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Sample records for malaria prevention measures

  1. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  2. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    Definition Malaria is caused by a protozoan infection of red blood cells with one of four species of the genus plasmodium: P falciparum, P vivax, P ovale, or P malariae.1 Clinically, malaria may present in different ways, but it is usually characterised by fever (which may be swinging), tachycardia, rigors, and sweating. Anaemia, hepatosplenomegaly, cerebral involvement, renal failure, and shock may occur. Incidence/prevalence Each year there are 300-500 million clinical cases of malaria. About 40% of the world's population is at risk of acquiring the disease.23 Each year 25-30 million people from non-tropical countries visit areas in which malaria is endemic,4 of whom between 10 000 and 30 000 contract malaria.5 Aetiology/risk factors Malaria is mainly a rural disease, requiring standing water nearby. It is transmitted by bites6 from infected female anopheline mosquitoes,7 mainly at dusk and during the night.18 In cities, mosquito bites are usually from female culicene mosquitoes, which are not vectors of malaria.9 Malaria is resurgent in most tropical countries and the risk to travellers is increasing.10 Prognosis Ninety per cent of travellers who contract malaria do not become ill until after they return home.5 “Imported malaria” is easily treated if diagnosed promptly, and it follows a serious course in only about 12% of people.1112 The most severe form of the disease is cerebral malaria, with a case fatality rate in adult travellers of 2-6%,3 mainly because of delays in diagnosis.5 Aims To reduce the risk of infection; to prevent illness and death. Outcomes Rates of malarial illness and death, and adverse effects of treatment. Proxy measures include number of mosquito bites and number of mosquitoes in indoor areas. We found limited evidence linking number of mosquito bites and risk of malaria.13 Methods Clinical Evidence search and appraisal in November 1999. We reviewed all identified systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials (RCTs

  3. Factors impeding the acceptability and use of malaria preventive measures: implications for malaria elimination in eastern Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Ingabire, Chantal Marie; Rulisa, Alexis; Van Kempen, Luuk; Muvunyi, Claude; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Van Vugt, Michele; Mutesa, Leon; Van Den Borne, Bart; Alaii, Jane

    2015-03-31

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), indoor residual spraying (IRS) and malaria case treatment with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been proven to significantly reduce malaria, but may not necessarily lead to malaria elimination. This study explored factors hindering the acceptability and use of available malaria preventive measures to better inform area specific strategies that can lead to malaria elimination. Nine focus group discussions (FGD) covering a cross-section of 81 lay community members and local leaders were conducted in Ruhuha, Southern Eastern Rwanda in December 2013 to determine: community perceptions on malaria disease, acceptability of LLIN and IRS, health care-seeking behaviours and other malaria elimination strategies deployed at household and environmental levels. Discussions were recorded in Kinyarwanda, transcribed into English and coded using Nvivo 10 software. Participants ranked malaria as the top among five common diseases in the Ruhuha sector. Participants expressed comprehensive knowledge and understanding of malaria transmission and symptoms. The concept of malaria elimination was acknowledged, but challenges were reported. Sleeping under a bed net was negatively affected by increase of bedbugs (and the associated irritability) as well as discomfortable warmness particularly during the dry season. These two factors were reported as common hindrances of the use of LLIN. Also, widespread use of LLIN in constructing chicken pens or as fences around vegetable gardens was reported. Participants also reported that IRS appeared to lead to an increase in number of mosquitoes and other household bugs rather than kill them. Prompt health centre utilization among participants with presumed malaria was reported to be common particularly among subscribers to the subsidized community-based health insurance (CBHI) scheme. In contrast, the lack of CBHI and/or perceptions that health centre visits were time consuming were common

  4. Factors affecting the use of anti-malaria preventive measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to malaria-endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wen-Shin; Hu, Susan C; Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Kwo-Liang; Chen, Kou-Huang; Yu, Mei-Ching; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of anti-malaria preventive measures (AMPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from malaria-endemic countries, attended by either the Taipei or Tainan Immigrant Service Center, Taiwan, and who reported a history of returning to their country of origin within the preceding year during the malarious season in their country of origin were enrolled in the study. Complete information was collected from 316 immigrants, with a response rate of 87% (316/364). The mean age of the subjects was 38.1 years (SD = 9.9). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pre-travel consultation; more than 40% reported that they did not use measures to prevent insect bites. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, travel consultation before travel, lower perceived susceptibility to malaria, higher perceived severity of malaria infection, higher perceived benefit for taking measures, and higher self-efficacy for taking measures significantly predicted the use of AMPMs during the return to their country of origin (R(2) = 0.20; F = 50.42; P < 0.001). A high proportion of immigrants were not using appropriate AMPMs when they returned to their country. Educational approaches should be targeted toward immigrants who return to visit their country of origin.

  5. Utilisation of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and birth outcomes in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major public health problem in sub Saharan Africa and the extent of utilisation of malaria preventive measures may impact on the burden of malaria in pregnancy. This study sought to determine the association between malaria preventive measures utilized during pregnancy and the birth outcomes of birth weight and preterm delivery. Methods This cross sectional survey involved 800 mothers who delivered at the University College Hospital, and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan. Data obtained included obstetric information, gestational age, birth weight and self reported use of malaria prevention strategies in index pregnancy. Results Most (95.6%) mothers used one or more malaria control measures. The most commonly used vector control measures were window net (84.0%), insecticide spray (71.5%) and insecticide treated bed nets (20.1%), while chemoprophylactic agents were pyrimethamine (23.5%), Intermittent Preventive Treatments with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (IPTsp) (18.5%) and intermittent chloroquine (9.5%) and 21.7% used herbal medications. The mean ± SD birthweight and gestational age of the babies were 3.02 kg ± 0.56 and 37.9 weeks ± 2.5 respectively. Preterm delivery rate was 19.4% and 9% had low birth weight. Comparing babies whose mothers had IPTsp with those who did not, mean birth weight was 3.13 kg ± 0.52 versus 3.0 kg ± 0.56 (p = 0.016) and mean gestational age was 38.5 weeks ± 2.1 versus 37.8 weeks ± 2.5 (p = 0.002). The non-use of IPTsp was associated with increased risk of having low birth weight babies (AOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 0.98; 5.28) and preterm birth (AOR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.44). The non use of herbal preparations (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.85) was associated with reduced risk of preterm birth. The mean ± SD birth weight and gestational ages of babies born to mothers who slept under ITNs were not significantly different from those who did not (p = 0.07 and 0.09 respectively). Conclusions There is a need for

  6. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity over 60% and ambient temperature of 25-30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10-14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 69 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acoustic buzzers, aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), doxycycline, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vaporising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines. PMID:19450348

  7. Malaria: prevention in travellers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone–proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine–dapsone, pyrimethamine–sulfadoxine, smoke

  8. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011–2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013–2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4–39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of

  9. Prevention of Malaria Resurgence in Greece through the Association of Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to Immigrants from Malaria-Endemic Regions and Standard Control Measures.

    PubMed

    Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Kapizioni, Christina; Snounou, Georges; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Charvalakou, Maria; Georgitsou, Maria; Panoutsakou, Maria; Psinaki, Ioanna; Tsoromokou, Maria; Karakitsos, George; Pervanidou, Danai; Vakali, Annita; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Mamuris, Zissis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Koliopoulos, George; Badieritakis, Evangelos; Diamantopoulos, Vasilis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-11-01

    Greece was declared malaria-free in 1974 after a long antimalarial fight. In 2011-2012, an outbreak of P. vivax malaria was reported in Evrotas, an agricultural area in Southern Greece, where a large number of immigrants from endemic countries live and work. A total of 46 locally acquired and 38 imported malaria cases were detected. Despite a significant decrease of the number of malaria cases in 2012, a mass drug administration (MDA) program was considered as an additional measure to prevent reestablishment of the disease in the area. During 2013 and 2014, a combination of 3-day chloroquine and 14-day primaquine treatment was administered under direct observation to immigrants living in the epicenter of the 2011 outbreak in Evrotas. Adverse events were managed and recorded on a daily basis. The control measures implemented since 2011 continued during the period of 2013-2014 as a part of a national integrated malaria control program that included active case detection (ACD), vector control measures and community education. The MDA program was started prior to the transmission periods (from May to December). One thousand ninety four (1094) immigrants successfully completed the treatment, corresponding to 87.3% coverage of the target population. A total of 688 adverse events were recorded in 397 (36.2%, 95% C.I.: 33.4-39.1) persons, the vast majority minor, predominantly dizziness and headache for chloroquine (284 events) and abdominal pain (85 events) for primaquine. A single case of primaquine-induced hemolysis was recorded in a person whose initial G6PD test proved incorrect. No malaria cases were recorded in Evrotas, Laconia, in 2013 and 2014, though three locally acquired malaria cases were recorded in other regions of Greece in 2013. Preventive antimalarial MDA to a high-risk population in a low transmission setting appears to have synergized with the usual antimalarial activities to achieve malaria elimination. This study suggests that judicious use of MDA can

  10. High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?

    PubMed Central

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Adde, Antoine; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities. PMID:27653361

  11. Tacrolimus prevents murine cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lam Quoc; Nhi, Dang My; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hamano, Shinjiro; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-02-01

    Tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil are immunosuppressants frequently used in human organ transplantation. Tacrolimus is also reported to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth in vitro. Here, we report that tacrolimus prevented the death from cerebral malaria of Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected C57BL/6J mice, but not their death from malaria due to the high parasitaemia and severe anaemia. The mycophenolate mofetil-treated mice showed higher mortality from cerebral malaria and succumbed to malaria earlier than tacrolimus-treated littermates. Tacrolimus attenuated the infiltration of mononuclear cells including pathogenic CD8(+) T cells into the brain. It appears to prevent murine cerebral malaria through the inhibition of cerebral infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Malaria prevention in international travel].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2003-05-01

    For travelers malaria represents the principal infectious risk of severe complications and death. Infection during traveling depends on the geographical area visited, the predominant species of parasite, the frequency of resistance to antimalarial agents, and whether preventive measures have been taken. Until a vaccine has been developed, prevention strategies consist of providing travelers with information, the use of barrier methods against vector bites, the correct use of chemoprophylaxis, and the possibility of self-diagnosis and treatment. The choice of chemoprophylaxis regimen should be individualized since no regimen guarantees 100% protection or is free of adverse effects or contraindications. The most effective drugs are doxycycline, atovaquone-proguanil and mefloquine while those producing severe adverse effects with the least frequency are atovaquone-proguanil and doxycycline.

  13. Malaria prevention and control in the United States military.

    PubMed

    Robert, L L

    2001-01-01

    Malaria continues to be a serious threat to deployed military forces in many areas of the World. United States experiences during, and lessons learned from, World War II, Viet Nam, and Somalia have significantly changed the way that military planners, medical and preventive medicine personnel are facing the malaria challenge. Currently, the US military has a powerful arsenal of educational courses and materials, personal protective measures, and malaria surveillance and control techniques in place to fight malaria. These new tools will hopefully reduce malaria morbidity and mortality during military deployments in the future.

  14. New guidelines on malaria prevention: A summary.

    PubMed

    Swales, Claire A; Chiodini, Peter L; Bannister, Barbara A

    2007-02-01

    Travellers to many tropical areas remain at risk of contracting malaria. Resistance of malaria parasites to a number of drugs continues to increase in degree and distribution, so that some older, trusted prophylactic drugs, such as chloroquine, are no longer useful in some parts of the world. Despite the introduction of new drugs and the reduction of malaria risk in some areas, such as parts of India, the number of people travelling continues to increase and malaria reports in the UK are not decreasing. New updated prevention guidelines from the Health Protection Agency Advisory Committee on Malaria Prevention (ACMP) in UK travellers (Chiodini P, Hill D, Lalloo D, Lea G, Walker E, Whitty C, et al. Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom. London: Health Protection Agency; January 2007. Available from: http://www.hpa.org.uk/infections/topics_az/malaria/default.htm) aim to raise awareness of the risks of malaria and help UK travel health advisors in giving malaria prevention advice to all those who need it. Together with the ACMP malaria treatment guidelines it is hoped that the risk of illness and death from malaria in UK travellers can be reduced. This article summarises the new ACMP malaria prevention guidelines.

  15. Malaria prevention and control in Bhutan: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tobgay, Tashi; Torres, Cristina E; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2011-03-01

    This paper highlights on the current malaria situations in Bhutan and its challenges for future prevention and control strategies. In Bhutan, malaria affects more than half of the entire population, mostly residing in the southern districts bordering with Indian states of Assam and West Bengal. Over the past ten years, due to concerted efforts, the morbidity and mortality due to malaria has significantly declined. These preventive and control measures focused on the mass distribution of long lasting insecticidal treated nets, focal indoor residual spray and use of artemisinin-based combination therapies. However, considerable challenge lies ahead and research is needed to generate local evidence for sustainable elimination of malaria from Bhutan. The article should be of value and interest to planners, malaria programs and for future researchers on malaria in Bhutan. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene-therapy for malaria prevention.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S

    2014-11-01

    The limited number of tools for malaria prevention and the inability to eradicate the disease have required large investments in vaccine development, as vaccines have been the only foreseeable type of immunoprophylaxis against malaria. An alternative strategy named vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) now would allow genetically transduced host cells to assemble and secrete antibodies that neutralize the infectivity of the malaria parasite and prevent disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Larvivorous fish for preventing malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Walshe, Deirdre P; Garner, Paul; Abdel-Hameed Adeel, Ahmed A; Pyke, Graham H; Burkot, Tom

    2013-01-01

    of Anopheles larvae and pupae (nine studies, unpooled data, very low quality evidence). Some studies with high stocking levels of fish seemed to arrest the increase in immature anopheline populations, or to reduce the number of immature anopheline mosquitoes, compared with controls. However, this finding was not consistent, and in studies that showed a decrease in immature anopheline populations, the effect was not consistently sustained. Larvivorous fish may reduce the number of water sources withAnopheles larvae and pupae (five studies, unpooled data, low quality evidence). None of the included studies reported effects of larvivorous fish on local native fish populations or other species. Authors' conclusions Reliable research is insufficient to show whether introducing larvivorous fish reduces malaria transmission or the density of adult anopheline mosquito populations. In research examining the effects on immature anopheline stages of introducing fish to potential malaria vector breeding sites (localized water bodies such as wells and domestic water sources, rice field plots, and water canals) weak evidence suggests an effect on the density or presence of immature anopheline mosquitoes with high stocking levels of fish, but this finding is by no means consistent. We do not know whether this translates into health benefits, either with fish alone or with fish combined with other vector control measures. Our interpretation of the current evidence is that countries should not invest in fish stocking as a larval control measure in any malaria transmission areas outside the context of carefully controlled field studies or quasi-experimental designs. Research could also usefully examine the effects on native fish and other non-target species. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Fish that feed on mosquito larvae for preventing malaria transmission Plasmodium parasites cause malaria and are transmitted by adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Programmes that introduce fish into water sources

  18. Young people's perspectives on the adoption of preventive measures for HIV/AIDS, malaria and family planning in South-West Uganda: focus group study.

    PubMed

    Graffy, Jonathan; Goodhart, Clare; Sennett, Karen; Kamusiime, Gloria; Tukamushaba, Herbert

    2012-11-22

    Despite the possibility of preventing many cases of HIV, malaria and unplanned pregnancy, protective measures are often not taken by those at risk in Uganda. The study aim was to explore young people's perspectives on the reasons why this is so. Focus groups were conducted with 100 secondary school and college students in Kanungu, Uganda in 2011. Three parallel groups considered HIV, malaria and family planning, and common messages were then explored jointly in a workshop based on the RE-AIM framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance). Participants identified various reasons why preventive action was not always taken. They worried about the effectiveness and side effects of several key interventions: condoms, antiretroviral treatment, various contraceptives and impregnated mosquito nets. Cost, rural isolation and the quality and availability of health services also limited the extent to which people were able to follow health advice. Although there was respect for policy supporting abstinence and fidelity, it was seen as hard to follow and offering inadequate protection when gender imbalance put pressure on women to have sex. There is an opportunity to improve the uptake of preventive measures by tackling the misconceptions and fears that participants reported with clear, evidence-based messages. This should be done in a way that encourages more open communication about reproductive health between men and women, that reaches out to isolated communities, that draws on both voluntary and government services and enlists young people so that they can shape their future.

  19. Major decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the Union of Comoros between 2010 and 2014: The effect of a combination of prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Said Abasse; James, Peter Bai; Alolga, Rachel Nammahime; Assanhou, Assogba Gabin; Kassim, Said Mohamed; Bacar, Anfane; Silai, Rahamatou; Tian, Lei; Li, Hongchao; Ma, Aixia

    2016-06-17

    Malaria remains a public health challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. In response to this, many countries are working towards achieving the World Health Assembly and Roll Back Malaria Partnership target of a 75% decline in malaria incidence. To assess trends in malaria morbidity and mortality in the three islands of the Comoros Archipelago from 2010 to 2014. This was a retrospective study in which all confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded between 2010 and 2014 were accessed from the national malaria control database. Trends and comparisons in malaria incidence and case fatality rates for all age groups, including under-5 children and pregnant women, were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 16. A substantial decline in malaria incidence was observed for each island between 2010 and 2014; from 75.98 cases per 1 000 population in 2010 to 0.14 in 2014 in Moheli, 60.60 to 0.02 in Anjouan and 235.36 to 5.47 in Grand Comoro. Additionally, a general reduction in malaria case fatalities was observed. In Moheli, there were no case fatalities between 2010 and 2014, while there was a decline in the case fatality rate in Anjouan (from 1.20 fatalities per 1 000 cases to 0) and Grand Comoros (0.51 to 0). There were also significant differences (p<0.05) in malaria incidence and case fatalities between the three islands. A similar trend was observed for pregnant women and under-5 children. Our study indicates a significant decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the islands of Moheli, Anjouan and Grand Comoro from 2010 to 2014. This considerable reduction is attributed to a combination of malaria prevention and control interventions implemented during the study period.

  20. [The ABCD of malaria prevention in pediatric travelers].

    PubMed

    Berberian, Griselda; Rosanova, M Teresa; Torroija, Cecilia; Praino, M Laura

    2014-10-01

    The development and spread of drug resistant malaria parasites, population and travelers movements to malaria zones have led to the resurgence of malaria as a global health problem. Estimates suggest that 660,000 deaths occur annually, mainly in infants, children and pregnant woman. Disease knowledge and protection against mosquito bites are the first line of defense against malaria. Malaria chemoprophylaxis adds to these measures, it must be evaluated based on the individual risk.

  1. [Study of 6 cases of malaria acquired near Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle in 1994. Necessary prevention measures in airports].

    PubMed

    Giacomini, T; Mouchet, J; Mathieu, P; Petithory, J C

    1995-02-01

    During the very hot 1994 summer, six new cases of airport malaria have been observed in and around Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. Four patients were regular or occasional airport employees. The two other cases were inhabitants of a city at 7 km. Entomological investigations suggest that cars of airport employees served to disseminate anophelines outside the airport areas. The six cases were very severe. One patient died. Apparently, W.H.O. recommendations on aircraft disinsecting procedures have not been fully followed. There is obviously a threat for areas near the airports.

  2. [Current strategies for the prevention of malaria].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Danis, M; Mouchet, J

    1990-01-01

    Two billion of persons live in regions where endemic malaria prevails or has reappeared. An estimated on hundred million infected individuals per year have been reported around the world. In front of this alarming situation, the diversity and even the incoherence of the currently proposed prophylactic regimens confuses the therapists and renders difficult the adoption of an efficacious strategy. The extension and gravity of drug resistance of P. falciparum and the withdrawal of anti-vectorial campaign constitute two reasons for the present recrudescence of malaria. The preventive strategies in 1990 are based on: rehabilitation of anti-vectorial campaign particularly against nocturnal mosquito bites, applicable to all, everywhere and at all times, by the means of individual and collective measures and mostly by impregnated nets; chemoprophylaxis for which two situations should be distinguished: the non immune traveler leaving for a short period (inferior or equal to 3 months) to an endemic area: individuals living permanently or for long periods in tropical regions. Prevention for short stays In low risk transmission zone (North Africa, Mexico, large cities of South East Asia) whatever the duration, suppression of chemoprophylaxis is acceptable. In high risk transmission zone, three strategies exist according to the intensity and frequency of drug resistance: zone 1 (P. vivax or drug sensitive P. falciparum): chloroquine at a dose of 100 mg/day for adults (1.5 mg/kg/day for children) 6 days out of 7, from the day of departure trough the whole stay and for one month after the return, is still efficacious; zone 2 (moderate frequency of drug resistance): protection is again ensured by chloroquine only, as in zone 1, or better than that by the association of chloroquine 300 mg once a week and proguanil 200 mg/day (3 mg/kg/day for children). The side effects of mefloquine and the risk of generation drug resistance argue against its general use in this zone particularly

  3. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. Methods AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. Results The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Conclusion Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures. PMID:23467840

  4. Current management and prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Agboghoroma, C O

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women suffer more frequent and severe malaria than non-pregnant women. Malaria in pregnancy contributes to the high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Africa. To review the burden and highlight the current management and prevention strategies for control of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Papers for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and Google, and references from relevant articles. Search terms were "malaria", "malaria in pregnancy", "Malaria during pregnancy" and "antimalarial drug". Only papers published in English between 1983 and 2013 were included. In malarial endemic areas, acquired partial malarial immunity is not effective during pregnancy. Pregnant women are prone to frequent malaria infections which may be severe or asymptomatic but associated with placental parasitization. Malaria contributes 2-15% to maternal anaemia, 13-70% to intrauterine growth restriction, 8-14% to low birth weight, 8-36% to prematurity, 3-8% to infant deaths and 2.9-17.6% to maternal mortality. The control of malaria in pregnancy is currently predicated on three main strategies: 1) Prompt and effective case management of malaria; 2).Use of Insecticide-treated nets; and 3).Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Artemisinin-based combined therapy is the recommended treatment for uncomplicated malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, while quinine is used in the first trimester and for severe cases of malaria at any gestational age. The control of malaria during pregnancy should be an integral part of efforts to reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Africa.

  5. Community Perceptions and Practices about Malaria Prevention and Control in Iran

    PubMed Central

    RAKHSHANI, Fatemeh; ANSARI-MOGHADAM, Alireza; MOHAMMADI, Mahdi; RANJBAR, Mansoor; RAEISI, Ahmad; RAKHSHANI, Tayebeh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background General knowledge of at risk people regarding malaria is key element to facilitate appropriate treatment and prevention behaviours. The aim of this study was to assess the family heads' understanding of malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, and preventive measures in malaria-affected districts of Iran. Method In 2009 in a cluster randomized cross-sectional survey data were collected from the heads of 5,466 randomly selected households by trained interviewers and a validated questionnaire. Only one adult person was interviewed per household Once all the information collected and entered to the SPSS Ver. 18 analysis was done and descriptive statistics were used to summarize results. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were also estimated for indicators. Results 63.8% [95% CI: 62.2 - 65.4] of the participants recognized fever as a sign of malaria, 56.4% [95% CI: 54.6 - 58.2] reported that mosquito bites cause malaria and about 35% [95% CI: 32.7 - 37.1] of participants mentioned that the use of mosquito nets could prevent malaria. Furthermore, about one-third of selected samples in target districts did not know symptoms, transmission route and appropriate prevention method of malaria. Data also suggests a slight variation by residency, but substantial discrepancy according to the region. Conclusions General knowledge of respondents concerning malaria is too far from the levels required to be constructive for malaria elimination. Therefore, the survey suggests developing, and implementing effective health promotion policies to increase the awareness of households about the symptoms, transmission route and control measures of malaria. PMID:26060681

  6. Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Kathryn N.; Kain, Kevin C.; Keystone, Jay S.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection of global importance. Although relatively uncommon in developed countries, where the disease occurs mainly in travellers who have returned from endemic regions, it remains one of the most prevalent infections of humans worldwide. In endemic regions, malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and creates enormous social and economic burdens. Current efforts to control malaria focus on reducing attributable morbidity and mortality. Targeted chemoprophylaxis and use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been successful in some endemic areas. For travellers to malaria-endemic regions, personal protective measures and appropriate chemoprophylaxis can significantly reduce the risk of infection. Prompt evaluation of the febrile traveller, a high degree of suspicion of malaria, rapid and accurate diagnosis, and appropriate antimalarial therapy are essential in order to optimize clinical outcomes of infected patients. Additional approaches to malaria control, including genetic manipulation of mosquitoes and malaria vaccines, are areas of ongoing research. PMID:15159369

  7. Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Summary The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication. PMID:18387849

  8. Use of Mosquito Preventive Measures Is Associated with Increased RBC CR1 Levels in a Malaria Holoendemic Area of Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    King, Christine; Du, Ping; Otieno, Walter; Stoute, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for close to 1 million deaths each year, mostly among African children. Red blood cells (RBCs) of children with severe malarial anemia show loss of complement regulatory proteins such as complement receptor 1 (CR1). We carried out this study to identify socio-economic, environmental, and biological factors associated with the loss of RBC CR1. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a malaria holoendemic area of western Kenya. Twelve socioeconomic, environmental, and biological factors were examined for a relationship with RBC CR1 level using bivariate linear regression followed by creation of a multivariate linear regression model. A significant positive relationship between RBC CR1 level and use of mosquito countermeasures was found. However, there was no evidence of a significant relationship between RBC CR1 level and malaria infection or parasitemia level. Reducing mosquito exposure may aid in the prevention of severe malarial anemia by reducing the number of infections and thus preserving RBC CR1. PMID:25385855

  9. [Retinopathy due to 4-aminoquinolines in the prevention of malaria].

    PubMed

    Vedy, J; Graveline, J; Carrica, J; Rivaud, C; Chanut, G

    1979-01-01

    The authors give a study about retinopathy by 4-amino-quinoleine in malaria prevention. Twelve observations are known in patients after 12 to 20 years of treatment. The authors suggest systematic research of this retinopathy.

  10. Behavioral change communications on malaria prevention in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Ernest Yaw; Braimah, Mahama; Otuo, Priscilla Ntriwaa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the various communications strategies designed to promote insecticide-treated nets (ITN) use among pregnant women and children. This study is an exploratory study into the communications activities by institutions involved in malaria prevention in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted and the data were analyzed. We found that most of the interventions are aimed at encouraging the target markets to acquire ITNs, although most messages on malaria prevention are not integrated. Several challenges were noted, including financial constraints, lack of human resources, cultural barriers, negative publicity, and negative perceptions on malaria.

  11. [Prevention of malaria in travellers and expatriates].

    PubMed

    Bourgeade, A; Faugere, B; Nosny, Y

    1990-01-01

    Since the occurrence of the chloroquino-resistance, chemoprophylaxis for all is not anymore the sound principle to malaria prophylaxis for travellers and expatriates. Protection against malaria has now to be based on comprehensive actions (chemoprophylaxis, control of infecting bites, treatment of malaria cases as soon as first symptom occur), they have to be combined, as a whole or not, according to the area, the duration and the type of tropical stay, and even sometimes according to some parameters peculiar to an individual. The development of concepts concerning the epidemiology of human malaria and the use of antimalarial drugs, either as protective or curative, lead more and more to the necessity for any traveller or expatriate to take medical advice from a specialized physician.

  12. Malaria: prevention in travellers (non-drug interventions)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25°C to 30°C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months, depending on the strain of parasite. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions to prevent malaria in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of non-drug interventions to prevent malaria in child travellers and in pregnant travellers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found five studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, air conditioning and electric fans, bath or chemical-base oils, biological control measures, dietary supplementation, electronic mosquito repellents, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, lifestyle changes (full-length and light-coloured clothing, behaviour modification), mosquito coils and vapourising mats, skin-applied chemical repellents (containing diethyltoluamide [DEET] or picaridin), skin-applied plant-based repellents, and smoke. PMID:25399869

  13. A decade of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil: what has been done concerning prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, Paola; Costa, Fabio Trindade Maranhão; Marinho, Claudio Romero Farias

    2014-08-01

    In Brazil, malaria remains a disease of major epidemiological importance because of the high number of cases in the Amazonian Region. Plasmodium spp infections during pregnancy are a significant public health problem with substantial risks for the pregnant woman, the foetus and the newborn child. In Brazil, the control of malaria during pregnancy is primarily achieved by prompt and effective treatment of the acute episodes. Thus, to assure rapid diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women with malaria, one of the recommended strategy for low transmission areas by World Health Organization and as part of a strategy by the Ministry of Health, the National Malaria Control Program has focused on integrative measures with woman and reproductive health. Here, we discuss the approach for the prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy in Brazil over the last 10 years (2003-2012) using morbidity data from Malaria Health Information System. Improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare and education and the consolidation of prevention programmes will be challenges in the control of malaria during pregnancy in the next decade.

  14. Assessing Knowledge and Perceptions Related to Preventive Methods and Treatment of Malaria in the Local Endemic Area of Trujillo, Honduras.

    PubMed

    Campodonico, Joanna; Sevilla-Martir, Javier; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Kochhar, Komal

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in Honduras is endemic and accounts for 40% of the total cases in Central America. Our goal was to assess knowledge of preventive methods and current treatment of malaria among the affected community of Trujillo, Honduras. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 71 individuals. Most respondents had a good understanding about common malaria symptoms but not about the complications associated with severe cases. More important, we found that less than 20% of the respondents recognized indoor residual sprays and insecticide-treated nets as effective preventive measures, which are the most efficient preventive methods. Our study highlights the perceptions the people of Trujillo have about malaria. From our observations, we put forward recommendations to implement a comprehensive campaign to educate the Trujillo population about malaria preventive methods and to recruit local and international efforts to distribute insecticide-treated nets.

  15. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy in central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Brentlinger, Paula E; Dgedge, Martinho; Correia, Maria Ana Chadreque; Rojas, Ana Judith Blanco; Saúte, Francisco; Gimbel-Sherr, Kenneth H; Stubbs, Benjamin A; Mercer, Mary Anne; Gloyd, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    New WHO strategies for control of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) recommend intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), bednet use and improved case management. A pilot MiP programme in Mozambique was designed to determine requirements for scale-up. The Ministry of Health worked with a nongovernmental organization and an academic institution to establish and monitor a pilot programme in two impoverished malaria-endemic districts. Implementing the pilot programme required provision of additional sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), materials for directly observed SP administration, bednets and a modified antenatal card. National-level formulary restrictions on SP needed to be waived. The original protocol required modification because imprecision in estimation of gestational age led to missed SP doses. Multiple incompatibilities with other health initiatives (including programmes for control of syphilis, anaemia and HIV) were discovered and overcome. Key outputs and impacts were measured; 92.5% of 7911 women received at least 1 dose of SP, with the mean number of SP doses received being 2.2. At the second antenatal visit, 13.5% of women used bednets. In subgroups (1167 for laboratory analyses; 2600 births), SP use was significantly associated with higher haemoglobin levels (10.9 g/dL if 3 doses, 10.3 if none), less malaria parasitaemia (prevalence 7.5% if 3 doses, 39.3% if none), and fewer low-birth-weight infants (7.3% if 3 doses, 12.5% if none). National-level scale-up will require attention to staffing, supplies, bednet availability, drug policy, gestational-age estimation and harmonization of vertical initiatives.

  16. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret A; Burrows, Jeremy N; Manyando, Christine; van Huijsduijnen, Rob Hooft; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Wells, Timothy N C

    2017-08-03

    Malaria is caused in humans by five species of single-celled eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax) that are transmitted by the bite of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Malaria remains one of the most serious infectious diseases; it threatens nearly half of the world's population and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths in 2015, predominantly among children in Africa. Malaria is managed through a combination of vector control approaches (such as insecticide spraying and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets) and drugs for both treatment and prevention. The widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapies has contributed to substantial declines in the number of malaria-related deaths; however, the emergence of drug resistance threatens to reverse this progress. Advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of pathogenesis have fuelled the development of new diagnostics, drugs and insecticides. Several new combination therapies are in clinical development that have efficacy against drug-resistant parasites and the potential to be used in single-dose regimens to improve compliance. This ambitious programme to eliminate malaria also includes new approaches that could yield malaria vaccines or novel vector control strategies. However, despite these achievements, a well-coordinated global effort on multiple fronts is needed if malaria elimination is to be achieved.

  17. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles ...

  18. Malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among international flying pilots and flight attendants of a US commercial airline.

    PubMed

    Selent, Monica; de Rochars, Valery M Beau; Stanek, Danielle; Bensyl, Diana; Martin, Barbara; Cohen, Nicole J; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Blackmore, Carina; Bell, Teal R; Marano, Nina; Arguin, Paul M

    2012-12-01

    In 2010, malaria caused approximately 216 million infections in people and 655,000 deaths. In the United States, imported malaria cases occur every year, primarily in returning travelers and immigrants from endemic countries. In 2010, five Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases occurred among crew members of one US commercial airline company (Airline A). This investigation aimed to assess the malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Airline A crew members to provide information for potential interventions. The web link to a self-administered on-line survey was distributed by internal company communications to Airline A pilots and flight attendants (FA) eligible for international travel. The survey collected demographic information as well as occupation, work history, and malaria prevention education. Of approximately 7,000 nonrandomly selected crew members, 220 FA and 217 pilots completed the survey (6%). Respondents correctly identified antimalarial medication (91% FA, 95% pilots) and insect repellents (96% FA, 96% pilots) as effective preventive measures. While in malaria-intense destinations, few FA and less than half of pilots always took antimalarial medication (4% FA, 40% pilots) yet many often spent greater than 30 minutes outdoors after sundown (71% FA, 66% pilots). Less than half in both groups always used insect repellents (46% FA, 47% pilots). Many respondents were unaware of how to get antimalarial medications (52% FA, 30% pilots) and were concerned about their side effects (61% FA, 31% pilots). Overall, FA and pilots demonstrated good knowledge of malaria prevention, but many performed risky activities while practicing only some recommended malaria preventive measures. Malaria prevention education should focus on advance notification if traveling to a malaria-endemic area, how to easily obtain antimalarial medications, and the importance of practicing all recommended preventive measures. © 2012 International Society of Travel

  19. Impact of community-based interventions for the prevention and control of malaria on intervention coverage and health outcomes for the prevention and control of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and management of malaria. We conducted a systematic review and identified 42 studies for inclusion. Twenty-five of the included studies evaluated the impact of the community-based distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), or impregnated bed sheets; 14 studies evaluated intermittent preventive therapy (IPT) delivered in community settings; two studies focused on community-based education for malaria prevention; and one study evaluated environmental management through drain cleaning. Our analysis suggests that, overall, the community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria resulted in a significant increase in ITNs ownership (RR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.86, 2.52) and usage (RR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.11). However, usage of ITNs was limited to two-thirds of the population who owned them. Community-based strategies also led to a significant decrease in parasitemia (RR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.74), malaria prevalence (RR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.73), malaria incidence (RR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90), and anemia prevalence (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97). We found a non-significant impact on splenomegaly, birth outcomes (low birth weight, prematurity, stillbirth/miscarriage), anthropometric measures (stunting, wasting, and underweight), and mortality (all-cause and malaria-specific). The subgroup analysis suggested that community-based distribution of ITNs, impregnated bed sheets and IRS, and IPT are effective strategies. Qualitative synthesis suggests that high coverage could be achieved at a lower cost with the integration of CBIs with existing antenatal care and immunization campaigns. Community-based delivery of interventions to prevent and control malaria are effective strategies to improve coverage and access and reduce malaria burden, however, efforts should also be concerted to prevent over diagnosis and

  20. [Application of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-gang; Qu, Yan; Wang, Wen-guang; Tang, Song-yuan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control in the border and minority areas. A health education of house-to-house visit in malaria prevention and control was carried out, and baseline and follow up surveys were conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods to document the changes of local villagers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors (KAP) of malaria prevention and control in 2 counties of Yunnan Province, and the results before and after the interventions were analyzed and compared. After the intervention, the cognition rates about malaria symptoms and signs, transmission mode, preventive measures and health-seeking behaviors were 99.3%, 98.9%, 79.9% and 99.3% respectively in the local residents, and those were 39.2%, 8.2%, 47.0% and 49.9% respectively before the intervention, and all the differences were statistically significant (P all < 0.01). KAP related to malaria among the targeting population has improved after the interventions and the house-to-house visit is an effective community-based health education approach.

  1. Economics of malaria prevention in US travelers to West Africa.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R; LaRocque, Regina C; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T; Meltzer, Martin I

    2014-01-01

    Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectives: the healthcare payer's and the traveler's. We used data from the Global TravEpiNet network of US travel clinics that collect de-identified pretravel data for international travelers. Disease risk and chemoprophylaxis effectiveness were estimated from published medical reports. Direct medical costs were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and published literature. We analyzed 1029 records from January 2009 to January 2011. Assuming full adherence to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country. Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations and prophylactic regimens in West Africa. This is a potential incentive to healthcare payers to offer consistent pretravel preventive care to travelers. This financial benefit complements the medical benefit of reducing the risk of malaria.

  2. The risk of imported malaria in security forces personnel returning from overseas missions in the context of prevention of re-introduction of malaria to Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Dharmawardana, Priyani; Semege, Saveen; Epasinghe, Geetha; Senanayake, Niroshana; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Premaratne, Risintha

    2016-03-08

    Sri Lanka is a malaria-free country. However it remains surrounded by countries with endemic malaria transmission. Since the last indigenous case of malaria was reported in October 2012, only imported malaria cases have been diagnosed with 36 cases detected in 2015, which includes 17 cases each of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum and two cases of Plasmodium ovale. This study investigated the knowledge and practices regarding malaria chemoprophylaxis among all the Sri Lankan security forces personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in malaria endemic countries over a 7 month period. Adherence to other malaria prevention measures, occurrence of adverse events and incident cases of malaria were also recorded maintaining the anonymity of the respondents. Potential associations for non-compliance were studied. Interviews were carried out with 559 security forces personnel returning home from foreign deployments in malaria-endemic regions (males: 550, 98.4 %). The majority (553, 98.9 %) was well aware of the need for chemoprophylaxis during the overseas stay and its regular use as prescribed. The overall adherence to chemoprophylaxis was good with 78.7 % (440/559) reporting regular, as prescribed, use. Having better educational qualifications, being female, being prescribed mefloquine, having fever during deployment and belonging to a security force other than the army were significantly associated with poor compliance (p < 0.05). The study reveals that knowledge regarding malaria chemoprophylaxis among Sri Lankan security forces personnel serving abroad was good, a fact that may have contributed to absence/extremely low incidence of malaria during deployment.

  3. Intermittent preventive treatment for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in high transmission areas

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Valérie; Cottrell, Gilles; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel

    2007-01-01

    pregnancy, which is a period when malaria may also be deleterious for women and their offspring, there is a necessity to integrate this strategy with other preventive measures which can be applied earlier in pregnancy such as insecticide-treated nets. PMID:18053209

  4. Sustaining malaria prevention in Benin: local production of bednets.

    PubMed

    Rashed, S; Johnson, H; Dongier, P; Gbaguidi, C C; Laleye, S; Tchobo, S; Gyorkos, T W; Maclean, J D; Moreau, R

    1997-03-01

    Through a Benin-Canada participatory research initiative which included both Benin and Canadian non-governmental organizations, a local capacity to produce and market bednets for the prevention of malaria was developed. The development process began following a community-based assessment of local needs and skills. All materials for the manufacture and distribution of the bednets were obtained locally with the exception of the netting which was imported from Canada. The sustainability of the enterprise is enhanced by the community's recognition of the importance of malaria and the culturally acceptable practice of bednet use.

  5. The risk of malaria in Ghanaian infants born to women managed in pregnancy with intermittent screening and treatment for malaria or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.

    PubMed

    Awine, Timothy; Belko, Mark M; Oduro, Abraham R; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Tagbor, Harry; Chandramohan, Daniel; Milligan, Paul; Cairns, Matthew; Greenwood, Brian; Williams, John E

    2016-01-28

    Several studies have reported an association between malaria infection of the placenta and the risk of malaria in young children in the first year of life, but it is not known if this is causal, or influenced by malaria control measures during pregnancy. This paper compares the incidence of malaria in infants born to mothers who received either intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) or screening with a rapid diagnostic test and treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (ISTp-AL) during their pregnancy. From July 2011 to April 2013, 988 infants of women enrolled in a trial of IPTp-SP versus ISTp-AL in the Kassena-Nankana districts of northern Ghana were followed to determine the risk of clinical malaria during early life, and their risk of parasitaemia and anaemia at 6 and 12 months of age. In addition, the incidence of clinical malaria in infants whose mothers had malaria infection of the placenta was compared with that in infants born to women free of placental malaria. The incidence of clinical malaria was 0.237 and 0.211 episodes per child year in infants whose mothers had received ISTp-AL or IPTp-SP, respectively. The adjusted incidence rate ratio and the adjusted rate difference were 0.94 (95% CI 0.68, 1.33) and 0.029 (95% CI -0.053, 0.110) cases per child year at risk respectively. The incidence of clinical malaria was similar in infants born to women with placental malaria (0.195 episodes per child year) and in infants of women without placental malaria (0.224 episodes per child year) (rate ratio = 0.86 [95% CI 0.54, 1.37]). Infants born to women managed with ISTp-AL during pregnancy were not at greatly increased risk of malaria compared with infants born to women who had received IPTp-SP. The incidence of malaria in infants was similar whether or not their mother had had placental malaria.

  6. Malaria prevention practices and delivery outcome: a cross sectional study of pregnant women attending a tertiary hospital in northeastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Hamzat U; Giwa, Fatima J; Olayinka, Adebola T; Balogun, Shakir M; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Nguku, Patrick

    2016-06-18

    Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in Nigeria. It causes maternal anaemia and adversely affects birth outcome leading to low birth weight, abortions and still births. Nigeria has made great strides in addressing the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy. However, recent demographic survey shows wide disparities in malaria control activities across the geopolitical zones. This situation has been compounded by the political unrest and population displacement especially in the Northeastern zone leaving a significant proportion of pregnant women at risk of diseases, including malaria. The use of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and the risk of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies were assessed among parturient women in an insurgent area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 184 parturient women at Federal Medical Centre, Nguru in Yobe state, between July and November 2014. Information on demographics, antenatal care and prevention practices was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Maternal peripheral and the cord blood samples were screened for malaria parasitaemia by microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood films. The presence of anaemia was also determined by microhaemocrit method using the peripheral blood samples. Data was analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies was 40.0, 41.0 and 37.0 %, respectively, and mothers aged younger than 25 years were mostly affected. Eighty (43.0 %) of the women received up to two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy and most, 63 (83.0 %) of those tested malaria positive received less than these. Presence of malaria infection at antenatal clinic enrollment (OR: 6.6; 95 % CI: 3.4-13.0), non-adherence to direct observation therapy for administration of IPTp-SP (OR: 4.6; 95 % CI: 2.2-9.5) and receiving

  7. Malaria Prevention Strategies: Adherence among Boston Area Travelers Visiting Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Stoney, Rhett J.; Chen, Lin H.; Jentes, Emily S.; Wilson, Mary E.; Han, Pauline V.; Benoit, Christine M.; MacLeod, William B.; Hamer, Davidson H.; Barnett, Elizabeth D.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis, reasons for nonadherence, and use of other personal protective measures against malaria. We included adults traveling to malaria-endemic countries who were prescribed malaria chemoprophylaxis during a pre-travel consultation at three travel clinics in the Boston area and who completed three or more surveys: pre-travel, at least one weekly during travel, and post-travel (2–4 weeks after return). Of 370 participants, 335 (91%) took malaria chemoprophylaxis at least once and reported any missed doses; 265 (79%) reported completing all doses during travel. Adherence was not affected by weekly versus daily chemoprophylaxis, travel purpose, or duration of travel. Reasons for non adherence included forgetfulness, side effects, and not seeing mosquitoes. Main reasons for declining to take prescribed chemoprophylaxis were peer advice, low perceived risk, and not seeing mosquitoes. Of 368 travelers, 79% used insect repellent, 46% used a bed net, and 61% slept in air conditioning at least once. Because travelers may be persuaded to stop taking medication by peer pressure, not seeing mosquitoes, and adverse reactions to medications, clinicians should be prepared to address these barriers and to empower travelers with strategies to manage common side effects of antimalarial medications. PMID:26483125

  8. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectives: the healthcare payer's and the traveler's. We used data from the Global TravEpiNet network of US travel clinics that collect de-identified pretravel data for international travelers. Disease risk and chemoprophylaxis effectiveness were estimated from published medical reports. Direct medical costs were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and published literature. Results. We analyzed 1029 records from January 2009 to January 2011. Assuming full adherence to chemoprophylaxis regimens, consultations saved healthcare payers a per-traveler average of $14 (9-day trip) to $372 (30-day trip). For travelers, consultations resulted in a range of net cost of $20 (9-day trip) to a net savings of $32 (30-day trip). Differences were mostly driven by risk of malaria in the destination country. Conclusions. Our model suggests that healthcare payers save money for short- and longer-term trips, and that travelers save money for longer trips when travelers adhere to malaria recommendations and prophylactic regimens in West Africa. This is a potential incentive to healthcare payers to offer consistent pretravel preventive care to travelers. This financial benefit complements the medical benefit of reducing the risk of malaria. PMID:24014735

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy in Southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Bardají, Azucena; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Maixenchs, Maria; Nhacolo, Ariel; Nhalungo, Delino; Alonso, Pedro L.; Menéndez, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy is a public health problem for endemic countries. Economic evaluations of malaria preventive strategies in pregnancy are needed to guide health policies. Methods and Findings This analysis was carried out in the context of a trial of malaria intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), where both intervention groups received an insecticide treated net through the antenatal clinic (ANC) in Mozambique. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp-SP on maternal clinical malaria and neonatal survival was estimated. Correlation and threshold analyses were undertaken to assess the main factors affecting the economic outcomes and the cut-off values beyond which the intervention is no longer cost-effective. In 2007 US$, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for maternal malaria was 41.46 US$ (95% CI 20.5, 96.7) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. The ICER per DALY averted due to the reduction in neonatal mortality was 1.08 US$ (95% CI 0.43, 3.48). The ICER including both the effect on the mother and on the newborn was 1.02 US$ (95% CI 0.42, 3.21) per DALY averted. Efficacy was the main factor affecting the economic evaluation of IPTp-SP. The intervention remained cost-effective with an increase in drug cost per dose up to 11 times in the case of maternal malaria and 183 times in the case of neonatal mortality. Conclusions IPTp-SP was highly cost-effective for both prevention of maternal malaria and reduction of neonatal mortality in Mozambique. These findings are likely to hold for other settings where IPTp-SP is implemented through ANC visits. The intervention remained cost-effective even with a significant increase in drug and other intervention costs. Improvements in the protective efficacy of the intervention would increase its cost-effectiveness. Provision of IPTp with a more effective, although more expensive drug than SP may still remain a cost-effective public health measure to

  10. Pre-travel health preparation for malaria prevention among Hong Kong travellers.

    PubMed

    Hung, Kevin K C; Lin, Agatha K Y; Cheng, Calvin K Y; Chan, Emily Y Y; Graham, Colin A

    2015-03-01

    Malaria remains a significant cause of travel-related mortality and morbidity. Asians are known to have higher risks because they are less careful in pre-travel health preparations. This study reports on a cohort of travellers to malaria-prone regions examined in a previous study, which explored general levels of pre-travel health preparation. To describe the preparations taken by travellers at Hong Kong International Airport going to destinations with significant malaria risks according to the WHO. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by personal interviews at the boarding gates of flights in April 2013. The flights were chosen from those to malaria-prone regions (type I or above) from the 2012 WHO International Travel and Health Country List. 403 respondents (75.6% Chinese ethnicity) were travelling to malaria-prone regions. 95.3% were travelling to developing countries including China, Thailand, Malaysia and India. 55.1% of respondents had taken at least one mosquito prevention measure and 8.9% of respondents had malaria chemoprophylaxis. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female gender (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.97), residence outside Hong Kong (OR=2.71, 95% CI 1.46 to 5.04) and travel including rural areas (OR=5.67, 95% CI 3.11 to 10.34) were predictors of optimum pre-travel health preparations. Underestimation of malaria risks was a major barrier to adequate pre-travel health preparations. Targeted health education and information about risk is necessary to improve levels of travel health preparedness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located <2,000 m altitude. Of 5,083 surveyed households, 3,282 (65.6%) owned at least one ITN. In ITN-owning households, 53.2% of all persons had slept under an ITN the prior night, including 1,564/2,496 (60.1%) children <5 years of age, 1,891/3,009 (60.9%) of women 15 - 49 years of age, and 166/266 (65.7%) of pregnant women. Overall, 906 (20.0%) households reported to have had IRS in the past 12 months. Of 747

  12. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions.

    PubMed

    Jima, Daddi; Getachew, Asefaw; Bilak, Hana; Steketee, Richard W; Emerson, Paul M; Graves, Patricia M; Gebre, Teshome; Reithinger, Richard; Hwang, Jimee

    2010-02-24

    In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN), 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i) provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii) to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS) to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii) scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), particularly at the peripheral level. A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS) was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located <2,000 m altitude. Of 5,083 surveyed households, 3,282 (65.6%) owned at least one ITN. In ITN-owning households, 53.2% of all persons had slept under an ITN the prior night, including 1,564/2,496 (60.1%) children <5 years of age, 1,891/3,009 (60.9%) of women 15 - 49 years of age, and 166/266 (65.7%) of pregnant women. Overall, 906 (20.0%) households reported to have had IRS in the past 12 months. Of 747 children with reported

  13. Declining malaria in Africa: improving the measurement of progress.

    PubMed

    Gething, Peter W; Battle, Katherine E; Bhatt, Samir; Smith, David L; Eisele, Thomas P; Cibulskis, Richard E; Hay, Simon I

    2014-01-30

    The dramatic escalation of malaria control activities in Africa since the year 2000 has increased the importance of accurate measurements of impact on malaria epidemiology and burden. This study presents a systematic review of the emerging published evidence base on trends in malaria risk in Africa and argues that more systematic, timely, and empirically-based approaches are urgently needed to track the rapidly evolving landscape of transmission.

  14. Prospects of intermittent preventive treatment of adults against malaria in areas of seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, and a possible role for chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Giha, Hayder A

    2010-04-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is outmoded as an antimalarial drug in most of the malarial world because of the high resistance rate of parasites. The parasite resistance to CQ is attributed to pfcrt/pfmdr1 gene mutations. Recent studies showed that parasites with mutations of pfcrt/pfmdr1 genes are less virulent, and that those with dhfr/dhps mutations are more susceptible to host immune clearance; the former and latter mutations are linked. In the era of artemisinin-based combination therapy, the frequency of pfcrt/pfmdr1 wild variants is expected to rise. In areas of unstable malaria transmission, the unpredictable severe epidemics of malaria and epidemics of severe malaria could result in high mortality rate among the semi-immune population. With this in mind, the use of CQ for intermittent preventive treatment of adults (IPTa) is suggested as a feasible control measure to reduce malaria mortality in adults and older children without reducing uncomplicated malaria morbidity. The above is discussed in a multidisciplinary approach validating the deployment of molecular techniques in malaria control and showing a possible role for CQ as a rescue drug after being abandoned.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of anaemia and malaria among Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo González, M.; Menéndez, C.; Font, F.; Kahigwa, E.; Kimario, J.; Mshinda, H.; Tanner, M.; Bosch-Capblanch, X.; Alonso, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    Prerequisites for effective interventions against severe anaemia and malaria among infants are economic evaluations to aid the setting of priorities and the making of health policy. In the present study we analysed the cost and effectiveness of three control strategies hypothetically delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). For the prevention of severe anaemia and from the perspective of the health provider, the cost-effectiveness ratios were, respectively, US$ 8, US$ 9, and US$ 21 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) for malaria chemoprophylaxis with Deltaprim (a combination of 3.125 mg pyrimethamine and 25 mg dapsone) + iron, Deltaprim alone, or iron supplementation alone. For malaria prevention, Deltaprim + iron cost US$ 9.7 per DALY and Deltaprim alone cost US$ 10.2 per DALY. From a sociocultural perspective the cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from US$ 9 to US$ 26 for severe anaemia prevention and from US$ 11 to US$ 12 for the prevention of clinical malaria. These ratios were highly cost-effective, as defined by the World Bank's proposed threshold of less than US$ 25 per DALY for comparative assessments. Furthermore, all the preventive interventions were less costly than the current malaria and anaemia control strategies that rely on clinical case management. This economic analysis supports the inclusion of both malaria chemoprophylaxis and iron supplementation delivered through EPI as part of the control strategies for these major killers of infants in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:10686744

  16. Factors influencing dropout rate of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Doku, David Teye; Zankawah, Mumuni Mukaila; Adu-Gyamfi, Addae Boateng

    2016-10-10

    The burden of malaria in terms of morbidity and mortality is huge is Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly among pregnant women. Among the measures to curb down this burden include intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and effective case management. These strategies were adopted by Ghana and implemented since 2003; however, there is still high dropout rate in IPT coverage. This study sought to investigate factors contributing to high dropout rate between IPT1 and IPT3 in the Tamale Metropolis, one of the health facilities with the highest IPT dropout rates in Ghana. Survey, in-depth interviews and short ethnographic techniques were conducted among pregnant women, antenatal care (ANC) health workers and heads of health facilities to investigate factors which account for dropout rate of intermittent treatment of malaria. Shortage of sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), inadequate supply of portable water for administration of SP, unavailability of IPT during outreach services, lack of knowledge by ANC staff about the dropout rate in their area of jurisdiction and poor attitude of some health workers were identified as barriers to achieving high IPT3 coverage. Late ANC visit, provider and logistical barriers account for the women's missed opportunities to prevent malaria in pregnancy through IPT. Addressing the above barriers will contribute to saving lives and ensuring progress towards the goal of combating malaria as well as reducing maternal, neonatal and child mortalities.

