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Sample records for malaria vector larvae

  1. Habitat hydrology and geomorphology control the distribution of malaria vector larvae in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andrew J; Gamarra, Javier G P; Cross, Dónall E; Macklin, Mark G; Smith, Mark W; Kihonda, Japhet; Killeen, Gerry F; Ling'ala, George N; Thomas, Chris J

    2013-01-01

    Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools.

  2. Habitat Hydrology and Geomorphology Control the Distribution of Malaria Vector Larvae in Rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Andrew J.; Gamarra, Javier G. P.; Cross, Dónall E.; Macklin, Mark G.; Smith, Mark W.; Kihonda, Japhet; Killeen, Gerry F.; Ling’ala, George N.; Thomas, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Larval source management is a promising component of integrated malaria control and elimination. This requires development of a framework to target productive locations through process-based understanding of habitat hydrology and geomorphology. Methods We conducted the first catchment scale study of fine resolution spatial and temporal variation in Anopheles habitat and productivity in relation to rainfall, hydrology and geomorphology for a high malaria transmission area of Tanzania. Results Monthly aggregates of rainfall, river stage and water table were not significantly related to the abundance of vector larvae. However, these metrics showed strong explanatory power to predict mosquito larval abundances after stratification by water body type, with a clear seasonal trend for each, defined on the basis of its geomorphological setting and origin. Conclusion Hydrological and geomorphological processes governing the availability and productivity of Anopheles breeding habitat need to be understood at the local scale for which larval source management is implemented in order to effectively target larval source interventions. Mapping and monitoring these processes is a well-established practice providing a tractable way forward for developing important malaria management tools. PMID:24312606

  3. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2012-12-03

    Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools.

  4. Toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage on the larvae of the African malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oils are currently studied for the control of different disease vectors, because of their efficacy on targeted organisms. In the present investigation, the larvicidal potential of essential oil extracted from Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) was studied against the African anthropophagic malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The larvae of An. gambiae s.s laboratory colony and An. gambiae s.l of wild populations were assayed and the larval mortality was observed at 12, 24 and 48 h after exposure period with the concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ppm. Findings Larval mortality rates of the essential oil was entirely time and dose dependent. The LC50 values of the laboratory colony were 98.56 (after 12h) 55.20 (after 24 h) and 32.41 ppm (after 48 h) and the LC90 values were 147.40 (after 12h), 99.09 (after 24 h) and 98.84 ppm (after 48 h). The LC50 and LC90 values of the wild population were 119.52, 179.85 (after 12h) 67.53, 107.60 (after 24 h) and 25.51, 111.17 ppm (after 48 h) respectively. The oil showed good larvicidal potential after 48 h of exposure period against An. gambiae. The essential oil of Indian borage is a renowned natural source of larvicides for the control of the African malaria vector mosquito, An. gambiae. Conclusion The larvicidal efficacy shown by plant extracts against An. gambiae should be tested in semi field and small scale trials for effective compounds to supplement the existing larval control tools. PMID:23206364

  5. Screening for feeding deterrent activity of herbal extracts against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz

    2011-09-01

    subsp. israelensis is widely accepted as a biological pesticide because of its highly specific activity against dipteran insects without adverse effects on other organisms. The feeding deterrent activity of different herbal extracts against the larvae of malaria vector A. subpictus exhibited significantly lower toxicity compare with the bio larvicides, B. thuringiensis. These results suggest that the methanol extract of A. lineata, C. indium, the hexane extract of A. lineata and D. metal have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the medically important vector A. subpictus. These findings corroborate traditional insecticidal application of selected plants and the results can be extended for the control of mosquitoes.

  6. Insecticide-treated nets against malaria vectors and polystyrene beads against Culex larvae.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Chris

    2005-11-01

    In Parasitology Today in 1985, Curtis and Lines, and Curtis and Minjas presented the ideas of insecticide-treated nets and polystyrene beads for mosquito control. The former idea has grown to be a major component of the strategy for malaria prevention, especially in Africa. However, although polystyrene beads have been demonstrated to work extremely well, they have yet to be taken up on a major scale.

  7. Vector control after malaria eradication

    PubMed Central

    Micks, D. W.

    1963-01-01

    In considerable areas now in or near the consolidation phase of malaria eradication, other vector-borne diseases present serious public health problems, even though not susceptible to control on the same world-wide scale as malaria. Several of these areas are already making plans for converting their malaria eradication services to vector control services. While it is possible to use essentially the same personnel and equipment, the methods must be adapted to the biology and habits of the vector. For a smooth and rapid transition, considerable advance planning is therefore needed—preferably well ahead of the consolidation phase. The author gives several examples of the need for flexibility in effecting the changeover and of the problems likely to arise after the completion of malaria eradication programmes. He recommends that epidemiological studies should be extended to vector-borne diseases other than malaria while eradication programmes are still in progress and that vector control programmes should be integrated into the basic health services of the country as soon as possible. He also underlines the importance of water management and other aspects of environmental sanitation in vector control programmes. PMID:20604169

  8. Predatory capacity of a shorefly, Ochthera chalybescens, on malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Futami, Kyoko; Sonye, George; Akweywa, Peter; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Since Ochthera chalybescens had been reported to prey on African malaria vectors, the predatory capacity of adults of this species on Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was explored. Method Predatory capacity of this fly on A. gambiae s.s. was tested at all developmental stages, including the adult stage in the laboratory setting. Effects of water depth on its predatory capacity were also examined. Results This study revealed that O. chalybescens preyed on mosquitoes at all life stages except eggs. It was able to prey on an average of 9.8 to 18.8 mosquito larvae in 24 hrs. Mosquito larva size and water depth did not affect predatory capacity. However, the predacious fly preyed on significantly more 2nd-instar larvae than on pupae when larvae and pupae were both available. Conclusion Ochthera chalybescens is, by all indications, an important predator of African malaria vectors. PMID:17683604

  9. Study on Fungal Flora in the Midgut of the Larva and Adult of the Different Populations of the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Tajedin, L; Hashemi, J; Abaei, MR; Hosseinpour, L; Rafei, F; Basseri, HR

    2009-01-01

    Background Many microorganisms in midgut of mosquito challenge with their host and also other pathogens present in midgut. The aim of this study was presence of non-pathogens microorganisms like fungal flora which may be crucial on interaction between vectors and pathogens. Methods: Different populations of Anopheles stephensi were reared in insectary and objected to determine fungal flora in their midguts. The midgut paunch of mosquito adults and larvae as well as breading water and larval food samples transferred on Subaru-dextrose agar, in order to detect the environment fungus. Results: Although four fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Geotrichum and Sacharomyces were found in the food and water, but only Aspiragilus observed in the midgut of larvae. No fungus was found in the midgut of adults. This is the first report on fungal flora in the midgut of the adults and larvae of An. stephensi and possible stadial transmission of fungi from immature stages to adults. Conclusion: The midgut environment of adults is not compatible for survivorship of fungi but the larval midgut may contain few fungi as a host or even pathogen. PMID:22808370

  10. [Research progress on malaria vector control].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guo-Ding; Cao, Jun; Zhou, Hua-Yun; Gao, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Vector control plays a crucial role in the stages of malaria control and elimination. Currently, it mainly relies on the chemical control methods for adult mosquitoes in malaria endemic areas, however, it is undergoing the serious threat by insecticide resistance. In recent years, the transgenic technologies of malaria vectors have made a great progress in the laboratory. This paper reviews the challenges of the traditional methods and the rapid developed genetic modified technology in the application of vector control.

  11. Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification

    PubMed Central

    HARRISON, BRUCE A.; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; PECOR, JAMES E.; WILKERSON, RICHARD C.

    2015-01-01

    The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are actually An. pholidotus. Our specimens are the first correctly associated females of An. lepidotus, which allow us to provide a new morphological interpretation for the adult habitus of this species. This finding is also corroborated by molecular data from a portion of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (rDNA ITS2). The pupal stage of An. lepidotus is described for the first time, and additional larval characters are also noted. Diagnostic morphological characters for the adult, pupal, and larval stages of An. pholidotus are provided to separate the two species. All stages of An. lepidotus are easily separated from other currently known species in subgenus Kerteszia and a new key to the females of An. (Kerteszia) is given. Previously published distribution, bionomics, and medical significance data are corrected and enhanced. PMID:26726290

  12. Biosurveillance and morphological variations of larvae and pupae of common malaria vectors, Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus group species in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-01-01

    A total of 4,576 Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group larvae belonging to 6 species (An. belenrae, An. kleini, An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri, and An. sineroides) were collected from 7 different habitat types in 3 provinces of the Republic of Korea. The occurrence and relative abundance of 6 Anopheles species were noted. The descriptions in the article of the waxy body ornamentations or patterns of An. (Ano.) Hyrcanus Group larvae and pupae may be useful for rapid field species identification when conducting larval mosquito surveillance.

  13. SIT for African malaria vectors: Epilogue

    PubMed Central

    Townson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    As a result of increased support and the diligent application of new and conventional anti-malaria tools, significant reductions in malaria transmission are being accomplished. Historical and current evolutionary responses of vectors and parasites to malaria interventions demonstrate that it is unwise to assume that a limited suite of tools will remain effective indefinitely, thus efforts to develop new interventions should continue. This collection of manuscripts surveys the prospects and technical challenges for applying a novel tool, the sterile insect technique (SIT), against mosquitoes that transmit malaria. The method has been very successful against many agricultural pest insects in area-wide programs, but demonstrations against malaria vectors have not been sufficient to determine its potential relative to current alternatives, much of which will hinge ultimately upon cost. These manuscripts provide an overview of current efforts to develop SIT and identify key research issues that remain. PMID:19917071

  14. Malaria vector control: from past to future.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Sharma, Poonam; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most common vector-borne diseases widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions. Despite considerable success of malaria control programs in the past, malaria still continues as a major public health problem in several countries. Vector control is an essential part for reducing malaria transmission and became less effective in recent years, due to many technical and administrative reasons, including poor or no adoption of alternative tools. Of the different strategies available for vector control, the most successful are indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), including long-lasting ITNs and materials. Earlier DDT spray has shown spectacular success in decimating disease vectors but resulted in development of insecticide resistance, and to control the resistant mosquitoes, organophosphates, carbamates, and synthetic pyrethroids were introduced in indoor residual spraying with needed success but subsequently resulted in the development of widespread multiple insecticide resistance in vectors. Vector control in many countries still use insecticides in the absence of viable alternatives. Few developments for vector control, using ovitraps, space spray, biological control agents, etc., were encouraging when used in limited scale. Likewise, recent introduction of safer vector control agents, such as insect growth regulators, biocontrol agents, and natural plant products have yet to gain the needed scale of utility for vector control. Bacterial pesticides are promising and are effective in many countries. Environmental management has shown sufficient promise for vector control and disease management but still needs advocacy for inter-sectoral coordination and sometimes are very work-intensive. The more recent genetic manipulation and sterile insect techniques are under development and consideration for use in routine vector control and for these, standardized procedures and methods are available but need thorough

  15. Bionomics of the Primary Malaria Vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, in the Tapachula Foothill Area of Southern Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-04

    populations, host- seeking behavior and ma1aria infection rates 4. Characteristics of breeding sites, and abundance of larvae These topics are...species is crepuscular in its host- seeking behavior (Elliot, 1972) and seems to be an effective malaria vector only when population densities are high...transmits ma1aria at much lower vector densities. Although the patterns of host- seeking behavior seem to be important components of vector competence, we do

  16. The biological control of the malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-09-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.

  17. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

    PubMed Central

    Kamareddine, Layla

    2012-01-01

    The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes. PMID:23105979

  18. Malaria vector species in Colombia - A review

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Lerma, James; Solarte, Yezid A; Giraldo-Calderón, Gloria Isabel; Quiñones, Martha L; Ruiz-López, Freddy; Wilkerson, Richard C; González, Ranulfo

    2016-01-01

    Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the vectorial importance of the major Anopheles malaria vectors in Colombia. We provide basic information on the geographical distribution, altitudinal range, immature habitats, adult behaviour, feeding preferences and anthropophily, endophily and infectivity rates. We additionally review information on the life cycle, longevity and population fluctuation of Colombian Anopheles species. Emphasis was placed on the primary vectors that have been epidemiologically incriminated in malaria transmission: Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles nuneztovari. The role of a selection of local, regional or secondary vectors (e.g., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles neivai) is also discussed. We highlight the importance of combining biological, morphological and molecular data for the correct taxonomical determination of a given species, particularly for members of the species complexes. We likewise emphasise the importance of studying the bionomics of primary and secondary vectors along with an examination of the local conditions affecting the transmission of malaria. The presence and spread of the major vectors and the emergence of secondary species capable of transmitting human Plasmodia are of great interest. When selecting control measures, the anopheline diversity in the region must be considered. Variation in macroclimate conditions over a species’ geographical range must be well understood and targeted to plan effective control measures based on the population dynamics of the local Anopheles species. PMID:21881778

  19. Population structure of an island malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Foley, D H; Torres, E P

    2006-12-01

    The impact of islands on the population structure of Anopheles flavirostris (Ludlow) (Diptera: Culicidae), the primary malaria vector in the Philippines, was assessed. A phylogenetic analysis of 16 cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) haplotypes revealed three clades: one basal clade containing genetically disparate haplotypes from Mindanao, and two derived clades, one of which was largely confined to the largest island, Luzon, and one that was widespread except for Luzon. For the Luzon clade, nested clade analysis revealed an isolation-by-distance effect, and a mismatch distribution analysis diagnosed a recent demographic expansion (sum of squared deviation, SDD = 0.0093, P= 0.075), which mirrors demographic attributes found in mainland primary malaria vectors and could inflate estimates of gene flow from F(ST). For the widespread clade, evidence of range expansion and past fragmentation and/or long distance colonization from the Visayas or Mindanao to Palawan is suggested. A south-to-north range expansion of An. flavirostris is suggested; estimates of coalescence for the Luzon clade was 214 000 years ago (ya) (95% confidence interval 35 600-298 000 ya), i.e. late Pleistocene. Present day rather than Pleistocene island association and some, but not all, sea barriers appeared to be important for An. flavirostris population structure. Our results suggest that endemic island malaria vector species need to be considered before any generalizations are made about the population structure of primary and secondary vectors.

  20. Linking Deforestation to Malaria in the Amazon: Characterization of the Breeding Habitat of the Principal Malaria Vector, Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    Vittor, Amy Y.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Tielsch, James; Glass, Gregory; Shields, Tim; Sánchez-Lozano, Wagner; Pinedo, Viviana V.; Salas-Cobos, Erit; Flores, Silvia; Patz, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the larval breeding habitat of a major South American malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, in areas with varying degrees of ecologic alteration in the Peruvian Amazon. Water bodies were repeatedly sampled across 112 km of transects along the Iquitos-Nauta road in ecologically varied areas. Field data and satellite imagery were used to determine the landscape composition surrounding each site. Seventeen species of Anopheles larvae were collected. Anopheles darlingi larvae were present in 87 of 844 sites (10.3%). Sites with A. darlingi larvae had an average of 24.1% forest cover, compared with 41.0% for sites without A. darlingi (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified seasonality, algae, water body size, presence of human populations, and the amount of forest and secondary growth as significant determinants of A. darlingi presence. We conclude that deforestation and associated ecologic alterations are conducive to A. darlingi larval presence, and thereby increase malaria risk. PMID:19556558

  1. Viral paratransgenesis in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaoxia; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Rasgon, Jason L

    2008-08-22

    Paratransgenesis, the genetic manipulation of insect symbiotic microorganisms, is being considered as a potential method to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria. The feasibility of paratransgenic malaria control has been hampered by the lack of candidate symbiotic microorganisms for the major vector Anopheles gambiae. In other systems, densonucleosis viruses (DNVs) are attractive agents for viral paratransgenesis because they infect important vector insects, can be genetically manipulated and are transmitted to subsequent generations. However, An. gambiae has been shown to be refractory to DNV dissemination. We discovered, cloned and characterized the first known DNV (AgDNV) capable of infection and dissemination in An. gambiae. We developed a flexible AgDNV-based expression vector to express any gene of interest in An. gambiae using a two-plasmid helper-transducer system. To demonstrate proof-of-concept of the viral paratransgenesis strategy, we used this system to transduce expression of an exogenous gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein; EGFP) in An. gambiae mosquitoes. Wild-type and EGFP-transducing AgDNV virions were highly infectious to An. gambiae larvae, disseminated to and expressed EGFP in epidemiologically relevant adult tissues such as midgut, fat body and ovaries and were transmitted to subsequent mosquito generations. These proof-of-principle data suggest that AgDNV could be used as part of a paratransgenic malaria control strategy by transduction of anti-Plasmodium peptides or insect-specific toxins in Anopheles mosquitoes. AgDNV will also be extremely valuable as an effective and easy-to-use laboratory tool for transient gene expression or RNAi in An. gambiae.

  2. A global map of dominant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Global maps, in particular those based on vector distributions, have long been used to help visualise the global extent of malaria. Few, however, have been created with the support of a comprehensive and extensive evidence-based approach. Methods Here we describe the generation of a global map of the dominant vector species (DVS) of malaria that makes use of predicted distribution maps for individual species or species complexes. Results Our global map highlights the spatial variability in the complexity of the vector situation. In Africa, An. gambiae, An. arabiensis and An. funestus are co-dominant across much of the continent, whereas in the Asian-Pacific region there is a highly complex situation with multi-species coexistence and variable species dominance. Conclusions The competence of the mapping methodology to accurately portray DVS distributions is discussed. The comprehensive and contemporary database of species-specific spatial occurrence (currently available on request) will be made directly available via the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) website from early 2012. PMID:22475528

  3. Evaluation of Commercial Agrochemicals as New Tools for Malaria Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Hoppé, Mark; Hueter, Ottmar F; Bywater, Andy; Wege, Philip; Maienfisch, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne and life-threatening disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. The vector control insecticide market represents a small fraction of the crop protection market and is estimated to be valued at up to $500 million at the active ingredient level. Insecticide resistance towards the current WHOPES-approved products urgently requires the development of new tools to protect communities against the transmission of malaria. The evaluation of commercial products for malaria vector control is a viable and cost effective strategy to identify new malaria vector control products. Several examples of such spin-offs from crop protection insecticides are already evidencing the success of this strategy, namely pirimiphos-methyl for indoor residual sprays and spinosad, diflubenzuron, novaluron, and pyriproxifen for mosquito larvae control, a supplementary technology for control of malaria vectors. In our study the adulticidal activities of 81 insecticides representing 23 insecticidal modes of action classes, 34 fungicides from 6 fungicidal mode of action classes and 15 herbicides from 2 herbicidal modes of action classes were tested in a newly developed screening system. WHOPES approved insecticides for malaria vector control consistently caused 80-100% mortality of adult Anopheles stephensi at application rates between 0.2 and 20 mg active ingradient (AI) litre(-1). Chlorfenapyr, fipronil, carbosulfan and endosulfan showed the expected good activity. Four new insecticides and three fungicides with promising activity against adult mosquitoes were identified, namely the insecticides acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, thiocyclam and metaflumizone and the fungicides diflumetorin, picoxystrobin, and fluazinam. Some of these compounds certainly deserve to be further evaluated for malaria vector control. This is the first report describing good activity of commercial fungicides against malaria

  4. Malaria vector research and control in Haiti: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Joseph; Saint Jean, Yvan; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Dotson, Ellen M; Mace, Kimberly E; Chang, Michelle; Slutsker, Laurence; Le Menach, Arnaud; Beier, John C; Eisele, Thomas P; Okech, Bernard A; Beau de Rochars, Valery Madsen; Carter, Keith H; Keating, Joseph; Impoinvil, Daniel E

    2016-07-22

    Haiti has a set a target of eliminating malaria by 2020. However, information on malaria vector research in Haiti is not well known. This paper presents results from a systematic review of the literature on malaria vector research, bionomics and control in Haiti. A systematic search of literature published in French, Spanish and English languages was conducted in 2015 using Pubmed (MEDLINE), Google Scholar, EMBASE, JSTOR WHOLIS and Web of Science databases as well other grey literature sources such as USAID, and PAHO. The following search terms were used: malaria, Haiti, Anopheles, and vector control. A total of 132 references were identified with 40 high quality references deemed relevant and included in this review. Six references dealt with mosquito distribution, seven with larval mosquito ecology, 16 with adult mosquito ecology, three with entomological indicators of malaria transmission, eight with insecticide resistance, one with sero-epidemiology and 16 with vector control. In the last 15 years (2000-2015), there have only been four published papers and three-scientific meeting abstracts on entomology for malaria in Haiti. Overall, the general literature on malaria vector research in Haiti is limited and dated. Entomological information generated from past studies in Haiti will contribute to the development of strategies to achieve malaria elimination on Hispaniola. However it is of paramount importance that malaria vector research in Haiti is updated to inform decision-making for vector control strategies in support of malaria elimination.

  5. Life on the edge: African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae s. l.) larvae are amphibious

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James R.; Huang, Juan; Vulule, John; Walker, Edward D.

    2007-03-01

    Anopheles gambiae s.l. is the main vector of malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Here, an estimated 1 million people die every year from this disease. Despite considerable research on An. gambiae that increasingly explores sub-organismal phenomena, important facets of the field biology of this deadly insect are yet being discovered. In the current study, we used simple observational tools to reveal that the habitat of larval An. gambiae is not limited within the boundaries of temporary mud puddles, as has been the accepted generalization. Thus, control tactics aimed at immatures must consider zones larger than puddles per se. In fact, eggs are more likely to be found outside than inside puddles. Eggs can develop and larvae can emerge on mud. Larvae are then capable of three distinct modes of terrestrial displacement (two active and one passive), whereby, they can reach standing water. On mud bearing a film of water, larvae actively displace backwards by sinusoidal undulations shown to be only a slight variation of the swimming motor program. On drying mud, larvae switch to a slower and forward form of active locomotion resembling that of a crawling caterpillar. During rains, small larvae may be passively displaced by flowing rainwater so as to be deposited into puddles. These capabilities for being amphibious, along with very rapid growth and development, help explain how An. gambiae thrives in a highly uncertain and often hostile larval environment.

  6. Topographic models for predicting malaria vector breeding habitats: potential tools for vector control managers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of malaria vector breeding sites can enhance control activities. Although associations between malaria vector breeding sites and topography are well recognized, practical models that predict breeding sites from topographic information are lacking. We used topographic variables derived from remotely sensed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to model the breeding sites of malaria vectors. We further compared the predictive strength of two different DEMs and evaluated the predictability of various habitat types inhabited by Anopheles larvae. Methods Using GIS techniques, topographic variables were extracted from two DEMs: 1) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 3 (SRTM3, 90-m resolution) and 2) the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER, 30-m resolution). We used data on breeding sites from an extensive field survey conducted on an island in western Kenya in 2006. Topographic variables were extracted for 826 breeding sites and for 4520 negative points that were randomly assigned. Logistic regression modelling was applied to characterize topographic features of the malaria vector breeding sites and predict their locations. Model accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results All topographic variables derived from both DEMs were significantly correlated with breeding habitats except for the aspect of SRTM. The magnitude and direction of correlation for each variable were similar in the two DEMs. Multivariate models for SRTM and ASTER showed similar levels of fit indicated by Akaike information criterion (3959.3 and 3972.7, respectively), though the former was slightly better than the latter. The accuracy of prediction indicated by AUC was also similar in SRTM (0.758) and ASTER (0.755) in the training site. In the testing site, both SRTM and ASTER models showed higher AUC in the testing sites than in the training site (0.829 and 0.799, respectively). The

  7. Topographic models for predicting malaria vector breeding habitats: potential tools for vector control managers.

    PubMed

    Nmor, Jephtha C; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Goto, Kensuke; Futami, Kyoko; Sonye, George; Akweywa, Peter; Dida, Gabriel; Minakawa, Noboru

    2013-01-16

    Identification of malaria vector breeding sites can enhance control activities. Although associations between malaria vector breeding sites and topography are well recognized, practical models that predict breeding sites from topographic information are lacking. We used topographic variables derived from remotely sensed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) to model the breeding sites of malaria vectors. We further compared the predictive strength of two different DEMs and evaluated the predictability of various habitat types inhabited by Anopheles larvae. Using GIS techniques, topographic variables were extracted from two DEMs: 1) Shuttle Radar Topography Mission 3 (SRTM3, 90-m resolution) and 2) the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER, 30-m resolution). We used data on breeding sites from an extensive field survey conducted on an island in western Kenya in 2006. Topographic variables were extracted for 826 breeding sites and for 4520 negative points that were randomly assigned. Logistic regression modelling was applied to characterize topographic features of the malaria vector breeding sites and predict their locations. Model accuracy was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). All topographic variables derived from both DEMs were significantly correlated with breeding habitats except for the aspect of SRTM. The magnitude and direction of correlation for each variable were similar in the two DEMs. Multivariate models for SRTM and ASTER showed similar levels of fit indicated by Akaike information criterion (3959.3 and 3972.7, respectively), though the former was slightly better than the latter. The accuracy of prediction indicated by AUC was also similar in SRTM (0.758) and ASTER (0.755) in the training site. In the testing site, both SRTM and ASTER models showed higher AUC in the testing sites than in the training site (0.829 and 0.799, respectively). The predictability of habitat types

  8. Malaria Vectors in Lake Victoria and Adjacent Habitats in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O.; Sonye, George O.; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control. PMID:22412913

  9. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George O; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  10. Field effectiveness of microbial larvicides on mosquito larvae in malaria areas of Botswana and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Mulamuli; Becker, Piet; Mudambo, Kaka; de Jager, Christiaan

    2016-12-06

    The successful control of malaria vectors requires the control of both the larval and adult stages. The adult control methods through indoor residual spraying (IRS) and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) continue to be widely used with some high measure of success. Larval control methods are also being used by a number of National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) with limited understanding of its contribution. Larval control might be needed in some areas to move from malaria control to elimination. This experimental study was conducted to assess the field effectiveness of winter larviciding on the larval stages of the mosquito in Botswana and Zimbabwe. Two villages were selected in each of the two countries, one as an intervention and the other as the control. Water bodies in the intervention villages were treated using the commercial product VectoBac(®) WG (Valent BioSciences Corporation, IL, USA) containing the active ingredient Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), a WHO recommended bio-larvicide, applied at a rate of 300 g per hectare. Random-effects Poisson regression was employed during data analysis to compare intervention with control sites with respect to larval counts. The average marginal effect of larviciding on the mosquito larvae taking interaction with time (period) into account, was -1.94 (95% CI -2.42 to -1.46) with incidence rate ratio of 0.14, thus an 86% larval reduction attributable to the intervention for both countries combined. There was a 92% and 65% effect for Botswana and Zimbabwe respectively. The effect on the early larval and late stages was 77% (P < 0.001) and 91% (P < 0.001), respectively. Overall, intervention larval sampling points had five more larvae than the control at baseline and 26 less after 16 weeks. The effect on the different species also showed similar trends. Larval control using Bti showed a high effect on the population of the mosquito larvae. The reduction of the early and late larval

  11. Anopheles (Anopheles) Calderoni n.sp., A Malaria Vector of the Arribalzagia Series from Peru (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    ountered only at elevations below 250 m. The larvae are found in small streams, small ir- rigation canals and swamps, mostly in dense emergent...tions. REFERENCES CITED Calderon, G., A. Curaca, J. Llancari, M. Napan and F. Sipan. 1974. Distribucion geografica de los vectores de malaria en el

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  13. Mosquito larvicidal potential of potash alum against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston).

    PubMed

    Preet, Shabad; Seema, K C

    2010-10-01

    Mosquito larviciding may prove to be an effective tool for incorporating into integrated vector management strategies for reducing malaria transmission. Here, we report the potential of potash alum, a traditionally known salt in Indian Ayurveda and Chinese medicine system, in malaria vector control by evaluating its aqueous suspension as larvicide and growth disruptor of Anopheles stephensi, under laboratory conditions. Immature stages of the mosquito were tested using WHO guidelines. 50 and 90% lethal concentrations among various larvae ranged between 2.1 to 48.74 ppm and 15.78 to 93.11 ppm, respectively. The results indicated that larvicidal effects of potash alum were comparable to various biological and chemical insecticides. The study provides considerable scope in exploiting local indigenous resources for the control of nuisance mosquito vectors.

  14. Oral, Slow-Release Ivermectin: Biting Back at Malaria Vectors.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos J; Rabinovich, N Regina

    2017-03-01

    Bellinger and colleagues offer an elegant twist for a promising new tool against malaria. This formulation is designed to release ivermectin, a mosquito-killing drug for 10 days after a single oral dose. This could reduce the vector population and serve as a complementary tool for malaria elimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress during an insect’s larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host–parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control. PMID:27827429

  16. Larval nutritional stress affects vector life history traits and human malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Vantaux, Amélie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Cohuet, Anna; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Roche, Benjamin; Roux, Olivier

    2016-11-09

    Exposure to stress during an insect's larval development can have carry-over effects on adult life history traits and susceptibility to pathogens. We investigated the effects of larval nutritional stress for the first time using field mosquito vectors and malaria parasites. In contrast to previous studies, we show that larval nutritional stress may affect human to mosquito transmission antagonistically: nutritionally deprived larvae showed lower parasite prevalence for only one gametocyte carrier; they also had lower fecundity. However, they had greater survival rates that were even higher when infected. When combining these opposing effects into epidemiological models, we show that larval nutritional stress induced a decrease in malaria transmission at low mosquito densities and an increase in transmission at high mosquito densities, whereas transmission by mosquitoes from well-fed larvae was stable. Our work underscores the importance of including environmental stressors towards understanding host-parasite dynamics to improve disease transmission models and control.

  17. Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoodi, Naimatallah; Ladonni, Hossin; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The most part of Iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. These regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. Therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. This study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area. Methods: The study was conducted in a malaria free area, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province during 12 months in 2011–2012. Five villages, including 2 in highlands and 3 in plain area, were selected randomly. The mosquito sampling methods were conducted using spray sheet and hand catch collection methods from indoor/outdoors, window trap and larvae collections. Results: In total, 3352 female Anopheles were captured, 1826 mosquito from highland and 1526 from plain areas. Five species, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis s.l., An. dthali, An. superpictus and An. pulcherrimus were identified. The seasonal activities were started from April to March. The abdominal conditions of collected mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor places pointed to exophilic propensity of An. fluviatilis.l. s.l. and endophilic behaviour for rest of the vectors. The results of window trap also confirmed these behaviors. The larval habitats of four species were widely dispersed and included spring, margin of rivers, irrigation channels, stagnant water and rice filed. Conclusion: Understanding the present situation of malaria vectors in free-malaria area is crucial particularly where is struggling with imported cases. The results of present study can be expanded to other area of northern Khuzestan for malaria vector control planning in reintroduction prevention stage. PMID:26114144

  18. Species Composition and Seasonal Activities of Malaria Vectors in an Area at Reintroduction Prevention Stage, Khuzestan, South-Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, Naimatallah; Ladonni, Hossin; Basseri, Hamid Reza

    2015-06-01

    The most part of Iran become malaria-free region and fall in prevention of re-introduction stage. These regions however are struggling with imported of malaria cases where malaria vectors exist. Therefore, understanding the situation of mosquito vectors is crucial. This study was carried out to find out the present situation of malaria vectors and malaria transmission potential in a malaria-free area. The study was conducted in a malaria free area, Izeh County, Khuzestan Province during 12 months in 2011-2012. Five villages, including 2 in highlands and 3 in plain area, were selected randomly. The mosquito sampling methods were conducted using spray sheet and hand catch collection methods from indoor/outdoors, window trap and larvae collections. In total, 3352 female Anopheles were captured, 1826 mosquito from highland and 1526 from plain areas. Five species, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis s.l., An. dthali, An. superpictus and An. pulcherrimus were identified. The seasonal activities were started from April to March. The abdominal conditions of collected mosquitoes from indoor/outdoor places pointed to exophilic propensity of An. fluviatilis.l. s.l. and endophilic behaviour for rest of the vectors. The results of window trap also confirmed these behaviors. The larval habitats of four species were widely dispersed and included spring, margin of rivers, irrigation channels, stagnant water and rice filed. Understanding the present situation of malaria vectors in free-malaria area is crucial particularly where is struggling with imported cases. The results of present study can be expanded to other area of northern Khuzestan for malaria vector control planning in reintroduction prevention stage.

  19. Addressing malaria vector control challenges in South Sudan: proposed recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Doggale, Constantino; Pasquale, Harriet; Azairwe, Robert; Baba, Samson; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-02-08

    Upon the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, the Republic of South Sudan (RSS) has faced a lot of challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure, human resources and an enormous burden of vector borne diseases including malaria. While a national malaria strategic plan 2006-2011 was developed, the vector control component has remained relatively weak. The strategy endorses the distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) as the frontline intervention with other interventions recommended only when technical and institutional capacity is available. In 2006, a draft integrated vector management (IVM) strategic plan 2007-2012 was developed but never implemented, resulting in minimal coordination, implementation and coverage of malaria vector control tools including their inherent impact. To address this challenge, the vector control team of the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) is being strengthened. With the objective of building national capacity and technical collaboration for effective implementation of the IVM strategy, a national malaria vector control conference was held from 15-17th October 2012 in Juba. A range of NMCP partners, state ministries, acadaemia, private sector, national and international non-governmental organizations, including regional and global policymakers attended the meeting. The conference represented a major milestone and made recommendations revolving around the five key elements of the IVM approach. The meeting endorsed that vector control efforts in RSS be augmented with other interventions within the confines of the IVM strategy as a national approach, with strong adherence to its key elements.

  20. Impact of Highland Topography Changes on Exposure to Malaria Vectors and Immunity in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wanjala, Christine Ludwin; Kweka, Eliningaya J

    2016-01-01

    It is almost an axiom that in the African highlands (above 1,500 m) transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is limited primarily by low ambient temperature and that small changes in temperature could result in temporary favorable conditions for unstable transmission within populations that have acquired little functional immunity. The pattern of malaria transmission in the highland plateau ecosystems is less distinct due to the flat topography and diffuse hydrology resulting from numerous streams. The non-homogeneous distribution of larval breeding habitats in east African highlands obviously affects Anopheles spatial distribution which, consequently, leads to heterogeneous human exposure to malaria. Another delicate parameter in the fragile transmission risk of malaria in the highlands is the rapid loss of primary forest due to subsistence agriculture. The implication of this change in land cover on malaria transmission is that deforestation can lead to changes in microclimate of both adult and larval habitats hence increase larvae survival, population density, and gametocytes development in adult mosquitoes. Deforestation has been documented to enhancing vectorial capacity of Anopheles gambiae by nearly 100% compared to forested areas. The study was conducted in five different ecosystems in the western Kenya highlands, two U-shaped valleys (Iguhu, Emutete), two V-shaped valleys (Marani, Fort Ternan), and one plateau (Shikondi) for 16 months among 6- to 15-year-old children. Exposure to malaria was tested using circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and merozoite surface protein immunochromatographic antibody tests. Malaria parasite was examined using different tools, which include microscopy based on blood smears, rapid diagnostic test based on HRP 2 proteins, and serology based on human immune response to parasite and vector antigens have been also examined in the highlands in comparison with different topographical systems of western Kenya. The results suggested that

  1. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W.; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-01-01

    SHORT ABSTRACT Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae. LONG ABSTRACT Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism—and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field. PMID:25867635

  2. Dynamics of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors in southern Benin following a large scale implementation of vector control interventions.

    PubMed

    Yahouédo, Gildas A; Cornelie, Sylvie; Djègbè, Innocent; Ahlonsou, Justine; Aboubakar, Sidick; Soares, Christophe; Akogbéto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent

    2016-07-04

    Large-scale implementation of Indoor Residual Spraying and Insecticide Treated Nets has been implemented in Plateau Department, Benin between 2011 and 2014. The purpose of this study was to monitor the frequency and mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors following the implementation of vector control tools for malaria prevention. Anopheles larvae were collected in 13 villages twice a year from 2012 to 2014. WHO tube tests were used to assess the phenotypic resistance of each population to 0.05 % deltamethrin. Sibling species within Anopheles gambiae complex were identified by PCR techniques. Taqman and biochemical assays were performed to identify the presence of kdr mutations in individual mosquitoes and to detect any increase in the activity of enzymes putatively involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidases, esterase and glutathione-S-transferases). Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure the expression of three metabolic genes involved in pyrethroid resistance (CYP6P3, CYP6M2 and GSTD3). Anopheles populations showed < 90 % mortality to deltamethrin in all villages and at all time points. The 1014 F kdr allele frequency was close to fixation (> 0.9) over the sampling periods in both An. gambiae and An. coluzzii. Biochemical assays showed higher activities of alpha esterase and GST in field malaria vector populations compared to susceptible mosquitoes. qPCR assays showed a significant increase of CYP6P3, CYP6M2 GSTD3 expression in An. gambiae after a three-year implementation of LLINs. The study confirmed that deltamethrin resistance is widespread in malaria vectors in Southern Benin. We suspect that the increase in deltamethrin resistance between 2012 and 2014 resulted from an increased expression of metabolic detoxification genes (CYP6M2 and CYP6P3) rather than from kdr mutations. It is urgent to evaluate further the impact of metabolic resistance on the efficacy of vector control interventions using pyrethroid insecticides.

  3. The decline of malaria in Finland--the impact of the vector and social variables.

    PubMed

    Hulden, Lena; Hulden, Larry

    2009-05-07

    Malaria was prevalent in Finland in the 18th century. It declined slowly without deliberate counter-measures and the last indigenous case was reported in 1954. In the present analysis of indigenous malaria in Finland, an effort was made to construct a data set on annual malaria cases of maximum temporal length to be able to evaluate the significance of different factors assumed to affect malaria trends. To analyse the long-term trend malaria statistics were collected from 1750-2008. During that time, malaria frequency decreased from about 20,000-50,000 per 1,000,000 people to less than 1 per 1,000,000 people. To assess the cause of the decline, a correlation analysis was performed between malaria frequency per million people and temperature data, animal husbandry, consolidation of land by redistribution and household size. Anopheles messeae and Anopheles beklemishevi exist only as larvae in June and most of July. The females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium. The indigenous malaria in Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused fewer interactions between families and accordingly decreasing recolonization

  4. The decline of malaria in Finland – the impact of the vector and social variables

    PubMed Central

    Hulden, Lena; Hulden, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria was prevalent in Finland in the 18th century. It declined slowly without deliberate counter-measures and the last indigenous case was reported in 1954. In the present analysis of indigenous malaria in Finland, an effort was made to construct a data set on annual malaria cases of maximum temporal length to be able to evaluate the significance of different factors assumed to affect malaria trends. Methods To analyse the long-term trend malaria statistics were collected from 1750–2008. During that time, malaria frequency decreased from about 20,000 – 50,000 per 1,000,000 people to less than 1 per 1,000,000 people. To assess the cause of the decline, a correlation analysis was performed between malaria frequency per million people and temperature data, animal husbandry, consolidation of land by redistribution and household size. Results Anopheles messeae and Anopheles beklemishevi exist only as larvae in June and most of July. The females seek an overwintering place in August. Those that overwinter together with humans may act as vectors. They have to stay in their overwintering place from September to May because of the cold climate. The temperatures between June and July determine the number of malaria cases during the following transmission season. This did not, however, have an impact on the long-term trend of malaria. The change in animal husbandry and reclamation of wetlands may also be excluded as a possible cause for the decline of malaria. The long-term social changes, such as land consolidation and decreasing household size, showed a strong correlation with the decline of Plasmodium. Conclusion The indigenous malaria in Finland faded out evenly in the whole country during 200 years with limited or no counter-measures or medication. It appears that malaria in Finland was basically a social disease and that malaria trends were strongly linked to changes in human behaviour. Decreasing household size caused fewer interactions between

  5. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-02-12

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity.

  6. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-02-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity.

  7. Predicting malaria vector distribution under climate change scenarios in China: Challenges for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Wang, Duoquan; Ma, Aimin; Hwang, Jimee; Bennett, Adam; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Fan, Junfu; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Dian; Feng, Xinyu; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Projecting the distribution of malaria vectors under climate change is essential for planning integrated vector control activities for sustaining elimination and preventing reintroduction of malaria. In China, however, little knowledge exists on the possible effects of climate change on malaria vectors. Here we assess the potential impact of climate change on four dominant malaria vectors (An. dirus, An. minimus, An. lesteri and An. sinensis) using species distribution models for two future decades: the 2030 s and the 2050 s. Simulation-based estimates suggest that the environmentally suitable area (ESA) for An. dirus and An. minimus would increase by an average of 49% and 16%, respectively, under all three scenarios for the 2030 s, but decrease by 11% and 16%, respectively in the 2050 s. By contrast, an increase of 36% and 11%, respectively, in ESA of An. lesteri and An. sinensis, was estimated under medium stabilizing (RCP4.5) and very heavy (RCP8.5) emission scenarios. in the 2050 s. In total, we predict a substantial net increase in the population exposed to the four dominant malaria vectors in the decades of the 2030 s and 2050 s, considering land use changes and urbanization simultaneously. Strategies to achieve and sustain malaria elimination in China will need to account for these potential changes in vector distributions and receptivity. PMID:26868185

  8. The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Wespiser, Adam R; Almeida E Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Graveley, Brenton R; Walenz, Brian P; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins de; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q M; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M C; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Urményi, Turán P; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

  9. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae, in Bomi County, Liberia, compromises malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Temu, Emmanuel A; Maxwell, Caroline; Munyekenye, Godwil; Howard, Annabel F V; Munga, Stephen; Avicor, Silas W; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Jones, Joel J; Allan, Richard; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Ranson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) have both proven to be effective malaria vector control strategies in Africa and the new technology of insecticide treated durable wall lining (DL) is being evaluated. Sustaining these interventions at high coverage levels is logistically challenging and, furthermore, the increase in insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors may reduce the efficacy of these chemical based interventions. Monitoring of vector populations and evaluation of the efficacy of insecticide based control approaches should be integral components of malaria control programmes. This study reports on entomological survey conducted in 2011 in Bomi County, Liberia. Anopheles gambiae larvae were collected from four sites in Bomi, Liberia, and reared in a field insectary. Two to five days old female adult An gambiae s.l. were tested using WHO tube (n=2027) and cone (n=580) bioassays in houses treated with DL or IRS. A sample of mosquitoes (n=169) were identified to species/molecular form and screened for the presence of knock down resistance (kdr) alleles associated with pyrethroid resistance. Anopheles gambiae s.l tested were resistant to deltamethrin but fully susceptible to bendiocarb and fenithrothion. The corrected mortality of local mosquitoes exposed to houses treated with deltamethrin either via IRS or DL was 12% and 59% respectively, suggesting that resistance may affect the efficacy of these interventions. The presence of pyrethroid resistance was associated with a high frequency of the 1014F kdr allele (90.5%) although this mutation alone cannot explain the resistance levels observed. High prevalence of resistance to deltamethrin in Bomi County may reduce the efficacy of malaria strategies relying on this class of insecticide. The findings highlight the urgent need to expand and sustain monitoring of insecticide resistance in Liberian malaria vectors, evaluate the effectiveness of existing interventions and

  10. Shifting suitability for malaria vectors across Africa with warming climates.

    PubMed

    Peterson, A Townsend

    2009-05-10

    Climates are changing rapidly, producing warm climate conditions globally not previously observed in modern history. Malaria is of great concern as a cause of human mortality and morbidity, particularly across Africa, thanks in large part to the presence there of a particularly competent suite of mosquito vector species. I derive spatially explicit estimates of human populations living in regions newly suitable climatically for populations of two key Anopheles gambiae vector complex species in Africa over the coming 50 years, based on ecological niche model projections over two global climate models, two scenarios of climate change, and detailed spatial summaries of human population distributions. For both species, under all scenarios, given the changing spatial distribution of appropriate conditions and the current population distribution, the models predict a reduction of 11.3-30.2% in the percentage of the overall population living in areas climatically suitable for these vector species in coming decades, but reductions and increases are focused in different regions: malaria vector suitability is likely to decrease in West Africa, but increase in eastern and southern Africa. Climate change effects on African malaria vectors shift their distributional potential from west to east and south, which has implications for overall numbers of people exposed to these vector species. Although the total is reduced, malaria is likely to pose novel public health problems in areas where it has not previously been common.

  11. Increasing the potential for malaria elimination by targeting zoophilic vectors

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Jessica L.; Swain, Sunita; Lynch, Penelope A.; Sharma, S. K.; Haque, Mohammed Asrarul; Montgomery, Jacqui; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2017-01-01

    Countries in the Asia Pacific region aim to eliminate malaria by 2030. A cornerstone of malaria elimination is the effective management of Anopheles mosquito vectors. Current control tools such as insecticide treated nets or indoor residual sprays target mosquitoes in human dwellings. We find in a high transmission region in India, malaria vector populations show a high propensity to feed on livestock (cattle) and rest in outdoor structures such as cattle shelters. We also find evidence for a shift in vector species complex towards increased zoophilic behavior in recent years. Using a malaria transmission model we demonstrate that in such regions dominated by zoophilic vectors, existing vector control tactics will be insufficient to achieve elimination, even if maximized. However, by increasing mortality in the zoophilic cycle, the elimination threshold can be reached. Current national vector control policy in India restricts use of residual insecticide sprays to domestic dwellings. Our study suggests substantial benefits of extending the approach to treatment of cattle sheds, or deploying other tactics that target zoophilic behavior. Optimizing use of existing tools will be essential to achieving the ambitious 2030 elimination target. PMID:28091570

  12. Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Bobichon, Julie; Somphong, Boutsady; Phommavan, Nothasin; Maithaviphet, Santi; Nambanya, Simone; Corbel, Vincent; Brey, Paul T.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS) and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs) with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus), to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%). In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr). Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR. PMID:28437449

  13. Vector movement underlies avian malaria at upper elevation in Hawaii: implications for transmission of human malaria.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2013-11-01

    With climate warming, malaria in humans and birds at upper elevations is an emerging infectious disease because development of the parasite in the mosquito vector and vector life history are both temperature dependent. An enhanced-mosquito-movement model from climate warming predicts increased transmission of malaria at upper elevation sites that are too cool for parasite development in the mosquito vector. We evaluate this model with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) at 1,900-m elevation on the Island of Hawaii, with air temperatures too low for sporogony in the vector (Culex quinquefasciatus). On a well-defined site over a 14-year period, 10 of 14 species of native and introduced birds became infected, several epizootics occurred, and the increase in prevalence was driven more by resident species than by mobile species that could have acquired their infections at lower elevations. Greater movement of infectious mosquitoes from lower elevations now permits avian malaria to spread at 1,900 m in Hawaii, in advance of climate warming at that elevation. The increase in malaria at upper elevations due to dispersal of infectious mosquitoes is a real alternative to temperature for the increased incidence of human malaria in tropical highlands.

  14. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  15. Association of cyclopoid copepods with the habitat of the malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis in the peninsula of Paria, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn; Gordon, Elizabeth; Montiel, Edie; Delgado, Laura; Berti, Jesús; Ramos, Santiago

    2002-03-01

    The southern region of the Paria Peninsula shows a high malaria incidence. This work relates the abundances of cyclopoid species and the malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis to certain abiotic parameters and vegetation features. Samples were collected over a 4-month period in several habitats, including marsh, irrigation channel, lagoon, and mangrove swamp during the wet season and the wet-dry transition. Dominant plant species in the marsh were Typha dominguensis and Eleocharis mutata. Mesocyclops meridianus also was dominant in the marsh. Highest densities of An. aquasalis larvae, as well as lowest pH values and highest sulfate concentrations, were found in habitats containing E. mutata. Statistical correlation analysis showed that abundances of M. longisetus longisetus and An. aquasalis larvae were positively and significantly correlated in the irrigation channel, and abundances of M. meridianus and An. aquasalis larvae were negatively and significantly correlated in the E. mutata marsh.

  16. Microbial control of malaria: biological warfare against the parasite and its vector.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Alabsi, Mogeeb S

    2012-02-01

    Microbial applications in malaria transmission control have drawn global attention. Mosquito midgut microbiota can modulate vector immunity and block Plasmodium development. Paratransgenic manipulation of bacterial symbionts and Wolbachia can affect reproductive characteristics of mosquitoes. Bacillus-based biolarvicides can control mosquito larvae in different breeding habitats, but their effectiveness differs according to the type of formulation applied, and the physical and ecological conditions of the environment. Entomopathogenic fungi show promise as effective and evolution-proof agents against adult mosquitoes. In addition, transgenic fungi can express anti-plasmodial effector molecules that can target the parasite inside its vector. Despite showing effectiveness in domestic environments as well as against insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, claims towards their deployability in the field and their possible use in integrated vector management programmes have yet to be investigated. Viral pathogens show efficacy in the interruption of sporogonic development of the parasite, and protozoal pathogens exert direct pathogenic potential on larvae and adults with substantial effects on mosquito longevity and fecundity. However, the technology required for their isolation and maintenance impedes their field application. Many agents show promising findings; however, the question remains about the epidemiologic reality of these approaches because even those that have been tried under field conditions still have certain limitations. This review addresses aspects of the microbial control of malaria between proof-of-concept and epidemiologic reality.

  17. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Zimmerman, R H

    1997-09-01

    An ecoregional approach to the classification of malaria in the neotropics region can give health personnel a new prespective on how to manage malaria control programs. We propose an ecoregional classification based on vector distribution and important environmental determinants, including vegetation type, rainfall patterns, mean temperatures, elevation, and geomorphology. The following 5 ecoregions are described: (1) coastal, (2) piedmont, (3) savanna, (4) interior lowland forest, and (5) high valley. Subregional differences are classified when appropriate. Because human activities and extensive changes in land use usually leads to increased human-vector contact and alter local vector distribution and abundance, it is important that these changes be considered in the classification of vector ecoregions. Using this approach, risk areas can be classified as to the presence and potential abundance of particular vectors. Then, in combination with other components of malaria transmission (e.g., migration, cultural practices, living conditions), areas for surveillance and intervention can be prioritized. It is hoped that this forum will be a catalyst for discussion, future research, and the development of ecologically orientated malaria control programs.

