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Sample records for malay eye study

  1. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES).

    PubMed

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y

    2015-11-09

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40-80 years between 2004-2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25-1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24-2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25-2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05-2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26-7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality.

  2. Impact of Visual Impairment and Eye diseases on Mortality: the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES)

    PubMed Central

    Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Gemmy Cheung, Chui Ming; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.; Ong, Peng Guan; Chow, Khuan Yew; Mitchell, Paul; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Cheung, Carol Y.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of visual impairment (VI) and age-related eye diseases with mortality in a prospective, population-based cohort study of 3,280 Malay adults aged 40–80 years between 2004–2006. Participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination and standardized lens and fundus photographic grading. Visual acuity was measured using logMAR chart. VI was defined as presenting (PVA) and best-corrected (BCVA) visual acuity worse than 0.30 logMAR in the better-seeing eye. Participants were linked with mortality records until 2012. During follow-up (median 7.24 years), 398 (12.2%) persons died. In Cox proportional-hazards models adjusting for relevant factors, participants with VI (PVA) had higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio[HR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.25–1.96) and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality (HR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24–2.49) than participants without. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was associated with increased all-cause (HR 1.70; 95% CI, 1.25–2.36) and CVD mortality (HR 1.57; 95% CI, 1.05–2.43). Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) was associated with increased CVD mortality (HR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.26–7.73). No significant associations were observed between cataract, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration with mortality. We conclude that persons with VI were more likely to die than persons without. DR and RVO are markers of CVD mortality. PMID:26549406

  3. Consonant acquisition in the Malay language: a cross-sectional study of preschool aged Malay children.

    PubMed

    Phoon, Hooi San; Abdullah, Anna Christina; Lee, Lay Wah; Murugaiah, Puvaneswary

    2014-05-01

    To date, there has been little research done on phonological acquisition in the Malay language of typically developing Malay-speaking children. This study serves to fill this gap by providing a systematic description of Malay consonant acquisition in a large cohort of preschool-aged children between 4- and 6-years-old. In the study, 326 Malay-dominant speaking children were assessed using a picture naming task that elicited 53 single words containing all the primary consonants in Malay. Two main analyses were conducted to study their consonant acquisition: (1) age of customary and mastery production of consonants; and (2) consonant accuracy. Results revealed that Malay children acquired all the syllable-initial and syllable-final consonants before 4;06-years-old, with the exception of syllable-final /s/, /h/ and /l/ which were acquired after 5;06-years-old. The development of Malay consonants increased gradually from 4- to 6 years old, with female children performing better than male children. The accuracy of consonants based on manner of articulation showed that glides, affricates, nasals, and stops were higher than fricatives and liquids. In general, syllable-initial consonants were more accurate than syllable-final consonants while consonants in monosyllabic and disyllabic words were more accurate than polysyllabic words. These findings will provide significant information for speech-language pathologists for assessing Malay-speaking children and designing treatment objectives that reflect the course of phonological development in Malay.

  4. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  5. Effect of Axial Eye Length on Retinal Vessel Parameters in 6 to 12-Year-Old Malay Girls

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Evelyn Li Min; Li, Ling-Jun; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan Hitam; Wong, Tien-Yin; Shatriah, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Retinal vessel analysis is affected by both systemic and ocular factors. Malays are the major ethnicity in South East Asia. Data on the retinal microvasculature in Malays is limited, especially among children. We aim to evaluate the influence of ocular biometry on retinal vessel parameters in young Malay girls. Methods This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study involving 86 Malay girls aged 6 to 12 years old in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from 2015–2016. Ocular examination, refraction, biometry, retinal photography, and anthropometric measurements were performed. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE), central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) and overall fractal dimension (Df) were measured using validated computer-based methods (Singapore I vessel analyzer, SIVA version 3.0, Singapore). The associations of ocular biometry and CRAE, CRVE and Df were analyzed using multivariable analysis. Results The mean CRAE, CRVE and Df in Malay girls were 171.40 (14.40) um, 248.02 (16.95) um and 1.42 (0.05) respectively. Each 1 mm increase in axial length was associated with a reduction of 4.25 um in the CRAE (p = 0.03) and a reduction of 0.02 in the Df (p = 0.02), after adjustment for age, blood pressure and body mass index. No association was observed between axial length and CRVE. Anterior chamber depth and corneal curvature had no association with CRAE, CRVE or Df. Conclusion Axial length affects retinal vessel measurements. Narrower retinal arterioles and reduced retinal fractal dimension were observed in Malay girls with longer axial lengths. PMID:28107389

  6. Google Translate as a Supplementary Tool for Learning Malay: A Case Study at Universiti Sains Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahri, Hossein; Mahadi, Tengku Sepora Tengku

    2016-01-01

    The present paper examines the use of Google Translate as a supplementary tool for helping international students at Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) to learn and develop their knowledge and skills in learning Bahasa Malaysia (Malay Language). The participants of the study were 16 international students at the School of Languages, Literacies, and…

  7. Anthropometric Study of Three-Dimensional Facial Morphology in Malay Adults

    PubMed Central

    Majawit, Lynnora Patrick; Mohd Razi, Roziana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To establish the three-dimensional (3D) facial soft tissue morphology of adult Malaysian subjects of the Malay ethnic group; and to determine the morphological differences between the genders, using a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera. Material and Methods One hundred and nine subjects participated in this research, 54 Malay men and 55 Malay women, aged 20–30 years old with healthy BMI and with no adverse skeletal deviation. Twenty-three facial landmarks were identified on 3D facial images captured using a VECTRA M5-360 Head System (Canfield Scientific Inc, USA). Two angular, 3 ratio and 17 linear measurements were identified using Canfield Mirror imaging software. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability tests were carried out using 10 randomly selected images, analyzed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was carried out to investigate morphologic differences between genders. Results ICC scores were generally good for both intra-examiner (range 0.827–0.987) and inter-examiner reliability (range 0.700–0.983) tests. Generally, all facial measurements were larger in men than women, except the facial profile angle which was larger in women. Clinically significant gender dimorphisms existed in biocular width, nose height, nasal bridge length, face height and lower face height values (mean difference > 3mm). Clinical significance was set at 3mm. Conclusion Facial soft tissue morphological values can be gathered efficiently and measured effectively from images captured by a non-invasive stereo-photogrammetry 3D camera. Adult men in Malaysia when compared to women had a wider distance between the eyes, a longer and more prominent nose and a longer face. PMID:27706220

  8. Fine-scale population structure of Malays in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore and implications for association studies.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Boon-Peng; Deng, Lian; Julia-Ashazila, Mat Jusoh; Zuraihan, Zakaria; Nur-Hasnah, Ma'amor; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Hatin, Wan Isa; Endom, Ismail; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Khalid, Yusoff; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-07-22

    Fine scale population structure of Malays - the major population in Malaysia, has not been well studied. This may have important implications for both evolutionary and medical studies. Here, we investigated the population sub-structure of Malay involving 431 samples collected from all states from peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. We identified two major clusters of individuals corresponding to the north and south peninsular Malaysia. On an even finer scale, the genetic coordinates of the geographical Malay populations are in correlation with the latitudes (R(2) = 0.3925; P = 0.029). This finding is further supported by the pairwise FST of Malay sub-populations, of which the north and south regions showed the highest differentiation (FST [North-south] = 0.0011). The collective findings therefore suggest that population sub-structure of Malays are more heterogenous than previously expected even within a small geographical region, possibly due to factors like different genetic origins, geographical isolation, could result in spurious association as demonstrated in our analysis. We suggest that cautions should be taken during the stage of study design or interpreting the association signals in disease mapping studies which are expected to be conducted in Malay population in the near future.

  9. A magnetic resonance imaging study on the articulatory and acoustic speech parameters of Malay vowels.

    PubMed

    Zourmand, Alireza; Mirhassani, Seyed Mostafa; Ting, Hua-Nong; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Ng, Kwan Hoong; Bilgen, Mehmet; Jalaludin, Mohd Amin

    2014-07-25

    The phonetic properties of six Malay vowels are investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the vocal tract in order to obtain dynamic articulatory parameters during speech production. To resolve image blurring due to the tongue movement during the scanning process, a method based on active contour extraction is used to track tongue contours. The proposed method efficiently tracks tongue contours despite the partial blurring of MRI images. Consequently, the articulatory parameters that are effectively measured as tongue movement is observed, and the specific shape of the tongue and its position for all six uttered Malay vowels are determined.Speech rehabilitation procedure demands some kind of visual perceivable prototype of speech articulation. To investigate the validity of the measured articulatory parameters based on acoustic theory of speech production, an acoustic analysis based on the uttered vowels by subjects has been performed. As the acoustic speech and articulatory parameters of uttered speech were examined, a correlation between formant frequencies and articulatory parameters was observed. The experiments reported a positive correlation between the constriction location of the tongue body and the first formant frequency, as well as a negative correlation between the constriction location of the tongue tip and the second formant frequency. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is an effective tool for the dynamic study of speech production.

  10. Validity of the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test: a study on a group of medical students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ng Chong; Isa, Saramah Mohammed; Hashim, Aili Hanim; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Harbajan Singh, Manveen Kaur

    2015-03-01

    The use of the Internet has been increasing dramatically over the decade in Malaysia. Excessive usage of the Internet has lead to a phenomenon called Internet addiction. There is a need for a reliable, valid, and simple-to-use scale to measure Internet addiction in the Malaysian population for clinical practice and research purposes. The aim of this study was to validate the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test, using a sample of 162 medical students. The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91), parallel reliability (intraclass coefficient = .88, P < .001), and concurrent validity with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (Pearson's correlation = .84, P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that 43 was the optimal cutoff score to discriminate students with and without Internet dependence. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified a 5-factor model. The Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test appeared to be a valid instrument for assessing Internet addiction in Malaysian university students.

  11. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T.; Collins, Clare E.; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia. PMID:28117690

  12. Proposal: A Hybrid Dictionary Modelling Approach for Malay Tweet Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Nor Azlizawati Binti; Idris, Norisma; Arshi Saloot, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Malay Twitter message presents a special deviation from the original language. Malay Tweet widely used currently by Twitter users, especially at Malaya archipelago. Thus, it is important to make a normalization system which can translated Malay Tweet language into the standard Malay language. Some researchers have conducted in natural language processing which mainly focuses on normalizing English Twitter messages, while few studies have been done for normalize Malay Tweets. This paper proposes an approach to normalize Malay Twitter messages based on hybrid dictionary modelling methods. This approach normalizes noisy Malay twitter messages such as colloquially language, novel words, and interjections into standard Malay language. This research will be used Language Model and N-grams model.

  13. Rate of multilingual phonological acquisition: Evidence from a cross-sectional study of English-Mandarin-Malay.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hui W; Wells, Bill; Howard, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Early child multilingual acquisition is under-explored. Using a cross-sectional study approach, the present research investigates the rate of multilingual phonological acquisition of English-Mandarin-Malay by 64 ethnic Chinese children aged 2;06-4;05 in Malaysia--a multiracial-multilingual country of Asia. The aims of the study are to provide clinical norms for speech development in the multilingual children and to compare multilingual acquisition with monolingual and bilingual acquisition. An innovative multilingual phonological test which adopts well-defined scoring criteria drawing upon local accents of English, Mandarin and Malay is proposed and described in this article. This procedure has been neglected in the few existing Chinese bilingual phonological acquisition studies resulting in peculiar findings. The multilingual children show comparable phonological acquisition milestones to that of monolingual and bilingual peers acquiring the same languages. The implications of the present results are discussed. The present findings contribute to the development of models and theories of child multilingual acquisition.

  14. Measuring Land Uses Accessibility by Using Fuzzy Majority Gis-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis Case Study: Malayer City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taravat, A.; Yari, A.; Rajaei, M.; Mousavian, R.

    2014-10-01

    Public spaces accessibility has become one of the important factors in urban planning. Therefore, considerable attention has been given to measure accessibility to public spaces on the UK, US and Canada, but there are few studies outside the anglophone world especially in developing countries such as Iran. In this study an attempt has been made to measure objective accessibility to public spaces (parks, school, library and administrative) using fuzzy majority GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis. This method is for defining the priority for distribution of urban facilities and utilities as the first step towards elimination of social justice. In order to test and demonstrate the presented model, the comprehensive plan of Malayer city has been considered for ranking in three objectives and properties in view of index per capital (Green space, sport facilities and major cultural centers like library and access index). The results can be used to inform the local planning process and the GIS approach can be expanded into other local authority domains. The results shows that the distribution of facilities in Malayer city has followed on the base of cost benefit law and the human aspect of resource allocation programming of facilities (from centre to suburbs of the city).

  15. Psychometric properties of Malay neuropsychiatry unit cognitive assessment tool among Alzheimer's disease patients in comparison to Malay Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Thong, Kai Shin; Chee, Kok Yoon; Ng, Chong Guan; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.

  16. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  17. Anthropometric measurements of the human distal femur: a study of the adult Malay population.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fitdriyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Zulkifly, Ahmad Hafiz; Sa'at, Azlin; Aziz, Azian Abd; Hossain, Golam; Kamarul, T; Syahrom, Ardiyansyah

    2013-01-01

    The distal femurs of 100 subjects (50 men, 50 women) from the Malay population aged between 19 and 38 years were scanned to measure the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) width. The mean AP values were 64.02 ± 3.38 mm and 57.33 ± 3.26 mm for men and women, respectively, and the mean ML values were 74.91 ± 3.52 mm and 64.53 ± 3.07 mm. We compared our data to that published previously for the Chinese and Indian populations. It was found that the Malay population had smaller distal femur than that of the Chinese but was larger than that of the Indian population (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although it is well established that Asians have a smaller distal femur size than that of the Western population, the variations in different Asian ethnicities may need to be considered when designing the appropriate knee implant.

  18. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  19. Understanding Arabic-Speaking Skill Learning Strategies among Selected Malay Learners: A Case-Study at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haron, Sueraya Che; Ahmad, Ismail Sheikh; Mamat, Arifin; Mohamed, Ismaiel Hassanein Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    In Malaysia, studies have shown that most Malay learners learning Arabic Language exhibit weak Arabic speaking skill despite spending years of learning the language. However, given the same learning environment and experience, some of them could be considered as good Arabic speakers as revealed by the results of Arabic Placement Test conducted by…

  20. A New Subspecies Identification and Population Study of the Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and Southern Thailand Based on Fecal DNA Method

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, M. K. A.; Syed-Shabthar, S. M. F.; Abdul-Patah, P.; Abdul-Samad, Z.; Abdul, S. N.; Burhanuddin, M. N.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Shukor, M. N.; Budsabong, K.; Changtragoon, S.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sasaki, H.; Md-Zain, B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis. PMID:24715812

  1. A new subspecies identification and population study of the Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) in Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand based on fecal DNA method.

    PubMed

    Rosli, M K A; Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Abdul-Patah, P; Abdul-Samad, Z; Abdul, S N; Burhanuddin, M N; Zulkifli, N A; Shukor, M N; Budsabong, K; Changtragoon, S; Sekiguchi, T; Sasaki, H; Md-Zain, B M

    2014-01-01

    Three species of otter can be found throughout Malay Peninsula: Aonyx cinereus, Lutra sumatrana, and Lutrogale perspicillata. In this study, we focused on the A. cinereus population that ranges from the southern and the east coast to the northern regions of Malay Peninsula up to southern Thailand to review the relationships between the populations based on the mitochondrial D-loop region. Forty-eight samples from six populations were recognized as Johor, Perak, Terengganu, Kelantan, Ranong, and Thale Noi. Among the 48 samples, 33 were identified as A. cinereus, seven as L. sumatrana, and eight as L. perspicillata. Phylogenetically, two subclades formed for A. cinereus. The first subclade grouped all Malay Peninsula samples except for samples from Kelantan, and the second subclade grouped Kelantan samples with Thai sample. Genetic distance analysis supported the close relationships between Thai and Kelantan samples compared to the samples from Terengganu and the other Malaysian states. A minimum-spanning network showed that Kelantan and Thailand formed a haplogroup distinct from the other populations. Our results show that Thai subspecies A. cinereus may have migrated to Kelantan from Thai mainland. We also suggest the classification of a new subspecies from Malay Peninsula, the small-clawed otter named A. cinereus kecilensis.

  2. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Janaka de Silva, H.; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%–62%), Proto-Malay (15%–31%), East Asian (4%–16%) and South Asian (3%–34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations. PMID:26395220

  3. Dissecting the genetic structure and admixture of four geographical Malay populations.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lian; Hoh, Boon-Peng; Lu, Dongsheng; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, H Janaka; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi; Kato, Norihiro; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Teo, Yik-Ying; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-09-23

    The Malay people are an important ethnic composition in Southeast Asia, but their genetic make-up and population structure remain poorly studied. Here we conducted a genome-wide study of four geographical Malay populations: Peninsular Malaysian Malay (PMM), Singaporean Malay (SGM), Indonesian Malay (IDM) and Sri Lankan Malay (SLM). All the four Malay populations showed substantial admixture with multiple ancestries. We identified four major ancestral components in Malay populations: Austronesian (17%-62%), Proto-Malay (15%-31%), East Asian (4%-16%) and South Asian (3%-34%). Approximately 34% of the genetic makeup of SLM is of South Asian ancestry, resulting in its distinct genetic pattern compared with the other three Malay populations. Besides, substantial differentiation was observed between the Malay populations from the north and the south, and between those from the west and the east. In summary, this study revealed that the genetic identity of the Malays comprises a mixed entity of multiple ancestries represented by Austronesian, Proto-Malay, East Asian and South Asian, with most of the admixture events estimated to have occurred 175 to 1,500 years ago, which in turn suggests that geographical isolation and independent admixture have significantly shaped the genetic architectures and the diversity of the Malay populations.

  4. Dual forms of malnutrition in the same households in Malaysia--a case study among Malay rural households.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Sharif, Zalilah Mohd

    2003-01-01

    This report is a part of a multi-centre study in Asia on the problem of dual forms of malnutrition in the same households. In Malaysia, the prevalence of underweight and stunting persist among young children from poor rural areas. Overweight in adults, especially women from poor rural areas has been reported in recent years. Thus, this study was undertaken in order to assess the presence of the dual burden of underweight child-overweight mother pairs in a poor rural community. Out of 140 Malay households identified to have at least one child aged 1-6 years and mother aged above 20 years, 52.1% of the mothers were overweight, 15.7% of the children were underweight, 27.1% stunted and 5% wasted. Socio-economic background and food intake frequency data were collected from 54 underweight child/overweight mother pairs (UW/OW) and 41 normal weight child/normal weight mother pairs (NW/NW). Compared with the overweight mothers, a higher percentage of the normal weight mothers had received secondary education, were employed and with a higher household monthly income, although these differences were not significant. Patterns of food intake of the mothers and children appeared to have more similarities than differences between the UW/OW and NW/NW groups. Quantitative dietary intakes for 2 days using 24-hr recall and physical activity energy expenditure over the same period were assessed in a sub-group of UW/OW and NW/NW mothers and children. The NW/NW children showed significantly higher intake of total calories, fat and riboflavin than the UW/OW counterparts. Mean energy and nutrient intake of mothers from both groups were not significantly different, although the NW/NW mothers showed higher intake adequacy for total calories and most nutrients. While most of the mothers from both groups reported having no chronic illnesses, about half of the children in both groups had infections, especially gastrointestinal infections, over a 2-week period. Energy expenditure from physical

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Malay Satisfaction with Life Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is one of the most widely used scales for the measurement of subjective well-being across the globe, but no satisfactory version exists for use among Malay-speaking populations. The present study reports on the translation of a new Malay SWLS and examines its psychometric properties in a community sample of…

  6. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  7. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations.

