus for treatment, particularly among individuals with co-morbid CSBs and SUDs. Given the preliminary nature of this study, continued research is needed to replicate and extend the findings from the current study.

  7. Chronic stress and brain plasticity: mechanisms underlying adaptive and maladaptive changes and implications for stress-related CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Radley, Jason; Morilak, David; Viau, Victor; Campeau, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Stress responses entail neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral changes to promote effective coping with real or perceived threats to one’s safety. While these responses are critical for the survival of the individual, adverse effects of repeated exposure to stress are widely known to have deleterious effects on health. Thus, a considerable effort in the search for treatments to stress-related CNS disorders necessitates unraveling the brain mechanisms responsible for adaptation under acute conditions and their perturbations following chronic stress exposure. This paper is based upon a symposium from the 2014 International Behavioral Neuroscience Meeting, summarizing some recent advances in understanding the effects of stress on adaptive and maladaptive responses subserved by limbic forebrain networks. An important theme highlighted in this review is that the same networks mediating neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral processes during adaptive coping also comprise targets of the effects of repeated stress exposure in the development of maladaptive states. Where possible, reference is made to the similarity of neurobiological substrates and effects observed following repeated exposure to stress in laboratory animals and the clinical features of stress-related disorders in humans. PMID:26116544

  8. Insights into the role of maladaptive hexosamine biosynthesis and O-GlcNAcylation in development of diabetic cardiac complications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Cheng Xue; Sleaby, Rochelle; Davidoff, Amy J; Bell, James R; De Blasio, Miles J; Delbridge, Leanne M; Chatham, John C; Ritchie, Rebecca H

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk of heart failure, independent of coronary artery disease. The mechanisms implicated in the development of diabetic heart disease, commonly termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, are complex, but much of the impact of diabetes on the heart can be attributed to impaired glucose handling. It has been shown that the maladaptive nutrient-sensing hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) contributes to diabetic complications in many non-cardiac tissues. Glucose metabolism by the HBP leads to enzymatically-regulated, O-linked attachment of a sugar moiety molecule, β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), to proteins, affecting their biological activity (similar to phosphorylation). In normal physiology, transient activation of HBP/O-GlcNAc mechanisms is an adaptive, protective means to enhance cell survival; interventions that acutely suppress this pathway decrease tolerance to stress. Conversely, chronic dysregulation of HBP/O-GlcNAc mechanisms has been shown to be detrimental in certain pathological settings, including diabetes and cancer. Most of our understanding of the impact of sustained maladaptive HBP and O-GlcNAc protein modifications has been derived from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and other non-cardiac tissues, as a contributing mechanism to insulin resistance and progression of diabetic complications. However, the long-term consequences of persistent activation of cardiac HBP and O-GlcNAc are not well-understood; therefore, the goal of this timely review is to highlight current understanding of the role of the HBP pathway in development of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  9. Early maladaptive schemas and suicidal risk in an Iranian sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Samimi Ardestani, Mehdi; Jamaati Ardakani, Razieh

    2017-09-01

    There are few studies on suicidal risk and its related factors in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study investigated the associations of early maladaptive schemas, OC symptom dimensions, OCD severity, depression and anxiety with suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and suicide attempts) in OCD patients. Sixty OCD outpatients completed the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF), the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). 51.7% of patients had lifetime suicide attempts and 75% had suicidal ideation. OCD patients with lifetime suicide attempts exhibited significantly higher scores on early maladaptive schemas than those without such attempts. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the mistrust/abuse schema and the OC symptom dimension of unacceptable thoughts explained lifetime suicide attempts. The mistrust/abuse schema, unacceptable thoughts and depression significantly predicted suicidal ideation. These findings indicated that the mistrust/abuse schema may contribute to high suicidality in OCD patients. Also, patients suffering from unacceptable thoughts need to be assessed more carefully for warning signs of suicide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The cardiac maladaptive ATF3-dependent cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages is mediated by the IFNγ-CXCL10-CXCR3 axis.