  18. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    PubMed Central

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  19. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  20. Implicating Cryptic and Novel Anophelines as Malaria Vectors in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer C.; Norris, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Entomological indices and bionomic descriptions of malaria vectors are essential to accurately describe and understand malaria transmission and for the design and evaluation of appropriate control interventions. In order to correctly assign spatio-temporal distributions, behaviors and responses to interventions to particular anopheline species, identification of mosquitoes must be accurately made. This paper reviews the current methods and their limitations in correctly identifying anopheline mosquitoes in sub-Saharan Africa, and highlights the importance of molecular methods to discriminate cryptic species and identify lesser known anophelines. The increasing number of reports of Plasmodium infections in assumed “minor”, non-vector, and cryptic and novel species is reviewed. Their importance in terms of evading current control and elimination strategies and therefore maintaining malaria transmission is emphasized. PMID:28025486

  1. Current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ondeto, Benyl M; Nyundo, Christopher; Kamau, Luna; Muriu, Simon M; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan M; Ochanda, Horace; Mbogo, Charles M

    2017-09-19

    Insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing National Malaria Control Programmes in Africa. A well-coordinated national database on insecticide resistance (IRBase) can facilitate the development of effective strategies for managing insecticide resistance and sustaining the effectiveness of chemical-based vector control measures. The aim of this study was to assemble a database on the current status of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors in Kenya. Data was obtained from published literature through PubMed, HINARI and Google Scholar searches and unpublished literature from government reports, research institutions reports and malaria control programme reports. Each data source was assigned a unique identification code and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 datasheets. Base maps on the distribution of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms among malaria vectors in Kenya were generated using ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). Insecticide resistance status among the major malaria vectors in Kenya was reported in all the four classes of insecticides including pyrethroids, carbamates, organochlorines and organophosphates. Resistance to pyrethroids has been detected in Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), An. arabiensis and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to carbamates was limited to An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis. Resistance to the organochlorine was reported in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. funestus (s.s.) while resistance to organophosphates was reported in An. gambiae (s.l.) only. The mechanisms of insecticide resistance among malaria vectors reported include the kdr mutations (L 1014S and L 1014F) and elevated activity in carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferases (GST) and monooxygenases. The kdr mutations L 1014S and L 1014F were detected in An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. arabiensis populations. Elevated activity of monooxygenases has been detected in both An. arabiensis and An. gambiae (s.s.) populations while

  2. Egg hatching, larval movement and larval survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in desiccating habitats

    PubMed Central

    Koenraadt, Constantianus JM; Paaijmans, Krijn P; Githeko, Andrew K; Knols, Bart GJ; Takken, Willem

    2003-01-01

    Background Although the effects of rainfall on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been studied in great detail, the effects of dry periods on its survival remain less clear. Methods The effects of drying conditions were simulated by creating desiccated habitats, which consisted of trays filled with damp soil. Experiments were performed in these trays to (i) test the ability of An. gambiae sensu stricto eggs to hatch on damp soil and for larvae to reach an artificial breeding site at different distances of the site of hatching and (ii) to record survival of the four larval stages of An. gambiae s.s. when placed on damp soil. Results Eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched on damp soil and emerging larvae were capable of covering a distance of up to 10 cm to reach surface water enabling further development. However, proportions of larvae reaching the site decreased rapidly with increasing distance. First, second and third-instar larvae survived on damp soil for an estimated period of 64, 65 and 69 hrs, respectively. Fourth-instar larvae survived significantly longer and we estimated that the maximum survival time was 113 hrs. Conclusion Short-term survival of aquatic stages of An. gambiae on wet soil may be important and adaptive when considering the transient nature of breeding sites of this species in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the results suggest that, for larval vector control methods to be effective, habitats should remain drained for at least 5 days to kill all larvae (e.g. in rice fields) and habitats that recently dried up should be treated as well, if larvicidal agents are applied. PMID:12919636

  3. Seasonal genetic partitioning in the neotropical malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. In spite of being considered a riverine, forest-dwelling species, this mosquito is becoming more abundant in peri-urban areas, increasing malaria risk. This has been associated with human-driven environmental changes such as deforestation. Methods Microsatellites were used to characterize A. darlingi from seven localities along the Madeira River, Rondônia (Brazil), collected in the early and late periods of the rainy season. Results Two genetically distinct subpopulations were detected: one (subpopulation A) was associated with the late rainfall period and seems to be ecologically closer to the typical forest A. darlingi; the other (subpopulation B) was associated with the early rainfall period and is probably more adapted to drier conditions by exploiting permanent anthropogenic breeding sites. Results suggest also a pattern of asymmetric introgression, with more subpopulation A alleles introgressed into subpopulation B. Both subpopulations (and admixed mosquitoes) presented similar malaria infection rates, highlighting the potential for perennial malaria transmission in the region. Conclusions The co-occurrence of two genetically distinct subpopulations of A. darlingi adapted to different periods of rainfall may promote a more perennial transmission of malaria throughout the year. These findings, in a context of strong environmental impact due to deforestation and dam construction, have serious implications for malaria epidemiology and control in the Amazonian region. PMID:24885508

  4. Comparative performance of imagicides on Anopheles stephensi, main malaria vector in a malarious area, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Abai, M R; Mehravaran, A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Javadian, E; Mashayekhi, M; Mosleminia, A; Piyazak, N; Edallat, H; Mohtarami, F; Jabbari, H; Rafi, F

    2008-12-01

    Jiroft district has subtropical climate and prone to seasonal malaria transmission with annual parasite index (API) 4.2 per 1000 in 2006. Anopheles stephensi Liston is a dominant malaria vector. The monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and irritability was conducted using discriminative dose as described by WHO. The IV instar larvae were collected from different larval breeding places and transported to the temporary insectary, fed with Bemax and then 2-3 days-old emerged and sugar-fed adults were used for susceptibility and irritability tests employing WHO methods and kits to organochlorine (OC) and pyrethroid (PY) insecticides. Mortality rates of field strain of An. stephensi were 91.3 +/- 0.14 and 90 +/- 0.47% to DDT and dieldrin, respectively at one hour exposure time but was susceptible to all pyrethroids tested. The average number of take-offs per min per adult was 2.09 +/- 0.13 for DDT, 0.581 +/- 0.05 for dieldrin, 1.85 +/- 0.08 for permethrin, 1.87 +/- 0.21 for lambda-cyhalothrin, 1.53 +/- 0.13 for cyfluthrin, and 1.23 +/- 0.1 for deltamethrin. Currently, deltamethrin is being used for indoor residual spraying against malaria vectors in the endemic areas of Iran. The findings revealed that the main malaria species is susceptible to all pyrethroids including deltamethrin, permethrin, cyfluthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin but was tolerant to DDT and dieldrin. This report and the finding are coincided with results of previous studies carried out during 1957-61 in the same area. Irritability tests to OC and PY insecticides revealed the moderate level of irritability to DDT compared to pyrethroids and dieldrin. Monitoring for possible cross-resistance between OC and PY insecticides should come into consideration for malaria control programme.

  5. Spatial association between malaria vector species richness and malaria in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Douglas O; Alimi, Temitope; Herrera, Socrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-06-01

    Malaria transmission in Colombia is highly variable in space and time. Using a species distribution model, we mapped potential distribution of five vector species including Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neivai, and Anopheles nuneztovari in five Departments of Colombia where malaria transmission remains problematic. We overlaid the range maps of the five species to reveal areas of sympatry and related per-pixel species richness to mean annual parasite index (API) for 2011-2014 mapped by municipality (n = 287). The relationship between mean number of vector species per municipality and API was evaluated using a Poisson regression, which revealed a highly significant relationship between species richness and API (p = 0 for Wald Chi-Square statistic). The results suggest that areas of relatively high transmission in Colombia typically contain higher number of vector species than areas with unstable transmission and that future elimination strategies should account for vector species richness. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Phylogenetic inference of Indian malaria vectors from multilocus DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Jyotsana; Srivastava, Hemlata; Sharma, Meenu; Das, Manoj K; Singh, O P; Raghavendra, K; Nanda, Nutan; Dash, Aditya P; Saksena, D N; Das, Aparup

    2010-08-01

    Inferences on the taxonomic positions, phylogenetic interrelationships and divergence time among closely related species of medical importance is essential to understand evolutionary patterns among species, and based on which, disease control measures could be devised. To this respect, malaria is one of the important mosquito borne diseases of tropical and sub-tropical parts of the globe. Taxonomic status of malaria vectors has been so far documented based on morphological, cytological and few molecular genetic features. However, utilization of multilocus DNA sequences in phylogenetic inferences are still in dearth. India contains one of the richest resources of mosquito species diversity but little molecular taxonomic information is available in Indian malaria vectors. We herewith utilized the whole genome sequence information of An. gambiae to amplify and sequence three orthologous nuclear genetic regions in six Indian malaria vector species (An. culicifacies, An. minimus, An. sundaicus, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. stephensi). Further, we utilized the previously published DNA sequence information on the COII and ITS2 genes in all the six species, making the total number of loci to five. Multilocus molecular phylogenetic study of Indian anophelines and An. gambiae was conducted at each individual genetic region using Neighbour Joining (NJ), Maximum Likelihood (ML), Maximum Parsimony (MP) and Bayesian approaches. Although tree topologies with COII, and ITS2 genes were similar, for no other three genetic regions similar tree topologies were observed. In general, the reconstructed phylogenetic status of Indian malaria vectors follows the pattern based on morphological and cytological classifications that was reconfirmed with COII and ITS2 genetic regions. Further, divergence times based on COII gene sequences were estimated among the seven Anopheles species which corroborate the earlier hypothesis on the radiation of different species of the Anopheles

  7. Population control of the malaria vector Anopheles pseudopunctipennis by habitat manipulation.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. Guillermo; Rojas, Julio C.; Arredondo-Jiménez, Juan I.; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Valle, Javier; Williams, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases continue to present a major challenge to human health. Understanding the factors that regulate the size of mosquito populations is considered fundamental to the ability to predict disease transmission rates and for vector population control. The mosquito, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, a vector of Plasmodium spp., breeds in riverside pools containing filamentous algae in Mesoamerica. Breeding pools along 3 km sections of the River Coatan, Chiapas, Mexico were subjected to algal extraction or left as controls in a cross-over trial extending over 2 years. Initial densities of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae were directly proportional to the prevalence of filamentous algae in each breeding site. The extraction of algae brought about a striking decline in the density of An. pseudopunctipennis larvae sustained for about six weeks, and a concurrent reduction in the adult population in both years of the study. Mark-release experiments indicated that dispersal from adjacent untreated areas was unlikely to exert an important influence on the magnitude of mosquito control that we observed. Habitat manipulation by extraction of filamentous algae offers a unique opportunity for sustainable control of this malaria vector. This technique may represent a valuable intervention, complimenting insecticide spraying of households, to minimize Plasmodium transmission rates in Mesoamerica. PMID:15475337

  8. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village

    PubMed Central

    Gianotti, Rebecca L; Bomblies, Arne; Dafalla, Mustafa; Issa-Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Eltahir, Elfatih AB

    2008-01-01

    Background Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk,. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. Methods This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. Results It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change

  9. Efficacy of local neem extracts for sustainable malaria vector control in an African village.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Rebecca L; Bomblies, Arne; Dafalla, Mustafa; Issa-Arzika, Ibrahim; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Eltahir, Elfatih Ab

    2008-07-23

    Larval control of malaria vectors has been historically successful in reducing malaria transmission, but largely fell out of favour with the introduction of synthetic insecticides and bed nets. However, an integrated approach to malaria control, including larval control methods, continues to be the best chance for success, in view of insecticide resistance, the behavioural adaptation of the vectors to changing environments and the difficulties of reaching the poorest populations most at risk. Laboratory studies investigating the effects of neem seed (Azadirachta indica) extracts on Anopheles larvae have shown high rates of larval mortality and reductions in adult longevity, as well as low potential for resistance development. This paper describes a method whereby seeds of the neem tree can be used to reduce adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. abundance in a way that is low cost and can be implemented by residents of rural villages in western Niger. The study was conducted in Banizoumbou village, western Niger. Neem seeds were collected from around the village. Dried seeds were ground into a coarse powder, which was then sprinkled onto known Anopheles larvae breeding habitats twice weekly during the rainy season 2007. Adult mosquitoes were captured on a weekly basis in the village and captures compared to those from 2005 and 2006 over the same period. Adult mosquitoes were also captured in a nearby village, Zindarou, as a control data set and compared to those from Banizoumbou. It was found that twice-weekly applications of the powder to known breeding habitats of Anopheles larvae in 2007 resulted in 49% fewer adult female Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Banizoumbou, compared with previous captures under similar environmental conditions and with similar habitat characteristics in 2005 and 2006. The productivity of the system in 2007 was found to be suppressed compared to the mean behaviour of 2005 and 2006 in Banizoumbou, whereas no change was found in Zindarou. With

  10. Thermal limits of wild and laboratory strains of two African malaria vector species, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria affects large parts of the developing world and is responsible for almost 800,000 deaths annually. As climates change, concerns have arisen as to how this vector-borne disease will be impacted by changing rainfall patterns and warming temperatures. Despite the importance and controversy surrounding the impact of climate change on the potential spread of this disease, little information exists on the tolerances of several of the vector species themselves. Methods Using a ramping protocol (to assess critical thermal limits - CT) and plunge protocol (to assess lethal temperature limits - LT) information on the thermal tolerance of two of Africa’s important malaria vectors, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus was collected. The effects of age, thermal acclimation treatment, sex and strain (laboratory versus wild adults) were investigated for CT determinations for each species. The effects of age and sex for adults and life stage (larvae, pupae, adults) were investigated for LT determinations. Results In both species, females are more tolerant to low and high temperatures than males; larvae and pupae have higher upper lethal limits than do adults. Thermal acclimation of adults has large effects in some instances but small effects in others. Younger adults tend to be more tolerant of low or high temperatures than older age groups. Long-standing laboratory colonies are sufficiently similar in thermal tolerance to field-collected animals to provide reasonable surrogates when making inferences about wild population responses. Differences between these two vectors in their thermal tolerances, especially in larvae and pupae, are plausibly a consequence of different habitat utilization. Conclusions Limited plasticity is characteristic of the adults of these vector species relative to others examined to date, suggesting limited scope for within-generation change in thermal tolerance. These findings and the greater tolerance of females to thermal

  11. Evolution of insecticide resistance diagnostics in malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Weetman, David; Donnelly, Martin James

    2015-05-01

    Malaria control is reliant upon effective, programmatic-scale, anti-vector interventions. The widespread distribution of pyrethroid-treated bednets in sub-Saharan Africa has been a driver of morbidity and mortality reductions over the last decade. Unfortunately resistance to insecticides, and to pyrethroids in particular, is increasingly common in Anopheles malaria vectors, and is a major threat to continued control and future elimination. Here we argue that current methods to diagnose resistance often have limited utility and should be augmented or even partially replaced by wider application of DNA markers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Targeting male mosquito swarms to control malaria vector density.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, Simon Peguedwinde; Niang, Abdoulaye; Bilgo, Etienne; Millogo, Azize; Maïga, Hamidou; Dabire, Roch K; Tripet, Frederic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2017-01-01

    Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. It has been estimated that the spread of resistance could lead to an additional 120000 deaths per year, and interfere with the prospects for sustained control or the feasibility of achieving malaria elimination. Another complication for the development of resistance management strategies is that, in addition to insecticide resistance, mosquito behavior evolves in a manner that diminishes the impact of LLINs and IRS. Mosquitoes may circumvent LLIN and IRS control through preferential feeding and resting outside human houses and/or being active earlier in the evening before people go to sleep. Recent developments in our understanding of mosquito swarming suggest that new tools targeting mosquito swarms can be designed to cut down the high reproductive rate of malaria vectors. Targeting swarms of major malaria vectors may provide an effective control method to counteract behavioral resistance developed by mosquitoes. Here, we evaluated the impact of systematic spraying of swarms of Anopheles gambiae s.l. using a mixed carbamate and pyrethroid aerosol. The impact of this intervention on vector density, female insemination rates and the age structure of males was measured. We showed that the resulting mass killing of swarming males and some mate-seeking females resulted in a dramatic 80% decrease in population size compared to a control population. A significant decrease in female insemination rate and a significant shift in the age structure of the male population towards younger males incapable of mating were observed. This paradigm-shift study therefore demonstrates that targeting primarily males rather than females, can have a drastic impact on mosquito population.

  13. Targeting male mosquito swarms to control malaria vector density

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Simon Peguedwinde; Niang, Abdoulaye; Bilgo, Etienne; Millogo, Azize; Maïga, Hamidou; Dabire, Roch K.; Tripet, Frederic; Diabaté, Abdoulaye

    2017-01-01

    Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. It has been estimated that the spread of resistance could lead to an additional 120000 deaths per year, and interfere with the prospects for sustained control or the feasibility of achieving malaria elimination. Another complication for the development of resistance management strategies is that, in addition to insecticide resistance, mosquito behavior evolves in a manner that diminishes the impact of LLINs and IRS. Mosquitoes may circumvent LLIN and IRS control through preferential feeding and resting outside human houses and/or being active earlier in the evening before people go to sleep. Recent developments in our understanding of mosquito swarming suggest that new tools targeting mosquito swarms can be designed to cut down the high reproductive rate of malaria vectors. Targeting swarms of major malaria vectors may provide an effective control method to counteract behavioral resistance developed by mosquitoes. Here, we evaluated the impact of systematic spraying of swarms of Anopheles gambiae s.l. using a mixed carbamate and pyrethroid aerosol. The impact of this intervention on vector density, female insemination rates and the age structure of males was measured. We showed that the resulting mass killing of swarming males and some mate-seeking females resulted in a dramatic 80% decrease in population size compared to a control population. A significant decrease in female insemination rate and a significant shift in the age structure of the male population towards younger males incapable of mating were observed. This paradigm-shift study therefore demonstrates that targeting primarily males rather than females, can have a drastic impact on mosquito population. PMID:28278212

  14. Identifying permethrin resistance loci in malaria vectors by genetic mapping.

    PubMed

    Witzig, Claudia; Wondji, Charles S; Strode, Clare; Djouaka, Rousseau; Ranson, Hilary

    2013-10-01

    Identification of the major loci responsible for insecticide resistance in malaria vectors would aid the development and implementation of effective resistance management strategies, which are urgently needed to tackle the growing threat posed by resistance to the limited insecticides available for malaria control. Genome-wide association studies in the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, have been hindered by the high degree of within-population structuring and very low levels of linkage disequilibrium hence we revisited the use of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping to study resistance phenotypes in this vector species. Earlier work, identified two major QTL associated with pyrethroid resistance in A. gambiae s.s. from East Africa using genetic crossing of laboratory-colonized resistant and susceptible strains. In this study, we report the results from genetic mapping of pyrethroid resistance in three isofemale pedigrees established from wild-caught female A. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes from Benin. We identified two QTL on chromosomes 2L and 3R in these field populations, in similar genomic locations to the QTL identified in laboratory strains. The relative merits of two alternative study designs are discussed and suggestions made for future genetic mapping studies of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes.

  15. Phytoextract-induced developmental deformities in malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, C N

    2006-09-01

    Larvicidal potential of petroleum ether (Pee), carbon tetrachloride (Cte) and methanol extract (Mee) of Artemisia annua, Chenopodium album and Sonchus oleraceus was observed against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. The Pee of A. annua with LC50 16.85 ppm after 24 h and 11.45 ppm after 48 h of treatment was found most effective, followed by Cte of A. annua and Ch. album, Pee of Ch. album and Mee of A. annua. However, no significant larvicidal activity was observed in Mee of Ch. album and all the three extracts of S. oleraceous. The Pee of A. annua was further investigated for its effect on the metamorphosis and the development of the malaria vector. It influenced the early life cycle of An. stephensi by reducing the percentage of hatching, larval, pupal and adult emergence and also lengthening the larval and pupal periods. The growth index was also reduced significantly. As the extract has remarkable effect on the metamorphosis and high larvicidal potential, it could, therefore, be used as an effective biocontrol agent against the highly nuisant malaria vector.

  16. Habitat characterization and mapping of Anopheles maculatus (Theobald) mosquito larvae in malaria endemic areas in Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Wan Najdah, W M A; Zamree, I; Azahari, A H; Mohd Noor, I; Rahimi, H; Lee, H L

    2010-07-01

    In Peninsular Malaysia, a large proportion of malaria cases occur in the central mountainous and forested parts of the country. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, we conducted entomological surveys to determine the type of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats of the vector Anopheles maculatus in malaria endemic areas in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus mosquitoes were collected from 49 breeding sites in Pos Senderot. An. maculatus preferred to breed in water pockets formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls. The most common larval habitats were shallow pools 5.0-15.0 cm deep with clear water, mud substrate and plants or floatage. The mosquito also preferred open or partially shaded habitats. Breeding habitats were generally located at 100-400 m from the nearest human settlement. Changes in breeding characteristics were also observed. Instead of breeding in slow flowing streams, most larvae bred in small water pockets along the river margin.

  17. Larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract against filariasis and malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2011-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In this study, larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous extract from Eclipta prostrata, a member of the Asteraceae was investigated against fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus say and malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized AgNPs characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable measured 35-60 nm in size. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24h. The maximum efficacy was observed in crude aqueous, and synthesized AgNPs against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50)=27.49 and 4.56 mg/L; LC(90)=70.38 and 13.14 mg/L), and against A. subpictus (LC(50)=27.85 and 5.14 mg/L; LC(90)=71.45 and 25.68 mg/L) respectively. The chi-square value were significant at p<0.05 level. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Culex tritaeniorhynchus and A. subpictus. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesized AgNPs against vectors.

  18. Malaria vectors resistance to insecticides in Benin: current trends and mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Gnanguenon, Virgile; Agossa, Fiacre R; Badirou, Kefilath; Govoetchan, Renaud; Anagonou, Rodrigue; Oke-Agbo, Fredéric; Azondekon, Roseric; AgbanrinYoussouf, Ramziath; Attolou, Roseline; Tokponnon, Filemon T; Aïkpon, Rock; Ossè, Razaki; Akogbeto, Martin C

    2015-04-12

    Insecticides are widely used to control malaria vectors and have significantly contributed to the reduction of malaria-caused mortality. In addition, the same classes of insecticides were widely introduced and used in agriculture in Benin since 1980s. These factors probably contributed to the selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vector populations reported in several localities in Benin. This insecticide resistance represents a threat to vector control tool and should be monitored. The present study reveals observed insecticide resistance trends in Benin to help for a better management of insecticide resistance. Mosquito larvae were collected in eight sites and reared in laboratory. Bioassays were conducted on the adult mosquitoes upon the four types of insecticide currently used in public health in Benin. Knock-down resistance, insensitive acetylcholinesterase-1 resistance, and metabolic resistance analysis were performed in the mosquito populations based on molecular and biochemical analysis. The data were mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with Arcgis software. Mortalities observed with Deltamethrin (pyrethroid class) were less than 90% in 5 locations, between 90-97% in 2 locations, and over 98% in one location. Bendiocarb (carbamate class) showed mortalities ranged 90-97% in 2 locations and were over 98% in the others locations. A complete susceptibility to Pirimiphos methyl and Fenitrothion (organophosphate class) was observed in all locations with 98-100% mortalities. Knock-down resistance frequencies were high (0.78-0.96) and similar between Anopheles coluzzii, Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles melas. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase-1 was rare (0.002-0.1) and only detected in Anopheles gambiae in concomitance with Knock-down resistance mutation. The maps showed a large distribution of Deltamethrin resistance, Knock-down mutation and metabolic resistance throughout the country, a suspected resistance to

  19. Habitat Partitioning of Malaria Vectors in Nchelenge District, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Das, Smita; Muleba, Mbanga; Stevenson, Jennifer C.; Norris, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    Nchelenge District in Luapula Province, northern Zambia, experiences holoendemic malaria despite implementation of vector control programs. The major Anopheles vectors that contribute to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in this area had not previously been well defined. Three collections performed during the 2012 wet and dry seasons and the 2013 wet season revealed Anopheles funestus sensu stricto and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as the main vectors, where 80–85% of each collection was composed of An. funestus. Both vectors were found to be highly anthropophilic, and An. funestus has higher sporozoite infection rates (SIRs) and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) year-round compared with An. gambiae: SIRs of 1.8–3.0% and 0–2.5%, respectively, and EIRs of 3.7–41.5 infectious bites per 6-month period (ib/p/6mo) and 0–5.9 ib/p/6mo, respectively. Spatial and temporal changes in each vector's dynamics and bionomics were also observed. Anopheles funestus was the predominant vector in the villages near Kenani Stream in both wet and dry seasons, whereas An. gambiae was found to be the main vector in areas near Lake Mweru during the wet season. The vector data illustrate the need for broader temporal and spatial sampling in Nchelenge and present unique opportunities to further our understanding of malarial transmission and implications for malarial control in high-risk areas. PMID:27001755

  20. [Malaria vectors: from the field to genetics. Research in Africa].

    PubMed

    Fontenille, D; Cohuet, A; Awono-Ambene, P; Kengne, P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Wondji, C; Simard, F

    2005-06-01

    Only about 60 Anopheline species transmit malaria among more than 3,000 mosquito species recorded in the world. In Africa, the major vectors are Anopheles gambiae,An. arabiensis, An. funestus, An. nili and An. moucheti. They all belong to species complexes or groups of closely related species that are very difficult to set apart on morphological grounds, but which may have highly variable behaviours and vectorial capacities. Understanding this complexity is of major importance in vector control programs or for implementing any public health intervention program such as drugs or vaccine trials. Among the seven species of the complex,Anopheles gambiaes.s. shows a huge chromosomal polymorphism related to adaptation to specific natural or anthropic environments, from equatorial forested Africa to dry sahelian areas. Recent studies conducted in West and Central Africa suggest an incipient speciation into 2 molecular forms provisionally called M and S. A similar evolutionary phenomenon is observed in An. funestus, in which sympatric populations carrying specific chromosomal paracentric inversions showed restricted gene flow. Distribution of species from An. nili group and An. moucheti complex is restricted to more humid regions of Africa. However in some areas these species play the major role in malaria transmission. Comprehensive knowledge of transmission cycles and of behavioural and underlying genetic heterogeneities that exist within and among natural vector populations will thus benefit the whole area of malaria control and epidemiology. Molecular and genetic studies, as well as in depth monitoring of vector biology, have been recently facilitated by advances in functional and comparative genomics, including recent publication of the nearly complete genome sequence of An. gambiae. Challenge for the next years is to answer to the very simple question: why is an insect a vector?

  1. Predicting and mapping malaria under climate change scenarios: the potential redistribution of malaria vectors in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is rampant in Africa and causes untold mortality and morbidity. Vector-borne diseases are climate sensitive and this has raised considerable concern over the implications of climate change on future disease risk. The problem of malaria vectors (Anopheles mosquitoes) shifting from their traditional locations to invade new zones is an important concern. The vision of this study was to exploit the sets of information previously generated by entomologists, e.g. on geographical range of vectors and malaria distribution, to build models that will enable prediction and mapping the potential redistribution of Anopheles mosquitoes in Africa. Methods The development of the modelling tool was carried out through calibration of CLIMEX parameters. The model helped estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of the species in relation to climatic factors. These included temperature, rainfall and relative humidity, which characterized the living environment for Anopheles mosquitoes. The same parameters were used in determining the ecoclimatic index (EI). The EI values were exported to a GIS package for special analysis and proper mapping of the potential future distribution of Anopheles gambiae and Anophles arabiensis within the African continent under three climate change scenarios. Results These results have shown that shifts in these species boundaries southward and eastward of Africa may occur rather than jumps into quite different climatic environments. In the absence of adequate control, these predictions are crucial in understanding the possible future geographical range of the vectors and the disease, which could facilitate planning for various adaptation options. Conclusion Thus, the outputs from this study will be helpful at various levels of decision making, for example, in setting up of an early warning and sustainable strategies for climate change and climate change adaptation for malaria vectors control programmes in

  2. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors.

  3. A Research Agenda for Malaria Eradication: Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population. PMID:21311587

  4. A research agenda for malaria eradication: vector control.

    PubMed

    2011-01-25

    Different challenges are presented by the variety of malaria transmission environments present in the world today. In each setting, improved control for reduction of morbidity is a necessary first step towards the long-range goal of malaria eradication and a priority for regions where the disease burden is high. For many geographic areas where transmission rates are low to moderate, sustained and well-managed application of currently available tools may be sufficient to achieve local elimination. The research needs for these areas will be to sustain and perhaps improve the effectiveness of currently available tools. For other low-to-moderate transmission regions, notably areas where the vectors exhibit behaviours such as outdoor feeding and resting that are not well targeted by current strategies, new interventions that target predictable features of the biology/ecologies of the local vectors will be required. To achieve elimination in areas where high levels of transmission are sustained by very efficient vector species, radically new interventions that significantly reduce the vectorial capacity of wild populations will be needed. Ideally, such interventions should be implemented with a one-time application with a long-lasting impact, such as genetic modification of the vectorial capacity of the wild vector population.

  5. Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gakhar, S K; Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is a complex disease that afflicts human today. Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. Efforts are being made to eradicate malaria but burden of malaria is still increasing. Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. About 12% of malaria cases of malaria in India are contributed by A. stephensi. Studies conducted on population genetics of A. stephensi using various markers in different parts of the world are discussed in this communication.

  6. Biology and dynamics of potential malaria vectors in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Ponçon, Nicolas; Toty, Céline; L'Ambert, Grégory; Le Goff, Gilbert; Brengues, Cécile; Schaffner, Francis; Fontenille, Didier

    2007-01-01

    Background Malaria is a former endemic problem in the Camargue, South East France, an area from where very few recent data concerning Anopheles are available. A study was undertaken in 2005 to establish potential malaria vector biology and dynamics and evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. Methods Mosquitoes were collected in two study areas, from March to October 2005, one week every two weeks, using light traps+CO2, horse bait traps, human bait catch, and by collecting females in resting sites. Results Anopheles hyrcanus was the most abundant Anopheles species. Anopheles melanoon was less abundant, and Anopheles atroparvus and Anopheles algeriensis were rare. Anopheles hyrcanus and An. melanoon were present in summer, whereas An. atroparvus was present in autumn and winter. A large number of An. hyrcanus females was collected on humans, whereas almost exclusively animals attracted An. melanoon. Based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, almost 90% of An. melanoon blood meals analysed had been taken on horse or bovine. Anopheles hyrcanus and An. melanoon parity rates showed huge variations according to the date and the trapping method. Conclusion Anopheles hyrcanus seems to be the only Culicidae likely to play a role in malaria transmission in the Camargue, as it is abundant and anthropophilic. PMID:17313664

  7. Gut microbes influence fitness and malaria transmission potential of Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anil; Dhayal, Devender; Singh, O P; Adak, T; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2013-10-01

    The midgut of parasite transmitting vector, Anopheles stephensi is a physiologically dynamic ecological niche of resident microbes. The gut resident microbes of anisomorphic and physiologically variable male and female A. stephensi mosquitoes were different (Rani et al., 2009). To understand the possible interaction of gut microbes and mosquito host, we examined the contribution of the microbe community on the fitness of the adult mosquitoes and their ability to permit development of the malaria parasite. A. stephensi mosquitoes were fed with antibiotic to sterilize their gut to study longevity, blood meal digestion, egg laying and maturation capacity, and consequently ability to support malaria parasite development. The sterilization of gut imparted reduction in longevity by a median of 5 days in male and 2 days in female mosquitoes. Similarly, the sterilization also diminished the reproductive potential probably due to increased rate of the resorption of follicles in ovaries coupled with abated blood meal digestion in gut-sterilized females. Additionally, gut sterilization also led to increased susceptibility to oocyst development upon feeding on malaria infected blood. The susceptibility to malaria parasite introduced upon gut sterilization of A. stephensi was restored completely upon re-colonization of gut by native microbes. The information provided in the study provides insights into the role of the gut-resident microbial community in various life events of the mosquito that may be used to develop alternate malaria control strategies, such as paratransgenesis.

  8. A new malaria vector mosquito in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ashley; Dandalo, Leonard; Munhenga, Givemore; Dahan-Moss, Yael; Mbokazi, Frans; Ngxongo, Sifiso; Coetzee, Maureen; Koekemoer, Lizette; Brooke, Basil

    2017-01-01

    South Africa aims to eliminate malaria within its borders by 2018. Despite well-coordinated provincial vector control programmes that are based on indoor residual insecticide spraying, low-level residual malaria transmission continues in the low-altitude border regions of the north-eastern sector of the country. In order to identify the underlying causes of residual transmission, an enhanced vector surveillance system has been implemented at selected sites in the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) provinces. The collection periods for the data presented are March 2015 to April 2016 for Mpumalanga and January 2014 to December 2015 for KZN. The mosquito collection methods used included indoor and outdoor traps based on the use of traditional ceramic pots, modified plastic buckets and exit window traps (KZN only). All Anopheles funestus species group mosquitoes collected were identified to species and all females were screened for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Two An. vaneedeni females, one from each surveillance site, tested positive for P. falciparum sporozoites. These are the first records of natural populations of An. vaneedeni being infective with P. falciparum. As both specimens were collected from outdoor-placed ceramic pots, these data show that An. vaneedeni likely contributes to residual malaria transmission in South Africa. PMID:28262811

  9. Distribution of the main malaria vectors in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A detailed knowledge of the distribution of the main Anopheles malaria vectors in Kenya should guide national vector control strategies. However, contemporary spatial distributions of the locally dominant Anopheles vectors including Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles merus, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles pharoensis and Anopheles nili are lacking. The methods and approaches used to assemble contemporary available data on the present distribution of the dominant malaria vectors in Kenya are presented here. Method Primary empirical data from published and unpublished sources were identified for the period 1990 to 2009. Details recorded for each source included the first author, year of publication, report type, survey location name, month and year of survey, the main Anopheles species reported as present and the sampling and identification methods used. Survey locations were geo-positioned using national digital place name archives and on-line geo-referencing resources. The geo-located species-presence data were displayed and described administratively, using first-level administrative units (province), and biologically, based on the predicted spatial margins of Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in Kenya for the year 2009. Each geo-located survey site was assigned an urban or rural classification and attributed an altitude value. Results A total of 498 spatially unique descriptions of Anopheles vector species across Kenya sampled between 1990 and 2009 were identified, 53% were obtained from published sources and further communications with authors. More than half (54%) of the sites surveyed were investigated since 2005. A total of 174 sites reported the presence of An. gambiae complex without identification of sibling species. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus were the most widely reported at 244 and 265 spatially unique sites respectively with the former showing the most ubiquitous distribution nationally. Anopheles gambiae

  10. Larvicidal and IGR activity of extract of Tanzanian plants against malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kihampa, Charles; Joseph, Cosam C; Nkunya, Mayunga H H; Magesa, Stephen M; Hassanali, Ahmed; Heydenreich, Matthias; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports the larvicidal activity of seventeen Tanzanian plant species against the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles larvae. Some of the plants are used traditionally as sources of insecticidal materials. The crude extracts from the leaves, stem and root barks of the investigated plants were obtained by solvent extraction and then bio-assayed following WHO protocols showed LC50 values 10 to 400 ppm after 24 h exposure. The structures were determined on interpretation of spectroscopic data. The most active extracts were those from the stem and root barks of Annona squamosa, Uvaria faulknerae, U. kirkii and Uvariodendron pycnophyllum, all of which had LC50 values between 10 and 100 ppm. Long-term exposure beyond 24 h also showed more susceptibility of the larvae to the extracts. Larvae deformities by forming tail-like structures were observed for the methanol extracts of Tessmannia martiniana var pauloi. The results suggest that the investigated plant extracts are promising as larvicides against An. gambiae s.s. Giles mosquitoes and could be useful leads in the search for new and biodegradable plant derived larvicide products.

  11. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  12. Midgut Microbiota of the Malaria Mosquito Vector Anopheles gambiae and Interactions with Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boissière, Anne; Tchioffo, Majoline T.; Bachar, Dipankar; Abate, Luc; Marie, Alexandra; Nsango, Sandrine E.; Shahbazkia, Hamid R.; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Levashina, Elena A.; Christen, Richard; Morlais, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The susceptibility of Anopheles mosquitoes to Plasmodium infections relies on complex interactions between the insect vector and the malaria parasite. A number of studies have shown that the mosquito innate immune responses play an important role in controlling the malaria infection and that the strength of parasite clearance is under genetic control, but little is known about the influence of environmental factors on the transmission success. We present here evidence that the composition of the vector gut microbiota is one of the major components that determine the outcome of mosquito infections. A. gambiae mosquitoes collected in natural breeding sites from Cameroon were experimentally challenged with a wild P. falciparum isolate, and their gut bacterial content was submitted for pyrosequencing analysis. The meta-taxogenomic approach revealed a broader richness of the midgut bacterial flora than previously described. Unexpectedly, the majority of bacterial species were found in only a small proportion of mosquitoes, and only 20 genera were shared by 80% of individuals. We show that observed differences in gut bacterial flora of adult mosquitoes is a result of breeding in distinct sites, suggesting that the native aquatic source where larvae were grown determines the composition of the midgut microbiota. Importantly, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in the mosquito midgut correlates significantly with the Plasmodium infection status. This striking relationship highlights the role of natural gut environment in parasite transmission. Deciphering microbe-pathogen interactions offers new perspectives to control disease transmission. PMID:22693451

  13. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Apiaceae Plants against Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, MM; Dehkordi, A Sanei; Abai, MR; Khanavi, M; Mohtarami, F; Abadi, Y Salim; Rafi, F; Vatandoost, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Plant extracts and oils may act as alternatives to conventional pesticides for malaria vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oils of three plants of Apiaceae family against Anopheles stephensi, the main malaria vector in Iran. Methods: Essential oils from Heracleum persicum, Foeniculum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum seeds were hydro distillated, then their larvicidal activity were evaluated against laboratory-reared larvae of An. stephensi according to standard method of WHO. After susceptibility test, results were analysis using Probit program. Results: Essential oils were separated from H. persicum, F. vulgare and C. sativum plants and their larvicidal activities were tested. Result of this study showed that F. vulgare oil was the most effective against An. stephensi with LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 44.51 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: All three plants essential oil can serve as a natural larvicide against An. stephensi. F. vulgare oil exhibited more larvicidal properties. PMID:22808418

  14. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart GJ; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides. PMID:17519000

  15. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Okumu, Fredros O; Knols, Bart G J; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2007-05-22

    Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica) oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v) on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  16. Genetic approaches to interfere with malaria transmission by vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sibao; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the world’s most devastating diseases, causing over one million deaths every year. The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development in the vector mosquito occur in the midgut lumen, making the midgut a prime target for intervention. Mosquito transgenesis and paratransgenesis are two novel strategies that aim at rendering the vector incapable of sustaining Plasmodium development. Mosquito transgenesis involves direct genetic engineering of the mosquito itself for delivery of anti-Plasmodium effector molecules. Conversely, paratransgenesis involves the genetic modification of mosquito symbionts for expression of anti-pathogen effector molecules. Here we consider both genetic manipulation strategies for rendering mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium infection, and discuss challenges for the translation of laboratory findings to field applications. PMID:23395485

  17. Genetic approaches to interfere with malaria transmission by vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibao; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2013-03-01

    Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases worldwide, causing over 1 million deaths every year. The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development in the vector mosquito occur in the midgut lumen, making the midgut a prime target for intervention. Mosquito transgenesis and paratransgenesis are two novel strategies that aim at rendering the vector incapable of sustaining Plasmodium development. Mosquito transgenesis involves direct genetic engineering of the mosquito itself for delivery of anti-Plasmodium effector molecules. Conversely, paratransgenesis involves the genetic modification of mosquito symbionts for expression of anti-pathogen effector molecules. Here we consider both genetic manipulation strategies for rendering mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium infection, and discuss challenges for the translation of laboratory findings to field applications.

  18. Single concentration tests show synergism among Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins against the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luna, María Teresa; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Miranda-Ríos, Juan

    2010-07-01

    Bioassays of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with larvae of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus showed that the cytolytic protein Cyt1Aa was not toxic alone, but it increased the toxicity of the crystalline proteins Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa. Synergism also occurred between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. Whereas many previous analyses of synergism have been based on a series of toxin concentrations leading to comparisons between expected and observed values for the concentration killing 50% of insects tested (LC(50)), we describe and apply a method here that enables testing for synergism based on single concentrations of toxins.

  19. Ecology of urban malaria vectors in Niamey, Republic of Niger.

    PubMed

    Labbo, Rabiou; Fandeur, Thierry; Jeanne, Isabelle; Czeher, Cyril; Williams, Earle; Arzika, Ibrahim; Soumana, Amadou; Lazoumar, Ramatoulaye; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2016-06-08

    Urbanization in African cities has major impact on malaria risk. Niamey, the capital of the Republic of Niger, is situated in the West African Sahel zone. The short rainy season and human activities linked with the Niger River influence mosquito abundance. This study aimed at deciphering the factors of distribution of urban malaria vectors in Niamey. The distribution of mosquito aquatic stages was investigated monthly from December 2002 to November 2003, at up to 84 breeding sites, throughout Niamey. An exploratory analysis of association between mosquito abundance and environmental factors was performed by a Principal Component Analysis and confirmed by Kruskall-Wallis non-parametric test. To assess the relative importance of significant factors, models were built for Anopheles and Culicinae. In a second capture session, adult mosquitoes were collected weekly with pyrethrum sprays and CDC light-traps from June 2008 to June 2009 in two differentiated urban areas chosen after the study's first step. Members of the Anopheles gambiae complex were genotyped and Anopheles females were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigens using ELISA. In 2003, 29 % of 8420 mosquitoes collected as aquatic stages were Anopheles. They were significantly more likely to be found upstream, relatively close to the river and highly productive in ponds. These factors remained significant in regression and generalized linear models. The Culicinae were found significantly more likely close to the river, and in the main temporary affluent stream. In 2009, Anopheles specimens, including Anopheles gambiae s.l. (95 %), but also Anopheles funestus (0.6 %) accounted for 18 % of the adult mosquito fauna, with a large difference between the two sampled zones. Three members of the An. gambiae complex were found: Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles coluzzii, and An. gambiae. Nineteen (1.3 %) out of 1467 females tested for P. falciparum antigen were found positive. The

  20. Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen L

    2010-12-13

    Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethical dilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethical dilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks.

  1. Larval habitat characteristics of the main malaria vectors in the most endemic regions of Colombia: potential implications for larval control.

    PubMed

    Conde, Marcela; Pareja, Paula X; Orjuela, Lorena I; Ahumada, Martha L; Durán, Sebastian; Jara, Jennifer A; Cañon, Braian A; Pérez, Pilar; Beier, John C; Herrera, Socrates; Quiñones, Martha L

    2015-12-01

    Malaria incidence has recently decreased globally and, as malaria elimination is envisioned as a possibility by the health authorities, guidance is needed to strengthen malaria control strategies. Larval source treatment, which could complement routine vector control strategies, requires knowledge regarding the Anopheles larval habitats. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three of the most malaria-endemic regions in Colombia. A total of 1116 potential larval habitats in 70 villages were sampled in three states located in western Colombia: Cordoba, Valle del Cauca and Nariño. Overall, 17.5 % (195) of the potential larval habitats were found positive for different Anopheles species. A total of 1683 larvae were identified belonging to seven species: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles neomaculipalpus, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, and Anopheles triannulatus. The most widely distributed species was An. nuneztovari s.l., which was found mainly in human-made fishponds in Cordoba and temporary puddles in Valle del Cauca. Anopheles albimanus and An. calderoni were associated with human-made wells or excavation sites in Nariño. Cordoba displayed the greatest Anopheles species diversity with a total of six species (Shannon diversity index H': 1.063). Although Valle del Cauca had four species, one more than Nariño, the diversity was lower because only one species predominated, An. nuneztovari s.l. The larval habitats with the highest Shannon diversity index were lagoons (H': 1.079) and fishponds (H': 1.009) in Cordoba, excavation sites in Nariño (H': 0.620) and puddles in Valle del Cauca (H': 0.764). This study provides important information regarding the larval habitats of the main malaria vectors in the most malaria-endemic regions of Colombia, which will be useful in guiding larval control operations.

  2. Larval density dependence in Anopheles gambiae s.s., the major African vector of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Muriu, Simon M.; Coulson, Tim; Mbogo, Charles M.; Godfray, H. Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the most important vector of malaria in Africa although relatively little is known about the density-dependent processes determining its population size.Mosquito larval density was manipulated under semi-natural conditions using artificial larval breeding sites placed in the field in coastal Kenya; two experiments were conducted: one manipulating the density of a single cohort of larvae across a range of densities and the other employing fewer densities but with the treatments crossed with four treatments manipulating predator access.In the first experiment, larval survival, development rate and the size of the adult mosquito all decreased with larval density (controlling for block effects between 23% and 31% of the variance in the data could be explained by density).In the second experiment, the effects of predator manipulation were not significant, but again we observed strong density dependence in larval survival (explaining 30% of the variance).The results are compared with laboratory studies of A. gambiae larval competition and the few other studies conducted in the field, and the consequences for malaria control are discussed PMID:23163565

  3. Larval density dependence in Anopheles gambiae s.s., the major African vector of malaria.

    PubMed

    Muriu, Simon M; Coulson, Tim; Mbogo, Charles M; Godfray, H Charles J

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto is the most important vector of malaria in Africa although relatively little is known about the density-dependent processes determining its population size. Mosquito larval density was manipulated under semi-natural conditions using artificial larval breeding sites placed in the field in coastal Kenya; two experiments were conducted: one manipulating the density of a single cohort of larvae across a range of densities and the other employing fewer densities but with the treatments crossed with four treatments manipulating predator access. In the first experiment, larval survival, development rate and the size of the adult mosquito all decreased with larval density (controlling for block effects between 23% and 31% of the variance in the data could be explained by density). In the second experiment, the effects of predator manipulation were not significant, but again we observed strong density dependence in larval survival (explaining 30% of the variance). The results are compared with laboratory studies of A. gambiae larval competition and the few other studies conducted in the field, and the consequences for malaria control are discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

  4. Can antibodies against flies alter malaria transmission in birds by changing vector behavior?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suma; Waite, Jessica L; Clayton, Dale H; Adler, Frederick R

    2014-10-07

    Transmission of insect-borne diseases is shaped by the interactions among parasites, vectors, and hosts. Any factor that alters movement of infected vectors from infected to uninfeced hosts will in turn alter pathogen spread. In this paper, we study one such pathogen-vector-host system, avian malaria in pigeons transmitted by fly ectoparasites, where both two-way and three-way interactions play a key role in shaping disease spread. Bird immune defenses against flies can decrease malaria prevalence by reducing fly residence time on infected birds or increase disease prevalence by enhancing fly movement and thus infection transmission. We develop a mathematical model that illustrates how these changes in vector behavior influence pathogen transmission and show that malaria prevalence is maximized at an intermediate level of defense avoidance by the flies. Understanding how host immune defenses indirectly alter disease transmission by influencing vector behavior has implications for reducing the transmission of human malaria and other vectored pathogens.

  5. Variations in salinity tolerance of malaria vectors of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka and the implications for malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato, a widespread vector of malaria in Asia, is reportedly composed of four sibling species A-D based on distinct cytogenetic and morphological characteristics. However An. subpictus species B specimens in Sri Lanka are termed An. subpictus B/ An. sundaicus because of recent genetic data. Differences in salinity tolerance and coastal/inland prevalence of An. subpictus sibling species that were not previously established in Sri Lanka are presented here. Results Specimens with morphological characteristics of all four Indian An. subpictus sibling species were found in Sri Lanka. Sibling species A, C and D tended to be predominant in inland, and An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus, in coastal localities. Sibling species C was predominant in both adult and larval inland collections. Larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus were found in inland and coastal sites, including a lagoon, with salinity varying from 0 to 30 ppt. An. subpictus sibling species A, C and D larvae were present in water of salinity between 0 to 4 ppt. An. subpictus C, D and An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus larvae showed compatible differential salinity tolerance in laboratory tests. The first instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus showed 100% survival up to 15 ppt in comparison to species C and D where the corresponding values were 3 ppt and 6 ppt respectively. However all third instar larvae of An. subpictus B/An. sundaicus survived up to 30 ppt salinity whereas An. subpictus C and D tolerated up to 4 ppt and 8 ppt salinity respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that An. subpictus species B/An. sundaicus breed in fresh, brackish and nearly saline water while An. subpictus species C and D do so in fresh and less brackish waters in Sri Lanka, as in India. Because of the established role of An. sundaicus s.l. and An. subpictus s.l. as malaria vectors, the findings indicate a need for greater monitoring of brackish water breeding habitats in Asia

  6. Oviposition preference and egg eclosion in different salt concentrations in the coastal malaria vector Anopheles aquasalis Curry.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Frances R; Díaz, Sandra; Gómez, Cruz J; Moreno, Milagros; Hernández, Gilma

    2006-03-01

    Anopheles aquasalis is the main malaria vector in Sucre State, Venezuela. The larvae of this species are saltwater tolerant. The effects of different concentrations of salt on oviposition preference and egg survival were studied under laboratory conditions. Choice experiments with salt concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% in bottled water were set up for individual adult females and the number of eggs laid in each salt concentration was noted. Egg survival, as inferred by the number of hatched larvae also was determined for each salt concentration. Females preferred to oviposit in freshwater and rejected water salt concentrations of 40%, but they were neither attracted nor repelled by water with 10-30% of salt. Eggs hatched more quickly in the lower salt concentrations, but egg survival was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 20%. Thus, female oviposition preference in An. aquasalis determines egg survival.

  7. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  8. Infectiousness of malaria-endemic human populations to vectors.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Gerry F; Ross, Amanda; Smith, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Despite its key role in determining the stability and intensity of malaria transmission, the infectiousness of human populations to mosquitoes has rarely been estimated. Field-based analyses of malaria transmission have frequently relied on the prevalence of asexual parasites or gametocytes as proxies for infectiousness. We now summarize empirical data on human infectiousness from Africa and Papua New Guinea. Over a wide range of transmission intensities there is little relationship between the infectiousness of human populations to vector mosquitoes and mosquito-to-human transmission intensity. We compare these data with the predictions of a stochastic simulation model of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology. This model predicted little variation in the infectiousness of the human population for entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs) greater than approximately 10 infectious bites per year, demonstrating that the lack of relationship between the EIR and the infectious reservoir can be explained without invoking any effects of acquired transmission-blocking immunity. The near absence of field data from areas with an EIR < 10 per year precluded validation of the model predictions for low EIR values. These results suggest that interventions reducing mosquito-to-human transmission will have little or no effect on human infectiousness at the levels of transmission found in most rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Unless very large reductions in transmission can be achieved, measures to prevent mosquito-to-human transmission need to be complemented with interventions that reduce the density or infectiousness of blood stage parasites.

  9. Malaria vectors in the Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea): estimation of vector dynamics and transmission intensities.