  8. Factors Influencing the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems among Malay Elderly Residing in a Rural Community: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Madihah; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Rizam; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mental health problems are common in old age, but frequently remain undetected and untreated. Mental health problems in the elderly are the result of a complex interaction of social, psychological and biological factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of mental health problems (depression, anxiety, and emotional stress) and their associated factors among the Malay elderly in a rural community of Perak, Malaysia. Methods It was a cross-sectional study. The Malay elderly aged 60 years and above were selected through convenient sampling to give a total of 230 respondents. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Bivariate analyses were performed using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the factors and each of the mental health statuses assessed. Results The results showed that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among the elderly respondents was 27.8%, 22.6%, and 8.7%, respectively. The significant factors for depression were single elderly (Adjusted OR = 3.27, 95%CI 1.66, 6.44), living with family (Adjusted OR = 4.98, 95%CI 2.05, 12.10), and poor general health status (Adjusted OR = 2.28, 95%CI 1.20, 4.36). Living with family was the only significant factor for anxiety (Adjusted OR = 2.68, 95%CI 1.09, 6.57). There was no significant factor for stress. Conclusions Depression and anxiety among the Malay elderly in the rural community were very worrying. More equity in health should be created or strengthened in order to intensify the opportunity to identify, diagnose, and treat those with mental health problems. Living arrangement in the rural community was an important factor that had influenced depression and anxiety. Therefore, further research is recommended for more comprehensive information, as a result of which appropriate intervention can be made

  9. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  10. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Undiagnosed Visually Significant Cataract: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Blanche; Fenwick, Eva K.; Gan, Alfred Tau Liang; Tan, Ava Grace; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of undiagnosed visually significant cataract in an Asian population. Methods The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases is a population-based study where 8,697 adults of Malay, Indian, and Chinese ethnicities aged > 40 years were invited for an eye examination, including lens photograph, to establish cataract diagnosis. Visually significant cataract was defined by Wisconsin Cataract Grading System and a best-corrected visual acuity <20/40 with cataract as the primary cause of vision impairment. Participants were deemed ‘undiagnosed’ if they had visually significant cataract and reported no prior physician diagnosis of cataract. Visual functioning (VF) was assessed with the VF-11 questionnaire validated using Rasch analysis. Results Among the 925 participants with visually significant cataract, 636 (68.8%) were unaware of their cataract status. Age-standardized prevalence varied according to ethnicity, with Malays having higher rates than Chinese and Indians. Factors independently associated with having undiagnosed visually significant cataract were: Malay ethnicity, lower educational attainment, in employment, and without a history of diabetes (all P<0.05). In those with undiagnosed visually significant cataract, half had bilateral visual impairment, which was significantly associated with 24.8% poorer visual functioning compared to those with unilateral visual impairment (P<0.001). Conclusions Two-thirds of Singaporean adults with visually significant cataract were previously undiagnosed. Half of these cases had bilateral visual impairment and substantially reduced quality of life. Public health strategies targeting elderly patients, such as regular screening for visual impairment and timely referral to ophthalmologists in order to prevent progression to bilateral visual impairment when visual function is compromised are warranted. PMID:28129358

  11. Genetic study of 12 X-STRs in Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur using Investigator Argus X-12 kit.

    PubMed

    Samejima, Michinaga; Nakamura, Yasutaka; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated 12 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in 283 unrelated Malay individuals (160 males and 123 females) living in and around Kuala Lumpur using the Investigator Argus X-12 kit. Heterozygosity among the present 12 X-STRs showed a distribution of from 55.3 to 93.5 %. The diversity values of the haplotypes constructed using four closely linked groups were all higher than 0.9865. A comparison of allelic frequency in each system and haplotype variation indicated that the nature of these X-STRs in the Malay population differed from that in East Asian, European, or African populations. Several microvariant alleles found in the Malay population were characterized and compared with known sequence data. The present data may be helpful in forensic casework such as personal identification and kinship testing in the Malay population in Malaysia.

  12. Killer immunoglobulin-like receptor diversity in Malay subethnic groups of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    NurWaliyuddin, H Z A; Edinur, H A; Norazmi, M N; Sundararajulu, P; Chambers, G K; Zafarina, Z

    2014-12-01

    The KIR system shows variation at both gene content and allelic level across individual genome and populations. This variation reflects its role in immunity and has become a significant tool for population comparisons. In this study, we investigate KIR gene content in 120 unrelated individuals from the four Malay subethnic groups (Kelantan, Jawa, Banjar and Pattani Malays). Genotyping using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) kits revealed a total of 34 different KIR genotypes; 17 for Kelantan, 15 for Banjar, 14 for Jawa and 13 for Pattani Malays. Two new variants observed in Banjar Malays have not previously been reported. Genotype AA and haplotype A were the most common in Jawa (0.47 and 0.65, respectively), Banjar (0.37 and 0.52, respectively) and Pattani (0.40 and 0.60, respectively) Malays. In contrast, Kelantan Malays were observed to have slightly higher frequency (0.43) of genotype BB as compared with the others. Based on the KIR genes distribution, Jawa, Pattani and Banjar subethnic groups showed greater similarity and are discrete from Kelantan Malays. A principal component plot carried out using KIR gene carrier frequency shows that the four Malay subethnic groups are clustered together with other South-East Asian populations. Overall, our observation on prevalence of KIR gene content demonstrates genetic affinities between the four Malay subethnic groups and supports the common origins of the Austronesian-speaking people.

  13. The Nearly Forgotten Malay Folklore: Shall We Start with the Software?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd Rahim, Normaliza

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on the nearly forgotten Malay folklore in Malaysia. The objectives of the study were to identify and discuss the types of Malay folklore among primary school learners. The samples of the study were 100 male and female students at schools in Selangor. The samples were picked at random from several schools and they were given…

  14. Dental age estimation: Comparison of reliability between Malay formula of Demirjian method and Malay formula of Cameriere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghali, R.; Kamaruddin, A. F.; Mokhtar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: The application of forensic odontology using teeth and bones becomes the most commonly used methods to determine age of unknown individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Malay formula of Demirjian and Malay formula of Cameriere methods in determining the dental age that is closely matched with the chronological age of Malay children in Kepala Batas region. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 126 good quality dental panoramic radiographs (DPT) of healthy Malay children aged 8-16 years (49 boys and 77 girls) were selected and measured. All radiographs were taken at Dental Specialist Clinic, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The measurements were carried out using new Malay formula of both Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calibrated examiner. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis between the chronological age with Demirjian and Cameriere has been calculated. The Demirjian method has shown a better percentage (91.4%) of ICC compared to Cameriere (89.2%) which also indicates a high association, with good reliability. However, by comparing between Demirjian and Cameriere, it can be concluded that Demirjian has a better reliability. Conclusion: Thus, the results suggested that, modified Demirjian method is more reliable than modified Cameriere method among the population in Kepala Batas region.

  15. A View into Successful Teaching Techniques: Teaching Malay Language as a Foreign Language in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Sadik, Azlina Md

    2016-01-01

    This paper will highlight successful teaching techniques used in class in teaching the Malay Language 1 course in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The course is to equip foreign students for their studies and also as means of basic communication with the locals in Malaysia. In Malaysia, the emphasis in Malay language teaching are focused to…

  16. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Differential Symptom Functioning across Malaysian Malay and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differential symptom functioning (DSF) in ADHD symptoms across Malay and Chinese children in Malaysia. Malay (N = 571) and Chinese (N = 254) parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which lists the DSM-IV ADHD symptoms. DSF was examined using the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) structural equation…

  17. A study of artificial eyes for the measurement of precision in eye-trackers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Mulvey, Fiona B; Pelz, Jeff B; Holmqvist, Kenneth

    2016-07-06

    The precision of an eye-tracker is critical to the correct identification of eye movements and their properties. To measure a system's precision, artificial eyes (AEs) are often used, to exclude eye movements influencing the measurements. A possible issue, however, is that it is virtually impossible to construct AEs with sufficient complexity to fully represent the human eye. To examine the consequences of this limitation, we tested currently used AEs from three manufacturers of eye-trackers and compared them to a more complex model, using 12 commercial eye-trackers. Because precision can be measured in various ways, we compared different metrics in the spatial domain and analyzed the power-spectral densities in the frequency domain. To assess how precision measurements compare in artificial and human eyes, we also measured precision using human recordings on the same eye-trackers. Our results show that the modified eye model presented can cope with all eye-trackers tested and acts as a promising candidate for further development of a set of AEs with varying pupil size and pupil-iris contrast. The spectral analysis of both the AE and human data revealed that human eye data have different frequencies that likely reflect the physiological characteristics of human eye movements. We also report the effects of sample selection methods for precision calculations. This study is part of the EMRA/COGAIN Eye Data Quality Standardization Project.

  18. Bioethics in the Malay-Muslim Community in Malaysia: A Study on the Formulation of Fatwa on Genetically Modified Food by the National Fatwa Council.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Baharuddin, Azizan; Man, Saadan; Chang, Lee Wei

    2015-12-01

    The field of bioethics aims to ensure that modern scientific and technological advancements have been primarily developed for the benefits of humankind. This field is deeply rooted in the traditions of Western moral philosophy and socio-political theory. With respect to the view that the practice of bioethics in certain community should incorporate religious and cultural elements, this paper attempts to expound bioethical tradition of the Malay-Muslim community in Malaysia, with shedding light on the mechanism used by the National Fatwa Council to evaluate whether an application of biological sciences is ethical or not. By using the application of the genetically modified food as a case study, this study has found that the council had reviewed the basic guidelines in the main references of shari'ah in order to make decision on the permissibility of the application. The fatwa is made after having consultation with the experts in science field. The council has taken all factors into consideration and given priority to the general aim of shari'ah which to serve the interests of mankind and to save them from harm.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Drive for Muscularity Scale in Malay men.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Lau, Poh Li; Jaafar, Jas Laile

    2016-06-01

    The Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) is a widely used measure in studies of men's body image, but few studies have examined its psychometric properties outside English-speaking samples. Here, we assessed the factor structure of a Malay translation of the DMS. A community sample of 159 Malay men from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, completed the DMS, along with measures of self-esteem, body appreciation, and muscle discrepancy. Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of two factors, differentiating attitudes from behaviours, which mirrors the parent scale. Both factors also loaded on to a higher-order drive for muscularity factor. The subscales of the Malay DMS had adequate internal consistencies and good convergent validity, insofar as significant relationships were reported with self-esteem, body appreciation, muscle discrepancy, and body mass index. These results indicate that the Malay DMS has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess body image concerns in Malay men.

  20. Protocol for a between-group experimental study examining cultural differences in emotion processing between Malay and Caucasian adults with and without major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, S N; Mukhtar, F; Jobson, L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Depression is a mood disorder that affects a significant proportion of the population worldwide. In Malaysia and Australia, the number of people diagnosed with depression is on the rise. It has been found that impairments in emotion processing and emotion regulation play a role in the development and maintenance of depression. This study is based on Matsumoto and Hwang's biocultural model of emotion and Triandis' Subjective Culture model. It aims to investigate the influence of culture on emotion processing among Malaysians and Australians with and without major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods and analysis This study will adopt a between-group design. Participants will include Malaysian Malays and Caucasian Australians with and without MDD (N=320). There will be four tasks involved in this study, namely: (1) the facial emotion recognition task, (2) the biological motion task, (3) the subjective experience task and (4) the emotion meaning task. It is hypothesised that there will be cultural differences in how participants with and without MDD respond to these emotion tasks and that, pan-culturally, MDD will influence accuracy rates in the facial emotion recognition task and the biological motion task. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Universiti Putra Malaysia Research Ethics Committee (JKEUPM) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (MUHREC). Permission to conduct the study has also been obtained from the National Medical Research Register (NMRR; NMRR-15-2314-26919). On completion of the study, data will be kept by Universiti Putra Malaysia for a specific period of time before they are destroyed. Data will be published in a collective manner in the form of journal articles with no reference to a specific individual. PMID:27798019

  1. A Malay Village and Malaysia; Social Values and Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter J.

    According to the author, the aim of the report was to concentrate attention on the conduct of Malay villagers in their relationships with their outside world and on the values and attitudes that underlie this conduct. The inhabitants of the village of Jendram Hilir, who were the subjects of the study, are typical of the segment of the Malay…

  2. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  3. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  4. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-04-05

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

  5. Effect of Sexual Counseling on Marital Satisfaction of Pregnant Women Referring to Health Centers in Malayer (Iran): An educational randomized experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Nejati, Behnaz; Parsa, Parisa; Karami, Manoochehr

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important factors in marital satisfaction is the satisfaction of a healthy sexual relationship between spouses. During pregnancy marital satisfaction may decrease due to sexual problems. Sexual counseling to pregnant women may reduce the complications of these problems at this time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sexual counseling on marital satisfaction of pregnant women. This article is sponsored by the Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Methods This educational randomized experimental study was conducted on 80 pregnant women referring to health centers of Malayer. Samples were two groups of experimental and control, with forty participants in each group, four consultation sessions were held, and each session lasted 40 to 90 minutes Data gathering tools were demographic questionnaire and Enriching Relationship Issues Communication and Happiness (ENRICH), a short form of marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items. Data were analyzed by Software SPSS 22 and the results were compared by independent t-test, chi-square test, and repeated measure ANOVA. Results Comparing the marital satisfaction mean scores in the experimental group showed a significant difference between pre-consultation, and the consultation after two and four weeks. Marital satisfaction score of 8.05 ± 51.20 before the consultation was increased to 7.76 ± 54.52 after two weeks and 6.48 ± 59.20 after four weeks (respectively p < 0.001, p < 0.001). In addition, mean and standard deviation of marital satisfaction in the control group before the intervention, two weeks and four weeks after the intervention were respectively 10.10 ± 45.67, 11.75 ± 47.75, and 10.02 ± 46.30 and Bonferroni post hoc test showed a significant difference between before and two weeks after intervention (p = 0.03). However, marital satisfaction before and four weeks after the intervention was not significant (p = 0.59). The results showed that sexual counseling was

  6. Eye-Tracking Study of Complexity in Gas Law Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Hui; Pienta, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    This study, part of a series investigating students' use of online tools to assess problem solving, uses eye-tracking hardware and software to explore the effect of problem difficulty and cognitive processes when students solve gas law word problems. Eye movements are indices of cognition; eye-tracking data typically include the location,…

  7. Education and Primary Development in Malaya 1900-1940; A Study of the Malay Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, David J.

    This study investigated low-level primary education of rural village schools in Malaya to determine the influence of education in the development of the Malaysian community during the period from the 1890's to 1941. In addition, the concept that the "mass" can develop into an "audience" with specific interests and demands was…

  8. Human neutrophil antigen profiles in Banjar, Bugis, Champa, Jawa and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Manaf, Siti M.; NurWaliyuddin, Hanis Z.A.; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Norazmi, Mohd N.; Chambers, Geoffrey K.; Edinur, Hisham A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human neutrophil antigens (HNA) are polymorphic and immunogenic proteins involved in the pathogenesis of neonatal alloimmune neutropenia, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-related alloimmune neutropenia. The characterisation of HNA at a population level is important for predicting the risk of alloimmunisation associated with blood transfusion and gestation and for anthropological studies. Materials and methods Blood samples from 192 healthy, unrelated Malays were collected and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers (HNA-1, -3, -4) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (HNA-5). The group comprised 30 Banjar, 37 Bugis, 51 Champa, 39 Jawa and 35 Kelantan Malays. Results The most common HNA alleles in the Malays studied were HNA-1a (0.641–0.765), -3a (0.676–0.867), -4a (0.943–1.000) and -5a (0.529–0.910). According to principal coordinate plots constructed using HNA allele frequencies, the Malay sub-ethnic groups are closely related and grouped together with other Asian populations. The risks of TRALI or neonatal neutropenia were not increased for subjects with HNA-1, -3 and -4 loci even for donor and recipient or pairs from different Malay sub-ethnic groups. Nonetheless, our estimates showed significantly higher risks of HNA alloimmunisation during pregnancy and transfusion between Malays and other genetically differentiated populations such as Africans and Europeans. Discussion This study reports HNA allele and genotype frequencies for the five Malay sub-ethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia for the first time. These Malay sub-ethnic groups show closer genetic relationships with other Asian populations than with Europeans and Africans. The distributions of HNA alleles in other lineages of people living in Malaysia (e.g. Chinese, Indian and Orang Asli) would be an interesting subject for future study. PMID:26057487

  9. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  10. Self-Reported Utilization of Eye Care among Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Leo S.; Varma, Rohit; Paz, Sylvia H.; Lai, Mei Ying; Mazhar, Kashif; Andersen, Ronald M.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the prevalence and determinants of self-reported eye care utilization in Latinos. Design Population-based ocular epidemiological study in Latinos age 40+ living in La Puente, California. Participants 5,455 participants. Methods Univariate, multivariable and stepwise logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predisposing, enabling and need variables associated with self-reported eye care utilization. Main Outcome Measures Prevalence of self-reported utilization: eye care visit, having had a dilated examination in the past 12 months, ever having had a dilated examination, and odds ratios for factors associated with self-reported utilization. Results Overall, 36% of participants reported an eye care visit and 19% reported having a dilated examination in the past year. Fifty-seven percent reported ever having had a dilated eye examination. Greater eye care utilization was associated with older age, female gender, bilingual language proficiency (English and Spanish), more education, having health insurance, having a usual place for care, having a regular provider of care, greater number of co-morbidities, visual impairment, and lower vision-specific quality of life scores. Conclusions Increasing utilization and access to eye care for Latinos should be a priority because visual impairment has significant impacts on well-being and mortality. PMID:20018380

  11. Deep Whole-Genome Sequencing of 100 Southeast Asian Malays

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lai-Ping; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Poh, Wan-Ting; Liu, Xuanyao; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Lam, Kevin Koi-Yau; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Sim, Kar-Seng; Xu, Haiyan; Sim, Ngak-Leng; Teo, Shu-Mei; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Lim, Yenly; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Gan, Linda Seo-Hwee; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wee, Sharon; Yap, Eric Peng-Huat; Ng, Pauline Crystal; Lim, Wei-Yen; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing across multiple samples in a population provides an unprecedented opportunity for comprehensively characterizing the polymorphic variants in the population. Although the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) has offered brief insights into the value of population-level sequencing, the low coverage has compromised the ability to confidently detect rare and low-frequency variants. In addition, the composition of populations in the 1KGP is not complete, despite the fact that the study design has been extended to more than 2,500 samples from more than 20 population groups. The Malays are one of the Austronesian groups predominantly present in Southeast Asia and Oceania, and the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project (SSMP) aims to perform deep whole-genome sequencing of 100 healthy Malays. By sequencing at a minimum of 30× coverage, we have illustrated the higher sensitivity at detecting low-frequency and rare variants and the ability to investigate the presence of hotspots of functional mutations. Compared to the low-pass sequencing in the 1KGP, the deeper coverage allows more functional variants to be identified for each person. A comparison of the fidelity of genotype imputation of Malays indicated that a population-specific reference panel, such as the SSMP, outperforms a cosmopolitan panel with larger number of individuals for common SNPs. For lower-frequency (<5%) markers, a larger number of individuals might have to be whole-genome sequenced so that the accuracy currently afforded by the 1KGP can be achieved. The SSMP data are expected to be the benchmark for evaluating the value of deep population-level sequencing versus low-pass sequencing, especially in populations that are poorly represented in population-genetics studies. PMID:23290073

  12. Deep whole-genome sequencing of 100 southeast Asian Malays.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lai-Ping; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Poh, Wan-Ting; Liu, Xuanyao; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Lam, Kevin Koi-Yau; Pillai, Nisha Esakimuthu; Sim, Kar-Seng; Xu, Haiyan; Sim, Ngak-Leng; Teo, Shu-Mei; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Linda Wei-Lin; Lim, Yenly; Koo, Seok-Hwee; Gan, Linda Seo-Hwee; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wee, Sharon; Yap, Eric Peng-Huat; Ng, Pauline Crystal; Lim, Wei-Yen; Soong, Richie; Wenk, Markus Rene; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien-Yin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Little, Peter; Chia, Kee-Seng; Teo, Yik-Ying

    2013-01-10

    Whole-genome sequencing across multiple samples in a population provides an unprecedented opportunity for comprehensively characterizing the polymorphic variants in the population. Although the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGP) has offered brief insights into the value of population-level sequencing, the low coverage has compromised the ability to confidently detect rare and low-frequency variants. In addition, the composition of populations in the 1KGP is not complete, despite the fact that the study design has been extended to more than 2,500 samples from more than 20 population groups. The Malays are one of the Austronesian groups predominantly present in Southeast Asia and Oceania, and the Singapore Sequencing Malay Project (SSMP) aims to perform deep whole-genome sequencing of 100 healthy Malays. By sequencing at a minimum of 30× coverage, we have illustrated the higher sensitivity at detecting low-frequency and rare variants and the ability to investigate the presence of hotspots of functional mutations. Compared to the low-pass sequencing in the 1KGP, the deeper coverage allows more functional variants to be identified for each person. A comparison of the fidelity of genotype imputation of Malays indicated that a population-specific reference panel, such as the SSMP, outperforms a cosmopolitan panel with larger number of individuals for common SNPs. For lower-frequency (<5%) markers, a larger number of individuals might have to be whole-genome sequenced so that the accuracy currently afforded by the 1KGP can be achieved. The SSMP data are expected to be the benchmark for evaluating the value of deep population-level sequencing versus low-pass sequencing, especially in populations that are poorly represented in population-genetics studies.