    PubMed

    Koren, L; Barash, U; Zohar, Y; Karin, N; Aronheim, A

    2017-02-01

    Pressure overload induces adaptive and maladaptive cardiac remodeling processes in the heart. Part of the maladaptive process is the cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and macrophages which is dependent on the function of the Activating Transcription Factor 3, ATF3. Yet, the molecular mechanism involved in cardiomyocytes-macrophages communication leading to macrophages recruitment to the heart and cardiac maladaptive remodeling is currently unknown. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from either wild type or ATF3-KO mice were cultured in serum free medium to collect conditioned medium (CM). CM was used to probe an antibody cytokine/chemokine array. The interferon γ induced protein 10kDa, CXCL10, was found to be enriched in wild type macrophages CM. Wild type cardiomyocytes treated with CXCL10 in vitro, resulted in significant increase in cell volume as compared to ATF3-KO cardiomyocytes. In vivo, pressure overload was induced by phenylephrine (PE) infusion using micro-osmotic pumps. Consistently, CXCL11 (CXCL10 competitive agonist) and CXCL10 receptor antagonist (AMG487) attenuated PE-dependent maladaptive cardiac remodeling. Significantly, we show that the expression of the CXCL10 receptor, CXCR3, is suppressed in cardiomyocytes and macrophages derived from ATF3-KO mice. CXCR3 is positively regulated by ATF3 through an ATF3 transcription response element found in its proximal promoter. Finally, mice lacking CXCR3 display a significant reduction of cardiac remodeling processes following PE infusion. Chronic PE infusion results in a unique cardiomyocytes-macrophages cross-talk that is mediated by IFNγ. Subsequently, macrophages that are recruited to the heart secrete CXCL10 resulting in maladaptive cardiac remodeling mediated by the CXCR3 receptor. ATF3-KO mice escape from PE-dependent maladaptive cardiac remodeling by suppressing the IFNγ-CXCL10-CXCR3 axis at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Relate to Positive and Negative Psychological Functioning: Testing a Stress-Mediation Model in Black and White Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward C.; Watkins, Angela; Banks, Kira Hudson

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed racial variations in how adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism relate to psychological functioning in a sample of 150 Black and 150 White female college students. Comparative results indicated that Black women, as compared with White women, reported less adaptive perfectionism, less life satisfaction, greater stress, and…

  12. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  13. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  14. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglia, Dana; McDonald, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the literature investigating the functional relationship between the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and maladaptive behavior (i.e., aggression, tantrums) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Digital searches were conducted to identify single subject design studies…

  15. Vigorous, Aerobic Exercise versus General Motor Training Activities: Effects on Maladaptive and Stereotypic Behaviors of Adults with Both Autism and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Reed O., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Six adults with both autism and moderate/profound mental retardation were assessed in a controlled environment for changes in frequency of maladaptive and stereotypic behaviors following nonexercise activities, general motor training activities, and aerobic exercise. Although antecedent aerobic exercise reduced undesirable behaviors, general motor…

  16. Mothering: Thinking Is Part of the Job Description: Application of Cognitive Views to Understanding Maladaptive Parenting and Doing Intervention and Prevention Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Sandra T.; Reitz, Elizabeth B.; Goslin, Megan C.

    2008-01-01

    Irving Sigel's work, particularly his two volumes and numerous papers on parental beliefs, has left a strong mark on theoretical developmental work, applied research, and clinical research and practice. This article focuses on the impact that a cognitive perspective on parenting has had on our understanding of maladaptive parenting and practice.…

  17. New DSM-5 maladaptive symptoms in PTSD: gender differences and correlations with mood spectrum symptoms in a sample of high school students following survival of an earthquake.