    PubMed

    Cano, J; Berzosa, P J; Roche, J; Rubio, J M; Moyano, E; Guerra-Neira, A; Brochero, H; Mico, M; Edú, M; Benito, A

    2004-03-01

    The current study was performed on the Bioko Island (Equatorial Guinea) with the aim of establishing a rapid assessment technique for mapping malaria risk and measuring vector densities. Human bait collection, tent traps, light traps, indoor resting collection, and window exit traps were used to collect Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus, the two anopheline species involved in malaria transmission in this island. Capture data were used to compare differences in the behavior and vectorial capacity of An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus. Differences in the two species of mosquitoes were found in relation to the season and trapping methods used. Entomological inoculation rates (EIR) for Plasmodium falciparum were calculated using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with individual anopheline mosquitoes from human bait collections in two villages during the dry and rainy seasons. P. falciparum sporozoites were detected from both dissected heads/thorax and abdomens of both species.

  10. [The species and karyotype composition of malaria mosquito larvae in different water reservoirs of the city of Moscow].

    PubMed

    Tanygina, E Iu; Gordeev, M I; Moskaev, A V; Ganushkina, L A

    2014-01-01

    The species and karyotype composition of malaria mosquito larvae was investigated in different water reservoirs of the city of Moscow. Cytogenetic analysis identified 2 malaria mosquito species: An. maculipennis Mg and An. messeae Fall. An. messeae was predominant in all the biotopes studied. The proportion of An. maculipennis varied from 0 to 23.8% and averaged 6.27%. An. messeae larvae were found to have chromosomal polymorphism. Individual local An. messeae populations having a definite, historically established, time and space resistant karyotype structure were shown to form in Moscow. The resistance of the karyotype structure of the populations was provided by reversible fluctuations in the rate of chromosomal inversions.

  11. Optimal control strategy of malaria vector using genetically modified mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, M; Bevilacqua, L; Wyse, A P P

    2009-06-07

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are resistant to diseases may provide a new and effective weapon of diseases control. Such an approach relies on transgenic mosquitoes being able to survive and compete with wild-type populations. These transgenic mosquitoes carry a specific code that inhibits the plasmodium evolution in its organism. It is said that this characteristic is hereditary and consequently the disease fades away after some time. Once transgenic mosquitoes are released, interactions between the two populations and inter-specific mating between the two types of mosquitoes take place. We present a mathematical model that considers the generation overlapping and variable environment factors. Based on this continuous model, the malaria vector control is formulated and solved as an optimal control problem, indicating how genetically modified mosquitoes should be introduced in the environment. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed control.

  12. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  13. Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons.

  14. Malaria vector productivity in relation to the highland environment in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Omukunda, Elizabeth; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew; Yan, Guiyun

    2006-09-01

    The reasons for the resurgence of malaria in the African highlands have been subject of debate. Because vector abundance is important for malaria transmission, gaining a better understanding of vector biology is a key to understanding the mechanisms of highland malaria. We studied vector productivity in relation to the highland environment and compared productivity between lowland and highland sites. We found lower vector productivity in the highland and in wetlands where the temperature was lower. Immature stage development time was significantly longer in the highland site. Development time was significantly shorter in aquatic habitats in cultivated areas than in wetlands, and survival rate was significantly higher in cultivated areas. Fecundity was significantly lower in the highland site. These findings suggest that changes in local temperature and land use contribute to an increase of malaria vectors in the highland.

  15. Studies on Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of vivax malaria in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Extensive previous studies on taxonomy, behavior/bionomics and control of Anopheles sinensis are reviewed and summarized. Recent molecular identification revealed that the population of An. sinensis complex includes An. sinensis, An. pullus, An. lesteri and at least two new species, and An. yatsushiroensis is synonmy of An. pullus. An. sinensis is the main vector specie of vivax malaria in Korea. Larvae of An. sinensis breed in wide range of habitats which are naturally-made clean water, stagnant or flowing; main habitats include rice fields, ditches, streams, irrigation cannals, marshes, ponds, ground pools, etc. Their host preferences are highly zoophilic. Human blood rate is very low (0.7-1.7%); nevertheless An. sinensis readily feeds on man when domestic animals are not found near by. They feed on hosts throughout the night from dusk to dawn with a peak period of 02:00-04:00 hours; they are slightly more exophagic (biting outdoors); much larger numbers come into the room when light is on. Main resting places are outdoors such as grasses, vegetable fields and rice fields. A mark-release-recapture study resulted that 37.1% was recaptured within 1 km, 29.4% at 1-3 km, 21.1% at 3-6 km, 10.3% at 6-9 km and 2.1% at 9-12 km distance. An. sinensis hibernate outdoors (mostly under part of dense grasses) during October-March. At the end of the hibernation period (March-April) they feed on cows at daytime. Until today any single measure to effectively control An. sinensis population has not been found. Indoor residual spray with a long-lasting insecticide can not reduce vector population densities, but shorten their life spans in some degree, so contributes to malaria control. PMID:16192749

  16. Melanotic Pathology and Vertical Transmission of the Gut Commensal Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in the Major Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Christophides, Georges K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The resident gut flora is known to have significant impacts on the life history of the host organism. Endosymbiotic bacterial species in the Anopheles mosquito gut are potent modulators of sexual development of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, and thus proposed as potential control agents of malaria transmission. Results Here we report a melanotic pathology in the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, caused by the dominant mosquito endosymbiont Elizabethkingiameningoseptica. Transfer of melanised tissues into the haemolymph of healthy adult mosquitoes or direct haemolymph inoculation with isolated E. meningoseptica bacteria were the only means for transmission and de novo formation of melanotic lesions, specifically in the fat body tissues of recipient individuals. We show that E. meningoseptica can be vertically transmitted from eggs to larvae and that E. meningoseptica-mono-associated mosquitoes display significant mortality, which is further enhanced upon Plasmodium infection, suggesting a synergistic impact of E. meningoseptica and Plasmodium on mosquito survival. Conclusion The high pathogenicity and permanent association of E. meningoseptica with An. Gambiae through vertical transmission constitute attractive characteristics towards the potential design of novel mosquito/malaria biocontrol strategies. PMID:24098592

  17. Evaluation of habitat management strategies for the reduction of malaria vectors in northern Belize.

    PubMed

    Grieco, John P; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Achee, Nicole L; Vanzie, Errol; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R; Rejmankova, Eliska

    2005-12-01

    Mowing and burning of emergent vegetation were evaluated as potential management strategies for the control of the malaria vector, Anopheles vestitipennis, in northern Belize, Central America. The primary aim was reduction of tall dense macrophytes (dominated by Typha domingensis) as preferred larval habitat for An. vestitipennis. Nine experimental plots were established in a Typha marsh in Orange Walk District, Belize. Three plots were burned, three were treated by subaquatic mowing, and three were unaltered controls. After treatment, Typha height was most dramatically affected by the mow treatment. Plant heights at 21 and 95 days post-treatment reflected an 89% and 48% decrease, respectively, compared to pretreatment conditions. The Typha height in the burn plots was not as severely affected. Heights at 21 days post-treatment were 39% lower than those of pre-treatment vegetation, with a return to near pre-test heights by 95 days post-treatment. Both treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the number of An. vestitipennis larvae collected as compared to control plots. Conversely, the treatments resulted in increased larval densities of several other vector and pest mosquito species. Larval population densities ofAn. albimanus, Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus, and Culex coronator were significantly higher in burn plots. In mow plots, there were significant increases in An. albimanus and Oc. taeniorhynchus larval populations. Non-target invertebrate species affected by the treatments were adult Tropisternus collaris, larval Corythrella, and adult Parapleapuella.

  18. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Margaret A; Burrows, Jeremy N; Manyando, Christine; van Huijsduijnen, Rob Hooft; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Wells, Timothy N C

    2017-08-03

    Malaria is caused in humans by five species of single-celled eukaryotic Plasmodium parasites (mainly Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax) that are transmitted by the bite of Anopheles spp. mosquitoes. Malaria remains one of the most serious infectious diseases; it threatens nearly half of the world's population and led to hundreds of thousands of deaths in 2015, predominantly among children in Africa. Malaria is managed through a combination of vector control approaches (such as insecticide spraying and the use of insecticide-treated bed nets) and drugs for both treatment and prevention. The widespread use of artemisinin-based combination therapies has contributed to substantial declines in the number of malaria-related deaths; however, the emergence of drug resistance threatens to reverse this progress. Advances in our understanding of the underlying molecular basis of pathogenesis have fuelled the development of new diagnostics, drugs and insecticides. Several new combination therapies are in clinical development that have efficacy against drug-resistant parasites and the potential to be used in single-dose regimens to improve compliance. This ambitious programme to eliminate malaria also includes new approaches that could yield malaria vaccines or novel vector control strategies. However, despite these achievements, a well-coordinated global effort on multiple fronts is needed if malaria elimination is to be achieved.

  19. Workbook on the Identification of Anopheles Larvae. Preliminary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; Stojanovich, Chester J.

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable malarial control workers to identify the larvae of "Anopheles" species that are important malaria vectors. The morphological features of the larvae are illustrated in a programed booklet, which also contains an illustrated taxonomic key to 25 species of anopheline larvae. A glossary and a short…

  20. Women's knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions in Kersa, eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gobena, Tesfaye; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethiopia has a long history of controlling malaria using vector control tools. Community knowledge and perceptions of malaria and use of malaria vector control interventions vary. Objective The aim of this study was to determine malaria-related knowledge and perceptions among women and to determine the use of malaria vector control interventions, mainly indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), among households in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC) site from October to November 2010. A total of 2,867 households were involved in the study. The data was collected via face-to-face interviews with the women of the household using a pre-tested questionnaire. The questionnaire contained closed, semiclosed, and open-ended questions to explore the reasons for non-use of the interventions. Each knowledge, perception, and practice question was analyzed separately. Results Of the total women, 2,463 (85.9%) had heard of malaria. Of them, 1,413 (57.4%) mentioned malaria as a communicable disease. But, only 793 (56.1%) of them associated mosquito bites with malaria transmission. Seven hundred and ninety-eight of the respondents (27.8%) had IRS coverage, and of these, 59 (7.4%) had re-plastered their interior walls following the application of insecticides. Of net-owning households, 33.5% had used at least one long-lasting insecticide-treated net (LLIN) the night before the survey. Societal reasons such as holy days and dislike of the insecticide mainly due to fear of its effects on their livestock, were the main reasons for re-spondents replastering their walls. Conclusions A substantial number of women had heard about malaria, but there was a knowledge gap regarding the route of malaria transmission. Less than one-third of the surveyed household houses were sprayed with insecticides, and a low proportion of net-owning households

  1. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Clennon, Julie A; Kamanga, Aniset; Musapa, Mulenga; Shiff, Clive; Glass, Gregory E

    2010-11-05

    Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal

  2. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jarju, Lamin B S; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-07-27

    Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0-100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation uses

  3. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Jarju, Lamin BS; Fillinger, Ulrike; Green, Clare; Louca, Vasilis; Majambere, Silas; Lindsay, Steven W

    2009-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to fly. The traditional practice

  4. Review of genetic diversity in malaria vectors (Culicidae: Anophelinae).

    PubMed

    Loaiza, J R; Bermingham, E; Sanjur, O I; Scott, M E; Bickersmith, S A; Conn, J E

    2012-01-01

    We review previous studies on the genetic diversity of malaria vectors to highlight the major trends in population structure and demographic history. In doing so, we outline key information about molecular markers, sampling strategies and approaches to investigate the causes of genetic structure in Anopheles mosquitoes. Restricted gene flow due to isolation by distance and physical barriers to dispersal may explain the spatial pattern of current genetic diversity in some Anopheles species. Nonetheless, there is noteworthy disagreement among studies, perhaps due to variation in sampling methodologies, choice of molecular markers, and/or analytical approaches. More refined genealogical methods of population analysis allowing for the inclusion of the temporal component of genetic diversity facilitated the evaluation of the contribution of historical demographic processes to genetic structure. A common pattern of past unstable demography (i.e., historical fluctuation in the effective population size) by several Anopheles species, regardless of methodology (DNA markers), mosquito ecology (anthropophilic vs zoophilic), vector status (primary vs secondary) and geographical distribution, suggests that Pleistocene environmental changes were major drivers of divergence at population and species levels worldwide.

  5. Using low-cost drones to map malaria vector habitats.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andy; Makame, Makame; Cross, Dónall; Majambere, Silas; Msellem, Mwinyi

    2017-01-14

    There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations. With flying times of less than 30 min for each site, high-resolution (7 cm) georeferenced images were successfully generated for each of the seven sites, covering areas up to 30 ha. Water bodies were readily identifiable in the imagery, as well as ancillary information for planning LSM activities (access routes to water bodies by road and foot) and public health management (e.g. identification of drinking water sources, mapping individual households and the nature of their construction). The drone-based surveys carried out in this study provide a low-cost and flexible solution to mapping water bodies for operational dissemination of LSM initiatives in mosquito vector-borne disease elimination campaigns. Generated orthomosaics can also be used to provide vital information for other public health planning activities.

  6. Re-Emerging Malaria Vectors in Rural Sahel (nouna, Burkina Faso): the Paluclim Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignolles, Cécile; Sauerborn, Rainer; Dambach, Peter; Viel, Christian; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Sié, Ali; Rogier, Christophe; Tourre, Yves M.

    2016-06-01

    The Paluclim project applied the tele-epidemiology approach, linking climate, environment and public health (CNES, 2008), to rural malaria in Nouna (Burkina Faso). It was to analyze the climate impact on vectorial risks, and its consequences on entomological risks forecast. The objectives were to: 1) produce entomological risks maps in the Nouna region, 2) produce dynamic maps on larvae sites and their productivity, 3) study the climate impact on malaria risks, and 4) evaluate the feasibility of strategic larviciding approach.

  7. Mapping of Malaria Vectors at District Level in India: Changing Scenario and Identified Gaps.

    PubMed

    Singh, Poonam; Lingala, Mercy Aparna L; Sarkar, Soma; Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2017-02-01

    Malaria is one of the six major vector-borne diseases in India, the endemicity of which changes with changes in ecological, climatic, and sociodevelopmental conditions. The anopheline vectors are greatly affected by ecological conditions such as deforestation, urbanization, climate and lifestyle. Despite the advent of tools such as Geographic Information System (GIS), the updated information on the distribution of anopheline vectors of malaria is not available. In India, the plan for vector control is organized at subcentral level but information about vectors is unavailable even at the district level. Therefore, a systematic presentation of vector distribution has been made to provide maps in respect of major vector species. A search of the literature for major vector species, that is, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus, and Anopheles dirus sensu lato, since 1927 till 2015 was carried out. Data have been presented as present, absent, and no information about vector species during pre-eradication (1927-1958), posteradication (1959-1999), and current scenario (2000-2015). Vectors' distribution and malaria endemicity were mapped using Arc GIS. Of 630 districts of India, major vectors An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. stephensi were present in 420, 241, and 243 districts, respectively. In 183 districts, there is no information on any major malaria vector species although 27 of them from the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Manipur, and Mizoram are highly endemic for malaria, having incidences of 2-40 cases/1000/year. The identified gaps in vector distribution, particularly in malaria endemic areas, necessitate further surveys so as to generate the missing information.

  8. The role of research in molecular entomology in the fight against malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    della Torre, A; Arca, B; Favia, G; Petrarca, V; Coluzzi, M

    2008-06-01

    The text summarizes the principal current fields of investigation and the recent achievements of the research groups presently contributing to the Molecular Entomology Cluster of the Italian Malaria Network. Particular emphasis is given to the researches with a more direct impact on the fight against malaria vectors.

  9. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Tullu; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2011-02-22

    populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how) to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae.

  10. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    promising tool for control of larval populations of malaria mosquitoes. Additional studies are required to identify the best delivery method (where, when and how) to make use of the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi against anopheline larvae. PMID:21342492

  11. Using a Geographical-Information-System-Based Decision Support to Enhance Malaria Vector Control in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control. PMID:22548086

  12. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  13. Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Ng'ang'a, Peter N; Shililu, Josephat; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; Kimani, Violet; Kabutha, Charity; Kabuage, Lucy; Kabiru, Ephantus; Githure, John; Mutero, Clifford

    2008-07-31

    Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level. Four villages representing the socio-economic, demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected. A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages. Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector. Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included; use of treated bed nets (57%), untreated bed nets (35%), insecticide coils (21%), traditional methods such as burning of cow dung (8%), insecticide sprays (6%), and use of skin repellents (2%). However, 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability (50.5%), side effects (19.9%), perceived lack of effectiveness (16%), and lack of time to apply (2.6%). Lack of time was the main reason (56.3%) reported for non-application of environmental management practices, such as draining of stagnant water (77%) and clearing of vegetations along water canals (67%). The study provides relevant information necessary for the management, prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems, where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable.

  14. Malaria vector control practices in an irrigated rice agro-ecosystem in central Kenya and implications for malaria control

    PubMed Central

    Ng'ang'a, Peter N; Shililu, Josephat; Jayasinghe, Gayathri; Kimani, Violet; Kabutha, Charity; Kabuage, Lucy; Kabiru, Ephantus; Githure, John; Mutero, Clifford

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in most agricultural ecosystems is complex and hence the need for developing a holistic malaria control strategy with adequate consideration of socio-economic factors driving transmission at community level. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in an irrigated ecosystem with the aim of investigating vector control practices applied and factors affecting their application both at household and community level. Methods Four villages representing the socio-economic, demographic and geographical diversity within the study area were purposefully selected. A total of 400 households were randomly sampled from the four study villages. Both semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. Results The results showed that malaria was perceived to be a major public health problem in the area and the role of the vector Anopheles mosquitoes in malaria transmission was generally recognized. More than 80% of respondents were aware of the major breeding sites of the vector. Reported personal protection methods applied to prevent mosquito bites included; use of treated bed nets (57%), untreated bed nets (35%), insecticide coils (21%), traditional methods such as burning of cow dung (8%), insecticide sprays (6%), and use of skin repellents (2%). However, 39% of respondents could not apply some of the known vector control methods due to unaffordability (50.5%), side effects (19.9%), perceived lack of effectiveness (16%), and lack of time to apply (2.6%). Lack of time was the main reason (56.3%) reported for non-application of environmental management practices, such as draining of stagnant water (77%) and clearing of vegetations along water canals (67%). Conclusion The study provides relevant information necessary for the management, prevention and control of malaria in irrigated agro-ecosystems, where vectors of malaria are abundant and disease transmission is stable

  15. Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta: natural potential larvicidal agents against the urban Indian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, C N

    2009-12-01

    Malaria control in developing countries is based largely on vector eradication by the use of mosquito larvicides which is an ideal method for controlling mosquito and the related epidemics. On account of ecohazardous nature, nontarget specificity of chemical insecticides and evidences of developing resistance against them in the exposed species, currently, importance of secondary plant metabolites has been acknowledged. Insecticides of plant origin are environmentally safe, degradable, and target specific. In view of this fact, the present work highlights the larvicidal property of extracts of Amaranthus oleracea and Euphorbia hirta against the third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, the urban malaria vector. LC(50) values for the carbon tetrachloride fraction of A. oleracea against larvae are 17,768.00 and 13,780.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure accordingly. For the methanol extract of the same, LC(50) values are 15,541.00 and 10,174.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure. In the case of petroleum ether extract, LC(50) values after 24 and 48 h of exposure are 848.75 and 311.50 ppm. LC(50) values for carbon tetrachloride extracts of E. hirta against the larvae are 11,063.00 and 10,922.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively. For methanol extract of the same extract, the LC(50) values are 19,280.00 and 18,476.00 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure. In the case of petroleum ether extract, LC(50) values after a 24- and 48-h exposure period are 9,693.90 and 7,752.80 ppm. The results obtained for petroleum extracts of A. oleracea are encouraging and there are probabilities that the active principle contained in this extract may be more effective than its crude form and may serve as ecofriendly mosquito larvicide.

  16. Adult vector control, mosquito ecology and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Brady, Oliver J; Godfray, H Charles J; Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Cohen, Justin M; McKenzie, F Ellis; Alex Perkins, T; Reiner, Robert C; Tusting, Lucy S; Scott, Thomas W; Lindsay, Steven W; Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L

    2015-03-01

    Standard advice regarding vector control is to prefer interventions that reduce the lifespan of adult mosquitoes. The basis for this advice is a decades-old sensitivity analysis of 'vectorial capacity', a concept relevant for most malaria transmission models and based solely on adult mosquito population dynamics. Recent advances in micro-simulation models offer an opportunity to expand the theory of vectorial capacity to include both adult and juvenile mosquito stages in the model. In this study we revisit arguments about transmission and its sensitivity to mosquito bionomic parameters using an elasticity analysis of developed formulations of vectorial capacity. We show that reducing adult survival has effects on both adult and juvenile population size, which are significant for transmission and not accounted for in traditional formulations of vectorial capacity. The elasticity of these effects is dependent on various mosquito population parameters, which we explore. Overall, control is most sensitive to methods that affect adult mosquito mortality rates, followed by blood feeding frequency, human blood feeding habit, and lastly, to adult mosquito population density. These results emphasise more strongly than ever the sensitivity of transmission to adult mosquito mortality, but also suggest the high potential of combinations of interventions including larval source management. This must be done with caution, however, as policy requires a more careful consideration of costs, operational difficulties and policy goals in relation to baseline transmission. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as a viable option in an Integrated Malaria Vector Control Programme in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nartey, Rita; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kruppa, Thomas; Baffour-Awuah, Sandra; Annan, Augustina; Oppong, Samuel; Becker, Norbert; Obiri-Danso, Kwasi

    2013-04-22

    Integrated Vector Control (IVC) remains the approach for managing the malaria-causing vector. The study investigated the contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in the control of malaria by targeting the larvae and also mapped and documented major breeding sites in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Using a hand held GPS receiver unit, major breeding sites within the metropolis were mapped out during the larval survey. Mosquito larvae were then collected from the breeding sites and reared in an insectary to obtain an F1 generation for laboratory bioassays. The minimum effective dosage of Bti Water Dispersible Granular (WDG) formulation was determined by a series of bioassays. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, the optimum effective dosage of Bti formulations against naturally occurring larvae of the indigenous mosquito species was determined through open field trials. A total of 33 breeding sites were identified and geo-referenced during the larval surveys with the majority of the breeding sites located in the Asokwa sub-metropolis, Kumasi, Ghana. A Bti (3,000 International Toxic Unit (ITU)/mg) concentration of 0.026 mg/l resulted in 50% mortality whilst a concentration of 0.136 mg/l resulted in 95% mortality. Results from the open field trials with Bti showed that a dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is as effective as 0.4 kg/ha in suppressing late instars and resulting pupae. This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes. Further research is needed to extend this to the field in order to determine its ability to reduce malaria incidence.

  18. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as a viable option in an Integrated Malaria Vector Control Programme in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated Vector Control (IVC) remains the approach for managing the malaria-causing vector. The study investigated the contribution of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) in the control of malaria by targeting the larvae and also mapped and documented major breeding sites in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana. Methods Using a hand held GPS receiver unit, major breeding sites within the metropolis were mapped out during the larval survey. Mosquito larvae were then collected from the breeding sites and reared in an insectary to obtain an F1 generation for laboratory bioassays. The minimum effective dosage of Bti Water Dispersible Granular (WDG) formulation was determined by a series of bioassays. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, the optimum effective dosage of Bti formulations against naturally occurring larvae of the indigenous mosquito species was determined through open field trials. Results A total of 33 breeding sites were identified and geo-referenced during the larval surveys with the majority of the breeding sites located in the Asokwa sub-metropolis, Kumasi, Ghana. A Bti (3,000 International Toxic Unit (ITU)/mg) concentration of 0.026 mg/l resulted in 50% mortality whilst a concentration of 0.136 mg/l resulted in 95% mortality. Results from the open field trials with Bti showed that a dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is as effective as 0.4 kg/ha in suppressing late instars and resulting pupae. Conclusion This study reveals that Bti at a very low dosage of 0.2 kg/ha is highly effective against Anopheles larvae and therefore offers viable options for the management of vector mosquitoes. Further research is needed to extend this to the field in order to determine its ability to reduce malaria incidence. PMID:23607376

  19. Anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in Ndop health district, north west region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. To effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local Anopheles species is essential. Therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the Ndop health district in the northwest region of Cameroon where malaria is holoendemic, as a means to acquiring evidence based data for improved vector intervention. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled both indoor and outdoor for four consecutive nights in each locality during each month of survey. Sampling was done by the human landing catch method on volunteers. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and their ovaries randomly dissected for parity determination. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected by Circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Members of An. gambiae complex were further identified to molecular level by PCR and RFLP PCR. Results An. ziemanni was the main malaria vector and whether outdoor or indoor. The man biting rate for the vectors ranged from 6.75 to 8.29 bites per person per night (b/p/n). The entomological inoculation rate for this vector species was 0.0278 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Mbapishi, 0.034 ib/p/n in Mbafuh, and 0.063 ib/p/n in Backyit. These were by far greater than that for An. gambiae. No difference was observed in the parity rate of these two vectors. PCR analysis revealed the presence of only An. colluzzi (M- form). Conclusions An. ziemanni is an important local malaria vector in Ndop health district. The findings provide useful baseline information on the anopheles species composition, their distribution and role in malaria transmission that would guide the implementation of integrated vector management strategies in the locality. PMID

  20. Strengthening tactical planning and operational frameworks for vector control: the roadmap for malaria elimination in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Angula, Hans A; Iitula, Iitula; Uusiku, Pentrina; Trune, Desta; Islam, Quazi M; Govere, John M

    2015-08-05

    Namibia has made tremendous gains in malaria control and the epidemiological trend of the disease has changed significantly over the past years. In 2010, the country reoriented from the objective of reducing disease morbidity and mortality to the goal of achieving malaria elimination by 2020. This manuscript outlines the processes undertaken in strengthening tactical planning and operational frameworks for vector control to facilitate expeditious malaria elimination in Namibia. The information sources for this study included all available data and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Namibia. A methodical assessment of published and unpublished documents was conducted via a literature search of online electronic databases, Google Scholar, PubMed and WHO, using a combination of search terms. To attain the goal of elimination in Namibia, systems are being strengthened to identify and clear all infections, and significantly reduce human-mosquito contact. Particularly, consolidating vector control for reducing transmission at the identified malaria foci will be critical for accelerated malaria elimination. Thus, guarding against potential challenges and the need for evidence-based and sustainable vector control instigated the strengthening of strategic frameworks by: adopting the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy; initiating implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management (GPIRM); intensifying malaria vector surveillance; improving data collection and reporting systems on DDT; updating the indoor residual spraying (IRS) data collection and reporting tool; and, improving geographical reconnaissance using geographical information system-based satellite imagery. Universal coverage with IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets, supplemented by larval source management in the context of IVM and guided by vector surveillance coupled with rational operationalization of the GPIRM, will enable expeditious

  1. Modelling the risk of being bitten by malaria vectors in a vector control area in southern Benin, west Africa.

    PubMed

    Moiroux, Nicolas; Bio-Bangana, Abdul S; Djènontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Corbel, Vincent; Guis, Hélène

    2013-03-15

    The diversity of malaria vector populations, expressing various resistance and/or behavioural patterns could explain the reduced effectiveness of vector control interventions reported in some African countries. A better understanding of the ecology and distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. Here, we analyzed the spatio-temporal risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. in an area of Benin with high coverage of vector control measures with an unprecedented level of resolution. Presence-absence data for the three vectors from 1-year human-landing collections in 19 villages were assessed using binomial mixed-effects models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validations of the models, predictive maps of the risk of the contact between humans and the sympatric An. funestus and both molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. were computed. Model validations showed that the An. funestus, An. gambiae M form, and S form models provided an excellent (Area Under Curve>0.9), a good (AUC>0.8), and an acceptable (AUC>0.7) level of prediction, respectively. The distribution area of the probability of contact between human and An. funestus largely overlaps that of An. gambiae M form but this latter showed important seasonal variation. An. gambiae S form also showed seasonal variation but with different ecological preferences. Landscape data were useful to discriminate between the species' distributions. These results showed that available remote sensing data could help in predicting the human-vector contact for several species of malaria vectors at a village level scale. The predictive maps showed seasonal and spatial variations in the risk of human-vector contact for all three vectors. Such maps could help Malaria

  2. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  3. Larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of Nepeta menthoides against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Mahnaz, Khanavi; Alireza, Fallah; Hassan, Vatandoost; Mahdi, Sedaghat; Reza, Abai Mohammad; Abbas, Hadjiakhoondi

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the larvicidal activity of essential oil and methanol extract of the Nepeta menthoides (N. menthoides) against main malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). The essential oil of plant was obtained by Clevenger type apparatus and the methanol extract was supplied with Percolation method. Larvicidal activity was tested by WHO method. Twenty five fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were used in the larvicidal assay and four replicates were tested for each concentration. Five different concentrations of the oil and extract were tested for calculation of LC(50) and LC(90) values. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were determined by probit analysis. LC(50) was 69.5 and 234.3 ppm and LC(90) was 175.5 and 419.9 ppm for the extract and essential oil respectively. According to the results of this study methanolic extract of plant exhibited more larvicidal activity than essential oil. This could be useful for investigation of new natural larvicidal compounds. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles fabricated using Anisomeles indica: Mosquitocidal potential against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) represent a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors are a priority. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap, aqueous leaf extract of Anisomeles indica by reduction of Ag(+) ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of A. indica leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the A. indica leaf extract and AgNP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 31.56, 35.21 and 38.08 μg/mL, respectively. Overall, this study firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of A. indica, a potential bioresource for rapid, cheap and effective AgNP synthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A transposable P vector that confers selectable G418 resistance to Drosophila larvae.

    PubMed

    Steller, H; Pirrotta, V

    1985-01-01

    Drosophila larvae are rapidly killed by food containing the antibiotic G418. The bacterial gene for neomycin resistance introduced in the genome by P-mediated transformation renders larvae resistant to G418 and able to grow to fertile adults. The neo gene transcribed from the herpes thymidine kinase promoter gives low levels of resistance but high levels can be obtained using the hsp70 heat-shock promoter. We have constructed a vector for P-mediated transformation which uses this finding to allow dominant selection of transformed progeny. Features of this vector also facilitate cloning and allow the rapid recovery of the inserted transposon from transformed flies. We have also constructed a cosmid vector for P-mediated transformation that incorporates the hsp70-neo gene.

  6. Investigations leading to the identification of members of the Anopheles umbrosus group as the probable vectors of mouse deer malaria

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, R. H.; Eyles, Don E.; Warren, M.; Moorhouse, D. E.; Sandosham, A. A.

    1963-01-01

    Although mosquitos of the Anopheles umbrosus group have long been recognized as important vectors of human malaria in Malaya, there have been doubts about the origin of some of the malaria infections found, especially in A. umbrosus and A. letifer. Investigations have accordingly been carried out in the Malayan swamp-forest, in conjunction with laboratory studies, into the nature of malaria infections in wild-caught mosquitos, the biting behaviour of anophelines and the presence of malaria infection in man and animals. The authors conclude from the results reported in this paper that A. umbrosus is a vector of mouse deer malaria and rarely, if ever, transmits primate malaria; that A. letifer transmits both human and mouse deer malaria; and that A. baezai and A. roperi are probably vectors of mouse deer malaria. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6 PMID:14058228

  7. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D O; Troyo, A; Alimi, T O; Beier, J C

    2014-03-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks.

  8. Participatory Risk Mapping of Malaria Vector Exposure in Northern South America using Environmental and Population Data

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, D.O.; Troyo, A.; Alimi, T.O.; Beier, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria elimination remains a major public health challenge in many tropical regions, including large areas of northern South America. In this study, we present a new high spatial resolution (90 × 90 m) risk map for Colombia and surrounding areas based on environmental and human population data. The map was created through a participatory multi-criteria decision analysis in which expert opinion was solicited to determine key environmental and population risk factors, different fuzzy functions to standardize risk factor inputs, and variable factor weights to combine risk factors in a geographic information system. The new risk map was compared to a map of malaria cases in which cases were aggregated to the municipio (municipality) level. The relationship between mean municipio risk scores and total cases by muncípio showed a weak correlation. However, the relationship between pixel-level risk scores and vector occurrence points for two dominant vector species, Anopheles albimanus and An. darlingi, was significantly different (p < 0.05) from a random point distribution, as was a pooled point distribution for these two vector species and An. nuneztovari. Thus, we conclude that the new risk map derived based on expert opinion provides an accurate spatial representation of risk of potential vector exposure rather than malaria transmission as shown by the pattern of malaria cases, and therefore it may be used to inform public health authorities as to where vector control measures should be prioritized to limit human-vector contact in future malaria outbreaks. PMID:24976656

  9. Bottlenecks and Multiple Introductions: Population Genetics of the Vector of Avian Malaria in Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    evolution of vector-mediated parasite-host interactions in general we studied the population genetics of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Hawaiian Islands...there have been several introductions and to speculate on some processes that may be responsible for the current population genetics of vectors of avian malaria in Hawaii.

  10. Draft Genomes of Anopheles cracens and Anopheles maculatus: Comparison of Simian Malaria and Human Malaria Vectors in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics.

  11. Draft Genomes of Anopheles cracens and Anopheles maculatus: Comparison of Simian Malaria and Human Malaria Vectors in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junhui; Zhong, Zhen; Jian, Jianbo; Amir, Amirah; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Sum, Jia-Siang; Fong, Mun-Yik

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles cracens has been incriminated as the vector of human knowlesi malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Besides, it is a good laboratory vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. The distribution of An. cracens overlaps with that of An. maculatus, the human malaria vector in peninsular Malaysia that seems to be refractory to P. knowlesi infection in natural settings. Whole genome sequencing was performed on An. cracens and An. maculatus collected here. The draft genome of An. cracens was 395 Mb in size whereas the size of An. maculatus draft genome was 499 Mb. Comparison with the published Malaysian An. maculatus genome suggested the An. maculatus specimen used in this study as a different geographical race. Comparative analyses highlighted the similarities and differences between An. cracens and An. maculatus, providing new insights into their biological behavior and characteristics. PMID:27347683

  12. Local Adaptation and Vector-Mediated Population Structure in Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ceron, Lilia; Carlton, Jane M.; Gueye, Amy; Fay, Michael; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico exhibits different infectivities to 2 local mosquito vectors, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles albimanus. Previous work has tied these differences in mosquito infectivity to variation in the central repeat motif of the malaria parasite's circumsporozoite (csp) gene, but subsequent studies have questioned this view. Here we present evidence that P. vivax in southern Mexico comprised 3 genetic populations whose distributions largely mirror those of the 2 mosquito vectors. Additionally, laboratory colony feeding experiments indicate that parasite populations are most compatible with sympatric mosquito species. Our results suggest that reciprocal selection between malaria parasites and mosquito vectors has led to local adaptation of the parasite. Adaptation to local vectors may play an important role in generating population structure in Plasmodium. A better understanding of coevolutionary dynamics between sympatric mosquitoes and parasites will facilitate the identification of molecular mechanisms relevant to disease transmission in nature and provide crucial information for malaria control. PMID:18385220

  13. Distribution of Brugia malayi larvae and DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for molecular diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to extend prior studies of molecular detection of Brugia malayi DNA in vector (Aedes aegypti- Liverpool) and non-vector (Culex pipiens) mosquitoes at different times after ingestion of infected blood. Results Parasite DNA was detected over a two week time course in 96% of pooled thoraces of vector mosquitoes. In contrast, parasite DNA was detected in only 24% of thorax pools from non-vectors; parasite DNA was detected in 56% of midgut pools and 47% of abdomen pools from non-vectors. Parasite DNA was detected in vectors in the head immediately after the blood meal and after 14 days. Parasite DNA was also detected in feces and excreta of the vector and non-vector mosquitoes which could potentially confound results obtained with field samples. However, co-housing experiments failed to demonstrate transfer of parasite DNA from infected to non-infected mosquitoes. Parasites were also visualized in mosquito tissues by immunohistololgy using an antibody to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Parasite larvae were detected consistently after mf ingestion in Ae. aegypti- Liverpool. Infectious L3s were seen in the head, thorax and abdomen of vector mosquitoes 14 days after Mf ingestion. In contrast, parasites were only detected by histology shortly after the blood meal in Cx. pipiens, and these were not labeled by the antibody. Conclusion This study provides new information on the distribution of filarial parasites and parasite DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes. This information should be useful for those involved in designing and interpreting molecular xenomonitoring studies. PMID:19922607

  14. Molecular Characterization Reveals Diverse and Unknown Malaria Vectors in the Western Kenyan Highlands.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Cooke, Mary; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M; Asih, Puji; Mueller, John D; Kahindi, Samuel; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Oriango, Robin M; Thumloup, Julie; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Stevenson, Jennifer C

    2016-02-01

    The success of mosquito-based malaria control is dependent upon susceptible bionomic traits in local malaria vectors. It is crucial to have accurate and reliable methods to determine mosquito species composition in areas subject to malaria. An unexpectedly diverse set of Anopheles species was collected in the western Kenyan highlands, including unidentified and potentially new species carrying the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This study identified 2,340 anopheline specimens using both ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 loci. Seventeen distinct sequence groups were identified. Of these, only eight could be molecularly identified through comparison to published and voucher sequences. Of the unidentified species, four were found to carry P. falciparum by circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, the most abundant of which had infection rates comparable to a primary vector in the area, Anopheles funestus. High-quality adult specimens of these unidentified species could not be matched to museum voucher specimens or conclusively identified using multiple keys, suggesting that they may have not been previously described. These unidentified vectors were captured outdoors. Diverse and unknown species have been incriminated in malaria transmission in the western Kenya highlands using molecular identification of unusual morphological variants of field specimens. This study demonstrates the value of using molecular methods to compliment vector identifications and highlights the need for accurate characterization of mosquito species and their associated behaviors for effective malaria control.

  15. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Quartan malaria; Falciparum malaria; Biduoterian fever; Blackwater fever; Tertian malaria; Plasmodium ... Malaria is caused by a parasite that is passed to humans by the bite of infected Anopheles ...

  16. Dieldrin resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Brooke, B D; Hunt, R H; Matambo, T S; Koekemoer, L L; Van Wyk, P; Coetzee, M

    2006-09-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the principal vectors of malaria in the Ashanti region of central Ghana. High levels of resistance to dieldrin were recorded in a wild-caught sample from Obuasi (south of Kumasi) as well as a laboratory colony established using material from the wild population. Cytogenetic analysis of wild-caught and laboratory samples revealed chromosomal polymorphism for inversions 2La and 2Rb. Although inversion 2La has previously been shown to be associated with dieldrin resistance in certain other laboratory strains originating from West Africa, there was no obvious association between inversion karyotype assortment and the resistance phenotype in the Obuasi population. In addition, polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated the presence of the alanine296 to glycine mutation in the GABA (gamma amino-butyric acid) receptor (which has been mapped to a chromosomal position within inversion 2La). This mutation has previously been shown to be associated with dieldrin resistance in the same An. gambiae laboratory strains of West African origin. Our data show only a weak association between the dieldrin resistance phenotype and the presence of this mutation, suggesting that another dieldrin resistance mechanism is operational in the Obuasi population. Biochemical and synergist exposure assays suggest a metabolic component, probably mediated by monooxygenase P450 enzymes. We conclude that dieldrin resistance in the An. gambiae population of the Obuasi region occurs at a high level - most likely in the absence of selection - and that control of the resistance phenotype is polyfactorial and must include components other than mutations in the GABA receptor locus.

  17. Challenges for malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa: Resistance and behavioral adaptations in Anopheles populations.

    PubMed

    Sougoufara, Seynabou; Doucouré, Souleymane; Backé Sembéne, Pape M; Harry, Myriam; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, global malaria-related mortality has declined dramatically because of combined international actions that have defined and prioritized national and regional efforts to reduce the incidence of malaria, with the ultimate goal of eradication. Vector control strategies using insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in African countries have contributed significantly to the declining incidence of malaria. However, the effectiveness of malaria control is threatened by increasing insecticide resistance and behavioral changes in Anopheles vectors. Thus, there is an urgent need to ensure that future programmes are designed to address these threats and protect the progress made so far in controlling malaria. This review summarizes the current malaria vector control tools and discusses about the critical threats to vector control programme and vector management.

  18. The distribution and bionomics of anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Sinka, Marianne E; Gething, Peter W; Tarmidzi, Siti N; Surya, Asik; Kusriastuti, Rita; Winarno; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I; Bangs, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Malaria remains one of the greatest human health burdens in Indonesia. Although Indonesia has a long and renowned history in the early research and discoveries of malaria and subsequently in the successful use of environmental control methods to combat the vector, much remains unknown about many of these mosquito species. There are also significant gaps in the existing knowledge on the transmission epidemiology of malaria, most notably in the highly malarious eastern half of the archipelago. These compound the difficulty of developing targeted and effective control measures. The sheer complexity and number of malaria vectors in the country are daunting. The difficult task of summarizing the available information for each species and/or species complex is compounded by the patchiness of the data: while relatively plentiful in one area or region, it can also be completely lacking in others. Compared to many other countries in the Oriental and Australasian biogeographical regions, only scant information on vector bionomics and response to chemical measures is available in Indonesia. That information is often either decades old, geographically patchy or completely lacking. Additionally, a large number of information sources are published in Dutch or Indonesian language and therefore less accessible. This review aims to present an updated overview of the known distribution and bionomics of the 20 confirmed malaria vector species or species complexes regarded as either primary or secondary (incidental) malaria vectors within Indonesia. This chapter is not an exhaustive review of each of these species. No attempt is made to specifically discuss or resolve the taxonomic record of listed species in this document, while recognizing the ever evolving revisions in the systematics of species groups and complexes. A review of past and current status of insecticide susceptibility of eight vector species of malaria is also provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Temporal dynamics of the ABC transporter response to insecticide treatment: insights from the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epis, Sara; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Urbanelli, Sandra; Sassera, Davide; De Marco, Leone; Mereghetti, Valeria; Montagna, Matteo; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    In insects, ABC transporters have been shown to contribute to defence/resistance to insecticides by reducing toxic concentrations in cells/tissues. Despite the extensive studies about this detoxifying mechanism, the temporal patterns of ABC transporter activation have been poorly investigated. Using the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi as a study system, we investigated the expression profile of ABC genes belonging to different subfamilies in permethrin-treated larvae at different time points (30 min to 48 h). Our results showed that the expression of ABCB and ABCG subfamily genes was upregulated at 1 h after treatment, with the highest expression observed at 6 h. Therefore, future investigations on the temporal dynamics of ABC gene expression will allow a better implementation of insecticide treatment regimens, including the use of specific inhibitors of ABC efflux pumps.

  20. Molecular biological approaches to the study of vectors in relation to malaria control.

    PubMed

    Crampton, J M; Comley, I; Eggleston, P; Hill, S; Hughes, M; Knapp, T; Lycett, G; Urwin, R; Warren, A

    1992-01-01

    To a large extent, control of malaria vectors relies on the elimination of breeding sites and the application of chemical agents. There are increasing problems associated with the use of synthetic insecticides for vector control, including the evolution of resistance, the high cost of developing and registering new insecticides and an awareness of pollution from insecticide residues. These factors have stimulated interest in the application of molecular biology to the study of mosquito vectors of malaria; focussing primarily on two aspects. First, the improvement of existing control measures through the development of simplified DNA probe systems suitable for identification of vectors of malaria. The development of synthetic, non-radioactive DNA probes suitable for the identification of species in the Anopheles gambiae complex is described with the aim of defining a simplified methodology which is suitable for entomologist in the field. The second aspect to be considered is the development of completely novel strategies through the genetic manipulation of insect vectors of malaria in order to alter their ability to transmit the disease. The major requirements for producing transgenic mosquitoes are outlined together with the progress which has been made to date and discussed in relation to the prospects which this type of approach has for the future control of malaria.

  1. Laboratory and field comparisons of pyriproxyfen, polystyrene beads and other larvicidal methods against malaria vectors in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Yapabandara, A M G M; Curtis, C F

    2002-03-01

    Hand-dug gem pits are important breeding sites for larvae of malaria vectors in Sri Lanka. Therefore, studies were carried out to help to select an effective, economic and convenient method that could be used to control malaria vector mosquito breeding in gem pits in a mining area. The effectiveness of four types of floating layers of polystyrene was compared in the laboratory and it was found that 2 mm expanded beads were the most effective for suffocating Anopheles larvae and pupae. The insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen at dosages of 0.01 and 0.1 mg/l were tested in the laboratory and complete inhibition of emergence was found at both concentrations. A small-scale field trial was carried out for over a year to assess the efficacy of two concentrations of pyriproxyfen, 2 mm diameter expanded polystyrene beads, temephos, used engine oil and filling pits with soil. Pyriproxyfen only required re-application twice a year, whereas temephos or oil require 12 applications per year. Due to re-excavation by gem miners, polystyrene beads and filling of pits were not as permanent solutions as was expected. Calculations based on all available data showed that two annual treatments with pyriproxyfen at 0.01 mg/l would be the most cost-effective method with oil only slightly more expensive. However, the reduced required frequency for visiting every pit made the pyriproxyfen method the one of choice. The same low concentration of pyriproxyfen also effectively inhibited emergence of adults from river-bed pools.

  2. An Assessment of Participatory Integrated Vector Management for Malaria Control in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mbogo, Charles; Mwangangi, Joseph; Imbahale, Susan; Kibe, Lydia; Orindi, Benedict; Girma, Melaku; Njui, Annah; Lwande, Wilber; Affognon, Hippolyte; Gichuki, Charity; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends integrated vector management (IVM) as a strategy to improve and sustain malaria vector control. However, this approach has not been widely adopted. Objectives We comprehensively assessed experiences and findings on IVM in Kenya with a view to sharing lessons that might promote its wider application. Methods The assessment used information from a qualitative external evaluation of two malaria IVM projects implemented between 2006 and 2011 and an analysis of their accumulated entomological and malaria case data. The project sites were Malindi and Nyabondo, located in coastal and western Kenya, respectively. The assessment focused on implementation of five key elements of IVM: integration of vector control methods, evidence-based decision making, intersectoral collaboration, advocacy and social mobilization, and capacity building. Results IVM was more successfully implemented in Malindi than in Nyabondo owing to greater community participation and multistakeholder engagement. There was a significant decline in the proportion of malaria cases among children admitted to Malindi Hospital, from 23.7% in 2006 to 10.47% in 2011 (p < 0.001). However, the projects’ operational research methodology did not allow statistical attribution of the decline in malaria and malaria vectors to specific IVM interventions or other factors. Conclusions Sustaining IVM is likely to require strong participation and support from multiple actors, including community-based groups, non-governmental organizations, international and national research institutes, and various government ministries. A cluster-randomized controlled trial would be essential to quantify the effectiveness and impact of specific IVM interventions, alone or in combination. Citation Mutero CM, Mbogo C, Mwangangi J, Imbahale S, Kibe L, Orindi B, Girma M, Njui A, Lwande W, Affognon H, Gichuki C, Mukabana WR. 2015. An assessment of participatory integrated vector

  3. Larval nutrition differentially affects adult fitness and Plasmodium development in the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Takken, Willem; Smallegange, Renate C; Vigneau, Antoine J; Johnston, Valerie; Brown, Margaret; Mordue-Luntz, A Jenny; Billingsley, Peter F

    2013-12-10

    Mosquito fitness is determined largely by body size and nutritional reserves. Plasmodium infections in the mosquito and resultant transmission of malaria parasites might be compromised by the vector's nutritional status. We studied the effects of nutritional stress and malaria parasite infections on transmission fitness of Anopheles mosquitoes. Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. stephensi were reared at constant density but with nutritionally low and high diets. Fitness of adult mosquitoes resulting from each dietary class was assessed by measuring body size and lipid, protein and glycogen content. The size of the first blood meal was estimated by protein analysis. Mosquitoes of each dietary class were fed upon a Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis-infected mouse, and parasite infections were determined 5 d after the infectious blood meal by dissection of the midguts and by counting oocysts. The impact of Plasmodium infections on gonotrophic development was established by dissection. Mosquitoes raised under low and high diets emerged as adults of different size classes comparable between An. gambiae and An. stephensi. In both species low-diet females contained less protein, lipid and glycogen upon emergence than high-diet mosquitoes. The quantity of larval diet impacted strongly upon adult blood feeding and reproductive success. The prevalence and intensity of P. yoelii nigeriensis infections were reduced in low-diet mosquitoes of both species, but P. yoelii nigeriensis impacted negatively only on low-diet, small-sized An. gambiae considering survival and egg maturation. There was no measurable fitness effect of P. yoelii nigeriensis on An. stephensi. Under the experimental conditions, small-sized An. gambiae expressed high mortality, possibly caused by Plasmodium infections, the species showing distinct physiological concessions when nutrionally challenged in contrast to well-fed, larger siblings. Conversely, An. stephensi was a robust, successful vector

  4. Increased pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and decreased bed net effectiveness, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Toé, Kobié H; Jones, Christopher M; N'Fale, Sagnon; Ismail, Hanafy M; Dabiré, Roch K; Ranson, Hilary

    2014-10-01

    Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods.

  5. Increased Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Decreased Bed Net Effectiveness, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Toé, Kobié H.; Jones, Christopher M.; N’Fale, Sagnon; Ismail, Hanafy M.; Dabiré, Roch K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control is dependent on insecticides. Increases in prevalence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors across Africa are well-documented. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the strength of this resistance and link it to the effectiveness of control tools. Using quantitative bioassays, we show that in Burkina Faso pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has increased in intensity in recent years and now exceeds 1,000-fold. In laboratory assays, this level of resistance renders insecticides used to impregnate bed nets ineffective. Thus, the level of personal and community protection afforded by long-lasting insecticide-treated net campaigns will probably be reduced. Standardized methods are needed to quantify resistance levels in malaria vectors and link these levels to failure of vector control methods. PMID:25279965

  6. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors.

  7. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos.

    PubMed

    Souris, Marc; Marcombe, Sébastien; Laforet, Julie; Brey, Paul T; Corbel, Vincent; Overgaard, Hans J

    2017-01-01

    Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species' presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible.

  8. Modeling spatial variation in risk of presence and insecticide resistance for malaria vectors in Laos

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Laforet, Julie; Brey, Paul T.; Corbel, Vincent; Overgaard, Hans J.

    2017-01-01

    Climatic, sociological and environmental conditions are known to affect the spatial distribution of malaria vectors and disease transmission. Intensive use of insecticides in the agricultural and public health sectors exerts a strong selective pressure on resistance genes in malaria vectors. Spatio-temporal models of favorable conditions for Anopheles species’ presence were developed to estimate the probability of presence of malaria vectors and insecticide resistance in Lao PDR. These models were based on environmental and meteorological conditions, and demographic factors. GIS software was used to build and manage a spatial database with data collected from various geographic information providers. GIS was also used to build and run the models. Results showed that potential insecticide use and therefore the probability of resistance to insecticide is greater in the southwestern part of the country, specifically in Champasack province and where malaria incidence is already known to be high. These findings can help national authorities to implement targeted and effective vector control strategies for malaria prevention and elimination among populations most at risk. Results can also be used to focus the insecticide resistance surveillance in Anopheles mosquito populations in more restricted area, reducing the area of surveys, and making the implementation of surveillance system for Anopheles mosquito insecticide resistance possible. PMID:28494013

  9. Resistance Status of the Malaria Vector Mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus Towards Adulticides and Larvicides in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of India

    PubMed Central

    Tikar, S. N.; Mendki, M.J.; Sharma, A. K.; Sukumaran, D.; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B. D.