  17. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Precautions. Candida vaginitis is a troubling and common side effect. Photosensitivity reactions are much less common, and esophageal ulcerations are a rare...crosses into CSF: chloramphenicol or third generation cephalosporin A parenteral antiemetic Bladder catheters Nurses trained to measure vital signs, input...in the evening. Doxycycline use can also be associated with Candida infections, especially vaginitis , nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Pyrimethamine

  18. Strengthening malaria prevention and control: integrating West African militaries' malaria control efforts. The inaugural meeting of the West African Malaria Task Force, April 24-26, 2013, Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    McCollum, Jeffrey T; Hanna, Refaat; Halbach, Alaina C; Cummings, James F

    2015-01-01

    From April 24 to 26, 2013, the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center and the U.S. Africa Command cosponsored the inaugural meeting of the West Africa Malaria Task Force in Accra, Ghana. The meeting's purpose was to identify common challenges, explore regional and transcontinental collaborations, and to share knowledge about best practices in the fight against malaria in West Africa. Military representatives from Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo participated in the Task Force; various U.S. Government agencies were also represented, including the Department of Defense, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Agency for International Development. African nation participants presented brief overviews of their military's malaria prevention and control measures, surveillance programs, diagnostic capabilities, and treatment regimens emphasizing gaps within existing programs. Representatives from U.S. agencies discussed activities and capabilities relevant for the region, challenges and lessons learned regarding malaria, and highlighted opportunities for enhanced partnerships to counter malaria in West Africa. This article summarizes the major conclusions of the Task Force meeting, identifies relevant focus areas for future Task Force activities, and outlines opportunities for further inclusion of West African militaries to improve regional malaria surveillance and control efforts. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Dihydroartemisinin–Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kakuru, Abel; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Muhindo, Mary K.; Natureeba, Paul; Awori, Patricia; Nakalembe, Miriam; Opira, Bishop; Olwoch, Peter; Ategeka, John; Nayebare, Patience; Clark, Tamara D.; Feeney, Margaret E.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Havlir, Diane V.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intermittent treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine is widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women in Africa. However, with the spread of resistance to sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine, new interventions are needed. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving 300 human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)–uninfected pregnant adolescents or women in Uganda, where sulfa-doxine–pyrimethamine resistance is widespread. We randomly assigned participants to a sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine regimen (106 participants), a three-dose dihydroartemisinin– piperaquine regimen (94 participants), or a monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine regimen (100 participants). The primary outcome was the prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria. RESULTS The prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (50.0%) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (34.1%, P = 0.03) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (27.1%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of a composite adverse birth outcome was lower in the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (9.2%) than in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (18.6%, P = 0.05) or the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (21.3%, P = 0.02). During pregnancy, the incidence of symptomatic malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group (41 episodes over 43.0 person-years at risk) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (12 episodes over 38.2 person-years at risk, P = 0.001) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group (0 episodes over 42.3 person-years at risk, P<0.001), as was the prevalence of parasitemia (40.5% in the sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine group vs. 16.6% in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group [P<0.001] and 5.2% in the monthly dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine group [P

  20. Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kakuru, Abel; Jagannathan, Prasanna; Muhindo, Mary K; Natureeba, Paul; Awori, Patricia; Nakalembe, Miriam; Opira, Bishop; Olwoch, Peter; Ategeka, John; Nayebare, Patience; Clark, Tamara D; Feeney, Margaret E; Charlebois, Edwin D; Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Havlir, Diane V; Kamya, Moses R; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-03-10

    Intermittent treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is widely recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women in Africa. However, with the spread of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, new interventions are needed. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial involving 300 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected pregnant adolescents or women in Uganda, where sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance is widespread. We randomly assigned participants to a sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine regimen (106 participants), a three-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regimen (94 participants), or a monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regimen (100 participants). The primary outcome was the prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria. The prevalence of histopathologically confirmed placental malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group (50.0%) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (34.1%, P=0.03) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (27.1%, P=0.001). The prevalence of a composite adverse birth outcome was lower in the monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (9.2%) than in the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group (18.6%, P=0.05) or the three-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (21.3%, P=0.02). During pregnancy, the incidence of symptomatic malaria was significantly higher in the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group (41 episodes over 43.0 person-years at risk) than in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (12 episodes over 38.2 person-years at risk, P=0.001) or the monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (0 episodes over 42.3 person-years at risk, P<0.001), as was the prevalence of parasitemia (40.5% in the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group vs. 16.6% in the three-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group [P<0.001] and 5.2% in the monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group [P<0.001]). In each treatment group, the risk of vomiting after administration of

  1. Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Vivax Malaria: Reduction of Malaria Incidence in an Open Cohort Study in Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:23577276

  2. Selective intermittent preventive treatment of vivax malaria: reduction of malaria incidence in an open cohort study in brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroshi; Gil, Luiz Herman Soares; de Lima, Alzemar Alves; Freitag, Elci Marlei; Dos Santos, Tatiana Marcondes; do Nascimento Filha, Maria Teixeira; Dos Santos Júnior, Alcides Procópio Justiniano; da Silva, Josiane Mendes; Rodrigues, Aline de Freitas; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    In children, the Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTc), currently called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC), was considered effective on malaria control due to the reduction of its incidence in Papua New Guinea and in some areas with seasonal malaria in Africa. However, the IPT has not been indicated because of its association with drug resistance and for hindering natural immunity development. Thus, we evaluated the alternative IPT impact on malaria incidence in three riverside communities on Madeira River, in the municipality of Porto Velho, RO. We denominate this scheme Selective Intermittent Preventive Treatment (SIPT). The SIPT consists in a weekly dose of two 150 mg chloroquine tablets for 12 weeks, for adults, and an equivalent dose for children, after complete supervised treatment for P. vivax infection. This scheme is recommend by Brazilian Health Ministry to avoid frequent relapses. The clinic parasitological and epidemiological surveillance showed a significant reduction on vivax malaria incidence. The results showed a reduction on relapses and recurrence of malaria after SIPT implementation. The SIPT can be effective on vivax malaria control in localities with high transmission risk in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward malaria risk and prevention among frequent business travelers of a major oil and gas company.

    PubMed

    Berg, Johannes; Breederveld, Daan; Roukens, Anna H; Hennink, Yvonne; Schouten, Marjolijn; Wendt, Judy K; Visser, Leo G

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant morbidity and mortality among business travelers due to malaria, very little has been published on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward malaria risk. The aim of this study was to assess KAP among frequent international business travelers (FBT) and to identify recommendations for improving malaria prevention that could be applied to the wider FBT community in occupational health. A retrospective web-based survey was conducted in 2005 among self-registered FBT of an oil and gas company based in the Netherlands. The survey was completed by 328 of the 608 self-registered FBT (54%). Fifty-four percent of respondents had visited a high-risk area for malaria. Most respondents (96%) were experienced travelers; the majority (71%) sought health advice before their trip and made use of a company health resource. Fever was recognized as a malaria symptom by all FBT; travel to high-risk malaria areas was correctly identified by 96%, and 99% of these travelers adhered to use of adequate personal protective measures. The proportion of travelers carrying appropriate anti-malaria drug regimen was positively associated with receiving company advice among FBT traveling to high-risk destinations (RR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.21-3.67), but not for those traveling to low- or no-risk destinations. Only 8% (14) of those going to a high-risk area were not carrying malaria prophylaxis. One in five of FBT traveling to no-risk areas were unnecessarily carrying malaria prophylaxis. The majority of KAP results were excellent. We postulate that a company culture with a strong focus on health, safety, security, and environment can positively contribute to high KAP scores. Notwithstanding the excellent findings, this study also provides a cautionary tale for company health functions against overprescribing of malaria prophylaxis. It demonstrates the need for constant review and audit of adherence to quality criteria. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. [Malaria prevention: the general practitioners experience on the Reunion Island].

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, S; Guihard, B; Wartel, G; Sissoko, D

    2012-08-01

    Malaria has been officially eradicated from the Reunion Island since 1979. However, a potentially active vector of the disease - Anopheles arabiensis - persists on the island. The risk of resurgence is quite significant. More than 90%of the patients presenting a malarial infection in Reunion Island after a stay in Madagascar or in the Comoros had followed a chemoprophylaxis that was not in accordance with the guidelines. A survey, that included 100 general practitioners, wasconducted in the Reunion Island regarding their practices concerning the malaria prevention. The upshot of all this is that these doctors themselves do not follow the optimal malaria prevention practices during journeys, and neglect their protection against mosquito bites. Travelers' consultations with the doctors before a journey represent only a modest part of their activity. However, the general practitioner is considered to be the interlocutor of choice for these patients. During these consultations, they do not refer enough to the national references which, according to a number of practitioners, are difficult to obtain. On the contrary, they refer too much to the information delivered by the pharmaceutical industry. With regard to the prescriptions of prophylactic treatments, only 40% of the doctors respect the official recommendations. This gap in the recommendations is sometimes deliberate and justified by the very high cost of a number of treatments. However, a lack of up-to-date knowledge cannot be excluded. Finally, the promotion of the protection against mosquito bites remains very poor. According to these data, it seems important to promote networking between the doctors and the reference centers, which would enhance optimal practices concerning chemoprophylaxis and protection against mosquito bites, especially targeting the "at risk" patients.

  5. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 [1] whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria

  6. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Matthew; Kenilorea, Geoffrey; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Bobogare, Albino; Losi, Landry; Atkinson, Jo-An; Vallely, Andrew; Whittaker, Maxine; Tanner, Marcel; Wijesinghe, Rushika

    2011-08-11

    The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 1 whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria surveillance system in Isabel Province. Due to

  7. Malaria Prevention and Treatment Using Educational Animations: A Case Study in Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello-Bravo, Julia; Namatsi Lutomia, Anne; Madela, Lawrence Mbhekiseni; Pittendrigh, Barry Robert

    2017-01-01

    Despite worldwide efforts to prevent malaria, the disease continues to take its strongest toll in sub-Saharan Africa. Kenya is no exception, with millions of cases and thousands of deaths reported annually. This pilot study looks at knowledge on malaria prevention and treatment among peri-urban communities in Western Kenya. Through a study on the…

  8. [Investigation on knowledge of malaria prevention and control in residents of Suining County].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue-e

    2014-08-01

    To understand the status of knowledge of malaria prevention and control in residents of Suining County, so as to provide the reference for improving the implementation of malaria elimination. Nine villages in 3 townships (3 villages per township) were randomly selected as the study areas, and 200 residents aged above 15 years of each village were investigated with questionnaire for the knowledge of malaria prevention and control. The awareness rates of "malaria transmission way", main symptoms of malaria", "life-threatening of falciparum malaria", "how to treat malaria", and "how to prevent malaria" were 96.27%, 95.01%, 81.46%, 98.19% and 96.27%, respectively. There were no significant differences between the different genders and among the different areas (all P >0.05), but there were significant differences among different age groups (all P <0.05). The awareness of malaria prevention and control in residents of Suining County is relatively high, which means the health education is effective.

  9. Statins Decrease Neuroinflammation and Prevent Cognitive Impairment after Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Patricia A.; Estato, Vanessa; da Silva, Tathiany I.; d'Avila, Joana C.; Siqueira, Luciana D.; Assis, Edson F.; Bozza, Patricia T.; Bozza, Fernando A.; Tibiriça, Eduardo V.; Zimmerman, Guy A.; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe manifestation of Plasmodium falciparum infection in children and non-immune adults. Previous work has documented a persistent cognitive impairment in children who survive an episode of CM that is mimicked in animal models of the disease. Potential therapeutic interventions for this complication have not been investigated, and are urgently needed. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed for cardiovascular diseases. In addition to their effects on the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, statins have pleiotropic immunomodulatory activities. Here we tested if statins would prevent cognitive impairment in a murine model of cerebral malaria. Six days after infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) mice displayed clear signs of CM and were treated with chloroquine, or chloroquine and lovastatin. Intravital examination of pial vessels of infected animals demonstrated a decrease in functional capillary density and an increase in rolling and adhesion of leukocytes to inflamed endothelium that were reversed by treatment with lovastatin. In addition, oedema, ICAM-1, and CD11b mRNA levels were reduced in lovastatin-treated PbA-infected mice brains. Moreover, HMOX-1 mRNA levels are enhanced in lovastatin-treated healthy and infected brains. Oxidative stress and key inflammatory chemokines and cytokines were reduced to non-infected control levels in animals treated with lovastatin. Fifteen days post-infection cognitive dysfunction was detected by a battery of cognition tests in animals rescued from CM by chloroquine treatment. In contrast, it was absent in animals treated with lovastatin and chloroquine. The outcome was similar in experimental bacterial sepsis, suggesting that statins have neuroprotective effects in severe infectious syndromes in addition to CM. Statin treatment prevents neuroinflammation and blood brain barrier dysfunction in experimental CM and related conditions that are associated with

  10. Tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-01-01

    in fewer relapses than no hypnozoite treatment over six months follow-up in adults (300 mg single dose: RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.41, one trial, 110 participants, moderate quality evidence; 500 to 600 mg single dose: RR 0.14, 95%CI 0.06 to 0.34, two trials, 122 participants, moderate quality evidence; 1800 mg to 3000 mg in divided doses: RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23, two trials, 63 participants, low quality evidence). In people with normal G6PD status, there may be little or no difference in serious adverse events (three trials, 358 participants, low quality evidence); or any adverse event (one trial, 272 participants, low quality evidence). Tafenoquine versus primaquine Two of the included trials compared four different dosing regimens of tafenoquine against the standard primaquine regimen of 15 mg/day for 14 days. A single tafenoquine dose of 600 mg may be more effective than primaquine in relation to relapses at six months follow-up (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.84, two trials, 98 participants, low quality evidence) In people with normal G6PD status, there may be little or no difference for serious adverse events (two trials, 323 participants, low quality evidence) or any adverse event (two trials, 323 participants, low quality evidence) between tafenoquine and primaquine. Authors' conclusions Tafenoquine prevents relapses after clinically and parasitologically confirmed P. vivax malaria. The drug is untested in pregnancy, children and in G6PD-deficient people. The shorter treatment course is an important practical advantage in people who do not have G6PD deficiency, but the longer half-life may have more substantive consequences if given inadvertently to people with G6PD deficiency. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with vivax malaria Background Vivax malaria is caused by the parasite Plasmodium vivax. The disease includes a stage of liver infection and this can cause relapse unless treated. The only drug available until recently

  11. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... common?Malaria is a health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, including portions of Central and ... these countries. If you are traveling to a tropical area or to a country where malaria is ...

  12. Evaluation of knowledge and use of the malaria prevention measures among the patients of the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases University Center of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Gdynia, based on a questionnaire performed in the years 2012-20

    PubMed

    Kuna, Anna; Gajewski, Michał; Stańczak, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Every year, approximately 125 million travelers visit areas where malaria prevails, located in over 100 countries. Over 10,000 of them suffer from malaria annually. Visitors to these areas may protect themselves against infection by using chemoprophylaxis, insect repellents, appropriate clothing, sleeping in airconditioned and well-screened quarters or using mosquito nets impregnated with insecticides. The aim of this study was to gather and analyze the data about knowledge and usage of pharmacological and non-pharmacological malaria prevention methods among the patients of the University Centre for Maritime and Tropical Medicine (UCMMiT), Gdynia, Poland, in 2012-2013. A survey was conducted among 245 patients hospitalized in the Department of Tropical and Parasitic Diseases, UCMMiT in Gdynia, Poland in 2012 - 2013. The only criterion for inclusion was a sojourn and consent for participation in the study. The questionnaire included questions concerning mainly the use of chemoprophylaxis, opinion on the medication used for prophylaxis, side effects during its usage, the non-pharmacological prevention methods used against insect bites. Due to travel destination, malaria chemoprophylaxis should have been recommended for 73 (30%) individuals prior to the travel. It should not have been recommended for the group of 129 patients reporting long-term sojourns (over a year) and for 43 persons (17%) due to their travel to non-endemic countries. In fact, chemoprophylaxis in the “recommended” group was used by 32 persons which constituted 44%, while in the “long sojourn” group prophylaxis was used by 7 persons and in the “not recommended group” by 1 person. The number of people who reported proper use of chemoprophylaxis (an appropriate drug and mode of usage) amounted to 26 (36%) in the “recommended” group. Among bite prevention methods, usage of window mosquito nets was reported by 154 people (63%), bed mosquitonets by 39 (16%), insect repellents by 52 (21

  13. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  14. Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    appearance of dark urine after an acute attack of falciparum malaria. Other complications include gastroenteritis in children, pulmonary edema, severe...placental malaria on mothers and neonates from Zaire. Z Parasitenkd 1986;72:57-64. 12. Kean BH, Smith JA. Death due to estivo-autumnal malaria: a

  15. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  16. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but ... at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly ...

  17. Community perceptions and practices about urban malaria prevention and control in Gondar Town, northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tilaye, Tesfaye; Deressa, Wakgari

    2007-10-01

    Malaria is becoming a major health problem in urban areas. Community perceptions, knowledge and practices have a major role in the implementation of effective malaria control interventions. Yet little is known about the perceptions and practices of urban community about urban malaria prevention and control. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of an urban community about malaria prevention and control. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in three randomly selected malarious Kebeles of Gondar Town during November-December 2004. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed for 489 household members > or =18 years old. Almost all respondents knew about malaria and recognized it as one of the major health problems of the community. About 58% knew that malaria could be transmitted from one person to another, and most (97.2%) associated malaria with the bite of mosquito. The most frequently reported symptoms of malaria included fever (96.3%), chills and shivering (96.3%), headache (96.1%), loss of appetite (92.2%) and joini pain (90.2%). Knowledge about the names of the currently used antimalarials, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (90.4%) and chloroquine (81.6%), was high. About 39% of the total 163 surveyed households possessed at least one mosquito net; of these, 55 (83.7%) possessed one, 7 (11%) had two and 2 (2.3%) possessed three. Most respondents practiced draining stagnant water (46.3%) and clearing vegetation (43.3%) for malaria prevention. Although considerable gaps were observed between knowledge and practices of malaria prevention and control methods, community knowledge, attitudes and practices on the cause, treatment and prevention of the disease were encouraging. Since malaria is identified as a major health problem, the use of personal protection methods such as insecticide treated mosquito nets should be encouraged through increasing access to it.

  18. Malaria prevention among Afghani refugees in a malarious area, southeastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Basseri, H R; Raeisi, A; Holakouie, K; Shanadeh, K

    2010-12-01

    Each year, 24-36% of malaria cases in Beluchestan (area) occur among Afghani refugees. Knowledge about malaria transmission and protection are important for these refugees to enable local Health Services to manage malaria control in the area. Our objective was to explore and investigate knowledge, attitude and practices of Afghan refugees and Iranian residents with respect to malaria transmission and protection. A cross-sectional study was performed and 10% of target groups were selected by systematic random sampling and then interviewed. In this study, 385 Iranian and 390 Afghani refugees participated in the survey. Respondents answered questions about demographic characters, cause and transmission of malaria, belief about severity and complications of malaria, malaria mobility and health care-seeking behavior, perceived control of malaria prevention, beliefs about utility of bed nets, perceived susceptibility to malaria, and whether they use window-screens and bed nets. The majority of Iranians (76.6%) and Afghanis (60.1%) were familiar with typical symptoms of the malaria disease, but about 50% of each group did not know malaria transmission occurs by mosquito bites. About 90% of Afghanis stated they do not use personal protection against mosquito bites over night, while 60% of Iranians used bed net. Only one third of Afghani refugees use local Health Center services. The cross-border traffic of Afghanis is an important factor for persistence of malaria in Baluchestan but based on our data, life style and protective behavior of refugees with regard to malaria protection are also important factors, particularly because they do not use local Health Services. Therefore, it is important to implement prevention education programs specifics to target Afghani refugees and to employ Afghani public health professionals to asset with elimination and treatment.

  19. Malaria (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Malaria KidsHealth > For Parents > Malaria Print A A A ... Prevention Diagnosis and Treatment en español Malaria About Malaria Malaria is a common infection in hot, tropical ...

  20. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  1. [Evaluation of effect of prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District].

    PubMed

    She, Guo-lin; Ma, Yu-Cai; Wang, Fu-biao

    2013-08-01

    To analyze the current situation of the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria in Hanjiang District and evaluate its effect. According to the Management Scheme on Control of Imported Falciparum Malaria in Yangzhou City, the comprehensive prevention and control system for imported falciparum malaria was implemented, and the relevant malaria data were collected and analyzed statistically. The data included plasmodium blood test ratio of fever patients among exported labors and those returned, the ratio of laboratory-confirmed cases among all reported cases of falciparum malaria, the ratio of falciparum malaria patients who received the standard treatment within 24 hours after onset, etc from 2010 to 2012. After the implementation of the comprehensive prevention and control system, the confirmation ratio of falciparum malaria cases within 24 hours following first visit has reached 60.47%, the average time from first visit to confirmation has shortened to 1.8 d, and the average time from onset to confirmation has shortened to 3.7 d. The health education coverage ratio was 100%, the health knowledge awareness ratio was 95.56%, the ratio of patients seeking treatment on own initiative was 100%, the laboratory-confirmed ratio was 100%, and the ratio of standard treatment after malaria diagnosis was 100%. The comprehensive prevention and control system carried out by Hanjiang District has made remarkable achievements.

  2. Early Childhood Malaria Prevention and Children's Patterns of School Leaving in the Gambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuilkowski, Stephanie S.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malaria is often fatal, but its impact on the development and education of survivors has not received much attention. Malaria impacts cognitive development in a number of ways that may impact later educational participation. Aims: In this study, we examine the long-term educational effects of preventing early childhood…

  3. Measuring the effects of an ever-changing environment on malaria control.

    PubMed

    McCutchan, Thomas F; Grim, K Christiana; Li, Jun; Weiss, Walter; Rathore, Darmendar; Sullivan, Margery; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Kumar, Sanjai; Cranfield, Mike R

    2004-04-01

    The effectiveness of malaria control measures depends not only on the potency of the control measures themselves but also upon the influence of variables associated with the environment. Environmental variables have the capacity either to enhance or to impair the desired outcome. An optimal outcome in the field, which is ultimately the real goal of vaccine research, will result from prior knowledge of both the potency of the control measures and the role of environmental variables. Here we describe both the potential effectiveness of control measures and the problems associated with testing in an area of endemicity. We placed canaries with different immunologic backgrounds (e.g., naïve to malaria infection, vaccinated naïve, and immune) directly into an area where avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, is endemic. In our study setting, canaries that are naïve to malaria infection routinely suffer approximately 50% mortality during their first period of exposure to the disease. In comparison, birds vaccinated and boosted with a DNA vaccine plasmid encoding the circumsporozoite protein of P. relictum exhibited a moderate degree of protection against natural infection (P < 0.01). In the second year we followed the fate of all surviving birds with no further manipulation. The vaccinated birds from the first year were no longer statistically distinguishable for protection against malaria from cages of naïve birds. During this period, 36% of vaccinated birds died of malaria. We postulate that the vaccine-induced protective immune responses prevented the acquisition of natural immunity similar to that concurrently acquired by birds in a neighboring cage. These results indicate that dominant environmental parameters associated with malaria deaths can be addressed before their application to a less malleable human system.

  4. Knowledge and perceptions towards malaria prevention among vulnerable groups in the Buea Health District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Kimbi, Helen K; Nkesa, Sarah B; Ndamukong-Nyanga, Judith L; Sumbele, Irene U N; Atashili, Julius; Atanga, Mary B S

    2014-08-27

    Malaria is a public health problem especially in vulnerable groups such as pregnant women and children under five years in Cameroon including the Buea Health District (BHD). Misconceptions concerning it exist. This study assessed the level of knowledge and perceptions towards malaria control among pregnant women and mothers/caretakers of under-fives in the BHD. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the BHD in August, 2011 in five health areas. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic variables, knowledge and perceptions towards malaria control from 443 respondents aged 15-73 years. Of the 443 respondents interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria. Awareness of malaria was similar in rural (98.04%) and urban (98.97%) areas. The health facility was the most popular source of information (74%). The radio, television, tracts/posters and the community relay agents (CRAs) all informed significantly higher proportions of respondents in the urban than rural communities (P < 0.05). Overall, 92% of respondents had the right perception of malaria and 88% knew at least one correct sign/symptom of malaria. The most recognised sign of malaria was fever. When all aspects of malaria were considered, majority (88%) of respondents had good levels of knowledge on malaria. The level of good knowledge in respondents with ≥ secondary school education (91%) was significantly higher (P = 0.01) than in those with ≤ primary school level (83%). Overall, 99% had heard about insecticide treated nets (ITNs); 99% perceived ITNs as a good means to prevent malaria; most respondents (57%) used ITNs mainly for protection against mosquito bites while 48% used them for protection against malaria. Respondents with no formal education had a poor level of knowledge on malaria. Hence, new strategies for sensitization messages involving their active participation need to be developed.

  5. Prevention and treatment practices and implications for malaria control in Mukono District Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, A K; Bygbjerg, I C; Magnussen, P

    2008-03-01

    Available data in Uganda indicate a resurgence of malaria morbidity and mortality countrywide. This study assessed the burden of malaria, treatment and prevention practices in order initiate a policy debate on the scaling-up of current interventions. A triangulation of methods using a cross-sectional survey and key informant interviews was used to assess self-reported malaria at a household level in Mukono District, Uganda. A total of 5583 households were surveyed, and a high proportion (2897, 51.9%) reported a person with malaria two weeks prior to the survey. Only 546 households (9.8%) owned and used insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. Similarly, only a few households (86, 1.5%) used indoor residual spraying. Self-treatment with home-stocked drugs was high, yet there was low awareness of the effectiveness of expired drugs on malaria treatment. Self-reported malaria was associated with socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental factors, but more especially with household ownership of ITNs. These results will contribute to the current debate on identifying new approaches for scaling-up prevention interventions and effective case management, as well as selection of priority interventions for malaria control in Uganda.

  6. Promising perceptions, divergent practices and barriers to integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 -0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.98). Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods through various communication channels

  7. Promising Perceptions, Divergent Practices and Barriers to Integrated Malaria Prevention in Wakiso District, Uganda: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Musoke, David; Miiro, George; Karani, George; Morris, Keith; Kasasa, Simon; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Guwatudde, David; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends use of multiple approaches to control malaria. The integrated approach to malaria prevention advocates the use of several malaria prevention methods in a holistic manner. This study assessed perceptions and practices on integrated malaria prevention in Wakiso district, Uganda. Methods A clustered cross-sectional survey was conducted among 727 households from 29 villages using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Assessment was done on awareness of various malaria prevention methods, potential for use of the methods in a holistic manner, and reasons for dislike of certain methods. Households were classified as using integrated malaria prevention if they used at least two methods. Logistic regression was used to test for factors associated with the use of integrated malaria prevention while adjusting for clustering within villages. Results Participants knew of the various malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including use of insecticide treated nets (97.5%), removing mosquito breeding sites (89.1%), clearing overgrown vegetation near houses (97.9%), and closing windows and doors early in the evenings (96.4%). If trained, most participants (68.6%) would use all the suggested malaria prevention methods of the integrated approach. Among those who would not use all methods, the main reasons given were there being too many (70.2%) and cost (32.0%). Only 33.0% households were using the integrated approach to prevent malaria. Use of integrated malaria prevention by households was associated with reading newspapers (AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.22 –0.53) and ownership of a motorcycle/car (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.03 – 2.98). Conclusion Although knowledge of malaria prevention methods was high and perceptions on the integrated approach promising, practices on integrated malaria prevention was relatively low. The use of the integrated approach can be improved by promoting use of multiple malaria prevention methods

  8. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies.

  9. Biodiversity Can Help Prevent Malaria Outbreaks in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; de Prado, Paulo Inácio Knegt Lopez; Kraenkel, Roberto André; Coutinho, Renato Mendes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax is a widely distributed, neglected parasite that can cause malaria and death in tropical areas. It is associated with an estimated 80–300 million cases of malaria worldwide. Brazilian tropical rain forests encompass host- and vector-rich communities, in which two hypothetical mechanisms could play a role in the dynamics of malaria transmission. The first mechanism is the dilution effect caused by presence of wild warm-blooded animals, which can act as dead-end hosts to Plasmodium parasites. The second is diffuse mosquito vector competition, in which vector and non-vector mosquito species compete for blood feeding upon a defensive host. Considering that the World Health Organization Malaria Eradication Research Agenda calls for novel strategies to eliminate malaria transmission locally, we used mathematical modeling to assess those two mechanisms in a pristine tropical rain forest, where the primary vector is present but malaria is absent. Methodology/Principal Findings The Ross–Macdonald model and a biodiversity-oriented model were parameterized using newly collected data and data from the literature. The basic reproduction number () estimated employing Ross–Macdonald model indicated that malaria cases occur in the study location. However, no malaria cases have been reported since 1980. In contrast, the biodiversity-oriented model corroborated the absence of malaria transmission. In addition, the diffuse competition mechanism was negatively correlated with the risk of malaria transmission, which suggests a protective effect provided by the forest ecosystem. There is a non-linear, unimodal correlation between the mechanism of dead-end transmission of parasites and the risk of malaria transmission, suggesting a protective effect only under certain circumstances (e.g., a high abundance of wild warm-blooded animals). Conclusions/Significance To achieve biological conservation and to eliminate Plasmodium parasites in human populations

  10. Towards functional antibody-based vaccines to prevent pre-erythrocytic malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Sack, Brandon; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sather, D Noah

    2017-05-01

    An effective malaria vaccine would be considered a milestone of modern medicine, yet has so far eluded research and development efforts. This can be attributed to the extreme complexity of the malaria parasites, presenting with a multi-stage life cycle, high genome complexity and the parasite's sophisticated immune evasion measures, particularly antigenic variation during pathogenic blood stage infection. However, the pre-erythrocytic (PE) early infection forms of the parasite exhibit relatively invariant proteomes, and are attractive vaccine targets as they offer multiple points of immune system attack. Areas covered: We cover the current state of and roadblocks to the development of an effective, antibody-based PE vaccine, including current vaccine candidates, limited biological knowledge, genetic heterogeneity, parasite complexity, and suboptimal preclinical models as well as the power of early stage clinical models. Expert commentary: PE vaccines will need to elicit broad and durable immunity to prevent infection. This could be achievable if recent innovations in studying the parasites' infection biology, rational vaccine selection and design as well as adjuvant formulation are combined in a synergistic and multipronged approach. Improved preclinical assays as well as the iterative testing of vaccine candidates in controlled human malaria infection trials will further accelerate this effort.

  11. Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Okrah, Jane; Traoré, Corneille; Palé, Augustin; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Müller, Olaf

    2002-03-01

    Malaria-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) were examined in a rural and partly urban multiethnic population of Kossi province in north-western Burkina Faso prior to the establishment of a local insecticide-treated bednet (ITN) programme. Various individual and group interviews were conducted, and a structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 210 heads of households in selected villages and the provincial capital of Nouna. Soumaya, the local illness concept closest to the biomedical term malaria, covers a broad range of recognized signs and symptoms. Aetiologically, soumaya is associated with mosquito bites but also with a number of other perceived causes. The disease entity is perceived as a major burden to the community and is usually treated by both traditional and western methods. Malaria preventive practices are restricted to limited chloroquine prophylaxis in pregnant women. Protective measures against mosquitoes are, however, widespread through the use of mosquito nets, mosquito coils, insecticide sprays and traditional repellents. Mosquito nets are mainly used during the rainy season and most of the existing nets are used by adults, particularly heads of households. Mosquito nets treated with insecticide (ITN) are known to the population through various information channels. People are willing to treat existing nets and to buy ITNs, but only if such services would be offered at reduced prices and in closer proximity to the households. These findings have practical implications for the design of ITN programmes in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

  12. Tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-04-29

    dose: RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.41, one trial, 110 participants, moderate quality evidence; 500 to 600 mg single dose: RR 0.14, 95%CI 0.06 to 0.34, two trials, 122 participants, moderate quality evidence; 1800 mg to 3000 mg in divided doses: RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.23, two trials, 63 participants, low quality evidence).In people with normal G6PD status, there may be little or no difference in serious adverse events (three trials, 358 participants, low quality evidence); or any adverse event (one trial, 272 participants, low quality evidence). Tafenoquine versus primaquine Two of the included trials compared four different dosing regimens of tafenoquine against the standard primaquine regimen of 15 mg/day for 14 days. A single tafenoquine dose of 600 mg may be more effective than primaquine in relation to relapses at six months follow-up (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.84, two trials, 98 participants, low quality evidence)In people with normal G6PD status, there may be little or no difference for serious adverse events (two trials, 323 participants, low quality evidence) or any adverse event (two trials, 323 participants, low quality evidence) between tafenoquine and primaquine. Tafenoquine prevents relapses after clinically and parasitologically confirmed P. vivax malaria. The drug is untested in pregnancy, children and in G6PD-deficient people. The shorter treatment course is an important practical advantage in people who do not have G6PD deficiency, but the longer half-life may have more substantive consequences if given inadvertently to people with G6PD deficiency.

  13. Factors influencing the usage of different types of malaria prevention methods during pregnancy in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Choonara, Shakira; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby; Elwange, Bob Charlestine

    2015-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, which, during pregnancy, is associated with adverse health outcomes for both mother and foetus. Utilization of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) and Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) is advocated to prevent malaria during pregnancy. To examine factors which influence the use of different types of malaria prevention methods among pregnant women in Kenya. This study used 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health survey. Pregnant women aged 15-49 years were included (622 women). Distribution of the study population was assessed in frequency tables. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed. Fifty-two percent of women used ITNs and 38.5% reported uptake of IPTp. In multivariate analysis age, malaria risk areas, religion, education and income influenced ITN usage, whereas only age, malaria risk areas and marital status were found to influence IPTP uptake. ITN use and IPTp uptake were well below the 80% Kenya Malaria Strategy 2006 target. In an effort to increase uptake it is vital for future research to understand reasons for low usage and uptake of malaria prevention programmes so as to enable policy-makers to make informed decisions.

  14. Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women in endemic areas: any drug regimen versus placebo or no treatment

    PubMed Central

    Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We

  15. [Malaria prevention practices in peri-urban zones of two health districts of Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Sawadogo, Asséta; Laokri, Samia; Saizonou, Jacques; Hien, Hervé; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria prevention constitutes a key strategy to control this disease in Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional study conducted in July and August 2011, assessed malaria prevention practices of populations of peri-urban zones of the Bogodogo and Boulmiougou health districts of the city of Ouagadougou. A total of 180 household heads, 192 mothers of children under the age of 5 years and 30 pregnant women were surveyed. For 86.7% household heads, 92% of mothers of children under the age of five years and 96.5% of pregnant women, mosquito bites represented the main mode of transmission of malaria. The majority of survey subjects reported a preference for mosquito coils rather than mosquito nets on the night preceding the survey. The content of malaria prevention communication must take into account sociodemographic realities and lifestyles of population groups, such as those living in peri-urban regions.

  16. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L V; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-03-01

    AbstractSri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit-cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka.

  17. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L. V.; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit–cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:28115673

  18. Optimizing Preventive Strategies and Malaria Diagnostics to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    notable success. Service members were required to report daily compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis to the general medical officer ( GMO ) or...guidelines, algorithms, and lists of subject matter experts to support the decision making of a GMO when determining the execution of PART. (3) The dosing...proposed to provide young GMOs and medics a solution to the RDT sensitivity issue, noting that the consequences of erroneous treatment for presumed malaria

  19. Effectiveness of combined intermittent preventive treatment for children and timely home treatment for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Whiles awaiting for the arrival of an effective and affordable malaria vaccine, there is a need to make use of the available control tools to reduce malaria risk, especially in children under five years and pregnant women. Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) has recently been accepted as an important component of the malaria control strategy. This study explored the potential of a strategy of intermittent preventive treatment for children (IPTC) and timely treatment of malaria-related febrile illness in the home in reducing the parasite prevalence and malaria morbidity in young children in a coastal village in Ghana. Methods The study combined home-based delivery of IPTC among six to 60 months old and home treatment of suspected febrile malaria illness within 24 hours. All children between six and 60 months of age received intermittent preventive treatment using amodiaquine and artesunate, delivered by community assistants every four months (three times in 12 months). Malaria parasite prevalence surveys were conducted before the first and after the third dose of IPTC. Results Parasite prevalence was reduced from 25% to 3% (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney) one year after the inception of the two interventions. At baseline, 13.8% of the children were febrile (axillary temperature greater than or equal to 37.5 degree Celsius) compared to 2.2% at evaluation (post IPTC3 combined with timely home management of fever) (p < 0.00, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion The evaluation result indicates that IPTC given three times in a year combined with timely treatment of febrile malaria illness, impacts significantly on the parasite prevalence. The marked reduction in the parasite prevalence with this strategy points to the potential for reducing malaria-related childhood morbidity and mortality, and this should be explored by control programme managers. PMID:20003357

  20. Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study from Tororo, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Ades, Veronica; Walakira, Andrew; Ninsiima, Boaz; Mugagga, Olive; Patil, Teja S.; Schwartz, Alanna; Kamya, Moses R.; Nasr, Sussann; Chang, Michelle; Filler, Scott; Dorsey, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely recommended in sub-Saharan Africa to reduce the risk of malaria and improve birth outcomes. However, there are reports that the efficacy of IPTp with SP is waning, especially in parts of Africa where antimalarial resistance to this drug has become widespread. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional study of 565 HIV-uninfected women giving birth at Tororo District Hospital in southeastern Uganda. The primary objective of the study was to measure associations between use of SP during pregnancy from antenatal records and the risk of adverse outcomes including placental malaria, low birth weight, maternal parasitemia and maternal anemia. The proportion of women who reported taking 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses of SP during pregnancy was 5.7%, 35.8%, 56.6% and 2.0% respectively. Overall, the prevalence of placental malaria was 17.5%, 28.1%, and 66.2% by placental smear, PCR, and histopathology, respectively. In multivariate analyses controlling for potential confounders, ≥2 doses of SP was associated with non-significant trends towards lower odds of placental malaria by placental smear (OR = 0.75, p = 0.25), placental malaria by PCR (OR = 0.93, p = 0.71), placental malaria by histopathology (OR = 0.75, p = 0.16), low birth weight (OR = 0.63, p = 0.11), maternal parasitemia (OR = 0.88, p = 0.60) and maternal anemia (OR = 0.88, p = 0.48). Using a composite outcome, ≥2doses of SP was associated with a significantly lower odds of placental malaria, low birth weight, maternal parasitemia, or maternal anemia (OR = 0.52, p = 0.01). Conclusions/Significance In this area of Uganda with intense malaria transmission, the prevalence of placental malaria by histopathology was high even among women who reported taking at least 2 doses of SP during pregnancy. The reported use of ≥2 doses of SP was

  1. Antigens for a Vaccine that Prevents Severe Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Hutagalung, R . et al. (1999) Influence of hemoglobin E trait on the severity of falciparum malaria. J. Infect. Dis. 179, 283–286 8 Ruwende, C. et al...erythrocytic stage in mam- malian malaria parasites. Nature 161: 126. 2. Shortt HE, Fairley NH, Covell G, Shute PG, Garnham PC, 1951. The pre-erythrocytic...stage of Plasmodium falciparum. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 44: 405–419. 3. Schaudinn F, 1903. Studien ueber krankheitserregende Proto- zoen II

  2. Inequities in incidence, morbidity and expenditures on prevention and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria places a great burden on households, but the extent to which this is tilted against the poor is unclear. However, the knowledge of the level of the burden of malaria amongst different population groups is vital for ensuring equitable control of malaria. This paper examined the inequities in occurrence, economic burden, prevention and treatment of malaria. Methods The study was undertaken in four malaria endemic villages in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. An asset-based index was used to categorize the households into socio-economic status (SES) quartiles: least poor; poor; very poor; and most poor. Chi-square analysis was used to determine the statistical significance of the SES differences in incidence, length of illness, ownership of treated nets, expenditures on treatment and prevention. Results All the SES quartiles had equal exposure to malaria. The pattern of health seeking for all the SES groups was almost similar, but in one of the villages the most poor, very poor and poor significantly used the services of patent medicine vendors and the least poor visited hospitals. The cost of treating malaria was similar across the SES quartiles. The average expenditure to treat an episode of malaria ranged from as low as 131 Naira ($1.09) to as high as 348 Naira ($2.9), while the transportation expenditure to receive treatment ranged from 26 Naira to 46 Naira (both less than $1). The level of expenditure to prevent malaria was low in the four villages, with less than 5% owning untreated nets and 10.4% with insecticide treated nets. Conclusion Malaria constitutes a burden to all SES groups, though the poorer socio-economic groups were more affected, because a greater proportion of their financial resources compared to their income are spent on treating the disease. The expenditures to treat malaria by the poorest households could lead to catastrophic health expenditures. Effective pro

  3. New insight-guided approaches to detect, cure, prevent and eliminate malaria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Kumari, Renu; Pandey, Richa

    2015-05-01

    New challenges posed by the development of resistance against artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as well as previous first-line therapies, and the continuing absence of vaccine, have given impetus to research in all areas of malaria control. This review portrays the ongoing progress in several directions of malaria research. The variants of RTS,S and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) are being developed and test adapted as multicomponent and multistage malaria control vaccines, while many other vaccine candidates and methodologies to produce antigens are under experimentation. To track and prevent the spread of artemisinin resistance from Southeast Asia to other parts of the world, rolling circle-enhanced enzyme activity detection (REEAD), a time- and cost-effective malaria diagnosis in field conditions, and a DNA marker associated with artemisinin resistance have become available. Novel mosquito repellents and mosquito trapping and killing techniques much more effective than the prevalent ones are undergoing field testing. Mosquito lines stably infected with their symbiotic wild-type or genetically engineered bacteria that kill sympatric malaria parasites are being constructed and field tested for stopping malaria transmission. A complementary approach being pursued is the addition of ivermectin-like drug molecules to ACTs to cure malaria and kill mosquitoes. Experiments are in progress to eradicate malaria mosquito by making it genetically male sterile. High-throughput screening procedures are being developed and used to discover molecules that possess long in vivo half life and are active against liver and blood stages for the fast cure of malaria symptoms caused by simple or relapsing and drug-sensitive and drug-resistant types of varied malaria parasites, can stop gametocytogenesis and sporogony and could be given in one dose. Target-based antimalarial drug designing has begun. Some of the putative next-generation antimalarials that possess in their

  4. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  5. Prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy - new threats, new opportunities?

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Stephen J; Unger, Holger W

    2017-04-01

    Over 100 million women and their babies are at risk of malaria in pregnancy each year. Malaria prevention in pregnancy relies on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), and, in Africa, intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Increasing resistance of malaria parasites to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, the only drug endorsed for IPTp, and increasing mosquito resistance to pyrethroids used in LLINs, threaten the efficacy of these proven strategies, while operational challenges restrict their implementation in areas of great need. Areas Covered: This review summarizes strategies for malaria prevention in pregnancy (both currently used and those undergoing preclinical and clinical evaluation), primarily drawing on publications and study protocols from the last decade. Challenges associated with each strategy are discussed, including the particular problem of HIV and malaria in pregnancy, and areas of further research are highlighted. Expert Commentary: Alternative drugs for IPTp are needed. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is particularly promising, but requires further evaluation, and might contribute to artemisinin resistance. Intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy (ISTp) is an alternative to IPTp that could reduce unnecessary antenatal drug exposure and resistance risk, but it is not recommended with current, insensitive screening tests. Optimal strategies for areas of low or declining malaria transmission remain to be determined.

  6. Awareness, attitudes and prevention of malaria in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Ndo, Cyrille; Menze-Djantio, Benjamin; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe

    2011-09-20

    There is little information on the social perception of malaria and the use of prevention methods in Cameroon. This study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and management of malaria in households living in the cities of Douala and Yaoundé. Over 82% of people interviewed associated malaria transmission to mosquito bites. Methods used for malaria prevention were: environmental sanitation 1645 (76.1%), use of bed nets 1491 (69%), insecticide spray/coils 265 (12.3%) and netting of doors or windows 42 (1.9%). Bed net ownership was significantly high in Yaoundé (73.8%) (P < 0.0001), whereas the use of insecticide spray or coils was significantly important in Douala (16.3%) (P < 0.0001). Some of the problems experienced by families using ITN were the difficulty in finding chemicals for the retreatment of nets 702 (47%), insufficient financial means to buy new bed nets to replace old ones 366 (24.5%) or, to provide bed nets to everybody in the household 289 (19.4%) and the sensation of feeling excessive heat when sleeping under a bed net 74 (5%). The amount spent monthly by a household for vector control and malaria treatment was estimated at 2377 fcfa (3.6 euros) and 4562 fcfa (6.95 euros) respectively. These amounts were not significantly different between households of Douala and Yaoundé. Concerning management of malaria cases, 18.6% of people declare going to the hospital when suffering from malaria. The majority of people (81.4%) do self medication - they either buy drugs from the pharmacists, street sellers or they use plants to cure malaria. The study revealed a high awareness of populations on malaria and ITNs. However some attitudes hindering the use of ITN or related to the management of clinical cases need further attention.

  7. Experiences of households using integrated malaria prevention in two rural communities in Wakiso district, Uganda: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Musoke, David; Karani, George; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Okui, Peter; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2016-06-07

    The integrated approach to malaria prevention which advocates use of several methods in a holistic manner is being explored to complement existing strategies. A pilot project that promoted integrated malaria prevention established 40 demonstration households using the approach. As part of impact evaluation of the project 2 years after implementation, the experiences of these households using integrated malaria prevention were assessed. A qualitative cross-sectional survey was carried out in Wakiso district, Uganda which involved 40 in-depth interviews among households implementing integrated malaria prevention. The study assessed practices on malaria prevention, benefits and challenges of using integrated malaria prevention, preference of malaria prevention methods, and impact of the demonstration households on the community. Thematic analysis was employed using Atlas ti software. The households continued to use many of the malaria prevention methods in the integrated approach including sleeping under long-lasting insecticidal nets, screening in windows and ventilators, removing mosquito breeding sites, and closing of doors early in the evenings. The major benefits reported from using integrated malaria prevention were reduction in mosquito populations in their houses and less occurrence of malaria particularly among children. Although several community members learnt about and admired various malaria prevention methods from the demonstration households especially screening in windows and ventilators, the majority could not afford to implement some of them due to lack of resources. The main challenge established in using integrated malaria prevention was the much time required to implement the several methods some of which had to be done regularly such as early closing of windows. In addition, complacency had led to some households not utilizing a number of methods in the integrated approach because of using others. Use of the integrated approach to malaria

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of business travelers regarding malaria risk and prevention.

    PubMed

    Weber, Roger; Schlagenhauf, Patricia; Amsler, Lorenz; Steffen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Swiss business travelers with regard to malaria. Questionnaires printed in three languages were distributed by employers, travel agencies and tropical medicine specialists to business travelers with destinations in malaria endemic countries. In total, 401 questionnaires were evaluated. Thirty-three percent visited high-risk areas, 27% visited low-risk areas, and 40% visited only malaria-free areas within endemic countries. Among the investigated business travelers, 6% had experienced malaria infection, and 29% had previously had blood smears tested for malaria at least once. Almost all business travelers, 95%, knew that mosquitoes are the main vectors of malaria. The infection risk between dusk and dawn was known to 71%, and the incubation time to 36%. Apart from fever (99%) and headache (63%), other malaria symptoms were known to only 13% to 36% of the travelers. If signs of illness such as fever and headache occurred, 63% would react adequately and seek medical advice within 24 h. Only 16% of the travelers to African high-risk areas followed the recommended behavior concerning anti-mosquito and antimalarial strategies; 31% of those on trips to low-risk areas used an adequate protective strategy. Of the business travelers using chemoprophylaxis during travel, just 50% continued intake post travel, as requested, after leaving the endemic area. Business travelers are well informed regarding the mode of transmission and the risk of malaria at specific destinations but tend to comply poorly with anti-mosquito and chemoprophylactic strategies. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of business travelers with regard to malaria prevention need to be improved.

  9. Trends in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria: results from the Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey 2002 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies investigating the travellers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travellers, including business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs), and elderly travellers. Methods In the years 2002 to 2009, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria. The risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, VFRs and elderly travellers were specifically studied. Results A total of 3,045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for malaria had significantly more accurate risk perceptions (knowledge) than travellers to low-risk destinations. The relative risk for malaria in travellers to high-risk destinations was probably mitigated by higher protection rates against malaria as compared with travellers to low risk destinations. There were no significant differences in intended risk-taking behaviour. Trend analyses showed a significant change over time in attitude towards more risk-avoiding behaviour and towards higher protection rates against malaria in travellers to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, which contrasts to the slight increase in relative risk of solo travellers, business travellers and VFRs for malaria. Conclusions The results of this sequential cohort survey in Dutch travellers suggest an annual 1.8% increase in protection rates against malaria coinciding with an annual 2.5% decrease in intended risk-seeking behaviour. This improvement may reflect the continuous efforts of travel health advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of last

  10. Drug resistance maps to guide intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in African infants.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Inbarani; Roper, Cally

    2011-10-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of infants (IPTi) with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended as an additional malaria control intervention in high transmission areas of sub-Saharan Africa, provided its protective efficacy is not compromised by SP resistance. A significant obstacle in implementing SP-IPTi, is in establishing the degree of resistance in an area. Since SP monotherapy is discontinued, no contemporary measures of in vivo efficacy can be made, so the World Health Organisation has recommended a cut-off based upon molecular markers, stating that SP-IPTi should not be implemented when the prevalence of the dhps 540E mutation among infections exceeds 50%. We created a geo-referenced database of SP resistance markers in Africa from published literature. By selecting surveys of malaria infected blood samples conducted since 2004 we have mapped the contemporary prevalence of dhps 540E. Additional maps are freely available in interactive form at http://www.drugresistancemaps.org/ipti/. Eight countries in East Africa are classified as unsuitable for SP-IPTi when data are considered at a national level. Fourteen countries in Central and West Africa were classified as suitable while seven countries had no available contemporary data to guide policy. There are clear deficiencies in molecular surveillance data coverage. We discuss requirements for ongoing surveillance of SP resistance markers in support of the use of SP-IPTi.

  11. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Heck, J E

    1991-03-01

    Human malaria is caused by four species of the genus plasmodium. The sexual stage of the parasite occurs in the mosquito and asexual reproduction occurs in man. Symptoms of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia result from the invasion and rupture of erythrocytes. Merozoites are released from erythrocytes and invade other cells, thus propagating the infection. The most vulnerable hosts are nonimmune travelers, young children living in the tropics, and pregnant women. P. falciparum causes the most severe infections because it infects RBCs of all ages and has the propensity to develop resistance to antimalarials. Rapid diagnosis can be made with a malarial smear, and treatment should be initiated promptly. In some regions (Mexico, Central America except Panama, and North Africa) chloroquine phosphate is effective therapy. In subsaharan Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, chloroquine resistance has become widespread, and other antimalarials are necessary. The primary care physician should have a high index of suspicion for malaria in the traveler returning from the tropics. Malaria should also be suspected in the febrile transfusion recipient and newborns of mothers with malaria.

  12. [Establishment of early warning system of malaria in Jiangsu Province V Es- tablishment of prevention and control system of imported falciparum malaria].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhou, Hua-yun; Liu, Yao-bao; Cao, Yuan-yuan; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2015-08-01

    To establish a system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria in Jiangsu Prov- ince and provide the new scientific basis for the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria. The data- bases for overseas labor companies and labors in Jiangsu Province were built and the health education was conducted to the overseas labors. The "1-3-7" elimination strategy was established. A weekly reporting system for malaria case details was es- tablished. A system for screening accompanies of imported malaria patients was established. At the end of 2013, the database of companies engaged in labor export was built and1 405 companies were incorporated into the database. The time interval between the symptom onset and the first health facility visit was reduced to 3.07 days in 2013. The time interval be- tween the first health facility visit to malaria diagnosis was reduced to 1.57 days in 2013. The rate of laboratory confirmation was increased to 100% in 2013, and there was a statistically significant difference among the rates of laboratory confirmation from 2009 to 2013 (χ2 = 36.35, P < 0.05). The proportion of severe imported falciparum malaria cases was decreased to 3.15% in 2013 and there was a statistically significant difference among the proportions of severe cases from 2009 to 2013 (χ2 = 301.16, P < 0.05). No death malaria case was reported in the whole province in 2013. Jiangsu Province has built a preliminary system of the prevention and control of imported falciparum malaria, which plays an important role in the prevention and control of overseas imported falciparum malaria.

  13. Origin and prevention of airport malaria in France.

    PubMed

    Guillet, P; Germain, M C; Giacomini, T; Chandre, F; Akogbeto, M; Faye, O; Kone, A; Manga, L; Mouchet, J

    1998-09-01

    Since 1969, 63 cases of airport malaria have been reported in Western Europe, 24 of which occurred in France. Most were due to Plasmodium falciparum. In 1994, 7 cases occurred in and around Roissy Charles de Gaulle airport (CDG), showing 4 types of contamination: among employees working on airstrips or opening containers, among residents living near the airport, among people living at some distance from the airport after a secondary transport of vectors, and by vectors transported in luggage. In-flight or stop-over infection is not considered as airport malaria. The infective anophelines originated from airports where malaria transmission occurs, mostly in subsaharan Africa. A tentative list is given taking into account aerial traffic with France. Surveys in the airports of Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Yaoundé (Cameroun) found potential vectors in all of these from July to September. After 1994, the Contrôle Sanitaire aux Frontières (CSF) in charge at CDG concentrated its efforts on the flights at risk, as well as information and sensitization of airline companies, which resulted in 73% and 87% of the flights at risk being properly disinsected in 1995 and 1996. Despite pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. in West Africa, the efficacy of aircraft spraying with permethrin aerosols is still acceptable. However, surveillance of resistance should be improved and search for nonpyrethroid insecticides suitable for aircraft strongly encouraged.

  14. Preventing Childhood Malaria in Africa by Protecting Adults from Mosquitoes with Insecticide-Treated Nets

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Gerry F; Smith, Tom A; Ferguson, Heather M; Mshinda, Hassan; Abdulla, Salim; Lengeler, Christian; Kachur, Steven P

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria prevention in Africa merits particular attention as the world strives toward a better life for the poorest. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) represent a practical means to prevent malaria in Africa, so scaling up coverage to at least 80% of young children and pregnant women by 2010 is integral to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Targeting individual protection to vulnerable groups is an accepted priority, but community-level impacts of broader population coverage are largely ignored even though they may be just as important. We therefore estimated coverage thresholds for entire populations at which individual- and community-level protection are equivalent, representing rational targets for ITN coverage beyond vulnerable groups. Methods and Findings Using field-parameterized malaria transmission models, we show that high (80% use) but exclusively targeted coverage of young children and pregnant women (representing <20% of the population) will deliver limited protection and equity for these vulnerable groups. In contrast, relatively modest coverage (35%–65% use, with this threshold depending on ecological scenario and net quality) of all adults and children, rather than just vulnerable groups, can achieve equitable community-wide benefits equivalent to or greater than personal protection. Conclusions Coverage of entire populations will be required to accomplish large reductions of the malaria burden in Africa. While coverage of vulnerable groups should still be prioritized, the equitable and communal benefits of wide-scale ITN use by older children and adults should be explicitly promoted and evaluated by national malaria control programmes. ITN use by the majority of entire populations could protect all children in such communities, even those not actually covered by achieving existing personal protection targets of the MDG, Roll Back Malaria Partnership, or the US President's Malaria Initiative. PMID:17608562

  15. Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine against Malaria and Anemia in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Nana O.; Ceesay, Fatou K.; Obed, Samuel A.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Gyasi, Richard K.; Rodney, Patricia; Ndjakani, Yassa; Anderson, Winston A.; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) against malaria and anemia is unclear because of the spread of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. This study evaluates the effectiveness of IPTp-SP among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. A cross-sectional study comparing malaria and anemia prevalence among pregnant women using IPTp-SP with non-IPTp-SP users was conducted during June–August 2009. A total of 363 pregnant women (202 of IPTp users and 161 non-IPTp users) were recruited. A total of 15.3% of IPTp users had malaria compared with 44.7% of non-IPTp users (P < 0.001). A total of 58.4% of non-IPTp users were anemic compared with 22.8% of IPTp users (P < 0.001). When we controlled for other variables, the difference in the prevalence of malaria (odds ratio = 0.18, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.37) and anemia (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval = 0.12–0.34) remained significant. The recommended IPTp-SP regimen is useful in preventing malaria and anemia among pregnant women in Ghana. PMID:21734118

  16. Perceptions of malaria in pregnancy and acceptability of preventive interventions among Mozambican pregnant women: implications for effectiveness of malaria control in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Boene, Helena; González, Raquel; Valá, Anifa; Rupérez, Maria; Velasco, César; Machevo, Sónia; Sacoor, Charfudin; Sevene, Esperança; Macete, Eusébio; Menéndez, Clara; Munguambe, Khátia

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Preventive Treatment (IPTp) and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are recommended malaria in pregnancy preventive interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their cost-effectiveness and seemingly straight-forward delivery mechanism, their uptake remains low. We aimed at describing perceptions of pregnant women regarding malaria and the recommended prevention interventions to understand barriers to uptake and help to improve their effectiveness. We used mixed methods to collect data among 85 pregnant women from a rural area of Southern Mozambique. Information was obtained through observations, in-depth interviews, and focused ethnographic exercises (Free-listing and Pairwise comparisons). Thematic analysis was performed on qualitative data. Data from focused ethnographic exercises were summarized into frequency distribution tables and matrices. Malaria was not viewed as a threat to pregnancy. Participants were not fully aware of malaria- associated adverse maternal and birth outcomes. ITNs were the most preferred and used malaria preventive intervention, while IPTp fell between second and third. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) was the least preferred intervention. Low awareness of the risks and adverse consequences of malaria in pregnancy did not seem to affect acceptability or uptake to the different malaria preventive interventions in the same manner. Perceived convenience, the delivery approach, and type of provider were the key factors. Pregnant women, through antenatal care (ANC) services, can be the vehicles of ITN distribution in the communities to maximise overall ITN coverage. There is a need to improve knowledge about neonatal health and malaria to improve uptake of interventions delivered through channels other than the health facility.