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Stratta, Paolo; Massimetti, Gabriele; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Conversano, Ciro; Cremone, Ivan Mirko; Miccoli, Mario; Baggiani, Angelo; Rossi, Alessandro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates were confirmed across different DSM editions as well as the role of bipolar disorder (BD) comorbidity on prevalence and course, but little data is available upon new DSM-5 criteria, including maladaptive behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in DSM-5 PTSD in a sample of young adult earthquake survivors and the impact of lifetime mood spectrum comorbidity. Five hundred twelve young adult survivors from the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake were evaluated by Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR) and Mood Spectrum-Self Report (MOODS-SR). Females showed significantly higher DSM-5 PTSD prevalence rates than men. Similarly, female survivors with DSM-5 PTSD showed significantly higher scores in several of the MOODS-SR and TALS-SR domains with respect to males. Males showed significantly higher scores in the TALS-SR maladaptive coping domain only. A significant positive association between the MOODS-SR manic-hypomanic component and TALS-SR potentially traumatic events and maladaptive coping domains emerged in the whole sample, particularly among men. This study allows a first glimpse on gender differences in DSM-5 PTSD criteria in a sample of earthquake survivors. Further, possible correlations with subthreshold manic-hypomanic comorbidity are suggested among males, showing a significant trend particularly for lifetime trauma exposure and for the newly introduced maladaptive behaviors.

  18. Deconstructing Chronic Low Back Pain in the Older Adult--Step by Step Evidence and Expert-Based Recommendations for Evaluation and Treatment. Part V: Maladaptive Coping.

    PubMed

    DiNapoli, Elizabeth A; Craine, Michael; Dougherty, Paul; Gentili, Angela; Kochersberger, Gary; Morone, Natalia E; Murphy, Jennifer L; Rodakowski, Juleen; Rodriguez, Eric; Thielke, Stephen; Weiner, Debra K

    2016-01-01

    As part of a series of articles designed to deconstruct chronic low back pain (CLBP) in older adults, this article focuses on maladaptive coping--a significant contributor of psychological distress, increased pain, and heightened disability in older adults with CLBP. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop a maladaptive coping algorithm and table providing the rationale for the various components of the algorithm. A seven-member content expert panel and a nine-member primary care panel were involved in the iterative development of the materials. While the algorithm was developed keeping in mind resources available within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities, panelists were not exclusive to the VHA, and therefore, materials can be applied in both VHA and civilian settings. The illustrative clinical case was taken from one of the contributors' clinical practice. We present a treatment algorithm and supporting table to be used by providers treating older adults who have CLBP and engage in maladaptive coping strategies. A case of an older adult with CLBP and maladaptive coping is provided to illustrate the approach to management. To promote early engagement in skill-focused treatments, providers can routinely evaluate pain coping strategies in older adults with CLBP using a treatment algorithm. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy of Pain Medicine. 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  1. Children's Development through Sports Competition: Derivative, Adjustive, Generative, and Maladaptive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hong Suk; Johnson, Britton; Kim, Young K.

    2014-01-01

    Sports competition can play an important role for children because it contributes to developmental outcomes for a healthy lifestyle. Through sports competition, children can learn about physical, social, and cognitive skills. Sports competition can be either positive or negative in terms of development, depending on how experiences are perceived…

  2. Children's Development through Sports Competition: Derivative, Adjustive, Generative, and Maladaptive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hong Suk; Johnson, Britton; Kim, Young K.

    2014-01-01

    Sports competition can play an important role for children because it contributes to developmental outcomes for a healthy lifestyle. Through sports competition, children can learn about physical, social, and cognitive skills. Sports competition can be either positive or negative in terms of development, depending on how experiences are perceived…

  3. A "Sleep 101" Program for College Students Improves Sleep Hygiene Knowledge and Reduces Maladaptive Beliefs about Sleep.