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004–2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the species were susceptible to Deltamethrin. Larvae of both the Anopheline species showed some evidence of resistance to chlorpyriphos followed by fenthion whereas susceptible to temephos and malathion. PMID:21870971

  10. The contribution of agricultural insecticide use to increasing insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Reid, Molly C; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2016-02-19

    The fight against malaria is increasingly threatened by failures in vector control due to growing insecticide resistance. This review examines the recent primary research that addresses the putative relationship between agricultural insecticide use and trends in insecticide resistance. To do so, descriptive evidence offered by the new research was categorized, and additional factors that impact the relationship between agricultural insecticide use and observed insecticide resistance in malaria vectors were identified. In 23 of the 25 relevant recent publications from across Africa, higher resistance in mosquito populations was associated with agricultural insecticide use. This association appears to be affected by crop type, farm pest management strategy and urban development.

  11. Human biting activity, spatial-temporal distribution and malaria vector role of Anopheles calderoni in the southwest of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Orjuela, Lorena I; Ahumada, Martha L; Avila, Ivonni; Herrera, Sócrates; Beier, John C; Quiñones, Martha L

    2015-06-24

    Anopheles calderoni was first recognized in Colombia in 2010 as this species had been misidentified as Anopheles punctimacula due to morphological similarities. An. calderoni is considered a malaria vector in Peru and has been found naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum in Colombia. However, its biting behaviour, population dynamics and epidemiological importance have not been well described for Colombia. To assess the contribution of An. calderoni to malaria transmission and its human biting behaviour and spatial/temporal distribution in the southwest of Colombia, human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections were carried out in a cross-sectional, entomological study in 22 localities between 2011 and 2012, and a longitudinal study was performed in the Boca de Prieta locality in Olaya Herrera municipality between July 2012 and June 2013. All mosquitoes determined as An. calderoni were tested by ELISA to establish infection with Plasmodium spp. Larvae of An. calderoni were found in four localities in 12 out of 244 breeding sites inspected. An. calderoni adults were collected in 14 out of 22 localities during the cross-sectional study and represented 41.3% (459 of 1,111) of the collected adult specimens. Other species found were Anopheles albimanus (54.7%), Anopheles apicimacula (2.1%), Anopheles neivai (1.7%), and Anopheles argyritarsis (0.2%). In the localities that reported the highest malaria Annual Parasite Index (>10/1,000 inhabitants) during the year of sampling, An. calderoni was the predominant species (>90% of the specimens collected). In the longitudinal study, 1,528 An. calderoni were collected by HLC with highest biting rates in February, May and June 2013, periods of high precipitation. In general, the species showed a preference to bite outdoors (p < 0.001). In Boca de Prieta, two specimens of An. calderoni were ELISA positive for Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein: one for P. falciparum and one for Plasmodium vivax VK-210. This

  12. Avian malaria on Madagascar: bird hosts and putative vector mosquitoes of different Plasmodium lineages.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Sandrine; Dinkel, Anke; Mackenstedt, Ute; Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Randrianambinintsoa, Fano José; Boyer, Sébastien; Woog, Friederike

    2017-01-05

    Avian malaria occurs almost worldwide and is caused by Haemosporida parasites (Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon). Vectors such as mosquitoes, hippoboscid flies or biting midges are required for the transmission of these parasites. There are few studies about avian malaria parasites on Madagascar but none about suitable vectors. To identify vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites on Madagascar, we examined head, thorax and abdomen of 418 mosquitoes from at least 18 species using a nested PCR method to amplify a 524 bp fragment of the haemosporidian mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Sequences obtained were then compared with a large dataset of haemosporidian sequences detected in 45 different bird species (n = 686) from the same area in the Maromizaha rainforest. Twenty-one mosquitoes tested positive for avian malaria parasites. Haemoproteus DNA was found in nine mosquitoes (2.15%) while Plasmodium DNA was found in 12 mosquitoes (2.87%). Seven distinct lineages were identified among the Plasmodium DNA samples. Some lineages were also found in the examined bird samples: Plasmodium sp. WA46 (EU810628.1) in the Madagascar bulbul, Plasmodium sp. mosquito 132 (AB308050.1) in 15 bird species belonging to eight families, Plasmodium sp. PV12 (GQ150194.1) in eleven bird species belonging to eight families and Plasmodium sp. P31 (DQ839060.1) was found in three weaver bird species. This study provides the first insight into avian malaria transmission in the Maromizaha rainforest in eastern Madagascar. Five Haemoproteus lineages and seven Plasmodium lineages were detected in the examined mosquitoes. Complete life-cycles for the specialist lineages WA46 and P31 and for the generalist lineages mosquito132 and PV12 of Plasmodium are proposed. In addition, we have identified for the first time Anopheles mascarensis and Uranotaenia spp. as vectors for avian malaria and offer the first description of vector mosquitoes for avian malaria in Madagascar.

  13. Evaluation of silver nanoparticles toxicity of Arachis hypogaea peel extracts and its larvicidal activity against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Velu, Kuppan; Elumalai, Devan; Hemalatha, Periaswamy; Janaki, Arumugam; Babu, Muthu; Hemavathi, Maduraiveeran; Kaleena, Patheri Kunyil

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesised from aqueous silver nitrate using the extracts of Arachis hypogaea peels. The synthesised SNPs were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy analysis and high-resonance scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. AgNPs were well defined and measured 20 to 50 nm in size. The nanoparticles were crystallized with a face-centered cubic structure. Larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels was tested for their larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Yellow fever), Anopheles stephensi (Human malaria). The results suggest that the synthesised AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly resource for the control of A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This study provides the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of synthesised AgNPs from A. hypogaea peels against vectors of malaria and dengue.

  14. Habitat suitability and ecological niche profile of major malaria vectors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Diego; Costantini, Carlo; Ose, Kenji; Kamdem, Guy C; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Agbor, Jean-Pierre; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2009-12-23

    Suitability of environmental conditions determines a species distribution in space and time. Understanding and modelling the ecological niche of mosquito disease vectors can, therefore, be a powerful predictor of the risk of exposure to the pathogens they transmit. In Africa, five anophelines are responsible for over 95% of total malaria transmission. However, detailed knowledge of the geographic distribution and ecological requirements of these species is to date still inadequate. Indoor-resting mosquitoes were sampled from 386 villages covering the full range of ecological settings available in Cameroon, Central Africa. Using a predictive species distribution modeling approach based only on presence records, habitat suitability maps were constructed for the five major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. The influence of 17 climatic, topographic, and land use variables on mosquito geographic distribution was assessed by multivariate regression and ordination techniques. Twenty-four anopheline species were collected, of which 17 are known to transmit malaria in Africa. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, Habitat Suitability modeling and Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed marked differences among the five major malaria vector species, both in terms of ecological requirements and niche breadth. Eco-geographical variables (EGVs) related to human activity had the highest impact on habitat suitability for the five major malaria vectors, with areas of low population density being of marginal or unsuitable habitat quality. Sunlight exposure, rainfall, evapo-transpiration, relative humidity, and wind speed were among the most discriminative EGVs separating "forest" from "savanna" species. The distribution of major malaria vectors in Cameroon is strongly affected by the impact of humans on the environment, with variables related to proximity to human settings being among the best

  15. Effects of Reservoir Characteristics on Malaria and its vector Abundance: A Case Study of the Bongo District of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofosu, E.; Awuah, E.; Annor, F. O.

    2009-04-01

    In the seven (7) administrative zones of the Bongo District of the Upper East Region of Ghana, the occurrences of malaria and relative abundance of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles species, were studied as a function of the presence and characteristics of reservoirs during the rainy season. Case studies in the sub-Sahara Africa indicate that malaria transmission may increase decrease or remain largely unchanged as a consequence of reservoir presence. Analysis made, shows that the distance from reservoir to settlement and surface area of reservoirs significantly affected adult Anopheles mosquito abundance. Percentage of inhabitants using insecticide treated nets, livestock population density, human population density and Anopheles mosquito abundance significantly affected the occurrence of malaria. The results suggest that vector control targeted at reservoir characteristics and larval control, and supplemented by high patronage of insecticide treated nets may be an effective approach for epidemic malaria control in the Bongo District. Key Words: Bongo District, Reservoir, Anopheles species, Malaria, Vector abundance.

  16. Using remote sensing to map larval and adult populations of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae) a potential malaria vector in Southern France

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Annelise; Ponçon, Nicolas; Toty, Céline; Linard, Catherine; Guis, Hélène; Ferré, Jean-Baptiste; Lo Seen, Danny; Roger, François; de la Rocque, Stéphane; Fontenille, Didier; Baldet, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae). In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields) led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively). An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p < 0.05). This allowed us to generate predictive maps of An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows

  17. Eco-friendly larvicides from Indian plants: Effectiveness of lavandulyl acetate and bicyclogermacrene on malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people and animals worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, filiariasis and Zika virus. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. In this scenario, newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance mosquito control. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for entomological and parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as recently elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Here we investigated the toxicity of Heracleum sprengelianum (Apiaceae) leaf essential oil and its major compounds toward third instar larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. GC-MS analysis showed that EO major components were lavandulyl acetate (17.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (12.9%). The EO was toxic to A. subpictus, A. albopictus, and C. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 of 33.4, 37.5 and 40.9µg/ml, respectively. Lavandulyl acetate was more toxic to mosquito larvae if compared to bicyclogermacrene. Their LC50 were 4.17 and 10.3µg/ml for A. subpictus, 4.60 and 11.1µg/ml for A. albopictus, 5.11 and 12.5µg/ml for C. tritaeniorhynchus. Notably, the EO and its major compounds were safer to three non-target mosquito predators, Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 ranging from 206 to 4219µg/ml. Overall, this study highlights that H. sprengelianum EO is a promising source of eco-friendly larvicides against three important mosquito vectors with moderate toxicity against non-target aquatic

  18. Microsatellite primers for Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonseca, Dina M.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    1998-01-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), was introduced accidentally to Hawaii in 1826 (van Riper et al. 1986). There it eventually became the vector of avian malaria, Plasmodium relictum, a disease that severely limits the size and distribution of endemic forest bird populations in Hawaii (Atkinson et al. 1995). Cx.p. quinquefasciatus has a circumtropical distribution and is also the vector for human diseases such as lymphatic filariasis and several encephalitis.

  19. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females.

    PubMed

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V

    2017-03-15

    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40 % of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4-fold. An enhanced germination rate (2-fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A; Lampe, David J; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-07-31

    The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)(4), four copies of Plasmodium enolase-plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria.

  1. Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K.; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A.; Lampe, David J.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)4, four copies of Plasmodium enolase–plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria. PMID:22802646

  2. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Methods Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Results Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Conclusions Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit

  3. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Wachira, Sabina Wangui; Omar, Sabar; Jacob, Julia Wanjiru; Wahome, Martin; Alborn, Hans T; Spring, David R; Masiga, Daniel K; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-07-04

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behaviour especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined the toxicity and larvicidal activity on this vector of extracts from six selected plants found in Kenya and two compounds identified from Ricinus communis: 3-carbonitrile-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone (ricinine), and its carboxylic acid derivative 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone, the latter compound being reported for the first time from this plant. Feeding assays tested for toxic effects of extracts from the plants Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd, Bidens pilosa L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Ricinus coummunis L., Senna didymobotrya Fresen. and Tithonia diversifolia Hemsl. on adult females and larvicidal activity was tested against third-instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Mortality of larvae and adult females was monitored for three and eight days, respectively; Probit analysis was used to calculate LC50. Survival was analysed with Kaplan-Meier Model. LC-MS was used to identify the pure compounds. Of the six plants screened, extracts from T. diversifolia and R. communis were the most toxic against adult female mosquitoes after 7 days of feeding, with LC50 of 1.52 and 2.56 mg/mL respectively. Larvicidal activity of all the extracts increased with the exposure time with the highest mortality recorded for the extract from R. communis after 72 h of exposure (LC50 0.18 mg/mL). Mosquitoes fed on solutions of the pure compounds, 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone and ricinine survived almost as long as those fed on the R. communis extract with mean survival of 4.93 ± 0.07, 4.85 ± 0.07 and 4.50 ± 0.05 days respectively. Overall, these findings demonstrate that extracts from the six plant species exhibit varying bioactivity against the larvae

  4. Population genetic structure of urban malaria vector Anopheles stephensi in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Sharma, Arvind; Kumar, Ashwani; Dube, Madhulika; Gakhar, S K

    2016-04-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in India because climatic condition and geography of India provide an ideal environment for development of malaria vector. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in India and its control has been hampered by insecticide resistance. In present study population genetic structure of A. stephensi is analyzed at macro geographic level using 13 microsatellite markers. Significantly high genetic differentiation was found in all studied populations with differentiation values (FST) ranging from 0.0398 to 0.1808. The geographic distance was found to be playing a major role in genetic differentiation between different populations. Overall three genetic pools were observed and population of central India was found to be coexisting in two genetic pools. High effective population size (Ne) was found in all the studied populations.

  5. Hydrologic modeling to screen potential environmental management methods for malaria vector control in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianotti, Rebecca L.; Bomblies, Arne; Eltahir, Elfatih A. B.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of Hydrology-Entomology and Malaria Transmission Simulator (HYDREMATS), a physically based distributed hydrology model, to investigate environmental management methods for malaria vector control in the Sahelian village of Banizoumbou, Niger. The investigation showed that leveling of topographic depressions where temporary breeding habitats form during the rainy season, by altering pool basin microtopography, could reduce the pool persistence time to less than the time needed for establishment of mosquito breeding, approximately 7 days. Undertaking soil surface plowing can also reduce pool persistence time by increasing the infiltration rate through an existing pool basin. Reduction of the pool persistence time to less than the rainfall interstorm period increases the frequency of pool drying events, removing habitat for subadult mosquitoes. Both management approaches could potentially be considered within a given context. This investigation demonstrates that management methods that modify the hydrologic environment have significant potential to contribute to malaria vector control in water-limited, Sahelian Africa.

  6. Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river networks of southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Costantini, Carlo; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2009-12-01

    Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. Larval collections from 24 sites situated along the dense hydrographic network of south Cameroon were examined to assess key ecological factors associated with these mosquitoes distribution in river networks. Morphological identification of the III and IV instar larvae by the use of microscopy revealed that 47.6% of the larvae belong to An. nili and 22.6% to An. moucheti. Five variables were significantly involved with species distribution, the pace of flow of the river (lotic, or lentic), the light exposure (sunny or shady), vegetation (presence or absence of vegetation) the temperature and the presence or absence of debris. Using canonical correspondence analysis, it appeared that lotic rivers, exposed to light, with vegetation or debris were the best predictors of An. nili larval abundance. Whereas, An. moucheti and An. ovengensis were highly associated with lentic rivers, low temperature, having Pistia. An. nili and An. moucheti distribution along river systems across south Cameroon was highly correlated with environmental variables. The distribution of An. nili conforms to that of a generalist species which is adapted to exploiting a variety of environmental conditions, Whereas, An. moucheti, Anopheles ovengensis and Anopheles carnevalei appeared as specialist forest mosquitoes.

  7. Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus, Camargue, France

    PubMed Central

    Ponçon, Nicolas; Balenghien, Thomas; Toty, Céline; Ferré, Jean Baptiste; Thomas, Cyrille; Dervieux, Alain; L’Ambert, Grégory; Schaffner, Francis; Bardin, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as rice cultivation expanded in the region in a political context that supported agriculture. They then fell, likely because of decreased cultivation and increased pesticide use to control a rice pest. The species increased again after 2000 with the advent of more targeted pest-management strategies, mainly the results of European regulations decisions. An intertwined influence of political context, environmental constraints, technical improvements, and social factors led to changes in mosquito abundance that had potential consequences on malaria and WNV transmission. These findings suggest that anthropogenic changes should not be underestimated in vectorborne disease recrudescence. PMID:18258028

  8. Seasonal Abundance and Host-Feeding Patterns of Anopheline Vectors in Malaria Endemic Area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Basseri, Hamidreza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Ranjbar Khakha, Mansoor; Pakarai, Abaas; Abdolghafar, Hassanzehi

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and tendency to feed on humans are important parameters to measure for effective control of malaria vectors. The objective of this study was to describe relation between feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of four malaria vectors in southern Iran. This study was conducted in ten indicator villages (based on malaria incidence and entomological indices) in mountainous/hilly and plain regions situated south and southeastern Iran. Mosquito vectors were collected from indoor as well as outdoor shelters and the blood meals were examined by ELISA test. Over all 7654 female Anopheles spp. were captured, the most common species were Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. fluviatilis, and An. d'thali. The overall human blood index was 37.50%, 19.83%, 16.4%, and 30.1% for An. fluviatilis, An. stephensi, An. culicifacies, and An. d'thali, respectively. In addition, An. fluviatilis fed on human blood during the entire year but the feeding behavior of An. stephensi and An. culicifacies varied according to seasons. Overall, the abundance of the female mosquito positive to human blood was 4.25% per human shelter versus 17.5% per animal shelter. This result indicates that the vectors had tendency to rest in animal shelters after feeding on human. Therefore, vector control measure should be planned based on such as feeding pattern, abundance, and resting behavior of these vectors in the area. PMID:21559055

  9. Malaria in Greece: historical and current reflections on a re-emerging vector borne disease.

    PubMed

    Danis, Kostas; Lenglet, Annick; Tseroni, Maria; Baka, Agoritsa; Tsiodras, Sotiris; Bonovas, Stefanos

    2013-01-01

    Between 2009 and September 2012, locally acquired cases of P. vivax infection were reported in Greece, mostly from the agricultural area of Evrotas, Lakonia (n = 48), but also sporadically from five other regions (n = 14), suggesting that conditions in these areas are favourable for local transmission of malaria. The risk of re-establishment of malaria in Greece will depend on whether the receptivity for disease transmission (presence of the mosquito vector and adequate ecological and climatic factors) and the vulnerability (importation of the parasite in human reservoirs or presence of infected mosquito vectors) continue to be present in the country. The continuous implementation of the integrated preparedness and response plan for malaria that covers all aspects from surveillance and laboratory diagnosis to vector control and the reorganization of public health infrastructures are necessary to prevent transmission and control the disease in the long term. However, the impact of the severe economic crisis on current health-care, public health infrastructures and vector control constitute a great challenge for the future. The current threat of renewed sustained local malaria transmission in Greece (and thus in continental Europe) merits an international response, including financial and technical support, from European and international stakeholders.

  10. Intron Retention Identifies a Malaria Vector within the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) Albitaris Complex (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-09

    example, Anophe- les (Nyssorhynchus) marajoara Galvg, o and Damasceno (Linthicum, 1988) is the principal malaria vector in northeastern Amazonia ... Amazonia , from other members of the An. albitarsis complex. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  11. Genetic and phenotypic variation of the malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus in southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing concern that global climate change will affect the potential for pathogen transmission by insect species that are vectors of human diseases. One of these species is the former European malaria vector, Anopheles atroparvus. Levels of population differentiation of An. atroparvus from southern Europe were characterized as a first attempt to elucidate patterns of population structure of this former malaria vector. Results are discussed in light of a hypothetical situation of re-establishment of malaria transmission. Methods Genetic and phenotypic variation was analysed in nine mosquito samples collected from five European countries, using eight microsatellite loci and geometric morphometrics on 21 wing landmarks. Results Levels of genetic diversity were comparable to those reported for tropical malaria vectors. Low levels of genetic (0.004

  12. Development of a population suppression strain of the human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Jasinskiene, Nijole; Fazekas, Aniko; Scaife, Sarah; Fu, Guoliang; Mattingly, Stefanie T; Chow, Karissa; Brown, David M; Alphey, Luke; James, Anthony A

    2013-04-26

    Transgenic mosquito strains are being developed to contribute to the control of dengue and malaria transmission. One approach uses genetic manipulation to confer conditional, female-specific dominant lethality phenotypes. Engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype provides a sexing mechanism essential for male-only mosquito, release approaches that result in population suppression of target vector species. An approach that uses a female-specific gene promoter and antibiotic-repressible lethal factor to produce a sex-specific flightless phenotype was adapted to the human malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi. Transposon- and site-specific recombination-mediated technologies were used to generate a number of transgenic An. stephensi lines that when combined through mating produced the phenotype of flight-inhibited females and flight-capable males. The data shown here demonstrate the successful engineering of a female-specific flightless phenotype in a malaria vector. The flightless phenotype was repressible by the addition of tetracycline to the larval diet. This conditional phenotype allows the rearing of the strains under routine laboratory conditions. The minimal level of tetracycline that rescues the flightless phenotype is higher than that found as an environmental contaminant in circumstances where there is intensive use of antibiotics. These studies support the further development of flightless female technology for applications in malaria control programmes that target the vectors.

  13. Malaria vector control at a crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Macdonald, Michael B; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Shiff, Clive J

    2014-09-01

    Vector control has been at the core of successful malaria control. However, a dearth of field-oriented vector biologists threatens to undermine global reductions in malaria burden. Skilled cadres are needed to manage insecticide resistance, to maintain coverage with current interventions, to develop new paradigms for tackling 'residual' transmission and to target interventions as transmission becomes increasingly heterogeneous. Recognising this human resource crisis, in September 2013, WHO Global Malaria Programme issued guidance for capacity building in entomology and vector control, including recommendations for countries and implementing partners. Ministries were urged to develop long-range strategic plans for building human resources for public health entomology and vector control (including skills in epidemiology, geographic information systems, operational research and programme management) and to set in place the requisite professional posts and career opportunities. Capacity building and national ownership in all partner projects and a clear exit strategy to sustain human and technical resources after project completion were emphasised. Implementing partners were urged to support global and regional efforts to enhance public health entomology capacity. While the challenges inherent in such capacity building are great, so too are the opportunities to establish the next generation of public health entomologists that will enable programmes to continue on the path to malaria elimination.

  14. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae ...

  15. Polymerase chain reaction detection of human host preference and Plasmodium parasite infections in field collected potential malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Sunil; Bhola, Rakesh Kumar; Goswami, Diganta; Rabha, Bipul; Kumar, Dinesh; Baruah, Indra; Singh, Lokendra

    2012-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the human host preference and presence of Plasmodium parasite in field collected Anopheles mosquitoes among four villages around a military cantonment located in malaria endemic Sonitpur district of Assam, India. Encountered malaria vector mosquitoes were identified and tested for host preference and Plasmodium presence using PCR method. Human host preference was detected using simple PCR, whereas vectorial status for Plasmodium parasite was confirmed using first round PCR with genus specific primers and thereafter nested PCR with three Plasmodium species specific primers. Out of 1874 blood fed vector mosquitoes collected, 187 (10%) were processed for PCR, which revealed that 40·6% had fed on human blood; 9·2% of human blood fed mosquito were harbouring Plasmodium parasites, 71·4% of which were confirmed to Plasmodium falciparum. In addition to An. minimus, An. annularis and An. culicifacies were also found positive for malaria parasites. The present study exhibits the human feeding tendency of Anopheles vectors highlighting their malaria parasite transmission potential. The present study may serve as a model for understanding the human host preference of malaria vectors and detection of malaria parasite inside the anopheline vector mosquitoes in order to update their vectorial status for estimating the possible role of these mosquitoes in malaria transmission. The study has used PCR method and suggests that PCR-based method should be used in this entire malarious region to correctly report the vectorial position of different malaria vectors.

  16. The Effective Population Size of Malaria Mosquitoes: Large Impact of Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Athrey, Giridhar; Hodges, Theresa K.; Reddy, Michael R.; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Ridl, Frances C.; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Caccone, Adalgisa; Slotman, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa have proven themselves very difficult adversaries in the global struggle against malaria. Decades of anti-vector interventions have yielded mixed results—with successful reductions in transmission in some areas and limited impacts in others. These varying successes can be ascribed to a lack of universally effective vector control tools, as well as the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. Understanding the impact of vector control on mosquito populations is crucial for planning new interventions and evaluating existing ones. However, estimates of population size changes in response to control efforts are often inaccurate because of limitations and biases in collection methods. Attempts to evaluate the impact of vector control on mosquito effective population size (Ne) have produced inconclusive results thus far. Therefore, we obtained data for 13–15 microsatellite markers for more than 1,500 mosquitoes representing multiple time points for seven populations of three important vector species—Anopheles gambiae, An. melas, and An. moucheti—in Equatorial Guinea. These populations were exposed to indoor residual spraying or long-lasting insecticidal nets in recent years. For comparison, we also analyzed data from two populations that have no history of organized vector control. We used Approximate Bayesian Computation to reconstruct their demographic history, allowing us to evaluate the impact of these interventions on the effective population size. In six of the seven study populations, vector control had a dramatic impact on the effective population size, reducing Ne between 55%–87%, the exception being a single An. melas population. In contrast, the two negative control populations did not experience a reduction in effective population size. This study is the first to conclusively link anti-vector intervention programs in Africa to sharply reduced effective population sizes of malaria vectors

  17. Exploiting the behaviour of wild malaria vectors to achieve high infection with fungal biocontrol agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Control of mosquitoes that transmit malaria has been the mainstay in the fight against the disease, but alternative methods are required in view of emerging insecticide resistance. Entomopathogenic fungi are candidate alternatives, but to date, few trials have translated the use of these agents to field-based evaluations of their actual impact on mosquito survival and malaria risk. Mineral oil-formulations of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were applied using five different techniques that each exploited the behaviour of malaria mosquitoes when entering, host-seeking or resting in experimental huts in a malaria endemic area of rural Tanzania. Results Survival of mosquitoes was reduced by 39-57% relative to controls after forcing upward house-entry of mosquitoes through fungus treated baffles attached to the eaves or after application of fungus-treated surfaces around an occupied bed net (bed net strip design). Moreover, 68 to 76% of the treatment mosquitoes showed fungal growth and thus had sufficient contact with fungus treated surfaces. A population dynamic model of malaria-mosquito interactions shows that these infection rates reduce malaria transmission by 75-80% due to the effect of fungal infection on adult mortality alone. The model also demonstrated that even if a high proportion of the mosquitoes exhibits outdoor biting behaviour, malaria transmission was still significantly reduced. Conclusions Entomopathogenic fungi strongly affect mosquito survival and have a high predicted impact on malaria transmission. These entomopathogens represent a viable alternative for malaria control, especially if they are used as part of an integrated vector management strategy. PMID:22449130

  18. The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael; Oliver, Shüné V; Coetzee, Maureen; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-04-26

    Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper (dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum), used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. Mortality was recorded 24 h after black pepper and 48 h after piperine were applied to the larval bowls. Black pepper and piperine mixtures caused high mortality in the An. gambiae complex strains, with black pepper proving significantly more toxic than piperine. The An. funestus strains were substantially less sensitive to black pepper and piperine which may reflect a marked difference in the feeding habits of this species compared to that of the Gambiae complex or a difference in food metabolism as a consequence of differences in breeding habitat between species. Insecticide resistant and susceptible strains by species proved equally susceptible to black pepper and piperine. It is concluded that black pepper shows potential as a larvicide for the control of certain malaria vector species.

  19. Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. Methods The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. Results All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development

  20. Integrated vector management for malaria control in Uganda: knowledge, perceptions and policy development.

    PubMed

    Mutero, Clifford M; Schlodder, Dieter; Kabatereine, Narcis; Kramer, Randall

    2012-01-14

    Integrated vector management (IVM) is increasingly being recommended as an option for sustainable malaria control. However, many malaria-endemic countries lack a policy framework to guide and promote the approach. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge and perceptions in relation to current malaria vector control policy and IVM in Uganda, and to make recommendations for consideration during future development of a specific IVM policy. The study used a structured questionnaire to interview 34 individuals working at technical or policy-making levels in health, environment, agriculture and fisheries sectors. Specific questions on IVM focused on the following key elements of the approach: integration of chemical and non-chemical interventions of vector control; evidence-based decision making; inter-sectoral collaboration; capacity building; legislation; advocacy and community mobilization. All participants were familiar with the term IVM and knew various conventional malaria vector control (MVC) methods. Only 75% thought that Uganda had a MVC policy. Eighty percent (80%) felt there was inter-sectoral collaboration towards IVM, but that it was poor due to financial constraints, difficulties in involving all possible sectors and political differences. The health, environment and agricultural sectors were cited as key areas requiring cooperation in order for IVM to succeed. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of participants responded that communities were actively being involved in MVC, while 48% felt that the use of research results for evidence-based decision making was inadequate or poor. A majority of the participants felt that malaria research in Uganda was rarely used to facilitate policy changes. Suggestions by participants for formulation of specific and effective IVM policy included: revising the MVC policy and IVM-related policies in other sectors into a single, unified IVM policy and, using legislation to enforce IVM in development projects. Integrated

  1. Scientists and public involvement: a consultation on the relation between malaria, vector control and transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Boëte, Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Among the hopes for vector-based malaria control, the use of transgenic mosquitoes able to kill malaria parasites is seen as a potential way to interrupt malaria transmission. While this potential solution is gaining some support, the ethical and social aspects related to this high-tech method remain largely unexplored and underestimated. Related to those latter points, the aim of the present survey is to determine how scientists working on malaria and its vector mosquitoes perceive public opinion and how they evaluate public consultations on their research. This study has been performed through a questionnaire addressing questions related to the type of research, the location, the nationality and the perception of the public involvement by scientists. The results suggest that even if malaria researchers agree to interact with a non-scientific audience, they (especially the ones from the global North) remain quite reluctant to have their research project submitted in a jargon-free version to the evaluation and the prior-agreement by a group of non-specialists. The study, by interrogating the links between the scientific community and the public from the perspective of the scientists, reveals the importance of fostering structures and processes that could lead to a better involvement of a non specialist public in the actual debates linking scientific, technological and public health issues in Africa.

  2. Malaria Prevention by New Technology: Vectored Delivery of Antibody Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    mosquito bite challenge 12-30 20 4. Determine mouse dose-responses; mosquito bite challenge 18-30 0 5. Assess protection by vector pairs; mosquito bite...These experiments, which are underway, will permit measurement of the levels of mAb produced by the vectors and assessment of protection from mosquito

  3. An overview of malaria transmission from the perspective of Amazon Anopheles vectors

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Paulo FP; Orfano, Alessandra S; Bahia, Ana C; Duarte, Ana PM; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Melo, Fabrício F; Pessoa, Felipe AC; Oliveira, Giselle A; Campos, Keillen MM; Villegas, Luis Martínez; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabé; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Simões, Rejane C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Amino, Rogerio; Traub-Cseko, Yara M; Lima, José BP; Barbosa, Maria GV; Lacerda, Marcus VG; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila FC

    2015-01-01

    In the Americas, areas with a high risk of malaria transmission are mainly located in the Amazon Forest, which extends across nine countries. One keystone step to understanding the Plasmodium life cycle in Anopheles species from the Amazon Region is to obtain experimentally infected mosquito vectors. Several attempts to colonise Ano- pheles species have been conducted, but with only short-lived success or no success at all. In this review, we review the literature on malaria transmission from the perspective of its Amazon vectors. Currently, it is possible to develop experimental Plasmodium vivax infection of the colonised and field-captured vectors in laboratories located close to Amazonian endemic areas. We are also reviewing studies related to the immune response to P. vivax infection of Anopheles aquasalis, a coastal mosquito species. Finally, we discuss the importance of the modulation of Plasmodium infection by the vector microbiota and also consider the anopheline genomes. The establishment of experimental mosquito infections with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei parasites that could provide interesting models for studying malaria in the Amazonian scenario is important. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of the parasites in New World vectors is crucial in order to better determine the interaction process and vectorial competence. PMID:25742262

  4. Intraspecific nucleotide variation in Anopheles gambiae: new insights into the biology of malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Morlais, Isabelle; Ponçon, Nicolas; Simard, Frédéric; Cohuet, Anna; Fontenille, Didier

    2004-12-01

    The Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, together with the recent development of molecular tools for genome-wide analysis, promises new insights into the biology of the malaria vector. These insights should help define the best possible breakdown point for interrupting transmission in the mosquito vector. A survey of the intraspecific nucleotide diversity in coding regions of three different mosquito strains showed an average of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) every 125 coding base pairs. High levels of nucleotide polymorphism were observed in mosquito immune-related genes and pathogen recognition receptors harbored higher replacement substitutions. Genotyping at SNP loci in natural populations of An. gambiae from three malaria foci showed contrasting patterns. The distribution of mutation Y443H in the thioester-containing protein 3 (TEP3) gene suggested this mutational event has occurred under selective constraints. Our results show that SNP-based studies will be valuable in identifying the sequence variation associated with phenotypic traits shaping vector competence.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Gmelina asiatica leaf extract against filariasis, dengue, and malaria vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L

    2015-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal potential of leaf extracts of Gmelina asiatica and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of An. stephensi (lethal dose (LC₅₀) = 22.44 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 40.65 μg/mL), Ae. aegypti (LC₅₀ = 25.77 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 45.98 μg/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC₅₀ = 27.83 μg/mL; LC₉₀ 48.92 μg/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. This is the first report on mosquito larvicidal activity of plant-synthesized nanoparticles. Thus, the use of G. asiatica to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, eco-friendly, and a single-step approach and the AgNps formed can be potential mosquito larvicidal agents.

  6. Insecticide exposure impacts vector–parasite interactions in insecticide-resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    Alout, Haoues; Djègbè, Innocent; Chandre, Fabrice; Djogbénou, Luc Salako; Dabiré, Roch Kounbobr; Corbel, Vincent; Cohuet, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong trend towards increasing insecticide-based vector control coverage in malaria endemic countries. The ecological consequence of insecticide applications has been mainly studied regarding the selection of resistance mechanisms; however, little is known about their impact on vector competence in mosquitoes responsible for malaria transmission. As they have limited toxicity to mosquitoes owing to the selection of resistance mechanisms, insecticides may also interact with pathogens developing in mosquitoes. In this study, we explored the impact of insecticide exposure on Plasmodium falciparum development in insecticide-resistant colonies of Anopheles gambiae s.s., homozygous for the ace-1 G119S mutation (Acerkis) or the kdr L1014F mutation (Kdrkis). Exposure to bendiocarb insecticide reduced the prevalence and intensity of P. falciparum oocysts developing in the infected midgut of the Acerkis strain, whereas exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane reduced only the prevalence of P. falciparum infection in the Kdrkis strain. Thus, insecticide resistance leads to a selective pressure of insecticides on Plasmodium parasites, providing, to our knowledge, the first evidence of genotype by environment interactions on vector competence in a natural Anopheles–Plasmodium combination. Insecticide applications would affect the transmission of malaria in spite of resistance and would reduce to some degree the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria control interventions. PMID:24850924

  7. [Introduction of Bacillus sphaericus strain-2362 (GRISELESF) for biological control of malaria vectors in Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Blanco Castro, S D; Martínez Arias, A; Cano Velásquez, O R; Tello Granados, R; Mendoza, I

    2000-01-01

    Malaria continues to be an important health problem in a number of countries of Central and South America where it is considered as a highly prevent endemic disease. The objective of this paper is to assess the entomo-epidemiological impact of a pilot program for the biological control of malaria-transmitting vectors, which was implemented in 1998 in Escuintla, Republic of Guatemala. This program was based on the use of 20,000 L of biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus- strain-2362 (GRISELESF) which was applied in the 46 localities of highest epidemiological risk at a rate of 10 mL/m2 of effective area of breeding. The entomologic effectiveness of this biolarvicide was monitored from the first 72 hours to 4 months after the application. There was a total larval reduction of 94.57 in the maturity stage of the water phase of Anopheles albimanus vector. The epidemiological analysis was carried out by comparing the rate of malaria prevalence (per 1000 pop) during 1997 and 1998. The five treated municipalities showed a statistically significant reduction of 50% (p 0.01). The results obtained in this paper coincided with those reported by comparable studies, so, this allowed us to recommend the use of the biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus (strain-2362) as part of a comprehensive program of malaria-transmitting vector control in the Republic of Guatemala and other countries of the region.

  8. Insecticide-Treated Nets and Protection against Insecticide-Resistant Malaria Vectors in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ochomo, Eric; Chahilu, Mercy; Cook, Jackie; Kinyari, Teresa; Bayoh, Nabie M; West, Philippa; Kamau, Luna; Osangale, Aggrey; Ombok, Maurice; Njagi, Kiambo; Mathenge, Evan; Muthami, Lawrence; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Knox, Tessa; Mnavaza, Abraham; Donnelly, Martin James; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Mbogo, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Insecticide resistance might reduce the efficacy of malaria vector control. In 2013 and 2014, malaria vectors from 50 villages, of varying pyrethroid resistance, in western Kenya were assayed for resistance to deltamethrin. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) were distributed to households at universal coverage. Children were recruited into 2 cohorts, cleared of malaria-causing parasites, and tested every 2 weeks for reinfection. Infection incidence rates for the 2 cohorts were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.5) infections/person-year and 2.8 (95% CI 2.5-3.0) infections/person-year. LLIN users had lower infection rates than non-LLIN users in both low-resistance (rate ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.88) and high-resistance (rate ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.87) villages (p = 0.63). The association between insecticide resistance and infection incidence was not significant (p = 0.99). Although the incidence of infection was high among net users, LLINs provided significant protection (p = 0.01) against infection with malaria parasite regardless of vector insecticide resistance.

  9. Malaria transmission after five years of vector control on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    extensive malaria control and a generalized reduction in the force of transmission, parasite prevalence and child mortality, foci of very high transmission persist on Bioko Island, particularly in the northwestern Punta Europa area. This area is favorable for anopheline mosquito breeding; human biting rates are high, and the EIRs are among the highest ever recorded. Both vector species collected in the study have a propensity to bite outdoors more frequently than indoors. Despite current vector control efforts mosquito densities remain high in such foci of high malaria transmission. To further reduce transmission, indoor residual spraying (IRS) needs to be supplemented with additional vector control interventions. PMID:23146423

  10. Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar

    PubMed Central

    Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Dolo, G.; Bagayoko, M.; Sogoba, N.; Toure, M. B.; Moghaddam, M.; Manoukis, N.; Rian, S.; Traore, S. F.; Taylor, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages. PMID:17710188

  11. Patterns of irrigated rice growth and malaria vector breeding in Mali using multi-temporal ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar.

    PubMed

    Diuk-Wasser, M A; Dolo, G; Bagayoko, M; Sogoba, N; Toure, M B; Moghaddam, M; Manoukis, N; Rian, S; Traore, S F; Taylor, C E

    2006-02-01

    We explored the use of the European Remote Sensing Satellite 2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (ERS-2 SAR) to trace the development of rice plants in an irrigated area near Niono, Mali and relate that to the density of anopheline mosquitoes, especially An. gambiae. This is important because such mosquitoes are the major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, and their development is often coupled to the cycle of rice development. We collected larval samples, mapped rice fields using GPS and recorded rice growth stages simultaneously with eight ERS-2 SAR acquisitions. We were able to discriminate among rice growth stages using ERS-2 SAR backscatter data, especially among the early stages of rice growth, which produce the largest numbers of larvae. We could also distinguish between basins that produced high and low numbers of anophelines within the stage of peak production. After the peak, larval numbers dropped as rice plants grew taller and thicker, reducing the amount of light reaching the water surface. ERS-2 SAR backscatter increased concomitantly. Our data support the belief that ERS-2 SAR data may be helpful for mapping the spatial patterns of rice growth, distinguishing different agricultural practices, and monitoring the abundance of vectors in nearby villages.

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Nerium oleander against Larvae West Nile Vector Mosquito Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    El-Akhal, Fouad; Guemmouh, Raja; Ez Zoubi, Yassine; El Ouali Lalami, Abdelhakim

    2015-01-01

    Background. Outbreaks of the West Nile virus infection were reported in Morocco in 1996, 2003, and 2010. Culex pipiens was strongly suspected as the vector responsible for transmission. In the North center of Morocco, this species has developed resistance to synthetic insecticides. There is an urgent need to find alternatives to the insecticides as natural biocides. Objective. In this work, the insecticidal activity of the extract of the local plant Nerium oleander, which has never been tested before in the North center of Morocco, was studied on larval stages 3 and 4 of Culex pipiens. Methods. Biological tests were realized according to a methodology inspired from standard World Health Organization protocol. The mortality values were determined after 24 h of exposure and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. Results. The extract had toxic effects on the larvae of culicid mosquitoes. The ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander applied against the larvae of Culex pipiens has given the lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 in the order of 57.57 mg/mL and 166.35 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion. This investigation indicates that N. oleander could serve as a potential larvicidal, effective natural biocide against mosquito larvae, particularly Culex pipiens. PMID:26640701

  13. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low. Methods A post hoc assignment of intervention-control cluster design was used to assess the added effect of both indoor residual spraying (IRS) and Bacillus-based larvicides (Bti) in addition to ITN in the western Kenyan highlands in 2010 and 2011. Cross-sectional, mass parasite screenings, adult vector populations, and cohort of active case surveillance (ACS) were conducted before and after the intervention in three study sites with two- to three-paired intervention-control clusters at each site each year. The effect of larviciding, IRS, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of mixed estimating methods. Results Average ITN coverage increased from 41% in 2010 to 92% in 2011 in the study sites. IRS intervention had significant added impact on reducing vector density in 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS on reducing parasite prevalence was significant in 2011 but was seasonal specific in 2010. ITN was significantly associated with parasite densities in 2010 but IRS application was significantly correlated with reduced gametocyte density in 2011. IRS application reduced about half of the clinical malaria cases in 2010 and about one-third in 2011 compare to non-intervention areas. Conclusion Compared with a similar study conducted in 2005, the efficacy of the current integrated vector control with ITN, IRS, and Bti reduced three- to five-fold despite high ITN coverage, reflecting a modest added impact on malaria transmission. Additional strategies need to be developed to further reduce malaria transmission. PMID:23870708

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control.

    PubMed

    Ageep, Tellal B; Cox, Jonathan; Hassan, M'oawia M; Knols, Bart G J; Benedict, Mark Q; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; El Sayed, Badria B

    2009-06-07

    Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT). To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe) adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6%) contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals - often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not evident in vector populations breeding in artificial

  15. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Girmay, Askual; Fekadu, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia. Methods The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure. Results The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control. Conclusions This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future. PMID:25183156

  16. Impact of long-lasting, insecticidal nets on anaemia and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among children under five years in areas with highly resistant malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Tokponnon, Filémon T; Ogouyémi, Aurore Hounto; Sissinto, Yolande; Sovi, Arthur; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Cornélie, Sylvie; Adéothy, Adicath Adéola; Ossè, Razaki; Wakpo, Abel; Gbénou, Dina; Oke, Mariam; Kinde-Gazard, Dorothée; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Akogbeto, Martin C; Massougbodji, Achille

    2014-03-01

    The widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) leads to the development of vector resistance to insecticide. This resistance can reduce the effectiveness of LLIN-based interventions and perhaps reverse progress in reducing malaria morbidity. To prevent such difficulty, it is important to know the real impact of resistance in the effectiveness of mosquito nets. Therefore, an assessment of LLIN efficacy was conducted in malaria prevention among children in high and low resistance areas. The study was conducted in four rural districts and included 32 villages categorized as low or high resistance areas in Plateau Department, south-western Benin. Larvae collection was conducted to measure vector susceptibility to deltamethrin and knockdown resistance (kdr) frequency. In each resistance area, around 500 children were selected to measure the prevalence of malaria infection as well as the prevalence of anaemia associated with the use of LLINs. Observed mortalities of Anopheles gambiae s.s population exposed to deltamethrin ranged from 19 to 96%. Knockdown resistance frequency was between 38 and 84%. The prevalence of malaria infection in children under five years was 22.4% (19.9-25.1). This prevalence was 17.3% (14.2-20.9) in areas of high resistance and 27.1% (23.5-31.1) in areas of low resistance (p=0.04). Eight on ten children that were aged six - 30 months against seven on ten of those aged 31-59 months were anaemic. The anaemia observed in the six to 30-month old children was significantly higher than in the 31-59 month old children (p=0.00) but no difference associated with resistance areas was observed (p=0.35). The net use rate was 71%. The risk of having malaria was significantly reduced (p<0.05) with LLIN use in both low and high resistance areas. The preventive effect of LLINs in high resistance areas was 60% (95% CI: 40-70), and was significantly higher than that observed in low resistance areas (p<0.05). The results of this study showed that the

  17. Impact of long-lasting, insecticidal nets on anaemia and prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among children under five years in areas with highly resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The widespread use of insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) leads to the development of vector resistance to insecticide. This resistance can reduce the effectiveness of LLIN-based interventions and perhaps reverse progress in reducing malaria morbidity. To prevent such difficulty, it is important to know the real impact of resistance in the effectiveness of mosquito nets. Therefore, an assessment of LLIN efficacy was conducted in malaria prevention among children in high and low resistance areas. Methods The study was conducted in four rural districts and included 32 villages categorized as low or high resistance areas in Plateau Department, south-western Benin. Larvae collection was conducted to measure vector susceptibility to deltamethrin and knockdown resistance (kdr) frequency. In each resistance area, around 500 children were selected to measure the prevalence of malaria infection as well as the prevalence of anaemia associated with the use of LLINs. Results Observed mortalities of Anopheles gambiae s.s population exposed to deltamethrin ranged from 19 to 96%. Knockdown resistance frequency was between 38 and 84%. The prevalence of malaria infection in children under five years was 22.4% (19.9-25.1). This prevalence was 17.3% (14.2-20.9) in areas of high resistance and 27.1% (23.5-31.1) in areas of low resistance (p = 0.04). Eight on ten children that were aged six - 30 months against seven on ten of those aged 31–59 months were anaemic. The anaemia observed in the six to 30-month old children was significantly higher than in the 31–59 month old children (p = 0.00) but no difference associated with resistance areas was observed (p = 0.35). The net use rate was 71%. The risk of having malaria was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with LLIN use in both low and high resistance areas. The preventive effect of LLINs in high resistance areas was 60% (95% CI: 40–70), and was significantly higher than that observed in low resistance

  18. Coquillettidia (Culicidae, Diptera) mosquitoes are natural vectors of avian malaria in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The mosquito vectors of Plasmodium spp. have largely been overlooked in studies of ecology and evolution of avian malaria and other vertebrates in wildlife. Methods Plasmodium DNA from wild-caught Coquillettidia spp. collected from lowland forests in Cameroon was isolated and sequenced using nested PCR. Female Coquillettidia aurites were also dissected and salivary glands were isolated and microscopically examined for the presence of sporozoites. Results In total, 33% (85/256) of mosquito pools tested positive for avian Plasmodium spp., harbouring at least eight distinct parasite lineages. Sporozoites of Plasmodium spp. were recorded in salivary glands of C. aurites supporting the PCR data that the parasites complete development in these mosquitoes. Results suggest C. aurites, Coquillettidia pseudoconopas and Coquillettidia metallica as new and important vectors of avian malaria in Africa. All parasite lineages recovered clustered with parasites formerly identified from several bird species and suggest the vectors capability of infecting birds from different families. Conclusion Identifying the major vectors of avian Plasmodium spp. will assist in understanding the epizootiology of avian malaria, including differences in this disease distribution between pristine and disturbed landscapes. PMID:19664282

  19. Coquillettidia (Culicidae, Diptera) mosquitoes are natural vectors of avian malaria in Africa.

    PubMed

    Njabo, Kevin Y; Cornel, Anthony J; Sehgal, Ravinder N M; Loiseau, Claire; Buermann, Wolfgang; Harrigan, Ryan J; Pollinger, John; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Smith, Thomas B

    2009-08-10

    The mosquito vectors of Plasmodium spp. have largely been overlooked in studies of ecology and evolution of avian malaria and other vertebrates in wildlife. Plasmodium DNA from wild-caught Coquillettidia spp. collected from lowland forests in Cameroon was isolated and sequenced using nested PCR. Female Coquillettidia aurites were also dissected and salivary glands were isolated and microscopically examined for the presence of sporozoites. In total, 33% (85/256) of mosquito pools tested positive for avian Plasmodium spp., harbouring at least eight distinct parasite lineages. Sporozoites of Plasmodium spp. were recorded in salivary glands of C. aurites supporting the PCR data that the parasites complete development in these mosquitoes. Results suggest C. aurites, Coquillettidia pseudoconopas and Coquillettidia metallica as new and important vectors of avian malaria in Africa. All parasite lineages recovered clustered with parasites formerly identified from several bird species and suggest the vectors capability of infecting birds from different families. Identifying the major vectors of avian Plasmodium spp. will assist in understanding the epizootiology of avian malaria, including differences in this disease distribution between pristine and disturbed landscapes.

  20. Polyamidoamine nanoparticles as nanocarriers for the drug delivery to malaria parasite stages in the mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Urbán, Patricia; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier

    2015-11-01

    Malaria is arguably one of the main medical concerns worldwide because of the numbers of people affected, the severity of the disease and the complexity of the life cycle of its causative agent, the protist Plasmodium spp. With the advent of nanoscience, renewed hopes have appeared of finally obtaining the long sought-after magic bullet against malaria in the form of a nanovector for the targeted delivery of antimalarial compounds exclusively to Plasmodium-infected cells, thus increasing drug efficacy and minimizing the induction of resistance to newly developed therapeutic agents. Polyamidoamine-derived nanovectors combine into a single chemical structure drug encapsulating capacity, antimalarial activity, low unspecific toxicity, specific targeting to Plasmodium, optimal in vivo activity and affordable synthesis cost. After having shown their efficacy in targeting drugs to intraerythrocytic parasites, now polyamidoamines face the challenge of spearheading a new generation of nanocarriers aiming at the malaria parasite stages in the mosquito vector.