  17. Eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in Hainan, China: a study on the use of behavioural change communication intervention to promote malaria prevention in mountain worker populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the island of Hainan, the great majority of malaria cases occur in mountain worker populations. Using the behavioral change communication (BCC) strategy, an interventional study was conducted to promote mountain worker malaria prevention at a test site. This study found the methods and measures that are suitable for malaria prevention among mountain worker populations. Methods During the Plasmodium falciparum elimination stage in Hainan, a representative sampling method was used to establish testing and control sites in areas of Hainan that were both affected by malaria and had a relatively high density of mountain workers. Two different methods were used: a BCC strategy and a conventional strategy as a control. Before and after the intervention, house visits, core group discussions, and structural surveys were utilized to collect qualitative and quantitative data regarding mountain worker populations (including knowledge, attitudes, and practices [KAPs]; infection status; and serological data), and these data from the testing and control areas were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of BCC strategies in the prevention of malaria. Results In the BCC malaria prevention strategy testing areas, the accuracy rates of malaria-related KAP were significantly improved among mountain worker populations. The accuracy rates in the 3 aspects of malaria-related KAP increased from 37.73%, 37.00%, and 43.04% to 89.01%, 91.53%, and 92.25%, respectively. The changes in all 3 aspects of KAP were statistically significant (p < 0.01). In the control sites, the changes in the indices were not as marked as in the testing areas, and the change was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the testing areas, both the percentage testing positive in the serum malaria indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the number of people inflicted decreased more significantly than in the control sites (p < 0.01). Conclusion The use of the BCC

  18. Eliminating Plasmodium falciparum in Hainan, China: a study on the use of behavioural change communication intervention to promote malaria prevention in mountain worker populations.

    PubMed

    He, Chang-hua; Hu, Xi-min; Wang, Guang-ze; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Ding-wei; Li, Yu-chun; Chen, Chun-xiang; Du, Jian-wei; Wang, Shan-qing

    2014-07-13

    In the island of Hainan, the great majority of malaria cases occur in mountain worker populations. Using the behavioral change communication (BCC) strategy, an interventional study was conducted to promote mountain worker malaria prevention at a test site. This study found the methods and measures that are suitable for malaria prevention among mountain worker populations. During the Plasmodium falciparum elimination stage in Hainan, a representative sampling method was used to establish testing and control sites in areas of Hainan that were both affected by malaria and had a relatively high density of mountain workers. Two different methods were used: a BCC strategy and a conventional strategy as a control. Before and after the intervention, house visits, core group discussions, and structural surveys were utilized to collect qualitative and quantitative data regarding mountain worker populations (including knowledge, attitudes, and practices [KAPs]; infection status; and serological data), and these data from the testing and control areas were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of BCC strategies in the prevention of malaria. In the BCC malaria prevention strategy testing areas, the accuracy rates of malaria-related KAP were significantly improved among mountain worker populations. The accuracy rates in the 3 aspects of malaria-related KAP increased from 37.73%, 37.00%, and 43.04% to 89.01%, 91.53%, and 92.25%, respectively. The changes in all 3 aspects of KAP were statistically significant (p < 0.01). In the control sites, the changes in the indices were not as marked as in the testing areas, and the change was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the testing areas, both the percentage testing positive in the serum malaria indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and the number of people inflicted decreased more significantly than in the control sites (p < 0.01). The use of the BCC strategy significantly improved the ability of mountain

  19. A cohort study of the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in an area of moderate pyrethroid resistance, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lindblade, Kim A; Mwandama, Dyson; Mzilahowa, Themba; Steinhardt, Laura; Gimnig, John; Shah, Monica; Bauleni, Andy; Wong, Jacklyn; Wiegand, Ryan; Howell, Paul; Zoya, John; Chiphwanya, John; Mathanga, Don P

    2015-01-28

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) are the cornerstone of malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa but their effectiveness may be compromised by the spread of pyrethroid resistance among malaria vectors. The objective of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of ITNs to prevent malaria in an area of Malawi with moderate pyrethroid resistance. One deltamethrin ITN was distributed in the study area for every two individuals in each household plus one extra ITN for households with an odd number of residents. A fixed cohort of 1,199 children aged six to 59 months was seen monthly for one year and at sick visits to measure malaria infection and use of ITNs. Insecticide resistance among malaria vectors was measured. The effect of ITN use on malaria incidence was assessed, adjusting for potential confounders using generalized estimating equations accounting for repeated measures. There were 1,909 infections with Plasmodium falciparum over 905 person-years at risk (PYAR), resulting in an observed incidence of 2.1 infections per person-year (iPPY). ITNs were used during 97% of the PYAR. The main vector was Anopheles funestus: mortality in WHO tube assays after exposure to 0.05% deltamethrin was 38% (95% confidence interval (CI) 29-47), and resistance was due to elevated oxidase enzymes. After adjusting for potential confounders, the incidence of malaria infection among ITN users was 1.7 iPPY (95% CI 1.5-2.1) and among non-bed net users was 2.6 iPPY (95% CI 2.0-3.3). Use of ITNs reduced the incidence of malaria infection by 30% (rate ratio 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) compared to no bed nets. ITNs significantly reduced the incidence of malaria infection in children in an area with moderate levels of pyrethroid resistance and considerable malaria transmission. This is the first study to show that ITNs provide protection in areas where pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus is the major malaria vector. Malaria control programmes should continue to distribute and promote ITNs in

  20. Equity in long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying for malaria prevention in a rural South Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Hailu, Alemayehu; Lindtjørn, Bernt; Deressa, Wakgari; Gari, Taye; Loha, Eskindir; Robberstad, Bjarne

    2016-07-16

    While recognizing the recent achievement in the global fight against malaria, the disease remains a challenge to health systems in low-income countries. Beyond widespread consensuses about prioritizing malaria prevention, little is known about the prevailing status of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) across different levels of wealth strata. The aim of this study was to evaluate the socioeconomic related dimension of inequalities in malaria prevention interventions. This study was conducted in July-August 2014 in Adami Tullu district in the South-central Ethiopia, among 6069 households. A cross-sectional data were collected on household characteristics, LLIN ownership and IRS coverage. Principal component analysis technique was used for ranking households based on socioeconomic position. The inequality was measured using concentration indices and concentration curve. Decomposition method was employed in order to quantify the percentage contribution of each socioeconomic related variable on the overall inequality. The proportion of households with at least one LLIN was 11.6 % and IRS coverage was 72.5 %. The Erreygers normalized concentration index was 0.0627 for LLIN and 0.0383 for IRS. Inequality in LLIN ownership was mainly associated with difference in housing situation, household size and access to mass-media and telecommunication service. Coverage of LLIN was low and significant more likely to be owned by the rich households, whereas houses were sprayed equitably. The current mass free distribution of LLINs should be followed by periodic refill based on continuous monitoring data.

  1. Lead Selection of a New Aminomethylphenol, JPC-3210, for Malaria Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Chavchich, Marina; Birrell, Geoffrey W; Ager, Arba L; MacKenzie, Donna O; Heffernan, Gavin D; Schiehser, Guy A; Jacobus, Laura R; Shanks, G Dennis; Jacobus, David P; Edstein, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridine and pyrimidine analogues of 2-aminomethylphenols (JPC-2997, JPC-3186, and JPC-3210) were conducted for preclinical development for malaria treatment and/or prevention. Of these compounds, JPC-3210 [4-(tert-butyl)-2-((tert-butylamino)methyl)-6-(5-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)phenol] was selected as the lead compound due to superior in vitro antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum lines, lower in vitro cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines, longer plasma elimination half-life, and greater in vivo efficacy against murine malaria.

  2. Lead Selection of a New Aminomethylphenol, JPC-3210, for Malaria Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chavchich, Marina; Birrell, Geoffrey W.; Ager, Arba L.; MacKenzie, Donna O.; Heffernan, Gavin D.; Schiehser, Guy A.; Jacobus, Laura R.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Jacobus, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Structure-activity relationship studies of trifluoromethyl-substituted pyridine and pyrimidine analogues of 2-aminomethylphenols (JPC-2997, JPC-3186, and JPC-3210) were conducted for preclinical development for malaria treatment and/or prevention. Of these compounds, JPC-3210 [4-(tert-butyl)-2-((tert-butylamino)methyl)-6-(5-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl)phenol] was selected as the lead compound due to superior in vitro antimalarial activity against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum lines, lower in vitro cytotoxicity in mammalian cell lines, longer plasma elimination half-life, and greater in vivo efficacy against murine malaria. PMID:26856849

  3. Availability and utilization of malaria prevention strategies in pregnancy in eastern India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy in India, as elsewhere, is responsible for maternal anemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth. It is not known whether prevention and treatment strategies for malaria in pregnancy (case management, insecticide-treated bednets, intermittent preventive therapy) are widely utilized in India. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2006-2008 in two states of India, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh, at 7 facilities representing a range of rural and urban populations and areas of more versus less stable malaria transmission. 280 antenatal visits (40/site) were observed by study personnel coupled with exit interviews of pregnant women to assess emphasis upon, availability and utilization of malaria prevention practices by health workers and pregnant women. The facilities were assessed for the availability of antimalarials, lab supplies and bednets. Results All participating facilities were equipped to perform malaria blood smears; none used rapid diagnostic tests. Chloroquine, endorsed for chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy by the government at the time of the study, was stocked regularly at all facilities although the quantity stocked varied. Availability of alternative antimalarials for use in pregnancy was less consistent. In Jharkhand, no health worker recommended bednet use during the antenatal visit yet over 90% of pregnant women had bednets in their household. In Chhattisgarh, bednets were available at all facilities but only 14.4% of health workers recommended their use. 40% of the pregnant women interviewed had bednets in their household. Only 1.4% of all households owned an insecticide-treated bednet; yet 40% of all women reported their households had been sprayed with insecticide. Antimalarial chemoprophylaxis with chloroquine was prescribed in only 2 (0.7%) and intermittent preventive therapy prescribed in only one (0.4%) of the 280 observed visits. Conclusions A disconnect remains

  4. Malaria prevention in pregnancy, birthweight, and neonatal mortality: a meta-analysis of 32 national cross-sectional datasets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Thomas P; Larsen, David A; Anglewicz, Philip A; Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Josh; Bennett, Adam; Hutchinson, Paul; Steketee, Richard W

    2012-12-01

    for potential confounding factors. Compared with women with no protection, exposure of pregnant women during their first two pregnancies to full malaria prevention in pregnancy through IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with reduced odds of low birthweight (PE 21%, 14-27; IRR 0·792, 0·732-0·857), as measured by a combination of weight and birth size perceived by the mother, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. Malaria prevention in pregnancy is associated with substantial reductions in neonatal mortality and low birthweight under routine malaria control programme conditions. Malaria control programmes should strive to achieve full protection in pregnant women by both IPTp and ITNs to maximise their benefits. Despite an attempt to mitigate bias and potential confounding by matching women on factors thought to be associated with access to malaria prevention in pregnancy and birth outcomes, some level of confounding bias possibly remains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of Nigerian women taking sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine twice during pregnancy for the prevention of malaria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Nkechi G; Orji, Bright C; Okeibunor, Joseph C; Brieger, William R

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the characteristics of women in Nigeria who are likely to take sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) as recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy to reduce maternal and child mortality rates. A cross-sectional survey of 1380 women was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The women had given birth within 6months prior to the survey and were drawn from 6 local government areas in Nigeria. Several demographic factors-older age bracket, ever attended school, currently living with a partner, ever married, and wealth-were significantly associated with compliance. Compliance was higher among respondents who had ever been married than among those who had never been married (χ(2)=6.733; P=0.006). Compliance was also higher among those in paid employment (χ(2)=17.110; P<0.001) and those in a higher wealth quintile (χ(2)=34.861; P<0.001). Knowledge of malaria, which included prevention of malaria in pregnancy through use of IPTp with 2 doses of SP, showed a positive association with compliance. Compliance with 2 doses of SP among those with good knowledge was higher (63.9%) than among those with poor knowledge (46.9%) (χ(2)=26.981; P<0.001). The present findings could help in targeting health education programs to specific subgroups of women to increase compliance with the recommended 2 doses of SP for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy. © 2013.

  6. High-Throughput Luciferase-Based Assay for the Discovery of Therapeutics That Prevent Malaria

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify the most attractive starting points for drugs that can be used to prevent malaria, a diverse chemical space comprising tens of thousands to millions of small molecules may need to be examined. Achieving this throughput necessitates the development of efficient ultra-high-throughput screening methods. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a luciferase-based phenotypic screen of malaria exoerythrocytic-stage parasites optimized for a 1536-well format. This assay uses the exoerythrocytic stage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, and a human hepatoma cell line. We use this assay to evaluate several biased and unbiased compound libraries, including two small sets of molecules (400 and 89 compounds, respectively) with known activity against malaria erythrocytic-stage parasites and a set of 9886 diversity-oriented synthesis (DOS)-derived compounds. Of the compounds screened, we obtain hit rates of 12–13 and 0.6% in preselected and naïve libraries, respectively, and identify 52 compounds with exoerythrocytic-stage activity less than 1 μM and having minimal host cell toxicity. Our data demonstrate the ability of this method to identify compounds known to have causal prophylactic activity in both human and animal models of malaria, as well as novel compounds, including some exclusively active against parasite exoerythrocytic stages. PMID:27275010

  7. Measuring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Relation to Malaria Risk: A Comparison of Metrics in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Tusting, Lucy S.; Rek, John C.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Staedke, Sarah G.; Kamya, Moses R.; Bottomley, Christian; Johnston, Deborah; Lines, Jo; Dorsey, Grant; Lindsay, Steve W.

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic position (SEP) is an important risk factor for malaria, but there is no consensus on how to measure SEP in malaria studies. We evaluated the relative strength of four indicators of SEP in predicting malaria risk in Nagongera, Uganda. A total of 318 children resident in 100 households were followed for 36 months to measure parasite prevalence routinely every 3 months and malaria incidence by passive case detection. Household SEP was determined using: 1) two wealth indices, 2) income, 3) occupation, and 4) education. Wealth Index I (reference) included only asset ownership variables. Wealth Index II additionally included food security and house construction variables, which may directly affect malaria. In multivariate analysis, only Wealth Index II and income were associated with the human biting rate, only Wealth Indices I and II were associated with parasite prevalence, and only caregiver's education was associated with malaria incidence. This is the first evaluation of metrics beyond wealth and consumption indices for measuring the association between SEP and malaria. The wealth index still predicted malaria risk after excluding variables directly associated with malaria, but the strength of association was lower. In this setting, wealth indices, income, and education were stronger predictors of socioeconomic differences in malaria risk than occupation. PMID:26811432

  8. Socioeconomic factors, attitudes and practices associated with malaria prevention in the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico is in the malaria pre-elimination phase; therefore, continuous assessment and understanding of the social and behavioural risk factors related to exposure to malaria are necessary to achieve the overall goal. The aim of this research was to investigate socio-economic backgrounds, attitudes and practices related with malaria in rural locations from the coastal plain of Chiapas. Methods In January 2012, 542 interviews were conducted to householders from 20 villages across the coastal plain of Chiapas. Questions were about housing conditions, protection from mosquito bites and general information of householders. Chi2 analyses were performed to see whether there was a dependence of those reported having malaria with their house conditions and their malaria preventive practices. Results were discussed and also compared statistically against those obtained 17 years ago from the same area. Results Most households had 2–5 people (73.6%), 91.6% of houses had 1–3 bedrooms. The physical structure of the houses consisted of walls mainly made of block or brick 72.3%, the floor made of cement 90.0%, while the roof made of zinc sheet 43.9%, and straw or palm 42.2%. A 23.1% of the interviewed completed elementary school and 16.6% was illiterate. A 9.9% of the residents reported at least one family member having had malaria. A 98.1% of families used some method to prevent mosquito bites; those using bed nets were 94.3%. Almost 72% of families bought products for mosquito protection. A total of 537 out of 542 families agreed with the indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide and a frequency of application as often as every two months was preferred. Conclusion Housing conditions and malaria preventive practices have improved in these rural areas in 17 years, which could be in favor of malaria elimination in this area. Information generated by this study could help in the decision making about whether to use insecticide as indoor residual spraying or to

  9. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles J; Hendriksen, Ilse C E; Veenemans, Jacobien; Verhoef, Hans; Faiz, M Abul; Mohanty, Sanjib; Mishra, Saroj; Mtove, George; Gesase, Samwel; Seni, Amir; Chhaganlal, Kajal D; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; White, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed whether the plasma Plasmodium falciparum DNA concentration is a useful datum for distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in African children and Asian adults. P. falciparum DNA concentrations were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 224 African children (111 with uncomplicated malaria and 113 with severe malaria) and 211 Asian adults (100 with uncomplicated malaria and 111 with severe malaria) presenting with acute falciparum malaria. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations in identifying severe malaria was 0.834 for children and 0.788 for adults, similar to that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 levels and substantially superior to that of parasite densities (P < .0001). The diagnostic accuracy of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentrations plus plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations was significantly greater than that of plasma P. falciparum HRP2 concentrations alone (0.904 for children [P = .004] and 0.847 for adults [P = .003]). Quantitative real-time PCR measurement of parasite DNA in plasma is a useful method for diagnosing severe falciparum malaria on fresh or archived plasma samples.

  10. Disparities of Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity and access to malaria prevention and treatment among school-aged children: a national cross-sectional survey in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Houngbedji, Clarisse A; N'Dri, Prisca B; Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Soro, Gotianwa; Koudou, Benjamin G; Acka, Cinthia A; Assi, Serge-Brice; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Fantodji, Agathe; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-01-05

    There is limited knowledge on the malaria burden of school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to assess Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity, use of preventive measures and treatment against malaria, and physical access to health structures among school-aged children across Côte d'Ivoire. A national, cross-sectional study was designed, consisting of clinical and parasitological examinations and interviews with schoolchildren. More than 5,000 children from 93 schools in Côte d'Ivoire were interviewed to determine household socioeconomic status, self-reported morbidity and means of malaria prevention and treatment. Finger-prick blood samples were collected and Plasmodium infection and parasitaemia determined using Giemsa-stained blood films and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Haemoglobin levels and body temperature were measured. Children were classified into wealth quintiles using household assets and principal components analysis (PCA). The concentration index was employed to determine significant trends of health variables according to wealth quintiles. Logistic and binomial negative regression analyses were done to investigate for associations between P. falciparum prevalence and parasitaemia and any health-related variable. The prevalence of P. falciparum was 73.9% according to combined microscopy and RDT results with a geometric mean of parasitaemia among infected children of 499 parasites/μl of blood. Infection with P. falciparum was significantly associated with sex, socioeconomic status and study setting, while parasitaemia was associated with age. The rate of bed net use was low compared to the rate of bed net ownership. Preventive measures (bed net ownership, insecticide spray and the reported use of malaria treatment) were more frequently mentioned by children from wealthier households who were at lower risk of P. falciparum infection. Self-reported morbidity (headache) and clinical morbidity (anaemia) were

  11. Objective monitoring of Insecticide-treated bednet use to improve malaria prevention: SmartNet development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jeffrey I.; Santorino, Data; Bangsberg, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health concern for three billion people worldwide, killing nearly 600,000 people a year. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are an effective and valuable tool for preventing malaria and hundreds of millions of ITNs have been distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, our current methods for measuring ITN use are inadequate to inform malaria prevention programs. The most common method, self-reported ITN use, is limited by 1) social desirability, 2) recall and 3) sampling bias. An acceptable objective and longitudinal method of assessing adherence to ITN use would improve our ability to better understand the determinants of ITN use and design more effective malaria prevention interventions. We describe the development and initial proof-of-concept validity testing of an ITN adherence monitoring tool called SmartNet. SmartNet uses conductive thread interwoven into an ITN and a microcontroller to detect the state of the ITN. We tested SmartNet among five volunteers using the device over their beds in Boston, USA for two weeks with the goal of evaluating device reliability, accuracy and acceptability to inform future device improvements. The device recorded data for 63.1% (35172/55711) of installed two-minute time intervals, with 97.3% (19990/20539) of the recording errors relating to battery failures. Overall, the device was 71.7% (25204/35172) accurate in determining the state of the ITN (whether it was folded up or unfurled) and performed significantly better at detecting an unfurled ITN than a folded ITN, 77.3% versus 68.4% (p<0.001). Participants noted no significant acceptability concerns and all participants felt SmartNet was easy or very easy to use. SmartNet is a novel approach to objectively measure ITN adherence over time. Our results suggest a variety of device improvements to both extend reliability and improve performance of SmartNet prior to deployment in a malaria-endemic setting. PMID:28158233

  12. Objective monitoring of Insecticide-treated bednet use to improve malaria prevention: SmartNet development and validation.

    PubMed

    Krezanoski, Paul J; Campbell, Jeffrey I; Santorino, Data; Bangsberg, David R

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is a serious health concern for three billion people worldwide, killing nearly 600,000 people a year. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) are an effective and valuable tool for preventing malaria and hundreds of millions of ITNs have been distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, our current methods for measuring ITN use are inadequate to inform malaria prevention programs. The most common method, self-reported ITN use, is limited by 1) social desirability, 2) recall and 3) sampling bias. An acceptable objective and longitudinal method of assessing adherence to ITN use would improve our ability to better understand the determinants of ITN use and design more effective malaria prevention interventions. We describe the development and initial proof-of-concept validity testing of an ITN adherence monitoring tool called SmartNet. SmartNet uses conductive thread interwoven into an ITN and a microcontroller to detect the state of the ITN. We tested SmartNet among five volunteers using the device over their beds in Boston, USA for two weeks with the goal of evaluating device reliability, accuracy and acceptability to inform future device improvements. The device recorded data for 63.1% (35172/55711) of installed two-minute time intervals, with 97.3% (19990/20539) of the recording errors relating to battery failures. Overall, the device was 71.7% (25204/35172) accurate in determining the state of the ITN (whether it was folded up or unfurled) and performed significantly better at detecting an unfurled ITN than a folded ITN, 77.3% versus 68.4% (p<0.001). Participants noted no significant acceptability concerns and all participants felt SmartNet was easy or very easy to use. SmartNet is a novel approach to objectively measure ITN adherence over time. Our results suggest a variety of device improvements to both extend reliability and improve performance of SmartNet prior to deployment in a malaria-endemic setting.

  13. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed

    Menendez, C; Kahigwa, E; Hirt, R; Vounatsou, P; Aponte, J J; Font, F; Acosta, C J; Schellenberg, D M; Galindo, C M; Kimario, J; Urassa, H; Brabin, B; Smith, T A; Kitua, A Y; Tanner, M; Alonso, P L

    1997-09-20

    The impact of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis was investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 832 infants born in a malaria-hyperendemic area of Tanzania in 1995. Infants were randomly assigned to receive daily oral iron (2 mg/kg) and weekly Deltaprim (3-125 mg pyrimethamine plus 25 mg dapsone), daily iron plus weekly placebo, or daily and weekly placebo. Daily supplementation was provided from 8 to 24 weeks of age, while weekly chemoprophylaxis was given from 8 to 48 weeks. The 2 groups that received iron supplementation had a lower frequency of severe anemia (packed cell volume under 25%) than those who received placebo (0.62 versus 0.87 cases per person-year; protective efficacy, 28.8%), but iron supplementation did not have a significant effect on malaria incidence (0.87 versus 1.00 cases per person-year; protective efficacy, 12.8%). Infants who received malaria prophylaxis had lower frequencies of both severe anemia (0.45 versus 1.04 episodes per person-year; protective efficacy, 57.3%) and malaria (0.53 versus 1.43 episodes per person-year; protective efficacy, 60.5%) than those who received placebo. However, after the end of the intervention period, children who had received malaria prophylaxis had higher rates of severe anemia and malaria than those in the non-chemoprophylaxis groups (relative risks, 2.2 and 1.8, respectively). These findings indicate that malaria chemoprophylaxis during the first year of life can impair the development of natural immunity, while iron supplementation effectively prevents severe anemia without increasing susceptibility to malaria.

  14. Superiority of 3 over 2 doses of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria during pregnancy in mali: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Diakite, Oumou S Maïga; Maiga, Oumou M; Kayentao, Kassoum; Traoré, Boubacar T; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Traoré, Bouyagui; Diallo, Mouctar; Traoré, Mouctar; Ongoiba, Aissata; Doumtabé, Didier; Doumbo, Safiatou; Traoré, Mamadou S; Dara, Antoine; Guindo, Oumar; Karim, Diawara M; Coulibaly, Siraman; Bougoudogo, Flabou; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Danis, Martin; Doumbo, Ogobara K

    2011-08-01

    In 2003, Mali introduced intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (ITPp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for the control of malaria in pregnancy, consisting of 2 doses of SP given in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. This widely used regimen, although very effective, leaves many women unprotected from malaria during the last 4-to-8 weeks of gestation, which is a pivotal period for fetal weight gain. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of 3-dose versus 2-dose IPTp-SP for the prevention of placental malaria and associated low birth weight (LBW). We conducted a parallel-group, open-label, individually randomized controlled superiority trial involving 814 women of all gravidity, enrolled from April 2006 through March 2008. All women were seen at least 3 times and received either 2 (n = 401) or 3 (n = 413) doses of IPTp-SP. The primary endpoint measured was placental malaria, LBW, preterm births, and maternal anemia were secondary endpoints, and severe maternal skin reactions and neonatal jaundice were safety endpoints. Among the 96% of study subjects who were followed up until delivery, the prevalence of placental malaria was 2-fold lower in the 3-dose group (8.0%) than in the 2-dose group (16.7%); the adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-0.71). LBW and preterm births were also reduced; the prevalence of LBW was 6.6% in the 3-dose group versus 13.3% in the 2-dose group (APR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.79), and the prevalence of preterm births was 3.2% versus 8.9% (APR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.19-0.71). No significant reductions in maternal anemia or differences in safety endpoints were observed. Adding a third dose of ITPp-SP halved the risk of placental malaria, LBW, and preterm births in all gravidae, compared with the standard 2-dose regimen, in this area of highly seasonal transmission with low levels of SP resistance. ISRCTN 74189211.

  15. Social science research in malaria prevention, management and control in the last two decades: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah

    2005-09-01

    In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies

  16. Perceptions and practices for preventing malaria in pregnancy in a peri-urban setting in south-western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Mohamud, Said M; Bagonza, James

    2016-04-14

    Malaria in pregnancy contributes greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Thus it is urgent to identify possible barriers that limit access to existing interventions. The aim of this study was to assess perceptions and practices regarding malaria prevention during pregnancy in a peri-urban area and explore ways to scale-up malaria prevention interventions, since little is known about malaria in peri-urban settings. A survey was conducted in Kabale municipality south-western Uganda from April-June, 2015. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeting pregnant women, who delivered in the study area 1 year prior to the survey. Univariate analyses were performed at assess the level of knowledge and practices on malaria prevention during pregnancy. A total of 800 women was interviewed. The majority of women, 96.1 % knew that malaria was a dangerous disease in pregnancy; 60.3 % knew that it caused anaemia, and 71.3 % associated malaria with general weakness. However, fewer women (44.9 %) knew that malaria in pregnancy caused abortions, while 14.9 % thought it caused stillbirths. Similarly, few women (19 %) attended the recommend four antenatal care visits; less than a half (48.8 %) accessed two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for malaria prevention in pregnancy while 16.3 % received at least three doses of SP, as recommended by the current policy. The main reasons for poor antenatal care attendance were: women felt healthy and did not see a need to go for antenatal care, long distances and long waiting hours at clinics. The reasons given for not taking SP for malaria prevention were: women were not feeling sick; they were not aware of the benefits of SP in pregnancy, they were sleeping under insecticide-treated nets; fear of side effects of SP; and the antenatal care clinics were far. Despite a good knowledge that malaria is a dangerous disease in pregnancy, there was poor access to antenatal care and use of SP for malaria

  17. Modelling the Epidemiological Impact of Intermittent Preventive Treatment against Malaria in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amanda; Penny, Melissa; Maire, Nicolas; Studer, Alain; Carneiro, Ilona; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian; Tanner, Marcel; Smith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Trials of intermittent preventive treatment against malaria in infants (IPTi) using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) have shown a positive, albeit variable, protective efficacy against clinical malaria episodes. The impact of IPTi in different epidemiological settings and over time is unknown and predictions are hampered by the lack of knowledge about how IPTi works. We investigated mechanisms proposed for the action of IPTi and made predictions of the likely impact on morbidity and mortality. Methods/Principal Findings We used a comprehensive, individual-based, stochastic model of malaria epidemiology to simulate recently published trials of IPTi using SP with site-specific characteristics as inputs. This baseline model was then modified to represent hypotheses concerning the duration of action of SP, the temporal pattern of fevers caused by individual infections, potential benefits of avoiding fevers on immunity and the effect of sub-therapeutic levels of SP on parasite dynamics. The baseline model reproduced the pattern of results reasonably well. None of the models based on alternative hypotheses improved the fit between the model predictions and observed data. Predictions suggest that IPTi would have a beneficial effect across a range of transmission intensities. IPTi was predicted to avert a greater number of episodes where IPTi coverage was higher, the health system treatment coverage lower, and for drugs which were more efficacious and had longer prophylactic periods. The predicted cumulative benefits were proportionately slightly greater for severe malaria episodes and malaria-attributable mortality than for acute episodes in the settings modelled. Modest increased susceptibility was predicted between doses and following the last dose, but these were outweighed by the cumulative benefits. The impact on transmission intensity was negligible. Conclusions The pattern of trial results can be accounted for by differences between the trial sites

  18. Towards making efficient use of household resources for appropriate prevention of malaria: investigating households’ ownership, use and expenditures on ITNs and other preventive tools in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many households own, use and spend money on many malaria preventive tools, some of which are inappropriate and ineffective in preventing malaria. This is despite the promotion of use of effective preventive methods such as Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual house spraying (IRHS). The use of these ineffective methods imposes some economic burden on households with no resultant reduction in the risk of developing malaria. Hence, global and national targets in use of various effective malaria preventive toools are yet to be achieved in Nigeria. This paper presents new evidence on the differential use and expenditures on effective and non-effective malaria preventive methods in Nigeria. Methods Semi-structured interviewer administered pre-tested questionnaire were used to collect data from 500 households from two communities in Enugu state, Nigeria. The two study communities were selected randomly while the households were selected systematically. Information was collected on demography, malaria status of children under 5 within the past month, types of malaria preventive tools used by households and how much was spent on these, the per capita household food expenditure and assets ownership of respondents to determine their socio-economic status. Results There was high level of ownership of ITNs (73%) and utilization (71.2%), with 40% utilization by children under 5. There were also appreciable high levels of use of other malaria preventive tools such as window and door nets, indoor spray, aerosol spray and cleaning the environment. No significant inequity was found in ownership and utilization of ITNs and in use of other preventive methods across socioeconomic groups. However, households spent a lot of money on other preventive tools and average expenditures were between N0.83-N172 ($0.005-$1.2) The richest households spent the most on window and door nets (P = 0.04). Conclusion High levels of use and expenditure on ITNs and other

  19. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Methods A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Results Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. Conclusion The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts. PMID:21176197

  20. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher; Straus, Lianne; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Lupiwa, Sebeya; Mueller, Ivo; Senn, Nicolas; Siba, Peter; Gysels, Marjolein; Pool, Robert

    2010-12-22

    Building on previous acceptability research undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa this article aims to investigate the acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). A questionnaire was administered to mothers whose infants participated in the randomised placebo controlled trial of IPTi. Mothers whose infants participated and who refused to participate in the trial, health workers, community reporters and opinion leaders were interviewed. Men and women from the local community also participated in focus group discussions. Respondents viewed IPTi as acceptable in light of wider concern for infant health and the advantages of trial participation. Mothers reported complying with at-home administration of IPTi due to perceived benefits of IPTi and pressure from health workers. In spite of patchy knowledge, respondents also demonstrated a demand for infant vaccinations and considered non-vaccination to be neglect. There is little evidence that IPTi has negative impacts on attitudes to EPI, EPI adherence or existing malaria prevention practices. The degree of similarity between findings from the acceptability studies undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa and PNG allows some generalization relating to the implementation of IPTi outside of Africa: IPTi fits well with local health cultures, appears to be accepted easily and has little impact on attitudes towards EPI or malaria prevention. The study adds to the evidence indicating that IPTi could be rolled out in a range of social and cultural contexts.

  1. Advice on malaria and yellow fever prevention provided at travel agencies in Cuzco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Meyer, Pablo G; Garcia-Jasso, Carlos A; Springer, Chelsea A; Lane, Jenna K; Su, Bonny S; Hidalgo, Idania S; Goodrich, Mary R; Deichsel, Emily L; White, A C; Cabada, Miguel M

    2015-01-01

    Travelers receive medical advice from a variety of sources, including travel agencies. The aim of this study is to describe the quality of pre-travel advice provided by travel agencies in Cuzco to travelers interested in visiting malaria and yellow fever endemic areas. Trained medical students posed as tourists and visited travel agencies in Cuzco requesting travel advice for a trip to the southern Amazon of Peru, recording advice regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever. A total of 163 registered travel agencies were included in the study. The mean proposed tour duration was 6.8 days (±1.4 days) with a median time to departure of 3 days and a median tour cost of 805 US dollars (USD) [interquartile range (IQR) 580-1,095]. Overall, 45% employees failed to mention the risk for any illness. Eighteen percent of the employees acknowledged risk of malaria and 53% risk of yellow fever. However, 36% denied malaria risk and 2% denied risk of yellow fever in the region. The price of tours from travel agencies that did not mention any health risk was significantly lower [1,009.6 ± 500.5 vs 783.9 ± 402 USD, t (152) = 3, p < 0.01] compared with the price from agencies that did mention health risks. Almost all who acknowledged malaria (97%) and/or yellow fever (100%) were able to provide at least one recommendation for prevention. However, advice was not always accurate or spontaneously volunteered. Only 7% of the employees provided both correct scheduling and location information for administration of the yellow fever vaccine. The majority of registered travel agencies in Cuzco did not provide sufficient and accurate information regarding risk and prevention of malaria and yellow fever to travelers inquiring about trips to the southern Amazon of Peru. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  2. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    PubMed

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  3. Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Naimatallah; Ladonni, Hossin; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most part of Iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. These regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. Therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. This study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area. Methods: The study was conducted in a malaria free area, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province during 12 months in 2011–2012. Five villages, including 2 in highlands and 3 in plain area, were selected randomly. The mosquito sampling methods were conducted using spray sheet and hand catch collection methods from indoor/outdoors, window trap and larvae collections. Results: In total, 3352 female Anopheles were captured, 1826 mosquito from highland and 1526 from plain areas. Five species, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis s.l., An. dthali, An. superpictus and An. pulcherrimus were identified. The seasonal activities were started from April to March. The abdominal conditions of collected mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor places pointed to exophilic propensity of An. fluviatilis.l. s.l. and endophilic behaviour for rest of the vectors. The results of window trap also confirmed these behaviors. The larval habitats of four species were widely dispersed and included spring, margin of rivers, irrigation channels, stagnant water and rice filed. Conclusion: Understanding the present situation of malaria vectors in free-malaria area is crucial particularly where is struggling with imported cases. The results of present study can be expanded to other area of northern Khuzestan for malaria vector control planning in reintroduction prevention stage. PMID:26114144

  4. Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, Naimatallah; Ladonni, Hossin; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2015-06-01

    The most part of Iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. These regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. Therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. This study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area. The study was conducted in a malaria free area, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province during 12 months in 2011-2012. Five villages, including 2 in highlands and 3 in plain area, were selected randomly. The mosquito sampling methods were conducted using spray sheet and hand catch collection methods from indoor/outdoors, window trap and larvae collections. In total, 3352 female Anopheles were captured, 1826 mosquito from highland and 1526 from plain areas. Five species, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis s.l., An. dthali, An. superpictus and An. pulcherrimus were identified. The seasonal activities were started from April to March. The abdominal conditions of collected mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor places pointed to exophilic propensity of An. fluviatilis.l. s.l. and endophilic behaviour for rest of the vectors. The results of window trap also confirmed these behaviors. The larval habitats of four species were widely dispersed and included spring, margin of rivers, irrigation channels, stagnant water and rice filed. Understanding the present situation of malaria vectors in free-malaria area is crucial particularly where is struggling with imported cases. The results of present study can be expanded to other area of northern Khuzestan for malaria vector control planning in reintroduction prevention stage.

  5. Assessment of microbial larvicide spraying with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, for the prevention of malaria.

    PubMed

    Kinde-Gazard, D; Baglo, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of microbial larvicide spraying, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, as prevention strategy against malaria. An experimental study consisted in spraying B. thuringiensis israelensis in a district during 1 year has been conducted. Another district (control) was not sprayed. Eight hundred and two children were evaluated, thick drop and swab examination was performed for those presenting with fever. The larval density was calculated in their habitats as well as larvicide remanence. Capture of mosquitoes with human bait allowed determining human exposure to bites at night, and identifying anopheles after dissection. The incidence of pediatric malaria was 13.8% in the sprayed district and 31.4% in the control district. The parasitic load ranged from 2000 to 42,000 parasites/μL in the sprayed district and 2000 to 576,000 parasites/μL in the control district. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequent (97.8%) plasmodial species. In the control district, at least 20 larvae by liter of water were counted; anopheles larvae were found in 11 larval habitats out of 15 (73.33%). The human exposure to anopheles bites at night was 14.25 in the sprayed district and 33.13 in the control district. The remanence of B. thuringiensis israelensis was estimated at 9 days in the sprayed district. The larvicide B. thuringiensis israelensis may be used in vector control strategy for the prevention of malaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Azithromycin-chloroquine and the intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chico, R Matthew; Pittrof, Rudiger; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In the high malaria-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits of IPTp are declining due to SP resistance. The combination of azithromycin and chloroquine is a potential alternative to SP for IPTp. This review summarizes key in vitro and in vivo evidence of azithromycin and chloroquine activity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, as well as the anticipated secondary benefits that may result from their combined use in IPTp, including the cure and prevention of many sexually transmitted diseases. Drug costs and the necessity for external financing are discussed along with a range of issues related to drug resistance and surveillance. Several scientific and programmatic questions of interest to policymakers and programme managers are also presented that would need to be addressed before azithromycin-chloroquine could be adopted for use in IPTp. PMID:19087267

  7. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date

    PubMed Central

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria. PMID:27528800

  8. Tafenoquine and its potential in the treatment and relapse prevention of Plasmodium vivax malaria: the evidence to date.

    PubMed

    Ebstie, Yehenew A; Abay, Solomon M; Tadesse, Wondmagegn T; Ejigu, Dawit A

    2016-01-01

    Despite declining global malaria incidence, the disease continues to be a threat to people living in endemic regions. In 2015, an estimated 214 million new malaria cases and 438,000 deaths due to malaria were recorded. Plasmodium vivax is the second most common cause of malaria next to Plasmodium falciparum. Vivax malaria is prevalent especially in Southeast Asia and the Horn of Africa, with enormous challenges in controlling the disease. Some of the challenges faced by vivax malaria-endemic countries include limited access to effective drugs treating liver stages of the parasite (schizonts and hypnozoites), emergence/spread of drug resistance, and misperception of vivax malaria as nonlethal. Primaquine, the only 8-aminoquinoline derivative approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, is intended to clear intrahepatic hypnozoites of P. vivax (radical cure). However, poor adherence to a prolonged treatment course, drug-induced hemolysis in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and the emergence of resistance make it imperative to look for alternative drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on data accrued to date on tafenoquine and gives insight on the potential role of the drug in preventing relapse and radical cure of patients with vivax malaria.

  9. Modern malaria chemoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis; Edstein, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Currently available medications for malaria chemoprophylaxis are efficacious but the problems of patient compliance, the advance of parasite drug resistance, and real or perceived serious adverse effects mean that new chemical compounds are needed.Primaquine, which has been widely used to treat relapsing malaria since the 1950s, has been shown to prevent malaria when taken daily. Tafenoquine is a new 8-aminoquinoline with a much longer half-life than primaquine. Field trials to date indicate that tafenoquine is efficacious and can be taken weekly or perhaps even less frequently. Both primaquine and tafenoquine require exact knowledge of a person's glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase status in order to prevent drug-induced haemolysis. Other potential malaria chemoprophylactic drugs such as third-generation antifol compounds and Mannich bases have reached advanced preclinical testing. Mefloquine has been seen to cause serious neuropsychiatric adverse effects on rare occasions. Recent public controversy regarding reputedly common serious adverse effects has made many Western travellers unwilling to take mefloquine. Special risk groups exposed to malaria, such as long-term travellers, children, pregnant women, aircrew and those requiring unimpeded psychomotor reactions, migrants returning to visit malarious countries of origin and febrile persons who have returned from malaria endemic areas, all require a nuanced approach to the use of drugs to prevent malaria. The carrying of therapeutic courses of antimalarial drugs to be taken only if febrile illness develops is indicated in very few travellers despite its appeal to some who fear adverse effects more than they fear potentially lethal malaria infection. Travellers with a significant exposure to malaria require a comprehensive plan for prevention that includes anti-mosquito measures but which is still primarily be based on the regular use of efficacious antimalarial medications.

  10. Development and validation of a rapid assessment tool for malaria prevention.

    PubMed

    Mangeni, Judith Nekesa; Menya, Diana; Obala, Andrew; Platt, Alyssa; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2016-11-08

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) have been shown to be efficacious in reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in many regions. Unfortunately in some areas, malaria has persisted despite the scale up of ITNs. Recent reports indicate that human behaviour and mosquito behaviour are potential threats to the efficacy of ITNs. However, these concerns are likely highly heterogeneous even at very small scales. This study aimed at developing, testing and validating a rapid assessment tool to collect actionable information at local levels for a quick evaluation of potential barriers to malaria prevention. The study was conducted at the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Bungoma East Sub-County, Kenya. Based on the findings from the case-control study, 12 primary surveillance components that encompass the major impediments to successful prevention were identified and used to develop a rapid assessment tool. Twenty community health volunteers were trained to identify patients with laboratory-confirmed malaria in six peripheral health facilities located within six sub locations and subsequently followed them up to their homes to conduct a rapid assessment. Sampling and analysis of the results of the survey are based on Lot Quality Assurance. The tool was able to detect local heterogeneity in bed net coverage, bed net use and larval site abundance in the six health facility catchment areas. Nearly all the catchment areas met the action threshold for incomplete household coverage (i.e. not all household members not using a net the previous night) except the peri-urban area. Although the threshold for nets not in good condition was set very high (≥50%), only two catchment areas failed to meet the action threshold. On the indicator for "Net not used every day last week", half of the areas failed, while for net ownership, only two areas met the action threshold. The rapid assessment tool was able to detect marked heterogeneity in key indicators for malaria

  11. Mothers knowledge on the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria in a university staff clinic in an urban setting in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omole, M K; Alabi, O M; Ayoola, O O

    2007-03-01

    This prospective study was carried out at Jaja Clinic, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The study documented the knowledge of mothers of children about the cause, prevention and symptoms of malaria. These were mothers of children between ages 1 month to 12 years that presented with fever at the clinic for the first time during the current illness. Data was collected with structured questionnaires administered to the mothers of the enrolled children. The children were clinically examined by clinicians and blood films for malaria parasites were taken and examined in the laboratory using Giemsa stain. The haematocrit level of each child was also determined. 60.4% of the children were 1 month-5 years (mean age 33.0 +/- 15.2 months) while 39.6% of them were over 5-12 years (mean 8.1 +/- 2.1 years). Most of the mothers (58.3%) had above secondary school education. Blood films for malaria parasites were positive in 76% of the children that presented with fever. 74.2% of the mothers knew mosquito bite as the cause of malaria while 13.2% of them were ignorant of the cause of malaria. The main protective measures practiced by the mothers against mosquito bites were netted windows (86.2%), use of aerosol insecticides (76.1%), and mosquito coil (17.0%). Most mothers were not knowledgeable about the use of insecticide treated nets (ITN) which is the most recently introduced protective measure against mosquito bite. Ninety percent of the mothers knew fever as the major symptom of malaria. The degree of parasitaemia affected the PCV level. The greater the parasite count, the lower the PCV level.

  12. Prevention of murine cerebral malaria by low-dose cyclosporin A.

    PubMed Central

    Grau, G E; Gretener, D; Lambert, P H

    1987-01-01

    The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) were investigated in an experimental model of cerebral malaria. In this model, Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected CBA/Ca mice develop a clinically and histologically characterized neurological syndrome which is considered to be the result of immunopathological reactions mediated by L3T4+ T cells. It was shown that CsA displayed a strong protective effect on neurological complications when given at a dose 1 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days (Days 4-8), which had no effect on the parasite. Paradoxically, this protection against neurological complications was not seen when parasiticidal doses were used during this limited 5-day period. A similar protective effect was observed with two CsA derivatives, C5-34 and H7-94. The mechanisms by which CsA and the two derivatives could prevent murine cerebral malaria are unknown but can be related to exquisite effects on some lymphocyte functions. In view of these results, it might be conceivable to investigate the benefits of using low doses of CsA in man, in conjunction with the classical antiparasite therapy, for the management of cerebral malaria. PMID:3327806

  13. Vaccination and Malaria Prevention among International Travelers Departing from Athens International Airport to African Destinations

    PubMed Central

    Pavli, Androula; Spilioti, Athina; Smeti, Paraskevi; Patrinos, Stavros; Maltezou, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. International travel to Africa has grown dramatically over the last decade along with an increasing need to understand the health issues for travelers. The current survey aimed to assess vaccination and malaria prevention of travelers visiting Africa. Methods. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted from of November 1, 2011 to of April 30, 2013 at Athens International Airport. Results. A total of 360 travelers were studied; 68% were men. Their mean age was 39.9 years. Previous travel to tropical countries was reported by 71.9% of them. Most frequent destination was sub-Saharan Africa (60%). Most of them traveled for ≥1 month (62%). The main reason for travel was work (39.7%). Only 47% sought pretravel consultation. Hepatitis A, typhoid, and meningococcal vaccines were administered to 49.8%, 28%, and 26.6%, respectively, and malaria chemoprophylaxis to 66.8% of those who visited sub-Saharan Africa. A history of previous travel to a tropical country, elementary level of education, and traveling for visiting friends and relatives, and for short duration were significant determinants for not pursuing pretravel consultation. Conclusions. The current survey revealed important inadequacies in vaccine and malaria prophylaxis of travelers departing to Africa. Educational tools should be developed in order to improve awareness of travelers to risk destinations. PMID:24719621

  14. Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    mosquito bite challenge 12-30 20 4. Determine mouse dose-responses; mosquito bite challenge 18-30 0 5. Assess protection by vector pairs; mosquito bite...These experiments, which are underway, will permit measurement of the levels of mAb produced by the vectors and assessment of protection from mosquito

  15. [Atypical etiology of malaria: local perceptions and practices for treatment and prevention in the department of Gaoua, Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Some, D T; Zerbo, R

    2007-02-01

    Malaria is still a public health problem in many sub-Saharan countries. This study was undertaken to understand and analyze the relationship between local perceptions of malaria and practices for prevention and management in the department of Gaoua in Burkina Faso. The goal was to improve the effectiveness of prevention and management of malaria in the target population, i.e., children under the age of five. Individual interviews and focus groups using a semi-structured guide were carried out with mothers, traditional healthcare providers and elderly persons in four villages of the department of Gaoua. Findings showed that practices used for treatment and prevention were directly related to perceptions about malaria. Due to poverty, inadequate health service delivery and ignorance, people do not always seek medical attention and express doubts about the efficacy of modern care. Endogenous practices for malaria prevention are directly related to causes described by the population. Modern preventive techniques are not used by the population. For instance nets are misused to protect corpses from flies or for shelter during funerals.

  16. Effectiveness of insecticide-treated and untreated nets to prevent malaria in India.

    PubMed

    Van Remoortel, Hans; De Buck, Emmy; Singhal, Maneesh; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Agarwal, Satya P

    2015-08-01

    India is the most malaria-endemic country in South-East Asia, resulting in a high socio-economic burden. Insecticide-treated or untreated nets are effective interventions to prevent malaria. As part of an Indian first-aid guideline project, we aimed to investigate the magnitude of this effect in India. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Central to systematically review Indian studies on the effectiveness of treated or untreated vs. no nets. Parasite prevalence and annual parasite incidence served as malaria outcomes. The overall effect was investigated by performing meta-analyses and calculating the pooled risk ratios (RR) and incidence rate ratios. Of 479 articles, we finally retained 16 Indian studies. Untreated nets decreased the risk of parasite prevalence compared to no nets [RR 0.69 (95% CI; 0.55, 0.87) in high-endemic areas, RR 0.49 (95% CI; 0.28, 0.84) in low-endemic areas], as was the case but more pronounced for treated nets [RR 0.35 (95% CI; 0.26, 0.47) in high-endemic areas, risk ratio 0.16 (95% CI; 0.06, 0.44) in low-endemic areas]. Incidence rate ratios showed a similar observation: a significantly reduced rate of parasites in the blood for untreated nets vs. no nets, which was more pronounced in low-endemic areas and for those who used treated nets. The average effect of treated nets (vs. no nets) on parasite prevalence was higher in Indian studies (RR 0.16-0.35) than in non-Indian studies (data derived from a Cochrane systematic review; RR 0.58-0.87). Both treated and untreated nets have a clear protective effect against malaria in the Indian context. This effect is more pronounced there than in other countries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Preventing the reintroduction of malaria in Mauritius: a programmatic and financial assessment.

    PubMed

    Tatarsky, Allison; Aboobakar, Shahina; Cohen, Justin M; Gopee, Neerunjun; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Moonasar, Devanand; Phillips, Allison A; Kahn, James G; Moonen, Bruno; Smith, David L; Sabot, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Sustaining elimination of malaria in areas with high receptivity and vulnerability will require effective strategies to prevent reestablishment of local transmission, yet there is a dearth of evidence about this phase. Mauritius offers a uniquely informative history, with elimination of local transmission in 1969, re-emergence in 1975, and second elimination in 1998. Towards this end, Mauritius's elimination and prevention of reintroduction (POR) programs were analyzed via a comprehensive review of literature and government documents, supplemented by program observation and interviews with policy makers and program personnel. The impact of the country's most costly intervention, a passenger screening program, was assessed quantitatively using simulation modeling.On average, Mauritius spent $4.43 per capita per year (pcpy) during its second elimination campaign from 1982 to 1988. The country currently spends $2.06 pcpy on its POR program that includes robust surveillance, routine vector control, and prompt and effective treatment and response. Thirty-five percent of POR costs are for a passenger screening program. Modeling suggests that the estimated 14% of imported malaria infections identified by this program reduces the annual risk of indigenous transmission by approximately 2%. Of cases missed by the initial passenger screening program, 49% were estimated to be identified by passive or reactive case detection, leaving an estimated 3.1 unidentified imported infections per 100,000 inhabitants per year.The Mauritius experience indicates that ongoing intervention, strong leadership, and substantial predictable funding are critical to consistently prevent the reestablishment of malaria. Sustained vigilance is critical considering Mauritius's enabling conditions. Although the cost of POR is below that of elimination, annual per capita spending remains at levels that are likely infeasible for countries with lower overall health spending. Countries currently embarking

  18. WHO Expert Committee on Malaria. Seventeenth report.

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    This publication consists of guidelines to assist health administrators and planners in planning, implementing, and evaluating malaria control programs that reflect the reorientation of the World Health Organization malaria control strategy endorsed by the World Health Assembly. The report stresses approaches to malaria control, describing the recent resurgence of malaria and present constraints on malaria control; prerequisites for implementation of the revised antimalaria strategy; objectives of a malaria control program; factors affecting planning of control programs including epidemiological factors related to the environment, man, the vector, and the parasite; socioeconomic factors; and the use of antimalaria measures in 4 different situations for reduction and prevention of mortality due to malaria, reduction and prevention of mortality and morbidity particularly in high risk groups, reduction of prevalence and endemicity of malaria, or countrywide malaria control aimed ultimately at eradication; program implementation, including definition of targets, interrelationship of the malaria services, general health services, and community, and program implementation in relation to each of the 4 tactical variants; and general principles, operational and epidemiological criteria, and socioeconomic indicators for program evaluation. Factors determining malaria epidemics, outbreaks of malaria during eradication or control campaigns, forecasting and detection of malaria epidemics, and control of epidemics are then discussed. Training in malaria control and advances in antimalaria measures including drugs, immunological methods, antimosquito measures, and biological and genetic approaches to vector control and their potential value are assessed. Program coordination between countries and at regional and global levels and data collection and dissemination for international surveillance are discussed. A series of recommendations is offered for various aspects of malaria

  19. Scaling up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Oyibo, Wellington Aghoghovwia; Agomo, Chimere Obiora

    2011-05-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTpSP) is one of the major strategies of malaria control in most African countries where malaria is endemic. The use of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy was adopted when proof of its superiority to weekly prophylactic dosing with either chloroquine or pyrimethamine became evident from studies in different malaria endemic countries. The administration of 2 and 3 treatment doses of SP for HIV-negative and HIV-positive pregnant women respectively, given after quickening and at an interval not less than 4 weeks was recommended. The prospects of this control strategy lies on the efficacy of SP, convenient treatment dose and high compliance rate. However, the implementation of this strategy and the efficacy of SP are faced with challenges such as: timing of SP administration, rising levels of parasite resistance to SP in the general population, effect of folate supplementation, adequacy of the recommended doses with regards to malaria endemicity and HIV status, interactions between SP and antiretroviral drugs and low coverage in the bid to scale-up its use. This review highlights the prospects and challenges of scaling up IPTp-SP.