  13. Human amygdala activation during rapid eye movements of rapid eye movement sleep: an intracranial study.

    PubMed

    Corsi-Cabrera, María; Velasco, Francisco; Del Río-Portilla, Yolanda; Armony, Jorge L; Trejo-Martínez, David; Guevara, Miguel A; Velasco, Ana L

    2016-10-01

    The amygdaloid complex plays a crucial role in processing emotional signals and in the formation of emotional memories. Neuroimaging studies have shown human amygdala activation during rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Stereotactically implanted electrodes for presurgical evaluation in epileptic patients provide a unique opportunity to directly record amygdala activity. The present study analysed amygdala activity associated with REM sleep eye movements on the millisecond scale. We propose that phasic activation associated with rapid eye movements may provide the amygdala with endogenous excitation during REM sleep. Standard polysomnography and stereo-electroencephalograph (SEEG) were recorded simultaneously during spontaneous sleep in the left amygdala of four patients. Time-frequency analysis and absolute power of gamma activity were obtained for 250 ms time windows preceding and following eye movement onset in REM sleep, and in spontaneous waking eye movements in the dark. Absolute power of the 44-48 Hz band increased significantly during the 250 ms time window after REM sleep rapid eye movements onset, but not during waking eye movements. Transient activation of the amygdala provides physiological support for the proposed participation of the amygdala in emotional expression, in the emotional content of dreams and for the reactivation and consolidation of emotional memories during REM sleep, as well as for next-day emotional regulation, and its possible role in the bidirectional interaction between REM sleep and such sleep disorders as nightmares, anxiety and post-traumatic sleep disorder. These results provide unique, direct evidence of increased activation of the human amygdala time-locked to REM sleep rapid eye movements.

  14. Reading Mathematics Representations: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrá, Chiara; Lindström, Paulina; Arzarello, Ferdinando; Holmqvist, Kenneth; Robutti, Ornella; Sabena, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    We use eye tracking as a method to examine how different mathematical representations of the same mathematical object are attended to by students. The results of this study show that there is a meaningful difference in the eye movements between formulas and graphs. This difference can be understood in terms of the cultural and social shaping of…

  15. Eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vaes, Bart; Van Keer, Karel; Struelens, Lara; Schoonjans, Werner; Nijs, Ivo; Vandevenne, Jan; Van Poucke, Sven

    2017-04-01

    The eye lens is one of the most sensitive organs for radiation injury and exposure might lead to radiation induced cataract. Eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology has been published in few clinical trials and an active debate about the causality of radiation induced cataract is still ongoing. Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a reduction in the annual dose limit for occupational exposure for the lens of the eye from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over a period of 5 years, with the dose in a single year not exceeding 50 mSv. This prospective study investigated eye lens dosimetry in anesthesiology practice during a routine year of professional activity. The radiation exposure measured represented the exposure in a normal working schedule of a random anesthesiologist during 1 month and this cumulative eye lens dose was extrapolated to 1 year. Next, eye lens doses were measured in anesthesiology during neuro-embolisation procedures, radiofrequency ablations or vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty procedures. The eye lens doses are measured in terms of the dose equivalent H p(3) with the Eye-D dosimeter (Radcard, Poland) close to the right eye (on the temple). In 16 anesthesiologists, the estimated annual eye lens doses range from a minimum of 0.4 mSv to a maximum of 3.5 mSv with an average dose of 1.33 mSv. Next, eye lens doses were measured for nine neuro-embolisation procedures, ten radiofrequency ablations and six vertebroplasty/kyphoplasty procedures. Average eye lens doses of 77 ± 76 µSv for neuro-embolisations, 38 ± 34 µSv for cardiac ablations and 40 ± 44 µSv for vertebro-/kyphoplasty procedures were recorded. The maximum doses were respectively 264, 97 and 122 µSv. This study demonstrated that the estimated annual eye lens dose is well below the revised ICRP's limit of 20 mSv/year. However, we demonstrated high maximum and average doses during neuro-embolisation, cardiac ablation and vertebro

  16. Underlying Changes in Repeated Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Tori E.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    conclusive evidence as to the mechanisms through which RR takes effect. Eye movement studies allow for precise examination of intervention effects. The current study examined underlying changes in elementary students' ("N" = 43) reading behavior…

  17. Translation and validation of the Malay version of the Stroke Knowledge Test

    PubMed Central

    Sowtali, Siti Noorkhairina; Yusoff, Dariah Mohd; Harith, Sakinah; Mohamed, Monniaty

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, there is a lack of published studies on assessment tools to evaluate the effectiveness of stroke education programs. Methods This study developed and validated the Malay language version of the Stroke Knowledge Test research instrument. This study involved translation, validity, and reliability phases. The instrument underwent backward and forward translation of the English version into the Malay language. Nine experts reviewed the content for consistency, clarity, difficulty, and suitability for inclusion. Perceived usefulness and utilization were obtained from experts’ opinions. Later, face validity assessment was conducted with 10 stroke patients to determine appropriateness of sentences and grammar used. A pilot study was conducted with 41 stroke patients to determine the item analysis and reliability of the translated instrument using the Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha. Results The final Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test included 20 items with good content coverage, acceptable item properties, and positive expert review ratings. Psychometric investigations suggest that Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test had moderate reliability with Kuder Richardson 20 or Cronbach’s alpha of 0.58. Improvement is required for Stroke Knowledge Test items with unacceptable difficulty indices. Overall, the average rating of perceived usefulness and perceived utility of the instruments were both 72.7%, suggesting that reviewers were likely to use the instruments in their facilities. Conclusions Malay version Stroke Knowledge Test was a valid and reliable tool to assess educational needs and to evaluate stroke knowledge among participants of group-based stroke education programs in Malaysia. PMID:27092192

  18. The Design of Video Games in the Implementation of Malay Language Learning among Foreign Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Fuziah; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Dewitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the curriculum design by including video games in the implementation of the Malay language course at an Institute of Higher Learning. The objective of this study is to obtain expert opinion on the expected manner of implementation of video games in learning the Malay language. The Fuzzy Delphi technique (FDM) is used…

  19. HLA DR/DQ type in a Malay population in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azira, N M S; Zeehaida, M; Nurul Khaiza, Y

    2013-06-01

    The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) has been documented to be involved in various disease susceptibilities or in resistance against certain diseases. An important element in susceptibility and resistance to disease is ethnic genetic constitution. Cognizant of this, the present study aimed at studying the prevalence of particular HLA class II in a normal healthy Malay population which may serve as a guide for further genetic and immunological studies related to the Malay Malaysian population. The study involved 40 normal healthy Malay persons in Kelantan. HLA typing was conducted on venous blood samples through a polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer method (low resolution Olerup SSP© HLA Typing Kits). The study found HLA DR12 and HLA DQ8 to be the most frequent HLA class II type. HLA DQ5 was significantly associated with female subjects.

  20. Dosimetric study of the 15 mm ROPES eye plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Granero, D.; Perez-Calatayud, J.; Ballester, F.; Casal, E.; Frutos, J.M. de

    2004-12-01

    The main aim of this paper is to make a study of dose-rate distributions obtained around the 15 mm, radiation oncology physics and engineering services, Australia (ROPES) eye plaque loaded with {sup 125}I model 6711 radioactive seeds. In this study, we have carried out a comparison of the dose-rate distributions obtained by the algorithm used by the Plaque Simulator (PS) (BEBIG GmbH, Berlin, Germany) treatment planning system with those obtained by means of the Monte Carlo method for the ROPES eye plaque. A simple method to obtain the dose-rate distributions in a treatment planning system via the superposition of the dose-rate distributions of a seed placed in the eye plaque has been developed. The method uses eye plaque located in a simplified geometry of the head anatomy and distributions obtained by means of the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. The favorable results obtained in the development of this method suggest that it could be implemented on a treatment planning system to improve dose-rate calculations. We have also found that the dose-rate falls sharply along the eye and that outside the eye the dose-rate is very low. Furthermore, the lack of backscatter photons from the air located outside the eye-head phantom produces a dose reduction negligible for distances from the eye-plaque r<1 cm but reaches up to 20% near the air-eye interface. Results showed that the treatment planning system lacks accuracy around the border of the eye (in the sclera and the surrounding area) due to the simplicity of the algorithm used. The BEBIG treatment planning system uses a global attenuation factor that takes into account the effect of the eye plaque seed carrier and the lack of backscatter photons caused by the metallic cover, which in the case of a ROPES eye plaque has a default value of T=1 (no correction). In the present study, a global attenuation factor T=0.96 and an air-interface correction factor which improve on treatment planning system calculations were obtained.

  1. Molecular characterization of α- and β-thalassaemia among Malay patients.

    PubMed

    Yatim, Nur Fatihah Mohd; Rahim, Masitah Abd; Menon, Kavitha; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Ahmad, Rahimah; Manocha, Anita Bhajan; Saleem, Mohamed; Yahaya, Badrul Hisham

    2014-05-19

    Both α- and β-thalassaemia syndromes are public health problems in the multi-ethnic population of Malaysia. To molecularly characterise the α- and β-thalassaemia deletions and mutations among Malays from Penang, Gap-PCR and multiplexed amplification refractory mutation systems were used to study 13 α-thalassaemia determinants and 20 β-thalassaemia mutations in 28 and 40 unrelated Malays, respectively. Four α-thalassaemia deletions and mutations were demonstrated. --SEA deletion and αCSα accounted for more than 70% of the α-thalassaemia alleles. Out of the 20 β-thalassaemia alleles studied, nine different β-thalassaemia mutations were identified of which βE accounted for more than 40%. We concluded that the highest prevalence of (α- and β-thalassaemia alleles in the Malays from Penang are --SEA deletion and βE mutation, respectively.

  2. Molecular blood group typing in Banjar, Jawa, Mandailing and Kelantan Malays in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abd Gani, Rahayu; Manaf, Siti Mariam; Zafarina, Zainuddin; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Chambers, Geoffrey Keith; Norazmi, Mohd Noor; Edinur, Hisham Atan

    2015-08-01

    In this study we genotyped ABO, Rhesus, Kell, Kidd and Duffy blood group loci in DNA samples from 120 unrelated individuals representing four Malay subethnic groups living in Peninsular Malaysia (Banjar: n = 30, Jawa: n = 30, Mandailing: n = 30 and Kelantan: n = 30). Analyses were performed using commercial polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits (BAG Health Care GmbH, Lich, Germany). Overall, the present study has successfully compiled blood group datasets for the four Malay subethnic groups and used the datasets for studying ancestry and health.

  3. Predictors of Difficult Intubation Among Malay Patients in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal

    2016-01-01

    Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and

  4. Prevalence of energy intake misreporting in Malay children varies based on application of different cut points.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; Collins, Clare E; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence of energy misreporting amongst a sample of Malay children aged 9-11 years (n = 14) using a range of commonly used cut points. Participants were interviewed using repeated 24 h dietary recalls over three occasions. The Goldberg equations (1991 and 2000), Torun cut points and the Black and Cole method were applied to the data. Up to 11 of 14 children were classified as misreporters, with more under-reporters (between seven and eight children) than over-reporters (four or less children). There were significant differences in the proportion of children classified as energy misreporters when applying basal metabolic rate calculated using FAO/UNU/WHO (1985) and Malaysian-specific equations (p < 0.05). The results show that energy misreporting is common amongst Malay children, varying according to cut point chosen. Objective evaluation of total energy expenditure would help identify which cut point is appropriate for use in Malay paediatric populations.

  5. Validation of Brunei’s Malay EQ-5D Questionnaire in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Abdullah, Awg Muhammad Khairulamin bin; Wang, Pei; Lin, Naing; Luo, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Background The Malay spoken in Brunei a South East Asian country where Malay is the national language is distinctive and different from Malay spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. This study aimed to develop a Brunei Malay version of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and to assess its psychometric properties among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen’s kappa. Results As hypothesized, patients known to have ‘better’ health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having ‘worse’ health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively. Conclusions The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation. PMID:27835652

  6. Towards Homogeneity in Home Languages: Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil Families in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Su-Hie; Mahadhir, Mahanita

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the languages used by parents with their children in Malay, Chinese Foochow and Indian Tamil families to find out how the similarity or dissimilarity in parents' ethnic language influenced the choice of language transmitted to children and how far standard languages have permeated the family domain in Kuching City…

  7. A Psychometric Properties of the Malay-version Police Stress Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    IRNIZA, Rasdi; EMILIA, Zainal Abidin; MUHAMMAD SALILUDDIN, Suhainizam; NIZAM ISHA, Ahmad Shahrul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) was developed to measure police-specific stressors. The present study was the first to have translated the PSQ to Malay. This study aims to test the reliability, construct validity, and component structure of the Malay-version PSQ. Methods: A set of survey consisted of the Malay-version PSQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), Global Stress Questionnaire (GSQ) and General Self-rated Health (GSRH) were distributed to 300 traffic police officers in Kuala Lumpur and all traffic police officers in a few districts of Pahang and Negeri Sembilan. Results: The response rate was 65.5% (N = 262). The reported Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93 for Operational PSQ (PSQ-Op) and 0.94 for Organisational PSQ (PSQ-Org). Findings indicated that the PSQ had positive construct validity with the GSRH, GSQ, and GHQ. After excluding four factors related to lifestyles, all police-specific stressors were highly loaded (0.50) in one component. Conclusion: It is confirmed that the Malay-version PSQ, excluding the four factors related to lifestyle, was uni-dimensional, reliable, and a valid questionnaire. This study proffers a potentially better instrument for assessing the stressors among Malaysian police. PMID:25977621

  8. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R)-Malay Version, Clinical Validation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Jemain, Abdul Aziz; Hamid, Abdul; Patel, Vikram

    2006-01-01

    Use of instruments or questionnaires in different cultural settings without proper validation can result in inaccurate results. Issues like reliability, validity, feasibility and acceptability should be considered in the use of an instrument. The study aims to determine the usefulness of the CIS-R Malay version in detecting common mental health problems specifically to establish the validity. The CIS-R instrument (PROQSY* format) was translated through the back translation process into Malay. Inter rater reliability was established for raters who were medical students. Cases and controls for the study were psychiatric in patients, out patient and relatives or friends accompanying the patients to the clinic or visiting the inpatients. The Malay version of CIS-R was administered to all cases and controls. All cases and controls involved in the study were rated by psychiatrists for psychiatric morbidity using the SCID as a guideline. Specificity and sensitivity of the CIS-R to the assessment by the psychiatrist were determined. The Malay version of CIS-R showed 100% sensitivity and 96.15% specificity at a cut off score of 9. The CIS-R can be a useful instrument for clinical and research use in the Malaysian population for diagnosing common mental disorders like depression and anxiety.

  9. Translation and Validation of the Malay Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren

    2008-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, "Social Indicators Research," 46, 137-155, 1999) is a brief measure for assessing subjective happiness. The reliability and validity of the Malay version of the Subjective Happiness Scale was investigated in a community sample of 290 Chinese and 227 Malays in Malaysia. Results…

  10. Cohesion and Coherence in Compositions in Malay and in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patricia

    An examination was made into cohesion in expository essays written in Malay and in English as a Second Language (ESL) by Malaysian writers. T-tests performed on the data obtained from a cohesion analysis of text indicated no differences in the amount of cohesion between good and weak compositions written in Malay by native speakers (n=20), or in…

  11. Development of Text Reading in Japanese: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jincho, Nobuyuki; Feng, Gary; Mazuka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined age-group differences in eye movements among third-grade, fifth-grade, and adult Japanese readers. In Experiment 1, Japanese children, but not adults, showed a longer fixation time on logographic kanji words than on phonologically transparent hiragana words. Further, an age-group difference was found in the first fixation…

  12. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  13. The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population. PMID:24886366

  14. Are English and Malay Worlds Apart? Typological Distance and the Learning of Tense and Aspect Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M-L; Chuchu, Hjh Fatimah Bte Hj Awg

    1998-01-01

    Investigates tense, modality, and aspect in the English of adult Malay speakers. Tense and aspect (TA) in Malay and English are first contrasted to arrive at a specification of what Malay speakers have to learn about English TA. Then the use of TA in two English conversations with Malay-speaking subjects is examined and compared with a…

  15. Growth of the eye lens: II. Allometric studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of lens growth in a variety of species using allometry. Methods Data on the accumulation of wet and/or dry lens weight as a function of bodyweight were obtained for 40 species and subjected to allometric analysis to examine ontogenic growth and compaction. Allometric analysis was also used to compare the maximum adult lens weights for 147 species with the maximum adult bodyweight and to compare lens volumes calculated from wet and dry weights with eye volumes calculated from axial length. Results Linear allometric relationships were obtained for the comparison of ontogenic lens and bodyweight accumulation. The body mass exponent (BME) decreased with increasing animal size from around 1.0 in small rodents to 0.4 in large ungulates for both wet and dry weights. Compaction constants for the ontogenic growth ranged from 1.00 in birds and reptiles up to 1.30 in mammals. Allometric comparison of maximum lens wet and dry weights with maximum bodyweights also yielded linear plots with a BME of 0.504 for all warm blooded species except primates which had a BME of 0.25. When lens volumes were compared with eye volumes, all species yielded a scaling constant of 0.75 but the proportionality constants for primates and birds were lower. Conclusions Ontogenic lens growth is fastest, relative to body growth, in small animals and slowest in large animals. Fiber cell compaction takes place throughout life in most species, but not in birds and reptiles. Maximum adult lens size scales with eye size with the same exponent in all species, but birds and primates have smaller lenses relative to eye size than other species. Optical properties of the lens are generated through the combination of variations in the rate of growth, rate of compaction, shape and size. PMID:24715759

  16. NIH Study Provides Clarity on Supplements for Protection Against Blinding Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), which was led by NIH’s National Eye Institute and concluded in ... common condition caused by clouding of the eye’s lens. Globally, cataract is the most common cause of ...