  1. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  2. Malaria infection and disease in an area with pyrethroid-resistant vectors in southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate baseline data on malaria before the evaluation of new vector control strategies in an area of pyrethroid-resistance of vectors. The burden of malaria was estimated in terms of infection (prevalence and parasite density) and of clinical episodes. Methods Between December 2007 and December 2008 in the health district of Ouidah - Kpomassè - Tori Bossito (southern Benin), a descriptive epidemiological survey of malaria was conducted. From 28 selected villages, seven were randomized from which a total of 440 children aged 0 to 5 years were randomly selected. Clinical and parasitological information was obtained by active case detection of malaria episodes carried out during eight periods of six consecutive days scheduled at six weekly intervals and by cross-sectional surveys of asymptomatic infection. Entomological information was also collected. The ownership, the use and the correct use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) were checked over weekly-survey by unannounced visits at home in the late evening. Results Mean parasite density in asymptomatic children was 586 P. falciparum asexual forms per μL of blood (95%CI 504-680). Pyrogenic parasite cut-off was estimated 2,000 P. falciparum asexual blood forms per μL. The clinical incidence of malaria was 1.5 episodes per child per year (95%CI 1.2-1.9). Parasitological and clinical variables did not vary with season. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the principal vector closely followed by Anopheles funestus. Entomological inoculation rate was 5.3 (95%CI 1.1-25.9) infective bites per human per year. Frequency of the L1014F kdr (West) allele was around 50%. Annual prevalence rate of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection was 21.8% (95%CI 19.1-24.4) and increased according to age. Mean rates of ownership and use of LLINs were 92% and 70% respectively. The only correct use of LLINs (63%) conferred 26% individual protection against only infection (OR = 0.74 (95%IC 0

  3. Surveillance of malaria vector population density and biting behaviour in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ototo, Ednah N; Mbugi, Jenard P; Wanjala, Christine L; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-06-17

    Malaria is a great public health burden and Africa suffers the largest share of malaria-attributed deaths. Despite control efforts targeting indoor malaria transmission, such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) and deployment of indoor residual spraying, transmission of the parasite in western Kenya is still maintained. This study was carried out to determine the impact of ITNs on indoor vector densities and biting behaviour in western Kenya. Indoor collection of adult mosquitoes was done monthly in six study sites in western Kenya using pyrethrum spray collections from 2012 to 2014. The rotator trap collections were done in July-August in 2013 and May-June in 2014. Mosquitoes were collected every 2 h between 18.00 and 08.00 h. Human behaviour study was conducted via questionnaire surveys. Species within Anopheles gambiae complex was differentiated by PCR and sporozoite infectivity was determined by ELISA. Species distribution was determined and bed net coverage in the study sites was recorded. During the study a total of 5,469 mosquito vectors were collected from both PSC and Rotator traps comprising 3,181 (58.2%) Anopheles gambiae and 2,288 (41.8%) Anopheles funestus. Compared to all the study sites, Rae had the highest density of An. gambiae with a mean of 1.2 (P<0.001) while Kombewa had the highest density of An. funestus with a mean of 1.08 (P<0.001). Marani had the lowest density of vectors with 0.06 An. gambiae and 0.17 An. funestus (P<0.001). Among the 700 PCR confirmed An. gambiae s.l. individuals, An. gambiae s.s. accounted for 49% and An. arabiensis 51%. Over 50% of the study population stayed outdoors between 18.00 and 20.00 and 06.00 and 08.00 which was the time when highest densities of blood fed vectors were collected. Anopheles gambie s.s. was the main malaria parasite vector in the highland sites and An. arabiensis in the lowland sites. Bed net ownership in 2012 averaged 87% across the study sites. This study suggests that mass distribution of

  4. The role of vector control in stopping the transmission of malaria: threats and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control, and that of other insect borne diseases such as dengue, is heavily dependent on our ability to control the mosquito populations that transmit these diseases. The major push over the last decade to reduce the global burden of malaria has been driven by the distribution of pyrethroid insecticide-treated bednets and an increase in coverage of indoor residual spraying (IRS). This has reduced malaria deaths by a third. Progress towards the goal of reducing this further is threatened by lack of funding and the selection of drug and insecticide resistance. When malaria control was initially scaled up, there was little pyrethroid resistance in the major vectors, today there is no country in Africa where the vectors remain fully susceptible to pyrethroids. The first pyrethroid resistance mechanisms to be selected produced low-level resistance which had little or no operational significance. More recently, metabolically based resistance has been selected, primarily in West Africa, which in some mosquito populations produces more than 1000-fold resistance. As this spreads the effectiveness of pyrethroid-based bednets and IRS will be compromised. New public health insecticides are not readily available. The pipeline of agrochemical insecticides that can be re-purposed for public health dried up 30 years ago when the target product profile for agricultural insecticides shifted from broad spectrum, stable, contact-acting insecticides to narrow spectrum stomach poisons that could be delivered through the plant. A public-private partnership, the Innovative Vector Control Consortium, was established in 2005 to stimulate the development of new public health pesticides. Nine potential new classes of chemistry are in the pipeline, with the intention of developing three into new insecticides. While this has been successfully achieved, it will still take 6-9 years for new insecticides to reach the market. Careful management of the resistance situation in the interim

  5. A Nonintegrative Lentiviral Vector-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Sterile Protection against Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Coutant, Frédéric; Sanchez David, Raul Yusef; Félix, Tristan; Boulay, Aude; Caleechurn, Laxmee; Souque, Philippe; Thouvenot, Catherine; Bourgouin, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Trials testing the RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine and radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) have shown that protective immunity against malaria can be induced and that an effective vaccine is not out of reach. However, longer-term protection and higher protection rates are required to eradicate malaria from the endemic regions. It implies that there is still a need to explore new vaccine strategies. Lentiviral vectors are very potent at inducing strong immunological memory. However their integrative status challenges their safety profile. Eliminating the integration step obviates the risk of insertional oncogenesis. Providing they confer sterile immunity, nonintegrative lentiviral vectors (NILV) hold promise as mass pediatric vaccine by meeting high safety standards. In this study, we have assessed the protective efficacy of NILV against malaria in a robust pre-clinical model. Mice were immunized with NILV encoding Plasmodium yoelii Circumsporozoite Protein (Py CSP) and challenged with sporozoites one month later. In two independent protective efficacy studies, 50% (37.5–62.5) of the animals were fully protected (p = 0.0072 and p = 0.0008 respectively when compared to naive mice). The remaining mice with detectable parasitized red blood cells exhibited a prolonged patency and reduced parasitemia. Moreover, protection was long-lasting with 42.8% sterile protection six months after the last immunization (p = 0.0042). Post-challenge CD8+ T cells to CSP, in contrast to anti-CSP antibodies, were associated with protection (r = −0.6615 and p = 0.0004 between the frequency of IFN-g secreting specific T cells in spleen and parasitemia). However, while NILV and RAS immunizations elicited comparable immunity to CSP, only RAS conferred 100% of sterile protection. Given that a better protection can be anticipated from a multi-antigen vaccine and an optimized vector design, NILV appear as a promising malaria vaccine. PMID:23133649

  6. The role of vector control in stopping the transmission of malaria: threats and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Hemingway, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control, and that of other insect borne diseases such as dengue, is heavily dependent on our ability to control the mosquito populations that transmit these diseases. The major push over the last decade to reduce the global burden of malaria has been driven by the distribution of pyrethroid insecticide-treated bednets and an increase in coverage of indoor residual spraying (IRS). This has reduced malaria deaths by a third. Progress towards the goal of reducing this further is threatened by lack of funding and the selection of drug and insecticide resistance. When malaria control was initially scaled up, there was little pyrethroid resistance in the major vectors, today there is no country in Africa where the vectors remain fully susceptible to pyrethroids. The first pyrethroid resistance mechanisms to be selected produced low-level resistance which had little or no operational significance. More recently, metabolically based resistance has been selected, primarily in West Africa, which in some mosquito populations produces more than 1000-fold resistance. As this spreads the effectiveness of pyrethroid-based bednets and IRS will be compromised. New public health insecticides are not readily available. The pipeline of agrochemical insecticides that can be re-purposed for public health dried up 30 years ago when the target product profile for agricultural insecticides shifted from broad spectrum, stable, contact-acting insecticides to narrow spectrum stomach poisons that could be delivered through the plant. A public–private partnership, the Innovative Vector Control Consortium, was established in 2005 to stimulate the development of new public health pesticides. Nine potential new classes of chemistry are in the pipeline, with the intention of developing three into new insecticides. While this has been successfully achieved, it will still take 6–9 years for new insecticides to reach the market. Careful management of the resistance situation in the interim

  7. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions in Anopheles moucheti, a major malaria vector in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Sharakhova, M V; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Xia, A; Ndo, C; Awono-Ambene, P; Simard, F; Sharakhov, I V

    2014-09-01

    Anopheles moucheti Evans (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of malaria in forested areas of Central Africa. However, few genetic tools are available for this species. The present study represents the first attempt to characterize chromosomes in An. moucheti females collected in Cameroon. Ovarian nurse cells contained polytene chromosomes, which were suitable for standard cytogenetic applications. The presence of three polymorphic chromosomal inversions in An. moucheti was revealed. Two of these inversions were located on the 2R chromosome arm. The homology between the 2R chromosome arms of An. moucheti and Anopheles gambiae Giles was established by fluorescent in situ hybridization of six An. gambiae genic sequences. Mapping of the probes on chromosomes of An. moucheti detected substantial gene order reshuffling between the two species. The presence of polytene chromosomes and polymorphic inversions in An. moucheti provides a new basis for further population genetic, taxonomic and ecological studies of this neglected malaria vector. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Mosquito genomics. Extensive introgression in a malaria vector species complex revealed by phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Michael C; Pease, James B; Steele, Aaron; Waterhouse, Robert M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Sharakhov, Igor V; Jiang, Xiaofang; Hall, Andrew B; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Kakani, Evdoxia; Mitchell, Sara N; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Smith, Hilary A; Love, R Rebecca; Lawniczak, Mara K; Slotman, Michel A; Emrich, Scott J; Hahn, Matthew W; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-02

    Introgressive hybridization is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon, but its role in evolution remains contested. Here, we use newly available reference genome assemblies to investigate phylogenetic relationships and introgression in a medically important group of Afrotropical mosquito sibling species. We have identified the correct species branching order to resolve a contentious phylogeny and show that lineages leading to the principal vectors of human malaria were among the first to split. Pervasive autosomal introgression between these malaria vectors means that only a small fraction of the genome, mainly on the X chromosome, has not crossed species boundaries. Our results suggest that traits enhancing vectorial capacity may be gained through interspecific gene flow, including between nonsister species.

  9. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Matthew E; Lapointe, Dennis A

    2009-12-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 2001-2003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (~ 20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at 'Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  10. Larval habitat for the avian malaria vector culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in altered mid-elevation mesic-dry forests in Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Effective management of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in Hawai'i's endemic honeycreepers (Drepanidinae) requires the identification and subsequent reduction or treatment of larval habitat for the mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). We conducted ground surveys, treehole surveys, and helicopter aerial surveys from 20012003 to identify all potential larval mosquito habitat within two 100+ ha mesic-dry forest study sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i; 'Ainahou Ranch and Mauna Loa Strip Road. At 'Ainahou Ranch, anthropogenic sites (43%) were more likely to contain mosquitoes than naturally occurring (8%) sites. Larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were predominately found in anthropogenic sites while Aedes albopictus larvae occurred less frequently in both anthropogenic sites and naturally-occurring sites. Additionally, moderate-size (???20-22,000 liters) anthropogenic potential larval habitat had >50% probability of mosquito presence compared to larger- and smaller-volume habitat (<50%). Less than 20% of trees surveyed at ' Ainahou Ranch had treeholes and few mosquito larvae were detected. Aerial surveys at 'Ainahou Ranch detected 56% (95% CI: 42-68%) of the potential larval habitat identified in ground surveys. At Mauna Loa Strip Road, Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were only found in the rock holes of small intermittent stream drainages that made up 20% (5 of 25) of the total potential larval habitat. The volume of the potential larval habitat did not influence the probability of mosquito occurrence at Mauna Loa Strip Road. Our results suggest that Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance, and subsequently avian malaria, may be controlled by larval habitat reduction in the mesic-dry landscapes of Hawai'i where anthropogenic sources predominate.

  11. Searching for putative avian malaria vectors in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco C; Rodrigues, Raquel A; Sato, Yukita; Borges, Magno A Z; Braga, Érika M

    2016-11-16

    Haemosporidian parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus can have detrimental effects on individual birds and populations. Despite recent investigations into the distribution and richness of these parasites and their vertebrate hosts, little is known about their dipteran vectors. The Neotropics has the highest diversity of mosquitoes in the world, but few studies have tried to identify vectors in this area, hampering the understanding of the ecology of avian malaria in the highly diverse Neotropical environments. Shannon traps and active collection were used to capture 27,110 mosquitoes in a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in southeastern Brazil, a highly endangered ecosystem. We screened 17,619 mosquito abdomens from 12 different species and several unidentified specimens of Culex, grouped into 1,913 pools, for the presence of haemosporidians. Two pools (out of 459) of the mosquito Mansonia titillans and one pool (out of 29) of Mansonia pseudotitillans were positive for Plasmodium parasites, with the detection of a new parasite lineage in the former species. Detected Plasmodium lineages were distributed in three different clades within the phylogenetic tree revealing that Mansonia mosquitoes are potential vectors of genetically distant parasites. Two pools of Culex spp. (out of 43) were positive for Plasmodium gallinaceum and closely related lineages. We found a higher abundance of these putative vectors in pasture areas, but they were also distributed in areas at intermediate and late successional stages. One pool of the mosquito Psorophora discrucians (out of 173) was positive for Haemoproteus. The occurrence of different Plasmodium lineages in Mansonia mosquitoes indicates that this genus encompasses potential vectors of avian malaria parasites in Brazil, even though we did not find positive thoraces among the samples tested. Additional evidence is required to assign the role of Mansonia mosquitoes in avian malaria transmission and further studies

  12. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L; Peterson, A Townsend; Correa, Margarita M

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá -Bajo Cauca-Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized for

  13. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá –Bajo Cauca–Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized

  14. Advances in the study of Anopheles funestus, a major vector of malaria in Africa.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, M; Fontenille, D

    2004-07-01

    The recent literature on cytogenetic and molecular studies of Anopheles funestus, a major vector of malaria in Africa, is reviewed. Molecular data from West and Central Africa suggest a new species in the group closely allied to Anopheles rivulorum. Cytogenetic and molecular studies of populations from West, Central, East and southern Africa indicate considerable genetic structuring within An. funestus itself, which may well restrict the spread of pyrethroid resistance that has been demonstrated in southern Africa.

  15. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    PubMed

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  16. A model for the control of malaria using genetically modified vectors.

    PubMed

    Diaz, H; Ramirez, A A; Olarte, A; Clavijo, C

    2011-05-07

    Recent works have considered the problem of using transgenic mosquitoes to control a malaria epidemic. These insects have been genetically engineered to reduce their capacity to infect humans with malaria parasites. We analyze a model of the mosquito population dynamics when genetically modified individuals are introduced into a wild type population so that the effect of their introduction can be assessed. The model describes the dynamics of gene selection under sexual reproduction in a closed vector population. Our results show that the fitness of the resulting heterozygous population is the key parameter for the success of the invasion, independently of the fitness of homozygous vectors. The vector population dynamics model is then combined with an epidemiological model to study the feasibility of controlling a malaria epidemic. Basic reproductive numbers are calculated for both models, and conditions are obtained for preventing reappearance of the epidemic. Simulations on this model show that it may be possible to reduce or even eradicate the epidemic only if the heterozygous population is better adapted than the wild type. They also show that this can be achieved without completely eliminating the wild type mosquitoes.

  17. Malaria vector incrimination in three rural riverine villages in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Arruda, Mercia; D'Almeida Couto, Alvaro A R; Wirtz, Robert; Lounibos, L Philip; Zimmerman, Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Vector incrimination studies were conducted from April 2003 to February 2005 at three riverine villages 1.5 km to 7.0 km apart, along the Matapi River, Amapa State, Brazil. A total of 113,117 mosquitoes were collected and placed in pools of malariae. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had the highest proportion of circumsporozoite protein positives for human malaria parasites compared with An. nuneztovari, An. triannulatus, and An. intermedius. Anopheles darlingi and An. marajoara had the highest entomological inoculation rates (EIR) and were considered to be the most important malaria vectors in the study. Anopheles nuneztovari was also an important vector. Differences in entomological inoculation rates were more dependent on mosquito abundance than on sporozoite rates.

  18. Mosquitoes as Potential Bridge Vectors of Malaria Parasites from Non-Human Primates to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Verhulst, Niels O.; Smallegange, Renate C.; Takken, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites which are transmitted by mosquitoes. Until recently, human malaria was considered to be caused by human-specific Plasmodium species. Studies on Plasmodium parasites in non-human primates (NHPs), however, have identified parasite species in gorillas and chimpanzees that are closely related to human Plasmodium species. Moreover, P. knowlesi, long known as a parasite of monkeys, frequently infects humans. The requirements for such a cross-species exchange and especially the role of mosquitoes in this process are discussed, as the latter may act as bridge vectors of Plasmodium species between different primates. Little is known about the mosquito species that would bite both humans and NHPs and if so, whether humans and NHPs share the same Plasmodium vectors. To understand the vector-host interactions that can lead to an increased Plasmodium transmission between species, studies are required that reveal the nature of these interactions. Studying the potential role of NHPs as a Plasmodium reservoir for humans will contribute to the ongoing efforts of human malaria elimination, and will help to focus on critical areas that should be considered in achieving this goal. PMID:22701434

  19. Measuring, manipulating and exploiting behaviours of adult mosquitoes to optimise malaria vector control impact.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Gerry F; Marshall, John M; Kiware, Samson S; South, Andy B; Tusting, Lucy S; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nicodem J

    2017-03-01

    Residual malaria transmission can persist despite high coverage with effective long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS), because many vector mosquitoes evade them by feeding on animals, feeding outdoors, resting outdoors or rapidly exiting from houses after entering them. However, many of these behaviours that render vectors resilient to control with IRS and LLINs also make them vulnerable to some emerging new alternative interventions. Furthermore, vector control measures targeting preferred behaviours of mosquitoes often force them to express previously rare alternative behaviours, which can then be targeted with these complementary new interventions. For example, deployment of LLINs against vectors that historically fed predominantly indoors on humans typically results in persisting transmission by residual populations that survive by feeding outdoors on humans and animals, where they may then be targeted with vapour-phase insecticides and veterinary insecticides, respectively. So while the ability of mosquitoes to express alternative behaviours limits the impact of LLINs and IRS, it also creates measurable and unprecedented opportunities for deploying complementary additional approaches that would otherwise be ineffective. Now that more diverse vector control methods are finally becoming available, well-established entomological field techniques for surveying adult mosquito behaviours should be fully exploited by national malaria control programmes, to rationally and adaptively map out new opportunities for their effective deployment.

  20. Progress with viral vectored malaria vaccines: A multi-stage approach involving "unnatural immunity".

    PubMed

    Ewer, Katie J; Sierra-Davidson, Kailan; Salman, Ahmed M; Illingworth, Joseph J; Draper, Simon J; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-12-22

    Viral vectors used in heterologous prime-boost regimens are one of very few vaccination approaches that have yielded significant protection against controlled human malaria infections. Recently, protection induced by chimpanzee adenovirus priming and modified vaccinia Ankara boosting using the ME-TRAP insert has been correlated with the induction of potent CD8(+) T cell responses. This regimen has progressed to field studies where efficacy against infection has now been reported. The same vectors have been used pre-clinically to identify preferred protective antigens for use in vaccines against the pre-erythrocytic, blood-stage and mosquito stages of malaria and this work is reviewed here for the first time. Such antigen screening has led to the prioritization of the PfRH5 blood-stage antigen, which showed efficacy against heterologous strain challenge in non-human primates, and vectors encoding this antigen are in clinical trials. This, along with the high transmission-blocking activity of some sexual-stage antigens, illustrates well the capacity of such vectors to induce high titre protective antibodies in addition to potent T cell responses. All of the protective responses induced by these vectors exceed the levels of the same immune responses induced by natural exposure supporting the view that, for subunit vaccines to achieve even partial efficacy in humans, "unnatural immunity" comprising immune responses of very high magnitude will need to be induced.

  1. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Zingiber nimmonii (J. Graham) Dalzell (Zingiberaceae) essential oil: an eco-friendly tool against malaria, dengue, and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Arivoli, Subramanian; Tennyson, Samuel; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of terms of public health relevance, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The continuous and indiscriminate use of conventional pesticides for the control of mosquito vectors has resulted in the development of resistance and negative impacts on non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, there is a need for development of effective mosquito control tools. In this study, the larvicidal and repellent activity of Zingiber nimmonii rhizome essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the Z. nimmonii EO contained at least 33 compounds. Major constituents were myrcene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and α-cadinol. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 41.19, 44.46, and 48.26 μg/ml, respectively. Repellency bioassays at 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) of Z. nimmonii EO gave 100 % protection up to 120, 150, and 180 min. against An. stephensi, followed by Ae. aegypti (90, 120, and 150 min) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (60, 90, and 120 min). Furthermore, the EO was safer towards two non-target aquatic organisms, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values of 3241.53 and 9250.12 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides and repellent from Zingiberaceae plants against malaria, dengue, and filariasis mosquito vectors.

  2. Single-step biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Zornia diphylla leaves: A potent eco-friendly tool against malaria and arbovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Hoti, S L; Khater, Hanem F; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important pathogens and parasites, including malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and Zika virus. The application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on the environment and human health. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools of mosquito vectors are a priority. Here single-step fabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap aqueous leaf extract of Zornia diphylla as reducing and capping agent pf Ag(+) ions has been carried out. Biosynthesized AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The acute toxicity of Z. diphylla leaf extract and biosynthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Both the Z. diphylla leaf extract and Ag NP showed dose dependent larvicidal effect against all tested mosquito species. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 values of 12.53, 13.42 and 14.61μg/ml, respectively. Biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Chironomus circumdatus, Anisops bouvieri and Gambusia affinis, with the respective LC50 values ranging from 613.11 to 6903.93μg/ml, if compared to target mosquitoes. Overall, our results highlight that Z. diphylla-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target organisms.

  3. Agro-ecosystems impact malaria prevalence: large-scale irrigation drives vector population in western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Development strategies in Ethiopia have largely focused on the expansion of irrigated agriculture in the last decade to reduce poverty and promote economic growth. However, such irrigation schemes can worsen the socio-economic state by aggravating the problem of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, the effect of agro-ecosystem practices on malaria prevalence and the risk of malaria transmission by the primary vector mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis, in Ethiopia were investigated. Methods In three villages in western Ethiopia practising large-scale sugarcane irrigation, traditional smallholder irrigation and non-irrigated farming, cross-sectional parasitological surveys were conducted during the short rains, after the long rains and during the dry season. Entomological surveys were undertaken monthly (February 2010-January 2011) in each village using light traps, pyrethrum spray collections and artificial pit shelters. Results Malaria prevalence and the risk of transmission by An. arabiensis assessed by the average human biting rate, mean sporozoite rate and estimated annual entomological inoculation rate were significantly higher in the irrigated sugarcane agro-ecosystem compared to the traditionally irrigated and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. The average human biting rate was significantly elevated by two-fold, while the mean sporozoite rate was 2.5-fold higher, and the annual entomological inoculation rate was 4.6 to 5.7-fold higher in the irrigated sugarcane compared to the traditional and non-irrigated agro-ecosystems. Active irrigation clearly affected malaria prevalence by increasing the abundance of host seeking Anopheles mosquitoes year-round and thus increasing the risk of infective bites. The year-round presence of sporozoite-infected vectors due to irrigation practices was found to strengthen the coupling between rainfall and risk of malaria transmission, both on- and off-season. Conclusion This study demonstrates the negative impact of

  4. Impact of urban agriculture on malaria vectors in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Eveline; McCall, Pj; Wilson, Michael D; Amerasinghe, Felix P; Donnelly, Martin J

    2008-08-04

    To investigate the impact of urban agriculture on malaria transmission risk in urban Accra larval and adult stage mosquito surveys, were performed. Local transmission was implicated as Anopheles spp. were found breeding and infected Anopheles mosquitoes were found resting in houses in the study sites. The predominant Anopheles species was Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The relative proportion of molecular forms within a subset of specimens was 86% S-form and 14% M-form. Anopheles spp. and Culex quinquefasciatus outdoor biting rates were respectively three and four times higher in areas around agricultural sites (UA) than in areas far from agriculture (U). The annual Entomological Inoculation Rate (EIR), the number of infectious bites received per individual per year, was 19.2 and 6.6 in UA and U sites, respectively. Breeding sites were highly transitory in nature, which poses a challenge for larval control in this setting. The data also suggest that the epidemiological importance of urban agricultural areas may be the provision of resting sites for adults rather than an increased number of larval habitats. Host-seeking activity peaked between 2-3 am, indicating that insecticide-treated bednets should be an effective control method.

  5. Eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene from Plectranthus barbatus essential oil as eco-friendly larvicides against malaria, dengue and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Bhattacharyya, Atanu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Eco-friendly mosquitocides are a priority. In Ayurvedic medicine, Plectranthus species have been used to treat heart disease, convulsions, spasmodic pain and painful urination. In this research, we evaluated the acute toxicity of essential oil from Plectranthus barbatus and its major constituents, against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of P. barbatus essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Nineteen components were identified. Major constituents were eugenol (31.12%), α-pinene (19.38%) and β-caryophyllene (18.42%). Acute toxicity against early third-instar larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus was investigated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 84.20, 87.25 and 94.34 μg/ml and 90% lethal concentration (LC90) values of 165.25, 170.56 and 179.58 μg/ml, respectively. Concerning major constituents, eugenol, α-pinene and β-caryophyllene appeared to be most effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 25.45, 32.09 and 41.66 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 28.14, 34.09 and 44.77 μg/ml, respectively) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 30.80, 36.75 and 48.17 μg/ml, respectively). Overall, the chance to use metabolites from P. barbatus essential oil against mosquito vectors seems promising, since they are effective at low doses and could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools.

  6. Use of GIS-based spatial modeling approach to characterize the spatial patterns of malaria mosquito vector breeding habitats in northwestern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Liu, Gang-Jun; Jones, James W; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2003-09-01

    We sampled 291 bodies of water for Anopheles larvae around three malaria-endemic villages of Ban Khun Huay, Ban Pa Dae, and Ban Tham Seau, Mae Sot district, Tak Province, Thailand during August 2001-December 2002 and collected 4,387 larvae from 12 categories of breeding habitat types. We modeled surface slope and wetness indices to identify the extent and spatial pattern of potential mosquito breeding habitats by digitizing base topographical maps of the study site and overlaying them with coordinates for each larval habitat. Topographical contours and streamlines were incorporated into the Geographical Information System (GIS). We used Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments to locate accurately each field observed breeding habitat, and produced a 30-m spatial resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The slope (of less than 12 degrees) and wetness (more than 8 units) derived from spatial modeling were positively associated with the abundance of major malaria vectors An. dirus, An. maculatus, An. minimus, and An. sawadwongporni. These associations permit real-time monitoring and possibly forecasting of the distributions of these four species, enabling public health agencies to institute control measures before the mosquitos emerge as adults and transmit disease.

  7. Implementation of the global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors: progress, challenges and the way forward.

    PubMed

    Mnzava, Abraham P; Knox, Tessa B; Temu, Emmanuel A; Trett, Anna; Fornadel, Christen; Hemingway, Janet; Renshaw, Melanie

    2015-04-23

    In recent years, there has been an increase in resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides, particularly to pyrethroids which are widely used in insecticide-treated nets. The Global Plan for Insecticide Resistance Management in malaria vectors (GPIRM), released in May 2012, is a collective strategy for the malaria community to tackle this challenge. This review outlines progress made to date and the challenges experienced in the implementation of GPIRM, and outlines focus areas requiring urgent attention. Whilst there has been some advancement, uptake of GPIRM at the national level has generally been poor for various reasons, including limited availability of vector control tools with new mechanisms of action as well as critical financial, human and infrastructural resource deficiencies. There is an urgent need for a global response plan to address these deficits and ensure the correct and efficient use of available tools in order to maintain the effectiveness of current vector control efforts whilst novel vector control tools are under development. Emphasis must be placed on enhancing national capacities (such as human and infrastructural resources) to enable efficient monitoring and management of insecticide resistance, and to support availability and accessibility of appropriate new vector control products. Lack of action by the global community to address the threat of insecticide resistance is unacceptable and deprives affected communities of their basic right of universal access to effective malaria prevention. Aligning efforts and assigning the needed resources will ensure the optimal implementation of GPIRM with the ultimate goal of maintaining effective malaria vector control.

  8. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia-Yun; Zhou, Shui-Sen; Zheng, Xiang; Huang, Fang; Wang, Duo-Quan; Shen, Yu-Zu; Su, Yun-Pu; Zhou, Guang-Chao; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Jing-Jing

    2012-07-09

    Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005-2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site.About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and 5.8621 (mosquitoes

  9. Vector capacity of Anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in China with high incidence. With the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. Despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central China during 2005–2007. In order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of An. sinensis in Huanghuai valley of central China was investigated. Findings The study was undertaken in two sites, namely Huaiyuan county of Anhui province and Yongcheng county of Henan province. In each county, malaria cases were recorded for recent years, and transmission risk factors for each study village including anti-mosquito facilities and total number of livestock were recorded by visiting each household in the study sites. The specimens of mosquitoes were collected in two villages, and population density and species in each study site were recorded after the identification of different species, and the blood-fed mosquitoes were tested by ring precipitation test. Finally, various indicators were calculated to estimate vector capacity or dynamics, including mosquito biting rate (MBR), human blood index (HBI), and the parous rates (M). Finally, the vector capacity, as an important indicator of malaria transmission to predict the potential recurrence of malaria, was estimated and compared in each study site. About 93.0% of 80 households in Huaiyuan and 89.3% of 192 households in Yongcheng had anti-mosquito facilities. No cattle or pigs were found, only less than 10 sheep were found in each study village. A total of 94 and 107 Anopheles spp. mosquitos were captured in two study sites, respectively, and all of An. sinensis were morphologically identified. It was found that mosquito blood-feeding peak was between 9:00 pm and 12:00 pm. Man biting rate of An. sinensis was 6.0957 and

  10. High-throughput sorting of mosquito larvae for laboratory studies and for future vector control interventions.

    PubMed

    Marois, Eric; Scali, Christina; Soichot, Julien; Kappler, Christine; Levashina, Elena A; Catteruccia, Flaminia

    2012-08-28

    Mosquito transgenesis offers new promises for the genetic control of vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Genetic control strategies require the release of large number of male mosquitoes into field populations, whether they are based on the use of sterile males (sterile insect technique, SIT) or on introducing genetic traits conferring refractoriness to disease transmission (population replacement). However, the current absence of high-throughput techniques for sorting different mosquito populations impairs the application of these control measures. A method was developed to generate large mosquito populations of the desired sex and genotype. This method combines flow cytometry and the use of Anopheles gambiae transgenic lines that differentially express fluorescent markers in males and females. Fluorescence-assisted sorting allowed single-step isolation of homozygous transgenic mosquitoes from a mixed population. This method was also used to select wild-type males only with high efficiency and accuracy, a highly desirable tool for genetic control strategies where the release of transgenic individuals may be problematic. Importantly, sorted males showed normal mating ability compared to their unsorted brothers. The developed method will greatly facilitate both laboratory studies of mosquito vectorial capacity requiring high-throughput approaches and future field interventions in the fight against infectious disease vectors.

  11. Malaria vector populations across ecological zones in Guinea Conakry and Mali, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Boubacar; Kone, Raymond; Barry, Mamadou S; Emerson, Becky; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Niare, Oumou; Beavogui, Abdoul H; Traore, Sekou F; Vernick, Kenneth D; Riehle, Michelle M

    2016-04-08

    Malaria remains a pervasive public health problem in sub-Saharan West Africa. Here mosquito vector populations were explored across four sites in Mali and the Republic of Guinea (Guinea Conakry). The study samples the major ecological zones of malaria-endemic regions in West Africa within a relatively small distance. Mosquito vectors were sampled from larval pools, adult indoor resting sites, and indoor and outdoor human-host seeking adults. Mosquitoes were collected at sites spanning 350 km that represented arid savannah, humid savannah, semi-forest and deep forest ecological zones, in areas where little was previously known about malaria vector populations. 1425 mosquito samples were analysed by molecular assays to determine species, genetic attributes, blood meal sources and Plasmodium infection status. Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii were the major anophelines represented in all collections across the ecological zones, with A. coluzzii predominant in the arid savannah and A. gambiae in the more humid sites. The use of multiple collection methodologies across the sampling sites allows assessment of potential collection bias of the different methods. The L1014F kdr insecticide resistance mutation (kdr-w) is found at high frequency across all study sites. This mutation appears to have swept almost to fixation, from low frequencies 6 years earlier, despite the absence of widespread insecticide use for vector control. Rates of human feeding are very high across ecological zones, with only small fractions of animal derived blood meals in the arid and humid savannah. About 30 % of freshly blood-fed mosquitoes were positive for Plasmodium falciparum presence, while the rate of mosquitoes with established infections was an order of magnitude lower. The study represents detailed vector characterization from an understudied area in West Africa with endemic malaria transmission. The deep forest study site includes the epicenter of the 2014 Ebola virus epidemic

  12. The Value of Information in Decision-Analytic Modeling for Malaria Vector Control in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyeong; Brown, Zachary; Anderson, Richard; Mutero, Clifford; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Wiener, Jonathan; Kramer, Randall

    2016-03-23

    Decision analysis tools and mathematical modeling are increasingly emphasized in malaria control programs worldwide to improve resource allocation and address ongoing challenges with sustainability. However, such tools require substantial scientific evidence, which is costly to acquire. The value of information (VOI) has been proposed as a metric for gauging the value of reduced model uncertainty. We apply this concept to an evidenced-based Malaria Decision Analysis Support Tool (MDAST) designed for application in East Africa. In developing MDAST, substantial gaps in the scientific evidence base were identified regarding insecticide resistance in malaria vector control and the effectiveness of alternative mosquito control approaches, including larviciding. We identify four entomological parameters in the model (two for insecticide resistance and two for larviciding) that involve high levels of uncertainty and to which outputs in MDAST are sensitive. We estimate and compare a VOI for combinations of these parameters in evaluating three policy alternatives relative to a status quo policy. We find having perfect information on the uncertain parameters could improve program net benefits by up to 5-21%, with the highest VOI associated with jointly eliminating uncertainty about reproductive speed of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and initial efficacy of larviciding at reducing the emergence of new adult mosquitoes. Future research on parameter uncertainty in decision analysis of malaria control policy should investigate the VOI with respect to other aspects of malaria transmission (such as antimalarial resistance), the costs of reducing uncertainty in these parameters, and the extent to which imperfect information about these parameters can improve payoffs.

  13. Multiple Insecticide Resistance: An Impediment to Insecticide-Based Malaria Vector Control Program

    PubMed Central

    Steurbaut, Walter; Spanoghe, Pieter; Van Bortel, Wim; Denis, Leen; Tessema, Dejene A.; Getachew, Yehenew; Coosemans, Marc; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko

    2011-01-01

    Background Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are key components in malaria prevention and control strategy. However, the development of resistance by mosquitoes to insecticides recommended for IRS and/or ITNs/LLINs would affect insecticide-based malaria vector control. We assessed the susceptibility levels of Anopheles arabiensis to insecticides used in malaria control, characterized basic mechanisms underlying resistance, and evaluated the role of public health use of insecticides in resistance selection. Methodology/Principal findings Susceptibility status of An. arabiensis was assessed using WHO bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and propoxur in Ethiopia from August to September 2009. Mosquito specimens were screened for knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (ace-1R) mutations using AS-PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. DDT residues level in soil from human dwellings and the surrounding environment were determined by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detector. An. arabiensis was resistant to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and malathion, but susceptible to propoxur. The West African kdr allele was found in 280 specimens out of 284 with a frequency ranged from 95% to 100%. Ace-1R mutation was not detected in all specimens scored for the allele. Moreover, DDT residues were found in soil samples from human dwellings but not in the surrounding environment. Conclusion The observed multiple-resistance coupled with the occurrence of high kdr frequency in populations of An. arabiensis could profoundly affect the malaria vector control programme in Ethiopia. This needs an urgent call for implementing rational resistance management strategies and integrated vector control intervention. PMID:21264325

  14. Agent-based modeling of malaria vectors: the importance of spatial simulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The modeling of malaria vector mosquito populations yields great insight into drivers of malaria transmission at the village scale. Simulation of individual mosquitoes as “agents” in a distributed, dynamic model domain may be greatly beneficial for simulation of spatial relationships of vectors and hosts. Methods In this study, an agent-based model is used to simulate the life cycle and movement of individual malaria vector mosquitoes in a Niger Sahel village, with individual simulated mosquitoes interacting with their physical environment as well as humans. Various processes that are known to be epidemiologically important, such as the dependence of parity on flight distance between developmental habitat and blood meal hosts and therefore spatial relationships of pools and houses, are readily simulated using this modeling paradigm. Impacts of perturbations can be evaluated on the basis of vectorial capacity, because the interactions between individuals that make up the population- scale metric vectorial capacity can be easily tracked for simulated mosquitoes and human blood meal hosts, without the need to estimate vectorial capacity parameters. Results As expected, model results show pronounced impacts of pool source reduction from larvicide application and draining, but with varying degrees of impact depending on the spatial relationship between pools and human habitation. Results highlight the importance of spatially-explicit simulation that can model individuals such as in an agent-based model. Conclusions The impacts of perturbations on village scale malaria transmission depend on spatial locations of individual mosquitoes, as well as the tracking of relevant life cycle events and characteristics of individual mosquitoes. This study demonstrates advantages of using an agent-based approach for village-scale mosquito simulation to address questions in which spatial relationships are known to be important. PMID:24992942

  15. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  16. Comparative efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum extracts alone and in combination with a synthetic pyrethroid, cypermethrin, against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Lalit; Sharma, Preeti; Srivastava, C N

    2007-03-01

    With a goal of minimal application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of cypermethrin was studied alone and in combination with the root extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against anopheline larvae. Petroleum ether extract was observed to be the most toxic, with LC,, of 1.41 and 0.93 ppm and LC90 of 16.94 and 8.48 ppm at 24 and 48 hours after application, respectively, followed by carbon tetrachloride and methanol extracts. The values for cypermethrin were an LC50 of 0.0369 ppm after 24 hours and 0.0096 ppm after 48 hours and LC90 of 0.0142 and 0.0091 ppm after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. The ratios of cypermethrin and petroleum ether extracts tested were 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4. Of the various ratios tested, the cypermethrin and petroleum ether extract ratio of 1:1 was observed to be more efficient than the other combinations. From the individual efficacy of each constituent, synergism was noted. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi.

  17. High effective coverage of vector control interventions in children after achieving low malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Formerly a high malaria transmission area, Zanzibar is now targeting malaria elimination. A major challenge is to avoid resurgence of malaria, the success of which includes maintaining high effective coverage of vector control interventions such as bed nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). In this study, caretakers' continued use of preventive measures for their children is evaluated, following a sharp reduction in malaria transmission. Methods A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted in June 2009 in North A and Micheweni districts in Zanzibar. Households were randomly selected using two-stage cluster sampling. Interviews were conducted with 560 caretakers of under-five-year old children, who were asked about perceptions on the malaria situation, vector control, household assets, and intention for continued use of vector control as malaria burden further decreases. Results Effective coverage of vector control interventions for under-five children remains high, although most caretakers (65%; 363/560) did not perceive malaria as presently being a major health issue. Seventy percent (447/643) of the under-five children slept under a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and 94% (607/643) were living in houses targeted with IRS. In total, 98% (628/643) of the children were covered by at least one of the vector control interventions. Seasonal bed-net use for children was reported by 25% (125/508) of caretakers of children who used bed nets. A high proportion of caretakers (95%; 500/524) stated that they intended to continue using preventive measures for their under-five children as malaria burden further reduces. Malaria risk perceptions and different perceptions of vector control were not found to be significantly associated with LLIN effective coverage. Conclusions While the majority of caretakers felt that malaria had been reduced in Zanzibar, effective coverage of vector control interventions remained high. Caretakers appreciated the

  18. Behaviour and molecular identification of Anopheles malaria vectors in Jayapura district, Papua province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandy; Supratman, Sukowati; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Bretz, David; Mueller, John; Miller, Helen Catherine; Baharuddin, Amirullah; Shinta; Surya, Asik; Ngai, Michelle; Laihad, Ferdinand; Syafruddin, Din; Hawley, William A; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F

    2016-04-08

    Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group dominate Papua, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea (PNG), with a geographic range that extends south through Vanuatu. An. farauti and An. punctulatus are the presumed major vectors in this region. Although this group of species has been extensively studied in PNG and the southern archipelagoes within their range, their distribution, ecology and vector behaviours have not been well characterized in eastern Indonesia. Mosquitoes were collected in five villages in Jayapura province, Papua, Indonesia using human-landing collections, animal-baited tents and backpack aspirators. Mosquitoes were morphologically typed and then molecularly distinguished based on ribosomal ITS2 sequences and tested for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infection using circumsporozoite ELISA and PCR. The presence and vector status of An. farauti 4 in Papua, Indonesia is confirmed here for the first time. The data indicate that this species is entering houses at a rate that increases its potential to come into contact with humans and act as a major malaria vector. An. farauti 4 was also abundant outdoors and biting humans during early evening hours. Other species collected in this area include An. farauti 1, An. hinesorum, An. koliensis, An. punctulatus, and An. tessellatus. Proboscis morphology was highly variable within each species, lending support to the notion that this characteristic is not a reliable indicator to distinguish species within the An. punctulatus group. The vector composition in Papua, Indonesia is consistent with certain northern areas of PNG, but the behaviours of anophelines sampled in this region, such as early and indoor human biting of An. farauti 4, may enable them to act as major vectors of malaria. Presumed major vectors An. farauti and An. punctulatus were not abundant among these samples. Morphological identification of anophelines in this sample was often inaccurate, highlighting the importance of using molecular analysis

  19. Vectorial capacity and vector control: reconsidering sensitivity to parameters for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Oliver J.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Gething, Peter W.; Cohen, Justin M.; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Tusting, Lucy S.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Hay, Simon I.; Smith, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major gains have been made in reducing malaria transmission in many parts of the world, principally by scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Historically, choice of vector control intervention has been largely guided by a parameter sensitivity analysis of George Macdonald's theory of vectorial capacity that suggested prioritizing methods that kill adult mosquitoes. While this advice has been highly successful for transmission suppression, there is a need to revisit these arguments as policymakers in certain areas consider which combinations of interventions are required to eliminate malaria. Methods and Results Using analytical solutions to updated equations for vectorial capacity we build on previous work to show that, while adult killing methods can be highly effective under many circumstances, other vector control methods are frequently required to fill effective coverage gaps. These can arise due to pre-existing or developing mosquito physiological and behavioral refractoriness but also due to additive changes in the relative importance of different vector species for transmission. Furthermore, the optimal combination of interventions will depend on the operational constraints and costs associated with reaching high coverage levels with each intervention. Conclusions Reaching specific policy goals, such as elimination, in defined contexts requires increasingly non-generic advice from modelling. Our results emphasize the importance of measuring baseline epidemiology, intervention coverage, vector ecology and program operational constraints in predicting expected outcomes with different combinations of interventions. PMID:26822603

  20. Vectorial capacity and vector control: reconsidering sensitivity to parameters for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Brady, Oliver J; Godfray, H Charles J; Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Cohen, Justin M; McKenzie, F Ellis; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Tusting, Lucy S; Sinka, Marianne E; Moyes, Catherine L; Eckhoff, Philip A; Scott, Thomas W; Lindsay, Steven W; Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L

    2016-02-01

    Major gains have been made in reducing malaria transmission in many parts of the world, principally by scaling-up coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. Historically, choice of vector control intervention has been largely guided by a parameter sensitivity analysis of George Macdonald's theory of vectorial capacity that suggested prioritizing methods that kill adult mosquitoes. While this advice has been highly successful for transmission suppression, there is a need to revisit these arguments as policymakers in certain areas consider which combinations of interventions are required to eliminate malaria. Using analytical solutions to updated equations for vectorial capacity we build on previous work to show that, while adult killing methods can be highly effective under many circumstances, other vector control methods are frequently required to fill effective coverage gaps. These can arise due to pre-existing or developing mosquito physiological and behavioral refractoriness but also due to additive changes in the relative importance of different vector species for transmission. Furthermore, the optimal combination of interventions will depend on the operational constraints and costs associated with reaching high coverage levels with each intervention. Reaching specific policy goals, such as elimination, in defined contexts requires increasingly non-generic advice from modelling. Our results emphasize the importance of measuring baseline epidemiology, intervention coverage, vector ecology and program operational constraints in predicting expected outcomes with different combinations of interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector

    PubMed Central

    Pollitt, Laura C.; Bram, Joshua T.; Blanford, Simon; Jones, Matthew J.; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors. PMID:26181518

  2. Existing Infection Facilitates Establishment and Density of Malaria Parasites in Their Mosquito Vector.

    PubMed

    Pollitt, Laura C; Bram, Joshua T; Blanford, Simon; Jones, Matthew J; Read, Andrew F

    2015-07-01

    Very little is known about how vector-borne pathogens interact within their vector and how this impacts transmission. Here we show that mosquitoes can accumulate mixed strain malaria infections after feeding on multiple hosts. We found that parasites have a greater chance of establishing and reach higher densities if another strain is already present in a mosquito. Mixed infections contained more parasites but these larger populations did not have a detectable impact on vector survival. Together these results suggest that mosquitoes taking multiple infective bites may disproportionally contribute to malaria transmission. This will increase rates of mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, with implications for the evolution of parasite virulence and the spread of drug-resistant strains. Moreover, control measures that reduce parasite prevalence in vertebrate hosts will reduce the likelihood of mosquitoes taking multiple infective feeds, and thus disproportionally reduce transmission. More generally, our study shows that the types of strain interactions detected in vertebrate hosts cannot necessarily be extrapolated to vectors.

  3. Predictions of malaria vector distribution in Belize based on multispectral satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. R.; Paris, J. F.; Manguin, S.; Harbach, R. E.; Woodruff, R.; Rejmankova, E.; Polanco, J.; Wullschleger, B.; Legters, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Use of multispectral satellite data to predict arthropod-borne disease trouble spots is dependent on clear understandings of environmental factors that determine the presence of disease vectors. A blind test of remote sensing-based predictions for the spatial distribution of a malaria vector, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, was conducted as a follow-up to two years of studies on vector-environmental relationships in Belize. Four of eight sites that were predicted to be high probability locations for presence of An. pseudopunctipennis were positive and all low probability sites (0 of 12) were negative. The absence of An. pseudopunctipennis at four high probability locations probably reflects the low densities that seem to characterize field populations of this species, i.e., the population densities were below the threshold of our sampling effort. Another important malaria vector, An. darlingi, was also present at all high probability sites and absent at all low probability sites. Anopheles darlingi, like An. pseudopunctipennis, is a riverine species. Prior to these collections at ecologically defined locations, this species was last detected in Belize in 1946.

  4. Detection of 1014F kdr mutation in four major Anopheline malaria vectors in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is a serious public health problem in Indonesia, particularly in areas outside Java and Bali. The spread of resistance to the currently available anti-malarial drugs or insecticides used for mosquito control would cause an increase in malaria transmission. To better understand patterns of transmission and resistance in Indonesia, an integrated mosquito survey was conducted in three areas with different malaria endemicities, Purworejo in Central Java, South Lampung District in Sumatera and South Halmahera District in North Mollucca. Methods Mosquitoes were collected from the three areas through indoor and outdoor human landing catches (HLC) and indoor restinging catches. Specimens were identified morphologically by species and kept individually in 1.5 ml Eppendorf microtube. A fragment of the VGSC gene from 95 mosquito samples was sequenced and kdr allelic variation determined. Results The molecular analysis of these anopheline mosquitoes revealed the existence of the 1014F allele in 4 major malaria vectors from South Lampung. These species include, Anopheles sundaicus, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles vagus. The 1014F allele was not found in the other areas. Conclusion The finding documents the presence of this mutant allele in Indonesia, and implies that selection pressure on the Anopheles population in this area has occurred. Further studies to determine the impact of the resistance allele on the efficacy of pyrethroids in control programmes are needed. PMID:21054903

  5. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Parham, Paul E; Pople, Diane; Christiansen-Jucht, Céline; Lindsay, Steve; Hinsley, Wes; Michael, Edwin

    2012-08-09

    The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities.

  6. Modeling the role of environmental variables on the population dynamics of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of weather and climate on malaria transmission has attracted considerable attention in recent years, yet uncertainties around future disease trends under climate change remain. Mathematical models provide powerful tools for addressing such questions and understanding the implications for interventions and eradication strategies, but these require realistic modeling of the vector population dynamics and its response to environmental variables. Methods Published and unpublished field and experimental data are used to develop new formulations for modeling the relationships between key aspects of vector ecology and environmental variables. These relationships are integrated within a validated deterministic model of Anopheles gambiae s.s. population dynamics to provide a valuable tool for understanding vector response to biotic and abiotic variables. Results A novel, parsimonious framework for assessing the effects of rainfall, cloudiness, wind speed, desiccation, temperature, relative humidity and density-dependence on vector abundance is developed, allowing ease of construction, analysis, and integration into malaria transmission models. Model validation shows good agreement with longitudinal vector abundance data from Tanzania, suggesting that recent malaria reductions in certain areas of Africa could be due to changing environmental conditions affecting vector populations. Conclusions Mathematical models provide a powerful, explanatory means of understanding the role of environmental variables on mosquito populations and hence for predicting future malaria transmission under global change. The framework developed provides a valuable advance in this respect, but also highlights key research gaps that need to be resolved if we are to better understand future malaria risk in vulnerable communities. PMID:22877154

  7. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  8. Lethal and Pre-Lethal Effects of a Fungal Biopesticide Contribute to Substantial and Rapid Control of Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Blanford, Simon; Shi, Wangpeng; Christian, Riann; Marden, James H.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Brooke, Basil D.; Coetzee, Maureen; Read, Andrew F.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2011-01-01

    Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7–14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that ‘slow acting’ fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins. PMID:21897846

  9. Global analysis of a delayed vector-bias model for malaria transmission with incubation period in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Vargas-De-León, Cruz

    2012-01-01

    A delayed vector-bias model for malaria transmission with incubation period in mosquitoes is studied. The delay t corresponds to the time necessary for a latently infected vector to become an infectious vector. We prove that the global stability is completely determined by the threshold parameter, R₀(τ). If R₀(τ) ≥ 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. If R₀(τ) > 1 a unique endemic equilibrium exists and is globally asymptotically stable. We apply our results to Ross-MacDonald malaria models with an incubation period (extrinsic or intrinsic).