    PubMed

    Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Sensitizing young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful sleep attitudes may have the potential to instill long-lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, evaluation of psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was undertaken. Following two weeks of sleep-log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two 90-minute workshops aimed to educate students about healthy sleep practices, helpful thoughts about sleep, and ways to improve sleep. The sleep monitoring group received a sleep hygiene handout and completed sleep logs for the study duration. Sleep 101 participants endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to the sleep monitoring participants. Brief psychoeducational courses may be a cost-effective way to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems in young adults.

  4. [Clinical psychophysiological markers of maladaptive neuropsychic conditions in polyclinic doctors of old and middle age with professional burnout syndrome].

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the actual in modern medicine problem of professional burnout of polyclinic doctors of middle and elderly age. It is shown that the specificity of the polyclinic doctors' activity provokes the formation of professional burnout syndrome, paired with maladaptive neuro-psychic conditions. We studied the prevalence of this syndrome in polyclinic doctors of middle age and older; its specific versions among the middle-aged doctors were defined, where the level of burnout is associated with aggressive tendencies, and the elderly doctors, where professional burnout is associated with the instability of affective response. Pathogenic markers of compensatory redistribution of information saturation of indicators of electroencephalography to the occipital cortex at professional burnout in polyclinic doctors of the elderly age, reflecting the involution processes in prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain were identified.

  5. The structure and correlates of self-reported DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits: findings from two German-speaking samples.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Johannes; Altenstein, David; Krieger, Tobias; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Pretsch, Johanna; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Spitzer, Carsten; Benecke, Cord; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Leising, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    The authors investigated the structure and correlates of DSM-5 maladaptive personality traits in two samples of 577 students and 212 inpatients using the German self-report form of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. They found that (a) the factor structure of DSM-5 trait facets is largely in line with the proposed trait domains of Negative Affectivity, Detachment, Antagonism, Disinhibition, and Psychoticism; (b) all DSM-5 trait domains except Psychoticism are highly related to the respective domains of the Five-Factor Model of personality; (c) the trait facets are positively associated with a self-report measure of general personality dysfunction; and (d) the DSM-5 trait facets show differential associations with a range of self-reported DSM-IV Axis I disorders. These findings give further support to the new DSM-5 trait model and suggest that it may generalize to other languages and cultures.

  6. Clustering of metabolic syndrome traits is associated with maladaptive carotid remodeling and stiffening: a 6-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabel; Beijers, Hanneke J; Schouten, Fleur; Smulders, Yvo M; Twisk, Jos W; Stehouwer, Coen D

    2012-08-01

    Maladaptive arterial remodeling may constitute a mechanism underlying the risk of stroke in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but evidence supporting this contention derives from cross-sectional studies only. We, therefore, investigated, in apparently healthy adults, whether changes in MetS status between the ages of 36 and 42 years (never [n=207, reference group], incident [n=31], recovery [n=23], and persistent [n=32]) were associated with changes in carotid interadventitial diameter, lumen diameter, intima-media thickness, circumferential wall tension and stress, and Young's elastic modulus. All data analyses were adjusted for sex, height, and (changes in) age, lifestyle variables, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and use of antihypertensive medication. At baseline and as compared with the reference group, individuals with persistent MetS had significantly higher interadventitial diameter, circumferential wall tension, circumferential wall stress, and Young's elastic modulus but not intima-media thickness. In the course of follow-up, these individuals (versus reference group) displayed significantly steeper increases in intima-media thickness (0.011 versus 0.005 mm/y), which were accompanied by significantly steeper increases in interadventitial diameter (0.077 versus 0.032 mm/y) and lumen diameter (0.055 versus 0.023 mm/y) but not circumferential wall stress, which decreased (-0.34 versus 0.12 kPa/y). These findings suggest that increases in intima-media thickness in young adults with the MetS may primarily reflect an adaptive mechanism that attempts to restore local hemodynamic conditions to an equilibrium rather than atherosclerosis, per se. However, carotid adaptations did not restore circumferential wall stress to levels comparable with those of the reference group, and, therefore, outward remodeling was maladaptive. Importantly, individuals who recovered from the MetS restored carotid properties to levels comparable to the reference group