  17. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  18. A comparative microbiological study of clinically healthy eyes and those affected by ophthalmia in cattle and the association of noctuid eye-frequenting moths.

    PubMed

    Gouws, J J; Coetzer, J A; Howell, P G

    1995-09-01

    The eyes of clinically healthy Simmentaler cattle and those affected by ophthalmia were sampled once a month over a continuous period of 12 months for bacterial, mycoplasmal and ureaplasmal infections. In total 478 eyes, representing from a clinical viewpoint 414 healthy and 64 affected eyes, were swabbed. Bacteria were isolated from 201 (48.6%) healthy eyes and 56 (87.5%) affected eyes. No bacteria were isolated from the remaining eyes. Eleven genera of bacteria were isolated from healthy eyes and 8 genera from affected eyes. The majority of isolates were classified in the genera Moraxella, Neisseria and Staphylococcus. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 247 (50.7%) healthy eyes and 27 (42.2%) affected eyes. No mycoplasmas were isolated from the remaining eyes. Ureaplasmas were not isolated from any animal. Eye-frequenting moths were collected on 3 occasions during the investigation and bacterial and mycoplasmal isolation techniques were performed on a total of 21 moths. Twelve different genera of bacteria, mostly Nocardia, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Moraxella, and mycoplasmas were isolated from various eye-frequenting moths. Scanning electron microscopical studies of the proboscis of the moths showed it to contain various sensillae and short triangular denticles that could possibly cause damage to the mucous membranes of the eyes and predispose to ophthalmia in cattle.

  19. Preliminary data on the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the NUCOG.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, P K; Walterfang, M A; Velakoulis, D

    2010-12-01

    The Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Screening Instrument (NUCOG) provides more detailed screening of cognition than most commonly available tools and was selected for translation into and validation in Bahasa Malaysia (Malay language). It was first translated to Malay, then back-translated to English until changes made were comparable to the original English version. The Malay-translated NUCOG and the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were delivered to Malay-speaking subjects (n=24). The Malay NUCOG version was then validated by correlating scores against the Malay version of the MMSE and the data tested for reliability of the tool. The Malay version of the NUCOG proved to be a valid (r=0.98, p<0.001) and internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.76) tool to assess cognitive function and this multi-dimensional cognitive screening instrument is likely to be valuable in the cognitive assessment of neuropsychiatric patients in Malay.

  20. Simultaneous quantification of sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil in human plasma by UFLC coupled with ESI-MS/MS and pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies in Malay population.

    PubMed

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2015-06-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and reliable UFLC coupled with ESI-MSMS assay method to simultaneously quantify sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil, with loperamide as internal standard, was developed. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Thermo Scientific Accucore C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 0.1% v/v formic acid in purified water-methanol (20:80, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. Sildenafil, N-desmethyl sildenafil and loperamide were detected with proton adducts at m/z 475.4 > 58.2, 461.3 > 85.2 and 477.0 > 266.1 in multiple reaction monitoring positive mode, respectively. Both analytes and internal standard were extracted by diethyl ether. The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 10-800 ng/mL for sildenafil and 10-600 ng/mL for N-desmethyl sildenafil with correlation coefficient (r(2) ) ≥0.9976 for sildenafil and (r(2) ) ≥0.9992 for N-desmethyl sildenafil. The method was precise, accurate and stable. The proposed method was applied to study the bioequivalence between a 100 mg dose of two pharmaceutical products: Viagra (original) and Edyfil (generic) products. AUC0-t , Cmax and Tmax were 2285.79 ng h/mL, 726.10 ng/mL and 0.94 h for Viagra and 2363.25 ng h/mL, 713.91 ng/mL and 0.83 hour for Edyfil. The 90% confidence interval of these parameters of this study fall within the regulatory range of 80-125%, hence they are considered as bioequivalent.

  1. The Uses and Limitations of Eye-Movement Studies of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Miles A.

    Uses and limitations of eye-movement records as measures of reading performance are discussed. Research studies and findings are cited, standards for reliability and validity are given, and types of eye-movement measures are described. Research has demonstrated that eye movements are not causes but symptoms of reading proficiency; therefore,…

  2. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    PubMed

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk.

  3. A Comparison of Practices During the Confinement Period among Chinese, Malay, and Indian Mothers in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Doris; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Ho, Jiahui; Lim, Sok Bee; Chua, Mei Chien; Pang, Wei Wei; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Yap Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Confinement (restrictions placed on diet and practices during the month right after delivery) represents a key feature of Asian populations. Few studies however, have focused specifically on ethnic differences in confinement practices. This study assesses the confinement practices of three ethnic groups in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods Participants were part of a prospective birth cohort study that recruited 1247 pregnant women (57.2% Chinese, 25.5% Malay, 17.3% Indian) during their first trimester. 1220 participants were followed up 3-weeks postpartum at home when questionnaires were administered to ascertain the frequency of adherence to the following confinement practices: showering; confinement-specific meals; going out with or without the baby; choice of caregiver assistance; and the use of massage therapy. Results Most participants reported that they followed confinement practices during the first three weeks post-partum (Chinese: 96.4%, Malay: 92.4%, Indian: 85.6%). Chinese and Indian mothers tended to eat more special confinement diets than Malay mothers (p<0.001), and Chinese mothers showered less and were more likely to depend on confinement nannies during this period than mothers from the two other ethnic groups (p<0.001 for all). Malay mothers tended to make greater use of massage therapy (p<0.001), whilst Indian mothers tended to have their mothers or mothers-in-law as assistant caregivers (p<0.001). Conclusion Most Singapore mothers follow confinement practices, but the three Asian ethnic groups differed in specific confinement practices. Future studies should examine whether ethnic differences persist in later child-rearing practices. PMID:27018256

  4. Urbanization and low-income housing in Malaysia: impact on the urban Malays.

    PubMed

    Agus, M R

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this study is on urbanization in Malaysia. "This paper is divided into three parts. The first part examines the trend of uneven urban development in West Malaysia. The second part discusses the change [in] ethnic composition of urban population between 1970 and 1980 intercensal period. The third part analyses the impact of the urbanization process on the Malays in the context of housing problems of the lower income groups." (SUMMARY IN THA)

  5. Eye Health in New Zealand: A Study of Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Eye Health and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.…

  6. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicholas D.; Glen, Fiona C.; Mönter, Vera M.; Crabb, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient's worse eye (most VF damage) when compared to their better eye (least VF damage). Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P < 0.001) in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range) between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss) of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8) dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades) and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns) when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma. PMID:24883203

  7. Minimum velocity necessary for nonconventional projectiles to penetrate the eye: an experimental study using pig eyes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John W; Dahlstrom, Dean B; Powley, Kramer D

    2011-06-01

    To satisfy the Criminal Code of Canada's definition of a firearm, a barreled weapon must be capable of causing serious bodily injury or death to a person. Canadian courts have accepted the forensically established criteria of "penetration or rupture of an eye" as serious bodily injury. The minimal velocity of nonconventional ammunition required to penetrate the eye including airsoft projectiles has yet to be established. To establish minimal threshold requirements for eye penetration, empirical tests were conducted using a variety of airsoft projectiles. Using the data obtained from these tests, and previous research using "air gun" projectiles, an "energy density" parameter was calculated for the minimum penetration threshold of an eye. Airsoft guns capable of achieving velocities in excess of 99 m/s (325 ft/s) using conventional 6-mm airsoft ammunition will satisfy the forensically established criteria of "serious bodily injury." The energy density parameter for typical 6-mm plastic airsoft projectiles is 4.3 to 4.8 J/cm². This calculation also encompasses 4.5-mm steel BBs.

  8. Laser pointers and the human eye: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D M; Lim, T H; Salomao, D R; Link, T P; Rowe, R L; McLaren, J W

    2000-12-01

    We report the absence of photic retinal injury after exposing the retina to light from class 3A laser pointers for durations of up to 15 minutes. Three patients with uveal melanomas were scheduled to have an enucleation. Each agreed to have his or her retina exposed to laser light from a class 3A laser pointer prior to enucleation. Continuous exposure was directed to the fovea for 1 minute, to the retina 5 degrees below fixation for 5 minutes, and to the retina 5 degrees above fixation for 15 minutes. Ophthalmoscopic evaluation of the cornea, lens, and retina and fluorescein angiographic studies of the retina were conducted before, 24 hours after, and 11 days after laser exposure in the first case; before and 86 hours after exposure in the second case; and before, 96 hours after, and 15 days after exposure in the third case. Other than transient afterimages that lasted only a few minutes, we were unable to document any functional, ophthalmoscopic, fluorescein angiographic, or histologic evidence of damage to any structures of the eyes. Transmission electron microscopic studies of retinal sites targeted by the laser pointers in the second and third cases revealed ultrastructural abnormalities in the outer retina and the pigment epithelium that were similar to abnormalities seen in the retina approximately 8 mm away from the targeted sites. The risk to the human eye from transient exposure to light from commercially available class 3A laser pointers having powers of 1, 2, and 5 mW seems negligible.

  9. Dyslipidemia and Eye Diseases in the Adult Chinese Population: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    To determine associations between dyslipidemia and ocular diseases, the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2006 examined 3251 subjects (age≥45 years) who underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination and biochemical blood analysis. Dyslipidemia was defined as any of the following: hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol concentration≥5.72 mmol/L (220 mg/dL)) or hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride concentration≥1.70 mmol/L (150 mg/dL)) or low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentration≤0.91 mmol/L (35 mg/dL)). Biochemical blood examinations were available for 2945 (90.6%) subjects. After adjustment for age, gender, habitation region, body mass index, self reported income, blood glucose concentration, diastolic blood pressure and smoking, dyslipidemia was significantly associated with higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001) and beta zone of parapapillary atrophy (P = 0.03). Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with the prevalence of glaucoma (P = 0.99), retinal vein occlusions (P = 0.92), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.49), presence of retinal vascular abnormalities such as focal or general arteriolar narrowing, age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.27), nuclear cataract (P = 0.14), cortical cataract (P = 0.93), and subcapsular cataract (P = 0.67). The results make one conclude that, controlled for systemic and socioeconomic parameters, dyslipidemia was not associated with common ophthalmic disorders including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:22128290

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Eye Phenotypes for Functional Genetic Studies Using Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janani; Wang, Qingyu; Le, Thanh; Pizzo, Lucilla; Grönke, Sebastian; Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Imai, Yuzuru; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Troisí, Beatriz Llamusí; Mardon, Graeme; Artero, Ruben; Jackson, George R.; Isaacs, Adrian M.; Partridge, Linda; Lu, Bingwei; Kumar, Justin P.; Girirajan, Santhosh

    2016-01-01

    About two-thirds of the vital genes in the Drosophila genome are involved in eye development, making the fly eye an excellent genetic system to study cellular function and development, neurodevelopment/degeneration, and complex diseases such as cancer and diabetes. We developed a novel computational method, implemented as Flynotyper software (http://flynotyper.sourceforge.net), to quantitatively assess the morphological defects in the Drosophila eye resulting from genetic alterations affecting basic cellular and developmental processes. Flynotyper utilizes a series of image processing operations to automatically detect the fly eye and the individual ommatidium, and calculates a phenotypic score as a measure of the disorderliness of ommatidial arrangement in the fly eye. As a proof of principle, we tested our method by analyzing the defects due to eye-specific knockdown of Drosophila orthologs of 12 neurodevelopmental genes to accurately document differential sensitivities of these genes to dosage alteration. We also evaluated eye images from six independent studies assessing the effect of overexpression of repeats, candidates from peptide library screens, and modifiers of neurotoxicity and developmental processes on eye morphology, and show strong concordance with the original assessment. We further demonstrate the utility of this method by analyzing 16 modifiers of sine oculis obtained from two genome-wide deficiency screens of Drosophila and accurately quantifying the effect of its enhancers and suppressors during eye development. Our method will complement existing assays for eye phenotypes, and increase the accuracy of studies that use fly eyes for functional evaluation of genes and genetic interactions. PMID:26994292

  11. Ultraviolet radiation and the eye: an epidemiologic study.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R

    1989-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from biochemical, animal, and epidemiologic studies suggests an association between exposure to UV-B radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and cataract. Such an association had not been proven because it had not been possible to quantify ocular UV-B exposure of individuals or to reliably grade the type and severity of cataract in field studies. We undertook an epidemiologic survey of cataract among 838 watermen who work on the Chesapeake Bay. Their individual ocular UV-B exposure was quantified for each year of life over the age of 16, on the basis of a detailed occupational history combined with laboratory and field measurements of ocular UV-B exposure. Cataracts were graded by both type and severity through clinical and photographic means. SMD changes were ascertained by fundal photography. A general medical history was taken to discover potentially confounding factors. This study showed that people with cortical lens opacities had a 21% higher UV-B exposure at each year of life than people without these opacities. A doubling in lifetime UV-B exposure led to a 60% increase in the risk of cortical cataract, and those with a high annual UV-B exposure increased their risk of cortical cataract over threefold. Corneal changes, namely pterygium and CDK, were also strongly associated with high UV-B exposure. No association was found between nuclear lens opacities or macular degeneration and UV-B exposure. This study also indicated several simple, practical measures, such as wearing spectacles or a hat, that effectively protect the eye from UV-B exposure. Thus it is easily within the power of individuals to protect their eyes from excessive UV-B exposure and reduce their risk of cortical cataract. A program of public education in this area could be a cost-effective means of reducing this important disease. PMID:2562534

  12. Eye Movement Monitoring in the Study of Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, George W.

    Eye movement monitoring is useful both in the control of experiments on reading and as a source of data. Experiments using eye monitoring techniques have helped develop the following conclusions about the reading process: the region of text read during a fixation is quite small and asymmetric to the right of the center of vision, successive…

  13. Preliminary study on eye colour in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Watanabe, Kunio

    2007-04-01

    Eye colour in Japanese macaques shows apparent differences between individuals, continuously ranging from orange (bright), through shades of yellow and hazel-blue to dark blue (dark). We arbitrarily classified them into either 'yellow' eyes or 'blue' eyes based on the yellow area occupying in the iris' peripupillary ring. Most Japanese macaques have yellow eyes after infant phase, whilst 19, 17, 12, and 15% of monkeys (>6 months, sexes combined) have blue-eye in studied two groups of Shodoshima and two groups of Takasakiyama, respectively. Frequency of eye colour did not differ between males and females, but significantly differed in each age class. Blue eyes significantly more frequently occurred in newborns, infants and aged monkeys than in juveniles and prime adults. Data from mother-infant pairs indicated eye colour could be inherited from their parents. A case of asymmetric eye colour in Japanese macaques was found from a sample of 1962 individuals. Eye colour variation of Japanese macaques was discussed in relation to those of humans and rhesus macaques. A possible evolutionary model of eye colour in Japanese macaques was discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version Perceived Stress Scale in Two Occupational Settings In Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dubai, SAR; Ganasegeran, K; Barua, A; Rizal, AM; Rampal, KG

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a widely used tool to measure stress. The Malay version of the PSS-10 has been validated among Malaysian Medical Students. However, studies have not been conducted to assess its validity in occupational settings. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the PSS-10 in two occupational setting in Malaysia. Subjects and Methods: This study was conducted among 191 medical residents and 513 railway workers. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Correlation analyses, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Bartlett's test of Sphericity and Cronbach's alpha were obtained. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software. Results: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version of PSS-10 in both occupational groups. The two factors accounted for 59.2% and 64.8% of the variance in the medical residents and the railway workers respectively. Factor loadings were greater than 0.59 in both occupational groups. Cronbach's alpha co-efficient was 0.70 for medical residents and 0.71 for railway workers. Conclusion: The Malay version of PSS-10 had adequate psychometric properties and can be used to measure stress among occupational settings in Malaysia. PMID:25184074

  15. [The antiallergic eye drops "polynadyme": development, experimental and clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Maĭchuk, Iu F; Pozdniakov, V I; Pozdniakova, V V; Iakushina, L N

    2006-01-01

    The antiallergic eye drops "Polynadyme", proposed by the Helmgolz Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, have been prepared by the "Sintez" PJSC (Kurgan). The drops exert a combination of antihistaminic and vasoconstrictive effects and, for better tolerability, contain a low-toxic preserving complex. The drops are polymer-based, which ensures a long action and an artificial tear effect. Preclinical rabbit trials have shown the safety of the "Polynadyme" eye drops, their specific activity in preventing an allergic reaction, and their antiallergic effect on a model of allergic conjunctivitis. Comparative clinical trials covering 150 patients have yielded excellent and good results in 93% of cases. In acute allergic reactions, hyperemia, itch, and burning diminished just 5 minutes after administration. The "Polynadyme" eye drops are effective in treating pollinous conjunctivitis, spring (vernal) keratoconjunctivitis, allergic reactions when wearing contact lenses, the dry eye syndrome, drug-induced and toxicoallergic conjunctivitis, and other ocular allergic reactions.