  20. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lucy; Ross, Amanda; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Greenwood, Brian; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Smith, Thomas; Schellenberg, David

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop a decision-support tool to help policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa assess whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) would be effective for local malaria control. Methods An algorithm for predicting the effect of IPTi was developed using two approaches. First, study data on the age patterns of clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, hospital admissions for infection with malaria parasites and malaria-associated death for different levels of malaria transmission intensity and seasonality were used to estimate the percentage of cases of these outcomes that would occur in children aged < 10 years targeted by IPTi. Second, a previously developed stochastic mathematical model of IPTi was used to predict the number of cases likely to be averted by implementing IPTi under different epidemiological conditions. The decision-support tool uses the data from these two approaches that are most relevant to the context specified by the user. Findings Findings from the two approaches indicated that the percentage of cases targeted by IPTi increases with the severity of the malaria outcome and with transmission intensity. The decision-support tool, available on the Internet, provides estimates of the percentage of malaria-associated deaths, hospitalizations and clinical cases that will be targeted by IPTi in a specified context and of the number of these outcomes that could be averted. Conclusion The effectiveness of IPTi varies with malaria transmission intensity and seasonality. Deciding where to implement IPTi must take into account the local epidemiology of malaria. The Internet-based decision-support tool described here predicts the likely effectiveness of IPTi under a wide range of epidemiological conditions. PMID:21076561

  1. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants: a decision-support tool for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ilona; Smith, Lucy; Ross, Amanda; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Greenwood, Brian; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Smith, Thomas; Schellenberg, David

    2010-11-01

    To develop a decision-support tool to help policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa assess whether intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) would be effective for local malaria control. An algorithm for predicting the effect of IPTi was developed using two approaches. First, study data on the age patterns of clinical cases of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, hospital admissions for infection with malaria parasites and malaria-associated death for different levels of malaria transmission intensity and seasonality were used to estimate the percentage of cases of these outcomes that would occur in children aged <10 years targeted by IPTi. Second, a previously developed stochastic mathematical model of IPTi was used to predict the number of cases likely to be averted by implementing IPTi under different epidemiological conditions. The decision-support tool uses the data from these two approaches that are most relevant to the context specified by the user. Findings from the two approaches indicated that the percentage of cases targeted by IPTi increases with the severity of the malaria outcome and with transmission intensity. The decision-support tool, available on the Internet, provides estimates of the percentage of malaria-associated deaths, hospitalizations and clinical cases that will be targeted by IPTi in a specified context and of the number of these outcomes that could be averted. The effectiveness of IPTi varies with malaria transmission intensity and seasonality. Deciding where to implement IPTi must take into account the local epidemiology of malaria. The Internet-based decision-support tool described here predicts the likely effectiveness of IPTi under a wide range of epidemiological conditions.

  2. Malaria Host Candidate Genes Validated by Association With Current, Recent, and Historical Measures of Transmission Intensity.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Nuno; Manjurano, Alphaxard; Campino, Susana G; Lemnge, Martha; Lusingu, John; Olomi, Raimos; Rockett, Kirk A; Hubbart, Christina; Jeffreys, Anna; Rowlands, Kate; Clark, Taane G; Riley, Eleanor M; Drakeley, Chris J

    2017-07-01

    Human malaria susceptibility is determined by multiple genetic factors. It is unclear, however, which genetic variants remain important over time. Genetic associations of 175 high-quality polymorphisms within several malaria candidate genes were examined in a sample of 8096 individuals from northeast Tanzania using altitude, seroconversion rates, and parasite rates as proxies of historical, recent, and current malaria transmission intensity. A principal component analysis was used to derive 2 alternative measures of overall malaria propensity of a location across different time scales. Common red blood cell polymorphisms (ie, hemoglobin S, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and α-thalassemia) were the only ones to be associated with all 3 measures of transmission intensity and the first principal component. Moderate associations were found between some immune response genes (ie, IL3 and IL13) and parasite rates, but these could not be reproduced using the alternative measures of malaria propensity. We have demonstrated the potential of using altitude and seroconversion rate as measures of malaria transmission capturing medium- to long-term time scales to detect genetic associations that are likely to persist over time. These measures also have the advantage of minimizing the deleterious effects of random factors affecting parasite rates on the respective association signals.

  3. First record of Anopheles stephensi in Sri Lanka: a potential challenge for prevention of malaria reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Gayan Dharmasiri, A G; Perera, A Yashan; Harishchandra, Jeevanie; Herath, Hemantha; Aravindan, Kandasamy; Jayasooriya, H T R; Ranawaka, Gaya R; Hewavitharane, Mihirini

    2017-08-10

    The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country. Adult mosquito collections were done through indoor and outdoor resting collections, animal and human biting collections and emergence traps. Potential mosquito breeding sites were investigated through larval surveys. The larvae and adults of An. stephensi were initially identified using morphological keys, and subsequently confirmed by sequencing the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. This is the first report of the presence of An. stephensi in the island of Mannar in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Anopheles stephensi (36.65%) was the most abundant anopheline species in the larval habitats in Mannar. It was found breeding together with An. culicifacies (20.7%), An. subpictus (13.5%) and An. varuna (28.13%). Anopheles stephensi was found to be abundantly breeding in built wells used for domestic purposes. Adult females of An. stephensi were observed in emergence trap collections (93.9%), human landing catches all night (79.2%), pyrethrum spray sheet collections (38.6%), outdoor collections (8.3%), donkey-baited trap collections (14.3), and cattle-baited net trap collections (0.7%). Sri Lanka was certified as malaria-free by the WHO in September 2016, however, this new finding may pose a serious challenge to the efforts of the Ministry of Health to prevent the re-introduction of malaria transmission in the country, considering the role that An. stephensi could play in urban and high

  4. Effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine during pregnancy on placental malaria, maternal anaemia and birthweight in areas with high and low malaria transmission intensity in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mosha, Dominic; Chilongola, Jaffu; Ndeserua, Rabi; Mwingira, Felista; Genton, Blaise

    2014-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of IPTp in two areas with different malaria transmission intensities. Prospective observational study recruiting pregnant women in two health facilities in areas with high and low malaria transmission intensities. A structured questionnaire was used for interview. Maternal clinic cards and medical logs were assessed to determine drug intake. Placental parasitaemia was screened using both light microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR. Of 350 pregnant women were recruited and screened for placental parasitaemia, 175 from each area. Prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 16.6% (CI 11.4-22.9) in the high transmission area and 2.3% (CI 0.6-5.7) in the low transmission area. Being primigravida and residing in a high transmission area were significant risk factors for placental malaria (OR 2.4; CI 1.1-5.0; P = 0.025) and (OR 9.4; CI 3.2-27.7; P < 0.001), respectively. IPTp was associated with a lower risk of placental malaria (OR 0.3; CI 0.1-1.0; P = 0.044); the effect was more pronounced in the high transmission area (OR 0.2; CI 0.06-0.7; P = 0.015) than in the low transmission area (OR 0.4; CI 0.04-4.5; P = 0.478). IPTp use was not associated with reduced risk of maternal anaemia or low birthweight, regardless of transmission intensity. The number needed to treat (NNT) was four (CI 2-6) women in the high transmission area and 33 (20-50) in the low transmission area to prevent one case of placental malaria. IPTp may have an effect on lowering the risk of placental malaria in areas of high transmission, but this effect did not translate into a benefit on risks of maternal anaemia or low birthweight. The NNT needs to be considered, and weighted against that of other protective measures, eventually targeting areas which are above a certain threshold of malaria transmission to maximise the benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Assessment of the usage and effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets on the indicators of malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal care in the Buea Health District, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fokam, Eric Bertrand; Ngimuh, Leonard; Anchang-Kimbi, Judith K; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-03-17

    Malaria in pregnancy is an immense public health problem with at least 50 million pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas. To prevent malaria and its complications in pregnancy the World Health Organization recommends the use of intermittent preventive treatment sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), and effective case management. In most malaria endemic countries in Africa, 40% of pregnant women sleep under ITNs. In Cameroon, about 90% of pregnant women receive the first dose of SP, while 64% take the complete dose. Following the 2011 mass-campaign of free distribution of ITNs coupled with routine ANC distribution of ITN and adoption of IPTp in Cameroon, little has been done to assess the effectiveness of both interventions outside of Yaoundé, the capital city. This study sought to assess the usage and effectiveness of IPTp-SP and ITNs on malaria in pregnancy. The research was a cross-sectional hospital-based study that included 410 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Buea Health District. Capillary blood samples were collected to check malaria parasite by microscopy and haemoglobin levels by microhaematocrit technique. A prevalence of 13.4 and 41.7% was detected for malaria and anaemia, respectively. The Overall coverage of ITN was 32.4% while that of ITPp was 63.2%. Malaria prevalence was least (7.2%) amongst women using both IPTp-SP and ITN while those with no intervention had the highest malaria prevalence of 18.6% (χ2 = 6.188; P = 0.103). Of the women with malaria, 12.73% were using ITN and had taken at least one dose of SP, 38.18% had taken at least one dose IPTp only, 10.91% were using only ITN and 38.18% were not using any preventive measure. There was a difference in anaemia status within the different intervention groups (χ2 = 8.673; P = 0.034). Pregnant women using both interventions were less associated to malaria (OR = 0.341, 95% CI = 0.138-0.841) compared to those using only one

  6. [Airport malaria].

    PubMed

    Queyriaux, Benjamin; Pradines, Bruno; Hasseine, Lilia; Coste, Sébastien; Rodriguez, Patrick; Coffinet, Thierry; Haus-Cheymol, Rachel; Rogier, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Airport malaria is a particular form of autochthonous malaria: it happens when the Plasmodium infected Anopheles genus mosquito travels from an endemic area to a malaria free airport. Since 1969, 30 cases of airport malaria have been reported in France, 2 during summer 2008. The severity of airport malaria is explained by the frequency of Plasmodium falciparum infecting non immune individuals and an often important diagnosis delay. It is a compulsory notification disease in France. The International Health Regulations (IHR) require states to check that airplanes coming from malaria or arboviral endemic area are systematically disinsected. Vector control measures have to be implemented within a distance of at least 400 meters around the perimeter of airports in malaria or arboviral endemic areas. In France, this measure applies to all airports of French overseas territories, except for the island of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-06-15

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36-4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68-2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still remain highly cost effective in

  8. The Cost-Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conteh, Lesong; Sicuri, Elisa; Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Obonyo, Benson; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Biao, Prosper; Masika, Paul; Matovu, Fred; Otieno, Peter; Gosling, Roly D.; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Aponte, John J.; Egan, Andrea; Schellenberg, David; Macete, Eusebio; Slutsker, Laurence; Newman, Robert D.; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Tanner, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) has been shown to decrease clinical malaria by approximately 30% in the first year of life and is a promising malaria control strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa which can be delivered alongside the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI). To date, there have been limited data on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy using sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (SP) and no published data on cost-effectiveness using other antimalarials. Methods We analysed data from 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa using a total of 5 different IPTi drug regimens; SP, mefloquine (MQ), 3 days of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), SP plus 3 days of artesunate (SP-AS3) and 3 days of amodiaquine-artesunate (AQ3-AS3).The cost per malaria episode averted and cost per Disability-Adjusted Life-Year (DALY) averted were modeled using both trial specific protective efficacy (PE) for all IPTi drugs and a pooled PE for IPTi with SP, malaria incidence, an estimated malaria case fatality rate of 1.57%, IPTi delivery costs and country specific provider and household malaria treatment costs. Findings In sites where IPTi had a significant effect on reducing malaria, the cost per episode averted for IPTi-SP was very low, USD 1.36–4.03 based on trial specific data and USD 0.68–2.27 based on the pooled analysis. For IPTi using alternative antimalarials, the lowest cost per case averted was for AQ3-AS3 in western Kenya (USD 4.62) and the highest was for MQ in Korowge, Tanzania (USD 18.56). Where efficacious, based only on intervention costs, IPTi was shown to be cost effective in all the sites and highly cost-effective in all but one of the sites, ranging from USD 2.90 (Ifakara, Tanzania with SP) to USD 39.63 (Korogwe, Tanzania with MQ) per DALY averted. In addition, IPTi reduced health system costs and showed significant savings to households from malaria cases averted. A threshold analysis showed that there is room for the IPTi-efficacy to fall and still

  9. Measuring the economic cost of malaria to households in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, F; van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    1997-06-01

    The economic cost at the household level of labor days lost due to malaria and other illnesses was estimated in a rural community in Sri Lanka. Over a one-year period, 223 episodes of malaria were recorded from the 298 inhabitants of the village. Based on daily activity records, the economically active age group was defined as 14-60 years. In this age group, 1.8% of working days were lost due to malaria and 5.2% due to all other illnesses. The value of a labor day lost was based on the actual rural wage rate for children, women, and men, with weeks during periods of high labor demand weighting more than weeks during lean agricultural periods. In this way the annual economic loss per household amounted to US $15.56 for malaria and US $47.46 for all other illnesses. This corresponded to a loss of 6% and 18% of annual household net income, respectively. Although the overall economic impact was limited, malaria cases were concentrated in an important agricultural season. During this season, 5.6% of working days were lost due to malaria. In addition, children, who were not part of the economically active population, lost 10% of school days due to malaria during the high transmission season. In estimating the socioeconomic impact of malaria and in measuring cost-benefits of malaria control interventions, these costs have to be considered together with direct expenditures incurred by households such as on treatment and travel and with costs for the service providers.

  10. Increasing coverage of insecticide-treated nets in rural Nigeria: implications of consumer knowledge, preferences and expenditures for malaria prevention

    PubMed Central

    Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ezumah, Nkoli; Shu, Elvis

    2005-01-01

    Background The coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remains low despite existing distribution strategies, hence, it was important to assess consumers' preferences for distribution of ITNs, as well as their perceptions and expenditures for malaria prevention and to examine the implications for scaling-up ITNs in rural Nigeria. Methods Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and questionnaires to 798 respondents from three malaria hyper-endemic villages from Enugu state, south-east Nigeria were the study tools. Results There was a broad spectrum of malaria preventive tools being used by people. The average monthly expenditure on malaria prevention per household was 55.55 Naira ($0.4). More than 80% of the respondent had never purchased any form of untreated mosquito net. People mostly preferred centralized community-based sales of the ITNS, with instalment payments. Conclusion People were knowledgeable about malaria and the beneficial effects of using nets to protect themselves from the disease. The mostly preferred community-based distribution of ITNs implies that the strategy is a potential untapped additional channel for scaling-up ITNs in Nigeria and possibly other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16026623

  11. Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01). Conclusions: According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors. PMID:24829734

  12. Clinical malaria among pregnant women on combined insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Mbu, Robinson Enow; Takang, William Ako; Fouedjio, Hortence Jeanne; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Tumasang, Florence Ndikum; Tonye, Rebecca

    2014-05-16

    Malaria remains a burden for pregnant women and the under 5. Intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine - pyrimethamine (SP) has since replaced prophylaxis and legislation has been reinforced in the area of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in Cameroon. Clinical malaria despite all these measures remains a problem. We compared the socio-obstetrical characteristics of women who developed clinical malaria and those who did not though in the same regimen. A 5 - year nested cohort study (2007 - 2011 inclusive) at the tertiary level hospitals in Yaounde. Pregnant women who willingly accepted to participate in the study were enrolled at booking and three doses of SP were administered between 18 - 20 weeks of gestation, between 26-28 weeks and between 32 - 34 weeks. Those who developed clinical malaria were considered as cases and were compared for socio - obstetrical characteristics with those who did not. Venous blood was drawn from the women in both arms for parasite density estimation and identification and all the clinical cases were treated conventionally. Each arm had 166 cases and many women who developed clinical malaria were between 15 and 19 years (OR 5.5, 95% CI 3.9 - 5.3, p < 0.001). They were of low gravidity (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.8 - 11.3, p < 0.001) as well as low parity (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.7 - 7.9, p < 0.001). The cases were single women (OR 4.58, 95% CI 2.54 - 8.26, p < 0.001) and had attained only primary level of education (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.8 - 7.9, p < 0.001). Gestational ages were between 20 to 30 weeks during clinical malaria (OR 6.8, 95% CI 4.1 - 11.7, p < 0.001). The time between the first and second dose of SP was longer than ten weeks in the cases (OR 5.5, 95% CI 3.2 - 9.3, p < 0.001) and parasite density was higher also among the cases (OR 6.9, 95% CI 5.9 - 12.1, p < 0.001). Long spacing between the first and second dose of SP seemed to be responsible for clinical

  13. Clinical malaria among pregnant women on combined insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a burden for pregnant women and the under 5. Intermittent preventive treatment of pregnant women (IPTp) for malaria with sulfadoxine – pyrimethamine (SP) has since replaced prophylaxis and legislation has been reinforced in the area of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) in Cameroon. Clinical malaria despite all these measures remains a problem. We compared the socio-obstetrical characteristics of women who developed clinical malaria and those who did not though in the same regimen. Methods A 5 – year nested cohort study (2007 – 2011 inclusive) at the tertiary level hospitals in Yaounde. Pregnant women who willingly accepted to participate in the study were enrolled at booking and three doses of SP were administered between 18 – 20 weeks of gestation, between 26–28 weeks and between 32 – 34 weeks. Those who developed clinical malaria were considered as cases and were compared for socio – obstetrical characteristics with those who did not. Venous blood was drawn from the women in both arms for parasite density estimation and identification and all the clinical cases were treated conventionally. Results Each arm had 166 cases and many women who developed clinical malaria were between 15 and 19 years (OR 5.5, 95% CI 3.9 – 5.3, p < 0.001). They were of low gravidity (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.8 – 11.3, p < 0.001) as well as low parity (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.7 – 7.9, p < 0.001). The cases were single women (OR 4.58, 95% CI 2.54 – 8.26, p < 0.001) and had attained only primary level of education (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.8 – 7.9, p < 0.001). Gestational ages were between 20 to 30 weeks during clinical malaria (OR 6.8, 95% CI 4.1 – 11.7, p < 0.001). The time between the first and second dose of SP was longer than ten weeks in the cases (OR 5.5, 95% CI 3.2 – 9.3, p < 0.001) and parasite density was higher also among the cases (OR 6.9, 95% CI 5.9 – 12.1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Long spacing between the

  14. Potential malaria outbreak in Germany due to climate warming: risk modelling based on temperature measurements and regional climate models.

    PubMed

    Holy, Marcel; Schmidt, Gunther; Schröder, Winfried

    2011-03-01

    Climate warming can change the geographic distribution and intensity of the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The transmitted parasites usually benefit from increased temperatures as both their reproduction and development are accelerated. Lower Saxony (northwestern Germany) has been a malaria region until the 1950s, and the vector species are still present throughout Germany. This gave reason to investigate whether a new autochthonous transmission could take place if the malaria pathogen was introduced again in Germany. The spatial distribution of potential temperature-driven malaria transmissions was investigated using the basic reproduction rate (R (0)) to model and geostatistically map areas at risk of an outbreak of tertian malaria based on measured (1961-1990, 1991-2007) and predicted (1991-2020, 2021-2050, 2051-2080) monthly mean air temperature data. From the computations, maps were derived showing that during the period 1961-1990, the seasonal transmission gate ranges from 0 to 4 months and then expands up to 5 months in the period 1991-2007. For the projection of future trends, the regional climate models REMO and WettReg were used each with two different scenarios (A1B and B1). Both modelling approaches resulted in prolonged seasonal transmission gates in the future, enabling malaria transmissions up to 6 months in the climate reference period 2051-2080 (REMO, scenario A1B). The presented risk prognosis is based on the R (0) formula for the estimation of the reproduction of the malaria pathogen Plasmodium vivax. The presented model focuses on mean air temperatures; thus, other driving factors like the distribution of water bodies (breeding habitats) or population density are not integrated. Nevertheless, the modelling presented in this study can help identify areas at risk and initiate prevention. The described findings may also help in the investigation and assessment of related diseases caused by temperature-dependent vectors

  15. Cost-effectiveness of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria-associated low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, E B; Parise, M E; Haddix, A C; Nahlen, B L; Ayisi, J G; Misore, A; Steketee, R W

    2001-01-01

    Prevention of placental malaria through administration of antimalarial medications to pregnant women in disease-endemic areas decreases the risk of delivery of low birth weight (LBW) infants. In areas of high Plasmodium falciparum transmission, two intermittent presumptive treatment doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy are effective in decreasing the prevalence of placental malaria in human immunodeficiency virus (HlV)-negative women, while HIV-positive women may require a monthly SP regimen to reduce their prevalence of placental parasitemia. A decision-analysis model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three different presumptive SP treatment regimens with febrile case management with SP in terms of incremental cost per case LBW prevented. Factors considered included HIV seroprevalence, placental malaria prevalence, LBW incidence, the cost of SP, medical care for LBW infants, and HIV testing. For a hypothetical cohort of 10,000 pregnant women, the monthly SP regimen would always be the most effective strategy for reducing LBW associated with malaria. The two-dose SP and monthly SP regimens would prevent 172 and 229 cases of LBW, respectively, compared with the case management approach. At HIV seroprevalence rates greater than 10%, the monthly SP regimen is the least expensive strategy. At HIV seroprevalence rates less than 10%, the two-dose SP regimen would be the less expensive option. When only antenatal clinic costs are considered, the two-dose and monthly SP strategies cost US $11 and $14, respectively, well within the range considered cost effective. Presumptive treatment regimens to prevent LBW associated with malaria and the subsequent increased risk of mortality during the first year of life are effective and cost effective strategies in areas with both elevated HIV prevalence and malaria transmission rates.

  16. A systematic review of the impact of malaria prevention in pregnancy on low birth weight and maternal anemia.

    PubMed

    McClure, Elizabeth M; Goldenberg, Robert L; Dent, Arlene E; Meshnick, Steven R

    2013-05-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcome, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prevention with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) during pregnancy has been recommended in malaria-endemic areas but concerns remain about its benefit. To evaluate the association between recommended preventative SP programs in pregnancy and low birth weight (LBW) and maternal anemia through available clinical trial, observational, and programmatic evaluation studies. Systematic review of published studies on malaria in pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Clinical studies from Sub-Saharan Africa from the past 10 years were included. English articles published since 2002 and listed in PubMed were identified using defined keywords, and their source documents were reviewed. Thirty-three studies involving malaria in pregnancy that recorded treatment rates and birth outcomes were included. SP use among primigravidae was consistently associated with decreased LBW and anemia rates in clinical trials. Effects were less consistent in observational studies. Although randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of SP, studies evaluating scale-up programs found less consistent reductions in LBW and maternal anemia. Additional strategies to improve SP coverage may reduce the LBW and maternal anemia associated with malaria in pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Uchenna Anthony; Obi, Samuel N; Onah, Hyacinth E; Ugwu, Emmanuel Onyebuchi V; Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Umeh, Chioma Roseline; Okafor, Innocent Igwebuike

    2012-07-01

    The Roll Back Malaria initiatives were introduced to ensure that 60% of pregnant women receive intermittent preventive anti-malarial treatment by the end of 2005 in an attempt to halve the mortality from malaria by 2010. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in pregnant women on intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) compared with a control group. This comparative study involved testing the peripheral blood of pregnant women on IPT with SP and a control group that did not receive SP for the malaria parasite upon registration and at 34 weeks gestational age. The levels of parasitaemia in the intervention group upon registration (4.9%) and at 34 weeks (63.9%) were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the control group (10%) and at 34 weeks gestation (68.3%). IPT with SP during pregnancy did not significantly reduce the prevalence of the malaria parasitaemia among the pregnant women in our environment.

  18. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications.

    PubMed

    Wangdi, Kinley; Gatton, Michelle L; Kelly, Gerard C; Banwell, Cathy; Dev, Vas; Clements, Archie C A

    2016-10-01

    The malaria situation in India is complex as a result of diverse socio-environmental conditions. India contributes a substantial burden of malaria outside sub-Saharan Africa, with the third highest Plasmodium vivax prevalence in the world. Successful malaria control in India is likely to enhance malaria elimination efforts in the region. Despite modest gains, there are many challenges for malaria elimination in India, including: varied patterns of malaria transmission in different parts of the country demanding area-specific control measures; intense malaria transmission fuelled by favourable climatic and environment factors; varying degrees of insecticide resistance of vectors; antimalarial drug resistance; a weak surveillance system; and poor national coordination of state programmes. Prevention and protection against malaria are low as a result of a weak health-care system, as well as financial and socioeconomic constraints. Additionally, the open borders of India provide a potential route of entry for artesunate-resistant parasites from southeast Asia. This situation calls for urgent dialogue around tackling malaria across borders-between India's states and neighbouring countries-through sharing of information and coordinated control and preventive measures, if we are to achieve the aim of malaria elimination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cost of Community Integrated Prevention Campaign for Malaria, HIV, and Diarrhea in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Delivery of community-based prevention services for HIV, malaria, and diarrhea is a major priority and challenge in rural Africa. Integrated delivery campaigns may offer a mechanism to achieve high coverage and efficiency. Methods We quantified the resources and costs to implement a large-scale integrated prevention campaign in Lurambi Division, Western Province, Kenya that reached 47,133 individuals (and 83% of eligible adults) in 7 days. The campaign provided HIV testing, condoms, and prevention education materials; a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net; and a water filter. Data were obtained primarily from logistical and expenditure data maintained by implementing partners. We estimated the projected cost of a Scaled-Up Replication (SUR), assuming reliance on local managers, potential efficiencies of scale, and other adjustments. Results The cost per person served was $41.66 for the initial campaign and was projected at $31.98 for the SUR. The SUR cost included 67% for commodities (mainly water filters and bed nets) and 20% for personnel. The SUR projected unit cost per person served, by disease, was $6.27 for malaria (nets and training), $15.80 for diarrhea (filters and training), and $9.91 for HIV (test kits, counseling, condoms, and CD4 testing at each site). Conclusions A large-scale, rapidly implemented, integrated health campaign provided services to 80% of a rural Kenyan population with relatively low cost. Scaling up this design may provide similar services to larger populations at lower cost per person. PMID:22189090

  20. Global Call to Action to scale-up coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: seminar report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Koki; Alonso, Pedro; Chico, R Matthew; Coleman, Jane; Dellicour, Stephanie; Hill, Jenny; Majeres-Lugand, Maud; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Menendez, Clara; Mitchell, Kate; Roman, Elaine; Sicuri, Elisa; Tagbor, Harry; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Webster, Jayne

    2015-05-18

    In 2014, a global 'Call to Action' seminar for the scale-up of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy was held during the 63rd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This report summarizes the presentations and main discussion points from the meeting.

  1. A qualitative study on health workers' and community members' perceived sources, role of information and communication on malaria treatment, prevention and control in southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeano-Enemuoh, Jane C; Uzochukwu, Benjamim; Ezumah, Nkoli; Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Wiseman, Virginia; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-10-22

    It has been widely acknowledged that well-planned and executed communication programmes can contribute to achieving malaria prevention and treatment goals. This however requires a good understanding of current sources and roles of information used by both health workers and communities. The study aimed at determining health workers' and community members' sources, value and use of information on malaria prevention and treatment in Nigeria. Qualitative data was collected from six selected communities (three urban and three rural) in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria. A total of 18 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 179 community members and 26 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health workers in public and private health facilities were used to collect data on where people receive treatment for malaria and access information on malaria. The FGDS and IDIs also provided data on the values, uses and effects of information and communication on malaria treatment seeking and provision of services. The findings revealed that the major sources of information on malaria for health workers and community members were advertisements in the mass media, workshops and seminars organized by donor agencies, facility supervision, posters, other health workers, television and radio adverts. Community involvement in the design and delivery of information on malaria control was seen as a strong strategy for improving both consumer and provider knowledge. Information from the different sources catalyzed appropriate provision and consumption of malaria treatment amongst health workers and community members. Health workers and consumers receive information on malaria prevention and treatment from multiple sources of communication and information, which they find useful. Harnessing these information sources to encourage consistent and accurate messages around malaria prevention and treatment is a necessary first step in the design and implementation of malaria communication and behaviour change

  2. Technical preventive measures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yonekawa, Y

    1994-05-01

    Technical preventive measures against vibration syndrome in the field of industrial health are reviewed in the present paper. The first technical prevention measure is to reduce vibration transmission from the tools to the operators. This measure employs vibration isolators between the handles and vibration sources of machine tools. Handles of tools using Neidhalt dampers, shear type rubber mounts and springs have reduced frequency-weighted acceleration levels (Lh,w) from 2 dB to 10 dB (Lh,w (dB) = 20 log a/ao; a: frequency-weighted acceleration (rms), ao = 10(-5) m/s2) in Z direction, while no reduction was found in X, Y directions. The second measure is to reduce vibration at the source; New chain saws have been developed to reduce vibration with twin cylinder instead of a single cylinder engines. This cancels unbalanced movements inside the internal combustion engine. Such chain saws reduced Lh,w values more than 10 dB in both front and rear handles except in Z direction of the front handle. A new type of impact wrench has been devised with an oil pulse device to avoid direct metal contact inside the power source. This new impact wrench lowered Lh,w values more than 10 dB in three directions. The third measure is to use a remote control system or to substitute another machine generating less vibration. Vibration reduction at the handle lever of the remote control chain saw was more than 20 dB. A more effective means is to substitute other machines for conventional tools: a hydraulic wheel jumbo instead of a leg-type rock drill; a hydraulic breaker instead of a hand-held breaker. However, these heavy machines produce whole-body vibration which might give rise to other problems such as back pain.

  3. Impact of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Resistance on Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Therapy for Malaria in Pregnancy at Clearing Infections and Preventing Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Meghna; Gutman, Julie; Taylor, Steve M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Khairallah, Carole; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ouma, Peter; Coulibaly, Sheick O.; Kalilani, Linda; Mace, Kimberly E.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mathanga, Don P.; Doumbo, Ogobara; Otieno, Kephas; Edgar, Dabira; Chaluluka, Ebbie; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ades, Veronica; Skarbinski, Jacek; Shi, Ya Ping; Magnussen, Pascal; Meshnick, Steve; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Owing to increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in sub-Saharan Africa, monitoring the effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) with SP is crucial. Methods Between 2009 and 2013, both the efficacy of IPTp-SP at clearing existing peripheral malaria infections and the effectiveness of IPTp-SP at reducing low birth weight (LBW) were assessed among human immunodeficiency virus–uninfected participants in 8 sites in 6 countries. Sites were classified as high, medium, or low resistance after measuring parasite mutations conferring SP resistance. An individual-level prospective pooled analysis was conducted. Results Among 1222 parasitemic pregnant women, overall polymerase chain reaction–uncorrected and –corrected failure rates by day 42 were 21.3% and 10.0%, respectively (39.7% and 21.1% in high-resistance areas; 4.9% and 1.1% in low-resistance areas). Median time to recurrence decreased with increasing prevalence of Pfdhps-K540E. Among 6099 women at delivery, IPTp-SP was associated with a 22% reduction in the risk of LBW (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], .69–.88; P < .001). This association was not modified by insecticide-treated net use or gravidity, and remained significant in areas with high SP resistance (PR, 0.81; 95% CI, .67–.97; P = .02). Conclusions The efficacy of SP to clear peripheral parasites and prevent new infections during pregnancy is compromised in areas with >90% prevalence of Pfdhps-K540E. Nevertheless, in these high-resistance areas, IPTp-SP use remains associated with increases in birth weight and maternal hemoglobin. The effectiveness of IPTp in eastern and southern Africa is threatened by further increases in SP resistance and reinforces the need to evaluate alternative drugs and strategies for the control of malaria in pregnancy. PMID:26486699

  4. Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Pregnancy: Review of Prospects, Achievements, Challenges and Agenda for Research

    PubMed Central

    Mubyazi, Godfrey Martin; Magnussen, Pascal; Goodman, Catherine; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kitua, Andrew Yona; Olsen, Øystein Evjen; Byskov, Jens; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bloch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Implementing Intermittent Preventive Treatment for malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through antenatal care (ANC) clinics is recommended for malaria endemic countries. Vast biomedical literature on malaria prevention focuses more on the epidemiological and cost-effectiveness analyses of the randomised controlled trials carried out in selected geographical settings. Such studies fail to elucidate the economic, psychosocial, managerial, organization and other contextual systemic factors influencing the operational effectiveness, compliance and coverage of the recommended interventions. Objective To review literature on policy advances, achievements, constraints and challenges to malaria IPTp implementation, emphasising on its operational feasibility in the context of health-care financing, provision and uptake, resource constraints and psychosocial factors in Africa. Results The importance of IPTp in preventing unnecessary anaemia, morbidity and mortality in pregnancy and improving childbirth outcomes is highly acknowledged, although the following factors appear to be the main constraints to IPTp service delivery and uptake: cost of accessing ANC; myths and other discriminatory socio-cultural values on pregnancy; target users, perceptions and attitudes towards SP, malaria, and quality of ANC; supply and cost of SP at health facilities; understaffing and demoralised staff; ambiguity and impracticability of user-fee exemption policy guidelines on essential ANC services; implementing IPTp, bednets, HIV and syphilis screening programmes in the same clinic settings; and reports on increasing parasite resistant to SP. However, the noted increase in the coverage of the delivery of IPTp doses in several countries justify that IPTp implementation is possible and better than not. Conclusion IPTp for malaria is implemented in constrained conditions in Africa. This is a challenge for higher coverage of at least two doses and attainment

  5. Use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Bernard A; Mwobobia, Isaac K; Kamau, Anthony; Muiruri, Samuel; Mutiso, Noah; Nyambura, Joyce; Mwatele, Cassian; Amano, Teruaki; Mwandawiro, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    During an entomological survey in preparation for malaria control interventions in Mwea division, the number of malaria cases at the Kimbimbi sub-district hospital was in a steady decline. The underlying factors for this reduction were unknown and needed to be identified before any malaria intervention tools were deployed in the area. We therefore set out to investigate the potential factors that could have contributed to the decline of malaria cases in the hospital by analyzing the malaria control knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) that the residents in Mwea applied in an integrated fashion, also known as integrated malaria management (IMM). Integrated Malaria Management was assessed among community members of Mwea division, central Kenya using KAP survey. The KAP study evaluated community members' malaria disease management practices at the home and hospitals, personal protection measures used at the household level and malaria transmission prevention methods relating to vector control. Concurrently, we also passively examined the prevalence of malaria parasite infection via outpatient admission records at the major referral hospital in the area. In addition we studied the mosquito vector population dynamics, the malaria sporozoite infection status and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) over an 8 month period in 6 villages to determine the risk of malaria transmission in the entire division. A total of 389 households in Mwea division were interviewed in the KAP study while 90 houses were surveyed in the entomological study. Ninety eight percent of the households knew about malaria disease while approximately 70% of households knew its symptoms and methods to manage it. Ninety seven percent of the interviewed households went to a health center for malaria diagnosis and treatment. Similarly a higher proportion (81%) used anti-malarial medicines bought from local pharmacies. Almost 90% of households reported owning and using an insecticide treated bed net

  6. Effect of Transmission Setting and Mixed Species Infections on Clinical Measures of Malaria in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marian C.; Macheso, Allan; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.; Nkhoma, Standwell; McConnachie, Alex; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2008-01-01

    Background In malaria endemic regions people are commonly infected with multiple species of malaria parasites but the clinical impact of these Plasmodium co-infections is unclear. Differences in transmission seasonality and transmission intensity between endemic regions have been suggested as important factors in determining the effect of multiple species co-infections. Principal Findings In order to investigate the impact of multiple-species infections on clinical measures of malaria we carried out a cross-sectional community survey in Malawi, in 2002. We collected clinical and parasitological data from 2918 participants aged >6 months, and applied a questionnaire to measure malaria morbidity. We examined the effect of transmission seasonality and intensity on fever, history of fever, haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and parasite density, by comparing three regions: perennial transmission (PT), high intensity seasonal transmission (HIST) and low intensity seasonal transmission (LIST). These regions were defined using multi-level modelling of PCR prevalence data and spatial and geo-climatic measures. The three Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale) were randomly distributed amongst all children but not adults in the LIST and PT regions. Mean parasite density in children was lower in the HIST compared with the other two regions. Mixed species infections had lower mean parasite density compared with single species infections in the PT region. Fever rates were similar between transmission regions and were unaffected by mixed species infections. A history of fever was associated with single species infections but only in the HIST region. Reduced mean [Hb] and increased anaemia was associated with perennial transmission compared to seasonal transmission. Children with mixed species infections had higher [Hb] in the HIST region. Conclusions Our study suggests that the interaction of Plasmodium co-infecting species can have protective effects against

  7. Small Molecule Targeting Malaria Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-1) Prevents Host Invasion of Divergent Plasmodial Species

    PubMed Central

    Chandramohanadas, Rajesh; Basappa; Russell, Bruce; Liew, Kingsley; Yau, Yin Hoe; Chong, Alvin; Liu, Min; Gunalan, Karthigayan; Raman, Rahul; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Shochat, Susana Geifman; Dao, Ming; Sasisekharan, Ram; Suresh, Subra; Preiser, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Malaria causes nearly 1 million deaths annually. Recent emergence of multidrug resistance highlights the need to develop novel therapeutic interventions against human malaria. Given the involvement of sugar binding plasmodial proteins in host invasion, we set out to identify such proteins as targets of small glycans. Combining multidisciplinary approaches, we report the discovery of a small molecule inhibitor, NIC, capable of inhibiting host invasion through interacting with a major invasion-related protein, merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1). This interaction was validated through computational, biochemical, and biophysical tools. Importantly, treatment with NIC prevented host invasion by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax—major causative organisms of human malaria. MSP-1, an indispensable antigen critical for invasion and suitably localized in abundance on the merozoite surface represents an ideal target for antimalarial development. The ability to target merozoite invasion proteins with specific small inhibitors opens up a new avenue to target this important pathogen. PMID:24864124

  8. Prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy: findings from a comparative qualitative study in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is a major preventable cause of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommended MiP prevention and control includes intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and appropriate case management. This article explores the social and cultural context to the uptake of these interventions at four sites across Africa. Methods A comparative qualitative study was conducted at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. Observations, which focused on behaviours linked to MiP prevention and treatment, were also undertaken at health facilities and in local communities. Results ITNs were generally recognized as important for malaria prevention. However, their availability and use differed across the sites. In Malawi and Kenya, ITNs were sought-after items, but there were complaints about availability. In central Ghana, women saved ITNs until the birth of the child and they were used seasonally in northern Ghana. In Kenya and central Ghana, pregnant women did not associate IPTp with malaria, whereas, in Malawi and northern Ghana, IPTp was linked to malaria, but not always with prevention. Although IPTp adherence was common at all sites, whether delivered with directly observed treatment or not, a few women did not comply with IPTp often citing previous side effects. Although generally viewed as positive, experiences of malaria testing varied across the four sites: treatment was sometimes administered in spite of a negative diagnosis in Ghana (observed) and Malawi (reported). Despite generally following the advice of healthcare staff, particularly in Kenya, personal experience, and the availability and accessibility of medication – including anti-malarials – influenced

  9. Prevention and management of malaria during pregnancy: findings from a comparative qualitative study in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.

    PubMed

    Pell, Christopher; Meñaca, Arantza; Afrah, Nana A; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Hamel, Mary J; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-11-20

    In endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is a major preventable cause of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Current recommended MiP prevention and control includes intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and appropriate case management. This article explores the social and cultural context to the uptake of these interventions at four sites across Africa. A comparative qualitative study was conducted at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. Observations, which focused on behaviours linked to MiP prevention and treatment, were also undertaken at health facilities and in local communities. ITNs were generally recognized as important for malaria prevention. However, their availability and use differed across the sites. In Malawi and Kenya, ITNs were sought-after items, but there were complaints about availability. In central Ghana, women saved ITNs until the birth of the child and they were used seasonally in northern Ghana. In Kenya and central Ghana, pregnant women did not associate IPTp with malaria, whereas, in Malawi and northern Ghana, IPTp was linked to malaria, but not always with prevention. Although IPTp adherence was common at all sites, whether delivered with directly observed treatment or not, a few women did not comply with IPTp often citing previous side effects. Although generally viewed as positive, experiences of malaria testing varied across the four sites: treatment was sometimes administered in spite of a negative diagnosis in Ghana (observed) and Malawi (reported). Despite generally following the advice of healthcare staff, particularly in Kenya, personal experience, and the availability and accessibility of medication--including anti-malarials--influenced MiP treatment. Although ITNs were

  10. Malaria surveillance--United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Mali, Sonja; Kachur, S Patrick; Arguin, Paul M

    2012-03-02

    for the areas to which they had traveled. Forty-one cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only two (5%) adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 176 (10%) were classified as severe infections, of which nine were fatal. The number of cases reported in 2010 marked the largest number of cases reported since 1980. Despite the apparent progress in reducing the global burden of malaria, many areas remain malaria endemic and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR) continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFR travelers need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact on the numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. A large number of pregnant travelers diagnosed with malaria did not take any chemoprophylaxis. Pregnant women traveling to areas in which malaria is endemic are at higher risk for severe malaria and must use appropriate malaria prevention strategies including chemoprophylaxis. Malaria prevention recommendations are available online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, the likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Clinicians should consult the CDC Guidelines for Treatment of Malaria and contact the CDC's Malaria Hotline for case management advice, when needed. Malaria treatment recommendations can be obtained online (http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/diagnosis_treatment) or by calling the Malaria Hotline (770-488-7788 or toll-free at 855-856-4713).

  11. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  12. Malaria in the Republic of Djibouti, 1998-2009.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Nevin, Remington L; Darar, Houssein Y; Bougère, Jacques; Saleh, Moustapha; Gidenne, Stéphane; Maslin, Jérôme; Anders, Dietmar; Decam, Christophe; Todesco, Alain; Khaireh, Bouh A; Ahmed, Ammar A

    2011-09-01

    Historically, native populations in the Republic of Djibouti have experienced only low and unstable malaria transmission and intermittent epidemics. In recent years, efforts at malaria control have been aggressively pursued. This study was performed to inform revised malaria prevention recommendations for military service members and international travelers to the country. Laboratory-confirmed cases of malaria documented at large medical facilities and within military and civilian health care systems in the Republic of Djibouti from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. In recent years, fewer than 5% of febrile cases among the three largest passive surveillance systems were laboratory-confirmed as malaria, and incidence of confirmed malaria was well below 1/1,000 persons/year. As efforts in the Republic of Djibouti progress toward elimination, and in conjunction with continued efforts at surveillance, emphasizing mosquito-avoidance measures and standby emergency treatment will become reasonable recommendations for malaria prevention.

  13. Malaria in the Republic of Djibouti, 1998–2009

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Nevin, Remington L.; Darar, Houssein Y.; Bougère, Jacques; Saleh, Moustapha; Gidenne, Stéphane; Maslin, Jérôme; Anders, Dietmar; Decam, Christophe; Todesco, Alain; Khaireh, Bouh A.; Ahmed, Ammar A.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, native populations in the Republic of Djibouti have experienced only low and unstable malaria transmission and intermittent epidemics. In recent years, efforts at malaria control have been aggressively pursued. This study was performed to inform revised malaria prevention recommendations for military service members and international travelers to the country. Laboratory-confirmed cases of malaria documented at large medical facilities and within military and civilian health care systems in the Republic of Djibouti from 1998 to 2009 were reviewed. In recent years, fewer than 5% of febrile cases among the three largest passive surveillance systems were laboratory-confirmed as malaria, and incidence of confirmed malaria was well below 1/1,000 persons/year. As efforts in the Republic of Djibouti progress toward elimination, and in conjunction with continued efforts at surveillance, emphasizing mosquito-avoidance measures and standby emergency treatment will become reasonable recommendations for malaria prevention. PMID:21896822

  14. Analysis of Preventive Interventions for Malaria: Exploring Partial and Complete Protection and Total and Primary Intervention Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Matthew; Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Diallo, Diadier; Konate, Amadou T.; Dicko, Alassane; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian; Milligan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Event dependence, the phenomenon in which future risk depends on past disease history, is not commonly accounted for in the statistical models used by malaria researchers. However, recently developed methods for the analysis of repeated events allow this to be done, while also accounting for heterogeneity in risk and nonsusceptible subgroups. Accounting for event dependence allows separation of the primary effect of an intervention from its total effect, which is composed of its primary effect on risk of disease and its secondary effect mediated by event dependence. To illustrate these methods and show the insights they can provide, we have reanalyzed 2 trials of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) in Boussé, Burkina Faso, and Kati, Mali, in 2008–2009, as well as a trial of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants in Navrongo, Ghana, in 2000–2004. SMC completely protects a large fraction of recipients, while intermittent preventive treatment in infants provides modest partial protection, consistent with the rationale of these 2 different chemopreventive approaches. SMC has a primary effect that is substantially greater than the total effect previously estimated by trials, with the lower total effect mediated by negative event dependence. These methods contribute to an understanding of the mechanisms of protection from these interventions and could improve understanding of other tools to control malaria, including vaccines. PMID:26022663

  15. Underreporting and Missed Opportunities for Uptake of Intermittent Preventative Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) in Mali.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Emily A; Harvey, Steven A; Rao, Namratha; Diarra, Niélé Hawa; Klein, Meredith C; Diop, Samba I; Doumbia, Seydou O

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors contributing to low uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in rural Mali. We conducted secondary data analysis on Mali's 2012-2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to determine the proportion of women who failed to take IPTp-SP due to ineligibility or non-attendance at antenatal care (ANC). We also identified the proportion who reported taking other or unknown medications to prevent malaria in pregnancy and those who did not know if they took any medication to prevent malaria in pregnancy. We conducted qualitative interviews, focus groups and ANC observations in six rural sites in Mali's Sikasso and Koulikoro regions to identify reasons for missed opportunities. Our secondary data analysis found that reported IPTp-SP coverage estimates are misleading due to their dependence on a variable ("source of IPTp") that is missing 62% of its data points. Among all women who gave birth in the two years prior to the survey, 56.2% reported taking at least one dose of IPTp-SP. Another 5.2% reported taking chloroquine, 1.9% taking another drug to prevent malaria in pregnancy, 4.4% not knowing what drug they took to prevent malaria, and 1.1% not knowing if they took any drug to prevent malaria. The majority of women who did not receive IPTp-SP were women who also did not attend ANC. Our qualitative data revealed that many health centers neither administer IPTp-SP by directly observed therapy, nor give IPTp-SP at one month intervals through the second and third trimesters, nor provide IPTp-SP free of charge. Women generally reported IPTp-SP as available and tolerable, but frequently could not identify its name or purpose, potentially affecting accuracy of responses in household surveys. We estimate IPTp-SP uptake to be significantly higher than stated in Mali's 2012-13 DHS report. Increasing ANC attendance should be the first priority for increasing IPTp-SP coverage. Reducing cost and

  16. Underreporting and Missed Opportunities for Uptake of Intermittent Preventative Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy (IPTp) in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Emily A.; Rao, Namratha; Diarra, Niélé Hawa; Klein, Meredith C.; Diop, Samba I.; Doumbia, Seydou O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors contributing to low uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in rural Mali. Methods We conducted secondary data analysis on Mali’s 2012–2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to determine the proportion of women who failed to take IPTp-SP due to ineligibility or non-attendance at antenatal care (ANC). We also identified the proportion who reported taking other or unknown medications to prevent malaria in pregnancy and those who did not know if they took any medication to prevent malaria in pregnancy. We conducted qualitative interviews, focus groups and ANC observations in six rural sites in Mali’s Sikasso and Koulikoro regions to identify reasons for missed opportunities. Results Our secondary data analysis found that reported IPTp-SP coverage estimates are misleading due to their dependence on a variable (“source of IPTp”) that is missing 62% of its data points. Among all women who gave birth in the two years prior to the survey, 56.2% reported taking at least one dose of IPTp-SP. Another 5.2% reported taking chloroquine, 1.9% taking another drug to prevent malaria in pregnancy, 4.4% not knowing what drug they took to prevent malaria, and 1.1% not knowing if they took any drug to prevent malaria. The majority of women who did not receive IPTp-SP were women who also did not attend ANC. Our qualitative data revealed that many health centers neither administer IPTp-SP by directly observed therapy, nor give IPTp-SP at one month intervals through the second and third trimesters, nor provide IPTp-SP free of charge. Women generally reported IPTp-SP as available and tolerable, but frequently could not identify its name or purpose, potentially affecting accuracy of responses in household surveys. Conclusion We estimate IPTp-SP uptake to be significantly higher than stated in Mali’s 2012–13 DHS report. Increasing ANC attendance should be the first priority for

  17. Malaria (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... period for malaria is the time between the mosquito bite and the release of parasites from the ... Health authorities try to prevent malaria by using mosquito-control programs aimed at killing mosquitoes that carry ...

  18. Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center Pocket Guide to Malaria Prevention and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Disease Malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne infection with both acute and chronic phases. It is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium...There are over 150 species of the malaria parasite that infect many species of vertebrates. Each type of protozoa tends to remain within one...malariae, and P. ovale. The protozoa are transmitted to humans by the bite of the female anopheline mosquitoes. Plasmodia also are transmitted to

  19. Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Falade, Catherine O; Yusuf, Bidemi O; Fadero, Francis F; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Hamer, Davidson H; Salako, Lateef A

    2007-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is present all year round. Method During a larger study evaluating the epidemiology of congenital malaria, the effect of malaria prophylaxis was examined in 983 parturient mothers. Five hundred and ninety eight mothers (60.8%) received IPT-SP, 214 (21.8%) received pyrimethamine (PYR) and 171 (17.4%) did not take any chemoprophylactic agent (NC). Results The prevalence of maternal parasitaemia in the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups was 10.4%, 15.9% and 17% respectively (p = 0.021). The prevalence of placental parasitaemia was 10.5% in the IPT-SP, 16.8% PYR and 17% NC groups, respectively (p = 0.015). The prevalence of maternal anaemia (haematocrit <30%) was 5.7% vs. 8.9% vs. 13.4% among the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups respectively (p < 0.0001) while that of pre-term delivery (GA <37 weeks) was 10.5%, 19.2% and 25.3% among IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups respectively (p < 0.0001). Babies born to mothers in the IPT-SP, PYR and NC groups had mean birth weights of 3204 ± 487.16, 3075 ± 513.24 and 3074 ± 505.92 respectively (ρ < 0.0001). There was a trend towards a lower proportion of low birth weight babies in the IPT-SP group (p = 0.095). Conclusion IPT-SP is effective in preventing maternal and placental malaria as well as improving pregnancy outcomes among parturient women in Ibadan, Nigeria. The implementation of the recently adopted IPT-SP strategy should be pursued with vigour as it holds great promise for reducing the burden of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria. PMID:17617910

  20. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Accuracy of Measuring Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Malaria from Household Surveys in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Thomas P.; Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Josh; Hamainza, Busiku; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Miller, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1–2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children <5 y old is assessed. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public clinics in Kaoma District, Western Provence, Zambia, to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of caregivers' recall of malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusions Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23667337

  1. Changes in Serological Immunology Measures in UK and Kenyan Adults Post-controlled Human Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susanne H.; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A.; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Longley, Rhea J.; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A.; Osier, Faith H.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan

  2. Strategies to increase the ownership and use of insecticide-treated bednets to prevent malaria.

    PubMed

    Augustincic Polec, Lana; Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Ueffing, Erin; Tanjong Ghogomu, Elizabeth; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Grabowsky, Mark; Attaran, Amir; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-03-30

    Malaria is a life-threatening parasitic disease and 40% of the world's population lives in areas affected by malaria. Insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) effectively prevent malaria, however, barriers to their use have been identified. To assess the evidence on the effectiveness of available strategies that focus on delivery and appropriate use of ITNs. We searched the EPOC Register of Studies, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthStar, CINAHL, PubMed, Science Citation Index, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, African Index Medicus (AIM), World Health Organization Library and Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS), LILACS, Virtual Health Library (VHL), and the World Health Organization Library Information System (WHOLIS). Initial searches were conducted in May 2011, updated in March 2012 and February 2013. Authors contacted organizations and individuals involved in ITN distribution programs or research to identify current initiatives, studies or unpublished data, and searched reference lists of relevant reviews and studies. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies, and interrupted time series evaluating interventions focused on increasing ITN ownership and use were considered. The populations of interest were individuals in malaria-endemic areas. Two authors independently screened studies to be included. They extracted data from the selected studies and assessed the risk of bias. When consensus was not reached, any disagreements were discussed with a third author. The magnitude of effect and quality of evidence for each outcome was assessed. Of the 3032 records identified, 10 studies were included in this review. Effect of ITN cost on ownership:Four studies including 4566 households and another study comprising 424 participants evaluated the effect of ITN price on ownership. These studies suggest that providing free ITNs probably increases ITN ownership when compared to subsidized ITNs or ITNs offered at full

  3. Permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of malaria and anemia in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Leenstra, Tjalling; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Kariuki, Simon K; Hawley, William A; Alaii, Jane A; Rosen, Daniel H; Oloo, Aggrey J; Nahlen, Bernard L; Kager, Piet A; ter Kuile, Feiko O

    2003-04-01

    The impact of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the health of adolescent schoolgirls was investigated during a community-based, randomized, controlled trial of ITNs in western Kenya. Two school-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria and anemia in 644 schoolgirls 12-18 years old in a rural area with intense perennial malaria transmission. In 12- and 13-year-old schoolgirls, ITNs were associated with a reduced prevalence of all cause anemia (hemoglobin level <12 g/dL, 16.9% versus 31.4%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.69%) and a 0.34 g/dL (95% CI = 0.02, 0.66) increase in mean hemoglobin concentrations. No beneficial effect on all-cause anemia (adjusted OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.43, 1.45) or hemoglobin concentrations (difference in mean = 0.14 g/dL, 95% CI = -0.24, 0.53) was evident in older girls. In all age groups, no effect was found on malaria parasite prevalence or density, clinical malaria, all-cause morbidity, standard measures of nutritional status and growth, or the use of antimalarials and other medications. ITNs approximately halved the prevalence of mild anemia in young, school-attending, non-pregnant, adolescent girls, but had no impact in older girls or on other malaria-associated morbidity or nutritional status.

  4. Prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa: where are we and where are we going?

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Henry, Marie-Claire

    2011-03-16

    The International Symposium on Malaria and Human African Trypanosomiasis: New Strategies for their Prevention & Control was held 7-8 October, 2010 in Cotonou, Benin with about 250 participants from 20 countries. This scientific event aimed at identifying the gaps and research priorities in the prevention and control of malaria and sleeping sickness in Africa and to promote exchange between North and South in the fields of medical entomology, epidemiology, immunology and parasitology. A broad range of influential partners from academia (scientists), stakeholders, public health workers and industry attempted the meeting and about 40 oral communications and 20 posters were presented by phD students and internationally-recognized scientists from the North and the South. Finally, a special award ceremony was held to recognize efforts in pioneer work conducted by staff involved in the diagnostic of the Sleeping illness in West Africa with partnership and assistance from WHO and Sanofi-Aventis group.