  10. Spatial changes in the distribution of malaria vectors during the past 5 decades in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Khoshdel, A; Dalaei, H; Pakdad, K; Nutifafa, G G; Sedaghat, M M

    2017-02-01

    Global warming and climate change affect various aspects of mankind, including public health. Anopheles mosquitoes are of Public Health importance and can be affected by global warming and other environmental variables. Here, we studied the distribution of Anopheles vectors of malaria in relation to environmental variables in Iran. Long-term meteorological and entomological data of about 50 years in retrospect were collected and arranged in a geo-database and analyzed using ArcGIS ver. 9.3 and exported to SPSS ver. 20 for statistical analysis. Distribution maps have been updated for seven species of Anopheles vectors of malaria which involved Anopheles culicifacies s.l., An. fluviatilis s.l., An. stephensi, An. dthali, An. sacharovi, An. maculipennis.l. and An. superpictus in Iran. Distribution maps of vectors were made based on district areas using Kriging model. Historical and recent records were demonstrated for each Anopheles based on climatic factors in the distribution areas of each Anopheles vectors. Iran, like other parts of the world is faced with warming and this probably affected the distribution of Anopheles vectors. Despite the warming phenomenon, the country's climate had changed during the cold season as temperatures became colder or cooler. This study shows that some vectors had migrated from the central part of Iran with dry and sunny landscape, moved towards the mountainous areas of the north or the warm and humid areas of the south. Historical records show that these anophelines have previously been distributed in lowland areas. If this process continues in the future, Anopheles mosquitoes may be seen in low lands with cold areas in central and northern parts of the country or will occupy humid and warm climates in the southern parts of the country where water is more available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Eco-friendly microbial route to synthesize cobalt nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria and dengue vectors.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rajakumar, Govindasamy

    2013-12-01

    The developments of resistance and persistence to chemical insecticides and concerns about the non-target effects have prompted the development of eco-friendly mosquito control agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal activities of synthesized cobalt nanoparticles (Co NPs) using bio control agent, Bacillus thuringiensis against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus and dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The synthesized Co NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis showed three distinct diffraction peaks at 27.03°, 31.00°, and 45.58° indexed to the planes 102, 122, and 024, respectively on the face-centered cubic cobalt acetate with an average size of 85.3 nm. FTIR spectra implicated role of the peak at 3,436 cm(-1) for O-H hydroxyl group, 2924 cm(-1) for methylene C-H stretch in the formation of Co NPs. FESEM analysis showed the topological and morphological appearance of NPs which were found to be spherical and oval in shape. TEM analysis showed polydispersed and clustered NPs with an average size of 84.81 nm. The maximum larvicidal mortality was observed in the cobalt acetate solution, B. thuringiensis formulation, and synthesized Co NPs against fourth instar larvae of A. subpictus and A. aegypti with LC50 values of 29.16, 8.12, 3.59 mg/L; 34.61, 6.94, and 2.87 mg/L; r (2) values of 0.986, 0.933, 0.942; 0.962, 0.957, and 0.922, respectively.

  12. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  13. Anopheles plumbeus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Europe: a mere nuisance mosquito or potential malaria vector?

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Francis; Thiéry, Isabelle; Kaufmann, Christian; Zettor, Agnès; Lengeler, Christian; Mathis, Alexander; Bourgouin, Catherine

    2012-11-26

    Anopheles plumbeus has been recognized as a minor vector for human malaria in Europe since the beginning of the 20th century. In recent years this tree hole breeding mosquito species appears to have exploited novel breeding sites, including large and organically rich man-made containers, with consequently larger mosquito populations in close vicinity to humans. This lead to investigate whether current populations of An. plumbeus would be able to efficiently transmit Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most deadly form of malaria. Anopheles plumbeus immatures were collected from a liquid manure pit in Switzerland and transferred as adults to the CEPIA (Institut Pasteur, France) where they were fed on P. falciparum gametocytes produced in vitro. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes served as controls. Development of P. falciparum in both mosquito species was followed by microscopical detection of oocysts on mosquito midguts and by sporozoite detection in the head/thorax by PCR and microscopy. A total of 293 wild An. plumbeus females from four independent collections successfully fed through a membrane on blood containing P. falciparum gametocytes. Oocysts were observed in mosquito midguts and P. falciparum DNA was detected in head-thorax samples in all four experiments, demonstrating, on a large mosquito sample, that An. plumbeus is indeed receptive to P. falciparum NF54 and able to produce sporozoites. Importantly, the proportion of sporozoites-infected An. plumbeus was almost similar to that of An. gambiae (31 to 88% An. plumbeus versus 67 to 97% An. gambiae). However, the number of sporozoites produced was significantly lower in infected An. plumbeus. The results show that a sample of field-caught An. plumbeus has a moderate to high receptivity towards P. falciparum. Considering the increased mobility of humans between Europe and malaria endemic countries and changes in environment and climate, these data strongly suggest that An. plumbeus could act as

  14. First record of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and its possible role in the resurgence of malaria in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Faulde, Michael K; Rueda, Leopoldo M; Khaireh, Bouh A

    2014-11-01

    Anopheles stephensi is an important vector of urban malaria in India and the Persian Gulf area. Its previously known geographical range includes southern Asia and the Arab Peninsula. For the first time, we report A. stephensi from the African continent, based on collections made in Djibouti, on the Horn of Africa, where this species' occurrence was linked to an unusual urban outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with 1228 cases reported from February to May 2013, and a second, more severe epidemic that emerged in November 2013 and resulted in 2017 reported malaria cases between January and February 2014. Anopheles stephensi was initially identified using morphological identification keys, followed by sequencing of the Barcode cytochrome c-oxidase I (COI) gene and the rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). Positive tests for P. falciparum circumsporozoite antigen in two of six female A. stephensi trapped in homes of malaria patients in March 2013 are evidence that autochthonous urban malaria transmission by A. stephensi has occurred. Concurrent with the second malaria outbreak, P. falciparum-positive A. stephensi females were detected in Djibouti City starting in November 2013. In sub-Saharan Africa, newly present A. stephensi may pose a significant future health threat because of this species' high susceptibility to P. falciparum infection and its tolerance of urban habitats. This may lead to increased malaria outbreaks in African cities. Rapid interruption of the urban malaria transmission cycle, based on integrated vector surveillance and control programs aimed at the complete eradication of A. stephensi from the African continent, is strongly recommended.

  15. A bibliometric analysis of literature on malaria vector resistance: (1996 - 2015).

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Sawalha, Ansam F; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Shraim, Naser Y; Abu-Taha, Adham S

    2016-11-25

    Emergence of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a real threat to future goals of elimination and control of malaria. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess research trend on insecticide resistance of Anopheles mosquito. In specific, number of publications, countries, institutions, and authors' research profile, citation analysis, international collaborations, and impact of journals publishing documents on insecticide resistance will be presented. It was conducted via Scopus search engine which was used to retrieve relevant data. Keywords used were based on literature available on this topic. The duration of study was set from 1996-2015. A total of 616 documents, mainly as original research articles (n = 569; 92.37%) were retrieved. The average number of citations per article was 26.36. Poisson log-linear regression analysis indicated that there was a 6.00% increase in the number of publications for each extra article on pyrethroid resistance. A total of 82 different countries and 1922 authors participated in publishing retrieved articles. The United Kingdom (UK) ranked first in number of publications followed by the United States of America (USA) and France. The top ten productive countries included seven African countries. The UK had collaborations mostly with Benin (relative link strength = 46). A total of 1817 institution/ organizations participated in the publication of retrieved articles. The most active institution/ organization was Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Retrieved articles were published in 134 different scientific peer reviewed journals. The journal that published most on this topic was Malaria Journal (n = 101; 16.4%). Four of the top active authors were from South Africa and two were from the UK. Three of the top ten cited articles were published in Insect Molecular Biology journal. Six articles were about pyrethroid resistance and at least two were about DDT resistance. Publications on insecticide

  16. Evidence of a multiple insecticide resistance in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Djouaka, Rousseau J; Atoyebi, Seun M; Tchigossou, Genevieve M; Riveron, Jacob M; Irving, Helen; Akoton, Romaric; Kusimo, Michael O; Bakare, Adekunle A; Wondji, Charles S

    2016-11-22

    Knowing the extent and spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is vital to successfully manage insecticide resistance in Africa. This information in the main malaria vector, Anopheles funestus sensu stricto, is completely lacking in the most populous country in Africa, Nigeria. This study reports the insecticide susceptibility status and the molecular basis of resistance of An. funestus as well as its involvement in malaria transmission in Akaka-Remo, a farm settlement village in southwest Nigeria. Plasmodium infection analysis using TaqMan protocol coupled with a nested PCR revealed an infection rate of 8% in An. funestus s.s. from Akaka-Remo. WHO susceptibility tests showed this species has developed multiple resistance to insecticides in the study area. Anopheles funestus s.s. population in Akaka-Remo is highly resistant to organochlorines: dieldrin (8%) and DDT (10%). Resistance was also observed against pyrethroids: permethrin (68%) and deltamethrin (87%), and the carbamate bendiocarb (84%). Mortality rate with DDT slightly increased (from 10 to 30%, n = 45) after PBO pre-exposure indicating that cytochrome P450s play little role in DDT resistance while high mortalities were recorded after PBO pre-exposure with permethrin (from 68 to 100%, n = 70) and dieldrin (from 8 to 100%, n = 48) suggesting the implication of P450s in the observed permethrin and dieldrin resistance. High frequencies of resistant allele, 119F in F0 (77%) and F1 (80% in resistant and 72% in susceptible) populations with an odd ratio of 1.56 (P = 0.1859) show that L119F-GSTe2 mutation is almost fixed in the population. Genotyping of the A296S-RDL mutation in both F0 and F1 samples shows an association with dieldrin resistance with an odd ratio of 81 (P < 0.0001) (allelic frequency (R) = 76% for F0; for F1, 90 and 10% were observed in resistant and susceptible populations, respectively) as this mutation is not yet fixed in the population. The study reports multiple

  17. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5–7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  18. Apparent vector-mediated parent-to-offspring transmission in an avian malaria-like parasite.

    PubMed

    Chakarov, Nayden; Linke, Burkhard; Boerner, Martina; Goesmann, Alexander; Krüger, Oliver; Hoffman, Joseph I

    2015-03-01

    Parasite transmission strategies strongly impact host-parasite co-evolution and virulence. However, studies of vector-borne parasites such as avian malaria have neglected the potential effects of host relatedness on the exchange of parasites. To test whether extended parental care in the presence of vectors increases the probability of transmission from parents to offspring, we used high-throughput sequencing to develop microsatellites for malaria-like Leucocytozoon parasites of a wild raptor population. We show that host siblings carry genetically more similar parasites than unrelated chicks both within and across years. Moreover, chicks of mothers of the same plumage morph carried more similar parasites than nestlings whose mothers were of different morphs, consistent with matrilineal transmission of morph-specific parasite strains. Ours is the first evidence of an association between host relatedness and parasite genetic similarity, consistent with vector-mediated parent-to-offspring transmission. The conditions for such 'quasi-vertical' transmission may be common and could suppress the evolution of pathogen virulence.

  19. Screening for an ivermectin slow-release formulation suitable for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Chaccour, Carlos; Barrio, Ángel; Gil Royo, Ana Gloria; Martinez Urbistondo, Diego; Slater, Hannah; Hammann, Felix; Del Pozo, Jose Luis

    2015-03-05

    The prospect of eliminating malaria is challenged by emerging insecticide resistance and vectors with outdoor and/or crepuscular activity. Ivermectin can simultaneously tackle these issues by killing mosquitoes feeding on treated animals and humans. A single oral dose, however, confers only short-lived mosquitocidal plasma levels. Three different slow-release formulations of ivermectin were screened for their capacity to sustain mosquito-killing levels of ivermectin for months. Thirty rabbits received a dose of one, two or three silicone implants containing different proportions of ivermectin, deoxycholate and sucrose. Animals were checked for toxicity and ivermectin was quantified periodically in blood. Potential impact of corresponding long-lasting formulation was mathematically modelled. All combinations of formulation and dose released ivermectin for more than 12 weeks; four combinations sustained plasma levels capable of killing 50% of Anopheles gambiae feeding on a treated subject for up to 24 weeks. No major adverse effects attributable to the drug were found. Modelling predicts a 98% reduction in infectious vector density by using an ivermectin formulation with a 12-week duration. These results indicate that relatively stable mosquitocidal plasma levels of ivermectin can be safely sustained in rabbits for up to six months using a silicone-based subcutaneous formulation. Modifying the formulation of ivermectin promises to be a suitable strategy for malaria vector control.

  20. Exogenous gypsy insulator sequences modulate transgene expression in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Carballar-Lejarazú, Rebeca; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A

    2013-04-30

    Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles, and these insects are the targets of innovative vector control programs. Proposed approaches include the use of genetic strategies based on transgenic mosquitoes to suppress or modify vector populations. Although substantial advances have been made in engineering resistant mosquito strains, limited efforts have been made in refining mosquito transgene expression, in particular attenuating the effects of insertions sites, which can result in variations in phenotypes and impacts on fitness due to the random integration of transposon constructs. A promising strategy to mitigate position effects is the identification of insulator or boundary DNA elements that could be used to isolate transgenes from the effects of their genomic environment. We applied quantitative approaches that show that exogenous insulator-like DNA derived from the Drosophila melanogaster gypsy retrotransposon can increase and stabilize transgene expression in transposon-mediated random insertions and recombinase-catalyzed, site-specific integrations in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. These sequences can contribute to precise expression of transgenes in mosquitoes engineered for both basic and applied goals.

  1. Bottlenecks and multiple introductions: Population genetics of the vector of avian malaria in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonseca, Dina M.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2000-01-01

    Avian malaria has had a profound impact on the demographics and behaviour of Hawaiian forest birds since its vector, Culex quinquefasciatusthe southern house mosquito, was first introduced to Hawaii around 1830. In order to understand the dynamics of the disease in Hawaii and gain insights into the evolution of vector-mediated parasite–host interactions in general we studied the population genetics of Cx. quinquefasciatus in the Hawaiian Islands. We used both microsatellite and mitochondrial loci. Not surprisingly we found that mosquitoes in Midway, a small island in the Western group, are quite distinct from the populations in the main Hawaiian Islands. However, we also found that in general mosquito populations are relatively isolated even among the main islands, in particular between Hawaii (the Big Island) and the remaining Hawaiian Islands. We found evidence of bottlenecks among populations within the Big Island and an excess of alleles in Maui, the site of the original introduction. The mitochondrial diversity was typically low but higher than expected. The current distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes combined with the microsatellite information lead us to conclude that there have been several introductions and to speculate on some processes that may be responsible for the current population genetics of vectors of avian malaria in Hawaii.

  2. Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomic Analysis of Salivary Glands of Urban Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sonam

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes. PMID:25126571

  3. Zoom in at African country level: potential climate induced changes in areas of suitability for survival of malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predicting anopheles vectors’ population densities and boundary shifts is crucial in preparing for malaria risks and unanticipated outbreaks. Although shifts in the distribution and boundaries of the major malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis) across Africa have been predicted, quantified areas of absolute change in zone of suitability for their survival have not been defined. In this study, we have quantified areas of absolute change conducive for the establishment and survival of these vectors, per African country, under two climate change scenarios and based on our findings, highlight practical measures for effective malaria control in the face of changing climatic patterns. Methods We developed a model using CLIMEX simulation platform to estimate the potential geographical distribution and seasonal abundance of these malaria vectors in relation to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity). The model yielded an eco-climatic index (EI) describing the total favourable geographical locations for the species. The EI values were classified and exported to a GIS package. Using ArcGIS, the EI shape points were clipped to the extent of Africa and then converted to a raster layer using Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method. Generated maps were then transformed into polygon-based geo-referenced data set and their areas computed and expressed in square kilometers (km2). Results Five classes of EI were derived indicating the level of survivorship of these malaria vectors. The proportion of areas increasing or decreasing in level of survival of these malaria vectors will be more pronounced in eastern and southern African countries than those in western Africa. Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa and Zambia appear most likely to be affected in terms of absolute change of malaria vectors suitability zones under the selected climate change scenarios. Conclusion The potential shifts of

  4. Neem cake as a promising larvicide and adulticide against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae): a HPTLC fingerprinting approach.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Higuchi, Akon; Toniolo, Chiara; Canale, Angelo; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-05-01

    Mosquitoes are insects of huge public health importance, since they act as vectors for important pathogens and parasites. Here, we focused on the possibility of using the neem cake in the fight against mosquito vectors. The neem cake chemical composition significantly changes among producers, as evidenced by our HPTLC (High performance thin layer chromatography) analyses of different marketed products. Neem cake extracts were tested to evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies. Ovicidal activity of both types of extracts was statistically significant, and 150 ppm completely inhibited egg hatching. LC50 values were extremely low against fourth instar larvae, ranging from 1.321 (NM1) to 1.818 ppm (NA2). Adulticidal activity was also high, with LC50 ranging from 3.015 (NM1) to 3.637 ppm (NM2). This study pointed out the utility of neem cake as a source of eco-friendly mosquitocides in Anopheline vector control programmes.

  5. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Prosper P; Dongus, Stefan; Fillinger, Ulrike; Kelly, Ann; Killeen, Gerry F

    2011-09-28

    Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community participation, particularly to improve access to

  6. Monitoring Malaria Vector Control Interventions: Effectiveness of Five Different Adult Mosquito Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Onyango, Shirley A.; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H.; Mutuku, Francis M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods—light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps—in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed. PMID:24180120

  7. Monitoring malaria vector control interventions: effectiveness of five different adult mosquito sampling methods.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Shirley A; Kitron, Uriel; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M; Kokwaro, Elizabeth; King, Charles H; Mutuku, Francis M

    2013-09-01

    Long-term success of ongoing malaria control efforts based on mosquito bed nets (long-lasting insecticidal net) and indoor residual spraying is dependent on continuous monitoring of mosquito vectors, and thus on effective mosquito sampling tools. The objective of our study was to identify the most efficient mosquito sampling tool(s) for routine vector surveillance for malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission in coastal Kenya. We evaluated relative efficacy of five collection methods--light traps associated with a person sleeping under a net, pyrethrum spray catches, Prokopack aspirator, clay pots, and urine-baited traps--in four villages representing three ecological settings along the south coast of Kenya. Of the five methods, light traps were the most efficient for collecting female Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles funestus (Giles) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes, whereas the Prokopack aspirator was most efficient in collecting Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) and other culicines. With the low vector densities here, and across much of sub-Saharan Africa, wherever malaria interventions, long-lasting insecticidal nets, and/or indoor residual spraying are in place, the use of a single mosquito collection method will not be sufficient to achieve a representative sample of mosquito population structure. Light traps will remain a relevant tool for host-seeking mosquitoes, especially in the absence of human landing catches. For a fair representation of the indoor mosquito population, light traps will have to be supplemented with aspirator use, which has potential for routine monitoring of indoor resting mosquitoes, and can substitute the more labor-intensive and intrusive pyrethrum spray catches. There are still no sufficiently efficient mosquito collection methods for sampling outdoor mosquitoes, particularly those that are bloodfed.

  8. Zoophagic behaviour of anopheline mosquitoes in southwest Ethiopia: opportunity for malaria vector control.

    PubMed

    Massebo, Fekadu; Balkew, Meshesha; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2015-12-18

    Increased understanding of the feeding behaviours of malaria vectors is important to determine the frequency of human-vector contact and to implement effective vector control interventions. Here we assess the relative feeding preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes in relation to cattle and human host abundance in southwest Ethiopia. We collected female Anopheles mosquitoes bi-weekly using Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches (PSCs) and by aspirating from artificial pit shelters, and determined mosquito blood meal origins using a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both Anopheles arabiensis Patton and An. marshalli (Theobald) showed preference of bovine blood meal over humans regardless of higher human population sizes. The relative feeding preference of An. arabiensis on bovine blood meal was 4.7 times higher than that of human blood. Anopheles marshalli was 6 times more likely to feed on bovine blood meal than humans. The HBI of An. arabiensis and An. marshalli significantly varied between the collection methods, whereas the bovine feeding patterns was not substantially influenced by collection methods. Even though the highest HBI of An. arabiensis and An. marshalli was from indoor CDC traps collections, a substantial number of An. arabiensis (65%) and An. marshalli (63%) had contact with cattle. Anopheles arabiensis (44%) and An. marshalli (41%) had clearly taken bovine blood meals outdoors, but they rested indoors. Anopheles mosquitoes are zoophagic and mainly feed on bovine blood meals than humans. Hence, it is important to consider treatment of cattle with appropriate insecticide to control the zoophagic malaria vectors in southwest Ethiopia. Systemic insecticides like ivermectin and its member eprinomectin could be investigated to control the pyrethroid insecticides resistant vectors.

  9. Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years.

    PubMed

    Mwangangi, Joseph M; Mbogo, Charles M; Orindi, Benedict O; Muturi, Ephantus J; Midega, Janet T; Nzovu, Joseph; Gatakaa, Hellen; Githure, John; Borgemeister, Christian; Keating, Joseph; Beier, John C

    2013-01-08

    Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have investigated the ecology and behaviour of malaria vectors and Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Substantial progress has been made to control vector populations and reduce high malaria prevalence and severe disease. The goal of this paper was to examine trends over the past 20 years in Anopheles species composition, density, blood-feeding behaviour, and P. falciparum sporozoite transmission along the coast of Kenya. Using data collected from 1990 to 2010, vector density, species composition, blood-feeding patterns, and malaria transmission intensity was examined along the Kenyan coast. Mosquitoes were identified to species, based on morphological characteristics and DNA extracted from Anopheles gambiae for amplification. Using negative binomial generalized estimating equations, mosquito abundance over the period were modelled while adjusting for season. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyse the sporozoite rates. Results show that in some areas along the Kenyan coast, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles merus have replaced An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus as the major mosquito species. Further, there has been a shift from human to animal feeding for both An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (99% to 16%) and An. funestus (100% to 3%), and P. falciparum sporozoite rates have significantly declined over the last 20 years, with the lowest sporozoite rates being observed in 2007 (0.19%) and 2008 (0.34%). There has been, on average, a significant reduction in the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. over the years (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), with the density standing at low levels of an average 0.006 mosquitoes/house in the year 2010. Reductions in the densities of the major malaria vectors and a shift from human to animal feeding have contributed to the decreased burden of malaria along the Kenyan coast. Vector species composition remains heterogeneous but in

  10. Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have investigated the ecology and behaviour of malaria vectors and Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Substantial progress has been made to control vector populations and reduce high malaria prevalence and severe disease. The goal of this paper was to examine trends over the past 20 years in Anopheles species composition, density, blood-feeding behaviour, and P. falciparum sporozoite transmission along the coast of Kenya. Methods Using data collected from 1990 to 2010, vector density, species composition, blood-feeding patterns, and malaria transmission intensity was examined along the Kenyan coast. Mosquitoes were identified to species, based on morphological characteristics and DNA extracted from Anopheles gambiae for amplification. Using negative binomial generalized estimating equations, mosquito abundance over the period were modelled while adjusting for season. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyse the sporozoite rates. Results Results show that in some areas along the Kenyan coast, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles merus have replaced An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus as the major mosquito species. Further, there has been a shift from human to animal feeding for both An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (99% to 16%) and An. funestus (100% to 3%), and P. falciparum sporozoite rates have significantly declined over the last 20 years, with the lowest sporozoite rates being observed in 2007 (0.19%) and 2008 (0.34%). There has been, on average, a significant reduction in the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. over the years (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98), with the density standing at low levels of an average 0.006 mosquitoes/house in the year 2010. Conclusion Reductions in the densities of the major malaria vectors and a shift from human to animal feeding have contributed to the decreased burden of malaria along the Kenyan coast. Vector species

  11. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    ... common?Malaria is a health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries, including portions of Central and ... these countries. If you are traveling to a tropical area or to a country where malaria is ...

  12. Malaria Vector Surveillance in Ganghwa-do, a Malaria-Endemic Area in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Suck; Hur, Myung Je; Joo, Gwang Sig; Kim, Sung Tae; Go, Jong Myoung; Kim, Yong Hee; Lee, Wook Gyo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the seasonality of Anopheles mosquitoes, including its species composition, density, parity, and population densities of mosquitoes infected with the parasite in Ganghwa-do (Island), a vivax malaria endemic area in the Republic of Korea. Mosquitoes were collected periodically with a dry-ice-tent trap and a blacklight trap during the mosquito season (April-October) in 2008. Anopheles sinensis (94.9%) was the most abundant species collected, followed by Anopheles belenrae (3.8%), Anopheles pullus (1.2%), and Anopheles lesteri (0.1%). Hibernating Anopheles mosquitoes were also collected from December 2007 to March 2008. An. pullus (72.1%) was the most frequently collected, followed by An. sinensis (18.4%) and An. belenrae (9.5%). The composition of Anopheles species differed between the mosquito season and hibernation seasons. The parous rate fluctuated from 0% to 92.9%, and the highest rate was recorded on 10 September 2008. Sporozoite infections were detected by PCR in the head and thorax of female Anopheles mosquitoes. The annual sporozoite rate of mosquitoes was 0.11% (2 of 1,845 mosquitoes). The 2 mosquitoes that tested positive for sporozoites were An. sinensis. Malarial infections in anopheline mosquitoes from a population pool were also tried irrespective of the mosquito species. Nine of 2,331 pools of Anopheles mosquitoes were positive. From our study, it can be concluded that An. sinensis, which was the predominant vector species and confirmed as sporozoite-infected, plays an important role in malaria transmission in Ganghwa-do. PMID:20333283

  13. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  14. Malaria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    appearance of dark urine after an acute attack of falciparum malaria. Other complications include gastroenteritis in children, pulmonary edema, severe...placental malaria on mothers and neonates from Zaire. Z Parasitenkd 1986;72:57-64. 12. Kean BH, Smith JA. Death due to estivo-autumnal malaria: a

  15. Malaria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupasquier, Isabelle

    1989-01-01

    Malaria, the greatest pandemia in the world, claims an estimated one million lives each year in Africa alone. While it may still be said that for the most part malaria is found in what is known as the world's poverty belt, cases are now frequently diagnosed in western countries. Due to resistant strains of malaria which have developed because of…

  16. Malaria

    MedlinePlus

    Malaria is a serious disease caused by a parasite. You get it when an infected mosquito bites you. Malaria is a major cause of death worldwide, but ... at risk. There are four different types of malaria caused by four related parasites. The most deadly ...

  17. Fitness consequences of larval exposure to Beauveria bassiana on adults of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Vogels, Chantal B F; Bukhari, Tullu; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M

    2014-06-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have shown to be effective in biological control of both larval and adult stages of malaria mosquitoes. However, a small fraction of mosquitoes is still able to emerge after treatment with fungus during the larval stage. It remains unclear whether fitness of these adults is affected by the treatment during the larval stage and whether they are still susceptible for another treatment during the adult stage. Therefore, we tested the effects of larval exposure to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on fitness of surviving Anopheles stephensi females. Furthermore, we tested whether larval exposed females were still susceptible to re-exposure to the fungus during the adult stage. Sex ratio, survival and reproductive success were compared between non-exposed and larval exposed A. stephensi. Comparisons were also made between survival of non-exposed and larval exposed females that were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage. Larval treatment did not affect sex ratio of emerging mosquitoes. Larval exposed females that were infected died significantly faster and laid equal numbers of eggs from which equal numbers of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females that were uninfected had equal survival, but laid a significantly larger number of eggs from which a significantly higher number of larvae hatched, compared to non-exposed females. Larval exposed females which were re-exposed to B. bassiana during the adult stage had equal survival as females exposed only during the adult stage. Our results suggest that individual consequences for fitness of larval exposed females depended on whether a fungal infection was acquired during the larval stage. Larval exposed females remained susceptible to re-exposure with B. bassiana during the adult stage, indicating that larval and adult control of malaria mosquitoes with EF are compatible.

  18. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns) and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell) with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality) and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood) was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern). However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell) was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control. PMID:22284012

  19. Eave Screening and Push-Pull Tactics to Reduce House Entry by Vectors of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Menger, David J.; Omusula, Philemon; Wouters, Karlijn; Oketch, Charles; Carreira, Ana S.; Durka, Maxime; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Loy, Dorothy E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Mweresa, Collins K.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem; Hiscox, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a decline in malaria over the last decade, but progress is threatened by the development of physiological and behavioral resistance of mosquitoes against insecticides. Acknowledging the need for alternative vector control tools, we quantified the effects of eave screening in combination with a push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of a repellent (push) and attractant-baited traps (pull). Field experiments in western Kenya showed that eave screening, whether used in combination with an attractant-baited trap or not, was highly effective in reducing house entry by malaria mosquitoes. The magnitude of the effect varied for different mosquito species and between two experiments, but the reduction in house entry was always considerable (between 61% and 99%). The use of outdoor, attractant-baited traps alone did not have a significant impact on mosquito house entry but the high number of mosquitoes trapped outdoors indicates that attractant-baited traps could be used for removal trapping, which would enhance outdoor as well as indoor protection against mosquito bites. As eave screening was effective by itself, addition of a repellent was of limited value. Nevertheless, repellents may play a role in reducing outdoor malaria transmission in the peridomestic area. PMID:26834195

  20. An Integrated Genetic and Physical Map for the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus

    PubMed Central

    Wondji, Charles S.; Hunt, Richard H.; Pignatelli, Patricia; Steen, Keith; Coetzee, Maureen; Besansky, Nora; Lobo, Neil; Collins, Frank H.; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed a genetic map of the major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus, using genetic markers segregating in F2 progeny from crosses between two strains colonized from different field sites. Genotyping was performed on 174 progeny from three families using 33 microsatellite markers, a single RFLP, and 15 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. Four linkage groups were resolved and these were anchored to chromosomes X and 2 and chromosomal arms 3R and 3L by comparison with a physical map of this species. Five markers were linked to the X chromosome, 16 markers to chromosome 2, and 10 and 11 markers to chromosomal arms 3R and 3L, respectively. This significantly increases the number of chromosomally defined genetic markers for this species and will facilitate the identification of genes controlling epidemiologically important traits such as resistance to insecticides or vector competence. PMID:16143619

  1. Vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. Methods In two rural villages - Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon - in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003 - 2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons

  2. Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Kathryn N.; Kain, Kevin C.; Keystone, Jay S.

    2004-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection of global importance. Although relatively uncommon in developed countries, where the disease occurs mainly in travellers who have returned from endemic regions, it remains one of the most prevalent infections of humans worldwide. In endemic regions, malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and creates enormous social and economic burdens. Current efforts to control malaria focus on reducing attributable morbidity and mortality. Targeted chemoprophylaxis and use of insecticide-treated bed nets have been successful in some endemic areas. For travellers to malaria-endemic regions, personal protective measures and appropriate chemoprophylaxis can significantly reduce the risk of infection. Prompt evaluation of the febrile traveller, a high degree of suspicion of malaria, rapid and accurate diagnosis, and appropriate antimalarial therapy are essential in order to optimize clinical outcomes of infected patients. Additional approaches to malaria control, including genetic manipulation of mosquitoes and malaria vaccines, are areas of ongoing research. PMID:15159369

  3. Multipurpose effectiveness of Couroupita guianensis-synthesized gold nanoparticles: high antiplasmodial potential, field efficacy against malaria vectors and synergy with Aplocheilus lineatus predators.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. According to recent estimates, about 3.2 billion people, almost half of the world's population, are at risk of malaria. Malaria control is particularly challenging due to a growing number of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium and pesticide-resistant Anopheles vectors. Newer and safer control tools are required. In this research, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were biosynthesized using a cheap flower extract of Couroupita guianensis as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biofabrication of AuNP was confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, and particle size analysis. AuNP showed different shapes including spheres, ovals, and triangles. AuNPs were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry; mean size was 29.2-43.8 nm. In laboratory conditions, AuNPs were toxic against Anopheles stephensi larvae, pupae, and adults. LC50 was 17.36 ppm (larva I), 19.79 ppm (larva II), 21.69 ppm (larva III), 24.57 ppm (larva IV), 28.78 ppm (pupa), and 11.23 ppm (adult). In the field, a single treatment with C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP (10 × LC50) led to complete larval mortality after 72 h. In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of golden wonder killifish, Aplocheilus lineatus, against A. stephensi IV instar larvae was 56.38 %, while in an aquatic environment treated with sub-lethal doses of the flower extract or AuNP, predation efficiency was boosted to 83.98 and 98.04 %, respectively. Lastly, the antiplasmodial activity of C. guianensis flower extract and AuNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. IC50 of C. guianensis flower extract was 43.21 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 51.16 μg/ml (CQ-r). AuNP IC50 was 69.47 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 76

  4. Ecologists can enable communities to implement malaria vector control in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mukabana, W Richard; Kannady, Khadija; Kiama, G Michael; Ijumba, Jasper N; Mathenge, Evan M; Kiche, Ibrahim; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Mboera, Leonard; Mtasiwa, Deo; Yamagata, Yoichi; van Schayk, Ingeborg; Knols, Bart GJ; Lindsay, Steven W; de Castro, Marcia Caldas; Mshinda, Hassan; Tanner, Marcel; Fillinger, Ulrike; Killeen, Gerry F

    2006-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management (IVM) for malaria control requires ecological skills that are very scarce and rarely applied in Africa today. Partnerships between communities and academic ecologists can address this capacity deficit, modernize the evidence base for such approaches and enable future scale up. Methods Community-based IVM programmes were initiated in two contrasting settings. On Rusinga Island, Western Kenya, community outreach to a marginalized rural community was achieved by University of Nairobi through a community-based organization. In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Ilala Municipality established an IVM programme at grassroots level, which was subsequently upgraded and expanded into a pilot scale Urban Malaria Control Programme with support from national academic institutes. Results Both programmes now access relevant expertise, funding and policy makers while the academic partners benefit from direct experience of community-based implementation and operational research opportunities. The communities now access up-to-date malaria-related knowledge and skills for translation into local action. Similarly, the academic partners have acquired better understanding of community needs and how to address them. Conclusion Until sufficient evidence is provided, community-based IVM remains an operational research activity. Researchers can never directly support every community in Africa so community-based IVM strategies and tactics will need to be incorporated into undergraduate teaching programmes to generate sufficient numbers of practitioners for national scale programmes. Academic ecologists at African institutions are uniquely positioned to enable the application of practical environmental and entomological skills for malaria control by communities at grassroots level and should be supported to fulfil this neglected role. PMID:16457724

  5. Distinct Olfactory Signaling Mechanisms in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Jones, Patrick L.; Wang, Guirong; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is the principal Afrotropical vector for human malaria, in which olfaction mediates a wide range of both adult and larval behaviors. Indeed, mosquitoes depend on the ability to respond to chemical cues for feeding, host preference, and mate location/selection. Building upon previous work that has characterized a large family of An. gambiae odorant receptors (AgORs), we now use behavioral analyses and gene silencing to examine directly the role of AgORs, as well as a newly identified family of candidate chemosensory genes, the An. gambiae variant ionotropic receptors (AgIRs), in the larval olfactory system. Our results validate previous studies that directly implicate specific AgORs in behavioral responses to DEET as well as other odorants and reveal the existence of at least two distinct olfactory signaling pathways that are active in An. gambiae. One system depends directly on AgORs; the other is AgOR-independent and requires the expression and activity of AgIRs. In addition to clarifying the mechanistic basis for olfaction in this system, these advances may ultimately enhance the development of vector control strategies, targeting olfactory pathways in mosquitoes to reduce the catastrophic effects of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:20824161

  6. On the efficacy of malaria DNA vaccination with magnetic gene vectors.

    PubMed

    Nawwab Al-Deen, Fatin; Ma, Charles; Xiang, Sue D; Selomulya, Cordelia; Plebanski, Magdalena; Coppel, Ross L

    2013-05-28

    We investigated the efficacy and types of immune responses from plasmid malaria DNA vaccine encoding VR1020-PyMSP119 condensed on the surface of polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated SPIONs. In vivo mouse studies were done firstly to determine the optimum magnetic vector composition, and then to observe immune responses elicited when magnetic vectors were introduced via different administration routes. Higher serum antibody titers against PyMSP119 were observed with intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections than subcutaneous and intradermal injections. Robust IgG2a and IgG1 responses were observed for intraperitoneal administration, which could be due to the physiology of peritoneum as a major reservoir of macrophages and dendritic cells. Heterologous DNA prime followed by single protein boost vaccination regime also enhanced IgG2a, IgG1, and IgG2b responses, indicating the induction of appropriate memory immunity that can be elicited by protein on recall. These outcomes support the possibility to design superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based DNA vaccines to optimally evoke desired antibody responses, useful for a variety of diseases including malaria.

  7. A standard photomap of ovarian nurse cell chromosomes in the European malaria vector Anopheles atroparvus.

    PubMed

    Artemov, G N; Sharakhova, M V; Naumenko, A N; Karagodin, D A; Baricheva, E M; Stegniy, V N; Sharakhov, I V

    2015-09-01

    Anopheles atroparvus (Diptera: Culicidae) is one of the main malaria vectors of the Maculipennis group in Europe. Cytogenetic analysis based on salivary gland chromosomes has been used in taxonomic and population genetic studies of mosquitoes from this group. However, a high-resolution cytogenetic map that could be used in physical genome mapping in An. atroparvus is still lacking. In the present study, a high-quality photomap of the polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of An. atroparvus was developed. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, 10 genes from the five largest genomic supercontigs on the polytene chromosome were localized and 28% of the genome was anchored to the cytogenetic map. The study established chromosome arm homology between An. atroparvus and the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, suggesting a whole-arm translocation between autosomes of these two species. The standard photomap constructed for ovarian nurse cell chromosomes of An. atroparvus will be useful for routine physical mapping. This map will assist in the development of a fine-scale chromosome-based genome assembly for this species and will also facilitate comparative and evolutionary genomics studies in the genus Anopheles. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. New repellent effective against African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: implications for vector control.

    PubMed

    Hodson, C N; Yu, Y; Plettner, E; Roitberg, B D

    2016-12-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector for Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. Current control strategies to reduce the impact of malaria focus on reducing the frequency of mosquito attacks on humans, thereby decreasing Plasmodium transmission. A need for new repellents effective against Anopheles mosquitoes has arisen because of changes in vector behaviour as a result of control strategies and concern over the health impacts of current repellents. The response of A. gambiae to potential repellents was investigated through an electroantennogram screen and the most promising of these candidates (1-allyloxy-4-propoxybenzene, 3c{3,6}) chosen for behavioural testing. An assay to evaluate the blood-host seeking behaviour of A. gambiae towards a simulated host protected with this repellent was then performed. The compound 3c{3,6} was shown to be an effective repellent, causing mosquitoes to reduce their contact with a simulated blood-host and probe less at the host odour. Thus, 3c{3,6} may be an effective repellent for the control of A. gambiae. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. Stable chromosomal inversion polymorphisms and insecticide resistance in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brooke, B D; Hunt, R H; Chandre, F; Carnevale, P; Coetzee, M

    2002-07-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles has been implicated as a major vector of malaria in Africa. A number of paracentric chromosomal inversions have been observed as polymorphisms in wild and laboratory populations of this species. These polymorphisms have been used to demonstrate the existence of five reproductive units in West African populations that are currently described as incipient species. They have also been correlated with various behavioral characteristics such as adaptation to aridity and feeding preference and have been associated with insecticide resistance. Two paracentric inversions namely 2La and 2Rb are highly ubiquitous in the wild and laboratory populations sampled. Both inversions are easily conserved during laboratory colonization of wild material and one shows significant positive heterosis with respect to Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Inversion 2La has previously been associated with dieldrin resistance and inversion 2Rb shows an association with DDT resistance based on this study. The stability and maintenance of these inversions as polymorphisms provides an explanation for the transmission and continued presence of DDT and dieldrin resistance in a laboratory strain of An. gambiae in the absence of insecticide selection pressure. This effect may also be operational in wild populations. Stable inversion polymorphism also provides a possible mechanism for the continual inheritance of suitable genetic factors that otherwise compromise the fitness of genetically modified malaria vector mosquitoes.

  10. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures.

    PubMed

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E; Walker, Edward D

    2014-06-06

    Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts.

  11. Cow-baited tents are highly effective in sampling diverse Anopheles malaria vectors in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Brandyce; Oy, Kolthida; Miller, Becky; Gasteiger, Elizabeth B; Lee, Eunjae; Sovannaroth, Siv; Gwadz, Robert W; Anderson, Jennifer M; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2016-08-30

    The accurate monitoring and evaluation of malaria vectors requires efficient sampling. The objective of this study was to compare methods for sampling outdoor-biting Anopheles mosquitoes in Cambodia. In the Cambodian provinces of Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, six different mosquito trapping methods were evaluated: human landing collection (HLC), human-baited tent (HBT), cow-baited tent (CBT), CDC miniature light trap (LT), CDC miniature light trap baited with molasses and yeast (LT-M), and barrier fence (F) in a Latin square design during four or six consecutive nights at the height of the malaria transmission season. Using all traps, a total of 507, 1175, and 615 anophelines were collected in Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri, respectively. CBTs captured 10- to 20-fold more anophelines per night than the other five sampling methods. All 2297 Anopheles mosquitoes were morphologically identified and molecularly typed using standard morphological keys and sequencing the rDNA ITS2 region to distinguish cryptic species, respectively. Overall, an extremely diverse set of 27 known Anopheles species was sampled. CBTs captured the same molecular species that HLCs and the other four traps did, as well as additional species. Nine specimens representing five Anopheles species (Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles barbirostris sensu stricto, Anopheles barbirostris clade III, Anopheles nivipes, and Anopheles peditaeniatus) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and were exclusively captured in CBTs. These data indicate that cow-baited tents are highly effective in sampling diverse Anopheles malaria vectors in Cambodia. This sampling method captured high numbers of anophelines with limited sampling effort and greatly reduced human exposure to mosquito bites compared to the gold-standard human landing collection.

  12. Modeling larval malaria vector habitat locations using landscape features and cumulative precipitation measures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Predictive models of malaria vector larval habitat locations may provide a basis for understanding the spatial determinants of malaria transmission. Methods We used four landscape variables (topographic wetness index [TWI], soil type, land use-land cover, and distance to stream) and accumulated precipitation to model larval habitat locations in a region of western Kenya through two methods: logistic regression and random forest. Additionally, we used two separate data sets to account for variation in habitat locations across space and over time. Results Larval habitats were more likely to be present in locations with a lower slope to contributing area ratio (i.e. TWI), closer to streams, with agricultural land use relative to nonagricultural land use, and in friable clay/sandy clay loam soil and firm, silty clay/clay soil relative to friable clay soil. The probability of larval habitat presence increased with increasing accumulated precipitation. The random forest models were more accurate than the logistic regression models, especially when accumulated precipitation was included to account for seasonal differences in precipitation. The most accurate models for the two data sets had area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.864 and 0.871, respectively. TWI, distance to the nearest stream, and precipitation had the greatest mean decrease in Gini impurity criteria in these models. Conclusions This study demonstrates the usefulness of random forest models for larval malaria vector habitat modeling. TWI and distance to the nearest stream were the two most important landscape variables in these models. Including accumulated precipitation in our models improved the accuracy of larval habitat location predictions by accounting for seasonal variation in the precipitation. Finally, the sampling strategy employed here for model parameterization could serve as a framework for creating predictive larval habitat models to assist in larval control efforts. PMID:24903736

  13. Efficacy of Aquatain, a Monomolecular Film, for the Control of Malaria Vectors in Rice Paddies

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Tullu; Takken, Willem; Githeko, Andrew K.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Rice paddies harbour a large variety of organisms including larvae of malaria mosquitoes. These paddies are challenging for mosquito control because their large size, slurry and vegetation make it difficult to effectively apply a control agent. Aquatain, a monomolecular surface film, can be considered a suitable mosquito control agent for such breeding habitats due to its physical properties. The properties allow Aquatain to self-spread over a water surface and affect multiple stages of the mosquito life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings A trial based on a pre-test/post-test control group design evaluated the potential of Aquatain as a mosquito control agent at Ahero rice irrigation scheme in Kenya. After Aquatain application at a dose of 2 ml/m2 on rice paddies, early stage anopheline larvae were reduced by 36%, and late stage anopheline larvae by 16%. However, even at a lower dose of 1 ml/m2 there was a 93.2% reduction in emergence of anopheline adults and 69.5% reduction in emergence of culicine adults. No pupation was observed in treated buckets that were part of a field bio-assay carried out parallel to the trial. Aquatain application saved nearly 1.7 L of water in six days from a water surface of 0.2 m2 under field conditions. Aquatain had no negative effect on rice plants as well as on a variety of non-target organisms, except backswimmers. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that Aquatain is an effective agent for the control of anopheline and culicine mosquitoes in irrigated rice paddies. The agent reduced densities of aquatic larval stages and, more importantly, strongly impacted the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Aquatain also reduced water loss due to evaporation. No negative impacts were found on either abundance of non-target organisms, or growth and development of rice plants. Aquatain, therefore, appears a suitable mosquito control tool for use in rice agro-ecosystems. PMID:21738774

  14. Assessment of mosquito larval productivity among different land use types for targeted malaria vector control in the western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Kweka, Eliningaya J; Munga, Stephen; Himeidan, Yousif; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guyuin

    2015-07-05

    Mosquito larval source management (LSM) is likely to be more effective when adequate information such as dominant species, seasonal abundance, type of productive habitat, and land use type are available for targeted sites. LSM has been an effective strategy for reducing malaria morbidity in both urban and rural areas in Africa where sufficient proportions of larval habitats can be targeted. In this study, we conducted longitudinal larval source surveillance in the western Kenya highlands, generating data which can be used to establish cost-effective targeted intervention tools. One hundred and twenty-four (124) positive larval habitats were monitored weekly and sampled for mosquito larvae over the 85-week period from 28 July 2009 to 3 March 2011. Two villages in the western Kenya highlands, Mbale and Iguhu, were included in the study. After preliminary sampling, habitats were classified into four types: hoof prints (n = 21; 17 % of total), swamps (n = 32; 26%), abandoned goldmines (n = 35; 28%) and drainage ditches (n = 36; 29%). Positive habitats occurred in two land use types: farmland (66) and pasture (58). No positive larval habitats occurred in shrub land or forest. A total of 46,846 larvae were sampled, of which 44.1% (20,907) were from abandoned goldmines, 30.9% (14,469) from drainage ditches, 22.4% (10,499) from swamps and 2.1% (971) from hoof prints. In terms of land use types, 57.2% (26,799) of the sampled larvae were from pasture and 42.8% (20,047) were from farmland. Of the specimens identified morphologically, 24,583 (52.5%) were Anopheles gambiae s.l., 11,901 (25.4%) were Culex quinquefasciatus, 5628 (12%) were An. funestus s.l. and 4734 (10.1%) were other anopheline species (An. coustani, An. squamosus, An. ziemanni or An. implexus). Malaria vector dynamics varied seasonally, with An.gambiae s.s. dominating during wet season and An.arabiensis during dry season. An increased proportion of An. arabiensis was observed compared to

  15. Is the current decline in malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa due to a decrease in vector population?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum has historically been a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. Recent reports indicate a pronounced decline in infection and disease rates which are commonly ascribed to large-scale bed net programmes and improved case management. However, the decline has also occurred in areas with limited or no intervention. The present study assessed temporal changes in Anopheline populations in two highly malaria-endemic communities of NE Tanzania during the period 1998-2009. Methods Between 1998 and 2001 (1st period) and between 2003 and 2009 (2nd period), mosquitoes were collected weekly in 50 households using CDC light traps. Data on rainfall were obtained from the nearby climate station and were used to analyze the association between monthly rainfall and malaria mosquito populations. Results The average number of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus per trap decreased by 76.8% and 55.3%, respectively over the 1st period, and by 99.7% and 99.8% over the 2nd period. During the last year of sampling (2009), the use of 2368 traps produced a total of only 14 Anopheline mosquitoes. With the exception of the decline in An. gambiae during the 1st period, the results did not reveal any statistical association between mean trend in monthly rainfall and declining malaria vector populations. Conclusion A longitudinal decline in the density of malaria mosquito vectors was seen during both study periods despite the absence of organized vector control. Part of the decline could be associated with changes in the pattern of monthly rainfall, but other factors may also contribute to the dramatic downward trend. A similar decline in malaria vector densities could contribute to the decrease in levels of malaria infection reported from many parts of SSA. PMID:21752273

  16. Design of a Two-level Adaptive Multi-Agent System for Malaria Vectors driven by an ontology

    PubMed Central

    Koum, Guillaume; Yekel, Augustin; Ndifon, Bengyella; Etang, Josiane; Simard, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Background The understanding of heterogeneities in disease transmission dynamics as far as malaria vectors are concerned is a big challenge. Many studies while tackling this problem don't find exact models to explain the malaria vectors propagation. Methods To solve the problem we define an Adaptive Multi-Agent System (AMAS) which has the property to be elastic and is a two-level system as well. This AMAS is a dynamic system where the two levels are linked by an Ontology which allows it to function as a reduced system and as an extended system. In a primary level, the AMAS comprises organization agents and in a secondary level, it is constituted of analysis agents. Its entry point, a User Interface Agent, can reproduce itself because it is given a minimum of background knowledge and it learns appropriate "behavior" from the user in the presence of ambiguous queries and from other agents of the AMAS in other situations. Results Some of the outputs of our system present a series of tables, diagrams showing some factors like Entomological parameters of malaria transmission, Percentages of malaria transmission per malaria vectors, Entomological inoculation rate. Many others parameters can be produced by the system depending on the inputted data. Conclusion Our approach is an intelligent one which differs from statistical approaches that are sometimes used in the field. This intelligent approach aligns itself with the distributed artificial intelligence. In terms of fight against malaria disease our system offers opportunities of reducing efforts of human resources who are not obliged to cover the entire territory while conducting surveys. Secondly the AMAS can determine the presence or the absence of malaria vectors even when specific data have not been collected in the geographical area. In the difference of a statistical technique, in our case the projection of the results in the field can sometimes appeared to be more general. PMID:17605778

  17. The bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands: issues for successful vector control.

    PubMed

    Bugoro, Hugo; Hii, Jeffery L; Butafa, Charles; Iro'ofa, Charlie; Apairamo, Allen; Cooper, Robert D; Chen, Cheng-Chen; Russell, Tanya L

    2014-02-15

    The north coast of Guadalcanal has some of the most intense malaria transmission in the Solomon Islands. And, there is a push for intensified vector control in Guadalcanal, to improve the livelihood of residents and to minimize the number of cases, which are regularly exported to the rest of the country. Therefore, the bionomics of the target vector, Anopheles farauti, was profiled in 2007-08; which was after 20 years of limited surveillance during which time treated bed nets (ITNs) were distributed in the area. In three villages on northern Guadalcanal, blood-seeking female mosquitoes were caught using hourly human landing catches by four collectors, two working indoors and two outdoors, from 18.00-06.00 for at least two nights per month from July 2007 to June 2008. The mosquitoes were counted, identified using morphological and molecular markers and dissected to determine parity. Seasonality in vector densities was similar in the three villages, with a peak at the end of the drier months (October to December) and a trough at the end of the wetter months (March to May). There was some variability in endophagy (indoor biting) and nocturnal biting (activity during sleeping hours) both spatially and temporally across the longitudinal dataset. The general biting pattern was consistent throughout all sample collections, with the majority of biting occurring outdoors (64%) and outside of sleeping hours (65%). Peak biting was 19.00-20.00. The proportion parous across each village ranged between 0.54-0.58. Parity showed little seasonal trend despite fluctuations in vector densities over the year. The early, outdoor biting behaviour of An. farauti documented 20 years previously on north Guadalcanal was still exhibited. It is possible that bed net use may have maintained this biting profile though this could not be determined unequivocally. The longevity of these populations has not changed despite long-term ITN use. This early, outdoor biting behaviour led to the failure

  18. Overwintering of Anopheles Lindesayi Japonicus Larvae in the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    instars. and by the end of April, pupae were collected. This is the first report of An. lindesClyi JClponicus overwintering as larvae in the ROK. KEY ...egg), Culex pipiens n7.olestus Forskal (egg, larvae, pupa , and adults), Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) (egg), and Aedes togoi (Theobald) (egg and larvae) (Hong...mostly on the adult resting sites of 2 primary vectors, Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann (malaria) and Culex tritaeniorhvnchus Giles (Japanese

  19. Investigations on the role of a lysozyme from the malaria vector Anopheles dirus during malaria parasite development.