  16. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Nowinska, Anna K.; Teper, Sławomir J.; Janiszewska, Dominika A.; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements. PMID:26457303

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of photography and direct ophthalmoscopy in screening for sight threatening eye disease: the Liverpool Diabetic Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, S. P.; Broadbent, D. M.; Neoh, C.; White, M. C.; Vora, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate different methods for community based screening for sight threatening diabetic eye disease. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Mobile screening unit visiting inner city community clinics; hospital assessment clinic (tertiary centre). SUBJECTS--395 diabetic patients registered with four general practices in an inner city location. INTERVENTIONS--Community based photography with mydriasis and direct ophthalmoscopy through dilated pupils by an experienced ophthalmologist, both compared with reference standard of slit lamp biomicroscopy by a consultant specialist in medical retinal disease. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Sensitivity and specificity of screening method and prevalence of sight threatening diabetic eye disease (moderate preproliferative retinopathy, circinate maculopathy, exudate within 1 disc diameter of fixation, other diabetes related eye disease). RESULTS--358 subjects underwent photography, 326 attended hospital clinic for ophthalmoscopy, and six were ungradable on photographs and biomicroscopy, leaving 320 for analysis. Of these 295 (91%) attended clinic within four months of photography. Sensitivity of detection of eye disease by photography was 89% (95% confidence interval 80% to 98%), significantly better than for direct ophthalmoscopy (65% (51% to 79%)). Analysis of patients with false negative results indicated possible improvement of photographic sensitivity to 93% by addition of stereoscopic macular pair photographs. Specificity of detection of sight threatening eye disease was 86% (82% to 90%) for photography and 97% (95% to 99%) for direct ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSIONS--Since high sensitivity is essential for an effective screening programme, a photographic method should be considered as preferred option in national, community based screening programmes. Even in the hands of an experienced ophthalmologist, direct ophthalmoscopy is limited by weaknesses inherent to the instrument. PMID:7580708

  18. Lactose intolerance among Malay and Orang Asli female children in selected rural Selangor and its effect on bone mineral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makbul, Ika Aida Aprilini; Daud, Norlida Mat; Aziz, Nurul Azrianti Abdul; Yahya, Noor Fairuzi Suhana

    2016-11-01

    Sufficient intake of calcium during childhood is very important to ensure an optimal growth and strong bones development. However, lactose intolerance (LI) may limit the intake of milk and dairy products due to the inability of the body to digest lactose to its constituents, glucose and galactose. Children in rural area were a major concern as they are commonly associated with an inadequate intake of nutrients. Hence, the objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of LI among Malay and Orang Asli female children in rural Selangor and its association with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 65 (39 Malay, 26 Orang Asli) female primary school students with a mean age of 10.4 ± 0.6 years old underwent hydrogen breath test and lactose tolerance test (LTT) during fasting and after ingestion of 25g lactose solution. A Wong Baker Face Pain Rating Scale (WBFPRS) was used to assess the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during the study. LI symptoms are defined when breath H2 levels exceed 20 ppm above baseline values, an increase of postprandial blood glucose (PBG) levels of less than 1.1 mmol/L and GI symptom score is more or equal than score 2. BMD was measured in the calcaneus using QUS-2 Ultrasonometer. The result showed that 35 subjects (15 Malay, 20 Orang Asli) had a positive breath test (>20ppm). A total of 74.4% Malay and 88.5% Orang Asli children had an increase of PBG of less than 1.1 mmol/L. Both groups have low percentage (35.9 % Malay, 34.6 % Orang Asli) of GI symptoms. A total of 20.0% children (n=13, Malay=4, Orang Asli=9) was found to experience LI. Orang Asli children showed a significantly higher (p<0.001) BMD (95.7 ± 11.0 dB/MHz) compared to Malay children (71.7 ± 8.6 dB/MHz). The result shown there is an association between LI with BMD (p=0.031). Hence, LI does affect in decreasing an individual BMD. In conclusion, the prevalence of LI among female children in rural Selangor is low. However, the relationship between LI and BMD

  19. Eyes on the bodies: an eye tracking study on deployment of visual attention among females with body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Yang, Jia; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Jie; Chen, Hong

    2014-12-01

    Visual attentional bias has important functions during the appearance social comparisons. However, for the limitations of experimental paradigms or analysis methods in previous studies, the time course of attentional bias to thin and fat body images among women with body dissatisfaction (BD) has still been unclear. In using free reviewing task combined with eye movement tracking, and based on event-related analyses of the critical first eye movement events, as well as epoch-related analyses of gaze durations, the current study investigated different attentional bias components to body shape/part images during 15s presentation time among 34 high BD and 34 non-BD young women. In comparison to the controls, women with BD showed sustained maintenance biases on thin and fat body images during both early automatic and late strategic processing stages. This study highlights a clear need for research on the dynamics of attentional biases related to body image and eating disturbances.

  20. Characterization of Fluorescent Eye Markers for Mammalian Transgenic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cornett, Jonathan C.; Landrette, Sean F.; Xu, Tian

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping mice by DNA based methods is both laborious and costly. As an alternative, we systematically examined fluorescent proteins expressed in the lens as transgenic markers for mice. A set of eye markers has been selected such that double and triple transgenic animals can be visually identified and that fluorescence intensity in the eyes can be used to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous mice. Taken together, these eye markers dramatically reduce the time and cost of genotyping transgenics and empower analysis of genetic interaction. PMID:22216292

  1. Mind reading through the eyes: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yujiro; Kirino, Eiji; Mizuno, Motoki; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2012-01-01

    Mind reading is the ability to understand another person's thoughts, intentions, and feelings (Whiten, 1991). The purpose of this study was to clarify which part of the brain is evoked while mind reading in functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) experiments, using a mind reading task, the Reading Mind in the Eyes Test (RME: Baron-Cohen et al., 2001) with four choices (mental state words). The participants were right-handed and sex-matched healthy Japanese university students (10 males and 10 females, age range 19-25). We used periodic ABA...block design in the fMRI sessions. Task A (an experimental task) was the mind reading task and Task B (a control task) was the age-gender task. In order to clarify the activated region of the brain while mind reading, we calculated the difference between the degrees of BOLD (Blood-oxygen-level dependent) activation during the Task A and Task B. The results showed that there was a significant difference in activation of the right superior occipital gyrus, and the left parietal lobe. These findings indicated that these regions were used while mind reading. The role of these regions was discussed in terms of the findings from previous studies.

  2. About Categories of Tense and Aspect in Indonesian/Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alieva, Natalia F.

    This paper examines whether there is a grammatical category of tense in the Indonesian/Malay language (IML), suggesting that IML has a syntactical category of tense that serves to grammaticize time relations in a clause predicate which is not necessarily verbal. The discussion takes a systemic view of grammatical categories in an analytical…

  3. Linguistic Alternants and Code Selection in Baba Malay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakir, Anne

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief account and explanation of the phenomenon of language use among the Baba community, which uses Hokkien, Malay, and English in the process of code selection and code mixing/switching. Data are drawn from recordings of conversation of the Babas and Nyonyas. (Author/OD)

  4. STR data for the 13 CODIS loci in Singapore Malays.

    PubMed

    Ang, H C; Sornarajah, R; Lim, S E S; Syn, C K C; Tan-Siew, W F; Chow, S T; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-03-10

    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 197 unrelated Malays in Singapore.

  5. The Use of Eye Movements in the Study of Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyona, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    This commentary focuses on the use of the eye-tracking methodology to study cognitive processes during multimedia learning. First, some general remarks are made about how the method is applied to investigate visual information processing, followed by a reflection on the eye movement measures employed in the studies published in this special issue.…

  6. Use of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Online Search: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mingming; Ren, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking technology to track students' eye movements while searching information on the web. The research question guiding this study was "Do students with different search performance levels have different visual attention distributions while searching information online? If yes, what are the patterns for high and low…

  7. Stereoacuity and Related Factors: The Shandong Children Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan-yuan; Sun, Wei; Lv, Tai-liang; Jiang, Wen-jun; Wu, Hui; Wang, Xing-rong; Bi, Hong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess stereoacuity in a population-based sample of children and to examine ocular and systemic parameters related to stereoacuity. Methods Using a random cluster sampling method, four- to 18-year-old children from kindergartens, elementary schools, junior high schools and senior high schools from a rural area and an urban area in the East Chinese province of Shandong were included in the school-based cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination including assessment of cycloplegic refraction and measurement of stereoacuity using the Titmus Stereo test. Results Out of 6364 eligible children, 5780 (90.8%) children with a mean age of 10.1 ± 3.2 years (range: 4 to 18 years) participated. Mean (± standard deviation) stereoacuity was 50.2 ± 50.6 arc seconds. Stereoacuity improved significantly (P<0.01) from the age group of 4 years to the age group of 6 to 7 years, then showed a plateau, deteriorated (P = 0.001) for both sexes from the age group of 9 years to the age group of 12 years (P<0.001), after which it improved (P = 0.001) again in the age group of 16 years or older to the pre-puberty values. In multivariate analysis, larger angle of binocular disparity (i.e., lower stereoacuity) was significantly associated with lower best corrected visual acuity (logMAR; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in refractive error (spherical equivalent) (P<0.001), higher cylindrical refractive error (P<0.001), higher refractive error (spherical value; P<0.001), higher intereye difference in best corrected visual acuity (logMAR) (P = 0.001), higher intereye difference in axial length (P = 0.001), and rural region of habitation (P = 0.006). Conclusions Stereoacuity as tested with the Titmus Stereo test improved significantly from an age of 4 years to an age of 6 and 7 years, then remained constant, temporarily deteriorated for both sexes in pre-puberty and puberty, after which it improved again to pre-puberty or better values at

  8. Eye development.

    PubMed

    Baker, Nicholas E; Li, Ke; Quiquand, Manon; Ruggiero, Robert; Wang, Lan-Hsin

    2014-06-15

    The eye has been one of the most intensively studied organs in Drosophila. The wealth of knowledge about its development, as well as the reagents that have been developed, and the fact that the eye is dispensable for survival, also make the eye suitable for genetic interaction studies and genetic screens. This article provides a brief overview of the methods developed to image and probe eye development at multiple developmental stages, including live imaging, immunostaining of fixed tissues, in situ hybridizations, and scanning electron microscopy and color photography of adult eyes. Also summarized are genetic approaches that can be performed in the eye, including mosaic analysis and conditional mutation, gene misexpression and knockdown, and forward genetic and modifier screens.

  9. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Moss, Scot E; Meuer, Stacy M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe the 10-year incidence of retinal emboli, the associated risk factors, and the relationship of retinal emboli to stroke and ischemic heart disease mortality. METHODS: The Beaver Dam Eye Study (n = 4,926) is a population-based study of persons 43 to 86 years of age. Retinal emboli were detected at baseline (1988-1990) and at a 5-year (1993-1995) and a 10-year (1998-2000) follow-up by grading of stereoscopic 30 degrees color fundus photographs using standardized protocols. Cause-specific mortality was determined from death certificates. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of retinal emboli was 1.5%. While adjusting for age and sex, the incidence of retinal emboli was associated with increased pulse pressure (odds ratio [OR] 4th versus 1st quartile range, 2.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-5.97; P test of trend = .03), higher serum total cholesterol (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.06-7.23; P = .03), higher leukocyte count (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.04-4.96; P = .05), smoking status (OR current versus never smoker, 4.60: 95% CI, 2.08-10.16; P < .001), and a history of coronary artery bypass surgery (OR, 7.17; 95% CI, 3.18-16.18; P < .001) at baseline. While controlling for age, sex, and systemic factors, a significantly higher hazard of dying with a mention of stroke on the death certificate was found in people with retinal emboli (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.16-4.99) compared with those without. CONCLUSIONS: The data show an association of smoking and cardiovascular disease with the incidence of retinal emboli. Also, persons with retinal emboli are at increased risk of stroke-related death. PMID:14971575

  10. Prevalence of glaucoma in rural Myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Casson, R J; Newland, H S; Muecke, J; McGovern, S; Abraham, L; Shein, W K; Selva, D; Aung, T

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in the Meiktila district of central, rural Myanmar. Methods A cross‐sectional, population‐based survey of inhabitants ⩾40 years of age from villages in Meiktila district, Myanmar, was performed; 2481 eligible participants were identified and 2076 participated in the study. The ophthalmic examination included Snellen visual acuity, slit‐lamp examination, tonometry, gonioscopy, dilated stereoscopic fundus examination and full‐threshold perimetry. Glaucoma was classified into clinical subtypes and categorised into three levels according to diagnostic evidence. Results Glaucoma was diagnosed in 1997 (80.5%) participants. The prevalence of glaucoma of any category in at least one eye was 4.9% (95% CI 4.1 to 5.7; n = 101). The overall prevalence of primary angle‐closure glaucoma (PACG) was 2.5% (95% CI 1.5 to 3.5) and of primary open‐angle glaucoma (POAG) was 2.0% (95% CI 0.9 to 3.1). PACG accounted for 84% of all blindness due to glaucoma, with the majority due to acute angle‐closure glaucoma (AACG). Conclusion The prevalence of glaucoma in the population aged ⩾40 years in rural, central Myanmar was 4.9%. The ratio of PACG to POAG was approximately 1.25:1. PACG has a high visual morbidity and AACG is visually devastating in this community. Screening programmes should be directed at PACG, and further study of the underlying mechanisms of PACG is needed in this population. PMID:17510475

  11. A Study of Eye Movement in Television Viewing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Willavene; And Others

    An analysis of the types of eye movements of subjects viewing motion picture films and telelessons revealed a continuum of movements. Two of the intervals of this continuum (No Observable Movements and Minimovements) were found to be related to intelligence. The factors of age and learning did not correlate with any of the indices. Subjects in the…

  12. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  13. Processing of Written Irony: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakinen, Johanna K.; Olkoniemi, Henri; Kinnari, Taina; Hyönä, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    We examined processing of written irony by recording readers' eye movements while they read target phrases embedded either in ironic or non-ironic story context. After reading each story, participants responded to a text memory question and an inference question tapping into the understanding of the meaning of the target phrase. The results of…

  14. Diagnostic x-ray exposure and lens opacities: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, B E; Klein, R; Linton, K L; Franke, T

    1993-01-01

    The Beaver Dam Eye Study is a population-based study of common age-related eye diseases. During the standardized medical history, the 4926 subjects were asked whether they had ever had a chest x-ray, computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan of the head, other x-rays of the head, x-rays of the abdomen, or other diagnostic x-rays. The eye examination included photographs of the lenses of the eyes, which were subsequently graded according to protocol. Nuclear sclerosis and posterior subcapsular opacity were significantly associated with CAT scans. If these relationships are causal, it would highlight the importance of minimizing such exposure to the lens of the eye. PMID:8460743

  15. A Case-Control Study on the Oxidative Balance of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, Diane; Zelanis, Samira; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Locatelli, Claudete; Nicola, Felipe; Kunzler, Ana Laura; Fernandes, Tania Regina Gatelli; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Barbosa, Luciene

    2016-01-01

    Importance. Autologous serum (AS) eye drops are recommended for severe dry eye in patients with ocular surface disease. No description of the antioxidant balance of AS eye drops has been reported in the literature. Objective. This study sought to evaluate the total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) and concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in samples of 50% AS eye drops and their correlations with the demographic characteristics and lifestyle habits of patients with ocular surface disease and healthy controls. Design. This was a case-control study with a 3-month follow-up period. Participants. 16 patients with severe dry eye disease of different etiologies and 17 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and race were included. Results. TRAP and ROS were detected at all evaluated times. There were no differences in the mean ROS (p = 0.429) or TRAP (p = 0.475) levels between cases and controls. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of ROS or TRAPs were found at 0, 15, or 30 days (p for ROS = 0.087 and p for TRAP = 0.93). Neither the demographic characteristics nor the lifestyle habits were correlated with the oxidative balance of the 50% AS eye drops. Conclusions and Relevance. Both fresh and frozen 50% AS eye drops present antioxidant capacities and ROS in an apparently stable balance. Moreover, patients with ocular surface disease and normal controls produce equivalent AS eye drops in terms of oxidative properties. PMID:27635188

  16. Priorities and trends in the study of proteins in eye research, 1924–2014

    PubMed Central

    Semba, Richard D.; Lam, Maggie; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Pingbo; Schaumberg, Debra A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ping, Peipei; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify the proteins that are relevant to eye research and develop assays for the study of a set of these proteins. Experimental Design We conducted a bibliometric analysis by merging gene lists for human and mouse from the National Center for Biotechnology Information FTP site and combining them with PubMed references that were retrieved with the search terms “eye”[MeSH Terms] OR “eye”[All Fields] OR “eyes”[All Fields]. Results For human and mouse eye studies, respectively, the total number of publications was 13,525 and 23,895, and the total number of proteins was 4,050 and 4,717. For proteins in human and mouse eye studies, respectively, 88.7% and 81.7% had five or fewer citations. The top fifty most intensively studied proteins for human and mouse eye studies were generally in the areas of photoreceptors and phototransduction, inflammation and angiogenesis, neurodevelopment, lens transparency, and cell cycle and cellular processes. We proposed selected reaction monitoring assays that were developed in silico for the top fifty most intensively studied proteins in human and mouse eye research. Conclusions and clinical relevance We conclude that scientists engaged in eye research tend to focus on the same proteins. Newer resources and tools in proteomics can expand the investigations to lesser-known proteins of the eye. PMID:26123431

  17. Thermal fluctuation based study of aqueous deficient dry eyes by non-invasive thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Azharuddin, Mohammad; Bera, Sumanta Kr; Datta, Himadri; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermal fluctuation patterns occurring at the ocular surface of the left and right eyes for aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) patients and control subjects by thermal imaging. We conducted our experiment on 42 patients (84 eyes) with aqueous deficient dry eyes and compared with 36 healthy volunteers (72 eyes) without any history of ocular surface disorder. Schirmer's test, Tear Break-up Time, tear Meniscus height and fluorescein staining tests were conducted. Ocular surface temperature measurement was done, using an FL-IR thermal camera and thermal fluctuation in left and right eyes was calculated and analyzed using MATLAB. The time series containing the sum of squares of the temperature fluctuation on the ocular surface were compared for aqueous deficient dry eye and control subjects. Significant statistical difference between the fluctuation patterns for control and ADDE was observed (p < 0.001 at 95% confidence interval). Thermal fluctuations in left and right eyes are significantly correlated in controls but not in ADDE subjects. The possible origin of such correlation in control and lack of correlation in the ADDE subjects is discussed in the text.

  18. Zebrafish: A Model System for the Study of Eye Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Fadool, James M.; Dowling, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of the zebrafish as a genetic model has moved beyond the proof-of-concept for the analysis of vertebrate embryonic development to demonstrated utility as a mainstream model organism for the understanding of human disease. The initial identification of a variety of zebrafish mutations affecting the eye and retina, and the subsequent cloning of mutated genes have revealed cellular, molecular and physiological processes fundamental to visual system development. With the increasing development of genetic manipulations, sophisticated techniques for phenotypic characterization, behavioral approaches and screening strategies, the identification of novel genes or novel gene functions will have important implications for our understanding of human eye diseases, pathogenesis, and treatment. PMID:17962065

  19. Long-range eye tracking: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Jayaweera, S.K.; Lu, Shin-yee

    1994-08-24

    The design considerations for a long-range Purkinje effects based video tracking system using current technology is presented. Past work, current experiments, and future directions are thoroughly discussed, with an emphasis on digital signal processing techniques and obstacles. It has been determined that while a robust, efficient, long-range, and non-invasive eye tracking system will be difficult to develop, such as a project is indeed feasible.

  20. Fluvial reservoir architecture in the Malay Basin: Opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, M.R.; Dharmarajan, K. )

    1994-07-01

    Miocene fluvial sandstones are significant hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs in the Malay Basin. These include high energy, braided stream deposits of group K, associated with late development of extensional half grabens and relatively lower energy, meandering, and anastomosing channel deposits of group I formed during the subsequent basin sag phase. Group K reservoirs are typically massive, commonly tens of meters thick, and cover an extensive part of the Malay Basin. These reservoirs have good porosity and permeability at shallow burial depths. However, reservoir quality deteriorates rapidly with increasing depth. Lateral and vertical reservoir continuity is generally good within a field, commonly forming a single system. Good water drive enhances recovery. Seismic modeling to determine fluid type and the extent of interfluvial shales is possible due to reservoir homogeneity.