  5. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment prevents malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mbeye, Nyanyiwe; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Davies, Mary-Ann; Phiri, Kamija; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on malaria incidence in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies of the effect of CPT on malaria incidence and mortality in children, and extracted data on the prevalence of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance–conferring point mutations. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) from individual studies were combined using random-effects meta-analysis; confounder-adjusted estimates were used for cohort studies. The importance of resistance was examined in meta-regression analyses. Results Three RCTs and four cohort studies with 5,039 children (1,692 HIV-exposed; 2,800 HIV-uninfected; 1,486 HIV-infected) were included. Children on CPT were less likely to develop clinical malaria episodes than those without prophylaxis (combined IRR 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.66) but there was substantial between-study heterogeneity (l-squared=94%, p < 0.001). The protective efficacy of CPT was highest in an RCT from Mali, where the prevalence of antifolate resistant plasmodia was low. In meta-regression analyses there was some evidence that the efficacy of CPT declined with increasing levels of resistance. Mortality was reduced with CPT in an RCT from Zambia, but not in a cohort study from Côte d'Ivoire. Conclusions CPT reduces malaria incidence and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but study designs, settings and results were heterogeneous. CPT appears to be beneficial for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed as well as HIV-uninfected children. PMID:25039469

  6. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment prevents malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mbeye, Nyanyiwe M; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Davies, Mary-Ann; Phiri, Kamija S; Egger, Matthias; Wandeler, Gilles

    2014-09-01

    Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) prevents opportunistic infections in HIV-infected or HIV-exposed children, but estimates of the effectiveness in preventing malaria vary. We reviewed studies that examined the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies on the effect of CPT on incidence of malaria and mortality in children and extracted data on the prevalence of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-conferring point mutations. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) from individual studies were combined using random effects meta-analysis; confounder-adjusted estimates were used for cohort studies. The importance of resistance was examined in meta-regression analyses. Three RCTs and four cohort studies with 5039 children (1692 HIV-exposed; 2800 HIV-uninfected; 1486 HIV-infected) were included. Children on CPT were less likely to develop clinical malaria episodes than those without prophylaxis (combined IRR 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.66), but there was substantial between-study heterogeneity (I-squared = 94%, P < 0.001). The protective efficacy of CPT was highest in an RCT from Mali, where the prevalence of antifolate resistant plasmodia was low. In meta-regression analyses, there was some evidence that the efficacy of CPT declined with increasing levels of resistance. Mortality was reduced with CPT in an RCT from Zambia, but not in a cohort study from Côte d'Ivoire. Cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment reduces incidence of malaria and mortality in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but study designs, settings and results were heterogeneous. CPT appears to be beneficial for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed as well as HIV-uninfected children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Modelling the Protective Efficacy of Alternative Delivery Schedules for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Infants and Children

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, Matthew; Ghani, Azra; Okell, Lucy; Gosling, Roly; Carneiro, Ilona; Anto, Francis; Asoala, Victor; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Greenwood, Brian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Milligan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO where malaria incidence in infancy is high and SP resistance is low. The current delivery strategy is via routine Expanded Program on Immunisation contacts during infancy (EPI-IPTi). However, improvements to this approach may be possible where malaria transmission is seasonal, or where the malaria burden lies mainly outside infancy. Methods and Findings A mathematical model was developed to estimate the protective efficacy (PE) of IPT against clinical malaria in children aged 2-24 months, using entomological and epidemiological data from an EPI-IPTi trial in Navrongo, Ghana to parameterise the model. The protection achieved by seasonally-targeted IPT in infants (sIPTi), seasonal IPT in children (sIPTc), and by case-management with long-acting artemisinin combination therapies (LA-ACTs) was predicted for Navrongo and for sites with different transmission intensity and seasonality. In Navrongo, the predicted PE of sIPTi was 26% by 24 months of age, compared to 16% with EPI-IPTi. sIPTc given to all children under 2 years would provide PE of 52% by 24 months of age. Seasonally-targeted IPT retained its advantages in a range of transmission patterns. Under certain circumstances, LA-ACTs for case-management may provide similar protection to EPI-IPTi. However, EPI-IPTi or sIPT combined with LA-ACTs would be substantially more protective than either strategy used alone. Conclusion Delivery of IPT to infants via the EPI is sub-optimal because individuals are not protected by IPT at the time of highest malaria risk, and because older children are not protected. Alternative delivery strategies to the EPI are needed where transmission varies seasonally or the malaria burden extends beyond infancy. Long-acting ACTs may also make important reductions in malaria incidence. However, delivery systems must be developed to ensure that both forms of chemoprevention

  8. Primaquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria treated with chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Galappaththy, Gawrie N L; Tharyan, Prathap; Kirubakaran, Richard

    2013-10-26

    Plasmodium vivax infections are an important contributor to the malaria burden worldwide. The World Health Organization recommends a 14-day course of primaquine (0.25 mg/kg/day, giving an adult dose of 15 mg/day) to eradicate the liver stage of the parasite and prevent relapse of the disease. Many people find a 14-day primaquine regimen difficult to complete, and there is a potential risk of haemolytic anaemia in people with glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase enzyme (G6PD) deficiency. This review evaluates primaquine in P. vivax, particularly alternatives to the standard 14-day course. To compare alternative primaquine regimens to the recommended 14-day regimen for preventing relapses (radical cure) in people with P. vivax malaria treated for blood stage infection with chloroquine. We also summarize trials comparing primaquine to no primaquine that led to the recommendation for the 14-day regimen. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group's Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and LILACS up to 8 October 2013. We checked conference proceedings, trial registries and reference lists and contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies for eligible studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing various primaquine dosing regimens with the standard primaquine regimen (15 mg/day for 14 days), or with no primaquine, in people with vivax malaria treated for blood stage infection with chloroquine. We independently assessed trial eligibility, trial quality, and extracted data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data, and used the random-effects model in meta-analyses if there was significant heterogeneity. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 15 trials (two cluster-RCTs) of 4377 adult and child participants. Most trials excluded people with G6PD deficiency. Trials compared various regimens of primaquine with the

  9. Light depolarization measurements in malaria: A new job for an old friend.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Maria; Tempera, Carolina; Bispo, Claudia; Andrade, Claudia; Gardner, Rui; Shapiro, Howard M; Hänscheid, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The use of flow cytometry in malaria research has increased over the last decade. Most approaches use nucleic acid stains to detect parasite DNA and RNA and require complex multi-color, multi-parameter analysis to reliably detect infected red blood cells (iRBCs). We recently described a novel and simpler approach to parasite detection based on flow cytometric measurement of scattered light depolarization caused by hemozoin (Hz), a pigment formed by parasite digestion of hemoglobin in iRBCs. Depolarization measurement by flow cytometry was described in 1987; however, patent issues restricted its use to a single manufacturer's hematology analyzers until 2009. Although we recently demonstrated that depolarization measurement of Hz, easily implemented on a bench top flow cytometer (Cyflow), provided useful information for malaria work, doubts regarding its application and utility remain in both the flow cytometry and malaria communities, at least in part because instrument manufacturers do not offer the option of measuring depolarized scatter. Under such circumstances, providing other researchers with guidance as to how to do this seemed to offer the most expeditious way to resolve the issue. We accordingly examined how several commercially available flow cytometers (CyFlow SL, MoFLo, Attune and Accuri C6) could be modified to detect depolarization due to the presence of free Hz on solution, or of Hz in leukocytes or erythrocytes from rodent or human blood. All were readily adapted, with substantially equivalent results obtained with lasers emitting over a wide wavelength range. Other instruments now available may also be modifiable for Hz measurement. Cytometric detection of Hz using depolarization is useful to study different aspects of malaria. Adding additional parameters, such as DNA content and base composition and RNA content, can demonstrably provide improved accuracy and sensitivity of parasite detection and characterization, allowing malaria researchers and

  10. Social inequalities in malaria knowledge, prevention and prevalence among children under 5 years old and women aged 15-49 in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Yukich, Josh; Anglewicz, Phil

    2015-12-12

    Approximately 15 % of all deaths in Africa among children under five years old are due to malaria, a preventable and treatable disease. A prevailing sociological theory holds that resources (including knowledge, money, power, prestige, or beneficial social connections) are particularly relevant when diseases are susceptible to effective prevention. This study examines the role of socioeconomic inequalities by broadly predicting malaria knowledge and use of preventive technology among women aged 15-49, and malaria among children aged 6-59 months in Madagascar. Data came from women aged 15-49 years (N = 8279) interviewed by Madagascar's 2011/2013 Malaria Indicator Studies, and their children aged under five years (N = 7644). Because geographic location may be associated with socioeconomic factors and exposure to malaria, multilevel models were used to account for unobserved geographic and administrative variation. Models also account for observed social, economic, demographic, and seasonal factors. Prevalence among children four years old and younger was 7.8 %. Results showed that both mother's education and household wealth strongly influence knowledge about and efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Analyses also revealed that the prevalence of malaria among children aged 6-59 months was determined by household wealth (richest vs poorest: OR = 0.25, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.64]) and maternal education (secondary vs none: OR = 0.51, 95 % CI [0.28, 0.95]). Malaria may be subject to socio-economic forces arising from a broad set of behavioural and geographic determinants, even after adjusting for geographic risk factors and seasonality. Nearly 21 % of the sample lacked primary schooling. To improve malaria reduction efforts, broad-based interventions may need to attack inequalities to ensure that knowledge, prevention and treatment are improved among those who are most vulnerable.

  11. Coverage and efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine against malaria in pregnancy in Côte d'Ivoire five years after its implementation.

    PubMed

    Toure, Offianan A; Kone, Penali L; Coulibaly, M'Lanhoro A A; Ako, Berenger A A; Gbessi, Eric A; Coulibaly, Baba; N' Guessan, Landry T; Koffi, David; Beourou, Sylvain; Soumahoro, Adama; Bassinka, Issiaka; Nogbou, Messoun; Swa, Tidjane; Gba, Bernadin; Esmel, Beugre; Bokossa, Ernestine M

    2014-11-20

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for sub-Saharan Africa a package of prompt and effective case-management combined with the delivery of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through the national antenatal care (ANC) programs. Implemented in Côte d'Ivoire around 2005, few Data on IPTp coverage and efficacy in the country are available. A multicentre, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire from September 2009 to May 2010 at six urban and rural antenatal clinics. IPTp-sp coverage, Socio-economic and obstetrical data of mothers and neonate birth weights were documented. Peripheral blood as well as placental and cord blood were used to prepare thick and thin blood films. In addition, pieces of placental tissues were used to prepare impression smears and maternal haemoglobin concentration was measured. Regression logistics were used to study factors associated with placental malaria and LBW (<2.500 grams). A total of 1317 delivered women were enrolled with a median age of 26 years. A proportion of 43.28% of the women had received at least two doses of IPTsp during the current pregnancy although a high proportion (90.4%) of women received antenatal care and made enough visits (≥2). Variability in the results was observed depending on the type of area (rural/urban). Plasmodium falciparum was detected in the peripheral blood of 97 women (7.3%) and in the placenta of 119 women (9%). LBW infants were born to 18.8% (22/107) of women with placental malaria and 8.5% (103/1097) of women without placental malaria. LBW was associated with placental malaria. This study found relative low coverage of IPTp in the study areas which supported findings that high ANC attendance does not guarantee high IPTp coverage. Urgent efforts are required to improve service delivery of this important intervention.

  12. Measuring Impacts of Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Applicants that are awarded EPA Pollution Prevention Grants must report the environmental and economic benefits achieved across all media from the implementation of the grant, which helps achieve EPA’s P2 targets.

  13. Imported malaria in children in industrialized countries, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Stäger, Katrin; Legros, Fabrice; Krause, Gérard; Low, Nicola; Bradley, David; Desai, Meghna; Graf, Simone; D'Amato, Stefania; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Janzon, Ragnhild; Petersen, Eskild; Kester, John; Steffen, Robert; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992-2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas.

  14. Imported Malaria in Children in Industrialized Countries, 1992–2002

    PubMed Central

    Stäger, Katrin; Legros, Fabrice; Krause, Gérard; Low, Nicola; Bradley, David; Desai, Meghna; Graf, Simone; D’Amato, Stefania; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Janzon, Ragnhild; Petersen, Eskild; Kester, John; Steffen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Children account for an appreciable proportion of total imported malaria cases, yet few studies have quantified these cases, identified trends, or suggested evidence-based prevention strategies for this group of travelers. We therefore sought to identify numbers of cases and deaths, Plasmodium species, place of malaria acquisition, preventive measures used, and national origin of malaria in children. We analyzed retrospective data from Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States and data provided by the United Nations World Tourism Organization. During 1992–2002, >17,000 cases of imported malaria in children were reported in 11 countries where malaria is not endemic; most (>70%) had been acquired in Africa. Returning to country of origin to visit friends and relatives was a risk factor. Malaria prevention for children should be a responsibility of healthcare providers and should be subsidized for low-income travelers to high-risk areas. PMID:19193261

  15. Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection and use of different malaria control measures among primary school children in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nzobo, Baraka J; Ngasala, Billy E; Kihamia, Charles M

    2015-12-02

    Malaria is a public health problem in Tanzania affecting all age groups. It is known that school children are the age group most commonly infected with malaria parasites. Their infections are usually asymptomatic, go unnoticed and thus never get treated, result in anaemia, reduced ability to concentrate and learn in school and if fallen sick may lead to school absenteeism. Effective malaria control requires frequent evaluation of effectiveness of different malaria interventions. A cross-sectional study design involving 317 out of 350 school children aged 6-13 years from five primary schools within municipality was conducted. Multistage cluster sampling and simple random sampling methods were used to obtain primary school and study participants, respectively. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for Plasmodium parasite detection by malaria rapid diagnostic test (mRDT) and haemoglobin level assessment by Easy Touch(®) GHb system machine. A questionnaire was administered to assess use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and anti-malarial drugs. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 5.4 % (95 % CI 3.3-8.6 %) and anaemia was 10.1 % (95 % CI 7.2-13.9 %). School children aged 6-9 years were more affected by malaria than those aged 10-13 years. The proportion of ITNs used was 90.6 % (95 % CI 86.3-93.9 %) while that of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was 71.9 % (95 % CI 66.2-77.1 %). Findings show existence of asymptomatic malaria and walking anaemia among primary school children in Morogoro municipality. The majority of school children reported use of ITNs and ACT for malaria control. These findings provide a rationale for using schools and school children to assess effectiveness of malaria interventions.

  16. Toxoplasma gondii Upregulates Interleukin-12 To Prevent Plasmodium berghei-Induced Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Settles, Erik W.; Moser, Lindsey A.; Harris, Tajie H.

    2014-01-01

    A chronic infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii has previously been shown to protect mice against subsequent viral, bacterial, or protozoal infections. Here we have shown that a chronic T. gondii infection can prevent Plasmodium berghei ANKA-induced experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with soluble T. gondii antigens (STAg) reduced parasite sequestration and T cell infiltration in the brains of P. berghei-infected mice. Administration of STAg also preserved blood-brain barrier function, reduced ECM symptoms, and significantly decreased mortality. STAg treatment 24 h post-P. berghei infection led to a rapid increase in serum levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). By 5 days after P. berghei infection, STAg-treated mice had reduced IFN-γ levels compared to those of mock-treated mice, suggesting that reductions in IFN-γ at the time of ECM onset protected against lethality. Using IL-10- and IL-12βR-deficient mice, we found that STAg-induced protection from ECM is IL-10 independent but IL-12 dependent. Treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with recombinant IL-12 significantly decreased parasitemia and mortality. These data suggest that IL-12, either induced by STAg or injected as a recombinant protein, mediates protection from ECM-associated pathology potentially through early induction of IFN-γ and reduction in parasitemia. These results highlight the importance of early IL-12 induction in protection against ECM. PMID:24396042

  17. Impact of combining intermittent preventive treatment with home management of malaria in children less than 10 years in a rural area of Senegal: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tine, Roger C K; Faye, Babacar; Ndour, Cheikh T; Ndiaye, Jean L; Ndiaye, Magatte; Bassene, Charlemagne; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Sylla, Khadim; Ndour, Jacques D; Gaye, Oumar

    2011-12-13

    Current malaria control strategies recommend (i) early case detection using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT), (ii) pre-referral rectal artesunate, (iii) intermittent preventive treatment and (iv) impregnated bed nets. However, these individual malaria control interventions provide only partial protection in most epidemiological situations. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the potential benefits of integrating several malaria interventions to reduce malaria prevalence and morbidity. A randomized controlled trial was carried out to assess the impact of combining seasonal intermittent preventive treatment in children (IPTc) with home-based management of malaria (HMM) by community health workers (CHWs) in Senegal. Eight CHWs in eight villages covered by the Bonconto health post, (South Eastern part of Senegal) were trained to diagnose malaria using RDT, provide prompt treatment with artemether-lumefantrine for uncomplicated malaria cases and pre-referral rectal artesunate for complicated malaria occurring in children under 10 years. Four CHWs were randomized to also administer monthly IPTc as single dose of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus three doses of amodiaquine (AQ) in the malaria transmission season, October and November 2010. Primary end point was incidence of single episode of malaria attacks over 8 weeks of follow up. Secondary end points included prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, and prevalence of anaemia at the end of the transmission season. Primary analysis was by intention to treat. The study protocol was approved by the Senegalese National Ethical Committee (approval 0027/MSP/DS/CNRS, 18/03/2010). A total of 1,000 children were enrolled. The incidence of malaria episodes was 7.1/100 child months at risk [95% CI (3.7-13.7)] in communities with IPTc + HMM compared to 35.6/100 child months at risk [95% CI (26.7-47.4)] in communities with only HMM (aOR = 0.20; 95% CI 0.09-0.41; p = 0.04). At

  18. Treatment and prevention of malaria in pregnancy in the private health sector in Uganda: implications for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Buregyeya, Esther; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Clarke, Siân E; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian S; Magnussen, Pascal; LaRussa, Philip

    2016-04-14

    Malaria in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Uganda; and it is the leading cause of anaemia among pregnant women and low birth weight in infants. Previous studies have noted poor quality of care in the private sector. Thus there is need to explore ways of improving quality of care in the private sector that provides almost a half of health services in Uganda. A survey was conducted from August to October 2014 within 57 parishes in Mukono district, central Uganda. The selected parishes had a minimum of 200 households and at least one registered drug shop, pharmacy or private clinic. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire targeting one provider who was found on duty in each selected private health facility and consented to the study. The main variables were: provider characteristics, previous training received, type of drugs stocked, treatment and prevention practices for malaria among pregnant women. The main study outcome was the proportion of private health facilities who prescribe treatment of fever among pregnant women as recommended in the guidelines. A total of 241 private health facilities were surveyed; 70.5 % were registered drug shops, 24.5 % private clinics and 5.0 % pharmacies. Treatment of fever among pregnant women in accordance with the national treatment guidelines was poor: 40.7 % in private clinics, decreasing to 28.2 % in drug shops and 16.7 % at pharmacies. Anti-malarial monotherapies sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and quinine were commonly prescribed, often without consideration of gestational age. The majority of providers (>75 %) at all private facilities prescribed SP for intermittent preventive treatment but artemisinin-based combination therapy was prescribed: 8.3, 6.9 and 8.3 % respectively at drug shops, private clinics and pharmacies for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. Few facilities had malaria treatment guidelines; (44.1 % of private clinics, 17.9 % of drug shops, and 41.7 % at pharmacies. Knowledge

  19. Impact of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Resistance on Effectiveness of Intermittent Preventive Therapy for Malaria in Pregnancy at Clearing Infections and Preventing Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Desai, Meghna; Gutman, Julie; Taylor, Steve M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Khairallah, Carole; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ouma, Peter; Coulibaly, Sheick O; Kalilani, Linda; Mace, Kimberly E; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Mathanga, Don P; Doumbo, Ogobara; Otieno, Kephas; Edgar, Dabira; Chaluluka, Ebbie; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Ades, Veronica; Skarbinski, Jacek; Shi, Ya Ping; Magnussen, Pascal; Meshnick, Steve; Ter Kuile, Feiko O

    2016-02-01

    Owing to increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in sub-Saharan Africa, monitoring the effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) with SP is crucial. Between 2009 and 2013, both the efficacy of IPTp-SP at clearing existing peripheral malaria infections and the effectiveness of IPTp-SP at reducing low birth weight (LBW) were assessed among human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected participants in 8 sites in 6 countries. Sites were classified as high, medium, or low resistance after measuring parasite mutations conferring SP resistance. An individual-level prospective pooled analysis was conducted. Among 1222 parasitemic pregnant women, overall polymerase chain reaction-uncorrected and -corrected failure rates by day 42 were 21.3% and 10.0%, respectively (39.7% and 21.1% in high-resistance areas; 4.9% and 1.1% in low-resistance areas). Median time to recurrence decreased with increasing prevalence of Pfdhps-K540E. Among 6099 women at delivery, IPTp-SP was associated with a 22% reduction in the risk of LBW (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], .69-.88; P < .001). This association was not modified by insecticide-treated net use or gravidity, and remained significant in areas with high SP resistance (PR, 0.81; 95% CI, .67-.97; P = .02). The efficacy of SP to clear peripheral parasites and prevent new infections during pregnancy is compromised in areas with >90% prevalence of Pfdhps-K540E. Nevertheless, in these high-resistance areas, IPTp-SP use remains associated with increases in birth weight and maternal hemoglobin. The effectiveness of IPTp in eastern and southern Africa is threatened by further increases in SP resistance and reinforces the need to evaluate alternative drugs and strategies for the control of malaria in pregnancy. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Preventive malaria treatment for contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease in the context of the west Africa 2014-15 Ebola virus disease response: an economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Carias, Cristina; Greening, Bradford; Campbell, Caresse G; Meltzer, Martin I; Hamel, Mary J

    2016-04-01

    After the detection of an Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa in 2014, one of the elements of the response was to contact trace and isolate patients in specialised Ebola treatment units (ETUs) at onset of fever. We aimed to assess the economic feasibility of administering preventive malaria treatment to all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease, to prevent the onset of febrile malaria and subsequent admission to ETUs. We used a decision tree model to analyse the costs of preventive malaria treatment (artemisinin-based combination treatment [ACT]) for all contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease (in terms of administration and averted ETU-stay costs) and benefits (in terms of averted ETU admissions) in west Africa, from a health-care provider perspective. The period of analyses was 1 year, which is roughly similar to the duration of the 2014-15 west Africa Ebola outbreak response. We calculated the intervention's cost per ETU admission averted (average cost-effectiveness ratio) by season (wet and dry), country (Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea), and age of contact (<5 years, 5-14 years, and ≥15 years). We did sensitivity analyses to assess how results varied with malaria parasite prevalence (in children aged 2-10 years), daily cost of ETU stay (for Liberian malaria incidence levels), and compliance and effectiveness of preventive malaria treatment. Administration of ACTs to contacts of patients with Ebola virus disease was cost saving for contacts of all ages in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea, in both seasons, from a health-care provider perspective. In the wet season, preventive malaria treatment was estimated to reduce the probability of a contact being admitted to an ETU by a maximum of 36% (in Guinea, for contacts aged <5 years), and a minimum of 10% (in Guinea and Sierra Leone, for those aged ≥15 years). Assuming 85% compliance and taking into account the African population pyramid, the intervention is expected to be cost saving in

  1. Prophylaxis of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Malaria prevention in travelers to endemic areas remains dependent principally on chemoprophylaxis. Although malaria chemoprophylaxis refers to all malaria species, a distinction should be drawn between falciparum malaria prophylaxis and the prophylaxis of the relapsing malaria species (vivax & ovale). While the emergence of drug resistant strains, as well as the costs and adverse reactions to medications, complicate falciparum prophylaxis use, there are virtually no drugs available for vivax prophylaxis, beside of primaquine. Based on traveler’s malaria data, a revised recommendation for using chemoprophylaxis in low risk areas should be considered. PMID:22811794

  2. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as ‘adequate’ (≥80 points), ‘partially adequate’ (from 50 to 80 points), or ‘inadequate’ (<50 points). The following components were evaluated: ‘donor education’ (5 points), ‘clinical screening’ (40 points), ‘laboratory screening’ (40 points) and ‘hemovigilance’ (15 points). Results The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as ‘inadequate’ and five as ‘partially adequate’. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as ‘adequate’ in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. PMID:25453648

  3. Selective sweep suggests transcriptional regulation may underlie Plasmodium vivax resilience to malaria control measures in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Parobek, Christian M; Lin, Jessica T; Saunders, David L; Barnett, Eric J; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Brazeau, Nicholas; DeConti, Derrick K; Garba, Deen L; Meshnick, Steven R; Spring, Michele D; Chuor, Char Meng; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Juliano, Jonathan J

    2016-12-13

    Cambodia, in which both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic, has been the focus of numerous malaria-control interventions, resulting in a marked decline in overall malaria incidence. Despite this decline, the number of P vivax cases has actually increased. To understand better the factors underlying this resilience, we compared the genetic responses of the two species to recent selective pressures. We sequenced and studied the genomes of 70 P vivax and 80 P falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2013. We found that although P falciparum has undergone population fracturing, the coendemic P vivax population has grown undisrupted, resulting in a larger effective population size, no discernable population structure, and frequent multiclonal infections. Signatures of selection suggest recent, species-specific evolutionary differences. Particularly, in contrast to P falciparum, P vivax transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, and histone deacetylases have undergone strong directional selection, including a particularly strong selective sweep at an AP2 transcription factor. Together, our findings point to different population-level adaptive mechanisms used by P vivax and P falciparum parasites. Although population substructuring in P falciparum has resulted in clonal outgrowths of resistant parasites, P vivax may use a nuanced transcriptional regulatory approach to population maintenance, enabling it to preserve a larger, more diverse population better suited to facing selective threats. We conclude that transcriptional control may underlie P vivax's resilience to malaria control measures. Novel strategies to target such processes are likely required to eradicate P vivax and achieve malaria elimination.

  4. Selective sweep suggests transcriptional regulation may underlie Plasmodium vivax resilience to malaria control measures in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Parobek, Christian M.; Lin, Jessica T.; Saunders, David L.; Barnett, Eric J.; Lon, Chanthap; Lanteri, Charlotte A.; Balasubramanian, Sujata; Brazeau, Nicholas; DeConti, Derrick K.; Garba, Deen L.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Spring, Michele D.; Chuor, Char Meng; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Juliano, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia, in which both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic, has been the focus of numerous malaria-control interventions, resulting in a marked decline in overall malaria incidence. Despite this decline, the number of P. vivax cases has actually increased. To understand better the factors underlying this resilience, we compared the genetic responses of the two species to recent selective pressures. We sequenced and studied the genomes of 70 P. vivax and 80 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2013. We found that although P. falciparum has undergone population fracturing, the coendemic P. vivax population has grown undisrupted, resulting in a larger effective population size, no discernable population structure, and frequent multiclonal infections. Signatures of selection suggest recent, species-specific evolutionary differences. Particularly, in contrast to P. falciparum, P. vivax transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, and histone deacetylases have undergone strong directional selection, including a particularly strong selective sweep at an AP2 transcription factor. Together, our findings point to different population-level adaptive mechanisms used by P. vivax and P. falciparum parasites. Although population substructuring in P. falciparum has resulted in clonal outgrowths of resistant parasites, P. vivax may use a nuanced transcriptional regulatory approach to population maintenance, enabling it to preserve a larger, more diverse population better suited to facing selective threats. We conclude that transcriptional control may underlie P. vivax’s resilience to malaria control measures. Novel strategies to target such processes are likely required to eradicate P. vivax and achieve malaria elimination. PMID:27911780

  5. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Menaca, Arantza; Pell, Christopher; Manda-Taylor, Lucinda; Chatio, Samuel; Afrah, Nana A; Were, Florence; Hodgson, Abraham; Ouma, Peter; Kalilani, Linda; Tagbor, Harry; Pool, Robert

    2013-07-22

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into account when designing and promoting Mi

  6. Local illness concepts and their relevance for the prevention and control of malaria during pregnancy in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi: findings from a comparative qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of morbidity and mortality linked to malaria during pregnancy (MiP) is significant and compounded by its unclear symptoms and links with other health problems during pregnancy. Mindful of the biomedical and social complexity of MiP, this article explores and compares local understandings of MiP and their links with other pregnancy-related health problems. Methods A comparative qualitative study was undertaken at four sites in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and Kenya. Individual and group interviews were conducted with pregnant women, their relatives, opinion leaders, other community members and health providers. MiP-related behaviours were also observed at health facilities and in local communities. Results Across the four sites, local malaria concepts overlapped with biomedically defined malaria. In terms of symptoms, at-risk groups, outcomes and aetiology of malaria during pregnancy, this overlap was however both site-specific and partial. Moreover, the local malaria concepts were not monolithic and their descriptions varied amongst respondents. The symptoms of pregnancy and malaria also overlapped but, for respondents, symptom severity was the distinguishing factor. Malaria was generally, though not universally, perceived as serious for pregnant women. Miscarriage was the most widely known outcome, and links with anaemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria were mentioned. Nonetheless, amongst many potential causes of miscarriage, malaria was not recognized as the most important, but rather interacted with other pregnancy-related problems. Conclusions Given the overlap of common pregnancy problems with the symptoms of malaria, and the limited association of malaria with its main outcomes, a comprehensive antenatal care programme is the most appropriate strategy for the provision of health education, prevention and treatment for MiP. Variations in locally shared understandings of MiP must however be taken into

  7. [Malaria in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Carme, B; Venturin, C

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, malaria involving Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, and, to a lesser extent, Plasmodium malariae was endemic in 21 countries in the Americas. The Amazon river basin and bordering areas including the Guyanas were the most affected zones. Until the mid 1970s, endemic malaria appeared to be under control. However in the ensuing 15 year period, the situation deteriorated drastically. Although trends varied depending on location, aggregate indexes indicated a twofold increase with recrudescence in previously settled areas and emergence in newly populated zones. Since 1990, the situation has worsened further in some areas where increased incidences have been associated with a high levels of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. However this species remains in minority except in the Guyanas where the highest annual incidences (100 to 500 cases per 1000) and the most drug-resistant Plasmodium have been reported. The causes underlying this deterioration are numerous and complex. In regions naturally prone to transmission of the disease, outbreaks have been intensified by unrestrained settlement. The resulting deforestation has created new breeding areas for Anopheles darlingi, the main vector of malaria in the Americas. Migration of poor populations to newly opened farming and mining areas has created highly exposed areas for malaria infection. Implementation of adequate medical care and prevention measures has been hindered by a lack of money and sociopolitical unrest. Climatic phenomenon related the El Nino have also been favorable to the return of malaria to the region. Except with regard to financial resources and political unrest, the same risk factors for malaria are present in French Guiana.

  8. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen A; Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2016-03-04

    corrected the species for 85 of the 137 (62%) samples evaluated for drug resistance marker testing. Of the 904 patients who reported purpose of travel, 635 (70%) were visiting friends or relatives (VFR). Among the 961 cases in U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 42 (4%) patients reported that they had initiated and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-six cases were reported in pregnant women, none of whom had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, approximately 270 (16%) were classified as severe illnesses in 2013. Of these, 10 persons with malaria died in 2013, the highest number since 2001. In 2013, a total of 137 blood samples submitted to CDC were tested for molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. Of the 100 P. falciparum-positive samples, 95 were tested for pyrimethamine resistance: 88 (93%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drug resistance, 74 (76%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 53 (53%) with chloroquine resistance, one (1%) with atovaquone resistance, none with mefloquine drug resistance, and none with artemisinin resistance. The overall trend of malaria cases has been increasing since 1973; the number of cases reported in 2013 is the third highest annual total since then. Despite progress in reducing the global burden of malaria, the disease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form increased slightly in 2013 compared with 2012, but still remains unacceptably low. This incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases and prevent infections. VFRs continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFRs need to be developed

  9. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    . Less than 1.0% of patients were infected with two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 11.7% of cases. CDC provided diagnostic assistance for 14.2% of confirmed cases and tested 12.0% of P. falciparum specimens for antimalarial resistance markers. Of patients who reported purpose of travel, 57.5% were visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Among U.S. residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 7.8% reported that they initiated and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-two cases were among pregnant women, none of whom had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 17.0% were classified as severe illness, and five persons with malaria died. CDC received 137 P. falciparum-positive samples for the detection of antimalarial resistance markers (although some loci for chloroquine and mefloquine were untestable for up to nine samples). Of the 137 samples tested, 131 (95.6%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drug resistance, 96 (70.0%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 77 (57.5%) with chloroquine resistance, three (2.3%) with mefloquine drug resistance, one (<1.0%) with atovaquone resistance, and two (1.4%) with artemisinin resistance. The overall trend of malaria cases has been increasing since 1973; the number of cases reported in 2014 is the fourth highest annual total since then. Despite progress in reducing global prevalence of malaria, the disease remains endemic in many regions and use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form increased slightly in 2014 compared with 2013, but still remains unacceptably low. In 2014, at least one essential element (i.e., species, travel history, or resident status) was missing in 21.3% of case report forms. Incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases

  10. Malaria Prophylaxis: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Francesco; Odolini, Silvia; Autino, Beatrice; Foca, Emanuele; Russo, Rosario

    2010-01-01

    The flow of international travellers to and from malaria-endemic areas, especially Africa, has increased in recent years. Apart from the very high morbidity and mortality burden imposed on malaria-endemic areas, imported malaria is the main cause of fever possibly causing severe disease and death in travellers coming from tropical and subtropical areas, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa. The importance of behavioural preventive measures (bed nets, repellents, etc.), adequate chemoprophylaxis and, in selected circumstances, stand-by emergency treatment may not be overemphasized. However, no prophylactic regimen may offer complete protection. Expert advice is needed to tailor prophylactic advice according to traveller (age, baseline clinical conditions, etc.) and travel (destination, season, etc.) characteristics in order to reduce malaria risk.

  11. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund; Hodgson, Abraham; Awoonor-Williams, John K.; Yelifari, Lawrence; Williams, John; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. Objective To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. Design This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co-administered to 131 schoolchildren in Study Arm 1; artemether-lumefantrine, albendazole, and praziquantel to 90 children in Study Arm 2 versus albendazole and praziquantel to 127 children in Control Arm 3. Medicines were administered to all children at least 30 min after a meal. A HemoCue® photometer was used to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. Results We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence reductions of 62.8 and 59.2% in Study Arm 1 from 24.2 to 9.0%, p<0.01, and 59.2% in Study Arm 2 from 26.7 to 10.9%, p<0.01), respectively, compared to 8.93% in Control Arm 3 (from 34.7 to 31.6%, p>0.05). Meanwhile, anaemia prevalence reduced significantly (p<0.01) in all three study arms after interventions by 38.4% (from 19.8 to 12.2%), 20.7% (from 26.6 to 21.1%), and 36.0% (from 28.3 to 18.1%) in Study Arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although the interventions had no significant effects on Hb levels, anaemia prevalence reduced insignificantly by 38.4 and 20.7% in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 36.0% in Control Arm 3. Among schoolchildren in Study Arms 1 and 2, mean CTT score improved significantly after interventions by 10.4% (from 3.18 to 3.55, p=0.01) and 20

  12. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund; Hodgson, Abraham; Awoonor-Williams, John K; Yelifari, Lawrence; Williams, John; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. Objective To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. Design This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co-administered to 131 schoolchildren in Study Arm 1; artemether-lumefantrine, albendazole, and praziquantel to 90 children in Study Arm 2 versus albendazole and praziquantel to 127 children in Control Arm 3. Medicines were administered to all children at least 30 min after a meal. A HemoCue(®) photometer was used to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. Results We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence reductions of 62.8 and 59.2% in Study Arm 1 from 24.2 to 9.0%, p<0.01, and 59.2% in Study Arm 2 from 26.7 to 10.9%, p<0.01), respectively, compared to 8.93% in Control Arm 3 (from 34.7 to 31.6%, p>0.05). Meanwhile, anaemia prevalence reduced significantly (p<0.01) in all three study arms after interventions by 38.4% (from 19.8 to 12.2%), 20.7% (from 26.6 to 21.1%), and 36.0% (from 28.3 to 18.1%) in Study Arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although the interventions had no significant effects on Hb levels, anaemia prevalence reduced insignificantly by 38.4 and 20.7% in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 36.0% in Control Arm 3. Among schoolchildren in Study Arms 1 and 2, mean CTT score improved significantly after interventions by 10.4% (from 3.18 to 3.55, p=0.01) and

  13. Impact of combined intermittent preventive treatment of malaria and helminths on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in Northern Ghanaian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Opoku, Ernest Cudjoe; Olsen, Annette; Browne, Edmund; Hodgson, Abraham; Awoonor-Williams, John K; Yelifari, Lawrence; Williams, John; Magnussen, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of integrated control of malaria, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections have not been fully explored in Ghanaian schoolchildren. To assess the impact of co-administered artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole, and artemether-lumefantrine plus albendazole plus praziquantel compared to albendazole plus praziquantel on anaemia, sustained attention, and recall in schoolchildren. This three-arm, open-label intervention study was carried out in Ghana among class three schoolchildren. Artemether-lumefantrine and albendazole were co-administered to 131 schoolchildren in Study Arm 1; artemether-lumefantrine, albendazole, and praziquantel to 90 children in Study Arm 2 versus albendazole and praziquantel to 127 children in Control Arm 3. Medicines were administered to all children at least 30 min after a meal. A HemoCue(®) photometer was used to measure haemoglobin (Hb), while the code transmission test (CTT), adapted from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), was used to measure sustained attention and recall before-and-after interventions in June 2011 and June 2012. We observed significant malaria parasite prevalence reductions of 62.8 and 59.2% in Study Arm 1 from 24.2 to 9.0%, p<0.01, and 59.2% in Study Arm 2 from 26.7 to 10.9%, p<0.01), respectively, compared to 8.93% in Control Arm 3 (from 34.7 to 31.6%, p>0.05). Meanwhile, anaemia prevalence reduced significantly (p<0.01) in all three study arms after interventions by 38.4% (from 19.8 to 12.2%), 20.7% (from 26.6 to 21.1%), and 36.0% (from 28.3 to 18.1%) in Study Arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Although the interventions had no significant effects on Hb levels, anaemia prevalence reduced insignificantly by 38.4 and 20.7% in Study Arms 1 and 2, respectively, compared to 36.0% in Control Arm 3. Among schoolchildren in Study Arms 1 and 2, mean CTT score improved significantly after interventions by 10.4% (from 3.18 to 3.55, p=0.01) and 20.5% (from 2.83 to 3.56, p=0

  14. Global Call to Action: maximize the public health impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Chico, R Matthew; Dellicour, Stephanie; Roman, Elaine; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Coleman, Jane; Menendez, Clara; Majeres-Lugand, Maud; Webster, Jayne; Hill, Jenny

    2015-05-18

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy is a highly cost-effective intervention which significantly improves maternal and birth outcomes among mothers and their newborns who live in areas of moderate to high malaria transmission. However, coverage in sub-Saharan Africa remains unacceptably low, calling for urgent action to increase uptake dramatically and maximize its public health impact. The 'Global Call to Action' outlines priority actions that will pave the way to success in achieving national and international coverage targets. Immediate action is needed from national health institutions in malaria-endemic countries, the donor community, the research community, members of the pharmaceutical industry and private sector, along with technical partners at the global and local levels, to protect pregnant women and their babies from the preventable, adverse effects of malaria in pregnancy.

  15. Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0034 TITLE: Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum...Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...personnel. 2. Keywords: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. cynomolgi, asexual blood stages, liver stages, high-throughput screen, drug assays

  16. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  17. Pre-clinical and clinical development of the first placental malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pehrson, Caroline; Salanti, Ali; Theander, Thor G; Nielsen, Morten A

    2017-06-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a massive health problem in endemic areas. Placental malaria infections caused by Plasmodium falciparum are responsible for up to one million babies being born with a low birth weight every year. Significant efforts have been invested into preventing the condition. Areas covered: Pub Med was searched using the broad terms 'malaria parasite placenta' to identify studies of interactions between parasite and host, 'prevention of placental malaria' to identify current strategies to prevent placental malaria, and 'placental malaria vaccine' to identify pre-clinical vaccine development. However, all papers from these searches were not systematically included. Expert commentary: The first phase I clinical trials of vaccines are well underway. Trials testing efficacy are more complicated to carry out as only women that are exposed to parasites during pregnancy will contribute to endpoint measurements, further it may require extensive follow-up to establish protection. Future second generation vaccines may overcome the inherent challenges in making an effective placental malaria vaccine.

  18. Should chemoprophylaxis be a main strategy for preventing re-introduction of malaria in highly receptive areas? Sri Lanka a case in point.

    PubMed

    Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Herath, Hemantha D B; Fernando, S Deepika

    2017-03-04

    Imported malaria cases continue to be reported in Sri Lanka, which was declared 'malaria-free' by the World Health Organization in September 2016. Chemoprophylaxis, a recommended strategy for malaria prevention for visitors travelling to malaria-endemic countries from Sri Lanka is available free of charge. The strategy of providing chemoprophylaxis to visitors to a neighbouring malaria-endemic country within the perspective of a country that has successfully eliminated malaria but is highly receptive was assessed, taking Sri Lanka as a case in point. The risk of a Sri Lankan national acquiring malaria during a visit to India, a malaria-endemic country, was calculated for the period 2008-2013. The cost of providing prophylaxis for Sri Lankan nationals travelling to India for 1, 2 and 4 weeks was estimated for that same period. The risk of a Sri Lankan traveller to India acquiring malaria ranged from 5.25 per 100,000 travellers in 2012 to 13.45 per 100,000 travellers in 2010. If 50% of cases were missed by the Sri Lankan healthcare system, then the risk of acquiring malaria in India among returning Sri Lankans would double. The 95% confidence intervals for both risks are small. As chloroquine is the chemoprophylactic drug recommended for travellers to India by the Anti Malaria Campaign of Sri Lanka, the costs of chemoprophylaxis for travellers for a 1-, 2- and 4-weeks stay in India on average are US$ 41,604, 48,538 and 62,407, respectively. If all Sri Lankan travellers to India are provided with chemoprophylaxis for four weeks, it will comprise 0.65% of the national malaria control programme budget. Based on the low risk of acquiring malaria among Sri Lankan travellers returning from India and the high receptivity in previously malarious areas of the country, chemoprophylaxis should not be considered a major strategy in the prevention of re-introduction. In areas with high receptivity, universal access to quality-assured diagnosis and treatment cannot be

  19. Malaria Imported from Ghana by Returning Gold Miners, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Yang, Yichao; Xiao, Ning; Zhou, Sheng; Lin, Kangming; Wang, Duoquan; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Weikang; Li, Mei; Feng, Xinyu; Yu, Jianxin; Ren, Xiang; Lai, Shengjie; Sun, Junling; Fang, Zhongliao; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C.A.; Zhou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    During May-August 2013, a malaria outbreak comprising 874 persons in Shanglin County, China, was detected among 4,052 persons returning from overseas. Ghana was the predominant destination country, and 92.3% of malarial infections occurred in gold miners. Preventive measures should be enhanced for persons in high-risk occupations traveling to malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25897805

  20. Community participation for malaria elimination in Tafea Province, Vanuatu: Part I. Maintaining motivation for prevention practices in the context of disappearing disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the 1990s, the experience of eliminating malaria from Aneityum Island, Vanuatu is often given as evidence for the potential to eliminate malaria in the south-west Pacific. This experience, however, cannot provide a blueprint for larger islands that represent more complex social and environmental contexts. Community support was a key contributor to success in Aneityum. In the context of disappearing disease, obtaining and maintaining community participation in strategies to eliminate malaria in the rest of Tafea Province, Vanuatu will be significantly more challenging. Method Nine focus group discussions (FGDs), 12 key informant interviews (KIIs), three transect walks and seven participatory workshops were carried out in three villages across Tanna Island to investigate community perceptions and practices relating to malaria prevention (particularly relating to bed nets); influences on these practices including how malaria is contextualized within community health and disease priorities; and effective avenues for channelling health information. Results The primary protection method identified by participants was the use of bed nets, however, the frequency and motivation for their use differed between study villages on the basis of the perceived presence of malaria. Village, household and personal cleanliness were identified by participants as important for protection against malaria. Barriers and influences on bed net use included cultural beliefs and practices, travel, gender roles, seasonality of mosquito nuisance and risk perception. Health care workers and church leaders were reported to have greatest influence on malaria prevention practices. Participants preferred receiving health information through visiting community health promotion teams, health workers, church leaders and village chiefs. Conclusion In low malaria transmission settings, a package for augmenting social capital and sustaining community participation for elimination will be

  1. Community participation for malaria elimination in Tafea Province, Vanuatu: Part I. Maintaining motivation for prevention practices in the context of disappearing disease.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jo-An M; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Toaliu, Hilson; Taleo, George; Tynan, Anna; Whittaker, Maxine; Riley, Ian; Vallely, Andrew

    2010-04-12

    In the 1990s, the experience of eliminating malaria from Aneityum Island, Vanuatu is often given as evidence for the potential to eliminate malaria in the south-west Pacific. This experience, however, cannot provide a blueprint for larger islands that represent more complex social and environmental contexts. Community support was a key contributor to success in Aneityum. In the context of disappearing disease, obtaining and maintaining community participation in strategies to eliminate malaria in the rest of Tafea Province, Vanuatu will be significantly more challenging. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs), 12 key informant interviews (KIIs), three transect walks and seven participatory workshops were carried out in three villages across Tanna Island to investigate community perceptions and practices relating to malaria prevention (particularly relating to bed nets); influences on these practices including how malaria is contextualized within community health and disease priorities; and effective avenues for channelling health information. The primary protection method identified by participants was the use of bed nets, however, the frequency and motivation for their use differed between study villages on the basis of the perceived presence of malaria. Village, household and personal cleanliness were identified by participants as important for protection against malaria. Barriers and influences on bed net use included cultural beliefs and practices, travel, gender roles, seasonality of mosquito nuisance and risk perception. Health care workers and church leaders were reported to have greatest influence on malaria prevention practices. Participants preferred receiving health information through visiting community health promotion teams, health workers, church leaders and village chiefs. In low malaria transmission settings, a package for augmenting social capital and sustaining community participation for elimination will be essential and includes: 'sentinel sites

  2. Opportunities and obstacles to the elimination of malaria from Peninsular Malaysia: knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria among aboriginal and rural communities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite continuous efforts by the government and private sectors, malaria is still a public health problem in rural Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated household knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding malaria in two malaria endemic communities, forest-aboriginal and rural communities, in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 and 123 households from forest-aboriginal and rural areas, respectively. Results Knowledge about malaria and its transmission is significantly higher among the rural participants than the aborigines (86.2% vs 76%, p < 0.01). However, use of medicinal plants and beliefs in witchcraft and sorcery in treating febrile diseases were significantly higher among the aboriginal population (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two communities in terms of the knowledge about malaria symptoms, attitudes towards its severity and practices in preventive measures against malaria by using mosquito bed nets. However, the knowledge and practice of different preventive measures to combat malaria, such as insecticide and the elimination of breeding areas, was significantly higher among the rural population than the aborigines (p < 0.001). Conclusions Both communities were aware of malaria as a disease, but knowledge, attitudes and practices were inadequate. Providing efficient health education to people residing in malaria endemic areas would improve their understanding about malaria prevention in order to bring about the elimination of malaria from the country. PMID:20497543

  3. Opportunities and obstacles to the elimination of malaria from Peninsular Malaysia: knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria among aboriginal and rural communities.

    PubMed

    Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Nor, Zurainee M; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2010-05-24

    Despite continuous efforts by the government and private sectors, malaria is still a public health problem in rural Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated household knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding malaria in two malaria endemic communities, forest-aboriginal and rural communities, in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. A descriptive cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 and 123 households from forest-aboriginal and rural areas, respectively. Knowledge about malaria and its transmission is significantly higher among the rural participants than the aborigines (86.2% vs 76%, p < 0.01). However, use of medicinal plants and beliefs in witchcraft and sorcery in treating febrile diseases were significantly higher among the aboriginal population (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two communities in terms of the knowledge about malaria symptoms, attitudes towards its severity and practices in preventive measures against malaria by using mosquito bed nets. However, the knowledge and practice of different preventive measures to combat malaria, such as insecticide and the elimination of breeding areas, was significantly higher among the rural population than the aborigines (p < 0.001). Both communities were aware of malaria as a disease, but knowledge, attitudes and practices were inadequate. Providing efficient health education to people residing in malaria endemic areas would improve their understanding about malaria prevention in order to bring about the elimination of malaria from the country.

  4. Burden of Placental Malaria among Pregnant Women Who Use or Do Not Use Intermittent Preventive Treatment at Mulago Hospital, Kampala

    PubMed Central

    Odida, Michael; Wabinga, Henry; Obua, Celestino; Byamugisha, Josaphat

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp) is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM) was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33) of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33) of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp. PMID:28070444

  5. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy: survey of current practice among private medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Rabiu, Kabiru Afolarin; Davies, Nosimot Omolola; Nzeribe-Abangwu, Ugochi O; Adewunmi, Adeniyi Abiodun; Akinlusi, Fatimat Motunrayo; Akinola, Oluwarotimi Ireti; Ogundele, Sunday O

    2015-01-01

    We studied the practice of malaria prevention and treatment in pregnancy of 394 private medical practitioners in Lagos State, Nigeria using a self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaire. Only 39 (9.9%) respondents had correct knowledge of the World Health Organization (WHO) strategies. Malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy was offered by 336 (85.3%), but only 98 (24.9%) had correct knowledge of recommended chemoprophylaxis. Of these, 68 (17.3%) had correct knowledge of first trimester treatment, while only 41 (10.4%) had knowledge of second and third trimester treatment. Only 64 (16.2%) of respondents routinely recommended use of insecticide-treated bed nets. The most common anti-malarial drug prescribed for chemoprophylaxis was pyrimethamine (43.7%); chloroquine was the most common anti-malarial prescribed for both first trimester treatment (81.5%) and second and third trimester treatment (55.3%). The study showed that private medical practitioners have poor knowledge of malaria prophylaxis and treatment in pregnancy, and the practice of most do not conform to recommended guidelines. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Malaria prevention in travellers from the United Kingdom. Report of meetings convened by the Ross Institute.

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Malaria prophylaxis is relative, not absolute, but can provide much protection. Travellers must take prophylactics regularly while in malarious areas and for one month thereafter; despite doing so, they may still develop malaria. For areas without chloroquine-resistant malaria, chloroquine, 300 mg base weekly, or proguanil, 100-200 mg daily, are preferred. In areas of chloroquine sensitivity there may be places with resistance to proguanil and pyrimethamine, but these places are not delineated. The risk of breakthrough of malaria is, therefore, least with chloroquine, but problems of potential side effects and regular medication are fewer with proguanil than chloroquine. Proguanil is preferred for long-term prophylaxis. Malaria poses a greater hazard for pregnant women and infants than do prophylactics. Pyrimethamine/sulphadoxine (Fansidar) or pyrimethamine/diaminodiphenyl sulphone (maloprim) are the preferred drugs for areas with prevalent chloroquine-resistant plasmodium falciparum. Fansidar is taken once a week and Maloprim also is usually recommended to be taken once a week. PMID:6789972

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns of malaria infection in Bhutan: a country embarking on malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background At the verge of elimination of malaria in Bhutan, this study was carried out to analyse the trend of malaria in the endemic districts of Bhutan and to identify malaria clusters at the sub-districts. The findings would aid in implementing the control activities. Poisson regression was performed to study the trend of malaria incidences at district level from 1994 to 2008. Spatial Empirical Bayesian smoothing was deployed to identify clusters of malaria at the sub-district level from 2004 to 2008. Results Trend of the overall districts and most of the endemic districts have decreased except Pemagatshel, which has an increase in the trend. Spatial cluster-outlier analysis showed that malaria clusters were mostly concentrated in the central and eastern Bhutan in three districts of Dagana, Samdrup Jongkhar and Sarpang. The disease clusters were reported throughout the year. Clusters extended to the non-transmission areas in the eastern Bhutan. Conclusions There is significant decrease in the trend of malaria with the elimination at the sight. The decrease in the trend can be attributed to the success of the control and preventive measures. In order to realize the target of elimination of malaria, the control measure needs to be prioritized in these high-risk clusters of malaria. PMID:21496285

  8. Perceptions of malaria control and prevention in an era of climate change: a cross-sectional survey among CDC staff in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Michael Xiaoliang; Hansen, Alana; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Cameron, Scott; Xiang, Jianjun; Liu, Qiyong; Liu, Xiaobo; Sun, Yehuan; Weinstein, Philip; Han, Gil-Soo; Williams, Craig; Bi, Peng

    2017-03-31

    Though there was the significant decrease in the incidence of malaria in central and southwest China during the 1980s and 1990s, there has been a re-emergence of malaria since 2000. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the staff of eleven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in China to gauge their perceptions regarding the impacts of climate change on malaria transmission and its control and prevention. Descriptive analysis was performed to study CDC staff's knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and suggestions for malaria control in the face of climate change. A majority (79.8%) of CDC staff were concerned about climate change and 79.7% believed the weather was becoming warmer. Most participants (90.3%) indicated climate change had a negative effect on population health, 92.6 and 86.8% considered that increasing temperatures and precipitation would influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases including malaria. About half (50.9%) of the surveyed staff indicated malaria had re-emerged in recent years, and some outbreaks were occurring in new geographic areas. The main reasons for such re-emergence were perceived to be: mosquitoes in high-density, numerous imported cases, climate change, poor environmental conditions, internal migrant populations, and lack of health awareness. This study found most CDC staff endorsed the statement that climate change had a negative impact on infectious disease transmission. Malaria had re-emerged in some areas of China, and most of the staff believed that this can be managed. However, high densities of mosquitoes and the continuous increase in imported cases of malaria in local areas, together with environmental changes are bringing about critical challenges to malaria control in China. This study contributes to an understanding of climate change related perceptions of malaria control and prevention amongst CDC staff. It may help to formulate in-house training guidelines, community health promotion

  9. Intermittent preventive treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces malaria morbidity among school-aged children in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Breanna; Maiga, Hamma; Traore, Oumar Bila; Tekete, Mamadou; Tembine, Intimbeye; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana Isaac; Gantt, Soren; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria in school-aged children. METHODS This was an open randomized controlled trial of seasonal IPT among school children (IPTsc) aged 6–13 years in Kollé, Mali. The study began in September 2007 and completed follow-up in May 2008. Students were randomized to one of three study arms: Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP/AS), amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ/AS) or vitamin C. All students received two full treatment doses, given 2 months apart during the season of high transmission from September to December. Groups were compared with respect to incidence of clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia and haemoglobin concentration. RESULTS A total of 296 students were randomized, and retention in the study was 99.3%. Clinical malaria incidence in the SP/AS and AQ/AS arms was reduced by 66.6% and 46.5%, respectively, vs. vitamin C (P < 0.001). There were fewer clinic visits for any cause among the children receiving SP/AS or AQ/AS (P = 0.024). The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was fivefold higher in the vitamin C arm than either SP/AS or AQ/AS at each post-treatment evaluation (P < 0.001). At the end of the transmission period, children treated with IPT had lower rates of anaemia (SP/AS, 17.7%; AQ/AS, 16.0%; vitamin C, 29.6%; P = 0.039). CONCLUSION IPT among school children reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause acute clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia and anaemia among school-aged children. PMID:19497079

  10. Malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    1994-05-01

    Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor.