    PubMed

    Lapcharoen, Parichat; Komalamisra, Narumon; Rongsriyam, Yupha; Wangsuphachart, Voranuch; Dekumyoy, Paron; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kajla, Mayur K; Paskewitz, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a lysozyme was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR) from females of the malaria vector Anopheles dirus A (Diptera: Culicidae). The 623 bp lysozyme (AdLys c-1) cDNA encodes the 120 amino acid mature protein with a predicted molecular mass of 13.4 kDa and theoretical pI of 8.45. Six cysteine residues and a potential calcium binding motif that are present in AdLys c-1 are highly conserved relative to those of c-type lysozymes found in other insects. RT-PCR analysis of the AdLys c-1 transcript revealed its presence at high levels in the salivary glands both in larval and adult stages and in the larval caecum. dsRNA mediated gene knockdown experiments were conducted to examine the potential role of this lysozyme during Plasmodium berghei infection. Silencing of AdLys c-1 resulted in a significant reduction in the number of oocysts as compared to control dsGFP injected mosquitoes.

  20. Developing an evidence-based decision support system for rational insecticide choice in the control of African malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael; Sharp, Brian; Seocharan, Ishen; Hemingway, Janet

    2006-07-01

    The emergence of Anopheles species resistant to insecticides widely used in vector control has the potential to impact directly on the control of malaria. This may have a particularly dramatic effect in Africa, where pyrethroids impregnated onto bed-nets are the dominant insecticides used for vector control. Because the same insecticides are used for crop pests, the extensive use and misuse of insecticides for agriculture has contributed to the resistance problem in some vectors. The potential for resistance to develop in African vectors has been apparent since the 1950s, but the scale of the problem has been poorly documented. A geographical information system-based decision support system for malaria control has recently been established in Africa and used operationally in Mozambique. The system incorporates climate data and disease transmission rates, but to date it has not incorporated spatial or temporal data on vector abundance or insecticide resistance. As a first step in incorporating this information, available published data on insecticide resistance in Africa has now been collated and incorporated into this decision support system. Data also are incorporated onto the openly available Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa (MARA) Web site (http://www.mara.org.za). New data, from a range of vector population-monitoring initiatives, can now be incorporated into this open access database to allow a spatial understanding of resistance distribution and its potential impact on disease transmission to benefit vector control programs.

  1. Design of a study to determine the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria vector control: a multi-country investigation.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Bashir, Adam Ismail; Bigoga, Jude; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Kouambeng, Celestin; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Njagi, Kiambo; Muthami, Lawrence; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Bradley, John; West, Philippa; Massougbodji, Achile; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Hounto, Aurore; Elmardi, Khalid; Valecha, Neena; Kamau, Luna; Mathenge, Evan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2015-07-22

    Progress in reducing the malaria disease burden through the substantial scale up of insecticide-based vector control in recent years could be reversed by the widespread emergence of insecticide resistance. The impact of insecticide resistance on the protective effectiveness of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is not known. A multi-country study was undertaken in Sudan, Kenya, India, Cameroon and Benin to quantify the potential loss of epidemiological effectiveness of ITNs and IRS due to decreased susceptibility of malaria vectors to insecticides. The design of the study is described in this paper. Malaria disease incidence rates by active case detection in cohorts of children, and indicators of insecticide resistance in local vectors were monitored in each of approximately 300 separate locations (clusters) with high coverage of malaria vector control over multiple malaria seasons. Phenotypic and genotypic resistance was assessed annually. In two countries, Sudan and India, clusters were randomly assigned to receive universal coverage of ITNs only, or universal coverage of ITNs combined with high coverage of IRS. Association between malaria incidence and insecticide resistance, and protective effectiveness of vector control methods and insecticide resistance were estimated, respectively. Cohorts have been set up in all five countries, and phenotypic resistance data have been collected in all clusters. In Sudan, Kenya, Cameroon and Benin data collection is due to be completed in 2015. In India data collection will be completed in 2016. The paper discusses challenges faced in the design and execution of the study, the analysis plan, the strengths and weaknesses, and the possible alternatives to the chosen study design.

  2. Using the entomological inoculation rate to assess the impact of vector control on malaria parasite transmission and elimination.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Ayesha M; Breman, Joel G; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2010-05-12

    Prior studies have shown that annual entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) must be reduced to less than one to substantially reduce the prevalence of malaria infection. In this study, EIR values were used to quantify the impact of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and source reduction (SR) on malaria transmission. The analysis of EIR was extended through determining whether available vector control tools can ultimately eradicate malaria. The analysis is based primarily on a review of all controlled studies that used ITN, IRS, and/or SR and reported their effects on the EIR. To compare EIRs between studies, the percent difference in EIR between the intervention and control groups was calculated. Eight vector control intervention studies that measured EIR were found: four ITN studies, one IRS study, one SR study, and two studies with separate ITN and IRS intervention groups. In both the Tanzania study and the Solomon Islands study, one community received ITNs and one received IRS. In the second year of the Tanzania study, EIR was 90% lower in the ITN community and 93% lower in the IRS community, relative to the community without intervention; the ITN and IRS effects were not significantly different. In contrast, in the Solomon Islands study, EIR was 94% lower in the ITN community and 56% lower in the IRS community. The one SR study, in Dar es Salaam, reported a lower EIR reduction (47%) than the ITN and IRS studies. All of these vector control interventions reduced EIR, but none reduced it to zero. These studies indicate that current vector control methods alone cannot ultimately eradicate malaria because no intervention sustained an annual EIR less than one. While researchers develop new tools, integrated vector management may make the greatest impact on malaria transmission. There are many gaps in the entomological malaria literature and recommendations for future research are provided.

  3. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Methods Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. Results A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies

  4. Chlorfenapyr: a new insecticide with novel mode of action can control pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Barik, Tapan K; Sharma, Poonam; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Srivastava, Harish C; Sreehari, Uragayala; Dash, Aditya P

    2011-01-25

    Malaria vectors have acquired widespread resistance to many of the currently used insecticides, including synthetic pyrethroids. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop alternative insecticides for effective management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. In the present study, chlorfenapyr was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi for its possible use in vector control. Efficacy of chlorfenapyr against An. culicifacies and An. stephensi was assessed using adult bioassay tests. In the laboratory, determination of diagnostic dose, assessment of residual activity on different substrates, cross-resistance pattern with different insecticides and potentiation studies using piperonyl butoxide were undertaken by following standard procedures. Potential cross-resistance patterns were assessed on field populations of An. culicifacies. A dose of 5.0% chlorfenapyr was determined as the diagnostic concentration for assessing susceptibility applying the WHO tube test method in anopheline mosquitoes with 2 h exposure and 48 h holding period. The DDT-resistant/malathion-deltamethrin-susceptible strain of An. culicifacies species C showed higher LD50 and LD99 (0.67 and 2.39% respectively) values than the DDT-malathion-deltamethrin susceptible An. culicifacies species A (0.41 and 2.0% respectively) and An. stephensi strains (0.43 and 2.13% respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in mortalities among the three mosquito species tested (p > 0.05). Residual activity of chlorfenapyr a.i. of 400 mg/m2 on five fabricated substrates, namely wood, mud, mud+lime, cement and cement + distemper was found to be effective up to 24 weeks against An. culicifacies and up to 34 weeks against An. stephensi. No cross-resistance to DDT, malathion, bendiocarb and deltamethrin was observed with chlorfenapyr in laboratory-reared strains of An. stephensi and field-caught An. culicifacies. Potentiation studies demonstrated the antagonistic

  5. Resting behaviour, ecology and genetics of malaria vectors in large scale agricultural areas of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Githeko, A K; Service, M W; Mbogo, C M; Atieli, F K

    1996-12-01

    In Kenya indoor and outdoor resting densities of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus at the Ahero rice irrigation scheme, and Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and An. funestus at the Miwani sugar belt were assessed for 13 months by pyrethrum spray collections in houses and granaries. The vector's house leaving behaviour was evaluated with exit traps and it was noted that early exophily (i.e., deliberate) was not detected in any of the vectors. Assortative indoor/outdoor resting behaviour was studied by a capture-mark-release-recapture method and showed that in An. arabiensis both indoor and outdoor resting traits were present in the same individuals. Samples of half-gravid female An. gambiae s.l. were chromosomally identified either as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or An. arabiensis and in a subsample chromosomal inversions were read. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had the 2Rb inversion but in addition the 2La inversion was found in An. gambiae s.s. and this is an indication of low chromosomal variation. At Ahero An. arabiensis was most abundant when the rice crop was immature and An. funestus when the crop was mature. This succession of vectors facilitated the transmission of malaria throughout the year. At Miwani, An. gambiae s.l. population peaked during the long rains but the proportion of An. arabiensis was highest during the dry season. The indoor resting density of males of the three vector species was less than half of the females.

  6. High malaria transmission in a forested malaria focus in French Guiana: How can exophagic Anopheles darlingi thwart vector control and prevention measures?

    PubMed Central

    Vezenegho, Samuel B; Adde, Antoine; de Santi, Vincent Pommier; Issaly, Jean; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain; Briolant, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    In French Guiana, malaria vector control and prevention relies on indoor residual spraying and distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets. These measures are based on solid epidemiological evidence but reveal a poor understanding of the vector. The current study investigated the behaviour of both vectors and humans in relation to the ongoing prevention strategies. In 2012 and 2013, Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled outdoors at different seasons and in various time slots. The collected mosquitoes were identified and screened for Plasmodium infection. Data on human behaviour and malaria episodes were obtained from an interview. A total of 3,135 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected, of which Anopheles darlingi was the predominant species (96.2%). For the December 2012-February 2013 period, the Plasmodium vivax infection rate for An. darlingi was 7.8%, and the entomological inoculation rate was 35.7 infective bites per person per three-month span. In spite of high bednet usage (95.7%) in 2012 and 2013, 52.2% and 37.0% of the participants, respectively, had at least one malaria episode. An. darlingi displayed heterogeneous biting behaviour that peaked between 20:30 and 22:30; however, 27.6% of the inhabitants were not yet protected by bednets by 21:30. The use of additional individual and collective protective measures is required to limit exposure to infective mosquito bites and reduce vector densities. PMID:27653361

  7. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4%) while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day). Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly to infection with P

  8. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems.

    PubMed

    Bayoh, M Nabie; Akhwale, Willis; Ombok, Maurice; Sang, David; Engoki, Sammy C; Koros, Dan; Walker, Edward D; Williams, Holly A; Burke, Heather; Armstrong, Gregory L; Cetron, Martin S; Weinberg, Michelle; Breiman, Robert; Hamel, Mary J

    2011-06-04

    Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4%) while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day). Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly to infection with P. falciparum and showed a hyperendemic age

  9. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad. Methods A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors) and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA. Results Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night), An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n), An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n) and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n). The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5%) and An. pharoensis (12.2%). Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening. Conclusion The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria transmission in the

  10. Environmental factors associated with the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Hemingway, Janet; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2009-11-26

    The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquito species complexes are the primary vectors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. To better understand the environmental factors influencing these species, the abundance, distribution and transmission data from a south-eastern Kenyan study were retrospectively analysed, and the climate, vegetation and elevation data in key locations compared. Thirty villages in Malindi, Kilifi and Kwale Districts with data on An. gambiae sensu strict, Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus entomological inoculation rates (EIRs), were used as focal points for spatial and environmental analyses. Transmission patterns were examined for spatial autocorrelation using the Moran's I statistic, and for the clustering of high or low EIR values using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Environmental data were derived from remote-sensed satellite sources of precipitation, temperature, specific humidity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and elevation. The relationship between transmission and environmental measures was examined using bivariate correlations, and by comparing environmental means between locations of high and low clustering using the Mann-Whitney U test. Spatial analyses indicated positive autocorrelation of An. arabiensis and An. funestus transmission, but not of An. gambiae s.s., which was found to be widespread across the study region. The spatial clustering of high EIR values for An. arabiensis was confined to the lowland areas of Malindi, and for An. funestus to the southern districts of Kilifi and Kwale. Overall, An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis had similar spatial and environmental trends, with higher transmission associated with higher precipitation, but lower temperature, humidity and NDVI measures than those locations with lower transmission by these species and/or in locations where transmission by An. funestus was high. Statistical comparisons indicated that precipitation and temperatures

  11. Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2016-05-01

    The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention and control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, and RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America and the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades and became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) and chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective and eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations and even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps and the

  12. Field evaluation of picaridin repellents reveals differences in repellent sensitivity between Southeast Asian vectors of malaria and arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Van Roey, Karel; Sokny, Mao; Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-12-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1-97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  13. Field Evaluation of Picaridin Repellents Reveals Differences in Repellent Sensitivity between Southeast Asian Vectors of Malaria and Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Denis, Leen; Van den Broeck, Nick; Heng, Somony; Siv, Sovannaroth; Sluydts, Vincent; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Durnez, Lies

    2014-01-01

    Scaling up of insecticide treated nets has contributed to a substantial malaria decline. However, some malaria vectors, and most arbovirus vectors, bite outdoors and in the early evening. Therefore, topically applied insect repellents may provide crucial additional protection against mosquito-borne pathogens. Among topical repellents, DEET is the most commonly used, followed by others such as picaridin. The protective efficacy of two formulated picaridin repellents against mosquito bites, including arbovirus and malaria vectors, was evaluated in a field study in Cambodia. Over a period of two years, human landing collections were performed on repellent treated persons, with rotation to account for the effect of collection place, time and individual collector. Based on a total of 4996 mosquitoes collected on negative control persons, the overall five hour protection rate was 97.4% [95%CI: 97.1–97.8%], not decreasing over time. Picaridin 20% performed equally well as DEET 20% and better than picaridin 10%. Repellents performed better against Mansonia and Culex spp. as compared to aedines and anophelines. A lower performance was observed against Aedes albopictus as compared to Aedes aegypti, and against Anopheles barbirostris as compared to several vector species. Parity rates were higher in vectors collected on repellent treated person as compared to control persons. As such, field evaluation shows that repellents can provide additional personal protection against early and outdoor biting malaria and arbovirus vectors, with excellent protection up to five hours after application. The heterogeneity in repellent sensitivity between mosquito genera and vector species could however impact the efficacy of repellents in public health programs. Considering its excellent performance and potential to protect against early and outdoor biting vectors, as well as its higher acceptability as compared to DEET, picaridin is an appropriate product to evaluate the epidemiological

  14. 10 Years of Environmental Change on the Slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Its Associated Shift in Malaria Vector Distributions.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Manisha A; Desrochers, Rachelle E; Kajeguka, Debora C; Kaaya, Robert Diotrephes; Tomayer, Andrew; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Protopopoff, Natacha; Mosha, Franklin W

    2016-01-01

    Malaria prevalence has declined in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania over the past 10 years, particularly at lower altitudes. While this decline has been related to the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to achieve universal coverage targets, it has also been attributed to changes in environmental factors that are important for enabling and sustaining malaria transmission. Herein, we apply spatial analytical approaches to investigate the impact of environmental and demographic changes, including changes in temperature, precipitation, land cover, and population density, on the range of the major malaria vector species Anopheles arabiensis in two districts of Tanzania, situated on the southern slope of Mount Kilimanjaro. These models are used to identify environmental changes that have occurred over a 10-year period and highlight the implications for malaria transmission in this highland region. Entomological data were collected from the Hai and Lower Moshi districts of Tanzania in 2001-2004 and 2014-2015. Vector occurrence data were applied alongside satellite remote sensing indices of climate and land cover, and gridded population data, to develop species distribution models for An. arabiensis for the 2004 and 2014 periods using maximum entropy. Models were compared to assess the relative contribution of different environmental and demographic factors to observed trends in vector species distribution in lowland and highland areas. Changes in land cover were observed in addition to increased population densities, increased warm season temperature, and decreased wetness at low altitudes. The predicted area and extent of suitable habitat for An. arabiensis declined across the study area over the 10-year period, with notable contraction at lower altitudes, while species range in higher altitude zones expanded. Importantly, deforestation and warmer temperatures at higher altitudes may have created stable areas of suitable vector habitat in the highlands

  15. Monitoring of Plasmodium infection in humans and potential vectors of malaria in a newly emerged focus in southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kalantari, Mohsen; Soltani, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mostafa; Yousefi, Masoud; Amin, Masoumeh; Shafiei, Ayda; Azizi, Kourosh

    2017-02-01

    Despite control programs, which aim to eliminate malaria from Iran by 2025, transmission of malaria has not been removed from the country. This study aimed to monitor malaria from asymptomatic parasitaemia and clinical cases from about one year of active case surveillance and potential vectors of malaria in the newly emerged focus of Mamasani and Rostam, southern Iran during 2014-2015. Samples were collected and their DNAs were extracted for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay using specific primers for detection of Plasmodium species. The Annual Parasite Incidence rate (API) was three cases per 1,000 population from 2,000 individuals in three villages. Parasites species were detected in 9 out of the 4,000 blood smear samples among which, 6 cases were indigenous and had no history of travels to endemic areas of malaria. Also, the prevalence rate of asymptomatic parasites was about 0.3%. Overall, 1073 Anopheles spp. were caught from 9 villages. Totally, 512 female samples were checked by PCR, which indicated that none of them was infected with Plasmodium. Despite new malaria local transmission in humans in Mamasani and Rostam districts, no infection with Plasmodium was observed in Anopheles species. Because of neighboring of the studied area to the re-emerged focus in Fars province (Kazerun) and important endemic foci of malaria in other southern provinces, such as Hormozgan and Kerman, monitoring of the vectors and reservoir hosts of Plasmodium species would be unavoidable. Application of molecular methods, such as PCR, can simplify access to the highest level of accuracy in malaria researches.

  16. Larvicidal and repellent activity of Vetiveria zizaniodes (Poaceae) essential oil against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Essential oil extracted by steam distillation of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash (Poaceae) was evaluated for larvicidal and adult repellent activity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 24 h post treatment for instars 1-4 were, respectively,...

  17. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis. The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies.

  18. Biology, Bionomics and Molecular Biology of Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann 1828 (Diptera: Culicidae), Main Malaria Vector in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xinyu; Zhang, Shaosen; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Li; Feng, Jun; Xia, Zhigui; Zhou, Hejun; Hu, Wei; Zhou, Shuisen

    2017-01-01

    China has set a goal to eliminate all malaria in the country by 2020, but it is unclear if current understanding of malaria vectors and transmission is sufficient to achieve this objective. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector specie in China, which is also responsible for vivax malaria outbreak in central China. We reviewed literature from 1954 to 2016 on An. sinensis with emphasis on biology, bionomics, and molecular biology. A total of 538 references were relevant and included. An. sienesis occurs in 29 Chinese provinces. Temperature can affect most life-history parameters. Most An. sinensis are zoophilic, but sometimes they are facultatively anthropophilic. Sporozoite analysis demonstrated An. sinensis efficacy on Plasmodium vivax transmission. An. sinensis was not stringently refractory to P. falciparum under experimental conditions, however, sporozoite was not found in salivary glands of field collected An. sinensis. The literature on An. sienesis biology and bionomics was abundant, but molecular studies, such as gene functions and mechanisms, were limited. Only 12 molecules (genes, proteins or enzymes) have been studied. In addition, there were considerable untapped omics resources for potential vector control tools. Existing information on An. sienesis could serve as a baseline for advanced research on biology, bionomics and genetics relevant to vector control strategies. PMID:28848504

  19. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  20. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of Malaria vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based syntheti...

  1. The use of digital spaceborne SAR data for the delineation of surface features indicative of malaria vector breeding habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Vermillion, C. H.; Khan, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation to examine the utility of spaceborne radar image data to malaria vector control programs is described. Specific tasks involve an analysis of radar illumination geometry vs information content, the synergy of radar and multispectral data mergers, and automated information extraction techniques.

  2. Low and seasonal malaria transmission in the middle Senegal River basin: identification and characteristics of Anopheles vectors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During the last decades two dams were constructed along the Senegal River. These intensified the practice of agriculture along the river valley basin. We conducted a study to assess malaria vector diversity, dynamics and malaria transmission in the area. Methods A cross-sectional entomological study was performed in September 2008 in 20 villages of the middle Senegal River valley to evaluate the variations of Anopheles density according to local environment. A longitudinal study was performed, from October 2008 to January 2010, in 5 selected villages, to study seasonal variations of malaria transmission. Results Among malaria vectors, 72.34% of specimens collected were An. arabiensis, 5.28% An. gambiae of the S molecular form, 3.26% M form, 12.90% An. pharoensis, 4.70% An. ziemanni, 1.48% An. funestus and 0.04% An. wellcomei. Anopheles density varied according to village location. It ranged from 0 to 21.4 Anopheles/room/day and was significantly correlated with the distance to the nearest ditch water but not to the river. Seasonal variations of Anopheles density and variety were observed with higher human biting rates during the rainy season (8.28 and 7.55 Anopheles bite/man/night in October 2008 and 2009 respectively). Transmission was low and limited to the rainy season (0.05 and 0.06 infected bite/man/night in October 2008 and 2009 respectively). During the rainy season, the endophagous rate was lower, the anthropophagic rate higher and L1014F kdr frequency higher. Conclusions Malaria vectors are present at low-moderate density in the middle Senegal River basin with An. arabiensis as the predominant species. Other potential vectors are An. gambiae M and S form and An. funestus. Nonetheless, malaria transmission was extremely low and seasonal. PMID:22269038

  3. Modelling optimum use of attractive toxic sugar bait stations for effective malaria vector control in Africa.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Marshall, John M; Qualls, Whitney A; Schlein, Yosef; McManus, John W; Arheart, Kris L; Hlaing, WayWay M; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C

    2015-12-08

    The development of insecticide resistance and the increased outdoor-biting behaviour of malaria vectors reduce the efficiency of indoor vector control methods. Attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), a method targeting the sugar-feeding behaviours of vectors both indoors and outdoors, is a promising supplement to indoor tools. The number and configuration of these ATSB stations needed for malaria control in a community needs to be determined. A hypothetical village, typical of those in sub-Saharan Africa, 600 × 600 m, consisting of houses, humans and essential resource requirements of Anopheles gambiae (sugar sources, outdoor resting sites, larval habitats) was simulated in a spatial individual-based model. Resource-rich and resource-poor environments were simulated separately. Eight types of configurations and different densities of ATSB stations were tested. Anopheles gambiae population size, human biting rate (HBR) and entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were compared between different ATSB configurations and densities. Each simulated scenario was run 50 times. Compared to the outcomes not altered by ATSB treatment in the control scenario, in resource-rich and resource-poor environments, respectively, the optimum ATSB treatment reduced female abundance by 98.22 and 91.80 %, reduced HBR by 99.52 and 98.15 %, and reduced EIR by 99.99 and 100 %. In resource-rich environments, n × n grid design, stations at sugar sources, resting sites, larval habitats, and random locations worked better in reducing vector population and HBRs than other configurations (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference of EIR reductions between all ATSB configurations (P > 0.05). In resource-poor environments, there was no significant difference of female abundances, HBRs and EIRs between all ATSB configurations (P > 0.05). The optimum number of ATSB stations was about 25 for resource-rich environments and nine for resource-poor environments. ATSB treatment reduced An

  4. Malaria in the WHO Southeast Asia region.

    PubMed

    Kondrashin, A V

    1992-09-01

    Malaria endemic countries in the southeast Asia region include Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Population movement and rapid urbanization, both largely caused by unemployment, and environmental deterioration change the malaria pattern. They also increase the incidence of drug-resistant malaria, especially resistance to 4-aminoquinolines. In India, Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the density and distribution of tribals, and, in southern Thailand, rubber tappers have the highest malaria incidence rate (46.29%). Since the population is young and the young are highly sensitive to malaria infection, the region has low community immunity. High malaria priority areas are forests, forested hills, forest fringe areas, developmental project sites, and border areas. High risk groups include infants, young children, pregnant women, and mobile population groups. Malaria incidence is between 2.5-2.8 million cases, and the slide positivity rate is about 3%. P. falciparum constitutes 40% for all malaria cases. In 1988 in India, there were 222 malaria deaths. Malaria is the 7th most common cause of death in Thailand. 3 of the 19 Anopheline species are resistant to at least 1 insecticide, particularly DDT. Posteradication epidemics surfaced in the mid-1970s. Malaria control programs tend to use the primary health care and integration approach to malaria control. Antiparasite measures range from a single-dose of an antimalarial to mass drug administration. Residual spraying continues to be the main strategy of vector control. Some other vector control measures are fish feeding on mosquito larvae, insecticide impregnated mosquito nets, and repellents. Control programs also have health education activities. India allocates the highest percentage of its total health budget to malaria control (21.54%). Few malariology training programs exist in the region. Slowly processed surveillance data limit the countries' ability to

  5. The Anopheles superpictus complex: introduction of a new malaria vector complex in Iran.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, M A; Yaghobi-Ershadi, M R; Shemshad, K; Pedram, M; Amani, H

    2008-12-01

    Anopheles superpictus Grassi is one of the most widespread malaria vectors in Iran. Two morphologically independent forms of this mosquito, both at larval and adult stage as well as a great diversity in its mtDNA loci have been previously described in Iran. Because of existence of mtDNA haplotypes, co-occurrence of two forms in diverse climates as well as different roles of populations played in malaria transmission, we hypothesized the possibility of emerging species (or sub-species) within the taxon. We surveyed the molecular variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of the two forms, using sequences from the ribosomal-DNA spacer region (ITS2). This analysis revealed a high degree of polymorphism (32.3%) as well as a length polymorphism (357 vs. 378 bp) in the ITS2 region among the populations but not so among morphological forms. Further examination identified three different ITS2 sequences, designated as genotypes X, Y and Z within species. Interestingly, while the sympatric Y and Z genotypes appear to be exclusive to the populations from the southeastern part of the country, genotype X is geographically separated and present in the North, the West, the South and the Central territories. The degree of divergence in ITS2 is much more than an intra-specific variation seen within the anopheline mosquitoes, and it points out the possibility of cryptic species within the taxon. Further studies are necessary to identify the species composition of the An. superpictus and their role played in the transmission of malaria in its geographical range.

  6. The past, present and future use of epidemiological intelligence to plan malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Talisuna, Ambrose O; Noor, Abdisalan M; Okui, Albert P; Snow, Robert W

    2015-04-15

    An important prelude to developing strategies to control infectious diseases is a detailed epidemiological evidence platform to target cost-effective interventions and define resource needs. A review of published and un-published reports of malaria vector control and parasite prevention in Uganda was conducted for the period 1900-2013. The objective was to provide a perspective as to how epidemiological intelligence was used to design malaria control before and during the global malaria eradication programme (GMEP) and to contrast this with the evidence generated in support of the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative from 1998 to date. During the GMEP era, comprehensive investigations were undertaken on the effectiveness of vector and parasite control such as indoor residual house-spraying (IRS) and mass drug administration (MDA) at different sites in Uganda. Nationwide malariometric surveys were undertaken between 1964 and 1967 to provide a profile of risk, epidemiology and seasonality leading to an evidence-based national cartography of risk to characterize the diversity of malaria transmission in Uganda. At the launch of the RBM initiative in the late 1990s, an equivalent level of evidence was lacking. There was no contemporary national evidence-base for the likely impact of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), no new malariometric data, no new national cartography of malaria risk or any evidence of tailored intervention delivery based on variations in the ecology of malaria risk in Uganda. Despite millions of dollars of overseas development assistance over the last ten years in ITN, and more recently the resurrection of the use of IRS, the epidemiological impact of vector control remains uncertain due to an absence of nationwide basic parasite and vector-based field studies. Readily available epidemiological data should become the future business model to maximize malaria funding from 2015. Over the next five to ten years, accountability, impact analysis, financial

  7. Gene flow between chromosomal forms of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Cameroon, Central Africa, and its relevance in malaria fighting.

    PubMed

    Cohuet, Anna; Dia, Ibrahima; Simard, Frédéric; Raymond, Michel; Rousset, François; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H; Wondji, Charles S; Fontenille, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of population structure in a major vector species is fundamental to an understanding of malaria epidemiology and becomes crucial in the context of genetic control strategies that are being developed. Despite its epidemiological importance, the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus has received far less attention than members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Previous chromosomal data have shown a high degree of structuring within populations from West Africa and have led to the characterization of two chromosomal forms, "Kiribina" and "Folonzo." In Central Africa, few data were available. We thus undertook assessment of genetic structure of An. funestus populations from Cameroon using chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers. Microsatellite markers revealed no particular departure from panmixia within each local population and a genetic structure consistent with isolation by distance. However, cytogenetic studies demonstrated high levels of chromosomal heterogeneity, both within and between populations. Distribution of chromosomal inversions was not random and a cline of frequency was observed, according to ecotypic conditions. Strong deficiency of heterokaryotypes was found in certain localities in the transition area, indicating a subdivision of An. funestus in chromosomal forms. An. funestus microsatellite genetic markers located within the breakpoints of inversions are not differentiated in populations, whereas in An. gambiae inversions can affect gene flow at marker loci. These results are relevant to strategies for control of malaria by introduction of transgenes into populations of vectors.

  8. Gene Flow Between Chromosomal Forms of the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus in Cameroon, Central Africa, and Its Relevance in Malaria Fighting

    PubMed Central

    Cohuet, Anna; Dia, Ibrahima; Simard, Frédéric; Raymond, Michel; Rousset, François; Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Awono-Ambene, Parfait H.; Wondji, Charles S.; Fontenille, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of population structure in a major vector species is fundamental to an understanding of malaria epidemiology and becomes crucial in the context of genetic control strategies that are being developed. Despite its epidemiological importance, the major African malaria vector Anopheles funestus has received far less attention than members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Previous chromosomal data have shown a high degree of structuring within populations from West Africa and have led to the characterization of two chromosomal forms, “Kiribina” and “Folonzo.” In Central Africa, few data were available. We thus undertook assessment of genetic structure of An. funestus populations from Cameroon using chromosomal inversions and microsatellite markers. Microsatellite markers revealed no particular departure from panmixia within each local population and a genetic structure consistent with isolation by distance. However, cytogenetic studies demonstrated high levels of chromosomal heterogeneity, both within and between populations. Distribution of chromosomal inversions was not random and a cline of frequency was observed, according to ecotypic conditions. Strong deficiency of heterokaryotypes was found in certain localities in the transition area, indicating a subdivision of An. funestus in chromosomal forms. An. funestus microsatellite genetic markers located within the breakpoints of inversions are not differentiated in populations, whereas in An. gambiae inversions can affect gene flow at marker loci. These results are relevant to strategies for control of malaria by introduction of transgenes into populations of vectors. PMID:15677749

  9. A Wickerhamomyces anomalus Killer Strain in the Malaria Vector Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Valzano, Matteo; Damiani, Claudia; Epis, Sara; Gabrielli, Maria Gabriella; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano; Bandi, Claudio; Favia, Guido; Ricci, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus has been investigated for several years for its wide biotechnological potential, especially for applications in the food industry. Specifically, the antimicrobial activity of this yeast, associated with the production of Killer Toxins (KTs), has attracted a great deal of attention. The strains of W. anomalus able to produce KTs, called “killer” yeasts, have been shown to be highly competitive in the environment. Different W. anomalus strains have been isolated from diverse habitats and recently even from insects. In the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi these yeasts have been detected in the midgut and gonads. Here we show that the strain of W. anomalus isolated from An. stephensi, namely WaF17.12, is a killer yeast able to produce a KT in a cell-free medium (in vitro) as well as in the mosquito body (in vivo). We showed a constant production of WaF17.12-KT over time, after stimulation of toxin secretion in yeast cultures and reintroduction of the activated cells into the mosquito through the diet. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of WaF17.12-KT has been demonstrated in vitro against sensitive microbes, showing that strain WaF17.12 releases a functional toxin. The mosquito-associated yeast WaF17.12 thus possesses an antimicrobial activity, which makes this yeast worthy of further investigations, in view of its potential as an agent for the symbiotic control of malaria. PMID:24788884

  10. Variant Ionotropic Receptors in the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae Tuned to Amines and Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Pitts, R. Jason; Derryberry, Stephen L.; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2017-01-01

    The principal Afrotropical human malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, remains a significant threat to global health. A critical component in the transmission of malaria is the ability of An. gambiae females to detect and respond to human-derived chemical kairomones in their search for blood meal hosts. The basis for host odor responses resides in olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) that express chemoreceptors encoded by large gene families, including the odorant receptors (ORs) and the variant ionotropic receptors (IRs). While ORs have been the focus of extensive investigation, functional IR complexes and the chemical compounds that activate them have not been identified in An. gambiae. Here we report the transcriptional profiles and functional characterization of three An. gambiae IR (AgIr) complexes that specifically respond to amines or carboxylic acids - two classes of semiochemicals that have been implicated in mediating host-seeking by adult females but are not known to activate An. gambiae ORs (AgOrs). Our results suggest that AgIrs play critical roles in the detection and behavioral responses to important classes of host odors that are underrepresented in the AgOr chemical space. PMID:28067294

  11. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles moucheti in south Cameroon forest region.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Ndo, Cyrille; Awono-Ambene, Parfait; Ngassam, Pierre; Fontenille, Didier; Simard, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    We used recently developed microsatellite DNA markers to explore the population genetic structure of the malaria vector, Anopheles moucheti. Polymorphism at 10 loci was examined to assess level of genetic differentiation between four A. moucheti populations from South Cameroon situated 65-400 km apart. All microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with a number of distinct alleles per locus ranging from 9 to 17. Fst estimates ranging from 0.0094 to 0.0275 (P < 0.001) were recorded. These results suggest a very low level of genetic differentiation between A. moucheti populations. The recently available microsatellite loci revealed useful markers to assess genetic differentiation between geographical populations of A. moucheti in Cameroon.

  12. High-Resolution Cytogenetic Map for the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    George, Phillip; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Sharakhov, Igor V.

    2010-01-01

    Cytogenetic and physical maps are indispensible for precise assembly of genome sequences, functional characterization of chromosomal regions, and population genetic and taxonomic studies. We have created a new cytogenetic map for Anopheles gambiae by using a high-pressure squash technique that increases overall band clarity. To link chromosomal regions to the genome sequence, we attached genome coordinates, based on 302 markers of BAC, cDNA clones, and PCR-amplified gene fragments, to the chromosomal bands and interbands at approximately a 0.5-1 Mb interval. In addition, we placed the breakpoints of seven common polymorphic inversions on the map and described the chromosomal landmarks for the arm and inversion identification. The map's improved resolution can be used to further enhance physical mapping, improve genome assembly, and stimulate epigenomic studies of malaria vectors. PMID:20609021

  13. Mosquito genomics. Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Neafsey, Daniel E; Waterhouse, Robert M; Abai, Mohammad R; Aganezov, Sergey S; Alekseyev, Max A; Allen, James E; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W; Blandin, Stephanie A; Brockman, Andrew I; Burkot, Thomas R; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L M; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M; Hall, Andrew B; Han, Mira V; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S T; Jenkins, Adam M; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K N; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A; Naumenko, Anastasia N; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A; Peery, Ashley N; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J; Rinker, David C; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J; Thomas, Gregg W C; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M C; Unger, Maria F; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K; Collins, Frank H; Cornman, Robert S; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J; Emrich, Scott J; Fontaine, Michael C; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W; Hansen, Immo A; Howell, Paul I; Kafatos, Fotis C; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A T; Ribeiro, José M; Riehle, Michael A; Sharakhov, Igor V; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J; Besansky, Nora J

    2015-01-02

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. “Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes”

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Daniel E.; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Abai, Mohammad R.; Aganezov, Sergey S.; Alekseyev, Max A.; Allen, James E.; Amon, James; Arcà, Bruno; Arensburger, Peter; Artemov, Gleb; Assour, Lauren A.; Basseri, Hamidreza; Berlin, Aaron; Birren, Bruce W.; Blandin, Stephanie A.; Brockman, Andrew I.; Burkot, Thomas R.; Burt, Austin; Chan, Clara S.; Chauve, Cedric; Chiu, Joanna C.; Christensen, Mikkel; Costantini, Carlo; Davidson, Victoria L.M.; Deligianni, Elena; Dottorini, Tania; Dritsou, Vicky; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Hall, Andrew B.; Han, Mira V.; Hlaing, Thaung; Hughes, Daniel S.T.; Jenkins, Adam M.; Jiang, Xiaofang; Jungreis, Irwin; Kakani, Evdoxia G.; Kamali, Maryam; Kemppainen, Petri; Kennedy, Ryan C.; Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K.; Koekemoer, Lizette L.; Laban, Njoroge; Langridge, Nicholas; Lawniczak, Mara K.N.; Lirakis, Manolis; Lobo, Neil F.; Lowy, Ernesto; MacCallum, Robert M.; Mao, Chunhong; Maslen, Gareth; Mbogo, Charles; McCarthy, Jenny; Michel, Kristin; Mitchell, Sara N.; Moore, Wendy; Murphy, Katherine A.; Naumenko, Anastasia N.; Nolan, Tony; Novoa, Eva M.; O'Loughlin, Samantha; Oringanje, Chioma; Oshaghi, Mohammad A.; Pakpour, Nazzy; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Peery, Ashley N.; Povelones, Michael; Prakash, Anil; Price, David P.; Rajaraman, Ashok; Reimer, Lisa J.; Rinker, David C.; Rokas, Antonis; Russell, Tanya L.; Sagnon, N'Fale; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Shea, Terrance; Simão, Felipe A.; Simard, Frederic; Slotman, Michel A.; Somboon, Pradya; Stegniy, Vladimir; Struchiner, Claudio J.; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Tojo, Marta; Topalis, Pantelis; Tubio, José M.C.; Unger, Maria F.; Vontas, John; Walton, Catherine; Wilding, Craig S.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Zhou, Xiaofan; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Christophides, George K.; Collins, Frank H.; Cornman, Robert S.; Crisanti, Andrea; Donnelly, Martin J.; Emrich, Scott J.; Fontaine, Michael C.; Gelbart, William; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hansen, Immo A.; Howell, Paul I.; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Kellis, Manolis; Lawson, Daniel; Louis, Christos; Luckhart, Shirley; Muskavitch, Marc A.T.; Ribeiro, José M.; Riehle, Michael A.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Tu, Zhijian; Zwiebel, Laurence J.; Besansky, Nora J.

    2015-01-01

    Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover, but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts. PMID:25554792

  15. An α-amylase is a novel receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberon, Mario; Miranda-Rios, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti) produces four Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, Cry10Aa and Cry11Aa), and two Cyt proteins (Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba), toxic to mosquito-larvae of the genus Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, important human disease vectors that transmit dengue virus, malaria and filarial parasites respectively. Previous work showed that Bti is highly toxic to Anopheles albimanus, the main vector for transmission of malaria in Mexico. In this work, we analysed the toxicity of isolated Cry proteins of Bti and identified an An. albimanus midgut protein as a putative Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa receptor molecule. Biossays showed that Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa of Bti are toxic to An. albimanus larvae. Ligand blot assays indicated that a 70 kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositolanchored protein present in midgut brush border membrane vesicles of An. albimanus interacts with Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. This protein was identified as an α-amylase by mass spectrometry and enzymatic activity assays. The cDNA that codes for the α-amylase was cloned by means of 5′- and 3′-RACE experiments. Recombinant α-amylase expressed in Escherichia coli specifically binds Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins. PMID:20002140

  16. Three sympatric clusters of the malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies E (Diptera: Culicidae) detected in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Iresha Nilmini; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha; De Silva, Bambaranda Gammacharige Don Nissanka Kolitha

    2016-01-04

    The disease re-emergence threat from the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, Anopheles culicifacies, is currently increasing. To predict malaria vector dynamics, knowledge of population genetics and gene flow is required, but this information is unavailable for Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to determine the population structure of An. culicifacies E in Sri Lanka. Eight microsatellite markers were used to examine An. culicifacies E collected from six sites in Sri Lanka during 2010-2012. Standard population genetic tests and analyses, genetic differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Bayesian cluster analysis, AMOVA, SAMOVA and isolation-by-distance were conducted using five polymorphic loci. Five microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with high allelic richness. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was significantly rejected for four loci with positive F(IS) values in the pooled population (p < 0.0100). Three loci showed high deviations in all sites except Kataragama, which was in agreement with HWE for all loci except one locus (p < 0.0016). Observed heterozygosity was less than the expected values for all sites except Kataragama, where reported negative F(IS) values indicated a heterozygosity excess. Genetic differentiation was observed for all sampling site pairs and was not supported by the isolation by distance model. Bayesian clustering analysis identified the presence of three sympatric clusters (gene pools) in the studied population. Significant genetic differentiation was detected in cluster pairs with low gene flow and isolation by distance was not detected between clusters. Furthermore, the results suggested the presence of a barrier to gene flow that divided the populations into two parts with the central hill region of Sri Lanka as the dividing line. Three sympatric clusters were detected among An. culicifacies E specimens isolated in Sri Lanka. There was no effect of geographic distance on genetic

  17. Development of a Gravid Trap for Collecting Live Malaria Vectors Anopheles gambiae s.l.

    PubMed Central

    Dugassa, Sisay; Lindh, Jenny M.; Oyieke, Florence; Mukabana, Wolfgang R.; Lindsay, Steven W.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective malaria vector control targeting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes has resulted in fewer vectors entering houses in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, with the proportion of vectors outdoors becoming more important in the transmission of this disease. This study aimed to develop a gravid trap for the outdoor collection of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. based on evaluation and modification of commercially available gravid traps. Methods Experiments were implemented in an 80 m2 semi-field system where 200 gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. were released nightly. The efficacy of the Box, CDC and Frommer updraft gravid traps was compared. The Box gravid trap was tested to determine if the presence of the trap over water and the trap’s sound affected catch size. Mosquitoes approaching the treatment were evaluated using electrocuting nets or detergents added to the water in the trap. Based on the results, a new gravid trap (OviART trap) that provided an open, unobstructed oviposition site was developed and evaluated. Results Box and CDC gravid traps collected similar numbers (relative rate (RR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6–1.2; p = 0.284), whereas the Frommer trap caught 70% fewer mosquitoes (RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2–0.5; p < 0.001). The number of mosquitoes approaching the Box trap was significantly reduced when the trap was positioned over a water-filled basin compared to an open pond (RR 0.7 95% CI 0.6–0.7; p < 0.001). This effect was not due to the sound of the trap. Catch size increased by 60% (RR 1.6, 1.2–2.2; p = 0.001) with the new OviART trap. Conclusion Gravid An. Gambiae s.s. females were visually deterred by the presence of the trapping device directly over the oviposition medium. Based on these investigations, an effective gravid trap was developed that provides open landing space for egg-laying Anopheles. PMID:23861952

  18. Is housing quality associated with malaria incidence among young children and mosquito vector numbers? Evidence from Korogwe, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jenny X; Bousema, Teun; Zelman, Brittany; Gesase, Samwel; Hashim, Ramadhan; Maxwell, Caroline; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gosling, Roly

    2014-01-01

    Several studies conducted in Northeast Tanzania have documented declines in malaria transmission even before interventions were scaled up. One explanation for these reductions may be the changes in socio-environmental conditions associated with economic development, and in particular improvements in housing construction. This analysis seeks to identify (1) risk factors for malaria incidence among young children and (2) household and environmental factors associated with mosquito vector numbers collected in the child's sleeping area. Both analyses focus on housing construction quality as a key determinant. For 435 children enrolled in a larger trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in the Korogwe District in Tanga, Northeastern Tanzania, detailed information on their dwelling characteristics were collected in the last year of the trial. Principal components analysis was used to construct an index of housing structure quality and converted to quintile units for regression analysis. Univariate and multivariate random effects negative binomial regressions were used to predict risk factors for child malaria incidence and the mean total number of indoor female Anopheles gambiae and funestus mosquitoes collected per household across three occasions. Building materials have substantially improved in Korogwe over time. Multivariate regressions showed that residing in rural areas (versus urban) increased malaria incidence rates by over three-fold and mean indoor female A. gambiae and funestus numbers by nearly two-fold. Compared to those residing in the lowest quality houses, children residing in the highest quality houses had one-third lower malaria incidence rates, even when wealth and rural residence were controlled for. Living in the highest quality houses reduced vector numbers while having cattle near the house significantly increased them. Results corroborate findings from other studies that show associations between malaria incidence and

  19. Is Housing Quality Associated with Malaria Incidence among Young Children and Mosquito Vector Numbers? Evidence from Korogwe, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jenny X.; Bousema, Teun; Zelman, Brittany; Gesase, Samwel; Hashim, Ramadhan; Maxwell, Caroline; Chandramohan, Daniel; Gosling, Roly

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies conducted in Northeast Tanzania have documented declines in malaria transmission even before interventions were scaled up. One explanation for these reductions may be the changes in socio-environmental conditions associated with economic development, and in particular improvements in housing construction. Objective This analysis seeks to identify (1) risk factors for malaria incidence among young children and (2) household and environmental factors associated with mosquito vector numbers collected in the child’s sleeping area. Both analyses focus on housing construction quality as a key determinant. Methodology For 435 children enrolled in a larger trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in the Korogwe District in Tanga, Northeastern Tanzania, detailed information on their dwelling characteristics were collected in the last year of the trial. Principal components analysis was used to construct an index of housing structure quality and converted to quintile units for regression analysis. Univariate and multivariate random effects negative binomial regressions were used to predict risk factors for child malaria incidence and the mean total number of indoor female Anopheles gambiae and funestus mosquitoes collected per household across three occasions. Findings Building materials have substantially improved in Korogwe over time. Multivariate regressions showed that residing in rural areas (versus urban) increased malaria incidence rates by over three-fold and mean indoor female A. gambiae and funestus numbers by nearly two-fold. Compared to those residing in the lowest quality houses, children residing in the highest quality houses had one-third lower malaria incidence rates, even when wealth and rural residence were controlled for. Living in the highest quality houses reduced vector numbers while having cattle near the house significantly increased them. Conclusions Results corroborate findings from other studies

  20. Insecticide-treated plastic tarpaulins for control of malaria vectors in refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Graham, K; Mohammad, N; Rehman, H; Nazari, A; Ahmad, M; Kamal, M; Skovmand, O; Guillet, P; Allan, R; Zaim, M; Yates, A; Lines, J; Rowland, M

    2002-12-01

    Spraying of canvas tents with residual pyrethroid insecticide is an established method of malaria vector control in tented refugee camps. In recent years, plastic sheeting (polythene tarpaulins) has replaced canvas as the utilitarian shelter material for displaced populations in complex emergencies. Advances in technology enable polythene sheeting to be impregnated with pyrethroid during manufacture. The efficacy of such material against mosquitoes when erected as shelters under typical refugee camp conditions is unknown. Tests were undertaken with free-flying mosquitoes on entomological study platforms in an Afghan refugee camp to compare the insecticidal efficacy of plastic tarpaulin sprayed with deltamethrin on its inner surface (target dose 30 mg/m2), tarpaulin impregnated with deltamethrin (initially > or = 30 mg/m2) during manufacture, and a tent made from the factory impregnated tarpaulin material. Preliminary tests done in the laboratory with Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) showed that 1-min exposure to factory-impregnated tarpaulins would give 100% mortality even after outdoor weathering in a temperate climate for 12 weeks. Outdoor platform tests with the erected materials (baited with human subjects) produced mosquito mortality rates between 86-100% for sprayed or factory-impregnated tarpaulins and tents (average approximately 40 anophelines and approximately 200 culicines/per platform/night), whereas control mortality (with untreated tarpaulin) was no more than 5%. Fewer than 20% of mosquitoes blood-fed on human subjects under either insecticide-treated or non-treated shelters. The tarpaulin shelter was a poor barrier to host-seeking mosquitoes and treatment with insecticide did not reduce the proportion blood-feeding. Even so, the deployment of insecticide-impregnated tarpaulins in refugee camps, if used by the majority of refugees, has the potential to control malaria by killing high proportions of mosquitoes and so reducing the average

  1. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    Nyasembe, Vincent O; Tchouassi, David P; Kirwa, Hillary K; Foster, Woodbridge A; Teal, Peter E A; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors. Three plant-based lures ((E)-linalool oxide [LO], (E)-linalool oxide and (E)-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E)-linalool oxide, (E)-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E)-β-farnesene [Blend C]), were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F]) and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X) and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC) light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls) for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide. The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or without carbon dioxide, for surveillance and mass trapping of malaria vectors.