  1. Face, eye, and body selective responses in fusiform gyrus and adjacent cortex: an intracranial EEG study.

    PubMed

    Engell, Andrew D; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have investigated the degree to which processing of whole faces, face-parts, and bodies are differentially localized within the fusiform gyrus and adjacent ventral occipitotemporal cortex. While some studies have emphasized the spatial differentiation of processing into discrete areas, others have emphasized the overlap of processing and the importance of distributed patterns of activity. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from subdural electrodes provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution of local neural activity, and thus provides an alternative method to fMRI for studying differences and commonalities in face and body processing. In this study we recorded iEEG from 12 patients while they viewed images of novel faces, isolated eyes, headless bodies, and flowers. Event-related potential analysis identified 69 occipitotemporal sites at which there was a face-, eye-, or body-selective response when contrasted to flowers. However, when comparing faces, eyes, and bodies to each other at these sites, we identified only 3 face-specific, 13 eye-specific, and 1 body-specific electrodes. Thus, at the majority of sites, faces, eyes, and bodies evoked similar responses. However, we identified ten locations at which the amplitude of the responses spatially varied across adjacent electrodes, indicating that the configuration of current sources and sinks were different for faces, eyes, and bodies. Our results also demonstrate that eye-sensitive regions are more abundant and more purely selective than face- or body-sensitive regions, particularly in lateral occipitotemporal cortex.

  2. Face, eye, and body selective responses in fusiform gyrus and adjacent cortex: an intracranial EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Engell, Andrew D.; McCarthy, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have investigated the degree to which processing of whole faces, face-parts, and bodies are differentially localized within the fusiform gyrus and adjacent ventral occipitotemporal cortex. While some studies have emphasized the spatial differentiation of processing into discrete areas, others have emphasized the overlap of processing and the importance of distributed patterns of activity. Intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded from subdural electrodes provides excellent temporal and spatial resolution of local neural activity, and thus provides an alternative method to fMRI for studying differences and commonalities in face and body processing. In this study we recorded iEEG from 12 patients while they viewed images of novel faces, isolated eyes, headless bodies, and flowers. Event-related potential analysis identified 69 occipitotemporal sites at which there was a face-, eye-, or body-selective response when contrasted to flowers. However, when comparing faces, eyes, and bodies to each other at these sites, we identified only 3 face-specific, 13 eye-specific, and 1 body-specific electrodes. Thus, at the majority of sites, faces, eyes, and bodies evoked similar responses. However, we identified ten locations at which the amplitude of the responses spatially varied across adjacent electrodes, indicating that the configuration of current sources and sinks were different for faces, eyes, and bodies. Our results also demonstrate that eye-sensitive regions are more abundant and more purely selective than face- or body-sensitive regions, particularly in lateral occipitotemporal cortex. PMID:25191255

  3. A comparative clinical study of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel and Cysteine Eye-Gel 2.4% in the treatment of foreign-body injuries of the cornea.

    PubMed

    Studer, O

    1984-01-01

    Solcoseryl, a protein-free haemodialysate, promotes tissue regeneration and improves utilization of oxygen in the cell. In a randomized, double-blind, clinical study, Solcoseryl Eye-Gel was compared with Cysteine Eye-Gel in the treatment of foreign-body injuries of the cornea in a total of 99 eyes. In order to facilitate objective evaluation of the effects of the treatment, the area of the lesion before the start of treatment and on the following day was determined by means of slit-lamp photographs. Healing of the lesion and relative reduction of the area of the wound were observed much more frequently in the group treated with Solcoseryl Eye-Gel than in the reference group. Maculae corneae after the end of the treatment were significantly less frequent under Solcoseryl Eye-Gel than under Cysteine Eye-Gel. Teh tolerability of the test preparation was good; an itching sensation was reported in only 2 cases. Under Cysteine Eye-Gel, on the other hand, a burning sensation was reported by a number of patients and very fine deposits in the epithelium were also observed in a few cases. Thus complete closure of the epithelium over the lesion after 1 day was observed much more frequently in the group of patients treated with Solcoseryl Eye-Gel than in the reference group (63 vs. 53%).

  4. Covert tracking: a combined ERP and fixational eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking.

  5. Covert Tracking: A Combined ERP and Fixational Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Alexis D. J.; Poliakoff, Ellen; Ackerley, Rochelle; El-Deredy, Wael

    2012-01-01

    Attention can be directed to particular spatial locations, or to objects that appear at anticipated points in time. While most work has focused on spatial or temporal attention in isolation, we investigated covert tracking of smoothly moving objects, which requires continuous coordination of both. We tested two propositions about the neural and cognitive basis of this operation: first that covert tracking is a right hemisphere function, and second that pre-motor components of the oculomotor system are responsible for driving covert spatial attention during tracking. We simultaneously recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and eye position while participants covertly tracked dots that moved leftward or rightward at 12 or 20°/s. ERPs were sensitive to the direction of target motion. Topographic development in the leftward motion was a mirror image of the rightward motion, suggesting that both hemispheres contribute equally to covert tracking. Small shifts in eye position were also lateralized according to the direction of target motion, implying covert activation of the oculomotor system. The data addresses two outstanding questions about the nature of visuospatial tracking. First, covert tracking is reliant upon a symmetrical frontoparietal attentional system, rather than being right lateralized. Second, this same system controls both pursuit eye movements and covert tracking. PMID:22719893

  6. A Study on Hospital Admissions For Eye Trauma in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Movahedinejad, Tayebeh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Zahedi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye trauma is among the most common reasons for referral to hospital emergency departments and ophthalmologists’ offices. It also is a common cause of vision loss worldwide. However, few studies are available on the changes in the epidemiology of eye trauma in Iran in recent years. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of hospital admissions for eye trauma in Kashan from August 2011 to February 2014. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on the hospital records of all patients with eye trauma who were admitted to Kashan’s Matini hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Having an eye trauma and being hospitalized for at least one day was selected as the criteria for inclusion in the study. The data were then recorded on a checklist devised by the researcher. After entering the data into the SPSS software, descriptive statistics (i.e., percentage, frequency, mean, and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results In total, 200 patients with eye trauma had been hospitalized in Matini Hospital between August 2011 and February 2014. Of these patients, 86% were males, 40% were in the age range of 20-39 years, 68% lived in urban areas, and 21% of those in employment were manual and industrial workers. Approximately 38.5% of eye traumas had occurred in the work place; 72.5% of patients had penetrating injuries and 98% of cases were injured in one eye. More injuries occurred in the cornea (25.5%) than elsewhere in the eye, and 75.5% of patients were treated surgically. Among all variables, only the type of trauma (P = 0.009) and cause of trauma (P = 0.004) were significantly related to the patients’ gender. Conclusions Eye trauma was prevalent among males, young people, urban residents, and manual and industrial workers. As the eyes play a vital role in daily life, communication, and work

  7. Source facies and oil families of the Malay Basin, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaney, S.; Hussein, A.H. ); Curry, D.J.; Bohacs, K.M. ); Hassan, R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin consists of a number of separate petroleum systems, driven exclusively by nonmarine source rocks. These systems range from lower Oligocene to middle Miocene and show a progression from lacustrine-dominated source facies in the lower Oligocene to lower Miocene section to coastal plain/delta plain coal-related sources in the lower to middle Miocene section. Two lacustrine sources are recognized in the older section, and multiple source/reservoir pairs are recognized in the younger coaly section. The lacustrine sources can be recognized using well-log analysis combined with detailed core and sidewall core sampling. Chemically, they are characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios, low oleanane contents, and a general absence of resin-derived terpanes. These sources have TOCs in the 1.0-4.0% range and hydrogen indices of up to 750. In contrast, the coal-related sources are chemically distinct with pristane/phytane ratios of up to 8, very high oleanane contents, and often abundant resinous compounds. All these sources are generally overmature in the basin center and immature toward the basin margin. The oils sourced from all sources in the Malay Basin are generally low in sulfur and of very high economic value. Detailed biomarker analysis of the oils in the Malay Basin has allowed the recognition of families associated with the above sources and demonstrated that oil migration has been largely strata parallel with little cross-stratal mixing of families.

  8. Determinants and Effects of Voice Disorders among Secondary School Teachers in Peninsular Malaysia Using a Validated Malay Version of VHI-10

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Foong Ming; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Chu, Anne Hin Yee; Bulgiba, Awang; Koh, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To establish the prevalence of voice disorder using the Malay-Voice Handicap Index 10 (Malay-VHI-10) and to study the determinants, quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress associated with voice disorder among secondary school teachers in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods This study was divided into two phases. Phase I tested the reliability of the Malay-VHI-10 while Phase II was a cross-sectional study with two-stage sampling. In Phase II, a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and teaching characteristics, depression, anxiety and stress scale (Malay version of DASS-21); and health-related quality of life (Malay version of SF12-v2). Complex sample analysis was conducted using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance. Results In Phase I, the Spearman correlation coefficient and Cronbach alpha for total VHI-10 score was 0.72 (p < 0.001) and 0.77 respectively; showing good correlation and internal consistency. The ICCs ranged from 0.65 to 0.78 showing fair to good reliability and demonstrating the subscales to be reliable and stable. A total of 6039 teachers participated in Phase II. They were primarily Malays, females, married, had completed tertiary education and aged between 30 to 50 years. A total of 10.4% (95% CI 7.1, 14.9) of the teachers had voice disorder (VHI-10 score > 11). Compared to Malays, a greater proportion of ethnic Chinese teachers reported voice disorder while ethnic Indian teachers were less likely to report this problem. There was a higher prevalence ratio (PR) of voice disorder among single or divorced/widowed teachers. Teachers with voice disorder were more likely to report higher rates of absenteeism (PR: 1.70, 95% CI 1.33, 2.19), lower quality of life with lower SF12-v2 physical (0.98, 95% CI 0.96, 0.99) and mental (0.97, 95% CI 0.96, 0.98) component summary scales; and higher anxiety levels (1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.06). Conclusions The Malay-VHI-10 is valid and reliable. Voice disorder

  9. A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India.

    PubMed

    Ramai, Daryl; Elliott, Ryan; Goldin, Shoshanna; Pulisetty, Tejas

    2015-06-01

    Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health programs to reduce the global prevalence of blindness with increased efficiency. This study, which took place in Ghana, Honduras, and India, found that 95% of caregivers believed in the importance of eye exams for children, yet 66% of caregivers said that none of their children had ever received an eye exam. Participants' major reasons for not bringing their children included the belief that their child had no eye problems along with similar and unique socio-economic barriers. Further information was gained through the use of a five-question test on basic child eye care symptoms, which showed that out of the three country locations, the studied population in India had the least understanding about pediatric eye symptoms. Further analysis revealed significant gaps in understanding of general eye health while detected knowledge barriers provide evidence that fundamental misconceptions appear to be inhibiting caregivers' competence in facilitating their children's eye health.

  10. Many Kids with Diabetes Missing Out on Eye Exams, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164258.html Many Kids With Diabetes Missing Out on Eye Exams, Study Finds Those with ... that children and teens with diabetes from poor families and those from racial/ethnic minorities were less ...

  11. Is the peripapillary retinal perfusion related to myopia in healthy eyes? A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Kong, Xiangmei; Jiang, Chunhui; Li, Mengwei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Xinghuai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the peripapillary and parafoveal perfusion of young, healthy myopic subjects with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography. Design A prospective comparative study was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015. Setting Participants recruited from a population-based study performed by the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai. Participants A total of 78 Chinese normal subjects (78 eyes) with different refraction were included. Myopia was divided into 4 groups on the basis of the refractive status: 20 eyes with emmetropia (mean spherical equivalent (MSE) 0.50D to −0.50D), 20 eyes with mild myopia (MSE −0.75D to −2.75D), 20 eyes with moderate myopia (MSE −3.00D to −5.75D), and 18 eyes with high myopia (MSE≤−6.00D). Main outcome measures Peripapillary and parafoveal retinal and choroidal perfusion parameters and their relationships with axial length (AL) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness were analysed. Results Significant differences were found for the retinal flow index and vessel density in the peripapillary area among the 4 groups, but not in the parafoveal area. The high myopia group had the lowest peripapillary retinal flow index and vessel density. In addition, there was a negative correlation (β=−0.002, p=0.047) between the AL and peripapillary retinal flow index and a positive correlation between RNFL thickness and the peripapillary retinal perfusion parameters (flow index: β=0.001, p=0.006; vessel density: β=0.350, p=0.002) even after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions Highly myopic eyes have a decreased peripapillary retinal perfusion compared with emmetropic eyes. Such vascular features might increase the susceptibility to vascular-related eye diseases. PMID:26969645

  12. Study on chromatic aberration in a population of Chinese myopic eyes by means of optical design.

    PubMed

    He, Yuanqing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Fang, Chao; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Shaolin; Wang, Lu; Chang, Shengjiang

    2013-05-01

    Two kinds of individual eye models, involving and without involving the angle between visual axis and optical axis, are established by means of optical design. We use them to study the properties of the transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) and longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) over the visible spectrum. Then the effects of the LCA and TCA on the visual quality of human eyes are evaluated. The statistical averages of TCA and LCA over the visible spectrum for Chinese myopic eyes are obtained. Results show that both TCA and LCA restrict the visual performance, and LCA is more detrimental than TCA.

  13. The autoantibody profile and its association with clinical manifestations in Malay SLE patients.

    PubMed

    Maraina, C H Che; Kamaliah, M D; Ishak, M

    2004-03-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the auto-antibody profile of Malay SLE patients in Kelantan, North East Malaysia and to correlate them with clinical presentations. Eighty-two Malay SLE patients who fulfilled the ARA criteria underwent the following tests: ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody, anti-ENA antibody and RF. The results revealed that ANA was positive in 91.5% of the patients, anti-dsDNA antibody in 53.7%, however, anti-ENA antibodies were positive in only 9.8% of the cases at the time of the study and none had a positive RF. The profile of autoantibodies was similar to other studies except for a lower incidence of anti-ENA antibodies. Sixty three percent of patients had lupus nephritis. The pattern of clinical presentations were noted to be more similar to those found among Chinese and Indian SLE populations than compared to the Caucasians. There was a significant association between anti-dsDNA antibody and lupus nephritis and between anti-ENA antibody and thrombocytopenia.

  14. Validation of the Malay Version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Aziz, Aniza Abd.; Mostapa, Mohd Rosmizaki; Awang, Zainudin

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Malay version of the Inventory of Functional Status after Childbirth (IFSAC). Design. A cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods. A total of 108 postpartum mothers attending Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic, in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia, were involved. Construct validity and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content validity, and face validity process. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 18 and Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences version 20. Results. The final model consists of four constructs, namely, infant care, personal care, household activities, and social and community activities, with 18 items demonstrating acceptable factor loadings, domain to domain correlation, and best fit (Chi-squared/degree of freedom = 1.678; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.923; comparative fit index = 0.936; and root mean square error of approximation = 0.080). Composite reliability and average variance extracted of the domains ranged from 0.659 to 0.921 and from 0.499 to 0.628, respectively. Conclusion. The study suggested that the four-factor model with 18 items of the Malay version of IFSAC was acceptable to be used to measure functional status after childbirth because it is valid, reliable, and simple. PMID:25667932

  15. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdul, Latif; Abdul, Razique; Sukul, R.R.; Nazish, Siddiqui

    2010-01-01

    The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and antiallergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities. PMID:23861612

  16. Eye for an Eye, A Survey History of Law, Social Studies: 6448.06.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jerry W.

    This guide is one of a series in the Quinmester Program to aid high school teachers in planning instructional programs concerning the origins and evolution of our system of law. The purpose of this course of study is to help students understand the rights and responsibilities of citizens under the law; to motivate them to make judgments upon the…

  17. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanzini, Manuela; Curcio, Claudia; Colabelli-Gisoldi, Rossella Annamaria; Mastropasqua, Alessandra; Calienno, Roberta; Agnifili, Luca; Nubile, Mario; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes) eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2%) in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology). No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation). However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium. PMID:26221061

  18. Distribution of haptoglobins in different dialect groups of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Ong, Y W

    1984-07-01

    A total of 870 subjects comprising 524 Chinese (from different dialect groups), 231 Malays and 115 Tamil Indians were investigated for the distribution of haptoglobin types and ABO blood groups. Haptoglobins were typed by PAG electrophoresis using discontinuous buffer system. The frequencies of Hp,1 Hp2 and Hp0 were found to be 0.330, 0.670 and 0.029 in Chinese; 0.298, 0.702 and 0.004 in Malays; and 0.167, 0.833 and 0.009 in Indians. The Hainanese had the highest frequency of Hp1 (0.375) followed by Cantonese (0.348), Teochew (0.333) and Hakkas (0.288). The distribution of all the phenotypes of haptoglobin was at equilibrium in all the population groups studied. No association of ABO blood groups was detected with the haptoglobin types. However, there was an excess of AB blood group in persons carrying Hp2 compared with those with Hp1.

  19. TU-E-201-02: Eye Lens Dosimetry From CT Perfusion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  20. Eye-Size Variability in Deep-Sea Lanternfishes (Myctophidae): An Ecological and Phylogenetic Study

    PubMed Central

    de Busserolles, Fanny; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Paxton, John R.; Marshall, N. Justin; Collin, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common visual adaptations seen in the mesopelagic zone (200–1000 m), where the amount of light diminishes exponentially with depth and where bioluminescent organisms predominate, is the enlargement of the eye and pupil area. However, it remains unclear how eye size is influenced by depth, other environmental conditions and phylogeny. In this study, we determine the factors influencing variability in eye size and assess whether this variability is explained by ecological differences in habitat and lifestyle within a family of mesopelagic fishes characterized by broad intra- and interspecific variance in depth range and luminous patterns. We focus our study on the lanternfish family (Myctophidae) and hypothesise that lanternfishes with a deeper distribution and/or a reduction of bioluminescent emissions have smaller eyes and that ecological factors rather than phylogenetic relationships will drive the evolution of the visual system. Eye diameter and standard length were measured in 237 individuals from 61 species of lanternfishes representing all the recognised tribes within the family in addition to compiling an ecological dataset including depth distribution during night and day and the location and sexual dimorphism of luminous organs. Hypotheses were tested by investigating the relationship between the relative size of the eye (corrected for body size) and variations in depth and/or patterns of luminous-organs using phylogenetic comparative analyses. Results show a great variability in relative eye size within the Myctophidae at all taxonomic levels (from subfamily to genus), suggesting that this character may have evolved several times. However, variability in eye size within the family could not be explained by any of our ecological variables (bioluminescence and depth patterns), and appears to be driven solely by phylogenetic relationships. PMID:23472203

  1. Case-control study on the prevention of occupational eye injuries.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yen, Ya-Lin; Chang, Cheng-Hsien; Chiang, Hung-Che; Shen, Ying-Ying; Chang, Po-Ya

    2008-01-01

    The risk factors for occupational eye injuries have never been published in Taiwan. We conducted a case-control study to analyze the differences among workers on their knowledge, attitude to and practice (KAP) of occupational accident prevention. In the study, a statistical model was also set up for predicting the occupational problem. Subjects, including 31 cases of work-related eye injuries and 62 controls, completed a structured questionnaire on KAP, which revealed that 80.6% and 62.7% of workers in the case and control groups, respectively, did not wear eye protection during work. Furthermore, we found that temporary employment (OR, 10.7; 95% CI, 3.03-36.16) and fewer than 10 years of education (OR, 4.44; 95% CI, 1.73-11.44) were the major risk factors for occupational eye injuries. In addition, we developed a logistic regression model with four predictors (temporary employment, education years less than 10, poor management of industrial health and safety in the workplace, and poor attitude towards accident prevention) for the occurrence of occupational eye injuries. In conclusion, in Taiwan, compulsory regulation of wearing eye protection during work, good education, management of work safety and hygiene and employee (especially temporary worker) commitment to safety and health are strongly recommended prevention strategies.