  11. Lack of effect of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy and intense drug resistance in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Braun, Vera; Rempis, Eva; Schnack, Alexandra; Decker, Sarah; Rubaihayo, John; Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Theuring, Stefanie; Harms, Gundel; Busingye, Priscilla; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-09-26

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is widely implemented in sub-Saharan Africa for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. However, in areas of intense SP resistance, the efficacy of IPTp may be compromised. A cross-sectional study among 915 delivering women (728 analysable live singleton deliveries) was conducted in Fort Portal, western Uganda, to assess associations of reported IPTp use, Plasmodium falciparum infection, maternal anaemia, low birth weight, and preterm delivery, and to estimate the degree of SP resistance as reflected by pfdhfr/pfdhps mutations. Plasmodium falciparum infection was detected by PCR in 8.9 % and by microscopy of placental blood samples in 4.0 %. Infection was significantly associated with stillbirth, early neonatal death, anaemia, low birth weight, and pre-term delivery. Eighty percent of the women had taken at least one dose of IPTp, and more than half had taken two doses. As compared to women without chemoprophylaxis against malaria, IPTp had no significant influence on the presence of P. falciparum infection (13.8 vs. 9.6 %, P = 0.31). Nor was it associated with reductions in anaemia, low birth weight or preterm delivery. P. falciparum with intense SP resistance (pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple or sextuple mutations) were observed in 93 % (pfdhps 581G, 36 %), and the additional high resistance allele pfhdr 164L in 36 %. In Fort Portal, Uganda, reported use of IPTp with SP does not provide an observable benefit. The molecular markers of P. falciparum indicate high grade SP resistance reaching the threshold set by WHO for the discontinuation of IPTp with SP. Alternative approaches for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy are urgently needed.

  12. Malaria--Great Exuma, Bahamas, May-June 2006.

    PubMed

    2006-09-22

    Malaria in humans is caused by four distinct protozoan species of the genus Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae). These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. In the Caribbean region, malaria has been eliminated from all islands except Hispaniola, the island consisting of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Elimination of malaria elsewhere resulted from a combination of integrated control measures, socioeconomic development, and close public health surveillance. However, even Caribbean islands where malaria is no longer endemic remain at constant risk for reintroduction of the disease because of their tropical climate, presence of competent malaria vectors, and proximity to other countries where malaria is endemic. This susceptibility was underscored by the recent outbreak of malaria on the island of Great Exuma in the Bahamas; during May-June 2006, a total of 19 malaria cases were identified. Four of the cases, in travelers from North America and Europe, are described in this report; such cases of imported malaria can signal the presence of a malaria problem in the country visited and thus assist local health authorities in their investigations. On September 19, after 3 months with no report of new cases, CDC rescinded its previous recommendation that U.S.-based travelers take preventive doses of the antimalarial drug chloroquine before, during, and after travel to Great Exuma.

  13. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria Provides Substantial Protection against Malaria in Children Already Protected by an Insecticide-Treated Bednet in Burkina Faso: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Konaté, Amadou T.; Yaro, Jean Baptiste; Ouédraogo, Amidou Z.; Diarra, Amidou; Gansané, Adama; Soulama, Issiaka; Kangoyé, David T.; Kaboré, Youssouf; Ouédraogo, Espérance; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred B.; Ouédraogo, Issa N.; Chandramohan, Daniel; Cousens, Simon; Milligan, Paul J.; Sirima, Sodiomon B.; Greenwood, Brian; Diallo, Diadier A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc) is a promising new approach to the control of malaria in areas of seasonal malaria transmission but it is not known if IPTc adds to the protection provided by an insecticide-treated net (ITN). Methods and Findings An individually randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of seasonal IPTc was conducted in Burkina Faso in children aged 3 to 59 months who were provided with a long-lasting insecticide-treated bednet (LLIN). Three rounds of treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine or placebos were given at monthly intervals during the malaria transmission season. Passive surveillance for malaria episodes was established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted at the end of the malaria transmission season, and use of ITNs was monitored during the intervention period. Incidence rates of malaria were compared using a Cox regression model and generalized linear models were fitted to examine the effect of IPTc on the prevalence of malaria infection, anaemia, and on anthropometric indicators. 3,052 children were screened and 3,014 were enrolled in the trial; 1,505 in the control arm and 1,509 in the intervention arm. Similar proportions of children in the two treatment arms were reported to sleep under an LLIN during the intervention period (93%). The incidence of malaria, defined as fever or history of fever with parasitaemia ≥5,000/µl, was 2.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70–3.06) per child during the intervention period in the control arm versus 0.87 (95% CI 0.78–0.97) in the intervention arm, a protective efficacy (PE) of 70% (95% CI 66%–74%) (p<0.001). There was a 69% (95% CI 6%–90%) reduction in incidence of severe malaria (p = 0.04) and a 46% (95% CI 7%–69%) (p = 0.03) reduction in the incidence of all-cause hospital admissions. IPTc reduced the prevalence of malaria infection at the end of the malaria transmission season by 73% (95% CI 68%

  14. [Epidemiology and prevention of malaria in the southwestern islands of the Indian Ocean].

    PubMed

    Tchen, J; Ouledi, A; Lepère, J F; Ferrandiz, D; Yvin, J L

    2006-06-01

    Malaria epidemiology differs greatly in the geographically close islands of the southwestern Indian Ocean. In Madagascar and the Comoros Union malaria is still a major public health problem. In Mayotte indigenous transmission resumed in 1995 and is currently high in some communities. In the Mascarene Islands (Reunion and Mauritius), indigenous transmission has been eradicated (Reunion) or become rare (Mauritius). The Seychelles Islands are malaria-free since local conditions are unfavorable for Anopheles mosquitoes. The level of resistance to antimalarials also differs from one island to another. Resistance to chloroquine ranges from moderate in Madagascar to high in the Comoros Union. Health recommendations for travelers must be adapted to the epidemiological features on each island.

  15. Impact of microscopy error on estimates of protective efficacy in malaria-prevention trials.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Purnomo; Sutamihardja, M Awalludin; Tang, Douglas; Kain, Kevin C

    2002-08-15

    Microscopy is an imperfect reference standard used for malaria diagnosis in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to provide an assessment of the accuracy of basic microscopy, to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis with microscopy results, and to assess the effect of microscopy error on apparent protective efficacy. The sensitivity and specificity of basic, compared with expert, microscopy was determined to be 91% and 71%, respectively. In a clinical trial, agreement between PCR and microscopy results improved with expert confirmation of initial results. In a simulated 12-week trial with weekly routine malaria smears, a very high specificity (>99%) for each malaria smear was found to be necessary for an estimate of protective efficacy to be within 10%-25% of the true value, but sensitivity had little effect on this estimate. Microscopy error occurs and can affect clinical trial results.

  16. History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: a review.

    PubMed

    Breeveld, Florence J V; Vreden, Stephen G S; Grobusch, Martin P

    2012-03-29

    Suriname has cleared malaria from its capital city and coastal areas mainly through the successful use of chloroquine and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) during the Global Malaria Eradication programme that started in 1955. Nonetheless, malaria transmission rates remained high in the interior of the country for a long time. An impressive decline in malaria cases was achieved in the past few years, from 14,403 registered cases in 2003 to 1,371 in 2009. The introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2004 has further fuelled the decrease in the number of infections with Plasmodium falciparum. The only population group still heavily burdened with malaria is gold mining industry workers. Interestingly, an important part of malaria cases diagnosed and treated in Suriname originate from border regions. Therefore, practical initiatives of combined efforts between neighbouring countries must be scaled up in order to effectively attack these specific areas. Furthermore, it is of vital importance to keep investing into the malaria control programme and public awareness campaigns. Especially the correct use of ACT must be promoted in order to prevent the emergence of resistance. However, effective preventive measures and adequate therapeutic options are on their own not enough to control, let alone eliminate malaria. Changing personal and social behaviour of people is particularly difficult, but crucial in making the current success sustainable. With this in mind, research on successfully implemented interventions, focusing on behavioural modifications and methods of measuring their effectiveness, must be expanded.

  17. Effectiveness of co-trimoxazole to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria in HIV-positive pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: an open-label, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Klement, Elise; Pitché, Palokinam; Kendjo, Eric; Singo, Assétina; D'Almeida, Stéphane; Akouete, Folly; Akpaloo, Yawo; Tossa, Kokou; Prince-Agbodjan, Serge; Patassi, Akouda; Caumes, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria during pregnancy cause substantial perinatal mortality. As co-trimoxazole (CMX) protects children and HIV-positive adults against malaria, we compared the effectiveness of daily CMX with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment (IPT-SP) on malaria risk in HIV-positive pregnant women in a Plasmodium falciparum-endemic African area.  From January 2009 to April 2011, we included in a randomized noninferiority trial all HIV type 1-infected pregnant women (≤28 weeks' gestation, CD4 count ≥200 cells/µL, hemoglobin level ≥7 g/L) in 19 health centers in Togo. Women were randomly assigned to daily 800 mg/160 mg CMX, or IPT-SP. The primary outcome was the proportion of malaria-free pregnancies. Other outcomes included malaria incidence, parasitemia, placental malaria, anemia, and infants' birth weight. Of 264 women randomly assigned to the CMX or IPT-SP group, 126 of 132 and 124 of 132, respectively, were included in the analysis. There were 33 confirmed cases of clinical malaria among 31 women in the CMX group, and 19 among 19 women in the IPT-SP group. Ninety-five of 126 (75.4%) women in the CMX group and 105 of 124 (84.7%) in the IPT-SP group remained malaria-free during their pregnancy (difference, 9.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.53 to 19.1, not meeting the predefined noninferiority criterion). The incidence rate in intention-to-treat analysis was 108.8 malaria episodes per 100 person-years in CMX (95% CI, 105.4-112.2) and 90.1 in IPT-SP (95% CI, 86.8-93.4) (not significant). Prevalence of parasitemia was 16.7% in the CMX group vs 28% in the IPT-SP group (P = .02). Histology revealed 20.3% placental malaria in the CMX group vs. 24.6% in the IPT-SP group (not significant). Grade 3-4 anemia was more frequent in the CMX group (10% vs 4%; P = .008). No pregnant women died. Median birth weight was similar.  Daily CMX was not noninferior to IPT-SP for preventing maternal malaria but safe and at

  18. Large-scale drivers of malaria and priority areas for prevention and control in the Brazilian Amazon region using a novel multi-pathogen geospatial model.

    PubMed

    Valle, Denis; Lima, Joanna M Tucker

    2014-11-20

    Most of the malaria burden in the Americas is concentrated in the Brazilian Amazon but a detailed spatial characterization of malaria risk has yet to be undertaken. Utilizing 2004-2008 malaria incidence data collected from six Brazilian Amazon states, large-scale spatial patterns of malaria risk were characterized with a novel Bayesian multi-pathogen geospatial model. Data included 2.4 million malaria cases spread across 3.6 million sq km. Remotely sensed variables (deforestation rate, forest cover, rainfall, dry season length, and proximity to large water bodies), socio-economic variables (rural population size, income, and literacy rate, mortality rate for children age under five, and migration patterns), and GIS variables (proximity to roads, hydro-electric dams and gold mining operations) were incorporated as covariates. Borrowing information across pathogens allowed for better spatial predictions of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, as evidenced by a ten-fold cross-validation. Malaria incidence for both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum tended to be higher in areas with greater forest cover. Proximity to gold mining operations was another important risk factor, corroborated by a positive association between migration rates and malaria incidence. Finally, areas with a longer dry season and areas with higher average rural income tended to have higher malaria risk. Risk maps reveal striking spatial heterogeneity in malaria risk across the region, yet these mean disease risk surface maps can be misleading if uncertainty is ignored. By combining mean spatial predictions with their associated uncertainty, several sites were consistently classified as hotspots, suggesting their importance as priority areas for malaria prevention and control. This article provides several contributions. From a methodological perspective, the benefits of jointly modelling multiple pathogens for spatial predictions were illustrated. In addition, maps of mean disease risk were

  19. Serological markers to measure recent changes in malaria at population level in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kerkhof, Karen; Sluydts, Vincent; Willen, Laura; Kim, Saorin; Canier, Lydie; Heng, Somony; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Sochantha, Tho; Sovannaroth, Siv; Ménard, Didier; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2016-11-04

    Serological markers for exposure to different Plasmodium species have recently been used in multiplex immunoassays based on the Luminex technology. However, interpretation of the assay results requires consideration of the half-life of specific antibodies against these markers. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to document the half-life of malaria specific serological makers, as well as assessing the sensitivity of these markers to pick up recent changes in malaria exposure. A recently developed multiplex immunoassay was used to measure the intensity of antibody (Ab) responses against 19 different Plasmodium specific antigens, covering different human malaria parasites and two vector saliva antigens. Therefore, 8439 blood samples from five cross-sectional surveys in Ratanakiri, Cambodia, were analysed. These involve a random selection from two selected surveys, and an additional set of blood samples of individuals that were randomly re-sampled three, four or five times. A generalized estimating equation model and linear regression models were fitted on log transformed antibody intensity data. Results showed that most (17/21) Ab-responses are higher in PCR positive than PCR negative individuals. Furthermore, these antibody-responses follow the same upward trend within each age group. Estimation of the half-lives showed differences between serological markers that reflect short- (seasonal) and long-term (year round) transmission trends. Ab levels declined significantly together with a decrease of PCR prevalence in a group of malaria endemic villages. For Plasmodium falciparum, antibodies against LSA3.RE, GLURP and Pf.GLURP.R2 are most likely to be a reflexion of recent (range from 6 to 8 months) exposure in the Mekong Subregion. PvEBP is the only Plasmodium vivax Ag responding reasonably well, in spite of an estimated Ab half-life of more than 1 year. The use of Ab intensity data rather dichotomizing the continuous Ab-titre data (positive vs negative

  20. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or

  1. Access and use of interventions to prevent and treat malaria among pregnant women in Kenya and Mali: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I; Hamel, Mary J; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Women and men's perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women

  2. A long-duration dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor (DSM265) for prevention and treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Margaret A.; Lotharius, Julie; Marsh, Kennan; White, John; Dayan, Anthony; White, Karen L.; Njoroge, Jacqueline W.; El Mazouni, Farah; Lao, Yanbin; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Tomchick, Diana R.; Deng, Xiaoyi; Laird, Trevor; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; March, Sandra; Ng, Caroline L.; Fidock, David A.; Wittlin, Sergio; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria; Benito, Francisco Javier Gamo; Alonso, Laura Maria Sanz; Martinez, Maria Santos; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Bazaga, Santiago Ferrer; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Haselden, John N.; Louttit, James; Cui, Yi; Sridhar, Arun; Zeeman, Anna-Marie; Kocken, Clemens; Sauerwein, Robert; Dechering, Koen; Avery, Vicky M.; Duffy, Sandra; Delves, Michael; Sinden, Robert; Ruecker, Andrea; Wickham, Kristina S.; Rochford, Rosemary; Gahagen, Janet; Iyer, Lalitha; Riccio, Ed; Mirsalis, Jon; Bathhurst, Ian; Rueckle, Thomas; Ding, Xavier; Campo, Brice; Leroy, Didier; Rogers, M. John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K.; Burrows, Jeremy N.; Charman, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant causes of childhood mortality but disease control efforts are threatened by resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to current therapies. Continued progress in combating malaria requires development of new, easy to administer drug combinations with broad ranging activity against all manifestations of the disease. DSM265, a triazolopyrimidine-based inhibitor of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), is the first DHODH inhibitor to reach clinical development for treatment of malaria. We describe studies profiling the biological activity, pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties, and safety of DSM265, which supported its advancement to human trials. DSM265 is highly selective towards DHODH of the malaria parasite Plasmodium, efficacious against both blood and liver stages of P. falciparum, and active against drug-resistant parasite isolates. Favorable pharmacokinetic properties of DSM265 are predicted to provide therapeutic concentrations for more than 8 days after a single oral dose in the range of 200–400 mg. DSM265 was well tolerated in repeat dose and cardiovascular safety studies in mice and dogs, was not mutagenic, and was inactive against panels of human enzymes/receptors. The excellent safety profile, blood and liver-stage activity, and predicted long human half-life position DSM265 as a new potential drug combination partner for either single-dose treatment or once weekly chemoprevention. DSM265 has advantages over current treatment options that are dosed daily or are inactive on the parasite liver-stage PMID:26180101

  3. A non-pharmaceutical form of Artemisia annua is not effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Lagarce, Laurence; Lerolle, Nicolas; Asfar, Pierre; Le Govic, Yohann; Lainé-Cessac, Pascale; de Gentile, Ludovic

    2016-05-01

    Non-pharmaceutical forms of Artemisia annua (a Chinese plant containing artemisinin) are used by some travellers who believe these products are safer than anti-malarial drugs. We report two cases of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria requiring hospitalization in an Intensive Care Unit following prophylaxis with non-pharmaceutical A. annua in French travellers.

  4. Malaria in pregnancy in the Solomon islands: barriers to prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Appleyard, Bridget; Tuni, Makiva; Cheng, Qin; Chen, Nanhua; Bryan, Joan; McCarthy, James S

    2008-03-01

    A study of malaria in pregnancy (MIP) was undertaken in Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to evaluate pregnancy-specific control strategies for malaria. Peripheral parasitemia was present in 18% (19/106) of women: 15 Plasmodium falciparum and 4 P. vivax. Primigravidae were twice as likely to be parasitemic as multigravidae (31% versus 14%; relative risk: 2.24; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.96; P = 0.05). Although ante-natal clinic attendance was high, women booked late (mean, 19.7 weeks) and attended irregularly. Free insecticide-treated nets (ITN) were not distributed despite government policy. Primigravidae were less likely to have an ITN in their homes than multigravidae (relative risk: 2.13; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-4.40). Coverage with chloroquine prophylaxis was low. This study revealed barriers to control of MIP at both the health service and client level. To develop an evidence-based malaria control policy in pregnancy for this region, further study of the epidemiology of malaria and its effects, including social and behavioral aspects, is needed.

  5. Targeting educational campaigns for prevention of malaria and dengue fever: an assessment in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Brusich, Macy; Grieco, John; Penney, Naomi; Tisgratog, Rungarun; Ritthison, Wanapa; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Achee, Nicole

    2015-01-23

    The current study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of at-risk populations for malaria and/or dengue fever in relation to mosquito exposure and household mosquito control practices. Specific objectives included comparison of individual and household level health practices between a rural and urban setting in Thailand. Findings are intended to guide Thailand Ministry of Health educational campaigns targeting arthropod-borne disease. A mixed method design was employed using a forced choice and open-ended questionnaire to assess KAP of participants seeking point-of-care treatment for malaria and/or dengue fever at government health-care facilities. Following informed consent, household construction characterization (percent eave gap, floor, wall, and roof material) and mosquito collections both indoors (using aspiration) and outside (using traps) were conducted at a subsample of participant homes. All mosquitoes were identified to genus and anopheline and aedine samples processed for potential pathogen infection. A total of 64 participants were recruited from both study sites; 62 categorized as malaria symptomology and 2 categorized as dengue across all study healthcare facilities. Significant associations between study site and household construction were indicated. Trends also identified household level practices and both occupation and household construction regarding type of mosquito control products purchased and the abundance of mosquitoes in sampled homes. Overall, Ministry of Health information from education campaigns regarding malaria and dengue fever strategies is reaching the intended target populations at the study sites. Participants are aware of the presence of mosquitoes and that they serve as the potential vector for transmitting malaria and dengue fever diseases. However, specific knowledge gaps were also identified in each study site that may influence exposure to infected mosquitoes. Findings from this study are intended to

  6. Preventing malaria transmission by indoor residual spraying in Malawi: grappling with the challenge of uncertain sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mzilahowa, Themba; Chipwanya, John; Mulenga, Shadreck; Ali, Doreen; Troell, Peter; Dodoli, Wilfred; Govere, John M; Gimnig, John

    2015-06-24

    In the past decade, there has been rapid scale-up of insecticide-based malaria vector control in the context of integrated vector management (IVM) according to World Health Organization recommendations. Endemic countries have deployed indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets as hallmark vector control interventions. This paper discusses the successes and continued challenges and the way forward for the IRS programme in Malawi. The National Malaria Control Programme in Malawi, with its efforts to implement an integrated approach to malaria vector control, was the 'case' for this study. Information sources included all available data and accessible archived documentary records on IRS in Malawi. A methodical assessment of published and unpublished documents was conducted via a literature search of online electronic databases. Malawi has implemented IRS as the main malaria transmission-reducing intervention. However, pyrethroid and carbamate resistance in malaria vectors has been detected extensively across the country and has adversely affected the IRS programme. Additionally, IRS activities have been characterized by substantial inherent logistical and technical challenges culminating into missed targets. As a consequence, programmatic IRS operations have been scaled down from seven districts in 2010 to only one district in 2014. The future of the IRS programme in Malawi is uncertain due to limited funding, high cost of alternative insecticides and technical resource challenges being experienced in the country. The availability of a long-lasting formulation of the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl makes the re-introduction of IRS a possibility and may be a useful approach for the management of pyrethroid resistance. Implementing the IVM strategy, advocating for sustainable domestic funding, including developing an insecticide resistance monitoring and management plan and vector surveillance guidelines will be pivotal in steering entomologic

  7. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-01-01

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn’s disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care. PMID:27678347

  8. Preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Abegunde, Ayokunle T; Muhammad, Bashir H; Ali, Tauseef

    2016-09-14

    We aim to review the literature and provide guidance on preventive health measures in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Structured searches were performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from January 1976 to June 2016 using the following keywords: (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (health maintenance OR preventive health OR health promotion). Abstracts of the articles selected from each of these multiple searches were reviewed, and those meeting the inclusion criteria (that is, providing data regarding preventive health or health maintenance in IBD patients) were recorded. Reference lists from the selected articles were manually reviewed to identify further relevant studies. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing adverse events related to the disease course, therapeutic interventions, or non-adherence to medication. Recent studies have suggested that IBD patients do not receive preventive services with the same thoroughness as patients with other chronic diseases. Preventive health measures can avert morbidity and improve the quality of life of patients with IBD. Gastroenterologists and primary care physicians (PCPs) should have an up to date working knowledge of preventive health measures for IBD patients. A holistic approach and better communication between gastroenterologists and PCPs with explicit clarification of roles will prevent duplication of services and streamline care.

  9. Preventive zinc supplementation in developing countries: impact on mortality and morbidity due to diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is commonly prevalent in children in developing countries and plays a role in decreased immunity and increased risk of infection. Preventive zinc supplementation in healthy children can reduce mortality due to common causes like diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. The main objective was to determine all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing countries for preventive zinc supplementation. Data sources/ review methods A literature search was carried out on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the WHO regional databases to identify RCTs on zinc supplementation for greater than 3 months in children less than 5 years of age in developing countries and its effect on mortality was analyzed. Results The effect of preventive zinc supplementation on mortality was given in eight trials, while cause specific mortality data was given in five of these eight trials. Zinc supplementation alone was associated with a statistically insignificant 9% (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.01) reduction in all cause mortality in the intervention group as compared to controls using a random effect model. The impact on diarrhea-specific mortality of zinc alone was a non-significant 18% reduction (RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.64, 1.05) and 15% for pneumonia-specific mortality (RR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.65, 1.11). The incidence of diarrhea showed a 13% reduction with preventive zinc supplementation (RR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.94) and a 19% reduction in pneumonia morbidity (RR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.90). Keeping in mind the direction of effect of zinc supplementation in reducing diarrhea and pneumonia related morbidity and mortality; we considered all the outcomes for selection of effectiveness estimate for inclusion in the LiST model. After application of the CHERG rules with consideration to quality of evidence and rule # 6, we used the most conservative estimates as a surrogate for mortality. We, therefore, conclude that zinc

  10. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Rek, John; Kakande, Elijah; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Katamba, Henry; Donnelly, Martin J; Rosenthal, Philip J; Drakeley, Chris; Lindsay, Steve W; Staedke, Sarah G; Smith, David L; Greenhouse, Bryan; Kamya, Moses R; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-11-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period, universal LLIN distribution was

  11. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  12. Economic evaluation of an alternative drug to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sicuri, Elisa; Fernandes, Silke; Macete, Eusebio; González, Raquel; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Massougbodgi, Achille; Abdulla, Salim; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Katana, Abraham; Desai, Meghna; Cot, Michel; Ramharter, Michael; Kremsner, Peter; Slustker, Laurence; Aponte, John; Hanson, Kara; Menéndez, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended in HIV-negative women to avert malaria, while this relies on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) in HIV-positive women. Alternative antimalarials are required in areas where parasite resistance to antifolate drugs is high. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp with alternative drugs is needed to inform policy. The cost-effectiveness of 2-dose IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) was compared with IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women (Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania). In HIV-positive women the cost-effectiveness of 3-dose IPTp-MQ added to CTXp was compared with CTXp alone (Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania). The outcomes used were maternal clinical malaria, anaemia at delivery and non-obstetric hospital admissions. The poor tolerability to MQ was included as the value of women's loss of working days. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and threshold analysis undertaken. For HIV-negative women, the ICER for IPTp-MQ versus IPTp-SP was 136.30 US$ (2012 US$) (95%CI 131.41; 141.18) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, or 237.78 US$ (95%CI 230.99; 244.57), depending on whether estimates from Gabon were included or not. For HIV-positive women, the ICER per DALY averted for IPTp-MQ added to CTXp, versus CTXp alone was 6.96 US$ (95%CI 4.22; 9.70). In HIV-negative women, moderate shifts of variables such as malaria incidence, drug cost, and IPTp efficacy increased the ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold. In HIV-positive women the intervention remained cost-effective for a substantial (up to 21 times) increase in cost per tablet. Addition of IPTp with an effective antimalarial to CTXp was very cost-effective in HIV-positive women. IPTp with an efficacious antimalarial was more cost-effective than IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women. However, the poor tolerability of MQ does not favour its use as IPTp. Regardless of HIV status, prevention of malaria in pregnancy

  13. Economic Evaluation of an Alternative Drug to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Fernandes, Silke; Macete, Eusebio; González, Raquel; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Massougbodgi, Achille; Abdulla, Salim; Kuwawenaruwa, August; Katana, Abraham; Desai, Meghna; Cot, Michel; Ramharter, Michael; Kremsner, Peter; Slustker, Laurence; Aponte, John; Hanson, Kara; Menéndez, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended in HIV-negative women to avert malaria, while this relies on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) in HIV-positive women. Alternative antimalarials are required in areas where parasite resistance to antifolate drugs is high. The cost-effectiveness of IPTp with alternative drugs is needed to inform policy. Methods The cost-effectiveness of 2-dose IPTp-mefloquine (MQ) was compared with IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women (Benin, Gabon, Mozambique and Tanzania). In HIV-positive women the cost-effectiveness of 3-dose IPTp-MQ added to CTXp was compared with CTXp alone (Kenya, Mozambique and Tanzania). The outcomes used were maternal clinical malaria, anaemia at delivery and non-obstetric hospital admissions. The poor tolerability to MQ was included as the value of women’s loss of working days. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and threshold analysis undertaken. Results For HIV-negative women, the ICER for IPTp-MQ versus IPTp-SP was 136.30 US$ (2012 US$) (95%CI 131.41; 141.18) per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted, or 237.78 US$ (95%CI 230.99; 244.57), depending on whether estimates from Gabon were included or not. For HIV-positive women, the ICER per DALY averted for IPTp-MQ added to CTXp, versus CTXp alone was 6.96 US$ (95%CI 4.22; 9.70). In HIV-negative women, moderate shifts of variables such as malaria incidence, drug cost, and IPTp efficacy increased the ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold. In HIV-positive women the intervention remained cost-effective for a substantial (up to 21 times) increase in cost per tablet. Conclusions Addition of IPTp with an effective antimalarial to CTXp was very cost-effective in HIV-positive women. IPTp with an efficacious antimalarial was more cost-effective than IPTp-SP in HIV-negative women. However, the poor tolerability of MQ does not favour its use as IPTp. Regardless of HIV

  14. Malaria control strategies in French armed forces.

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Pradines, B; Michel, R; Aoun, O; Dia, A; Deparis, X; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 40,000 French soldiers deploy or travel through malaria-endemic areas. Despite the effective control measures that were successively implemented, malaria remains a public health concern in French armed forces with several important outbreaks and one lethal case every two years. This article describes the malaria control strategy in French armed forces which is based on three combined strategies: i) Anopheles vector control to prevent infection with the implementation of personal protection against vectors (PPAV) adapted to the field living conditions of the troops. ii) Chemoprophylaxis (CP) to prevent the disease based on prescription of effective and well tolerated doxycycline. iii) Management of cases through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent death. In isolated conditions in endemic areas, rapid diagnosis tests (RDT) are used as first-line tests by military doctors. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is based either on the piperaquine tetraphosphate-dihydroartemisinin association since 2013, or on the atovaquone-proguanil association. First-line treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria is based on IV artesunate. These measures are associated with constant education of the military, epidemiological surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of parasite chemosensitivity.

  15. Iron prevents the development of experimental cerebral malaria by attenuating CXCR3-mediated T cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Van Den Ham, Kristin M; Shio, Marina Tiemi; Rainone, Anthony; Fournier, Sylvie; Krawczyk, Connie M; Olivier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Previous studies have suggested that iron overload can suppress the generation of a cytotoxic immune response; however, the effect of iron on experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is yet unknown. Here we determined that the incidence of ECM was markedly reduced in mice treated with iron dextran. Protection was concomitant with a significant decrease in the sequestration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells within the brain. CD4+ T cells demonstrated markedly decreased CXCR3 expression and had reduced IFNγ-responsiveness, as indicated by mitigated expression of IFNγR2 and T-bet. Additional analysis of the splenic cell populations indicated that parenteral iron supplementation was also associated with a decrease in NK cells and increase in regulatory T cells. Altogether, these results suggest that iron is able to inhibit ECM pathology by attenuating the capacity of T cells to migrate to the brain.

  16. [Prediction and prevention of malaria epidemics in the valley of the Senegal River].

    PubMed

    Faye, O; Gaye, O; Konaté, L; Molez, J F; Feller-Dansokho, E; Hervé, J P

    1998-01-01

    The Sahel region has been suffering from severe drought for the last thirty years, with large deficits and a high degree of variability in the amount of annual rainfall. Agricultural production in the Sahelian zone of the Senegal River valley depends on the flooding of the river. The management of this flooding affects malaria transmission. The area is prone to malaria epidemics because the immunity level of the population is low. We studied epidemiological, meteorological and river level data to identify epidemic risk factors. We propose an epidemiological and managerial system for the early detection of risks and early intervention. This system is based mainly on the water level of the Senegal River and the early detection of unusual increases in the number of cases.

  17. An epidemiological study to assess Plasmodium falciparum parasite prevalence and malaria control measures in Burkina Faso and Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Aldiouma; Sié, Ali; Sirima, Sodiomon; Sylla, Khadime; Ndiaye, Mahmadou; Bountogo, Mamadou; Ouedraogo, Espérance; Tine, Roger; Ndiaye, Assane; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Ouedraogo, Alphonse; Faye, Babacar; Ba, El Hadji; Compaore, Guillaume; Tiono, Alfred; Sokhna, Cheikh; Yé, Maurice; Diarra, Amidou; Bahmanyar, Edith Roset; De Boer, Melanie; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Usuf, Effua Abigail

    2017-02-06

    Malariometric information is needed to decide how to introduce malaria vaccines and evaluate their impact in sub-Saharan African countries. This cross-sectional study (NCT01954264) was conducted between October and November, 2013, corresponding to the high malaria transmission season, in four sites with Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (DSS) [two sites with moderate-to-high malaria endemicity in Burkina Faso (Nouna and Saponé) and two sites with low malaria endemicity in Senegal (Keur Socé and Niakhar)]. Children (N = 2421) were randomly selected from the DSS lists of the study sites and were stratified into two age groups (6 months-4 years and 5-9 years). A blood sample was collected from each child to evaluate parasite prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and other Plasmodium species and gametocyte density by microscopy, and rapid diagnosis test in the event of fever within 24 h. Case report forms were used to evaluate malaria control measures and other factors. Plasmodium falciparum was identified in 707 (29.2%) children, with a higher prevalence in Burkina Faso than Senegal (57.5 vs 0.9% of children). In Burkina Faso, prevalence was 57.7% in Nouna and 41.9% in Saponé in the 6 months-4 years age group, and 75.4% in Nouna and 70.1% in Saponé in the 5-9 years age group. Infections with other Plasmodium species were rare and only detected in Burkina Faso. While mosquito nets were used by 88.6-97.0 and 64.7-80.2% of children in Burkina Faso and Senegal, other malaria control measures evaluated at individual level were uncommon. In Burkina Faso, exploratory analyses suggested that use of malaria treatment or any other medication within 14 days, and use of insecticide spray within 7 days decreased the prevalence of malaria infection; older age, rural residence, natural floor, grass/palm roof, and unavailability of electricity in the house were factors associated with increased malaria occurrence. Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in children

  18. Preventing the spread of malaria and dengue fever using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    James, Anthony A

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed.

  19. [Module approach to training medical parasitologists in the control and prevention of malaria].

    PubMed

    Astanina, S Iu; Beliaev, A E; Imamkuliev, K D; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I; Mironova, V A

    2013-01-01

    By using the training of medical parasitologists in malaria control, the authors unveil methods for teaching medical parasitology. In the context of a module approach in the additional professional education of physicians, they show how to arrange a teaching process whose goal is to provide a set of the professional competencies of trainees as a means of its achievement--the module construction of the content and structure of professional education.

  20. Preventing the Spread of Malaria and Dengue Fever Using Genetically Modified Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    James, Anthony A.

    2007-01-01

    In this candid interview, Anthony A. James explains how mosquito genetics can be exploited to control malaria and dengue transmission. Population replacement strategy, the idea that transgenic mosquitoes can be released into the wild to control disease transmission, is introduced, as well as the concept of genetic drive and the design criterion for an effective genetic drive system. The ethical considerations of releasing genetically-modified organisms into the wild are also discussed. PMID:18979028

  1. Malaria in Uganda: challenges to control on the long road to elimination. I. Epidemiology and current control efforts

    PubMed Central

    Yeka, Adoke; Gasasira, Anne; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Achan, Jane; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Nsobya, Sam; Staedke, Sarah G.; Donnelly, Martin J.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Talisuna, Ambrose; Dorsey, Grant; Kamya, Moses R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the leading health problems of the developing world, and Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease. Our understanding is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality from severe malaria all remain very high. Uganda has made progress in implementing key malaria control measures, in particular distribution of insecticide impregnated bednets, indoor residual spraying of insecticides, utilization of artemisinin-based combination therapy to treat uncomplicated malaria, and provision of intermittent preventive therapy for pregnant women. However, despite enthusiasm regarding the potential for the elimination of malaria in other areas, there is no convincing evidence that the burden of malaria has decreased in Uganda in recent years. Major challenges to malaria control in Uganda include very high malaria transmission intensity, inadequate health care resources, a weak health system, inadequate understanding of malaria epidemiology and the impact of control interventions, increasing resistance of parasites to drugs and of mosquitoes to insecticides, inappropriate case management, inadequate utilization of drugs to prevent malaria, and inadequate epidemic preparedness and response. Despite these challenges, prospects for the control of malaria have improved, and with attention to underlying challenges, progress toward the control of malaria in Uganda can be expected. PMID:21420377

  2. Can Timely Vector Control Interventions Triggered by Atypical Environmental Conditions Prevent Malaria Epidemics? A Case-Study from Wajir County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Peter; Harries, Anthony D.; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Noor, Abdisalan; Snow, Robert W.; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund; Zachariah, Rony; Allan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Atypical environmental conditions with drought followed by heavy rainfall and flooding in arid areas in sub-Saharan Africa can lead to explosive epidemics of malaria, which might be prevented through timely vector-control interventions. Objectives Wajir County in Northeast Kenya is classified as having seasonal malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to describe in Wajir town the environmental conditions, the scope and timing of vector-control interventions and the associated resulting burden of malaria at two time periods (1996–1998 and 2005–2007). Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive and ecological study using data collected for routine program monitoring and evaluation. Results In both time periods, there were atypical environmental conditions with drought and malnutrition followed by massive monthly rainfall resulting in flooding and animal/human Rift Valley Fever. In 1998, this was associated with a large and explosive malaria epidemic (weekly incidence rates peaking at 54/1,000 population/week) with vector-control interventions starting over six months after the massive rainfall and when the malaria epidemic was abating. In 2007, vector-control interventions started sooner within about three months after the massive rainfall and no malaria epidemic was recorded with weekly malaria incidence rates never exceeding 0.5 per 1,000 population per week. Discussion and Conclusion Did timely vector-control interventions in Wajir town prevent a malaria epidemic? In 2007, the neighboring county of Garissa experienced similar climatic events as Wajir, but vector-control interventions started six months after the heavy un-seasonal rainfall and large scale flooding resulted in a malaria epidemic with monthly incidence rates peaking at 40/1,000 population. In conclusion, this study suggests that atypical environmental conditions can herald a malaria outbreak in certain settings. In turn, this should alert responsible stakeholders about the

  3. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    from tertian malaria, which is the most dangerous from the epidemiological point of view since the main vectors in Turkmenistan, are highly susceptible to P. vivax infection. The particular dangerous phenomenon is the higher incidence of imported tertian malaria in rural areas where sick people and those who carry the parasite come into close contact with highly susceptible vectors. Thus, the risk that new malaria outbreaks will occur and the disease will become reestablished in the country is very high. It is also influenced by major changes in water use in the country, which have aggravated the mosquito situation. In the area around the Karakum canal and river basins, 17 large reservoirs have been constructed, with very extensive filtration ponds around them, which have become breeding ground's for malaria mosquitoes. There are 1219 water areas without any economic significance in the country, covering a total area of 1054 ha, which require regular treatment with insecticides. With assistance from the WHO European Regional Office, Dr. Guido Sabatinelli in particular, Turkmenistan has developed a plan for preventive malaria control measures for 1999-2001, which has been approved in a decree issued by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. The material support received has made it possible to provide large-scale prophylaxis for people who suffered from malaria in 1997-1999, seasonal treatment for people living near the active foci of the disease and interseasonal prophylaxis for people visiting these areas. Seasonal treatment with Dellaguil was made in 4,590 people living in the active foci of malaria infection, and 2,281 fixed-term military personnel belonging to the units stationed in the active foci of malaria infection. In all foci of infection, every person with malaria or carrying the parasite underwent epidemiological investigation and all cases were entered in health clinic records. In 1999, four seminars were held to train 75 specialists from all

  4. Malaria surveillance--United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen A; Arguin, Paul M

    2014-12-05

    infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 17% of cases, a decrease of 6 percentage points from 2011. Polymerase chain reaction testing determined or corrected the species for 45 (43%) of the 104 samples submitted for drug resistance testing. Of the 909 patients who reported purpose of travel, 604 (66%) were visiting friends or relatives (VFR). Among the 983 cases in U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 63 (6%) patients reported that they had followed and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-two cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only one adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 231 (14%) were classified as severe infections in 2012. Of these, six persons with malaria died in 2012. Beginning in 2012, there were 104 blood samples submitted to CDC that were tested for molecular markers associated with antimalarial drug resistance. Of the 65 P. falciparum-positive samples, 53 (82%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drug resistance, 61 (94%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 29 (45%) with chloroquine resistance, 1 (2%) with mefloquine drug resistance, 2 (3%) with atovaquone resistance, and none with artemisinin resistance. Despite the 12% decline in the number of cases reported in 2012 compared with 2011, the overall trend in malaria cases has been increasing since 1973. Although progress has been made in reducing the global burden of malaria, the disease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form increased slightly in 2012 compared with 2011, but still remains unacceptably low. This incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases and prevent infections. VFRs continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention

  5. Measuring, manipulating and exploiting behaviours of adult mosquitoes to optimise malaria vector control impact.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Gerry F; Marshall, John M; Kiware, Samson S; South, Andy B; Tusting, Lucy S; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nicodem J

    2017-03-01

    Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them. However, many of these behaviours that render vectors resilient to control with IRS and LLINs also make them vulnerable to some emerging new alternative interventions. Furthermore, vector control measures targeting preferred behaviours of mosquitoes often force them to express previously rare alternative behaviours, which can then be targeted with these complementary new interventions. For example, deployment of LLINs against vectors that historically fed predominantly indoors on humans typically results in persisting transmission by residual populations that survive by feeding outdoors on humans and animals, where they may then be targeted with vapour-phase insecticides and veterinary insecticides, respectively. So while the ability of mosquitoes to express alternative behaviours limits the impact of LLINs and IRS, it also creates measurable and unprecedented opportunities for deploying complementary additional approaches that would otherwise be ineffective. Now that more diverse vector control methods are finally becoming available, well-established entomological field techniques for surveying adult mosquito behaviours should be fully exploited by national malaria control programmes, to rationally and adaptively map out new opportunities for their effective deployment.

  6. Preventive health measures in volcanic eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, P J; Bernstein, R S; Buist, A S

    1986-01-01

    Medical treatment has only a small role in severe volcanic eruptions and so preventive measures are paramount if injuries and loss of life are to be reduced. The health team must be incorporated in emergency planning and response at the earliest stage. Guidance on the interpretation of geological information about a volcano and the appropriate health measures that should be adopted before and after an eruption are summarized for the benefit of health workers. PMID:3946731

  7. Effects of Training on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Malaria Prevention and Control among Community Role Model Care Givers in South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olalekan, Adebimpe W; Adebukola, Adebimpe M

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is endemic in Nigeria, with significant records of mortality and morbidity. Adequate community involvement is central to a successful implementation of malaria control programs. This study assessed the effects of a training programme on knowledge of malaria prevention and control among community role model care givers. A descriptive cross sectional study of a pre-and post-test design method was conducted among 400 eligible community members in Osun State. Training was given in the form of organized lectures, health education and practical demonstration sessions. Scores of pre-test and post-test conducted after four months interval were compared. Multistage sampling method was adopted in selecting study participants, while data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. Mean age was 43.8 (±1.4) years. Average knowledge score of cause, transmission, risk factors and consequences, awareness of common symptoms and preventive practices improved during post-training test when compared with pr-training test. The overall descriptive mean knowledge score in pre-test and post-test were 2.1 and 3.5 respectively out of an average maximum score of 5.0, giving an increment of 66.7%. Role model care givers with formal education were twice and three times more likely to know about disease 'transmission' (OR 1.9, 95%CI 0.11-0.19, p=0.002) and 'consequences' (OR 2.9, 95%CI 0.25-0.65, p=0.040) respectively compared to those without formal education. Training on malaria improved the knowledge of malaria prevention and control among role model community care givers towards a successful implementation of malaria control programmes.

  8. A malaria vaccine for travelers and military personnel: Requirements and top candidates.

    PubMed

    Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Lumsden, Joanne; Villasante, Eileen

    2015-12-22

    Malaria remains an important health threat to non-immune travelers with the explosive growth of global travel. Populations at high risk of acquiring malaria infections include once semi-immune travelers who visit friends and relatives, military forces, business travelers and international tourists with destinations to sub-Saharan Africa, where malaria transmission intensity is high. Most malaria cases have been associated with poor compliance with existing preventive measures, including chemoprophylaxis. High risk groups would benefit immensely from an efficacious vaccine to protect them against malaria infection and together make up a sizable market for such a vaccine. The attributes of an ideal malaria vaccine for non-immune travelers and military personnel include a protective efficacy of 80% or greater, durability for at least 6 months, an acceptable safety profile and compatibility with existing preventive measures. It is very likely that a malaria vaccine designed to effectively prevent infection and clinical disease in the non-immune traveler and military personnel will also protect semi-immune residents of malaria-endemic areas and contribute to malaria elimination by reducing or blocking malaria transmission. The RTS,S vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) and the PfSPZ Vaccine (Sanaria Inc) are the leading products that would make excellent vaccine candidates for these vulnerable populations.

  9. [Prophylaxis of malaria].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M; Caumes, E; Danis, M

    1992-01-01

    The prevention of malaria is based on chemoprophylaxis and protection against the vector. Nocturnal mosquito bites can be avoided by individual and collective measures, while chemoprophylaxis involves the use of various agents according to the place and duration of stay. Three endemic zones can be defined on the basis of chemoresistance. Chloroquine, proguanil and mefloquine are the three drugs used in this setting, the latter being contraindicated for pregnant women and children. Travellers making long stays in areas of low-level chemoresistance and short stays in areas of high-level resistance and for whom mefloquine is contraindicated are advised to take antimalarial drugs at the first signs of potentially malarial fever when medical care is unavailable. Quinine, halofantrine and mefloquine are used for the curative treatment of malaria in areas of chloroquine resistance.

  10. The current status and potential role of laboratory testing to prevent transfusion-transmitted malaria.

    PubMed

    Seed, Clive R; Kitchen, Alan; Davis, Timothy M E

    2005-07-01

    Malaria remains a rare but serious complication of transfusion because of the asymptomatic persistence of parasites in some donors. In nonendemic countries, the predominant strategy of deferral or cellular component discard from "risk" donors is effective in minimizing the incidence but is wasteful. In endemic countries where recipients are commonly immune, transfusion strategies focus on chemoprophylaxis for the donor and recipient or ensure that blood collected in highly endemic regions is not transfused to patients from areas of low endemicity. Donors implicated in transfusion-transmitted malaria are predominantly "semi-immune" with very low parasite loads. Their detection by even the most sensitive antigen or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays cannot be guaranteed and, in a number of cases, is unlikely because the infectious dose is estimated to be 1 to 10 parasites in a unit of blood. Retrospective analysis of implicated donors has confirmed the presence of high titer antibodies in such individuals. In regions of low immunity, serological assays offer an efficient method to identify such infectious donors. The recent development of enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) with improved sensitivity to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax , the predominant transfusion threats, has heightened the appeal of serological testing. Although universal serological screening in nonendemic regions is not cost-effective, targeted screening of donors identified at risk by travel-based questioning can significantly reduce wastage through reinstatement. Importantly, transfusion safety does not appear to be compromised by this approach as evidenced by the lack of a documented transmission in France between 1983 and September 2002, where such a strategy has been used since 1976. The development of automated protein microarray-based technology has the potential to further enhance antibody/antigen sensitivity; however, its application to donor screening is likely to be some years off

  11. [WHO's malaria program Roll Back Malaria].

    PubMed

    Myrvang, B; Godal, T

    2000-05-30

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the world with 300-500 millions cases yearly and about one million deaths, mainly children in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the 1990s the malaria problem in Africa has increased, although we have methods to control the disease. In 1998 the new secretary general of WHO, Gro Harlem Brundtland, established the Roll Back Malaria programme, with the aim to markedly reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Governments in malaria-affected countries have to take the lead in Roll Back Malaria. Their health systems must be improved and malaria control integrated into the general health system, and the methods available for prevention and treatment have to be intensified and improved. At the same time, Roll Back Malaria will encourage and promote malaria research which hopefully will result in new medicines, vaccines and other tools which will improve the chances of reducing malaria-related deaths and suffering. Roll Back Malaria is a cabinet project within the WHO, and the organisation has a key role as manager, co-ordinator and monitor of the project. However, it depends for resources on international support and commitment from other UN bodies, the World Bank, governments in the western world, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropists and other sources. At present an optimistic view prevails, and the preliminary aim, to halve the malaria mortality by the year 2010, seems realistic even with the control methods of today. However, if research efforts result in new and better tools to combat the disease, the task will definitely be easier.

  12. A Malaria Transmission-Blocking (+)-Usnic Acid Derivative Prevents Plasmodium Zygote-to-Ookinete Maturation in the Mosquito Midgut.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Mena, Rebecca; Mathias, Derrick K; Delves, Michael; Rajaram, Krithika; King, Jonas G; Yee, Rebecca; Trucchi, Beatrice; Verotta, Luisella; Dinglasan, Rhoel R

    2016-12-16

    The evolution of drug resistance is a recurrent problem that has plagued efforts to treat and control malaria. Recent emergence of artemisinin resistance in Southeast Asia underscores the need to develop novel antimalarials and identify new targetable pathways in Plasmodium parasites. Transmission-blocking approaches, which typically target gametocytes in the host bloodstream or parasite stages in the mosquito gut, are recognized collectively as a strategy that when used in combination with antimalarials that target erythrocytic stages will not only cure malaria but will also prevent subsequent transmission. We tested four derivatives of (+)-usnic acid, a metabolite isolated from lichens, for transmission-blocking activity against Plasmodium falciparum using the standard membrane feeding assay. For two of the derivatives, BT37 and BT122, we observed a consistent dose-response relationship between concentration in the blood meal and oocyst intensity in the midgut. To explore their mechanism of action, we used the murine model Plasmodium berghei and found that both derivatives prevent ookinete maturation. Using fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that in the presence of each compound zygote vitality was severely affected, and those that did survive failed to elongate and mature into ookinetes. The observed phenotypes were similar to those described for mutants of specific kinases (NEK2/NEK4) and of inner membrane complex 1 (IMC1) proteins, which are all vital to the zygote-to-ookinete transition. We discuss the implications of our findings and our high-throughput screening approach to identifying next generation, transmission-blocking antimalarials based on the scaffolds of these (+)-usnic acid derivatives.

  13. Coverage of intermittent prevention treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine among pregnant women and congenital malaria in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Vanga-Bosson, Henriette A; Coffie, Patrick A; Kanhon, Serge; Sloan, Caroline; Kouakou, Firmin; Eholie, Serge P; Kone, Moussa; Dabis, François; Menan, Hervé; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2011-04-29

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) to prevent malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on IPT-SP coverage and factors associated with placental malaria parasitaemia and low birth weight (LBW) are scarce in Côte d'Ivoire. A multicentre, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire from March to September 2008 at six urban and semi-urban antenatal clinics. Standardized forms were used to collect the demographic information and medical histories of women and their offspring. IPT-SP coverage (≥2 doses) as well as placental and congenital malaria prevalence parasitaemia were estimated. Regression logistics were used to study factors associated with placental malaria and LBW (birth weight of alive babies < 2,500 grams). Overall, 2,044 women with a median age of 24 years were included in this study. Among them 1017 (49.8%) received ≥2 doses of IPT-SP and 694 (34.0%) received one dose. A total of 99 mothers (4.8%) had placental malaria, and of them, four cases of congenital malaria were diagnosed. Factors that protected from maternal placental malaria parasitaemia were the use of one dose (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.32; 95%CI: 0.19-0.55) or ≥2 doses IPT-SP (aOR: 0.18; 95%CI: 0.10-0.32); the use of ITNs (aOR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.27-0.82). LBW was associated with primigravidity and placental malaria parasitaemia. IPT-SP decreases the rate of placental malaria parasitaemia and has a strong dose effect. Despite relatively successful IPT-SP coverage in Côte d'Ivoire, substantial commitments from national authorities are urgently required for such public health campaigns. Strategies, such as providing IPT-SP free of charge and directly observing treatment, should be implemented to increase the use of IPT-SP as well as other prophylactic methods.