  7. An Experimental Examination of Peers’ Influence on Adolescent Girls’ Intent to Engage in Maladaptive Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Rancourt, Diana; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social psychological theories provide bases for understanding how social comparison processes may impact peer influence. This study examined two peer characteristics that may impact peer influence on adolescent girls’ weight-related behavior intentions: body size and popularity. Method A school-based sample of 66 9th grade girls (12–15 years old) completed an experimental paradigm in which they believed they were interacting with other students (i.e., “e-confederates”). The body size and popularity of the e-confederates were experimentally manipulated. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions in which they were exposed to identical maladaptive weight-related behavior norms communicated by ostensible female peers who were either: (1) Thin and Popular; (2) Thin and Average Popularity; or (3) Heavy and Average Popularity. Participants’ intent to engage in weight-related behaviors was measured pre-experiment and during public and private segments of the experiment. Results A significant effect of condition on public conformity was observed. Participants exposed to peers’ maladaptive weight-related behavior norms in the Heavy and Average condition reported significantly less intent to engage in weight-related behaviors than participants in either of the thin-peer conditions (F(2) = 3.93, p = .025). Peer influence on private acceptance of weight-related behavior intentions was similar across conditions (F(2) = .47, p = .63). Discussion Body size comparison may be the most salient component of peer influence processes on weight-related behaviors. Peer influence on weight-related behavior intention also appears to impact private beliefs. Considering peer norms in preventive interventions combined with dissonance-based approaches may be useful. PMID:24482093

  8. An experimental examination of peers' influence on adolescent girls' intent to engage in maladaptive weight-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rancourt, Diana; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-07-01

    Social psychological theories provide bases for understanding how social comparison processes may impact peer influence. This study examined two peer characteristics that may impact peer influence on adolescent girls' weight-related behavior intentions: body size and popularity. A school-based sample of 66 9th grade girls (12-15 years old) completed an experimental paradigm in which they believed they were interacting with other students (i.e., "e-confederates"). The body size and popularity of the e-confederates were experimentally manipulated. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions in which they were exposed to identical maladaptive weight-related behavior norms communicated by ostensible female peers who were either: (1) Thin and Popular; (2) Thin and Average Popularity; or (3) Heavy and Average Popularity. Participants' intent to engage in weight-related behaviors was measured pre-experiment and during public and private segments of the experiment. A significant effect of condition on public conformity was observed. Participants exposed to peers' maladaptive weight-related behavior norms in the Heavy and Average condition reported significantly less intent to engage in weight-related behaviors than participants in either of the thin-peer conditions (F(2) = 3.93, p = .025). Peer influence on private acceptance of weight-related behavior intentions was similar across conditions (F(2) = .47, p = .63). Body size comparison may be the most salient component of peer influence processes on weight-related behaviors. Peer influence on weight-related behavior intention also appears to impact private beliefs. Considering peer norms in preventive interventions combined with dissonance-based approaches may be useful. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) maladaptive personality traits and their connections with normative personality traits.