  2. Fascioliasis Control: In Vivo and In Vitro Phytotherapy of Vector Snail to Kill Fasciola Larva

    PubMed Central

    Sunita, Kumari; Singh, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    Snail is one of the important components of an aquatic ecosystem, it acts as intermediate host of Fasciola species. Control of snail population below a certain threshold level is one of the important methods in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. Life cycle of the parasite can be interrupted by killing the snail or Fasciola larva redia and cercaria in the snail body. In vivo and in vitro toxicity of the plant products and their active component such as citral, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, azadirachtin, and allicin against larva of Fasciola in infected snail Lymnaea acuminata were tested. Mortality of larvae were observed at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, and 8 h, of treatment. In in vivo treatment, azadirachtin caused highest mortality in redia and cercaria larva (8 h, LC50 0.11, and 0.05 mg/L) whereas in in vitro condition allicin was highly toxic against redia and cercaria (8 h, LC50 0.01, and 0.009 mg/L). Toxicity of citral was lowest against redia and cercaria larva. PMID:22132306

  3. Dose-response tests and semi-field evaluation of lethal and sub-lethal effects of slow release pyriproxyfen granules (Sumilarv®0.5G) for the control of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Mbare, Oscar; Lindsay, Steven W; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2013-03-14

    Recently research has shown that larviciding can be an effective tool for integrated malaria vector control. Nevertheless, the uptake of this intervention has been hampered by the need to re-apply larvicides frequently. There is a need to explore persistent, environmentally friendly larvicides for malaria vector control to reduce intervention efforts and costs by reducing the frequency of application. In this study, the efficacy of a 0.5% pyriproxyfen granule (Surmilarv®0.5G, Sumitomo Chemicals) was assessed for the control of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis, the major malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Dose-response and standardized field tests were implemented following standard procedures of the World Health Organization's Pesticide Evaluation Scheme to determine: (i) the susceptibility of vectors to this formulation; (ii) the residual activity and appropriate retreatment schedule for field application; and, (iii) sub-lethal impacts on the number and viability of eggs laid by adults after exposure to Sumilarv®0.5G during larval development. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis were highly susceptible to Sumilarv®0.5G. Estimated emergence inhibition (EI) values were very low and similar for both species. The minimum dosage that completely inhibited adult emergence was between 0.01-0.03 parts per million (ppm) active ingredient (ai). Compared to the untreated control, an application of 0.018 ppm ai prevented 85% (95% confidence interval (CI) 82%-88%) of adult emergence over six weeks under standardized field conditions. A fivefold increase in dosage of 0.09 ppm ai prevented 97% (95% CI 94%-98%) emergence. Significant sub-lethal effects were observed in the standardized field tests. Female An. gambiae s.s. that were exposed to 0.018 ppm ai as larvae laid 47% less eggs, and females exposed to 0.09 ppm ai laid 74% less eggs than females that were unexposed to the treatment. Furthermore, 77% of eggs laid by females exposed to 0

  4. Insights into the epigenomic landscape of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Rivero, Ana; Chandre, Fabrice; Corces, Victor G

    2014-01-01

    The epigenome of the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was characterized in midgut cells by mapping the distribution and levels of two post-translational histone modifications, H3K27ac and H3K27me3. These histone profiles were then correlated with levels of gene expression obtained by RNA-seq. Analysis of the transcriptome of A. gambiae midguts and salivary glands led to the discovery of 13,898 new transcripts not present in the most recent genome assembly. A subset of these transcripts is differentially expressed between midgut and salivary glands. The enrichment profiles of H3K27ac and H3K27me3 are mutually exclusive and associate with high and low levels of transcription, respectively. This distribution agrees with previous findings in Drosophila showing association of these two histone modifications with either active or inactive transcriptional states, including Polycomb-associated domains in silenced genes. This study provides a mosquito epigenomics platform for future comparative studies in other mosquito species, opening future investigations into the role of epigenetic processes in vector-borne systems of medical and economic importance.

  5. The contribution of dietary restriction to extended longevity in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Faiman, Roy; Solon-Biet, Samantha; Sullivan, Margery; Huestis, Diana L; Lehmann, Tovi

    2017-03-24

    Variation in longevity has long been of interest in vector biology because of its implication in disease transmission through vectorial capacity. Recent studies suggest that Anopheles coluzzii adults persist during the ~7 month dry season via aestivation. Recently there has been a growing body of evidence linking dietary restriction and low ratio of dietary protein to carbohydrate with extended longevity of animals. Here, we evaluated the effects of dietary restriction and the protein : carbohydrate ratio on longevity of An. coluzzii. In our experiment, we combined dietary regimes with temperature and relative humidity to assess their effects on An. coluzzii longevity, in an attempt to simulate aestivation under laboratory conditions. Our results showed significant effects of both the physical and the dietary variables on longevity, but that diet regimen had a considerably greater effect than those of the physical conditions. Higher temperature and lower humidity reduced longevity. At 22 °C dietary protein (blood) shortened longevity when sugar was not restricted (RH = 85%), but extended longevity when sugar was restricted (RH = 50%). Dietary restriction extended longevity in accord with predictions, but protein : carbohydrate ratio had a negligible effect. We identified conditions that significantly extend longevity in malaria vectors, however, the extent of increase in longevity was insufficient to simulate aestivation.

  6. A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred Prey

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Background All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Methodology/Principal Findings By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility. PMID:17205136

  7. The impact of livestock on the abundance, resting behaviour and sporozoite rate of malaria vectors in southern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mayagaya, Valeriana S; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Lyimo, Issa N; Kihonda, Japheti; Mtambala, Hassan; Ngonyani, Hassan; Russell, Tanya L; Ferguson, Heather M

    2015-01-21

    Increases in the coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have significantly reduced the abundance of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in several African settings, leaving its more zoophagic sibling species Anopheles arabiensis as the primary vector. This study investigated the impact of livestock ownership at the household level on the ecology and malaria infection rate of vectors in an area of Tanzania where An. arabiensis accounts for most malaria transmission. Mosquito vectors were collected resting inside houses, animal sheds and in outdoor resting boxes at households with and without livestock over three years in ten villages of the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Additionally, the abundance and sporozoite rate of vectors attempting to bite indoors at these households was assessed as an index of malaria exposure. The mean abundance of An. gambiae s.l. biting indoors was similar at houses with and without livestock. In all years but one, the relative proportion of An. arabiensis within the An. gambiae s.l. species complex was higher at households with livestock. Livestock presence had a significant impact on malaria vector feeding and resting behaviour. Anopheles arabiensis were generally found resting in cattle sheds where livestock were present, and inside houses when absent. Correspondingly, the human blood index of An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.l. was significant reduced at households with livestock, whereas that of An. gambiae s.s. was unaffected. Whilst there was some evidence that sporozoite rates within the indoor-biting An. gambiae s.l population was significantly reduced at households with livestock, the significance of this effect varied depending on how background spatial variation was accounted for. These results confirm that the presence of cattle at the household level can significantly alter the local species composition, feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors. However, the net impact of this livestock-associated variation in

  8. Non-specific Patterns of Vector, Host, and Avian Malaria Parasite Associations in a Central African Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Njabo, Kevin Y; Cornel, Anthony J.; Bonneaud, Camille; Toffelmier, Erin; Sehgal, R.N.M.; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Russell, Andrew F.; Smith, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasites use vertebrate hosts for asexual multiplication and Culicidae mosquitoes for sexual and asexual development, yet the literature on avian malaria remains biased towards examining the asexual stages of the life cycle in birds. To fully understand parasite evolution and mechanism of malaria transmission, knowledge of all three components of the vector-host-parasite system is essential. Little is known about avian parasite-vector associations in African rainforests where numerous species of birds are infected with avian haemosporidians of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Here we applied high resolution melt qPCR-based techniques and nested PCR to examine the occurrence and diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of haemosporidian parasites in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across 12 sites in Cameroon. In all, 3134 mosquitoes representing 27 species were screened. Mosquitoes belonging to four genera (Aedes, Coquillettidia, Culex, and Mansonia) were infected with twenty-two parasite lineages (18 Plasmodium spp. and 4 Haemoproteus spp.). Presence of Plasmodium sporozoites in salivary glands of Coquillettidia aurites further established these mosquitoes as likely vectors. Occurrence of parasite lineages differed significantly among genera, as well as their probability of being infected with malaria across species and sites. Approximately one-third of these lineages were previously detected in other avian host species from the region, indicating that vertebrate host sharing is a common feature and that avian Plasmodium spp. vector breadth does not always accompany vertebrate-host breadth. This study suggests extensive invertebrate host shifts in mosquito-parasite interactions and that avian Plasmodium species are most likely not tightly coevolved with vector species. PMID:21134011

  9. Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the ecology and spatial-temporal distribution of malaria vectors is essential to design more effective and sustainable strategies for malaria control and elimination. In a previous study, we analyzed presence-absence data of An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. in an area of southern Benin with high coverage of vector control measures. Here, we further extend the work by analysing the positive values of the dataset to assess the determinants of the abundance of these three vectors and to produce predictive maps of vector abundance. Methods Positive counts of the three vectors were assessed using negative-binomial zero-truncated (NBZT) mixed-effect models according to vector control measures and environmental covariates derived from field and remote sensing data. After 8-fold cross-validation of the models, predictive maps of abundance of the sympatric An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s. were produced. Results Cross-validation of the NBZT models showed a satisfactory predictive accuracy. Almost all changes in abundance between two surveys in the same village were well predicted by the models but abundances for An. gambiae s.s. were slightly underestimated. During the dry season, predictive maps showed that abundance greater than 1 bite per person per night were observed only for An. funestus and An. coluzzii. During the rainy season, we observed both increase and decrease in abundance of An. funestus, which are dependent on the ecological setting. Abundances of both An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. increased during the rainy season but not in the same areas. Conclusions Our models helped characterize the ecological preferences of three major African malaria vectors. This works highlighted the importance to study independently the binomial and the zero-truncated count processes when evaluating vector control strategies. The study of the bio-ecology of malaria vector species in time and space is critical

  10. Isolation of a Pseudomonas fluorescens metabolite/exotoxin active against both larvae and pupae of vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Paily, K P; Padmanabhan, V; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2003-01-01

    A formulation was developed from the metabolite(s) of a novel Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula strain (VCRC B426) and tested against 4th-instar larvae and pupae of three species of vector mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L). The larvae and pupae of An. stephensi were the most susceptible to the formulation, followed by those of C. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, in that order, and the dosage requirement for pupal mortality was less than that required for larval mortality. The LC50 dosage requirements for larvae of these mosquito species were, respectively, 70.4, 511.5 and 757.3 microg protein ml(-1), whereas for pupae they were, respectively, 2.0, 9.4 and 19.2 microg protein ml(-1). The lethal fraction was purified from the culture broth and its molecular mass, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography, was 44kDa. This is the first report of a microbial formulation acting upon mosquito pupae, a non-feeding stage. Its mode of action and efficacy to control mosquitoes under field conditions need to be studied further.

  11. Do mosquitoes transmit the avian malaria-like parasite Haemoproteus? An experimental test of vector competence using mosquito saliva.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-López, Rafael; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Gangoso, Laura; Yan, Jiayue; Soriguer, Ramón C; Figuerola, Jordi

    2016-11-28

    The life-cycle of many vector-borne pathogens includes an asexual replication phase in the vertebrate host and sexual reproduction in the insect vector. However, as only a small array of parasites can successfully develop infective phases inside an insect, few insect species are competent vectors for these pathogens. Molecular approaches have identified the potential insect vectors of blood parasites under natural conditions. However, the effectiveness of this methodology for verifying mosquito competence in the transmission of avian malaria parasites and related haemosporidians is still under debate. This is mainly because positive amplifications of parasite DNA in mosquitoes can be obtained not only from sporozoites, the infective phase of the malaria parasites that migrate to salivary glands, but also from different non-infective parasite forms in the body of the vector. Here, we assessed the vectorial capacity of the common mosquito Culex pipiens in the transmission of two parasite genera. A total of 1,560 mosquitoes were allowed to feed on five house sparrows Passer domesticus naturally infected by Haemoproteus or co-infected by Haemoproteus/Plasmodium. A saliva sample of the mosquitoes that survived after 13 days post-exposure was taken to determine the presence of parasite DNA by PCR. Overall, 31.2% mosquito's head-thorax and 5.8% saliva samples analysed showed positive amplifications for avian malaria parasites. In contrast to Haemoproteus DNA, which was not found in either the body parts or the saliva, Plasmodium DNA was detected in both the head-thorax and the saliva of mosquitoes. Parasites isolated from mosquitoes feeding on the same bird corresponded to the same Plasmodium lineage. Our experiment provides good evidence for the competence of Cx. pipiens in the transmission of Plasmodium but not of Haemoproteus. Molecular analyses of saliva are an effective method for testing the vector competence of mosquitoes and other insects in the transmission of

  12. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-02-01

    New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and through engaging powerful policy champions to

  13. National malaria vector control policy: an analysis of the decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tesfazghi, Kemi; Hill, Jenny; Jones, Caroline; Ranson, Hilary; Worrall, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: New vector control tools are needed to combat insecticide resistance and reduce malaria transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) endorses larviciding as a supplementary vector control intervention using larvicides recommended by the WHO Pesticides Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES). The decision to scale-up larviciding in Nigeria provided an opportunity to investigate the factors influencing policy adoption and assess the role that actors and evidence play in the policymaking process, in order to draw lessons that help accelerate the uptake of new methods for vector control. Methods: A retrospective policy analysis was carried out using in-depth interviews with national level policy stakeholders to establish normative national vector control policy or strategy decision-making processes and compare these with the process that led to the decision to scale-up larviciding. The interviews were transcribed, then coded and analyzed using NVivo10. Data were coded according to pre-defined themes from an analytical policy framework developed a priori. Results: Stakeholders reported that the larviciding decision-making process deviated from the normative vector control decision-making process. National malaria policy is normally strongly influenced by WHO recommendations, but the potential of larviciding to contribute to national economic development objectives through larvicide production in Nigeria was cited as a key factor shaping the decision. The larviciding decision involved a restricted range of policy actors, and notably excluded actors that usually play advisory, consultative and evidence generation roles. Powerful actors limited the access of some actors to the policy processes and content. This may have limited the influence of scientific evidence in this policy decision. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that national vector control policy change can be facilitated by linking malaria control objectives to wider socioeconomic considerations and

  14. [Progress on the technologies of prediction on malaria and mosquito vectors].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-Min; Tang, Lin-Hua

    2007-04-30

    Various factors can impact the endemicity of malaria, proper monitoring and forecasting of the disease is of great significance. This article reviews the ways of malaria prediction including the newly developed technology of GIS/RS.

  15. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  16. Community-owned resource persons for malaria vector control: enabling factors and challenges in an operational programme in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Community participation in vector control and health services in general is of great interest to public health practitioners in developing countries, but remains complex and poorly understood. The Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, implements larval control of malaria vector mosquitoes. The UMCP delegates responsibility for routine mosquito control and surveillance to community-owned resource persons (CORPs), recruited from within local communities via the elected local government. Methods A mixed method, cross-sectional survey assessed the ability of CORPs to detect mosquito breeding sites and larvae, and investigated demographic characteristics of the CORPs, their reasons for participating in the UMCP, and their work performance. Detection coverage was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the investigator which had been reported by CORP. Detection sensitivity was estimated as the proportion of wet habitats found by the CORPS which the investigator found to contain Anopheles larvae that were also reported to be occupied by the CORP. Results The CORPs themselves perceived their role as professional rather than voluntary, with participation being a de facto form of employment. Habitat detection coverage was lower among CORPs that were recruited through the program administrative staff, compared to CORPs recruited by local government officials or health committees (Odds Ratio = 0.660, 95% confidence interval = [0.438, 0.995], P = 0.047). Staff living within their areas of responsibility had > 70% higher detection sensitivity for both Anopheline (P = 0.016) and Culicine (P = 0.012): positive habitats compared to those living outside those same areas. Discussion and conclusions Improved employment conditions as well as involving the local health committees in recruiting individual program staff, communication and community engagement skills are required to optimize achieving effective community

  17. Policy development in malaria vector management in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Cliff, Julie; Lewin, Simon; Woelk, Godfrey; Fernandes, Benedita; Mariano, Alda; Sevene, Esperança; Daniels, Karen; Matinhure, Sheillah; Oxman, Andrew; Lavis, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), two principal malaria control strategies, are similar in cost and efficacy. We aimed to describe recent policy development regarding their use in Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe. Methods Using a qualitative case study methodology, we undertook semi-structured interviews of key informants from May 2004 to March 2005, carried out document reviews and developed timelines of key events. We used an analytical framework that distinguished three broad categories: interests, ideas and events. Results A disparate mix of interests and ideas slowed the uptake of ITNs in Mozambique and Zimbabwe and prevented uptake in South Africa. Most respondents strongly favoured one strategy over the other. In all three countries, national policy makers favoured IRS, and only in Mozambique did national researchers support ITNs. Outside interests in favour of IRS included manufacturers who supplied the insecticides and groups opposing environmental regulation. International research networks, multilateral organizations, bilateral donors and international NGOs supported ITNs. Research evidence, local conditions, logistic feasibility, past experience, reaction to outside ideas, community acceptability, the role of government and NGOs, and harm from insecticides used in spraying influenced the choice of strategy. The end of apartheid permitted a strongly pro-IRS South Africa to influence the region, and in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, floods provided conditions conducive to ITN distribution. Conclusions Both IRS and ITNs have a place in integrated malaria vector management, but pro-IRS interests and ideas slowed or prevented the uptake of ITNs. Policy makers needed more than evidence from trials to change from the time-honoured IRS strategy that they perceived was working. Those intending to promote new policies such as ITNs should examine the interests and ideas motivating key stakeholders and their own

  18. Ovicidal, repellent, adulticidal and field evaluations of plant extract against dengue, malaria and filarial vectors.

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Thiyagarajan, Perumal; John William, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Mosquitoes are insect vectors responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections to millions of people worldwide, with substantial morbidity and mortality. Infections transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, yellow fever, chikungunya, filariasis and other arboviruses. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The adulticidal activities of crude hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha alnifolia were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate adulticide effects; however, the highest adult mortality was found in methanol extract were observed. The LC(50) values of A. alnifolia leaf extracts against adulticidal activity of (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol) A. aegypti, A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus were the following: A. aegypti values were 371.87, 342.97, 320.17, 300.86 and 279.75 ppm; A. stephensi values were 358.35, 336.64, 306.10, 293.01 and 274.76 ppm; C. quinquefasciatus values were 383.59, 354.13, 327.74, 314.33 and 291.71 ppm. The results of the repellent activity of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract of A. alnifolia plant at three different concentrations of 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of forearm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, this plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Mortality of 100

  19. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for investigating their ecology under natural conditions without risk of exposure to disease. Assessment of vector life-history and demographic traits under natural conditions has also been hindered by the inherent difficulty of sampling these seasonally and temporally varying populations with the limited range of currently available tools. Consequently much of our knowledge of vector biology comes from studies of laboratory colonies, which may not accurately represent the genetic and behavioural diversity of natural populations. Contained semi-field systems (SFS) have been proposed as more appropriate tools for the study of vector ecology. SFS are relatively large, netting-enclosed, mesocosms in which vectors can fly freely, feed on natural plant and vertebrate host sources, and access realistic resting and oviposition sites. Methods A self-replicating population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis was established within a large field cage (21 × 9.1 × 7.1 m) at the Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania that mimics the natural habitat features of the rural village environments where these vectors naturally occur. Offspring from wild females were used to establish this population whose life-history, behaviour and demography under semi-field conditions was monitored over 24 generations. Results This study reports the first successful establishment and maintenance of an African malaria vector population under SFS conditions for multiple generations (> 24). The host-seeking behaviour, time from blood feeding to oviposition, larval development, adult resting and swarming behaviour exhibited by An. arabiensis under SFS conditions were similar to those seen in nature. Conclusions

  20. Establishment of a self-propagating population of the African malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis under semi-field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ng'habi, Kija R N; Mwasheshi, Dickson; Knols, Bart G J; Ferguson, Heather M

    2010-12-08

    The successful control of insect disease vectors relies on a thorough understanding of their ecology and behaviour. However, knowledge of the ecology of many human disease vectors lags behind that of agricultural pests. This is partially due to the paucity of experimental tools for investigating their ecology under natural conditions without risk of exposure to disease. Assessment of vector life-history and demographic traits under natural conditions has also been hindered by the inherent difficulty of sampling these seasonally and temporally varying populations with the limited range of currently available tools. Consequently much of our knowledge of vector biology comes from studies of laboratory colonies, which may not accurately represent the genetic and behavioural diversity of natural populations. Contained semi-field systems (SFS) have been proposed as more appropriate tools for the study of vector ecology. SFS are relatively large, netting-enclosed, mesocosms in which vectors can fly freely, feed on natural plant and vertebrate host sources, and access realistic resting and oviposition sites. A self-replicating population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis was established within a large field cage (21 × 9.1 × 7.1 m) at the Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania that mimics the natural habitat features of the rural village environments where these vectors naturally occur. Offspring from wild females were used to establish this population whose life-history, behaviour and demography under semi-field conditions was monitored over 24 generations. This study reports the first successful establishment and maintenance of an African malaria vector population under SFS conditions for multiple generations (> 24). The host-seeking behaviour, time from blood feeding to oviposition, larval development, adult resting and swarming behaviour exhibited by An. arabiensis under SFS conditions were similar to those seen in nature. This study presents proof

  1. Nightly biting cycles of malaria vectors in a heterogeneous transmission area of eastern Amazonian Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Robert H; Lounibos, L Philip; Nishimura, Naoya; Galardo, Allan K R; Galardo, Clicia D; Arruda, Mercia E

    2013-07-26

    The biting cycle of anopheline mosquitoes is an important component in the transmission of malaria. Inter- and intraspecific biting patterns of anophelines have been investigated using the number of mosquitoes caught over time to compare general tendencies in host-seeking activity and cumulative catch. In this study, all-night biting catch data from 32 consecutive months of collections in three riverine villages were used to compare biting cycles of the five most abundant vector species using common statistics to quantify variability and deviations of nightly catches from a normal distribution. Three communities were selected for study. All-night human landing catches of mosquitoes were made each month in the peridomestic environment of four houses (sites) for nine consecutive days from April 2003 to November 2005. Host-seeking activities of the five most abundant species that were previously captured infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium vivax, were analysed and compared by measuring the amount of variation in numbers biting per unit time (co-efficient of variation, V), the degree to which the numbers of individuals per unit time were asymmetrical (skewness = g1) and the relative peakedness or flatness of the distribution (kurtosis = g2). To analyse variation in V, g1, and g2 within species and villages, we used mixed model nested ANOVAs (PROC GLM in SAS) with independent variables (sources of variation): year, month (year), night (year X month) and collection site (year X month). The biting cycles of the most abundant species, Anopheles darlingi, had the least pronounced biting peaks, the lowest mean V values, and typically non-significant departures from normality in g1 and g2. By contrast, the species with the most sharply defined crepuscular biting peaks, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles triannulatus, showed high to moderate mean V values and, most commonly, significantly positive skewness (g1) and

  2. Nightly biting cycles of malaria vectors in a heterogeneous transmission area of eastern Amazonian Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The biting cycle of anopheline mosquitoes is an important component in the transmission of malaria. Inter- and intraspecific biting patterns of anophelines have been investigated using the number of mosquitoes caught over time to compare general tendencies in host-seeking activity and cumulative catch. In this study, all-night biting catch data from 32 consecutive months of collections in three riverine villages were used to compare biting cycles of the five most abundant vector species using common statistics to quantify variability and deviations of nightly catches from a normal distribution. Methods Three communities were selected for study. All-night human landing catches of mosquitoes were made each month in the peridomestic environment of four houses (sites) for nine consecutive days from April 2003 to November 2005. Host-seeking activities of the five most abundant species that were previously captured infected with Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium vivax, were analysed and compared by measuring the amount of variation in numbers biting per unit time (co-efficient of variation, V), the degree to which the numbers of individuals per unit time were asymmetrical (skewness = g1) and the relative peakedness or flatness of the distribution (kurtosis = g2). To analyse variation in V, g1, and g2 within species and villages, we used mixed model nested ANOVAs (PROC GLM in SAS) with independent variables (sources of variation): year, month (year), night (year X month) and collection site (year X month). Results The biting cycles of the most abundant species, Anopheles darlingi, had the least pronounced biting peaks, the lowest mean V values, and typically non-significant departures from normality in g1 and g2. By contrast, the species with the most sharply defined crepuscular biting peaks, Anopheles marajoara, Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles triannulatus, showed high to moderate mean V values and, most commonly, significantly

  3. Optimized Pan-species and Speciation Duplex Real-time PCR Assays for Plasmodium Parasites Detection in Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sandeu, Maurice Marcel; Moussiliou, Azizath; Moiroux, Nicolas; Padonou, Gilles G.; Massougbodji, Achille; Corbel, Vincent; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito’s vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP) is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Methods Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. Results The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6%) and specificity (98%), compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was “excellent” (κ = 0.8, P<0.05). The relative quantification of Plasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P = 0, 2). All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. Conclusion This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the

  4. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Kayla G; Weedall, Gareth D; Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba; Hemingway, Janet; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-02-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the 'resistance curve' and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised.

  5. Genomic Footprints of Selective Sweeps from Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in African Malaria Vectors Are Driven by Scale up of Insecticide-Based Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Ndula, Miranda; Irving, Helen; Mzihalowa, Themba

    2017-01-01

    Insecticide resistance in mosquito populations threatens recent successes in malaria prevention. Elucidating patterns of genetic structure in malaria vectors to predict the speed and direction of the spread of resistance is essential to get ahead of the ‘resistance curve’ and to avert a public health catastrophe. Here, applying a combination of microsatellite analysis, whole genome sequencing and targeted sequencing of a resistance locus, we elucidated the continent-wide population structure of a major African malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. We identified a major selective sweep in a genomic region controlling cytochrome P450-based metabolic resistance conferring high resistance to pyrethroids. This selective sweep occurred since 2002, likely as a direct consequence of scaled up vector control as revealed by whole genome and fine-scale sequencing of pre- and post-intervention populations. Fine-scaled analysis of the pyrethroid resistance locus revealed that a resistance-associated allele of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6P9a has swept through southern Africa to near fixation, in contrast to high polymorphism levels before interventions, conferring high levels of pyrethroid resistance linked to control failure. Population structure analysis revealed a barrier to gene flow between southern Africa and other areas, which may prevent or slow the spread of the southern mechanism of pyrethroid resistance to other regions. By identifying a genetic signature of pyrethroid-based interventions, we have demonstrated the intense selective pressure that control interventions exert on mosquito populations. If this level of selection and spread of resistance continues unabated, our ability to control malaria with current interventions will be compromised. PMID:28151952

  6. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%). Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36%) and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%). The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of fruits and seeds

  7. Feasibility and implementation of community-based malaria case management with integrated vector control in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Swana, Edouard Kawawa; Makan, Ghislain Yav; Mukeng, Clarence Kaut; Mupumba, Henriette Ilunga; Kalaba, Gabriel Mutabusha; Luboya, Oscar Numbi; Bangs, Michael J

    2016-08-15

    Malaria prevalence in the Mulumbu Health Area in Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo has remained high (>70 %) despite repeated vector control (indoor residual spray) and mass insecticide-treated bed net coverage. Therefore, a pilot study was implemented to attack the parasite directly and demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of community case management of malaria (CCMm) using trained community health workers (CHWs). A 13 month prospective evaluation of CCMm was undertaken in 14 rural villages. Focus group discussions and structured interviews were conducted in pre- and post-intervention periods to assess community acceptability of CCMm. Weekly data collected by CHWs assessed program impact over time, matched with malaria school-based prevalence surveys (MSPS) in the Mulumbu Health Area (CCMm study arm) compared to a comparison (non-CCMm) arm in the Mpala Health Area approximately 25 km apart. Overall population perception of the CCMm was highly positive. 6619 community contacts were managed by CHWs from which 1433 (21.6 %) were malaria positive by rapid detection tests during the 10 month intervention. Among the malaria infected, 94.7 % (1358) were recorded as 'uncomplicated' infections with 99.7 % provided full course of treatment. CHWs referred 278 (4.2 %) patients deemed 'complicated' to a designated primary health center for advanced care. While pre-intervention MSPS data revealed significantly higher (p = 0.0135) malaria in the CCMm area compared to the non-CCMm area, at post-intervention there was no statistical difference (p = 0.562) between the two areas. Notably, for the first time, no malaria-related deaths were recorded in the 14 CCMm intervention villages during observation. Community case management of malaria was shown to be an effective and promising strategy for prompt and effective management of malaria. It was well accepted by the community and showed evidence of a reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality

  8. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae discriminative feeding behaviour. Methods Dual choice olfactometer assays were used to study odour discrimination by An. gambiae to three suspected host plants: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) and Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae). Sugar content of the three plant species was determined by analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives by coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and confirmed with authentic standards. Volatiles from intact plants of the three species were collected on Super Q and analyzed by coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-MS to identify electrophysiologically-active components whose identities were also confirmed with authentic standards. Active compounds and blends were formulated using dose–response olfactory bioassays. Responses of females were converted into preference indices and analyzed by chi-square tests. The amounts of common behaviourally-active components released by the three host plants were compared with one-way ANOVA. Results Overall, the sugar contents were similar in the two Asteraceae plants, P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, but richer in R. communis. Odours released by P. hysterophorus were the most attractive, with those from B. pilosa being the least attractive to females in the olfactometer assays. Six EAD-active components identified were consistently detected by the antennae of adult females. The amounts of common antennally-active components released varied with the host plant, with the highest amounts released by P. hysterophorus. In dose–response assays, single compounds and blends of these components were attractive to females but to

  9. Behavioural response of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae to host plant volatiles and synthetic blends.

    PubMed

    Nyasembe, Vincent O; Teal, Peter E A; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Tumlinson, James H; Torto, Baldwyn

    2012-10-15

    Sugar feeding is critical for survival of malaria vectors and, although discriminative plant feeding previously has been shown to occur in Anopheles gambiae s.s., little is known about the cues mediating attraction to these plants. In this study, we investigated the role of olfaction in An. gambiae discriminative feeding behaviour. Dual choice olfactometer assays were used to study odour discrimination by An. gambiae to three suspected host plants: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) and Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae). Sugar content of the three plant species was determined by analysis of their trimethylsilyl derivatives by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and confirmed with authentic standards. Volatiles from intact plants of the three species were collected on Super Q and analyzed by coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-MS to identify electrophysiologically-active components whose identities were also confirmed with authentic standards. Active compounds and blends were formulated using dose-response olfactory bioassays. Responses of females were converted into preference indices and analyzed by chi-square tests. The amounts of common behaviourally-active components released by the three host plants were compared with one-way ANOVA. Overall, the sugar contents were similar in the two Asteraceae plants, P. hysterophorus and B. pilosa, but richer in R. communis. Odours released by P. hysterophorus were the most attractive, with those from B. pilosa being the least attractive to females in the olfactometer assays. Six EAD-active components identified were consistently detected by the antennae of adult females. The amounts of common antennally-active components released varied with the host plant, with the highest amounts released by P. hysterophorus. In dose-response assays, single compounds and blends of these components were attractive to females but to varying levels, with one of the blends

  10. The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria control was strengthened in Zambia over the past decade. The two primary interventions for vector control are indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Using passive malaria surveillance data collected from 2006 to 2011 through the Zambian District Health Information System, the associations between increased coverage with LLINs and IRS and the burden of malaria in Zambia were evaluated. Methods National passive malaria surveillance data from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. A district-level, random-effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with LLINs and IRS. Malaria cases and LLINs and IRS coverage were mapped to visualize spatiotemporal variation in malaria for each year. Results From 2006–2011, 24.6 million LLINs were distributed and 6.4 million houses were sprayed with insecticide. Coverage with LLINs was not uniformly distributed over the study period and IRS was targeted to central and southern districts where malaria transmission was low. LLIN coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria cases, although an increase in the number of malaria cases was reported in some districts over the study period. A high burden of malaria persisted in north-eastern Zambia, whereas a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases was observed in western and southern Zambia. Conclusion Enhanced and targeted interventions in north-eastern Zambia where the burden of malaria remains high, as well as efforts to sustain low malaria transmission in the south-west, will be necessary for Zambia to achieve the national goal of being malaria free by 2030. PMID:24289177

  11. The changing burden of malaria and association with vector control interventions in Zambia using district-level surveillance data, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Chanda, Emmanuel; Haque, Ubydul; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Sikaala, Chadwick; Katebe-Sakala, Cecilia; Mukonka, Victor M; Norris, Douglas E; Smith, David L; Glass, Gregory E; Moss, William J

    2013-12-01

    Malaria control was strengthened in Zambia over the past decade. The two primary interventions for vector control are indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Using passive malaria surveillance data collected from 2006 to 2011 through the Zambian District Health Information System, the associations between increased coverage with LLINs and IRS and the burden of malaria in Zambia were evaluated. National passive malaria surveillance data from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. A district-level, random-effects model with Poisson regression was used to explore the association between malaria cases and coverage with LLINs and IRS. Malaria cases and LLINs and IRS coverage were mapped to visualize spatiotemporal variation in malaria for each year. From 2006-2011, 24.6 million LLINs were distributed and 6.4 million houses were sprayed with insecticide. Coverage with LLINs was not uniformly distributed over the study period and IRS was targeted to central and southern districts where malaria transmission was low. LLIN coverage was associated with a reduction in malaria cases, although an increase in the number of malaria cases was reported in some districts over the study period. A high burden of malaria persisted in north-eastern Zambia, whereas a reduction in the number of reported malaria cases was observed in western and southern Zambia. Enhanced and targeted interventions in north-eastern Zambia where the burden of malaria remains high, as well as efforts to sustain low malaria transmission in the south-west, will be necessary for Zambia to achieve the national goal of being malaria free by 2030.

  12. Preliminary Biological Studies on Larvae and Adult Anopheles Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Miraflores, a Malaria Endemic Locality in Guaviare Department, Amazonian Colombia

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    In the malaria endemic municipality of Miraflores in southeastern Amazonian Colombia, several aspects of the biology of local Anopheles species were investigated to supplement the limited entomological surveillance information available and to provide baseline data for malaria prevention and vector control. Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 was the most abundant species (95.6%), followed by Anopheles braziliensis (Chagas) (3.6%) and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. (Peryassu) (0.7%). During the dry season, exophagic activity was prevalent only between 1800–2100 hours; after this (2100–0600 hours) only endophagy was encountered. In contrast, during the rainy season, both endophagy and exophagy occurred throughout the collection period. The human biting rate for An. darlingi was 8.6. This species was positive for Plasmodium vivax VK210 with a sporozoite rate = 0.13 (1/788). Breeding sites corresponded to stream (n = 7), flooded excavations (n = 4), flooded forest (n = 1), wetlands (n = 2), and an abandoned water reservoir (n = 1). An. darlingi predominated in these sites in both seasons. Based on these data, An. darlingi is the main local malaria vector, and we recommend that local prevention and control efforts focus on strengthening entomological surveillance to determine potential changes of species biting behavior and time to reduce human–vector interactions. PMID:25276930

  13. Preliminary biological studies on larvae and adult Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Miraflores, a malaria endemic locality in Guaviare department, Amazonian Colombia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Irene P; Jiménez, Irene P; Conn, Jan E; Brochero, Helena

    2014-09-01

    In the malaria endemic municipality of Miraflores in southeastern Amazonian Colombia, several aspects of the biology of local Anopheles species were investigated to supplement the limited entomological surveillance information available and to provide baseline data for malaria prevention and vector control. Anopheles darlingi Root, 1926 was the most abundant species (95.6%), followed by Anopheles braziliensis (Chagas) (3.6%) and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. (Peryassu) (0.7%). During the dry season, exophagic activity was prevalent only between 1800-2100 hours; after this (2100-0600 hours) only endophagy was encountered. In contrast, during the rainy season, both endophagy and exophagy occurred throughout the collection period. The human biting rate for An. darlingi was 8.6. This species was positive for Plasmodium vivax VK210 with a sporozoite rate = 0.13 (1/788). Breeding sites corresponded to stream (n = 7), flooded excavations (n = 4), flooded forest (n = 1), wetlands (n = 2), and an abandoned water reservoir (n = 1). An. darlingi predominated in these sites in both seasons. Based on these data, An. darlingi is the main local malaria vector, and we recommend that local prevention and control efforts focus on strengthening entomological surveillance to determine potential changes of species biting behavior and time to reduce human-vector interactions.

  14. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; Hii, Jeffrey; Soares, Agnes; Mnzava, Abraham; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh; Dash, Aditya P; Ejov, Mikhail; Tan, Soo Hian; Matthews, Graham; Yadav, Rajpal S; Zaim, Morteza

    2011-05-14

    It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  15. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate), representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach. PMID:21569601

  16. Malaria.

    PubMed

    Heck, J E

    1991-03-01

    Human malaria is caused by four species of the genus plasmodium. The sexual stage of the parasite occurs in the mosquito and asexual reproduction occurs in man. Symptoms of fever, chills, headache, and myalgia result from the invasion and rupture of erythrocytes. Merozoites are released from erythrocytes and invade other cells, thus propagating the infection. The most vulnerable hosts are nonimmune travelers, young children living in the tropics, and pregnant women. P. falciparum causes the most severe infections because it infects RBCs of all ages and has the propensity to develop resistance to antimalarials. Rapid diagnosis can be made with a malarial smear, and treatment should be initiated promptly. In some regions (Mexico, Central America except Panama, and North Africa) chloroquine phosphate is effective therapy. In subsaharan Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia, chloroquine resistance has become widespread, and other antimalarials are necessary. The primary care physician should have a high index of suspicion for malaria in the traveler returning from the tropics. Malaria should also be suspected in the febrile transfusion recipient and newborns of mothers with malaria.

  17. Can malaria vector control accelerate the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission in Africa; capturing a window of opportunity?

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Molyneux, David H; Bockarie, Moses J

    2013-02-22

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was launched in 2000, and nearly all endemic countries in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean and Asia-Pacific regions have now initiated the WHO recommended mass drug administration (MDA) campaign to interrupt transmission of the parasite. However, nearly 50% of the LF endemic countries in Africa are yet to implement the GPELF MDA strategy, which does not include vector control. Nevertheless, the recent scale up in insecticide treated /long lasting nets (ITNs/LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control in Africa may significantly impact LF transmission because the parasite is transmitted mainly by Anopheles mosquitoes. This study examined the magnitude, geographical extent and potential impact of vector control in the 17 African countries that are yet to or have only recently started MDA. National data on mosquito bed nets, ITNs/LLINs and IRS were obtained from published literature, national reports, surveys and datasets from public sources such as Demographic Health Surveys, Malaria Indicator Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, Malaria Report, Roll Back Malaria and President's Malaria Initiative websites. The type, number and distribution of interventions were summarised and mapped at sub-national level. and compared with known or potential LF distributions, and those which may be co-endemic with Loa loa and MDA is contraindicated. Analyses found that vector control activities had increased significantly since 2005, with a three-fold increase in ITN ownership and IRS coverage. However, coverage varied dramatically across the 17 countries; some regions reported >70% ITNs ownership and regular IRS activity, while others had no coverage in remote rural populations where the risk of LF was potentially high and co-endemic with high risk L.loa. Despite many African countries being slow to initiate MDA for LF, the continued commitment and global financial support for NTDs, and the

  18. Landscape Movements of Anopheles gambiae Malaria Vector Mosquitoes in Rural Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Christopher J.; Cross, Dónall E.; Bøgh, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background For malaria control in Africa it is crucial to characterise the dispersal of its most efficient vector, Anopheles gambiae, in order to target interventions and assess their impact spatially. Our study is, we believe, the first to present a statistical model of dispersal probability against distance from breeding habitat to human settlements for this important disease vector. Methods/Principal Findings We undertook post-hoc analyses of mosquito catches made in The Gambia to derive statistical dispersal functions for An. gambiae sensu lato collected in 48 villages at varying distances to alluvial larval habitat along the River Gambia. The proportion dispersing declined exponentially with distance, and we estimated that 90% of movements were within 1.7 km. Although a ‘heavy-tailed’ distribution is considered biologically more plausible due to active dispersal by mosquitoes seeking blood meals, there was no statistical basis for choosing it over a negative exponential distribution. Using a simple random walk model with daily survival and movements previously recorded in Burkina Faso, we were able to reproduce the dispersal probabilities observed in The Gambia. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide an important quantification of the probability of An. gambiae s.l. dispersal in a rural African setting typical of many parts of the continent. However, dispersal will be landscape specific and in order to generalise to other spatial configurations of habitat and hosts it will be necessary to produce tractable models of mosquito movements for operational use. We show that simple random walk models have potential. Consequently, there is a pressing need for new empirical studies of An. gambiae survival and movements in different settings to drive this development. PMID:23874719

  19. Artificial activation of mature unfertilized eggs in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    In the past decade, many transgenic lines of mosquitoes have been generated and analyzed, whereas the maintenance of a large number of transgenic lines requires a great deal of effort and cost. In vitro fertilization by an injection of cryopreserved sperm into eggs has been proven to be effective for the maintenance of strains in mammals. The technique of artificial egg activation is a prerequisite for the establishment of in vitro fertilization by sperm injection. We demonstrated that artificial egg activation is feasible in the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera, Culicidae). Nearly 100% of eggs dissected from virgin females immersed in distilled water darkened, similar to normally oviposited fertilized eggs. It was revealed by the cytological examination of chromosomes that meiotic arrest was relieved in these eggs approximately 20 min after incubation in water. Biochemical examinations revealed that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) and MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase) were dephosphorylated similar to that in fertilized eggs. These results indicate that dissected unfertilized eggs were activated in distilled water and started development. Injection of distilled water into body cavity of the virgin blood-fed females also induced activation of a portion of eggs in the ovaries. The technique of artificial egg activation is expected to contribute to the success of in vitro fertilization in A. stephensi.

  20. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Kevin C.; Athrey, Giridhar A.; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J.; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A.

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression. PMID:27466271

  1. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K

    2012-12-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout Southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except Northern Thailand with Central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant F(s) values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular characterization of the malaria vector Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gajapathy, Kanapathy; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Goodacre, Sara L; Peiris, Lalanthika B S; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2014-07-29

    Anopheles barbirostris is a vector of malaria in Sri Lanka. The taxon exists as a species complex in the Southeast Asian region. Previous studies using molecular markers suggest that there are more than 4 distinct clades within the An. barbirostris complex in Southeast Asia. The present study characterizes Sri Lankan An. barbirostris using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene sequences. DNA was extracted from morphologically identified An. barbirostris specimens from Sri Lanka, the COI and ITS2 regions amplified and their sequences analysed by comparison with other GenBank entries. Maximum likelihood trees suggested that Sri Lankan An. barbirostris constitute a different molecular type most closely related to clade I. Considering the uncorrected p distances between the clade I and Sri Lankan specimens it is fair to assume that the specimens collected from widely separated locations in Sri Lanka with morphology characteristic of An. barbirostris s.l. form a new molecular type with close resemblance to An. barbirostris s.s from Indonesia and Thailand.

  3. Stability and bifurcation analysis of a vector-bias model of malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Buonomo, Bruno; Vargas-De-León, Cruz

    2013-03-01

    The vector-bias model of malaria transmission, recently proposed by Chamchod and Britton, is considered. Nonlinear stability analysis is performed by means of the Lyapunov theory and the LaSalle Invariance Principle. The classical threshold for the basic reproductive number, R(0), is obtained: if R(0)>1, then the disease will spread and persist within its host population. If R(0)<1, then the disease will die out. Then, the model has been extended to incorporate both immigration and disease-induced death of humans. This modification has been shown to strongly affect the system dynamics. In particular, by using the theory of center manifold, the occurrence of a backward bifurcation at R(0)=1 is shown possible. This implies that a stable endemic equilibrium may also exists for R(0)<1. When R(0)>1, the endemic persistence of the disease has been proved to hold also for the extended model. This last result is obtained by means of the geometric approach to global stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lethal Effects of Aspergillus niger against Mosquitoes Vector of Filaria, Malaria, and Dengue: A Liquid Mycoadulticide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus. It has caused a disease called black mold on certain fruits and vegetables. The culture filtrates released from the A. niger ATCC 66566 were grown in Czapek dox broth (CDB) then filtered with flash chromatograph and were used for the bioassay after a growth of thirty days. The result demonstrated these mortalities with LC50, LC90, and LC99 values of Culex quinquefasciatus 0.76, 3.06, and 4.75, Anopheles stephensi 1.43, 3.2, and 3.86, and Aedes aegypti 1.43, 2.2, and 4.1 μl/cm2, after exposure of seven hours. We have calculated significant LT90 values of Cx. quinquefasciatus 4.5, An. stephensi 3.54, and Ae. aegypti 6.0 hrs, respectively. This liquid spray of fungal culture isolate of A. niger can reduce malaria, dengue, and filarial transmission. These results significantly support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond chemical adulticides. PMID:22629156

  5. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  6. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas.

    PubMed

    Deitz, Kevin C; Athrey, Giridhar A; Jawara, Musa; Overgaard, Hans J; Matias, Abrahan; Slotman, Michel A

    2016-09-08

    Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq) from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  7. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females. PMID:26900947

  8. The role of proboscis of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi in host-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The proboscis is an essential head appendage in insects that processes gustatory code during food intake, particularly useful considering that blood-sucking arthropods routinely reach vessels under the host skin using this proboscis as a probe. Results Here, using an automated device able to quantify CO2-activated thermo (35°C)-sensing behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, we uncovered that the protruding proboscis of mosquitoes contributes unexpectedly to host identification from a distance. Ablation experiments indicated that not only antennae and maxillary palps, but also proboscis were required for the identification of pseudo-thermo targets. Furthermore, the function of the proboscis during this behavior can be segregated from CO2 detection required to evoke mosquito activation, suggesting that the proboscis of mosquitoes divide the proboscis into a "thermo-antenna" in addition to a "thermo-probe". Conclusions Our findings support an emerging view with a possible role of proboscis as important equipment during host-seeking, and give us an insight into how these appendages likely evolved from a common origin in order to function as antenna organs. PMID:21272298

  9. piRNA pathway gene expression in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Macias, V; Coleman, J; Bonizzoni, M; James, A A

    2014-10-01

    The ability of transposons to mobilize to new places in a genome enables them to introgress rapidly into populations. The piRNA pathway has been characterized recently in the germ line of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and is responsible for downregulating transposon mobility. Transposons have been used as tools in mosquitoes to genetically transform a number of species including Anopheles stephensi, a vector of human malaria. These mobile genetic elements also have been proposed as tools to drive antipathogen effector genes into wild mosquito populations to replace pathogen-susceptible insects with those engineered genetically to be resistant to or unable to transmit a pathogen. The piRNA pathway may affect the performance of such proposed genetic engineering strategies. In the present study, we identify and describe the An. stephensi orthologues of the major genes in the piRNA pathway, Ago3, Aubergine (Aub) and Piwi. Consistent with a role in protection from transposon movement, these three genes are expressed constitutively in the germ-line cells of ovaries and induced further after a blood meal. © 2014 The Authors. Insect Molecular Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Malaria Mosquito Vector-Associated Novel Pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Jeanette; Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Tay, Martin; Ding, Yichen; Li, Yingying; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Lin, Raymond T.P.; Yang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments. PMID:24803570

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of malaria mosquito vector-associated novel pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jeanette; Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Tay, Martin; Ding, Yichen; Li, Yingying; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Givskov, Michael; Lin, Raymond T P; Yang, Liang

    2014-05-06

    Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments.

  12. Insights from the Genome Annotation of Elizabethkingia anophelis from the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Dong; Rayl, Melanie; Yu, Wanqin; Steritz, Matthew; Faye, Ingrid; Xu, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is a dominant bacterial species in the gut ecosystem of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. We recently sequenced the genomes of two strains of E. anophelis, R26T and Ag1, isolated from different strains of A. gambiae. The two bacterial strains are identical with a few exceptions. Phylogenetically, Elizabethkingia is closer to Chryseobacterium and Riemerella than to Flavobacterium. In line with other Bacteroidetes known to utilize various polymers in their ecological niches, the E. anophelis genome contains numerous TonB dependent transporters with various substrate specificities. In addition, several genes belonging to the polysaccharide utilization system and the glycoside hydrolase family were identified that could potentially be of benefit for the mosquito carbohydrate metabolism. In agreement with previous reports of broad antibiotic resistance in E. anophelis, a large number of genes encoding efflux pumps and β-lactamases are present in the genome. The component genes of resistance-nodulation-division type efflux pumps were found to be syntenic and conserved in different taxa of Bacteroidetes. The bacterium also displays hemolytic activity and encodes several hemolysins that may participate in the digestion of erythrocytes in the mosquito gut. At the same time, the OxyR regulon and antioxidant genes could provide defense against the oxidative stress that is associated with blood digestion. The genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis revealed functional characteristics associated with the symbiotic relationship with the mosquito host. PMID:24842809

  13. Insights from the genome annotation of Elizabethkingia anophelis from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kukutla, Phanidhar; Lindberg, Bo G; Pei, Dong; Rayl, Melanie; Yu, Wanqin; Steritz, Matthew; Faye, Ingrid; Xu, Jiannong

    2014-01-01

    Elizabethkingia anophelis is a dominant bacterial species in the gut ecosystem of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. We recently sequenced the genomes of two strains of E. anophelis, R26T and Ag1, isolated from different strains of A. gambiae. The two bacterial strains are identical with a few exceptions. Phylogenetically, Elizabethkingia is closer to Chryseobacterium and Riemerella than to Flavobacterium. In line with other Bacteroidetes known to utilize various polymers in their ecological niches, the E. anophelis genome contains numerous TonB dependent transporters with various substrate specificities. In addition, several genes belonging to the polysaccharide utilization system and the glycoside hydrolase family were identified that could potentially be of benefit for the mosquito carbohydrate metabolism. In agreement with previous reports of broad antibiotic resistance in E. anophelis, a large number of genes encoding efflux pumps and β-lactamases are present in the genome. The component genes of resistance-nodulation-division type efflux pumps were found to be syntenic and conserved in different taxa of Bacteroidetes. The bacterium also displays hemolytic activity and encodes several hemolysins that may participate in the digestion of erythrocytes in the mosquito gut. At the same time, the OxyR regulon and antioxidant genes could provide defense against the oxidative stress that is associated with blood digestion. The genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis revealed functional characteristics associated with the symbiotic relationship with the mosquito host.

  14. Population genetics of the malaria vector Anopheles aconitus in China and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Harbach, Ralph E.; Walton, Catherine; He, Zhengbo; Zhong, Daibin; Yan, Guiyun; Butlin, Roger K.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles aconitus is a well-known vector of malaria and is broadly distributed in the Oriental Region, yet there is no information on its population genetic characteristics. In this study, the genetic differentiation among populations was examined using 140 mtDNA COII sequences from 21 sites throughout southern China, Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Sri Lanka. The population in Sri Lanka has characteristic rDNA D3 and ITS2, mtDNA COII and ND5 haplotypes, and may be considered a distinct subspecies. Clear genetic structure was observed with highly significant genetic variation present among population groups in Southeast Asia. The greatest genetic diversity exists in Yunnan and Myanmar population groups. All population groups are significantly different from one another in pairwise Fst values, except northern Thailand with central Thailand. Mismatch distributions and extremely significant Fs values suggest that the populations passed through a recent demographic expansion. These patterns are discussed in relation to the likely biogeographic history of the region and compared to other Anopheles species. PMID:22982161

  15. Analysis of the evolutionary forces shaping mitochondrial genomes of a Neotropical malaria vector complex

    PubMed Central

    Kr