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of falciparum malaria in China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hualiang; Lu, Liang; Tian, Linwei; Zhou, Shuisen; Wu, Haixia; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Qiyong

    2009-01-01

    Background Falciparum malaria is the most deadly among the four main types of human malaria. Although great success has been achieved since the launch of the National Malaria Control Programme in 1955, malaria remains a serious public health problem in China. This paper aimed to analyse the geographic distribution, demographic patterns and time trends of falciparum malaria in China. Methods The annual numbers of falciparum malaria cases during 1992–2003 and the individual case reports of each clinical falciparum malaria during 2004–2005 were extracted from communicable disease information systems in China Center for Diseases Control and Prevention. The annual number of cases and the annual incidence were mapped by matching them to corresponding province- and county-level administrative units in a geographic information system. The distribution of falciparum malaria by age, gender and origin of infection was analysed. Time-series analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the falciparum malaria in the endemic provinces and the imported falciparum malaria in non-endemic provinces. Results Falciparum malaria was endemic in two provinces of China during 2004–05. Imported malaria was reported in 26 non-endemic provinces. Annual incidence of falciparum malaria was mapped at county level in the two endemic provinces of China: Yunnan and Hainan. The sex ratio (male vs. female) for the number of cases in Yunnan was 1.6 in the children of 0–15 years and it reached 5.7 in the adults over 15 years of age. The number of malaria cases in Yunnan was positively correlated with the imported malaria of concurrent months in the non-endemic provinces. Conclusion The endemic area of falciparum malaria in China has remained restricted to two provinces, Yunnan and Hainan. Stable transmission occurs in the bordering region of Yunnan and the hilly-forested south of Hainan. The age and gender distribution in the endemic area is characterized by the predominance

  15. INSIGHTS INTO PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL EROSION

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Wiegand, Annette; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2009-01-01

    Dental erosion is defined as the loss of tooth substance by acid exposure not involving bacteria. The etiology of erosion is related to different behavioral, biological and chemical factors. Based on an overview of the current literature, this paper presents a summary of the preventive strategies relevant for patients suffering from dental erosion. Behavioral factors, such as special drinking habits, unhealthy lifestyle factors or occupational acid exposure, might modify the extent of dental erosion. Thus, preventive strategies have to include measures to reduce the frequency and duration of acid exposure as well as adequate oral hygiene measures, as it is known that eroded surfaces are more susceptible to abrasion. Biological factors, such as saliva or acquired pellicle, act protectively against erosive demineralization. Therefore, the production of saliva should be enhanced, especially in patients with hyposalivation or xerostomia. With regard to chemical factors, the modification of acidic solutions with ions, especially calcium, was shown to reduce the demineralization, but the efficacy depends on the other chemical factors, such as the type of acid. To enhance the remineralization of eroded surfaces and to prevent further progression of dental wear, high-concentrated fluoride applications are recommended. Currently, little information is available about the efficacy of other preventive strategies, such as calcium and laser application, as well as the use of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Further studies considering these factors are required. In conclusion, preventive strategies for patients suffering from erosion are mainly obtained from in vitro and in situ studies and include dietary counseling, stimulation of salivary flow, optimization of fluoride regimens, modification of erosive beverages and adequate oral hygiene measures. PMID:19274390

  16. Implementation of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy policy for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary AR; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. Aim To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Results Twenty-three (6.5%) pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5%) were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7%) pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high level of knowledge regarding malaria-preventive therapy in HIV-infected pregnant women. Lack of adequate supply of co-trimoxazole in health facilities and inadequate training of health care providers were among the factors

  17. A Non-Inferiority, Individually Randomized Trial of Intermittent Screening and Treatment versus Intermittent Preventive Treatment in the Control of Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tagbor, Harry; Cairns, Matthew; Bojang, Kalifa; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Kayentao, Kassoum; Williams, John; Abubakar, Ismaela; Akor, Francis; Mohammed, Khalifa; Bationo, Richard; Dabira, Edgar; Soulama, Alamissa; Djimdé, Moussa; Guirou, Etienne; Awine, Timothy; Quaye, Stephen; Njie, Fanta; Ordi, Jaume; Doumbo, Ogobara; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Meshnick, Steven; Taylor, Steve; Magnussen, Pascal; ter Kuile, Feiko; Woukeu, Arouna; Milligan, Paul; Chandramohan, Daniel; Greenwood, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) in pregnancy is threatened in parts of Africa by the emergence and spread of resistance to SP. Intermittent screening with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and treatment of positive women (ISTp) is an alternative approach. Methods and Findings An open, individually randomized, non-inferiority trial of IPTp-SP versus ISTp was conducted in 5,354 primi- or secundigravidae in four West African countries with a low prevalence of resistance to SP (The Gambia, Mali, Burkina Faso and Ghana). Women in the IPTp-SP group received SP on two or three occasions whilst women in the ISTp group were screened two or three times with a RDT and treated if positive for malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). ISTp-AL was non-inferior to IPTp-SP in preventing low birth weight (LBW), anemia and placental malaria, the primary trial endpoints. The prevalence of LBW was 15.1% and 15.6% in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.88, 1.22]). The mean hemoglobin concentration at the last clinic attendance before delivery was 10.97g/dL and 10.94g/dL in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (mean difference: -0.03 g/dL [95% CI: -0.13, +0.06]). Active malaria infection of the placenta was found in 24.5% and in 24.2% of women in the IPTp-SP and ISTp-AL groups respectively (OR = 0.95 [95% CI 0.81, 1.12]). More women in the ISTp-AL than in the IPTp-SP group presented with malaria parasitemia between routine antenatal clinics (310 vs 182 episodes, rate difference: 49.4 per 1,000 pregnancies [95% CI 30.5, 68.3], but the number of hospital admissions for malaria was similar in the two groups. Conclusions Despite low levels of resistance to SP in the study areas, ISTp-AL performed as well as IPTp-SP. In the absence of an effective alternative medication to SP for IPTp, ISTp-AL is a potential alternative to IPTp in areas where SP resistance is high. It may also

  18. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. Design A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Discussion Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement

  19. Improving educational achievement and anaemia of school children: design of a cluster randomised trial of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Okello, George; Njagi, Kiambo; Dubeck, Margaret M; Halliday, Katherine E; Inyega, Hellen; Jukes, Matthew C H

    2010-10-07

    Improving the health of school-aged children can yield substantial benefits for cognitive development and educational achievement. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the benefits of school-based malaria prevention or how health interventions interact with other efforts to improve education quality. This study aims to evaluate the impact of school-based malaria prevention and enhanced literacy instruction on the health and educational achievement of school children in Kenya. A factorial, cluster randomised trial is being implemented in 101 government primary schools on the coast of Kenya. The interventions are (i) intermittent screening and treatment of malaria in schools by public health workers and (ii) training workshops and support for teachers to promote explicit and systematic literacy instruction. Schools are randomised to one of four groups: receiving either (i) the malaria intervention alone; (ii) the literacy intervention alone; (iii) both interventions combined; or (iv) control group where neither intervention is implemented. Children from classes 1 and 5 are randomly selected and followed up for 24 months. The primary outcomes are educational achievement and anaemia, the hypothesised mediating variables through which education is affected. Secondary outcomes include malaria parasitaemia, school attendance and school performance. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussion and a stakeholder analysis will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Across Africa, governments are committed to improve health and education of school-aged children, but seek clear policy and technical guidance as to the optimal approach to address malaria and improved literacy. This evaluation will be one of the first to simultaneously evaluate the impact of health and education interventions in the improvement of educational achievement. Reflection is made on the

  20. Malaria surveillance--United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen A; Arguin, Paul M

    2013-11-01

    percentage points from 2010. Of the 871 patients who reported purpose of travel, 607 (70%) were visiting friends or relatives (VFR). Among the 929 cases in U.S. civilians for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 57 (6%) patients reported that they had followed and adhered to a chemoprophylactic drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-seven cases were reported in pregnant women, among whom only one adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, significantly more cases (n=275 [14%]) were classified as severe infections in 2011 compared with 2010 (n=183 [11%]; p=0.0018; chi square). Five persons with malaria died in 2011. After 2 years of improvement in completion of data elements on the malaria case form, higher percentages of incomplete data in 2011 for residential status (from 11% in 2010 to 19% in 2011) and species (from 18% in 2010 to 22% in 2011) were noted. The number of cases reported in 2011 marked the largest number of cases since 1971 (N = 3,180). Despite progress in reducing the global burden of malaria, the disease remains endemic in many regions, and the use of appropriate prevention measures by travelers is still inadequate. Completion of data elements on the malaria case report form decreased in 2011 compared with 2010. This incomplete reporting compromises efforts to examine trends in malaria cases and prevent infections. VFR travelers continue to be a difficult population to reach with effective malaria prevention strategies. Evidence-based prevention strategies that effectively target VFR travelers need to be developed and implemented to have a substantial impact on the numbers of imported malaria cases in the United States. Although more persons with cases reported taking chemoprophylaxis to prevent malaria, the majority reported not taking it, and adherence was poor among those who did take chemoprophylaxis. Proper use of malaria chemoprophylaxis will prevent the majority

  1. A rapid assessment approach for public health decision-making related to the prevention of malaria during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Parise, Monica E.; Lewis, Linda S.; Ayisi, John G.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Slutsker, Laurence; Muga, Richard; Sharif, S. K.; Hill, Jenny; Steketee, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a rapid field assessment methodology to address the burden of malaria during pregnancy and the options for intervening within the existing antenatal care system in Kenya. METHODS: Surveys consisting of questionnaires, sampling of blood for parasitaemia and anaemia, and birth outcome assessment were conducted in antenatal clinics, delivery units, and in the community in Kisumu and Mombasa, Kenya. FINDINGS: The rates of maternal anaemia and severe anaemia, were, respectively, 79% and 8% in Kisumu, and 95% and 24% in Mombasa. The rates of placental parasitaemia were 27% and 24% and the rates of low birth weight were 18% and 24% in Kisumu and Mombasa, respectively. Women with placental parasitaemia had a higher incidence of low birth weight compared with women without placental parasitaemia in both Kisumu (28% vs 16%, P=0.004) and Mombasa (42% vs 20%, P=0.004). A total of 95% and 98% of women in Kisumu and Mombasa, respectively, reported attending an antenatal clinic during their previous pregnancy. CONCLUSION: This methodology can be used by ministries of health to collect data for decision-making regarding malaria control during pregnancy; it can also provide a baseline measurement on which to evaluate subsequent interventions. PMID:12856049

  2. A rapid assessment approach for public health decision-making related to the prevention of malaria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Parise, Monica E; Lewis, Linda S; Ayisi, John G; Nahlen, Bernard L; Slutsker, Laurence; Muga, Richard; Sharif, S K; Hill, Jenny; Steketee, Richard W

    2003-01-01

    To develop a rapid field assessment methodology to address the burden of malaria during pregnancy and the options for intervening within the existing antenatal care system in Kenya. Surveys consisting of questionnaires, sampling of blood for parasitaemia and anaemia, and birth outcome assessment were conducted in antenatal clinics, delivery units, and in the community in Kisumu and Mombasa, Kenya. The rates of maternal anaemia and severe anaemia, were, respectively, 79% and 8% in Kisumu, and 95% and 24% in Mombasa. The rates of placental parasitaemia were 27% and 24% and the rates of low birth weight were 18% and 24% in Kisumu and Mombasa, respectively. Women with placental parasitaemia had a higher incidence of low birth weight compared with women without placental parasitaemia in both Kisumu (28% vs 16%, P=0.004) and Mombasa (42% vs 20%, P=0.004). A total of 95% and 98% of women in Kisumu and Mombasa, respectively, reported attending an antenatal clinic during their previous pregnancy. This methodology can be used by ministries of health to collect data for decision-making regarding malaria control during pregnancy; it can also provide a baseline measurement on which to evaluate subsequent interventions.

  3. Implications of Malaria On Iron Deficiency Control Strategies123

    PubMed Central

    Spottiswoode, Natasha; Fried, Michal; Drakesmith, Hal

    2012-01-01

    The populations in greatest need of iron supplementation are also those at greatest risk of malaria: pregnant women and young children. Iron supplementation has been shown to increase malaria risk in these groups in numerous studies, although this effect is likely diminished by factors such as host immunity, host iron status, and effective malaria surveillance and control. Conversely, the risk of anemia is increased by malaria infections and preventive measures against malaria decrease anemia prevalence in susceptible populations without iron supplementation. Studies have shown that subjects with malaria experience diminished absorption of orally administered iron, so that as a consequence, iron supplementation may have generally reduced efficacy in malarious populations. A possible mechanistic link between malaria, poor absorption of iron, and anemia is provided by recent research on hepcidin, the human iron control hormone. Our improved understanding of iron metabolism may contribute to the control of malaria and the treatment of anemia. Malaria surveillance and control are necessary components of programs to control iron deficiency and may enhance the efficacy of iron supplementation. PMID:22797994

  4. Childhood injury prevention: time for tougher measures.

    PubMed Central

    Pless, I B

    1996-01-01

    The publication in this issue of an article describing the fatal strangulation of two children on clothing drawstrings (see pages 1417 to 1419) coincides with National Child Day. This juxtaposition prompts the author to examine Canadian child health policy and practices in relation to injury prevention and product safety. The absence of a central body in Canada responsible for injury prevention may reflect the absence of advocacy groups concerned exclusively with the prevention of childhood injuries and stands in sharp contrast to the attention given to various "high-profile" but comparatively rare childhood diseases. In Canada, taking a firm regulatory or legislative approach to product safety appears to be the exception rather than the rule. Instead, we rely on product safety bulletins, the effectiveness of which has never been evaluated. The adoption of tougher measures would be facilitated by the establishment of a national centre for injury prevention and control. Such centres in the United States and Sweden have been successful and demonstrate that the creation of a Canadian body responsible for addressing the epidemic of accidental injury is long overdue. PMID:8943931

  5. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Negative Women: A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Accrombessi, Manfred; Aponte, John J.; Akerey-Diop, Daisy; Basra, Arti; Briand, Valérie; Capan, Meskure; Cot, Michel; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Kleine, Christian; Kremsner, Peter G.; Macete, Eusebio; Mackanga, Jean-Rodolphe; Massougbodgi, Achille; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Ramharter, Michael; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Vala, Anifa; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Menéndez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended by WHO to prevent malaria in African pregnant women. The spread of SP parasite resistance has raised concerns regarding long-term use for IPT. Mefloquine (MQ) is the most promising of available alternatives to SP based on safety profile, long half-life, and high efficacy in Africa. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of MQ for IPTp compared to those of SP in HIV-negative women. Methods and Findings A total of 4,749 pregnant women were enrolled in an open-label randomized clinical trial conducted in Benin, Gabon, Mozambique, and Tanzania comparing two-dose MQ or SP for IPTp and MQ tolerability of two different regimens. The study arms were: (1) SP, (2) single dose MQ (15 mg/kg), and (3) split-dose MQ in the context of long lasting insecticide treated nets. There was no difference on low birth weight prevalence (primary study outcome) between groups (360/2,778 [13.0%]) for MQ group and 177/1,398 (12.7%) for SP group; risk ratio [RR], 1.02 (95% CI 0.86–1.22; p = 0.80 in the ITT analysis). Women receiving MQ had reduced risks of parasitemia (63/1,372 [4.6%] in the SP group and 88/2,737 [3.2%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.70 [95% CI 0.51–0.96]; p = 0.03) and anemia at delivery (609/1,380 [44.1%] in the SP group and 1,110/2743 [40.5%] in the MQ group; RR, 0.92 [95% CI 0.85–0.99]; p = 0.03), and reduced incidence of clinical malaria (96/551.8 malaria episodes person/year [PYAR] in the SP group and 130/1,103.2 episodes PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.67 [95% CI 0.52–0.88]; p = 0.004) and all-cause outpatient attendances during pregnancy (850/557.8 outpatients visits PYAR in the SP group and 1,480/1,110.1 visits PYAR in the MQ group; RR, 0.86 [0.78–0.95]; p = 0.003). There were no differences in the prevalence of placental infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Tolerability was poorer in the two MQ groups compared to SP

  6. Transmission Risk from Imported Plasmodium vivax Malaria in the China-Myanmar Border Region.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duoquan; Li, Shengguo; Cheng, Zhibin; Xiao, Ning; Cotter, Chris; Hwang, Jimee; Li, Xishang; Yin, Shouqin; Wang, Jiazhi; Bai, Liang; Zheng, Zhi; Wang, Sibao

    2015-10-01

    Malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported Plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the China-Myanmar border. Malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response.

  7. User and Provider Acceptability of Intermittent Screening and Treatment and Intermittent Preventive Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; Achieng, Florence; Ouma, Peter; L’lanziva, Anne; Kariuki, Simon; Desai, Meghna; Webster, Jayne

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alongside long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) and case management for reducing the risks associated with malaria in pregnancy in areas of moderate-to-high transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Due to increasing Plasmodium falciparum resistance to SP, the search for alternative drugs or strategies to control malaria in pregnancy is a priority. We assessed the acceptability among pregnant women and health providers of intermittent screening and treatment (ISTp) and IPTp with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as alternative strategies in the context of an un-blinded clinical trial. Methods Qualitative data were collected through ten focus group discussions with women participating in a randomized controlled trial to evaluate ISTp or IPTp with DP (multi-day regimen) versus IPTp with SP (single dose) in western Kenya. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 health providers working in the trial facilities and trial staff. Results Women appreciated the advantages of being tested with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at every ANC visit (although a few women disliked finger pricks) and accepted that they would not receive any antimalarial when tested RDT-negative. There were differences in women’s experiences of the efficacy of antimalarials between the trial arms, with more women in the IPTp-SP arm reporting they had experienced malaria episodes. Side effects were experienced among women taking DP and SP. Although women and trial staff reported adherence to the full DP regimen within the trial, health providers were not confident that women would adhere to multi-day regimens in non-trial settings. Health providers recognized the advantages of ISTp in reducing unnecessary exposure to drugs, but lacked confidence in the reliability of RDTs compared to microscopy. Conclusions Our findings indicate that, within a

  8. Phagosomal Acidification Prevents Macrophage Inflammatory Cytokine Production to Malaria, and Dendritic Cells Are the Major Source at the Early Stages of Infection: IMPLICATION FOR MALARIA PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianzhu; Gowda, Nagaraj M; Gowda, D Channe

    2015-09-18

    Inflammatory cytokines produced at the early stages of malaria infection contribute to shaping protective immunity and pathophysiology. To gain mechanistic insight into these processes, it is important to understand the cellular origin of cytokines because both cytokine input and cytokine-producing cells play key roles. Here, we determined cytokine responses by monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) to purified Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and by spleen macrophages and DCs from Plasmodium yoelii 17NXL-infected and P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. The results demonstrate that monocytes and macrophages do not produce inflammatory cytokines to malaria parasites and that DCs are the primary source early in infection, and DC subsets differentially produce cytokines. Importantly, blocking of phagosomal acidification by inhibiting vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase enabled macrophages to elicit cytokine responses. Because cytokine responses to malaria parasites are mediated primarily through endosomal Toll-like receptors, our data indicate that the inability of macrophages to produce cytokines is due to the phagosomal acidification that disrupts endosomal ligand-receptor engagement. Macrophages efficiently produced cytokines to LPS upon simultaneously internalizing parasites and to heat-killed Escherichia coli, demonstrating that phagosomal acidification affects endosomal receptor-mediated, but not cell surface receptor-mediated, recognition of Toll-like receptor agonists. Enabling monocytes/macrophages to elicit immune responses to parasites by blocking endosomal acidification can be a novel strategy for the effective development of protective immunity to malaria. The results have important implications for enhancing the efficacy of a whole parasite-based malaria vaccine and for designing strategies for the development of protective immunity to pathogens that induce immune responses primarily through endosomal receptors.

  9. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices among foreign backpackers toward malaria risk in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Wattanagoon, Yupaporn; Silachamroon, Udomsak; Mansanguan, Chayasin; Wichianprasat, Pongdej; Walker, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is still prevalent in Southeast Asia where large numbers of backpackers visit each year. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices among foreign backpackers toward malaria risk in Southeast Asia. Questionnaires were administered to foreign backpackers in Bangkok, Thailand. They were asked about their general background, their attitude to malaria risk, and their preventive measures against malaria. Their knowledge about malaria was assessed by 10 true-false questions in the questionnaires. In total, 434 questionnaires were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of travelers were male and the median age was 28 years. The main reason for travel was tourism (91%). Almost all travelers (94%) were aware of the risk of malaria. Twenty-two percent of them would take antimalarial prophylaxis and 33% would use measures against mosquito bite, but nearly 40% had "no prevention" at all. Mean knowledge score was only 5.52 of 10. Most backpackers (92%) knew that malaria is a serious disease and sometime fatal and 74% knew that some travelers could develop malaria after they return. However, up to 35% believed that eating contaminated food could lead to malaria infection. And 49% believed that malaria could be 100% prevented by chemoprophylaxis. In backpackers, who had traveled in the forest (n = 65), only 54% used insect repellent regularly. Among those who had taken antimalarial prophylaxis, nearly 30% had stopped the medication prematurely. Although most backpackers perceive the risk of malaria in Southeast Asia, they have some misunderstandings about malaria and tend to comply poorly with mosquito bite prevention and chemoprophylactic strategies.

  10. The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious tropical disease that causes more than one million deaths each year, most of them in Africa. It is transmitted by a range of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of disease varies greatly across the continent. The "entomological inoculation rate" is the commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission, yet the methods used are currently not standardized, nor do they take the ecological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences across populations into account. To better understand the multiplicity of malaria transmission, this study examines the distribution of transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the range of methods used, and explores ecological parameters in selected locations. It builds on an extensive geo-referenced database and uses geographical information systems to highlight transmission patterns, knowledge gaps, trends and changes in methodologies over time, and key differences between land use, population density, climate, and the main mosquito species. The aim is to improve the methods of measuring malaria transmission, to help develop the way forward so that we can better assess the impact of the large-scale intervention programmes, and rapid demographic and environmental change taking place across Africa. PMID:19166589

  11. The multiplicity of malaria transmission: a review of entomological inoculation rate measurements and methods across sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2009-01-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious tropical disease that causes more than one million deaths each year, most of them in Africa. It is transmitted by a range of Anopheles mosquitoes and the risk of disease varies greatly across the continent. The "entomological inoculation rate" is the commonly-used measure of the intensity of malaria transmission, yet the methods used are currently not standardized, nor do they take the ecological, demographic, and socioeconomic differences across populations into account. To better understand the multiplicity of malaria transmission, this study examines the distribution of transmission intensity across sub-Saharan Africa, reviews the range of methods used, and explores ecological parameters in selected locations. It builds on an extensive geo-referenced database and uses geographical information systems to highlight transmission patterns, knowledge gaps, trends and changes in methodologies over time, and key differences between land use, population density, climate, and the main mosquito species. The aim is to improve the methods of measuring malaria transmission, to help develop the way forward so that we can better assess the impact of the large-scale intervention programmes, and rapid demographic and environmental change taking place across Africa.

  12. Malaria-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Khuu, Diana; Eberhard, Mark L; Bristow, Benjamin N; Javanbakht, Marjan; Ash, Lawrence R; Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified. Time trends in malaria cases were assessed using negative binomial regression. From 2000 to 2014, there were an estimated 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations (4.88 per 1 million population) in the United States, including 182 in-hospital deaths and 4,823 severe malaria cases. The rate of malaria-related hospitalizations did not change significantly over the study period. The largest number of malaria-related hospitalizations occurred in August. Malaria-related hospitalizations occurred disproportionately among patients who were male, black, or 25-44 years of age. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of malaria-related hospitalizations. On average, malaria patients were hospitalized for 4.36 days with charges of $25,789. Patients with a malaria diagnosis were more often hospitalized in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic census divisions, urban teaching, private not-for-profit, and large-bed-size hospitals. Malaria imposes a substantial disease burden in the United States. Enhanced primary and secondary prevention measures, including strategies to increase the use of pretravel consultations and prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed.

  13. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set forth in this section. In addition, you must have and implement a written SE prevention plan that is...

  14. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set forth in this section. In addition, you must have and implement a written SE prevention plan that is...

  15. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set forth in this section. In addition, you must have and implement a written SE prevention plan that is...

  16. A quantitative approach to recommendations on malaria prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Pappaioanou, M.; Lobel, H. O.; Campbell, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for malaria prophylaxis, a quantitative method is needed to balance the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections against the toxicity of antimalarial drugs. Using decision analysis, we estimated the expected mortality associated with three alternative regimens of prophylactic drugs for visitors to three areas with different risks of infection with chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. The model used took into account the risks of malaria and of adverse reactions to antimalarial drugs. Estimates of the parameters used in the analysis were based on observations made on U.S. travellers. Reducing the risk of malaria infection was found to have a far greater impact on lowering the expected mortality than that of increasing the chemoprophylactic efficacy of the drugs used, thereby emphasizing the need for travellers to use anti-mosquito measures in malarious areas. The analytical method described can be used to define optimal malaria prevention strategies. PMID:3048761

  17. Urbanization, malaria transmission and disease burden in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Snow, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to quantify Africa’s malaria burden but none has addressed how urbanization will affect disease transmission and outcome, and therefore mortality and morbidity estimates. In 2003, 39% of Africa’s 850 million people lived in urban settings; by 2030, 54% of Africans are expected to do so. We present the results of a series of entomological, parasitological and behavioural meta-analyses of studies that have investigated the effect of urbanization on malaria in Africa. We describe the effect of urbanization on both the impact of malaria transmission and the concomitant improvements in access to preventative and curative measures. Using these data, we have recalculated estimates of populations at risk of malaria and the resulting mortality. We find there were 1,068,505 malaria deaths in Africa in 2000 — a modest 6.7% reduction over previous iterations. The public-health implications of these findings and revised estimates are discussed. PMID:15608702

  18. Malaria Prevention, Mefloquine Neurotoxicity, Neuropsychiatric Illness, and Risk-Benefit Analysis in the Australian Defence Force

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Defence Force (ADF) has used mefloquine for malaria chemoprophylaxis since 1990. Mefloquine has been found to be a plausible cause of a chronic central nervous system toxicity syndrome and a confounding factor in the diagnosis of existing neuropsychiatric illnesses prevalent in the ADF such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Overall health risks appear to have been mitigated by restricting the drug's use; however serious risks were realised when significant numbers of ADF personnel were subjected to clinical trials involving the drug. The full extent of the exposure, health impacts for affected individuals, and consequences for ADF health management including mental health are not yet known, but mefloquine may have caused or aggravated neuropsychiatric illness in large numbers of patients who were subsequently misdiagnosed and mistreated or otherwise failed to receive proper care. Findings in relation to chronic mefloquine neurotoxicity were foreseeable, but this eventuality appears not to have been considered during risk-benefit analyses. Thorough analysis by the ADF would have identified this long-term risk as well as other qualitative risk factors. Historical exposure of ADF personnel to mefloquine neurotoxicity now also necessitates ongoing risk monitoring and management in the overall context of broader health policies. PMID:26793391

  19. Antiplasmodial marine natural products in the perspective of current chemotherapy and prevention of malaria: a review.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Dominique; Pietra, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The difficulty of obtaining an antimalarial vaccine along traditional lines, because of the highly adaptive character of the malaria parasite, prompts a ceaseless need for new drugs. To this end, marine organisms have been explored recently, as reviewed in this article within the perspective of clinically available antimalarial drugs and promising candidates. Most promising are tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-alpha]pyrimidinium, bis-indole, and C(11)-N(5) alkaloids from sponges; pyridoacridone and decahydroquinoline alkaloids from ascidians; and pyrrole alkaloids from fungi, as well as polycyclic polyketides, norditerpene, and polyketide endoperoxides, terpene isonitriles, and, particularly, mixed-biogenesis alpha-galactosyl ceramides from sponges. The first and the latter classes of agents best fulfill the requirements for combinatorial synthesis in providing a wide variety of compounds for high-throughput screening and toxicity tests. These results came largely from nonprofit organizations, a trend that we foresee will continue. However, partnership with the pharmaceutical industry was and is needed to bring candidate drugs to the clinic. In any event, success will not be achieved without political plans to make the results of technology easily available to poor populations.

  20. Malaria and Age Variably but Critically Control Hepcidin Throughout Childhood in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sarah H; Uyoga, Sophie M; Armitage, Andrew E; Khandwala, Shivani; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra K; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Kevin; Beeson, James G; Prentice, Andrew M; Drakesmith, Hal; Williams, Thomas N

    2015-10-01

    Both iron deficiency (ID) and malaria are common among African children. Studies show that the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is induced by malaria, but few studies have investigated this relationship longitudinally. We measured hepcidin concentrations, markers of iron status, and antibodies to malaria antigens during two cross-sectional surveys within a cohort of 324 Kenyan children ≤ 8 years old who were under intensive surveillance for malaria and other febrile illnesses. Hepcidin concentrations were the highest in the youngest, and female infants, declined rapidly in infancy and more gradually thereafter. Asymptomatic malaria and malaria antibody titres were positively associated with hepcidin concentrations. Recent episodes of febrile malaria were associated with high hepcidin concentrations that fell over time. Hepcidin concentrations were not associated with the subsequent risk of either malaria or other febrile illnesses. Given that iron absorption is impaired by hepcidin, our data suggest that asymptomatic and febrile malaria contribute to the high burden of ID seen in African children. Further, the effectiveness of iron supplementation may be sub-optimal in the presence of asymptomatic malaria. Thus, strategies to prevent and eliminate malaria may have the added benefit of addressing an important cause of ID for African children.

  1. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    PubMed

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O'Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-09-05

    There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI -6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive; fieldworkers found it more

  2. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Methods Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. Results A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI −6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive

  3. Comparative field evaluation of combinations of long-lasting insecticide treated nets and indoor residual spraying, relative to either method alone, for malaria prevention in an area where the main vector is Anopheles arabiensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are commonly used together in the same households to improve malaria control despite inconsistent evidence on whether such combinations actually offer better protection than nets alone or IRS alone. Methods Comparative tests were conducted using experimental huts fitted with LLINs, untreated nets, IRS plus untreated nets, or combinations of LLINs and IRS, in an area where Anopheles arabiensis is the predominant malaria vector species. Three LLIN types, Olyset®, PermaNet 2.0® and Icon Life® nets and three IRS treatments, pirimiphos-methyl, DDT, and lambda cyhalothrin, were used singly or in combinations. We compared, number of mosquitoes entering huts, proportion and number killed, proportions prevented from blood-feeding, time when mosquitoes exited the huts, and proportions caught exiting. The tests were done for four months in dry season and another six months in wet season, each time using new intact nets. Results All the net types, used with or without IRS, prevented >99% of indoor mosquito bites. Adding PermaNet 2.0® and Icon Life®, but not Olyset® nets into huts with any IRS increased mortality of malaria vectors relative to IRS alone. However, of all IRS treatments, only pirimiphos-methyl significantly increased vector mortality relative to LLINs alone, though this increase was modest. Overall, median mortality of An. arabiensis caught in huts with any of the treatments did not exceed 29%. No treatment reduced entry of the vectors into huts, except for marginal reductions due to PermaNet 2.0® nets and DDT. More than 95% of all mosquitoes were caught in exit traps rather than inside huts. Conclusions Where the main malaria vector is An. arabiensis, adding IRS into houses with intact pyrethroid LLINs does not enhance house-hold level protection except where the IRS employs non-pyrethroid insecticides such as pirimiphos-methyl, which can confer modest enhancements. In

  4. Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug-Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0033 TITLE: Identifying New Chemical Entities that Treat and Prevent Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum...Relapsing Vivax and Drug -Resistant Falciparum Malaria in U.S. Military Personnel 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0033 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...falciparum, P. cynomolgi, asexual blood stages, liver stages, high-throughput screen, drug assays, cell culture, transfection, green fluorescent

  5. Assessment of the impact of malaria on CD4+ T Cells and haemoglobin levels of HIV-malaria co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Daniel Nii Aryee; Boachie, Joseph

    2012-09-17

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria destroy important cells required for proper immunological and haematological functioning of the body. This research therefore aimed to assess the effect of malaria on CD4+ and haemoglobin (Hb) levels of HIV-malaria co-infected patients. The study was performed by sampling 220 adult HIV patients on highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) who routinely visited the Tema General Hospital in Ghana. Blood samples were obtained for both blood film microscopy identification of malaria parasites and analysis using rapid diagnostic test kits. A BD Facscount Analyzer was used in the quantification of CD4+ levels. Of the 220 patients sampled, 34 (15.5%) were HIV-malaria co-infected, all of whom (34; 100%) had CD4+ counts below the normal range, while 23 (12.9%) of the HIV mono-infected patients had normal CD4+ counts. Almost all HIV-malaria co-infected patients (33; 97.1%) had low Hb levels, whereas 79 (42.5%) of the HIV mono-infected patients had normal Hb. Malaria infection strongly correlated positively and significantly with both low CD4+ count (χ2 = 0.828, P = 0.003) and Hb (χ2 = 0.817, P = 0.004) levels. Malaria co-infection with HIV decreases CD4+ T cells and Hb levels in patients. It is therefore recommended that HIV patients in malaria endemic areas should adhere to malaria preventive measures.

  6. [Surgical smoke: risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Rodríguez, Hilario; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; García-López, Concepción

    2009-05-01

    The application of the advanced technologies in medicine has led to the appearance of new risk factors for health personnel. One of these could be the surgical smoke produced by electrosurgical instruments, ultrasounds or laser. However, there is still insufficient evidence in the published population studies on the detrimental effects of chronic exposure to surgical smoke. The main concern on the possible damage to the health of operating room staff is mainly based on the components currently detected until the date and laboratory experiments. Caution must also be used when extrapolating the results of in vitro studies to daily clinical practice. The organisations responsible for protecting the health of the workers in different countries have still not issued guidelines for the treatment and removal of the surgical smoke generated in both open and laparoscopic procedures. In this article we try to present a view of the consequences that surgical smoke has on health and the preventive measures that can be adopted.

  7. Efficacy of malaria prevention during pregnancy in an area of low and unstable transmission: an individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial using intermittent preventive treatment and insecticide-treated nets in the Kabale Highlands, southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Clarke, Siân E; Hutchison, Coll L; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Magnussen, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITN) are recommended malaria interventions during pregnancy; however, there is limited information on their efficacy in areas of low malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. An individually-randomised placebo-controlled trial involving 5775 women of all parities examined the effect of IPTp, ITNs alone, or ITNs used in combination with IPTp on maternal anaemia and low birth weight (LBW) in a highland area of southwestern Uganda. The overall prevalence of malaria infection, maternal anaemia and LBW was 15.0%, 14.7% and 6.5%, respectively. Maternal and fetal outcomes were generally remarkably similar across all intervention groups (P>0.05 for all outcomes examined). A marginal difference in maternal haemoglobin was observed in the dual intervention group (12.57g/dl) compared with the IPTp and ITN alone groups (12.40g/dl and 12.44g/dl, respectively; P=0.04), but this was too slight to be of clinical importance. In conclusion, none of the preventive strategies was found to be superior to the others, and no substantial additional benefit to providing both IPTp and ITNs during routine antenatal services was observed. With ITNs offering a number of advantages over IPTp, yet showing comparable efficacy, we discuss why ITNs could be an appropriate preventive strategy for malaria control during pregnancy in areas of low and unstable transmission. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

  8. Indoor Residual Spraying Delivery Models to Prevent Malaria: Comparison of Community- and District-Based Approaches in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Benjamin; Yihdego, Yemane Yeebiyo; Kolyada, Lena; Dengela, Dereje; Chibsa, Sheleme; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; George, Kristen; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Lucas, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention has traditionally been implemented in Ethiopia by the district health office with technical and operational inputs from regional, zonal, and central health offices. The United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia tested the effectiveness and efficiency of integrating IRS into the government-funded community-based rural health services program. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, PMI conducted a mixed-methods study in 11 districts of Oromia region to compare district-based IRS (DB IRS) and community-based IRS (CB IRS) models. In the DB IRS model, each district included 2 centrally located operational sites where spray teams camped during the IRS campaign and from which they traveled to the villages to conduct spraying. In the CB IRS model, spray team members were hired from the communities in which they operated, thus eliminating the need for transport and camping facilities. The study team evaluated spray coverage, the quality of spraying, compliance with environmental and safety standards, and cost and performance efficiency. Results: The average number of eligible structures found and sprayed in the CB IRS districts increased by 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively, between 2012 (before CB IRS) and 2013 (during CB IRS). Between 2013 and 2014, the numbers increased by about 14%. In contrast, in the DB IRS districts the number of eligible structures found increased by only 8.1% between 2012 and 2013 and by 0.4% between 2013 and 2014. The quality of CB IRS operations was good and comparable to that in the DB IRS model, according to wall bioassay tests. Some compliance issues in the first year of CB IRS implementation were corrected in the second year, bringing compliance up to the level of the DB IRS model. The CB IRS model had, on average, higher amortized costs per district than the DB IRS model but lower unit costs per structure sprayed and per

  9. The influence of cultural perception of causation, complications, and severity of childhood malaria on determinants of treatment and preventive pathways.

    PubMed

    Falade, Catherine O; Ogundiran, Moradeke O; Bolaji, Mark O; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Akinboye, Dora O; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Adeniyi, Joshua D; Oduola, A M J

    A cluster sample of 2,052 mothers and other caregivers of children from southwest Nigeria was studied. Qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed, including semi-structured questionnaires, focus groups, in-depth interviews, and parasitological investigation forms/blood smears. "Too much work" (17.7%) and "too much sun" (12.6%) were the two most-often mentioned causes of malaria. Malaria was not perceived as a serious disease. Convulsions and anemia are not perceived as complications of malaria and are preferentially treated by traditional healers. Fifty-eight and one-half percent of children with malaria were treated at home. Choice of drugs used was based on previous experience and advice from various members of the community. Fathers (53.5%) and mother (32.5%) decided on where ill children received treatment. Mothers (51.5%) paid for the drugs more often than fathers (44.6%). Symptoms described as "iba lasan," which means "ordinary fever," conform to the clinical case definition of malaria. Cultural practices that are likely to influence appropriate treatment-seeking include cultural perception of malaria as ordinary fever, wrong perceptions of severe malaria, and father's role as decision maker.

  10. Efficacy and safety of the mosquitocidal drug ivermectin to prevent malaria transmission after treatment: a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, André Lin; Bastiaens, Guido J H; Tiono, Alfred B; Guelbéogo, Wamdaogo M; Kobylinski, Kevin C; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Barry, Aïssata; Bougouma, Edith C; Nebie, Issa; Ouattara, Maurice San; Lanke, Kjerstin H W; Fleckenstein, Lawrence; Sauerwein, Robert W; Slater, Hannah C; Churcher, Thomas S; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Drakeley, Chris; Bousema, Teun

    2015-02-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy effectively clears asexual malaria parasites and immature gametocytes but does not prevent posttreatment malaria transmission. Ivermectin (IVM) may reduce malaria transmission by killing mosquitoes that take blood meals from IVM-treated humans. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 120 asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasite carriers were randomized to receive artemether-lumefantrine (AL) plus placebo or AL plus a single or repeated dose (200 µg/kg) of ivermectin (AL-IVM1 and AL-IVM2, respectively). Mosquito membrane feeding was performed 1, 3, and 7 days after initiation of treatment to determine Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus survival and infection rates. The AL-IVM combination was well tolerated. IVM resulted in a 4- to 7-fold increased mortality in mosquitoes feeding 1 day after IVM (P < .001). Day 7 IVM plasma levels were positively associated with body mass index (r = 0.57, P < .001) and were higher in female participants (P = .003), for whom An. gambiae mosquito mortality was increased until 7 days after a single dose of IVM (hazard rate ratio, 1.34 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.69]; P = .012). Although we found no evidence that IVM reduced Plasmodium infection rates among surviving mosquitoes, the mosquitocidal effect of AL-IVM1 and AL-IVM2 resulted in 27% and 35% reductions, respectively, in estimated malaria transmission potential during the first week after initiation of treatment. We conclude that IVM can be safely given in combination with AL and can reduce the likelihood of malaria transmission by reducing the life span of feeding mosquitoes. NCT0160325. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

  12. Establishing communication mechanism for malaria prevention in Baiga tribal villages in Baiga Chak area of Dindori district, Madhya Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Saha, Kalyan B; Sharma, Ravendra K; Mishra, Rajdeep; Verma, Arvind; Tiwari, B K; Singh, Neeru

    2015-05-01

    Malaria is a serious public health concern in several parts of India, particularly in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh (MP). Dindori district inhabitated by Baiga tribe, contributes about 15 per cent to the total malaria burden in MP. The tribal and other local inhabitants believe in magico-religious treatment of malaria and use modern health facilities only as second line of treatment. The present study was planned in the villages of one of the particularly vulnerable tribal group of MP, the Baigas. The objective of the study was to generate awareness and utilization of health services for malaria by establishing a communication strategy using local students and unemployed youths as agents of change. The study was undertaken in 47 villages and the need based IEC (information, education and communication) intervention was evaluated within four months of initiation by adopting before and after with control design. For both baseline and resurvey the households covered each time were 2350. The baseline data generated revealed that around 53 per cent of the people in the study villages were aware of malaria. Among the non Baigas, 59 per cent were aware of malaria, while among the Baigas it was 49 per cent. IEC intervention could raise the level of awareness to malaria significantly with a net intervention effect of 23 per cent. The IEC intervention also improved the utilization of modern health services significantly. The IEC strategy designed by using local children and youths was effective as the malaria was on decline in the study area. The same strategy with necessary modifications may be replicated in other areas pandemic for malaria.

  13. Mothers’ understanding of childhood malaria and practices in rural communities of Ise-Orun, Nigeria: implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Kemisola Stella

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Regular evaluations of communities’ understanding of malaria-related practices are essential for control of the disease in endemic areas. This study was aimed at investigating the perceptions, prevention and treatments practices for childhood malaria by mothers in rural communities. Materials and Methods: We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study at rural communities of Ise-Orun local Government area, Nigeria. We randomly sampled 422 mothers of children less than 5 years and administered a validated questionnaire to assess their perceptions and practices relating to childhood malaria. We used a 10-point scale to assess perception and classified it as good (≥5) or poor (<5). Predictive factors for poor perceptions were identified using logistic regression. Results: Approximately 51% of the mothers had poor perception and 14.2% ascribed malaria illness to mosquito bite only. Majority (85.8%) of the mothers practiced malaria preventive measures, including: Insecticide treated nets (70.0%), chemoprophylaxis (20.1%) and environmental sanitation (44.8%). Of the 200 mothers whose children had malaria fever within the 3 months prior to the study visits, home treatment was adopted by 87.5%. Local herbal remedies were combined with orthodox medicine in the treatments of malaria for 91.5% of the children. The main reasons for not seeking medical treatment at existing formal health facilities were “high cost”, “challenges of access to facilities” and “mothers’ preference for herbal remedies”. Lack of formal education was the only independent predictor of poor malaria perceptions among mothers (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.12). Conclusions: Considerable misconceptions about malaria exist among mothers in the rural communities. The implications for malaria control in holoendemic areas are highlighted. PMID:25949972

  14. Exploring the relationship between malaria, rainfall intermittency, and spatial variation in rainfall seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkord, C. L.; Wimberly, M. C.; Henebry, G. M.; Senay, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem throughout tropical regions of the world. Successful prevention and treatment of malaria requires an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the life cycle of both the malaria pathogens, protozoan parasites, and its vectors, anopheline mosquitos. Because the egg, larval, and pupal stages of mosquito development occur in aquatic habitats, information about the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall is critical for modeling malaria risk. Potential sources of hydrological data include satellite-derived rainfall estimates (TRMM and GPM), evapotranspiration derived from a simplified surface energy balance, and estimates of soil moisture and fractional water cover from passive microwave imagery. Previous studies have found links between malaria cases and total monthly or weekly rainfall in areas where both are highly seasonal. However it is far from clear that monthly or weekly summaries are the best metrics to use to explain malaria outbreaks. It is possible that particular temporal or spatial patterns of rainfall result in better mosquito habitat and thus higher malaria risk. We used malaria case data from the Amhara region of Ethiopia and satellite-derived rainfall estimates to explore the relationship between malaria outbreaks and rainfall with the goal of identifying the most useful rainfall metrics for modeling malaria occurrence. First, we explored spatial variation in the seasonal patterns of both rainfall and malaria cases in Amhara. Second, we assessed the relative importance of different metrics of rainfall intermittency, including alternation of wet and dry spells, the strength of intensity fluctuations, and spatial variability in these measures, in determining the length and severity of malaria outbreaks. We also explored the sensitivity of our results to the choice of method for describing rainfall intermittency and the spatial and temporal scale at which metrics were calculated. Results

  15. Suppression of transmission of malaria through source reduction: antianopheline measures applied in Israel, the United States, and Italy.

    PubMed

    Kitron, U; Spielman, A

    1989-01-01

    To provide a conceptual basis applicable to future antimalarial efforts, we sought to identify the sources of success in three notable campaigns that were consummated largely before DDT became available. A variety of measures directed against the aquatic stages of the anopheline vectors provided the main strategy for the antimalarial programs in Palestine/Israel, Italy, and the Tennessee River Valley of the United States. Source reduction-the modification or elimination of aquatic habitats to reduce mosquito breeding-was applied extensively and proved decisive. In all three regions, transmission of malaria was reduced to the point of extinction. Effective measures against anopheline larvae, in particular through source reduction, depend upon locally derived ecologic concepts that can be adapted to each vector species and applied continuously without limit of time. An integrated control program based on the long-term application of such measures can suppress transmission of malaria in edemic areas, as well as contain episodes of locally increased transmission of malaria.

  16. Factoring quality laboratory diagnosis into the malaria control agenda for sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Aidoo, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Recent progress in malaria control in sub-Saharan Africa has been achieved primarily through provision of insecticide-treated nets, indoor residual spraying, and antimalarial drugs. Although these interventions are important, proper case identification and accurate measurement of their impact depend on quality diagnostic testing. Current availability of diagnostic testing for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is inadequate to support disease management, prevention programs, and surveillance needs. Challenges faced include a dearth of skilled workforce, inadequate health systems infrastructure, and lack of political will. A coordinated approach to providing pre-service clinical and laboratory training together with systems that support a scale-up of laboratory services could provide means not only for effective malaria case management but also, management of non-malaria febrile illnesses, disease surveillance, and accurate control program evaluation. A synthesis of the challenges faced in ensuring quality malaria testing and how to include this information in the malaria control and elimination agenda are presented.

  17. Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies.

    PubMed

    Nájera, J A

    2001-06-01

    Even if history has not always been the Magistra vitae, Cicero expected it to be, it should provide, as Baas said, a mirror in which to observe and compare the past and present in order to draw therefrom well-grounded conclusions for the future. Based on this belief, this paper aims to provide an overview of the foundations and development of malaria control policies during the XX century. It presents an analysis of the conflicting tendencies which shaped the development of these policies and which appear to have oscillated between calls for frontal attack in an all-out campaign and calls for sustainable gains, even if slow. It discusses the various approaches to the control of malaria, their achievements and their limitations, not only to serve as a background to understand better the foundations of current policies, but also to prevent that simplistic generalisations may again lead to exaggerated expectations and disillusion. The first part of the paper is devoted to the development of malaria control during the first half of the century, characterised by the ups and downs in the reliance on mosquito control as the control measure applicable everywhere. The proliferation of "man-made-malaria", which accompanied the push for economic development in most of the endemic countries, spurred the need for control interventions and, while great successes were obtained in many specific projects, the general campaigns proposed by the enthusiasts of vector control faced increasing difficulties in their practical implementation in the field. Important events, which may be considered representative of this period are, on the campaign approach, the success of Gorgas in the Panama Canal, but also the failure of the Mian Mir project in India; while on the developmental approach, the Italian and Dutch schools of malariology, the Tennessee Valley and the development of malaria sanitation, included the so called species sanitation. The projection of these developments to a global

  18. [Current malaria situation and its control in Tadjikistan].

    PubMed

    Aliev, S; Saparova, N

    2001-01-01

    contact insecticides, mass preventive treatment with primaquine, and on the diagnosis of radical treatment of all identified malaria patients. The application of these preventive, therapeutical and vector control measures, together with an improvement in organization, resulted in a more than 2-fold fall in the incidence over 2 years (29,794, 19,351, and 13,493 cases in 1997, 1998, and 1999, respectively). The malaria control measures taken in the country in such a short period yielded positive results. A further reduction in the incidence of malaria and in the number of foci in Tajikistan can be achieved. Work towards this end should be systemic and goal-oriented by using a scientifically grounded and adequate range of prevention and control measures within the framework of the National Tropical Disease (Malaria) Control Programme and WHO "Roll Back Malaria" Programme. Improvements in parasitological service, tropical disease control centers and general health care network should form the basis of any future implementation of malaria control measures in the country at a regional level; monitoring the local malaria situation should be planned by constantly and qualitatively assessing the measures being implemented. It is very important to develop a system for preventing the spread of malaria throughout the country and its importation from foreign countries.

  19. Targeting Neutrophils to Prevent Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soeiro-Pereira, Paulo V.; Gomes, Eliane; Neto, Antonio Condino; D' Império Lima, Maria R.; Alvarez, José M.; Portugal, Silvia; Epiphanio, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the greatest burdens to global health, causing nearly 500,000 deaths in 2014. When manifesting in the lungs, severe malaria causes acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). We have previously shown that a proportion of DBA/2 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) develop ALI/ARDS and that these mice recapitulate various aspects of the human syndrome, such as pulmonary edema, hemorrhaging, pleural effusion and hypoxemia. Herein, we investigated the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS. Mice developing ALI/ARDS showed greater neutrophil accumulation in the lungs compared with mice that did not develop pulmonary complications. In addition, mice with ALI/ARDS produced more neutrophil-attracting chemokines, myeloperoxidase and reactive oxygen species. We also observed that the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and PbA induced the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) ex vivo, which were associated with inflammation and tissue injury. The depletion of neutrophils, treatment with AMD3100 (a CXCR4 antagonist), Pulmozyme (human recombinant DNase) or Sivelestat (inhibitor of neutrophil elastase) decreased the development of malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and significantly increased mouse survival. This study implicates neutrophils and NETs in the genesis of experimentally induced malaria-associated ALI/ARDS and proposes a new therapeutic approach to improve the prognosis of severe malaria. PMID:27926944

  20. Prioritizing areas for malaria control using geographical information system in Sonitpur district, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Nath, M J; Bora, A K; Yadav, K; Talukdar, P K; Dhiman, S; Baruah, I; Singh, L

    2013-06-01

    To identify the malaria hot spots at health subcentre level in an endemic district using a geographical information system (GIS). The results will be useful for rapid retrieval of malaria information, and to prioritize malaria control efforts in identified hot spots. Extraction, analysis and synthesis of relevant data. Malaria epidemiological data from 2006 to 2009 were analysed to determine the annual parasitic index, slide positivity rate, annual blood examination rate and Plasmodium falciparum percentage for each health subcentre in the district. Maps were produced using GIS, and integrated to identify the malaria hotspots. Out of 288 health subcentres, GIS identified 10 hot spots at extremely high risk of malaria and 14 hot spots at high risk of malaria. Malaria may flare up in these hot spots whenever favourable transmission conditions arise. Health authorities have been advised to establish control measures in these selected hot spots for timely prevention. There is a need for adequate monitoring and allocation of available resources for better interventions in the malaria hotspots. The GIS model used in this study can be used, even at village or cluster level, to pin point the malaria hot spots, and information can be updated and retrieved easily. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of different nitric oxide-based strategies in preventing experimental cerebral malaria by Plasmodium berghei ANKA.

    PubMed

    Martins, Yuri C; Zanini, Graziela M; Frangos, John A; Carvalho, Leonardo J M

    2012-01-01

    Low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability plays a role in the pathogenesis of human as well as of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). ECM is partially prevented by administration of the NO-donor dipropylenetriamine NONOate (DPTA-NO) at high concentration (1 mg/mouse), which also induces major side effects such as a sharp drop in blood pressure. We asked whether alternative strategies to improve NO bioavailability with minor side effects would also be effective in preventing ECM. Mice were infected with PbA and prophylactically treated twice a day with bolus injections of L-arginine, Nω-hydroxy-nor-Arginine (nor-NOHA), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), separately or combined, sodium nitrite, sildenafil or sildenafil plus DPTA-NO starting on day 0 of infection. L-arginine and BH4 supplementation, with or without arginase inhibition by nor-NOHA, increased plasma nitrite levels but failed to protect against ECM development. Accordingly, prophylactic treatment with continuous delivery of L-arginine using osmotic pumps also did not improve survival. Similar outcomes were observed with sodium nitrite sildenafil (aimed at inhibiting phosphodiesterase-5) or with DPTA-NO. However, sildenafil (0.1 mg/mouse) in combination with a lower dose (0.1 mg/mouse) of DPTA-NO decreased ECM incidence (82 ± 7.4% mortality in the saline group and 38 ± 10.6% in the treated group; p<0.05). The combined prophylactic therapy did not aggravate anemia, had delayed effects in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and induced lower effects in pulse pressure when compared to DPTA-NO 1 mg/mouse. These data show that sildenafil lowers the amount of NO-donor needed to prevent ECM, resulting also in lesser side effects. Prophylactic L-arginine when given in bolus or continuous delivery and bolus BH4 supplementation, with or without arginase inhibition, were able to increase NO bioavailability in PbA-infected mice but failed to decrease ECM incidence in

  2. Safety measures for prevention of PCB accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Pajari, J

    1985-01-01

    This paper attempts to clarify the most common measures available for the fire and electrical engineer in the prevention of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) hazards. It points out the risks and the potential for making large risks involved in the use of transformers and capacitors more manageable. The focus in solving the PCB problem is on priority. This should be reflected in the agenda of the workshop: it should discuss not only transformers and capacitors as such, but deal more with questions concerning waste disposal, getting correct information to people on substances containing PCBs and on the proper and nonpanicky handling of such substances. The PCB issue does not lend itself to any black and white solution. Instead, a number of different aspects have to be taken into account. Any solutions arrived at are therefore always compromises between risk evaluation and cost effectiveness. Reduction of PCB risks does not have to result, for example, in an increase in fire risks. It is preferable to move step by step and avoid making irretractable decisions. Alternatives available for replacing PCB-filled devices or the widely used method of refilling PCB-filled transformers with silicone oils are not discussed. Refilling is not dealt with because its capacity to reduce the fire risk sufficiently in locations where these transformers are usually found in northern Europe is not known with certainty. PMID:3928364

  3. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-02-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry.

  4. [Low-intensity laser radiation in preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Ushkova, I N; Nal'kova, N Yu; Chernushevich, N I; Popov, A V; Kochetova, O A

    2013-01-01

    Results of preventive measures introduction in 524 PC users, 98 jewelry polishers and 64 metallic ship hull assemblers are given. The use of preventive measures, based on low-intensity laser radiation, was shown to prevent development of visual overfatigue and occupational musculoskeletal system diseases.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice on malaria: a study in a tribal belt of Orissa state, India with reference to use of long lasting treated mosquito nets.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, K N; Gunasekaran, K; Sahu, S S; Jambulingam, P

    2009-11-01

    Local knowledge and practice related to malaria is important for the implementation of culturally appropriate, sustainable and effective interventions. In this context, to know people's knowledge, attitude and practice on malaria and its prevention, a study was carried out in two districts viz., Malkangiri and Koraput of Orissa state in India, the former with ongoing insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs) programme and the latter without such programme (non-ITNs). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used for data collection. The local concepts used for malaria describe only the biomedical symptoms of the disease although a few by meaning in local language reflect people's misconceptions about the cause of malaria. About 63% of the respondents mentioned mosquito bite as the cause for this disease and 65% considered malaria as a serious problem. Qualitative data showed that people from remote villages seek treatment from traditional healers, Disharis. About 64% of the respondents stated that avoiding mosquito bites could prevent malaria. Majority (99%) of the people reported using personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites. Although, majority of the people were aware of the cause and prevention of malaria (about 70% stated sleeping under mosquito net prevents malaria), a sizable proportion still had misconceptions and hence appropriate communication strategies should be developed and imparted alongside ITNs/LLINs distribution for a behaviour change to adopt such preventive measures. Since, the tribes are habituated to seek treatment from traditional healers; they could be involved in motivating people to use ITNs/LLINs to protect from mosquito bites and malaria.

  6. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  7. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  8. Evaluation of the effectiveness and compliance of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) in the control of malaria in pregnant women in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M

    2011-12-01

    Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X(2) = 39·95; P<0·05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding.

  9. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, F.; Steele, P.; Perera, D.; van der Hoek, W.; Amerasinghe, P. H.; Amerasinghe, F. P.