    PubMed

    Wright, Zara E; Pahlen, Shandell; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposes an alternative model for personality disorders, which includes maladaptive-level personality traits. These traits can be operationalized by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5). Although there has been extensive research on genetic and environmental influences on normative level personality, the heritability of the DSM-5 traits remains understudied. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by assessing traits indexed by the PID-5 and the International Personality Item Pool NEO (IPIP-NEO) in adult twins (N = 1,812 individuals). Research aims include (a) replicating past findings of the heritability of normative level personality as measured by the IPIP-NEO as a benchmark for studying maladaptive level traits, (b) ascertaining univariate heritability estimates of maladaptive level traits as measured by the PID-5, (c) establishing how much variation in personality pathology can be attributed to the same genetic components affecting variation in normative level personality, and (d) determining residual variance in personality pathology domains after variance attributable to genetic and environmental components of general personality has been removed. Results revealed that PID-5 traits reflect similar levels of heritability to that of IPIP-NEO traits. Further, maladaptive and normative level traits that correlate at the phenotypic level also correlate at the genotypic level, indicating overlapping genetic components contribute to variance in both. Nevertheless, we also found evidence for genetic and environmental components unique to maladaptive level personality traits, not shared with normative level traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Shari L.; Cassedy, Amy E.; Fulks, Lauren E.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Yeates, Keith O.; Kurowski, Brad G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Setting Four children’s hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Participants Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Main Outcome Measures Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. Results The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (P<.001). Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories dimensions were correlated (r=.23–.37) with SPSI subscales in the anticipated direction. Although both maladaptive (P<.001) and adaptive (P=.006) problem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (P<.001) was related to the YSR total when outcomes were continuous. For the both CAFAS and YSR logistic models, maladaptive style was significantly associated with greater risk of impairment (P=.001). Conclusions Problem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on

  11. Interdisciplinary Treatment of Maladaptive Behaviors Associated with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Barbara K; Weiss, Karen E; Harrison, Tracy E; Allman, Daniel A; Petersen, Matthew A; Luedkte, Connie A; Fischer, Philip R

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) in adolescents and young adults has been increasing during the past decade. Despite this increase, documentation regarding treatment of these patients is just beginning to emerge. In addition, despite a call for a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary approach, no studies have examined the efficacy of such an approach to treatment. This paper describes a case study of a 19-year-old male with debilitating POTS seen at a tertiary clinic for evaluation and subsequent intensive interdisciplinary treatment. The treatment approach is described and outcomes are presented.

  12. Coping styles moderate the relationships between exposure to community violence and work-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cox, Cody B; Johnson, Jennie; Coyle, Tom

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify coping strategies used by employees exposed to community violence and their relationships to work-related outcomes. In study 1, Mexican Maquiladora employees who experienced community violence reported their coping strategies. Results identified 3 strategies: social, solitary, and maladaptive coping. In study 2, another sample completed measures of violence exposure, strain, coping, and turnover intention. Supervisors provided performance evaluations. Community violence predicted the use of all 3 strategies. Social coping lessened the effects of community violence on turnover while maladaptive strategies predicted increased psychological strain. Results indicate that workers use a variety of coping strategies in response to community violence that both lessen and magnify the effects of violence exposure and impact their psychological strain, turnover intention, and job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. [Dimensions of personality, attachment style and early maladaptive schemas in alcohol-dependent patients: Are there gender-specific differences?

    PubMed

    Camart, N; Cotte, M; Leignel, S; Bouvet, C; Limosin, F

    2016-12-01

    Literature reports particularities in certain psychological dimensions, such as personality traits, early maladaptive schemas and attachment styles among patients dependent on alcohol. Several international studies have also emphasized significant gender differences in psychological profiles. However, in France, only a few studies have dealt with this subject. Our aim was on the one hand to study the characteristics of alcohol-dependent patients in these variables, and on the other hand to search for gender differences. The personality dimensions were assessed with the French Big Five Inventory (Fr-BFI), the attachment style with Bartholomew's Relationship Scales Questionnaire (RSQ), and early maladaptive schemas with the short version of Young's questionnaire (YSQ-S1). Seventy-three subjects were included: 39 alcohol-dependent patients (19 men and 20 women) and 34 healthy control subjects (17 men and 17 women). The scores of alcohol-dependent patients were compared with those of a healthy control group (n=34, 17 men, 17 women) and available standards. We also compared the scores of men and women with alcohol dependence between them, and we compared the scores of men and women to those of the control group and those of the reference sample of the same sex. This is an ongoing study and we publish here the first results. Compared with control subjects, and the reference sample, alcohol-dependent patients showed significantly higher levels of neuroticism and lower levels of extraversion. Furthermore, differences in attachment styles were observed compared to the control group: alcohol-dependent patients presented a less secure attachment, seemed more fearful and detached, but the results remained within the normal standards. Compared to the control subjects, alcohol-dependent patients showed a significant increase in scores regarding many schemas: emotional deprivation, abandonment, abuse/mistrust, isolation, imperfection, dependence, symbiotic relationship