  2. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Eye Cancer > Eye Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Eye Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... trained to treat intraocular cancer. Parts of the eye The eye is the organ that collects light ...

  3. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  4. Radiation protection to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography: a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Shortt, C P; Malone, L; Thornton, J; Brennan, P; Lee, M J

    2008-08-01

    We measured radiation doses to the eye and thyroid during diagnostic cerebral angiography to assess the effectiveness of bismuth and lead shields at dose reduction. Phantom head angiographic studies were performed with bismuth (study 1) and lead shields (study 2). In study 1 (12 phantoms), thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were placed over the eyes and thyroid in three groups: (i) no shields (four phantoms); (ii) anterior bismuth shields (four phantoms) and (iii) anterior and posterior bismuth shields (four phantoms). In a second study (eight phantoms), lead shields were placed over the thyroid only and TLD dose measurements obtained in two groups: (i) no shielding (four phantoms) and (ii) thyroid lead shielding (four phantoms). A standard 4-vessel cerebral angiogram was performed on each phantom. Study 1 (bismuth shields) showed higher doses to the eyes compared with thyroid (mean 13.03 vs 5.98 mSv, P < 0.001) and a higher eye dose on the X-ray tube side. Overall, the use of bismuth shielding did not significantly reduce dose to either eyes or thyroid in the measured TLD positions. In study 2, a significant thyroid dose reduction was found with the use of lead shields (47%, mean 2.46 vs 4.62 mSv, P < 0.001). Considerable doses to the eyes and thyroid highlight the need for increased awareness of patient protection. Eye shielding is impractical and interferes with diagnostic capability. Thyroid lead shielding yields significant protection to the thyroid, is not in the field of view and should be used routinely.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (M-LOTCA-G) among the Malaysian Elderly Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Natar, Ahmad Kamal; Nagappan, Rajendran; Ainuddin, Husna Ahmad; Masuri, Ghazali; Thanapalan, Chandra Kannan K.

    2015-01-01

    Current cognitive screening tests are difficult to use due to their deficit in cultural and conceptual significance and translation into other languages. The purpose of this study was to translate the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatrics (LOTCA-G) into Malay language and test its reliability and validity for…

  6. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  7. The Suitability of the EPQ-R Short Scale for Counselling Brunei Student Teachers when Administered in English and Malay Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundia, Lawrence; Abu Bakar, Hj Abu Zahari Bin

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the psychometric properties of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) Short Scale administered to two groups of Brunei trainee teachers of both genders taking psychology courses in English (117 students) and Malay (106 students). The extraversion scale had the most problematic items. Both administrations…

  8. Cross-Cultural Reading Comprehension Assessment in Malay and English as It Relates to the Dagostino-Carifio Model of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagostino, Lorraine; Carifio, James; Bauer, Jennifer D. C.; Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The review of existing literature suggests that few researchers have adopted cross-language comparisons to explore how cultural background affects the assessment of reading comprehension of students. In this present study, the researchers independently reviewed and rated all the items of two reading comprehension tests translated from Malay into…

  9. Quantification of contributions of molecular fragments for eye irritation of organic chemicals using QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Kar, Supratik; Roy, Kunal

    2014-05-01

    The eye irritation potential of chemicals has largely been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test for a very long time. The Draize eye-irritation data on 38 compounds established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) has been used in the present quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis in order to predict molar-adjusted eye scores (MES) and determine possible structural requisites and attributes that are primarily responsible for the eye irritation caused by the studied solutes. The developed model was rigorously validated internally as well as externally by applying principles of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The test for applicability domain was also carried out in order to check the reliability of the predictions. Important fragments contributing to higher MES values of the solutes were identified through critical analysis and interpretation of the developed model. Considering all the identified structural attributes, one can choose or design safe solutes with low eye irritant properties. The presented approach suggests a model for use in the context of virtual screening of relevant solute libraries. The developed QSAR model can be used to predict existing as well as future chemicals falling within the applicability domain of the model in order to reduce the use of animals.

  10. Pulse perfusion value predicts eye opening after sevoflurane anaesthesia: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Enekvist, Bruno; Johansson, Anders

    2015-08-01

    The variables measured in modern pulse oximetry apparatuses include a graphical pulse curve and a specified perfusion value (PV) that could be a sensitive marker for detecting differences in sympathetic activity. We hypothesized that there is a correlation between a reduction of PV and the time to eye opening after general anaesthesia. The objective was to investigate whether PV can predict eye opening after sevoflurane anaesthesia. Prospective, explorative clinical study included 20 patients, ASA physical status 1 or 2, at Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden, from November 2012 to January 2013 scheduled for elective breast tumour surgery. A general anaesthesia was delivered with inhalation of oxygen, nitrous oxide and sevoflurane anaesthesia to a depth of 1.2 minimal alveolar concentration. Sevoflurane inspiratory and expiratory concentrations were measured. Bispectral index monitoring, PV as measured by pulse oximeter, heart rate and carbon dioxide were registered at before anaesthesia, 15 min after induction (at 1.2 minimal alveolar concentration), at end of surgery and at eye opening at the end of anaesthesia. PV values were lower before anaesthesia and at eye opening compared to at 15 min after induction and at end of surgery (P < 0.05). The reduction of PV between end of surgery and eye opening was 0.76. We conclude that the pulse oximeter PV could be a useful variable to assess the timing of recovery, in terms of eye opening after a general anaesthesia.

  11. Comparison of self-reported quality of vision outcomes after myopic LASIK with two femtosecond lasers: a prospective, eye-to-eye study

    PubMed Central

    Sáles, Christopher S; Manche, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of vision (QoV) outcomes after myopic LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis) with two femtosecond lasers. Design Prospective, randomized, eye-to-eye study. Methods Consecutive myopic patients were treated with wavefront-guided LASIK bilaterally. Eyes were randomized according to ocular dominance. The flap of one eye was made with the IntraLase FS 60 kHz femtosecond laser with a conventional 70° side-cut, and the flap of the fellow eye was made with the IntraLase iFS 150 kHz femtosecond laser with an inverted 130° side-cut. Patients completed the validated, Rasch-tested, linear-scaled 30-item QoV questionnaire preoperatively and at Months 1, 3, 6, and 12. Results The study enrolled 120 fellow eyes in 60 patients. None of the measured QoV parameters exhibited statistically significant differences between the groups preoperatively or at any postoperative time point. Conclusion Creating LASIK flaps with an inverted side-cut using a 150 kHz femtosecond laser and with a conventional 70° side-cut using a 60 kHz femtosecond laser resulted in no significant differences in self-reported QoV assessed by the QoV questionnaire. PMID:27621589

  12. The Interesting Teaching and Learning of Malay Language to Foreign Speakers: Language through Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baharudin, Mazlina; Ikhsan, Siti Ajar

    2016-01-01

    The interesting teaching and learning of Malay languages is a challenging effort and need a relevant plan to the students' needs especially for the foreign students who already have the basic Indonesian Malay language variation that they have learned for four semesters in their own country, Germany. Therefore, the variety of teaching and learning…

  13. Analysis of Ocular Firework-Related Injuries and Common Eye Traumata: a 5-year Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Frimmel, S; Theusinger, O M; Kniestedt, C

    2017-03-10

    Background A comparative study of eye injuries related to fireworks or acts of violence around New Year's Eve and the Swiss National Day on August 1st. The two groups were compared with respect to the overall numbers of eye accidents within the period of review. Patients and Methods Retrospective analysis of emergency consultations at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich with eye accidents around the Swiss National Day on August 1st and New Year's Eve over the last 5 years. Two subgroups were formed: (1) Firework-related eye traumata, (2) Eye injuries due to acts of violence. The groups were analysed by age, gender, active participant or bystander, eye involved, severity of trauma (from clinical findings), surgical interventions, time of follow-up and visits, visual acuity and outcome. Results The study included 97 patients (100 eyes) with 74 male (76 %) and 23 female (24 %) victims. After filtering out 67 common traumata cases (all unilateral), 17 patients (18 eyes) with firework-related injuries and 13 patients (15 eyes) with damage due to an act of violence remained. Firework injuries accounted for 18 % of cases (65 % men); eye injuries caused by an act of violence accounted for 15 % of cases (92 % men). In the fireworks group, women were significantly older than men (mean age men 32 ± 14 years versus women 38 ± 16 years, p = 0.002). 65 % of cases were bystanders. The two subgroups contained 30 patients (33 eyes) with 22 left eyes (67 %, p < 0.001). The anterior segment was most frequently involved (79 %), significantly more often than the posterior part of the eye (p < 0.001). The posterior segment was injured more often in the fireworks group (28 %), than in the violence group (13 %). 87 % of the victims in the group of common traumata were mild trauma, 10 % moderate and 3 % severe. In the fireworks group the distribution was 53 % mild, 12 % moderate and 35 % severe, in the violence

  14. Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and typhoid susceptibility in Asian Malay population in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bhuvanendran, Saatheeyavaane; Hussin, Hani M; Meran, Lila P; Anthony, Amy A; Zhang, Leilei; Burch, Lauranell H; Phua, Kia K; Ismail, Asma; Balaram, Prabha

    2011-09-01

    Typhoid fever is a major health problem with frequent outbreaks in Kelantan, Malaysia. Prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms varies with ethnic groups (0-20%) and predisposean individual to gram-negative infections. The prevalence rate of TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399lle polymorphisms in the Malay population or the influence of these on typhoid fever susceptibility is not yet reported. 250 normal and 304 susceptible Malay individuals were investigated for these polymorphisms using allele-specific PCR and analysed for its association with typhoid fever susceptibility. The total prevalence of polymorphisms in the normal population was 4.8% in comparison to 12.5% in the susceptible population (p = 0.002). An increased frequency of both polymorphisms was observed in the susceptible population (p < 0.01) with no homozygous mutants observed. Co-segregation was observed in 2% of controls and 3.6% of the susceptible individuals. This study, for the first time, reports the prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms in the Malay population and suggests that these polymorphisms confer a higher risk for typhoid, infection. The higher incidence of typhoid fever in Kelantan could be attributed to the higher percentage of Malays (95%) in this state. In order to reduce the incidence of this disease, people with these polymorphisms, can be prioritised for prophylactic strategies.

  15. High altitude and the eye: a case controlled study in clinical ocular anthropometry of changes in the eye.

    PubMed

    Bali, Jatinder; Chaudhary, K P; Thakur, Renu

    2005-01-01

    Tribal natives of two spatially separate districts of Lahaul-Spiti (mean altitude = 3300 m) and Kinnaur (mean altitude = 1,700 m) in the Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh have lived for centuries as closed isolated groups, marrying within the local community up to the recent past. Studies on highland natives in the Andes have shown differences in chest diameters, lung volumes, hematocrit, and the like, in those living at high altitudes. We wanted to study whether stay at high altitude for generations confers any change in the ocular anthropometry. No study of this nature is available in the literature. We studied the ocular parameters using Snellen's charts, Standard Royal-Air-Force Rule, A-2,500 Sonomed A-Scan, Goldmann's aplanation tonometer, and S-7,000 Autorefractometer on 50 healthy volunteers at the Indira Gandhi Medical College Out Patient Department at Shimla (mean altitude = 2,100 m). Those living at higher altitudes in Lahaul-Spiti [LS] (n = 10) had significantly wider nose bridge width (p < 0.05); inter-inner canthal distance [IICD] (p < 0.05); inter-outer canthal distance [IOCD] (p < 0.05); and interpupillary distance [IPD] (p < 0.05) than the group living at Kinnaur (n = 40) at lower elevation. The LS group also had narrower palpebral fissure length in the vertical dimension (p = 0.05) and a lower IOP (p = 0.002) than the Kinnaur group. The axial length, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth were comparable in the two groups. It appears that the eye and its adnexa respond to hypoxia, ultraviolet radiations, and persistent snow cover at high altitude by altering its anthropometry in a subtle but discernible manner. This was a hitherto unexplored area in the literature. Further studies to elucidate and substantiate the findings of the study are indicated.

  16. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of

  17. Processing emotion from the eyes: a divided visual field and ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Maycock, Nicola C; Platt, Eleanor; Payne, Laura S; Derrett, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere is preferentially involved in recognising at least some facial expressions of emotion. We investigated whether there is a laterality effect in judging emotions from the eyes. In one task a pair of emotionally expressive eyes presented in central vision had to be physically matched to a subsequently presented set of eyes in one or other visual hemifield (eyes condition). In the second task a word was presented centrally followed by a set of eyes to left or right hemifield and the participant had to decide whether the word correctly described the emotion portrayed by the laterally presented set of eyes (word condition). Participants were a group of undergraduate students and a group of older volunteers (> 50). There was no visual hemifield difference in accuracy or raw response times in either task for either group, but log-transformed times showed an overall left hemifield advantage. Contrary to the right hemisphere ageing hypothesis, older participants showed no evidence of a relative right hemisphere decline in performance on the tasks. In the younger group mean peak amplitude of the N170 component of the EEG at lateral posterior electrode sites was significantly greater over the right hemisphere (T6/PO2) than the left (T5/PO1) in both the perceptual recognition task and the emotional judgement task. It was significantly greater for the task of judging emotion than in the eyes-matching task. In future it would be useful to combine electrophysiological techniques with lateralised visual input in studying lateralisation of emotion with older as well as younger participants.

  18. Timing of Pars Plana Vitrectomy in Management of Gunshot Perforating Eye Injury: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoraba, Hammouda Hamdy; Mansour, Hosam Osman; Abdelfattah, Haithem Mamon; Elgemai, Emad Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the difference in either anatomical or functional outcome of vitreoretinal intervention in cases of gunshot perforating eye injury if done 2–4 weeks or after the 4th week after the original trauma. Patients were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil. Surgeries were performed in the period from February 2011 until the end of December 2014. 253 eyes of 237 patients were reviewed. 46 eyes were excluded. 207 eyes of 197 patients were analyzed. The included eyes were classified based on the timing of vitrectomy in relation to the initial trauma into two groups: 149 eyes (the first group) operated on between the 3rd and the 4th week and 58 eyes (the second group) operated on after the 4th week after the trauma. Following one surgical intervention, in the first group, attached retina was achieved in 93.28% of patients. In the second group, attached retina was achieved in 96.55% of patients. All RD cases could be attached by a second surgery. Visual acuity improved in 81.21% of patients, did not change in 15.43% of patients, and declined in 3.35% of patients. In the second group, visual acuity improved in 81.03% of patients, did not change in 12.06% of patients, and worsened in 6.89% of patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either anatomical or functional results. We recommend interfering before the 5th week after the trauma as retinal detachment is encountered more in cases operated on after the 4th week. The visual outcome depends on the site of entry and exit (the route of gunshot). PMID:27781127

  19. Evaluation of nasal cavity by acoustic rhinometry in Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z L; Wang, D Y; Zhang, P C; Dong, F; Yeoh, K H

    2001-10-01

    Acoustic rhinometry (AR) evaluates the geometry of the nasal cavity by measuring the minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) and nasal volume (V) by means of acoustic reflection. Understanding the normal and pathologic conditions of the internal nasal cavity using AR is important in the diagnosis of structural abnormalities in patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the normal range of AR parameters in healthy volunteers from three ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malay and Indian. We also attempted to evaluate the role of these measurements in the documentation of structural abnormalities in the nose. A total of 189 Singaporeans, aged > or = 18 years, were recruited from a nationwide survey study. They comprised 83 Chinese, 35 Malays and 71 Indians. Eighty-nine subjects had a rhinoscopically normal nose (Group 1), 77 had significant septal deviation (Group 2) and 23 had inferior turbinate hypertrophy (Group 3). AR was performed to measure the MCA at the anterior 1-5 cm from the nostril and the volume (V) between points at the nostril and 5 cm into the nose. A mean MCA (mMCA; equal to (L + R)/2) and a total volume (Vt; equal to L + R) were then calculated for each subject, where L and R refer to the measurements made for the left and right nostrils, respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in mMCA (p = 0.80) and Vt (p = 0.60) among the three ethnic subgroups of Group 1. Statistically significant differences were found only between Groups 1 and 3 (p < 0.001 for both mMCA and Vt) and between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.001 for mMCA and p = 0.013 for Vt). Although there was no significant difference between Groups 1 and 2, significant differences in MCA (p = 0.001) and V (p = 0.040) were found between the narrower sides (smaller volume) and the wider sides in Group 2, indicating volume compensation between the nasal cavities. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that there is no significant difference in the normal

  20. Utilization of eye care services among those with unilateral visual impairment in rural South India: Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS)

    PubMed Central

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Giridhar, Pyda; Khanna, Rohit C

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report on the utilization of eye care services and its associated factors among those with unilateral visual impairment (VI) in a rural South Indian population. METHODS A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts (Adilabad, Mahbubnagar and West Godavari) in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. A detailed interview and a comprehensive eye examination were conducted. Those with unilateral VI were asked questions about noticing any change in vision and on utilization of eye care services. The most important reason reported by the participant for not utilizing the services was used for the analysis. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the association between noticing a change in vision and socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, education and area of residence, severity and causes of VI. RESULTS Among the 4456 participants aged ≥16y who were administered the questionnaire, 53.2% were women, and 54.7% had no education. Of the 489 (11%; 95% CI: 10.1-11.9) people with unilateral VI, 399 (81.6%) participants reported noticing a change in their vision over the last five years but only 136 (34.1%) participants had sought eye care consultation. Those who had any education (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.2), had blindness (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4-5.2), and cataract (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.3) as a cause of unilateral VI were more like to seek eye care consultations. The most commonly reported reasons for not seeking eye care services were “do not have money for eye checkup” in 30.7% of the participants followed by “do not have a serious problem” (30.0%). CONCLUSION A large proportion of rural population though noticed a change in their vision did not seek eye care due to financial and person-related reasons. Eye care service providers need to address these barriers to enhance the uptake of eye care services among those with unilateral VI. PMID:28393042

  1. Ocular biometry in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chang, Lan; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Lavanya, Raghavan; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Kok, Yee-Onn; Wu, Ren-Yi; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2011-08-22

    PURPOSE. To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters in adult Singapore Indians. METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 3400 Indians aged 40 to 83 years residing in Singapore. Ocular components including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius (CR) were measured by partial coherence interferometry. Refraction was recorded in spherical equivalent (SE). RESULTS. After 502 individuals with previous cataract surgery were excluded, ocular biometric data on 2785 adults were analyzed. The mean AL, ACD, and CR were 23.45 ± 1.10, 3.15 ± 0.36, and 7.61 ± 0.26 mm, respectively. The mean AL/CR ratio was 3.08 ± 0.13. The mean AL was 23.53, 23.49, 23.35, and 23.25 mm in 40- to 49-, 50- to 59-, 60- to 69-, and 700 to 83-year age groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Men had significantly longer ALs than women (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression models, AL was found to be longer in adults who were taller (P < 0.001), better educated (University, P < 0.001), and more apt to spend time reading (P < 0.001). Increasing CR was associated with increasing height (P = 0.008). AL was the strongest determinant for refraction in all age groups, whereas lens nuclear opacity was a predictor in adults aged 60 to 83 years. CONCLUSIONS. The AL in Indians living in Singapore was similar to that of Malays in Singapore, but longer than that of Indians living in India. Time spent reading, height, and educational level were the strongest determinants of AL. AL was the strongest predictor of SE in all age groups.