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the householders, and further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of the various preventive measures. PMID:10327708

  10. Worker Retrenchment: Preventive and Remedial Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Klock, Christine; Kelly, Peggy; Richards, Peter; Vargha, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the range of responses taken in industrialized countries seeking to deal with substantial worker displacement. Practices discussed include preventive subsidies, buyouts, retraining, job-search assistance, job creation, local and regional development, and local enterprise development. (Author/JOW)

  11. Do malaria vector control measures impact disease-related behaviour and knowledge? Evidence from a large-scale larviciding intervention in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C

    2013-11-15

    Recent efforts of accelerated malaria control towards the long-term goal of elimination had significant impacts in reducing malaria transmission. While these efforts need to be sustained over time, a scenario of low transmission could bring about changes in individual disease risk perception, hindering adherence to protective measures, and affecting disease-related knowledge. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential impact of a successful malaria vector control intervention on bed net usage and malaria-related knowledge. Dar es Salaam's Urban Malaria Control Program was launched in 2004 with the aim of developing a sustainable larviciding intervention. Larviciding was scaled-up using a stepped-wedge design. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were collected using a randomized cluster sampling design (2004-2008). Prevalence ratios (PR) for the effect of the larviciding intervention on bed net usage (N = 64,537) and household heads' knowledge of malaria symptoms and transmission (N = 11,254) were obtained from random effects regression models. The probability that individuals targeted by larviciding had used a bed net was reduced by 5% as compared to those in non-intervention areas (PR = 0.95; 95% credible intervals (CrI): 0.94-0.97) and the magnitude of this effect increased with time. Larviciding also led to a decline in household heads' knowledge of malaria symptoms (PR = 0.88; 95% CrI: 0.83-0.92) but no evidence of effect on knowledge of malaria transmission was found. Successful control interventions could bring about further challenges to sustaining gains in reducing malaria transmission if not accompanied by strategies to avoid changes in individual knowledge and behaviour. This study points to two major research gaps. First, there is an urgent need to gather more evidence on the extent to which countries that have achieved significant decline in malaria transmission are also observing changes in individual behaviour and knowledge. Second

  12. Malaria vaccine: the pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Saleh, J A; Yusuph, H; Zailani, S B; Aji, B

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is an important parasitic disease of humans caused by infection with a parasite of the genus Polasmodium and transmitted by female anopheles. Infection caused by P. falciparum is the most serious of all the other species (P. ovale, P. vivax and P. malariae) especially in terms of morbidity and mortality hence the reason why most of the research has been focussed on this species. The disease affects up to about 40 per cent of the world's population with around 300-500 million people currently infected and mainly in the tropics. It has a high morbidity and mortality especially in resource-poor tropical and subtropical regions with an economic fall of about US$ 12 billion annually in Africa alone. relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source. Other relevant websites like PATH, Malaria Vaccine Initiative and Global Fund were also visited to source for information. The key words employed were: malaria, vaccine, anopheles mosquito, insecticide treated bed-nets, pyrethroids and Plasmodium. several studies have underscored the need to develop an effective human malaria vaccine for the control and possible eradication of malaria across the globe with the view to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with the disease, improve on the social and economic losses and also protect those at risk. It is very obvious that the need for effective human malaria vaccine is not only to serve those living in malaria endemic regions but also the non-immune travellers especially those travelling to malaria endemic areas; this would offer cost effective means of preventing the disease, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with it in addition to closing the gap left by other control measures. It is very obvious that there is no single control measure known to be effective in the control of malaria, hence the need for combination of more than one method with the aim of achieving synergy in the total control and possible

  13. Assessing healthcare providers' knowledge and practices relating to insecticide-treated nets and the prevention of malaria in Ghana, Laos, Senegal and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research evidence is not always being disseminated to healthcare providers who need it to inform their clinical practice. This can result in the provision of ineffective services and an inefficient use of resources, the implications of which might be felt particularly acutely in low- and middle-income countries. Malaria prevention is a particularly compelling domain to study evidence/practice gaps given the proven efficacy, cost-effectiveness and disappointing utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Methods This study compares what is known about ITNs to the related knowledge and practices of healthcare providers in four low- and middle-income countries. A new questionnaire was developed, pilot tested, translated and administered to 497 healthcare providers in Ghana (140), Laos (136), Senegal (100) and Tanzania (121). Ten questions tested participants' knowledge and clinical practice related to malaria prevention. Additional questions addressed their individual characteristics, working context and research-related activities. Ordinal logistic regressions with knowledge and practices as the dependent variable were conducted in addition to descriptive statistics. Results The survey achieved a 75% response rate (372/497) across Ghana (107/140), Laos (136/136), Senegal (51/100) and Tanzania (78/121). Few participating healthcare providers correctly answered all five knowledge questions about ITNs (13%) or self-reported performing all five clinical practices according to established evidence (2%). Statistically significant factors associated with higher knowledge within each country included: 1) training in acquiring systematic reviews through the Cochrane Library (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.30-4.73); and 2) ability to read and write English well or very well (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.05-2.70). Statistically significant factors associated with better clinical practices within each country include: 1) reading scientific journals from their own country (OR 1.67, 95% CI

  14. EMIRA: Ecologic Malaria Reduction for Africa--innovative tools for integrated malaria control.

    PubMed

    Dambach, Peter; Traoré, Issouf; Becker, Norbert; Kaiser, Achim; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control is based on early treatment of cases and on vector control. The current measures for malaria vector control in Africa are mainly based on long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and to a much smaller extent on indoor residual spraying (IRS). A third pillar in the fight against the malaria vector, larval source management (LSM), has virtually not been used in Africa since the ban of DDT in the 1960s. Within the light of recent WHO recommendations for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) use against malaria and other vector species, larval source management could see a revival in the upcoming years. In this project we analyze the ecologic and health impacts as well as the cost effectiveness of larval source management under different larviciding scenarios in a health district in Burkina Faso. The project is designed as prospective intervention study with duration of three years (2013-2015). Its spatial scale includes three arms of interventions and control, comprising a total of 127 villages and the district capital Nouna in the extended HDSS (Health Demographic Surveillance System) of the Kossi province. Baseline data on mosquito abundance, parasitemia in U5 children, and malaria related morbidity and mortality are gathered over the project duration. Besides the outcome on ecologic and health parameters, the economic costs are seized and valued against the achieved health benefits. Risk map based, guided larvicide application might be a possibility to further decrease economic cost of LSM and facilitate its faster incorporation to integrated malaria control programs. Given the limited resources in many malaria endemic countries, it is of utmost importance to relate the costs of novel strategies for malaria prevention to their effect on the burden of the disease. Occurring costs and the impact on the health situation will be made comparable to other, existing intervention strategies, allowing stakeholders and policymakers decision making.

  15. EMIRA: Ecologic Malaria Reduction for Africa – innovative tools for integrated malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Dambach, Peter; Traoré, Issouf; Becker, Norbert; Kaiser, Achim; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria control is based on early treatment of cases and on vector control. The current measures for malaria vector control in Africa are mainly based on long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and to a much smaller extent on indoor residual spraying (IRS). A third pillar in the fight against the malaria vector, larval source management (LSM), has virtually not been used in Africa since the ban of DDT in the 1960s. Within the light of recent WHO recommendations for Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) use against malaria and other vector species, larval source management could see a revival in the upcoming years. In this project we analyze the ecologic and health impacts as well as the cost effectiveness of larval source management under different larviciding scenarios in a health district in Burkina Faso. Methods The project is designed as prospective intervention study with duration of three years (2013–2015). Its spatial scale includes three arms of interventions and control, comprising a total of 127 villages and the district capital Nouna in the extended HDSS (Health Demographic Surveillance System) of the Kossi province. Baseline data on mosquito abundance, parasitemia in U5 children, and malaria related morbidity and mortality are gathered over the project duration. Besides the outcome on ecologic and health parameters, the economic costs are seized and valued against the achieved health benefits. Conclusions Risk map based, guided larvicide application might be a possibility to further decrease economic cost of LSM and facilitate its faster incorporation to integrated malaria control programs. Given the limited resources in many malaria endemic countries, it is of utmost importance to relate the costs of novel strategies for malaria prevention to their effect on the burden of the disease. Occurring costs and the impact on the health situation will be made comparable to other, existing intervention strategies, allowing stakeholders and

  16. Placental malaria, anaemia and low birthweight in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Albiti, Anisa H; Adam, Ishag; Ghouth, Abdulla S

    2010-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of August 2007-April 2008 at Al-Wahda Teaching Hospital in Yemen to investigate prevalence and risk factors for placental malaria and anaemia and their effects on birthweight. Sociodemographic characteristics were gathered, maternal haemoglobin was measured and blood films were examined for malaria. Newborn birthweight was recorded. Out of 900 parturient women, malaria blood films were positive in 32 (3.6%) cases: in six sets of peripheral, placental and cord samples; in 15 placental and cord samples; and in 11 placental samples only. Malaria was not associated with age and parity, but it was significantly associated with history of fever [odds ratio (OR) 8.5, 95% CI 3.7-19, P<0.001], rural residence (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.3, P=0.01) and rainy season (OR 5.1, 95% CI 1.7-15.2, P=0.003). Overall, 694 (77.1%) out of these 900 women had anaemia (Hb<11g/dl) and 16 (1.8%) patients had severe anaemia (Hb<7g/dl). Anaemia was not associated with age, parity and malaria. Low birthweight was significantly associated with malaria (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.7-18.5; P=0.004). Thus, preventive measures (bednets and intermittent preventive treatment) should be employed for pregnant women regardless of their age or parity.

  17. Effects of bed nets and anti-malaria drugs use on childhood mortality in Kenya's malaria endemic and epidemic areas.

    PubMed

    K'Oyugi, Boniface O

    2015-01-29

    The Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) data collected since 1989 indicate that malaria prone areas have consistently recorded the highest childhood mortality rates. Malaria control programme information also indicates that malaria contributes to about 20 per cent of the deaths among under-five year old children. The 2009-2017 National Malaria Strategy is being implemented to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality. Its key interventions include: bed nets use; anti-malaria drugs use during pregnancy for prevention; and, prompt treatment using anti-malaria drugs of children with fever. This study seeks to establish differentials in childhood mortality rates by these interventions in three malaria prone areas defined as highland epidemic, coast endemic and lake endemic. It also seeks to determine the effects of these interventions on childhood mortality. The data used is drawn from the 2008/9 KDHS. The study sample consists of 3,728 children born less than 60 months prior to the survey. The direct demographic method for estimation of childhood mortality rates and multivariate Poisson regression models are used to analyse the data. The findings show that use of bed nets and anti-malaria drugs are not high in Kenya's malaria prone areas. On the average, only about 60% of the children are found to be in higher use category for each of the three intervention measures. The childhood mortality rates show that higher use of prompt treatment with anti-malaria drugs for children with fever has lower infant and under-five mortality rates in all malaria epidemic and endemic areas compared to lower use. Higher bed nets use has lower childhood mortality rates compared to lower use in coast and lake endemic areas. Higher use of anti-malaria drugs during pregnancy for prevention has lower childhood mortality rates in highland epidemic and lake endemic areas compared to lower use. The regression models fitted show that in highland epidemic area, higher use of anti-malaria

  18. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low. Methods A post hoc assignment of intervention-control cluster design was used to assess the added effect of both indoor residual spraying (IRS) and Bacillus-based larvicides (Bti) in addition to ITN in the western Kenyan highlands in 2010 and 2011. Cross-sectional, mass parasite screenings, adult vector populations, and cohort of active case surveillance (ACS) were conducted before and after the intervention in three study sites with two- to three-paired intervention-control clusters at each site each year. The effect of larviciding, IRS, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of mixed estimating methods. Results Average ITN coverage increased from 41% in 2010 to 92% in 2011 in the study sites. IRS intervention had significant added impact on reducing vector density in 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS on reducing parasite prevalence was significant in 2011 but was seasonal specific in 2010. ITN was significantly associated with parasite densities in 2010 but IRS application was significantly correlated with reduced gametocyte density in 2011. IRS application reduced about half of the clinical malaria cases in 2010 and about one-third in 2011 compare to non-intervention areas. Conclusion Compared with a similar study conducted in 2005, the efficacy of the current integrated vector control with ITN, IRS, and Bti reduced three- to five-fold despite high ITN coverage, reflecting a modest added impact on malaria transmission. Additional strategies need to be developed to further reduce malaria transmission. PMID:23870708

  19. Spill prevention using multiple level measurement technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bahner, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that for spill prevention of aboveground storage tanks, a multiple technology system gives the best security in avoiding costly spills. A combination of RF Admittance (Capacitance) switches and Ultrasonic Gap Switches gives the best available combination of high and high-high alarming. RF Admittance switches handle the widest range of process conditions while ultrasonic gap switches feature no calibration for added security. Both of these technologies may be equipped with self-checking diagnostics and full functional testing of the entire spill prevention control loop.

  20. [Preventive measures in shoe and leather industry].

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, A

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a survey of the organization and implementation of preventive medicine programmes in the shoe and leather industries 10 years after the introduction of the National Health Service in Italy. There was a marked difference between the resources available in central and northern Italy where, although unevenly, prevention at the workplace has improved, and the regions of southern Italy were the situation is decidedly less comforting. The methods used by the Occupational Health Services in the territories under study are described, which are characterised by programmed or planned activities (according to industrial sector) mainly aimed at acquiring better knowledge of the risk factors and their effective elimination.

  1. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Jessica; ter Kuile, Feiko; Cairns, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission has declined substantially in the 21st century, but pregnant women in areas of sustained transmission still require protection to prevent the adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP). A recent call to action has been issued to address the continuing low coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). This call has, however, been questioned by some, in part due to concerns about resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the only drug currently recommended for IPTp. Methods and findings Using an existing mathematical model of MiP, we combined estimates of the changing endemicity of malaria across Africa with maps of SP resistance mutations and current coverage of antenatal access and IPTp with SP (IPTp-SP) across Africa. Using estimates of the relationship between SP resistance mutations and the parasitological efficacy of SP during pregnancy, we estimated the varying impact of IPTp-SP across Africa and the incremental value of enhancing IPTp-SP uptake to match current antenatal care (ANC) coverage. The risks of MiP and malaria-attributable low birthweight (mLBW) in unprotected pregnancies (i.e., those not using insecticide-treated nets [ITNs]) leading to live births fell by 37% (33%–41% 95% credible interval [crI]) and 31% (27%–34% 95% crI), respectively, from 2000 to 2015 across endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are fragile, and coverage is far from optimal. In 2015, 9.5 million (8.3 million–10.4 million 95% crI) of 30.6 million pregnancies in these areas would still have been infected with Plasmodium falciparum without intervention, leading to 750,000 (390,000–1.1 million 95% crI) mLBW deliveries. In all, 6.6 million (5.6 million–7.3 million 95% crI) of these 9.5 million (69.3%) pregnancies at risk of infection (and 53.4% [16.3 million/30.6 million] of all pregnancies) occurred in settings with near-perfect SP curative

  2. Estimated impact on birth weight of scaling up intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy given sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Africa: A mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick G T; Floyd, Jessica; Ter Kuile, Feiko; Cairns, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Malaria transmission has declined substantially in the 21st century, but pregnant women in areas of sustained transmission still require protection to prevent the adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP). A recent call to action has been issued to address the continuing low coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). This call has, however, been questioned by some, in part due to concerns about resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the only drug currently recommended for IPTp. Using an existing mathematical model of MiP, we combined estimates of the changing endemicity of malaria across Africa with maps of SP resistance mutations and current coverage of antenatal access and IPTp with SP (IPTp-SP) across Africa. Using estimates of the relationship between SP resistance mutations and the parasitological efficacy of SP during pregnancy, we estimated the varying impact of IPTp-SP across Africa and the incremental value of enhancing IPTp-SP uptake to match current antenatal care (ANC) coverage. The risks of MiP and malaria-attributable low birthweight (mLBW) in unprotected pregnancies (i.e., those not using insecticide-treated nets [ITNs]) leading to live births fell by 37% (33%-41% 95% credible interval [crI]) and 31% (27%-34% 95% crI), respectively, from 2000 to 2015 across endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa. However, these gains are fragile, and coverage is far from optimal. In 2015, 9.5 million (8.3 million-10.4 million 95% crI) of 30.6 million pregnancies in these areas would still have been infected with Plasmodium falciparum without intervention, leading to 750,000 (390,000-1.1 million 95% crI) mLBW deliveries. In all, 6.6 million (5.6 million-7.3 million 95% crI) of these 9.5 million (69.3%) pregnancies at risk of infection (and 53.4% [16.3 million/30.6 million] of all pregnancies) occurred in settings with near-perfect SP curative efficacy (>99%) based on the most recent

  3. [Postoperative thromboembolic complications and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Vegar-Brozović, Vesna; Prajdić-Predrijevac, D

    2003-01-01

    Modern surgical procedures become very extensive and aggressive in every surgical branch. Due to expressive development of anesthesia techniques with large monitoring systems support is provided to patients for broad spectrum of disorders. Therefore, we need to protect patients from imminent complications, as development of deep venous thrombosis and embolic pulmonary incidents. The main target in prophylaxis is to divide patients by risk and the type of surgical procedures during the time of "bed recovery". Today, current farmacological treatment is prone to control and prevent such events and to decrease mortality. Patients are divided in three groups: low risk (small operations with early mobilization); medium risk (surgery with risk in patients history); high risk (severe patients and long surgery, prolonged recovery). The best solutions in current medicine is to prevent most of complications, by administration of low molecular heparin (LMWH). Advantages of that treatment are: no need of intensive monitoring, long-time treatment, safe usage in "day case surgery" Beside LMWH, we still use heparin, although we tend to trial newer treatments and supports for prevention of complications. For special groups of patients recent trials examine heparinoid like drug-hyrudin, provided by chemical engeneering. That drug is metabolised in liver. Current therapy and prevention of DVT and pulmonary embolia is LMWH. It entered in every alghorythm of surgical and anaesthetic procedures and become CONDITIO SINE QUA NON.

  4. Cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rénia, Laurent; Wu Howland, Shanshan; Claser, Carla; Charlotte Gruner, Anne; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Hui Teo, Teck; Russell, Bruce; Ng, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is the most severe pathology caused by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The pathogenic mechanisms leading to cerebral malaria are still poorly defined as studies have been hampered by limited accessibility to human tissues. Nevertheless, histopathology of post-mortem human tissues and mouse models of cerebral malaria have indicated involvement of the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria. In contrast to viruses and bacteria, malaria parasites do not infiltrate and infect the brain parenchyma. Instead, rupture of the blood-brain barrier occurs and may lead to hemorrhages resulting in neurological alterations. Here, we review the most recent findings from human studies and mouse models on the interactions of malaria parasites and the blood-brain barrier, shedding light on the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria, which may provide directions for possible interventions. PMID:22460644

  5. From strategy development to routine implementation: the cost of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Fatuma; Hutton, Guy; Schellenberg, Joanna; Tanner, Marcel; Alonso, Pedro; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, David

    2008-07-31

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals for health requires a massive scaling-up of interventions in Sub Saharan Africa. Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi) is a promising new tool for malaria control. Although efficacy information is available for many interventions, there is a dearth of data on the resources required for scaling up of health interventions. We worked in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) to develop an IPTi strategy that could be implemented and managed by routine health services. We tracked health system and other costs of (1) developing the strategy and (2) maintaining routine implementation of the strategy in five districts in southern Tanzania. Financial costs were extracted and summarized from a costing template and semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants to record time and resources spent on IPTi activities. The estimated financial cost to start-up and run IPTi in the whole of Tanzania in 2005 was US$1,486,284. Start-up costs of US$36,363 were incurred at the national level, mainly on the development of Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) materials, stakeholders' meetings and other consultations. The annual running cost at national level for intervention management and monitoring and drug purchase was estimated at US$459,096. Start-up costs at the district level were US$7,885 per district, mainly expenditure on training. Annual running costs were US$170 per district, mainly for printing of BCC materials. There was no incremental financial expenditure needed to deliver the intervention in health facilities as supplies were delivered alongside routine vaccinations and available health workers performed the activities without working overtime. The economic cost was estimated at 23 US cents per IPTi dose delivered. The costs presented here show the order of magnitude of expenditures needed to initiate and to implement IPTi at national scale in settings with high Expanded

  6. Introducing vouchers for malaria prevention in Ghana and Tanzania: context and adoption of innovation in health systems.

    PubMed

    de Savigny, Don; Webster, Jayne; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Mwita, Alex; Bart-Plange, Constance; Baffoe-Wilmot, Aba; Koenker, Hannah; Kramer, Karen; Brown, Nick; Lengeler, Christian

    2012-10-01

    There are striking similarities in health system and other contexts between Tanzania and Ghana that are relevant to the scaling up of continuous delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention. However, specific contextual factors of relevance to ITN delivery have led implementation down very different pathways in the two countries. Both countries have made major efforts and investments to address this intervention through integrating consumer discount vouchers into the health system. Discount vouchers require arrangements among the public, private and non-governmental sectors and constitute a complex intervention in both health systems and business systems. In Tanzania, vouchers have moved beyond the planning agenda, had policies and programmes formulated, been sustained in implementation at national scale for many years and have become as of 2012 the main and only publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. In Ghana national-scale implementation of vouchers never progressed beyond consideration on the agenda and piloting towards formulation of policy; and the approach was replaced by mass distribution campaigns with less dependency on or integration with the health system. By 2011, Ghana entered a phase with no publicly supported continuous delivery system for ITNs. To understand the different outcomes, we compared the voucher programme timelines, phases, processes and contexts in both countries in reference to the main health system building blocks (governance, human resources, financing, informatics, technologies and service delivery). Contextual factors which provided an enabling environment for the voucher scheme in Tanzania did not do so in Ghana. The voucher scheme was never seen as an appropriate national strategy, other delivery systems were not complementary and the private sector was under-developed. The extensive time devoted to engagement and consensus building among all stakeholders in Tanzania was an important and

  7. Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy with Mefloquine in HIV-Infected Women Receiving Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis: A Multicenter Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Salim; Aponte, John J.; Bulo, Helder; Kabanywanyi, Abdunoor M.; Katana, Abraham; Maculuve, Sonia; Mayor, Alfredo; Nhacolo, Arsenio; Otieno, Kephas; Pahlavan, Golbahar; Rupérez, María; Sevene, Esperança; Slutsker, Laurence; Vala, Anifa; Williamsom, John; Menéndez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously. We studied the safety and efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) in women receiving CTXp and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs). Methods and Findings A total of 1,071 HIV-infected women from Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania were randomized to receive either three doses of IPTp-MQ (15 mg/kg) or placebo given at least one month apart; all received CTXp and a LLITN. IPTp-MQ was associated with reduced rates of maternal parasitemia (risk ratio [RR], 0.47 [95% CI 0.27–0.82]; p = 0.008), placental malaria (RR, 0.52 [95% CI 0.29–0.90]; p = 0.021), and reduced incidence of non-obstetric hospital admissions (RR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.37–0.95]; p = 0.031) in the intention to treat (ITT) analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of adverse pregnancy outcomes between groups. Drug tolerability was poorer in the MQ group compared to the control group (29.6% referred dizziness and 23.9% vomiting after the first IPTp-MQ administration). HIV viral load at delivery was higher in the MQ group compared to the control group (p = 0.048) in the ATP analysis. The frequency of perinatal mother to child transmission of HIV was increased in women who received MQ (RR, 1.95 [95% CI 1.14–3.33]; p = 0.015). The main limitation of the latter finding relates to the exploratory nature of this part of the analysis. Conclusions An effective antimalarial added to CTXp and LLITNs in HIV-infected pregnant women can improve malaria prevention, as well as maternal health through reduction in hospital admissions. However, MQ was not well tolerated, limiting its potential for IPTp and indicating the need

  8. A Triazolopyrimidine-Based Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor with Improved Drug-like Properties for Treatment and Prevention of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret A; White, Karen L; Kokkonda, Sreekanth; Deng, Xiaoyi; White, John; El Mazouni, Farah; Marsh, Kennan; Tomchick, Diana R; Manjalanagara, Krishne; Rudra, Kakali Rani; Wirjanata, Grennady; Noviyanti, Rintis; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta; Shackleford, David M; Chiu, Francis C K; Campbell, Michael; Jimenez-Diaz, Maria Belen; Bazaga, Santiago Ferrer; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Martinez, Maria Santos; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria; Kaminsky, Werner; Silue, Kigbafori; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Kocken, Clemens; Leroy, Didier; Blasco, Benjamin; Rossignol, Emilie; Rueckle, Thomas; Matthews, Dave; Burrows, Jeremy N; Waterson, David; Palmer, Michael J; Rathod, Pradipsinh K; Charman, Susan A

    2016-12-09

    The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites continues to hamper efforts to control this lethal disease. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase has recently been validated as a new target for the treatment of malaria, and a selective inhibitor (DSM265) of the Plasmodium enzyme is currently in clinical development. With the goal of identifying a backup compound to DSM265, we explored replacement of the SF5-aniline moiety of DSM265 with a series of CF3-pyridinyls while maintaining the core triazolopyrimidine scaffold. This effort led to the identification of DSM421, which has improved solubility, lower intrinsic clearance, and increased plasma exposure after oral dosing compared to DSM265, while maintaining a long predicted human half-life. Its improved physical and chemical properties will allow it to be formulated more readily than DSM265. DSM421 showed excellent efficacy in the SCID mouse model of P. falciparum malaria that supports the prediction of a low human dose (<200 mg). Importantly DSM421 showed equal activity against both P. falciparum and P. vivax field isolates, while DSM265 was more active on P. falciparum. DSM421 has the potential to be developed as a single-dose cure or once-weekly chemopreventative for both P. falciparum and P. vivax malaria, leading to its advancement as a preclinical development candidate.

  9. Assessment of Burden of Malaria in Gwanda District, Zimbabwe, Using the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

    PubMed

    Gunda, Resign; Chimbari, Moses John; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2016-02-22

    Malaria is one of the highest contributors to morbidity and mortality in Zimbabwe. However, there is paucity of knowledge regarding disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as a measure of burden of malaria in affected communities. The DALYs metric was used to assess the burden of malaria in Gwanda District with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the impact of disease on affected communities. Data was collected from health facility malaria registers and the District Health Information System (DHIS) to estimate DALYs at household and district levels respectively. The household DALYs included 130 malaria cases from 2013 to 2015 while the DALYs for the district included 719 confirmed malaria cases from 2011 to 2015. Households lost a total of 153.89 DALYs with the majority of the disease burden (65.55%) occurring in the most economically productive age group (15-45 years) with a mean loss of 1.18 DALYs per malaria case. At district level, 251.09 DALYs were lost due to malaria and the calculated average district DALY rate for 2011-2015 was 36.29 DALYs/100,000 persons per year. It is important to estimate malaria burden to assist policy makers in making informed decisions when channelling resources for control and prevention of the disease.

  10. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  11. Measuring the Effects of an Ever-Changing Environment on Malaria Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    comparison, birds vaccinated and boosted with a DNA vaccine plasmid encoding the circumsporo- zoite protein of P. relictum exhibited a moderate degree of...protection against natural infection (P < 0.01). In the second year we followed the fate of all surviving birds with no further manipulation. The...vaccinated birds from the first year were no longer statistically distinguishable for protection against malaria from cages of naïve birds . During this period

  12. Anti-bacterial activity of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: comparative in vitro study of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, mefloquine, and azithromycin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa. Increasing drug resistance necessitates the urgent evaluation of alternative drugs. Currently, the most promising candidates in clinical development are mefloquine and azithromycin. Besides the anti-malarial activity, SP is also a potent antibiotic and incurs significant anti-microbial activity when given as IPTp - though systematic clinical evaluation of this action is still lacking. Methods In this study, the intrinsic anti-bacterial activity of mefloquine and azithromycin was assessed in comparison to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine against bacterial pathogens with clinical importance in pregnancy in a standard microdilution assay. Results SP was highly active against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. All tested Gram-positive bacteria, except Enterococcus faecalis, were sensitive to azithromycin. Additionally, azithromycin was active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Mefloquine showed good activity against pneumococci but lower in vitro action against all other tested pathogens. Conclusion These data indicate important differences in the spectrum of anti-bacterial activity for the evaluated anti-malarial drugs. Given the large scale use of IPTp in Africa, the need for prospective clinical trials evaluating the impact of antibiotic activity of anti-malarials on maternal and foetal health and on the risk of promoting specific drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is discussed. PMID:21029476

  13. Severity of imported malaria: protective effect of taking malaria chemoprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although chemoprophylaxis remains an important strategy for preventing malaria in travellers, its effectiveness may be compromised by lack of adherence. Inappropriate use of chemoprophylaxis is likely to increase the risk of acquiring malaria, but may probably also worsen the severity of imported cases. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of use of malaria chemoprophylaxis on clinical features and outcome of imported malaria. Methods Demographic, clinical and laboratory data of patients included in the Rotterdam Malaria Cohort between 1998 and 2011 were systematically collected and analysed. Patients were classified as self-reported compliant or non-compliant users or as non-users of chemoprophylaxis. Severe malaria was defined using the 2010 WHO criteria. Results Details on chemoprophylaxis were available for 559 of the 604 patients, of which 64.6% were non-users, 17.9% were inadequate users and 17.5% reported to be adequate users. The group of non-users was predominated by patients with African ethnicity, partial immunity and people visiting friends and relatives. The majority contracted Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In contrast, compliant users acquired non-falciparum malaria more frequently, had significant lower P. falciparum loads on admission, shorter duration of hospitalization and significant lower odds for severe malaria as compared with non-users. Patients with P. falciparum malaria were more likely to have taken their chemoprophylaxis less compliantly than those infected with non-P. falciparum species. Multivariate analysis showed that self-reported adequate prophylaxis and being a partially immune traveller visiting friends and relatives was associated with significantly lower odds ratio of severe malaria. In contrast, age, acquisition of malaria in West-Africa and being a non-immune tourist increased their risk significantly. Conclusions Compliant use of malaria chemoprophylaxis was associated with significantly lower odds

  14. [Spasticity. Physical therapy, preventive measures and treatment].

    PubMed

    Gay, S; Egon, G

    2005-06-01

    Spasticity is one of the most common motor and tonus disorders during the initial phase with traumatic brain injured patients. The evaluation of spasticity is mainly clinical but it is very important to prevent complications such as limitation of range of motion, pain, decubitus ulcers. The therapeutic options consist in classical indications such as baclofen, dantrolene, tizanidine, benzodiazepine, associated with physiotherapy. Other additive therapeutic options could be discussed: use of toxin botulinum in focal spasticity and intrathecal baclofen infusion in case of severe spasticity (often associated with dysautonomic disorders.).

  15. [Analysis of malaria situation and discussion of control strategy in Shandong Province, 2013].

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Bu, Xiu-qin; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Ben-guang; Chen, Xi-xin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Yong-bin

    2014-08-01

    To understand the malaria situation of Shandong Province in 2013, so as to provide the evidence for formulating targeted prevention and control strategy and measures. The data of malaria cases of Shandong Province in 2013 were collected from the Information Management System for Infectious Diseases Report and Information Management System for Parasitic Diseases Control and Prevention. The data of epidemiological characteristics of malaria situation and the diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases were analyzed by Microsoft Excel 2007. There were 131 malaria cases reported in 2013, all of them were imported cases, and 127 cases (96.95%) were imported from African countries. A total of 116 cases (88.55% ) were falciparum malaria cases. Totally 97.71% of the cases were male and the average age of malaria cases was 39 years. A total of 61.83% of the cases were peasants and 65.65% of the cases only received junior high school education. The distribution of malaria cases was concentrated in Tai'an City (32 cases), Yantai City (19 cases) and Weihai City (17 cases),totally acounting for 53.13%. There was no significant seasonal variation in the reporting time of the cases. The median time from on- set to seeing doctor was four days and the median time from seeing doctor to being diagnosed was one day. Totally 35.88% of the cases were misdiagnosed when the first visit to a doctor. All of the cases were laboratory confirmed and 100% of them received the standard treatment after diagnosis. All of the malaria cases were imported cases in Shandong Province in 2013. To control the imported malaria in Shandong Province, it is necessary to further strengthen the multi-sectoral cooperation, health education, malaria screening and professional training.

  16. Supplementation With Multivitamins and Vitamin A and Incidence of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelman, Donna; Aboud, Said; Duggan, Christopher; Danaei, Goodarz; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: HIV and malaria infections occur in the same individuals, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined whether daily multivitamin supplementation (vitamins B complex, C, and E) or vitamin A supplementation altered malaria incidence in HIV-infected women of reproductive age. Methods: HIV-infected pregnant Tanzanian women recruited into the study were randomly assigned to daily multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), vitamin A alone, both multivitamins and vitamin A, or placebo. Women received malaria prophylaxis during pregnancy and were followed monthly during the prenatal and postpartum periods. Malaria was defined in 2 ways: presumptive diagnosis based on a physician's or nurse's clinical judgment, which in many cases led to laboratory investigations, and periodic examination of blood smears for malaria parasites. Results: Multivitamin supplementation compared with no multivitamins significantly lowered women's risk of presumptively diagnosed clinical malaria (relative risk: 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.67 to 0.92), although multivitamins increased their risk of any malaria parasitemia (relative risk: 1.24, 95% confidence interval: 1.02 to 1.50). Vitamin A supplementation did not change malaria incidence during the study. Conclusions: Multivitamin supplements have been previously shown to reduce HIV disease progression among HIV-infected women, and consistent with that, these supplements protected against development of symptomatic malaria. The clinical significance of increased risk of malaria parasitemia among supplemented women deserves further research, however. Preventive measures for malaria are warranted as part of an integrated approach to the care of HIV-infected individuals exposed to malaria. PMID:25436815

  17. Factors Affecting the Delivery, Access, and Use of Interventions to Prevent Malaria in Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Hoyt, Jenna; van Eijk, Anna Maria; D'Mello-Guyett, Lauren; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Rick; Smith, Helen; Webster, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria in pregnancy has important consequences for mother and baby. Coverage with the World Health Organization–recommended prevention strategy for pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) is low. We conducted a systematic review to explore factors affecting delivery, access, and use of IPTp and ITNs among healthcare providers and women. Methods and Results We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library and Global Health Database from 1 January 1990 to 23 April 2013, without language restriction. Data extraction was performed by two investigators independently, and data was appraised for quality and content. Data on barriers and facilitators, and the effect of interventions, were explored using content analysis and narrative synthesis. We conducted a meta-analysis of determinants of IPTp and ITN uptake using random effects models, and performed subgroup analysis to evaluate consistency across interventions and study populations, countries, and enrolment sites. We did not perform a meta-ethnography of qualitative data. Ninety-eight articles were included, of which 20 were intervention studies. Key barriers to the provision of IPTp and ITNs were unclear policy and guidance on IPTp; general healthcare system issues, such as stockouts and user fees; health facility issues stemming from poor organisation, leading to poor quality of care; poor healthcare provider performance, including confusion over the timing of each IPTp dose; and women's poor antenatal attendance, affecting IPTp uptake. Key determinants of IPTp coverage were education, knowledge about malaria/IPTp, socio-economic status, parity, and number and timing of antenatal clinic visits. Key determinants of ITN coverage were employment status, education, knowledge about malaria/ITNs, age, and marital status. Predictors showed regional variations. Conclusions Delivery of ITNs through antenatal clinics presents

  18. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  20. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Forero, David A; Chaparro, Pablo E; Vallejo, Andres F; Benavides, Yoldy; Gutiérrez, Juan B; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

    2014-05-01

    Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity.

  2. Is travel prophylaxis worth while? Economic appraisal of prophylactic measures against malaria, hepatitis A, and typhoid in travellers.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, R. H.; Roberts, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To estimate the costs and benefits of prophylaxis against travel acquired malaria, typhoid fever, and hepatitis A in United Kingdom residents during 1991. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of national epidemiological and economic data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incidence of travel associated infections in susceptible United Kingdom residents per visit; costs of prophylaxis provision from historical data; benefits to the health sector, community, and individuals in terms of avoided morbidity and mortality based on hospital and community costs of disease. RESULTS--The high incidence of imported malaria (0.70%) and the low costs of providing chemoprophylaxis resulted in a cost-benefit ratio of 0.19 for chloroquine and proguanil and 0.57 for a regimen containing mefloquine. Hepatitis A infection occurred in 0.05% of visits and the cost of prophylaxis invariably exceeded the benefits for immunoglobulin (cost-benefit ratio 5.8) and inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (cost-benefit ratio 15.8). Similarly, low incidence of typhoid (0.02%) and its high cost gave whole cell killed, polysaccharide Vi, and oral Ty 21a typhoid vaccines cost-benefit ratios of 18.1, 18.0, and 22.0 respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Fewer than one third of travellers receive vaccines but the total cost of providing typhoid and hepatitis A prophylaxis of 25.8m pounds is significantly higher than the treatment costs to the NHS (1.03m pounds) of cases avoided by prophylaxis. Neither hepatitis A prophylaxis nor typhoid prophylaxis is cost effective, but costs of treating malaria greatly exceed costs of chemoprophylaxis, which is therefore highly cost effective. PMID:7726905

  3. Malaria-related health-seeking behaviour and challenges for care providers in rural Ethiopia: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Deressa, Wakgari; Ali, Ahmed; Hailemariam, Damen

    2008-01-01

    A range of activities are currently underway to improve access to malaria prevention and control interventions. As disease control strategies change over time, it is crucial to understand the health-seeking behaviour and the local socio-cultural context in which the changes in interventions operate. This paper reflects on how people in an area of seasonal malaria perceive the causes and transmission of the disease, and what prevention and treatment measures they practise to cope with the disease. It also highlights some of the challenges of malaria treatment for health care providers. The study was undertaken in 2003 in Adami Tulu District in south-central Ethiopia, where malaria is a major health problem. Pre-tested structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were conducted among men and women. Malaria, locally known as busa, was perceived as the most important cause of ill health in the area. Respondent's perception and knowledge about the cause and transmission of the disease were relatively high. The newly introduced insecticide-treated nets were not popular in the area, and only 6.4% of households possessed at least one. The results showed that patients use multiple sources of health care for malaria treatment. Public health facilities, private clinics and community health workers were the main providers of malaria treatment. Despite higher treatment costs, people preferred to use private health care providers for malaria treatment due to the higher perceived quality of care they offer. In conclusion, effort in the prevention and control of malaria should be intensified through addressing not only public facilities, but also the private sector and community-based control interventions. Appropriate and relevant information on malaria should be disseminated to the local community. The authors propose the provision of effective antimalarial drugs and malaria prevention tools such as subsidized or free insecticide-treated nets.

  4. Predictors of malaria-association with rubber plantations in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The national Global Fund-supported malaria (GFM) program in Thailand, which focuses on the household-level implementation of vector control via insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)/long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) combined with indoor residual spraying (IRS), has been combating malaria risk situations in different provinces with complex epidemiological settings. By using the perception of malaria villagers (MVs), defined as villagers who recognized malaria burden and had local understanding of mosquitoes, malaria, and ITNs/LLINs and practiced preventive measures, this study investigated the predictors for malaria that are associated with rubber plantations in an area of high household-level implementation coverage of IRS (2007–2010) and ITNs/LLINs (2008–2010) in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province. Methods A structured questionnaire addressing socio-demographics, household characteristics and health behavioral factors (knowledge, perceptions and practices) regarding the performed interventions was administered to the 313 households (70 malaria-affected and 243 malaria-unaffected) that had respondents aged ≥18 years of both genders. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, only 246 (78.6%) MV respondents (62 malaria-affected and 184 malaria-unaffected) were analyzed to determine the predictors for risk (morbidity). Results The majority (70%) of households were covered by IRS. For a combination of ITNs/LLINs, there were 74% of malaria-affected households covered and 46% of malaria-unaffected households. In a logistic regression analysis using odds ratios (aORs) adjusted on the variables and a 95% confidence interval (CI), malaria affecting MVs was associated with daily worker (i.e., earning daily income by normally practicing laborious activities mostly in agriculture such as rubber tapping and rubber sheet processing at the smallholdings of rubber plantations) (aOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4), low-moderate level of malaria knowledge (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1

  5. [Malaria in the Rostov Region: retrospective analysis of the malaria situation in 1952-2007].

    PubMed

    Kormilenko, I V; Aĭdinov, G T; Shvager, M M

    2009-01-01

    In the Rostov Region, no cases of local malaria transmission have been notified since 1958, but cases of import malaria are recorded every year. The region is one of malaria-susceptible areas in the Russian Federation, which is characterized by intensive migration, the malariogenic potential sufficient for local transmission (malariogenic index 1.2), and the optimum conditions for resurgence of malaria when it is imported. The prevention of undesirable consequences of malaria importation requires the strict monitoring of feverish patients, cohorts of high-risk patients who go for trips to malaria-endemic countries.

  6. The acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in southern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Robert; Mushi, Adiel; Schellenberg, Joanna Armstrong; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Alonso, Pedro; Montgomery, Catherine; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi) reduces the incidence of clinical malaria. However, before making decisions about implementation, it is essential to ensure that IPTi is acceptable, that it does not adversely affect attitudes to immunization or existing health seeking behaviour. This paper reports on the reception of IPTi during the first implementation study of IPTi in southern Tanzania. Methods Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation carried out by a central team of social scientists and a network of key informants/interviewers who resided permanently in the study sites. Results IPTi was generally acceptable. This was related to routinization of immunization and resonance with traditional practices. Promoting "health" was considered more important than preventing specific diseases. Many women thought that immunization was obligatory and that health staff might be unwilling to assist in the future if they were non-adherent. Weighing and socialising were important reasons for clinic attendance. Non-adherence was due largely to practical, social and structural factors, many of which could be overcome. Reasons for non-adherence were sometimes interlinked. Health staff and "road to child health" cards were the main source of information on the intervention, rather than the specially designed posters. Women did not generally discuss child health matters outside the clinic, and information about the intervention percolated slowly through the community. Although there were some rumours about sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP), it was generally acceptable as a drug for IPTi, although mothers did not like the way tablets were administered. There is no evidence that IPTi had a negative effect on attitudes or adherence to the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) or treatment seeking or existing malaria prevention. Conclusion In order to improve adherence to both EPI and

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of three health interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in an area of low transmission in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Clarke, Siân E

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women and their unborn children are vulnerable to malaria increasing the risk of maternal anaemia, low birth weight (LBW) and intrauterine growth retardation. There is little evidence on the cost-effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) in areas of low transmission. A randomised controlled trial with three arms was conducted in antenatal clinics in Kabale District, Uganda, an epidemic-prone highland area of low malaria transmission. The interventions were (i) IPTp with sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP) given twice during pregnancy (IPTp-SP); (ii) ITNs alone; and (iii) a combined intervention with both ITNs and IPTp-SP. Primary health outcomes were LBW and maternal anaemia. The costs of providing IPTp-SP and ITNs as well as treatment of malaria episodes were captured from all health centres in the study area. There were no significant differences in health outcomes among the three interventions. The cost-effectiveness analysis and sensitivity analyses performed did not provide convincing support for replacing IPTp-SP (current policy) by ITNs alone or by a combined intervention in this low transmission setting on economic grounds. The cost per pregnant woman of providing the services was lowest for the IPTp-SP intervention (US$0.79 per woman) followed by ITNs (US$1.71) and the combined intervention of IPTp-SP + ITNs (US$2.48). The relative cost-effectiveness of antenatal distribution of ITNs might improve if the cost savings accruing from continued use of a long-lasting insecticidal net after pregnancy as well as positive externalities were also taken into account, and this warrants further study. PMID:24030879

  8. Impregnating hessian strips with the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin prevents outdoor exposure to vectors of malaria and lymphatic filariasis in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Govella, Nicodem J; Ogoma, Sheila B; Paliga, John; Chaki, Prosper P; Killeen, Gerry

    2015-06-12

    Semi-field trials using laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis have shown that, delivering the volatile pyrethroid transfluthrin by absorption into hessian strips, consistently provided > 99% human protective efficacy against bites for 6 months without retreating. Here the impact of this approach upon human exposure to wild populations of vectors for both malaria and filariasis under full field conditions is assessed for the first time. Transfluthrin-treated and untreated strips were placed around human volunteers conducting human landing catch in an outdoor environment in urban Dar es Salaam, where much human exposure to malaria and filariasis transmission occurs outdoors. The experiment was replicated 9 times at 16 outdoor catching stations in 4 distinct locations over 72 working nights between May and August 2012. Overall, the treated hessian strips conferred 99% protection against An. gambiae (1 bite versus 159) and 92% protection against Culex spp. (1478 bites versus 18,602). No decline in efficacy over the course of the study could be detected for the very sparse populations of An. gambiae (P = 0.32) and only a slow efficacy decline was observed for Culex spp. (P < 0.001), with protection remaining satisfactory over 3 months after strip treatment. Diversion of mosquitoes to unprotected humans in nearby houses was neither detected for An. gambiae (P = 0.152) nor for Culex spp. (Relative rate, [95% CI] = 1.03, [0.95, 1.11], P = 0.499). While this study raises more questions than it answers, the presented evidence of high protection over long periods suggest this technology may have potential for preventing outdoor transmission of malaria, lymphatic filariasis and other vector-borne pathogens.

  9. Novel techniques and future directions in molecular diagnosis of malaria in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Oriero, Eniyou Cheryll; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Nwakanma, Davis C; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Jacobs, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite being preventable and treatable, malaria remains a global health concern with approximately 1.2 billion people at high risk of being infected, 90% of whom are in the resource-limited settings of sub-Saharan Africa. The continued decline in malaria cases globally has rekindled the possibility of elimination in certain regions. As humans constitute the main reservoir of malaria, prompt and accurate diagnosis by microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests is part not only of effective disease management but also of control measures. However, for malaria elimination, more sensitive diagnostic tools are needed to detect asymptomatic and sub-microscopic infections that contribute to transmission. Molecular techniques, which involve amplification of nucleic acids, are being developed and modified to suit this purpose. This report provides a summary of the nucleic acid amplification tests that are currently available for diagnosis of malaria, with current improvements and adaptations for use in resource-limited settings.

  10. [Malaria situation in the People's Republic of China in 1998].

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Notwithstanding there was a flood over the five provinces located at the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River, i.e. Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui and Jiangsu, in the summer and autumn of 1998, the prevalence of malaria in these areas was basically stable or slightly decreased as a result of timely implementing active and effective preventive measures. According to the case reporting system, the number of malaria cases of the whole nation totaled 31,319 in 1998, with a mean incidence of 2.53 per a hundred thousand, and 24 deaths. A decrease of 12.0% in incidence was revealed as compared with that in 1997. The county-based reckoning showed that absence of malaria cases or drop of the incidence to lower than 1@10000 was reported from areas in 2,774 counties with a coverage of 1.2016 billion people; areas with 30.6 million people distributed in 75 counties showed an incidence of 1.1-10@10000, and areas with 6.50 million people distributed in 27 counties showed an incidence of 10.1@10000-100@10000. Of the 17 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (P/A/M) where major malarious areas are located, 6 showed more or less increase in malaria incidence, particularly noteworthy for Hainan and Yunnan Provinces, where 5,043 and 12,988 malaria cases were reported respectively, accounting for 57.6% of the national total. However, the actual number of malaria cases of the two provinces was estimated to be ten folds the number of the reported cases. Malaria surveillance was performed in areas covering 1,298 counties in 17 P/A/M with a coverage of 589 million people. Blood examination on febrile patients for 8,712,454 man/time detected 27,090 cases positive for malaria parasite, showing a mean positive rate of 0.31%, of which the number of falciparum malaria cases was 4,042 (including mixed infections with vivax malaria, the same below), a proportion of 14.9% of the total parasite positives was exhibited. Altogether 597,111 targeted people, inhabitants in epidemic

  11. World Malaria Report: time to acknowledge Plasmodium knowlesi malaria.

    PubMed

    Barber, Bridget E; Rajahram, Giri S; Grigg, Matthew J; William, Timothy; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2017-03-31

    The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report. Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation. The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

  12. A new strategy and its effect on adherence to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few women in Uganda access intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Previous studies have shown that high costs, frequent stock-out of drugs, supplies and poor quality of care are the greatest hindrance for women to access health services. In order to increase adherence to IPTp, we conceptualised an intervention that offset delivery care costs through providing a mama kit, created awareness on health benefits of IPTp and built trust between the provider and the client. Methods The new strategy was conceived along four constructs namely: 1) creating awareness by training midwives to explain the benefits of SP and the importance of adhering to the two doses of SP as IPTp to all pregnant women who attended ANC and consented to the study. Midwives were trained for two days in customer care and to provide a friendly environment. The pregnant women were also informed of the benefits of attending ANC and delivering at health facilities. 2) Each woman was promised a mama kit during ANC; 3) trust was built by showing the mama kit to each woman and branding it with her name; 4) keeping the promise by providing the mama kit when women came to deliver. The strategy to increase adherence to two doses of SP and encourage women to deliver at health facilities was implemented at two health facilities in Mukono district (Kawolo hospital and Mukono health centre IV). The inclusion criteria were women who: i) consented to the study and ii) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. All pregnant women in the second trimester (4-6 months gestation) who attended ANC and consented to participate in the study were informed of the benefits of SP, the importance of delivering at health facilities, were advised to attend the scheduled visits, promised a mama kit and ensured the kit was available at delivery. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women adhering to a two dose SP regimen. Results A total of 2

  13. A new strategy and its effect on adherence to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Yanow, Stephanie; Birungi, Josephine; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-09-21

    Few women in Uganda access intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP). Previous studies have shown that high costs, frequent stock-out of drugs, supplies and poor quality of care are the greatest hindrance for women to access health services. In order to increase adherence to IPTp, we conceptualised an intervention that offset delivery care costs through providing a mama kit, created awareness on health benefits of IPTp and built trust between the provider and the client. The new strategy was conceived along four constructs namely: 1) creating awareness by training midwives to explain the benefits of SP and the importance of adhering to the two doses of SP as IPTp to all pregnant women who attended ANC and consented to the study. Midwives were trained for two days in customer care and to provide a friendly environment. The pregnant women were also informed of the benefits of attending ANC and delivering at health facilities. 2) Each woman was promised a mama kit during ANC; 3) trust was built by showing the mama kit to each woman and branding it with her name; 4) keeping the promise by providing the mama kit when women came to deliver. The strategy to increase adherence to two doses of SP and encourage women to deliver at health facilities was implemented at two health facilities in Mukono district (Kawolo hospital and Mukono health centre IV). The inclusion criteria were women who: i) consented to the study and ii) were in the second trimester of pregnancy. All pregnant women in the second trimester (4-6 months gestation) who attended ANC and consented to participate in the study were informed of the benefits of SP, the importance of delivering at health facilities, were advised to attend the scheduled visits, promised a mama kit and ensured the kit was available at delivery. The primary outcome was the proportion of pregnant women adhering to a two dose SP regimen. A total of 2,276 women received the first

  14. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.

    PubMed

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E; Walker, Edward D

    2014-06-06

    Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts.

  15. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. Methods We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Results Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts. PMID:24903736

  16. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge.

    PubMed

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-11-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children.

  17. Malaria in school-age children in Africa: an increasingly important challenge

    PubMed Central

    Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Brooker, Simon J; Clarke, Sian E; Fernando, Deepika; Gitonga, Caroline W; Schellenberg, David; Greenwood, Brian

    2014-01-01

    School-age children have attracted relatively little attention as a group in need of special measures to protect them against malaria. However, increasing success in lowering the level of malaria transmission in many previously highly endemic areas will result in children acquiring immunity to malaria later in life than has been the case in the past. Thus, it can be anticipated that in the coming years there will be an increase in the incidence of both uncomplicated and severe malaria in school-age children in many previously highly endemic areas. In this review, which focuses primarily on Africa, recent data on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and on the incidence of clinical malaria in African school-age children are presented and evidence that malaria adversely effects school performance is reviewed. Long-lasting insecticide treated bednets (LLIN) are an effective method of malaria control but several studies have shown that school-age children use LLINs less frequently than other population groups. Antimalarial drugs are being used in different ways to control malaria in school-age children including screening and treatment and intermittent preventive treatment. Some studies of chemoprevention in school-age children have shown reductions in anaemia and improved school performance but this has not been the case in all trials and more research is needed to identify the situations in which chemoprevention is likely to be most effective and, in these situations, which type of intervention should be used. In the longer term, malaria vaccines may have an important role in protecting this important section of the community from malaria. Regardless of the control approach selected, it is important this is incorporated into the overall programme of measures being undertaken to enhance the health of African school-age children. PMID:25145389

  18. Measuring the association between artemisinin-based case management and malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, 1991-2010.

    PubMed

    Peak, Corey M; Thuan, Phung Duc; Britton, Amadea; Nguyen, Tran Dang; Wolbers, Marcel; Thanh, Ngo Viet; Buckee, Caroline O; Boni, Maciej F

    2015-04-01

    In addition to being effective, fast-acting, and well tolerated, artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are able to kill certain transmission stages of the malaria parasite. However, the population-level impacts of ACTs on reducing malaria transmission have been difficult to assess. In this study on the history of malaria control in Vietnam, we assemble annual reporting on malaria case counts, coverage with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), and drug purchases by provincial malaria control programs from 1991 to 2010 in Vietnam's 20 southern provinces. We observe a significant negative association between artemisinin use and malaria incidence, with a 10% absolute increase in the purchase proportion of artemisinin-containing regimens being associated with a 29.1% (95% confidence interval: 14.8-41.0%) reduction in slide-confirmed malaria incidence, after accounting for changes in urbanization, ITN/IRS coverage, and two indicators of health system capacity. One budget-related indicator of health system capacity was found to have a smaller association with malaria incidence, and no other significant factors were found. Our findings suggest that including an artemisinin component in malaria drug regimens was strongly associated with reduced malaria incidence in southern Vietnam, whereas changes in urbanization and coverage with ITN or IRS were not.

  19. Insecticide-treated plastic sheeting for emergency malaria prevention and shelter among displaced populations: an observational cohort study in a refugee setting in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Burns, Matthew; Rowland, Mark; N'guessan, Raphael; Carneiro, Ilona; Beeche, Arlyne; Ruiz, Stefani Sesler; Kamara, Sarian; Takken, Willem; Carnevale, Pierre; Allan, Richard

    2012-08-01

    A double-blind phase III malaria prevention trial was conducted in two refugee camps using pre-manufactured insecticide-treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) or untreated polyethylene sheeting (UPS) randomly deployed to defined sectors of each camp. In Largo camp the ITPS or UPS was attached to inner walls and ceilings of shelters, whereas in Tobanda the ITPS or UPS was used to line only the ceiling and roof. In Largo the Plasmodium falciparum incidence rate in children up to 3 years of age who were cleared of parasites and monitored for 8 months was 163/100 person-years under UPS and 63 under ITPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.47). In Tobanda incidence was 157/100 person-years under UPS and 134 under ITPS (AOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95). Protective efficacy was 61% under fully lined ITPS and 15% under roof lined ITPS. Anemia rates improved under ITPS in both camps. This novel tool proved to be a convenient, safe, and long-lasting method of malaria control when used as a full shelter lining in an emergency setting.

  20. Factors affecting uptake of optimal doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in six districts of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Exavery, Amon; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Mbuyita, Selemani; Makemba, Ahmed; Kinyonge, Iddajovana P; Kweka, Hadija

    2014-01-14

    Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with optimal doses (two+) of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) protects pregnant women from malaria-related adverse outcomes. This study assesses the extent and predictors of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP in six districts of Tanzania. The data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in six districts in Tanzania in 2012. A total of 1,267 women, with children aged less than two years and who had sought antenatal care (ANC) at least once during pregnancy, were selected for the current analysis. Data analysis involved the use of Chi-Square (χ2) for associations and multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR = 6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR = 4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P < 0.05). Counseling to pregnant women on the dangers of malaria in pregnancy and formal education beyond primary school is important to enhance uptake of optimal doses of SP for malaria control in pregnancy in Tanzania. ANC initiation in the first trimester should be promoted to enhance coverage of optimal doses of IPTp-SP. Programmes should aim to curb

  1. Factors affecting uptake of optimal doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in six districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with optimal doses (two+) of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) protects pregnant women from malaria-related adverse outcomes. This study assesses the extent and predictors of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP in six districts of Tanzania. Methods The data come from a cross-sectional survey of random households conducted in six districts in Tanzania in 2012. A total of 1,267 women, with children aged less than two years and who had sought antenatal care (ANC) at least once during pregnancy, were selected for the current analysis. Data analysis involved the use of Chi-Square (χ2) for associations and multivariate analysis was performed using multinomial logistic regression. Results Overall, 43.6% and 28.5% of the women received optimal (two+) and partial (one) doses of IPTp-SP respectively during pregnancy. Having had been counseled on the dangers of malaria during pregnancy was the most pervasive determinant of both optimal (RRR = 6.47, 95% CI 4.66-8.97) and partial (RRR = 4.24, 95% CI 3.00-6.00) uptake of IPTp-SP doses. Early ANC initiation was associated with a higher likelihood of uptake of optimal doses of IPTp-SP (RRR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.18-3.57). Also, women with secondary or higher education were almost twice as likely as those who had never been to school to have received optimal SP doses during pregnancy (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI 1.04-3.56). Being married was associated with a 60% decline in the partial uptake of IPTp-SP (RRR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). Inter-district variations in the uptake of both optimal and partial IPTp-SP doses existed (P < 0.05). Conclusion Counseling to pregnant women on the dangers of malaria in pregnancy and formal education beyond primary school is important to enhance uptake of optimal doses of SP for malaria control in pregnancy in Tanzania. ANC initiation in the first trimester should be promoted to enhance coverage of optimal doses of IPTp

  2. Measuring preventive procedures by French GPs: an observational survey

    PubMed Central

    Blanquet, Marie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Noirfalise, Chantal; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Campagne, Claude; Malaval, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Background Prevention has become a legal obligation for French GPs, since a law was passed in March 2002. Aim