  14. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (P<.001). Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories dimensions were correlated (r=.23-.37) with SPSI subscales in the anticipated direction. Although both maladaptive (P<.001) and adaptive (P=.006) problem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (P<.001) was related to the YSR total when outcomes were continuous. For the both CAFAS and YSR logistic models, maladaptive style was significantly associated with greater risk of impairment (P=.001). Problem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  15. Reciprocal Relationship between Internet Addiction and Network-Related Maladaptive Cognition among Chinese College Freshmen: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Piguo; Wang, Peng; Lin, Qingnan; Tian, Yu; Gao, Fengqiang; Chen, Yingmin

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the reciprocal relationship between Internet addiction (IA) and network-related maladaptive cognition (NMC) in Chinese college freshmen. A short-term longitudinal survey with a sample of 213 college freshmen was conducted in Shandong province, China. The results revealed that IA can significantly predict the generation and development of NMCs, and that when such maladaptive cognitions have been established, they can further adversely affect the extent of the students’ IA. A vicious cycle was observed between these two variables, with IA having predictive priority in its relationship with NMC. This study also determined that the relationship between these two variables was the same for both males and females; therefore, the final model we established can be extensively applied to Chinese college freshmen, regardless of gender. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between these two variables can assist in interventions in IA at the outset of students’ college life. PMID:28690575

  16. Reciprocal Relationship between Internet Addiction and Network-Related Maladaptive Cognition among Chinese College Freshmen: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Piguo; Wang, Peng; Lin, Qingnan; Tian, Yu; Gao, Fengqiang; Chen, Yingmin

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the reciprocal relationship between Internet addiction (IA) and network-related maladaptive cognition (NMC) in Chinese college freshmen. A short-term longitudinal survey with a sample of 213 college freshmen was conducted in Shandong province, China. The results revealed that IA can significantly predict the generation and development of NMCs, and that when such maladaptive cognitions have been established, they can further adversely affect the extent of the students' IA. A vicious cycle was observed between these two variables, with IA having predictive priority in its relationship with NMC. This study also determined that the relationship between these two variables was the same for both males and females; therefore, the final model we established can be extensively applied to Chinese college freshmen, regardless of gender. Understanding the reciprocal relationship between these two variables can assist in interventions in IA at the outset of students' college life.

  17. Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Strategies in Adult Pathological Gamblers and Their Mediating Role with Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Onaindia, Jaione; Estévez, Ana

    2017-02-08

    Coping plays a central role in the appearance and persistence of pathological gambling. Anxious and depressive symptomatology also influence pathological gambling and are related to coping. This study aimed to analyze pathological gamblers' coping strategies and styles, as well as associated anxious and depressive symptomatology. The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Measures of gambling, coping, and anxious and depressive symptomatology were used. Results showed that pathological gamblers' scored higher in all the maladaptive coping strategies, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement, and disengagement subscales. These subscales also correlated with pathological gambling, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Pathological gamblers also scored higher in emotional expression and emotion-focused engagement, with no differences in the rest of the adaptive coping strategies. Coping was also found to predict pathological gambling and anxious and depressive symptomatology. It was found that coping mediated the relationship between pathological gambling and anxious symptomatology when controlling for the effect of age. Specifically, social withdrawal and disengagement stood out as mediators. These results provide practical information for use in clinical settings with people diagnosed with pathological gambling.

  18. Narratives of Self-Neglect: Patterns of Traumatic Personal Experiences and Maladaptive Behaviors in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lien, Cynthia; Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Abrams, Robert C; Pavlou, Maria; Lachs, Mark S

    2016-11-01

    To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69). Interviews included a comprehensive psychiatric assessment using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis-I and II Disorders and an unstructured interview that allowed subjects to describe important elements of their life stories. Content analysis was used to identify personal experiences and behavior patterns in each subject's narrative. Four types of traumatic personal experiences (psychologically traumatic loss, separation or abandonment (29%); violent victimization, physical trauma, or sexual abuse (19%); exposure to war or political violence (9%); prolonged mourning (7%)) and five behavior patterns (significant financial instability (23%), severe lifelong mental illness (16%), mistrust of people or paranoia (13%), distrust and avoidance of the medical establishment (13%), substance abuse or dependence (13%)) were identified in the life stories. Patterns of traumatic personal experiences and maladaptive behaviors that self-neglecters frequently report were identified. Experiences, perceptions, and behaviors developed over a lifetime may contribute to elder self-neglect. Further exploration and better understanding of these patterns may identify potential risk factors and areas for future targeted screening, intervention, and prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. The AP-1 Transcription Factor c-Jun Prevents Stress-Imposed Maladaptive Remodeling of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Windak, Renata; Müller, Julius; Felley, Allison; Akhmedov, Alexander; Wagner, Erwin F.; Pedrazzini, Thierry; Sumara, Grzegorz; Ricci, Romeo

    2013-01-01

    Systemic hypertension increases cardiac workload and subsequently induces signaling networks in heart that underlie myocyte growth (hypertrophic response) through expansion of sarcomeres with the aim to increase contractility. However, conditions of increased workload can induce both adaptive and maladaptive growth of heart muscle. Previous studies implicate two members of the AP-1 transcription factor family, junD and fra-1, in regulation of heart growth during hypertrophic response. In this study, we investigate the function of the AP-1 transcription factors, c-jun and c-fos, in heart growth. Using pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice and targeted deletion of Jun or Fos in cardiomyocytes, we show that c-jun is required for adaptive cardiac hypertrophy, while c-fos is dispensable in this context. c-jun promotes expression of sarcomere proteins and suppresses expression of extracellular matrix proteins. Capacity of cardiac muscle to contract depends on organization of principal thick and thin filaments, myosin and actin, within the sarcomere. In line with decreased expression of sarcomere-associated proteins, Jun-deficient cardiomyocytes present disarrangement of filaments in sarcomeres and actin cytoskeleton disorganization. Moreover, Jun-deficient hearts subjected to pressure overload display pronounced fibrosis and increased myocyte apoptosis finally resulting in dilated cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, c-jun but not c-fos is required to induce a transcriptional program aimed at adapting heart growth upon increased workload. PMID:24039904

  20. Elucidating the relation between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood: The mediating role of maladaptive interpersonal processes

    PubMed Central

    Massing-Schaffer, Maya; Liu, Richard T.; Kraines, Morganne A.; Choi, Jimmy Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to assess the potential unique and relative mediating effects of three interpersonal risk factors (i.e., excessive reassurance-seeking [ERS], negative feedback seeking [NFS], and rejection sensitivity [RS]) in the relationship between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and depressive symptoms. Method One hundred eighty-five undergraduates were followed over a four-month interval. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, ERS, NFS, and RS, and depressive symptoms at baseline, as well as depressive symptoms at four-month followup. Results Findings from single-mediator analyses indicated that RS and NFS, but not ERS, mediated the relationship between CEA and prospective depressive symptoms, after accounting for childhood sexual and physical abuse, as well as baseline depressive symptoms. In our multi-mediator model, only RS remained a significant mediator of the relationship between CEA and prospective depressive symptoms. Conclusions The current study provides preliminary evidence that negative behavioral styles may function as a mechanism linking prior experiences of CEA to subsequent depressive symptoms. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting maladaptive behavioral tendencies, particularly RS, may be an effective adjunct in behavioral modification treatments of CEA victims at risk for depression. PMID:26246650