  2. Randomized, Multicenter, Double–Blind Study of the Safety and Efficacy of 1%D-3-Hydroxybutyrate eye drops for Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawakita, Tetsuya; Uchino, Miki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Yoshino, Kenichi; Shimazaki, Seika; Toda, Ikuko; Tanaka, Mari; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sakatani, Keiko; Hata, Seiichiro; Okano, Takashi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that topical D-beta-hydroxybutyrate ameliorates corneal epithelial erosion and superficial punctate keratopathy in a rat model of dry eye disease. In the current investigation, we performed a prospective, randomized, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the safety and efficacy of 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops in patients with dry eye disease. A total of 65 patients were randomly assigned to either the placebo group or the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group, and the treatments were administered 6 times a day for 4 weeks. We then evaluated corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer score, and subjective symptoms. At both 2 and 4 weeks, the corneal rose Bengal score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group. Among patients with an initial Schirmer score of ≤5 mm, the corneal fluorescein staining score was significantly better in the 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate group than in the placebo group at two weeks. Mild ocular symptoms occurred in both groups, and these spontaneously resolved. The present study suggested that 1% D-3-hydroxybutyrate eye drops are safe and effective in treating ocular surface disorders in patients with tear-deficient dry eye disease. PMID:26865350

  3. Embryonic development of the larval eyes of the Sunburst Diving Beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Insecta: Dytiscidae): a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Stecher, Nadine; Stowasser, Annette; Stahl, Aaron; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2016-07-01

    Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop. In addition, it is completely unclear how development is altered to give rise to some of the functionally most complex stemmata, such as those of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus. In this study, we used histological methods to investigate the embryonic development of the functionally complex principal stemmata Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the larval visual system of T. marmoratus. To gain insights into how cellular components of their sophisticated camera-type eyes might have evolved from the cellular components of ommatidial ancestors, we contrast our findings against known features of ommatidia development, which are particularly well understood in Drosophila. We find many similarities, such as the early presence of a pseudostratified epithelium, and the order in which specific cell types are recruited. However, in Thermonectus each cell type is represented by a large number of cells from early on and major tissue re-orientation occurs as eye development progresses. This study provides insights into the timing of morphological features and represents the basis for future molecular studies.

  4. Neural Differences between Covert and Overt Attention Studied using EEG with Simultaneous Remote Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Louisa V.; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Research on neural mechanisms of attention has generally instructed subjects to direct attention covertly while maintaining a fixed gaze. This study combined simultaneous eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure neural attention responses during exogenous cueing in overt attention shifts (with saccadic eye movements to a target) and compared these with covert attention shifts (responding manually while maintaining central fixation). EEG analysis of the period preceding the saccade latency showed similar occipital response amplitudes for overt and covert shifts, although response latencies differed. However, a frontal positivity was greater during covert attention shifts, possibly reflecting saccade inhibition to maintain fixation. The results show that combined EEG and eye tracking can be successfully used to study natural overt shifts of attention (applicable to non-verbal infants) and that requiring inhibition of saccades can lead to additional frontal responses. Such data can be used to refine current neural models of attention that have been mainly based on covert shifts. PMID:27932962

  5. An Eye-Tracking Study of How Color Coding Affects Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozcelik, Erol; Karakus, Turkan; Kursun, Engin; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    Color coding has been proposed to promote more effective learning. However, insufficient evidence currently exists to show how color coding leads to better learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the underlying cause of the color coding effect by utilizing eye movement data. Fifty-two participants studied either a color-coded or…

  6. Enhancing Vocabulary Learning through Captioned Video: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Maribel Montero; Peters, Elke; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of two attention-enhancing techniques on L2 students' learning and processing of novel French words (i.e., target words) through video with L2 subtitles or captions. A combination of eye-movement data and vocabulary tests was gathered to study the effects of Type of Captioning (full or keyword captioning) and…

  7. Configural processing in body posture recognition: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weidong; Sun, Hongjin

    2013-11-13

    The body inversion effect is the finding that inverted body posture pictures are more difficult to recognize than upright body posture pictures are. The present study reinvestigated the body inversion effect in human observers using behavioral and eye movement measures to explore whether the body inversion effect correlates with specific eye movement features. Results showed that body postures elicited a robust and stable body inversion effect in reaction time throughout the experimental sessions. Eye-tracking data showed that the body inversion effect was robust only in the first fixation duration, but not in the second fixation duration. The analysis of the regions of interest showed that most fixations were located in the upper body for both the upright and the inverted body postures. Compared with inverted body postures, the upright postures led to a shorter reaction time and a shorter first fixation duration, but a larger portion of time to fixate on the head region, suggesting that participants tended to use head as a reference point to process upright body postures. For both the behavioral and the eye movement measures, the body inversion effect was robust for biomechanically possible body postures. However, for biomechanically impossible body postures (with angular manipulation of two joints), the effect was mixed. Although the error rate failed to show the body inversion effect, the reaction time measure and most eye movement measures, however, showed a body inversion effect. Overall, these results suggested that upright body postures are processed in expertise recognition and are processed configurally by human observers.

  8. Construct validation of SF-36 Malay version among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Bee Wah; Jannoo, Zeinab; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Ghani, Nor Azura Md.; Lazim, Mohamad Alias

    2015-02-01

    The Short Form 36 (SF-36) is one of the most widely used generic health status measure. This study used the SF-36 Health Survey instrument to investigate the functional health and well-being of Malay Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients in Malaysia. The survey was carried out in three local hospitals in Selangor. The method of questionnaire administration was both self-administered and interviewer administered. A total of 354 questionnaires was returned, but only 295 questionnaires with no missing data were analyzed. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the first-order and third-order CFA models. The higher order analyses included a third-order CFA models with two second-order factors (physical and mental component) and three second-order factors (physical, general well-being and mental health) and both showed satisfactory model fit indices. This study confirmed the multidimensional factor structure of the SF-36.

  9. The British Educational Policy for the Indigenous Community in Malaya 1870-1957: Dualistic Structure, Colonial Interests and Malay Radical Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the educational policy implemented by the British for the Malays, the indigenous community of Malaya. Underpinned by the policy of divide and rule, the British implemented a dualistic system of education for the indigenous Malays: one for the Malay peasantry and another for the Malay nobility. The two systems of education…

  10. Efficient vitreolysis by combining plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride injection in a preclinical study in rabbit eyes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Chi; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chih-Chun; Wang, Nan-Kai; Chen, Kwan-Jen; Chen, Tun-Lu; Hwang, Yih-Shiou; Li, Lien-Min

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of plasmin and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) on the vitreoretinal junction, as well as the long-term safety in the eye and effect on the recipient’s general health after application in the eye. Methods The study design included four groups of rabbits with three animals in each group. Group 1 received an intravitreal injection (IVI) of plasmin and SF6 in the right eye; group 2 received an IVI of plasmin in the right eye; group 3 received an IVI of SF6 in the right eye; and group 4 received an IVI of balanced salt solution in the right eye, which served as a normal control. Long-term safety (up to approximately three months) after plasmin and/or SF6 injection was evaluated morphologically by clinical examination, histology, and immunohistochemistry, and functionally by electroretinograms (ERGs). General health evaluations after intravitreal injection included the assessment of weight gain, food intake, body temperature, and complete blood count analysis. Results Plasmin plus SF6 injection resulted in complete posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), whereas plasmin or SF6 injection alone resulted in only partial PVD. Balanced salt solution did not induce PVD. Eighty days after intravitreal injection, there were no major differences among the eyes of the three groups of animals compared with the normal control animals upon clinical evaluation, or regarding retinal morphology and ERGs. The lenses examined remained clear for up to 80 days following the intravitreal injection of plasmin plus SF6, except one eye in the plasmin-treated group. ERGs decreased transiently one week after intravitreal injection in groups 1 through 3, but animals recovered fully to normal status afterward. General health was not affected after the injection of plasmin plus SF6. Conclusions Efficient vitreoretinal separation could be achieved, and an acceptable long-term safety profile was noted after plasmin plus SF6 injection in the eye. No major ocular toxicity or

  11. Eye pain

    MedlinePlus

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  12. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Healthy Eyes Maintaining Your Vision Click for more information Taking ... have a comprehensive dilated eye exam. Who Performs Eye Exams? An eye care professional is either an ...

  13. Love is in the gaze: an eye-tracking study of love and sexual desire.

    PubMed

    Bolmont, Mylene; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2014-09-01

    Reading other people's eyes is a valuable skill during interpersonal interaction. Although a number of studies have investigated visual patterns in relation to the perceiver's interest, intentions, and goals, little is known about eye gaze when it comes to differentiating intentions to love from intentions to lust (sexual desire). To address this question, we conducted two experiments: one testing whether the visual pattern related to the perception of love differs from that related to lust and one testing whether the visual pattern related to the expression of love differs from that related to lust. Our results show that a person's eye gaze shifts as a function of his or her goal (love vs. lust) when looking at a visual stimulus. Such identification of distinct visual patterns for love and lust could have theoretical and clinical importance in couples therapy when these two phenomena are difficult to disentangle from one another on the basis of patients' self-reports.

  14. Basic study of the portable fatigue meter: effects of illumination, distance from eyes and age.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, T; Mikami, K; Saito, K

    1997-09-01

    Several aspects of a new, small and inexpensive fatigue assessment tool, the Portable Fatigue Meter (PFM), were studied. In the first experiment the effects of room illumination and distance between the PFM and the eyes on critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) values were examined. The results revealed that the PFM CFF value varied significantly as a function of the distance between the indicator and the eyes, but it was not affected by room illumination. The effect of ageing on the PFM CFF value was assessed in a second experiment. The results suggested that PFM CFF values are significantly smaller in middle-aged females than in younger females.

  15. The role of interword spacing in reading Japanese: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Miia; Hyönä, Jukka; Bingushi, Kazuo; Bertram, Raymond

    2007-09-01

    The present study investigated the role of interword spacing in a naturally unspaced language, Japanese. Eye movements were registered of native Japanese readers reading pure Hiragana (syllabic) and mixed Kanji-Hiragana (ideographic and syllabic) text in spaced and unspaced conditions. Interword spacing facilitated both word identification and eye guidance when reading syllabic script, but not when the script contained ideographic characters. We conclude that in reading Hiragana interword spacing serves as an effective segmentation cue. In contrast, spacing information in mixed Kanji-Hiragana text is redundant, since the visually salient Kanji characters serve as effective segmentation cues by themselves.

  16. Double-blind group comparative study of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops with 2% sodium cromoglycate and placebo eye drops in the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leino, M; Ennevaara, K; Latvala, A L; Nordgren, P; Posti, A M; Suves, R; Takalo, E

    1992-10-01

    A 4 week, multicentre, double-blind, double dummy, placebo controlled group comparative study was carried out during the birch pollen season to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2% nedocromil sodium eye drops (twice daily) and 2% sodium cromoglycate eye drops (four times daily). Participants with a history of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) were randomized to receive nedocromil sodium (60), sodium cromoglycate (61) or placebo (64). Clinical assessment of SAC showed improvement with both active treatments compared to placebo but symptomatology was low and only changes in photophobia and grittiness reached significance (P < 0.05). Patient diaries showed significant control of itching by both active treatments, compared to placebo, with no differences between the active preparations. Patients' opinions indicated a marked placebo effect: 73% of this group reported full or moderate control of symptoms, compared with 75% in sodium cromoglycate and 80% in the nedocromil sodium group. Unusual symptoms were most common (27 patients) with nedocromil sodium eye drops: P < 0.05 vs. placebo (15 patients). There were no serious adverse events. Nedocromil sodium eye drops (b.d.) and sodium cromoglycate eye drops (q.i.d.) were both considered clinically more effective than placebo in controlling symptoms of SAC due to birch pollen.

  17. Prevalence of Second-Eye Cataract Surgery and Time Interval after First-Eye Surgery in Iran: A Clinic-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Katibeh, Marzieh; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sehat, Mojtaba; Eskandari, Armen; Ziaei, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of second-eye senile cataract surgery (SECS) as a proportion of all senile cataract surgeries and the trend in the interval between first and second cataract operations in a main referral and academic eye hospital. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a list of patients who underwent senile cataract surgery over four consecutive years (2006-2009) was retrieved from hospital computer-based records as the sampling frame. With a systematic random method, 15% of records were selected (1,585 out of 10,517 records). Results: First- and second-eye operations were performed in 1,139 (71.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69.5-74.1) and 446 eyes (28.1%; 95% CI, 25.9-30.35), respectively. The proportion of SECS procedures increased from 24.3% in 2006 to 33.4% in 2009 (P = 0.017). The median (interquartile range) interval between the two operations was 9 (4-24) months, which remained stable during the study period. The SECS rate was 10.4% higher (P = 0.01) and the time interval was 13 months shorter (P = 0.007) in patients who underwent phacoemulsification than extracapsular cataract extraction. Conclusion: The number of cataract operations in this tertiary eye care setting increased 1.5 fold over the study period. The proportion of second-eye operations also rose from 1/4 to 1/3 during the same time. PMID:23580856

  18. A comparative study of thermal effects of 3 types of laser in eye: 3D simulation with bioheat equation.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Nammakie, Erfan; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh

    2015-01-01

    The application of laser in ophthalmology and eye surgery is so widespread that hardly can anyone deny its importance. On the other hand, since the human eye is an organ susceptible to external factors such as heat waves, laser radiation rapidly increases the temperature of the eye and therefore the study of temperature distribution inside the eye under laser irradiation is crucial; but the use of experimental and invasive methods for measuring the temperature inside the eye is typically high-risk and hazardous. In this paper, using the three-dimensional finite element method, the distribution of heat transfer inside the eye under transient condition was studied through three different lasers named Nd:Yag, Nd:Yap and ArF. Considering the metabolic heat and blood perfusion rate in various regions of the eye, numerical solution of space-time dependant Pennes bioheat transfer equation has been applied in this study. Lambert-Beer's law has been used to model the absorption of laser energy inside the eye tissues. It should also be mentioned that the effect of the ambient temperature, tear evaporation rate, laser power and the pupil diameter on the temperature distribution have been studied. Also, temperature distribution inside the eye after applying each laser and temperature variations of six optional regions as functions of time have been investigated. The results show that these radiations cause temperature rise in various regions, which will in turn causes serious damages to the eye tissues. Investigating the temperature distribution inside the eye under the laser irradiation can be a useful tool to study and predict the thermal effects of laser radiation on the human eye and evaluate the risk involved in performing laser surgery.

  19. Infant and Adult Perceptions of Possible and Impossible Body Movements: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N = 14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old…

  20. The Early Development of Sight-Reading Skills in Adulthood: A Study of Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penttinen, Marjaana; Huovinen, Erkki

    2011-01-01

    In this study the effects of skill development on the eye movements of beginning adult sight-readers were examined, focusing on changes in the allocation of visual attention within metrical units as well as in the processing of larger melodic intervals. The participants were future elementary school teachers, taking part in a 9-month-long music…

  1. An Eye-Tracking Study of Learning from Science Text with Concrete and Abstract Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina; Ariasi, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the online process of reading and the offline learning from an illustrated science text. The authors examined the effects of using a concrete or abstract picture to illustrate a text and adopted eye-tracking methodology to trace text and picture processing. They randomly assigned 59 eleventh-grade students to 3 reading…

  2. Vocabulary Acquisition without Adult Explanations in Repeated Shared Book Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary Ann; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2013-01-01

    When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim…

  3. Attention to Irregular Verbs by Beginning Learners of German: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godfroid, Aline; Uggen, Maren S.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on beginning second language learners' attention to irregular verb morphology, an area of grammar that many adults find difficult to acquire (e.g., DeKeyser, 2005; Larsen-Freeman, 2010). We measured beginning learners' eye movements during sentence processing to investigate whether or not they actually attend to…

  4. The Face Perception System becomes Species-Specific at 3 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Giorgio, Elisa; Meary, David; Pascalis, Olivier; Simion, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating own- vs. other-species preferences in 3-month-old infants. The infants' eye movements were recorded during a visual preference paradigm to assess whether they show a preference for own-species faces when contrasted with other-species faces. Human and monkey faces, equated for all low-level perceptual…

  5. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  6. Visual Selectivity in Reading: A Study of the Relationship between Eye Movements and Linguistic Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comunale, Anthony Sabato

    Three major hypotheses were tested in this study: (1) there will be a greater frequency of forward and backward eye fixation for that linguistically defined area of a selected exprimental sentence which contains the verb, as compared to either the area of the subject or the area of the object of the verb; (2) there will be differences in the…

  7. Narrative Comprehension and Production in Children with SLI: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreu, Llorenc; Sanz-Torrent, Monica; Olmos, Joan Guardia; MacWhinney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5;8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5;6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and…

  8. Ex-PRESS implantation versus trabeculectomy in Chinese patients with POAG: fellow eye pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min-Wen; Huang, Wen-Bin; Gao, Xin-Bo; Zhang, Xiu-Lan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the outcomes of Ex-PRESS implantation in one eye versus trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the fellow eye in Chinese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS This was a prospective, non-randomized comparative study. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with bilateral POAG necessitating surgery were included and underwent Ex-PRESS implantation under the scleral flap in one eye and trabeculectomy in the other eye according to patients' choice. Primary outcome measures included mean intraocular pressure (IOP) and success rate. Secondary outcome measures were aqueous flare, postoperative medication use, visual acuity, and incidence of complications. RESULTS All 24 patients finished a 1-year follow-up. Both groups maintained significant reductions in IOP after surgery throughout the follow-up period. At any point in time, the IOP of the two groups did not differ significantly. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis showed no significant differences in success between the two groups (P=0.289). The mean number of anti-glaucoma medicines and visual acuity in both groups were not significantly different. Eyes with Ex-PRESS implantation had lower aqueous flare values on days 1 and 3 (both P<0.05). Instances of early postoperative hypotony and choroidal effusion were significantly fewer in frequency after Ex-PRESS implantation under the scleral flap compared with those after trabeculectomy (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Ex-PRESS is comparable to trabeculectomy in terms of IOP, success rate, number of glaucoma medications used, and visual acuity. However, Ex-PRESS resulted in fewer cases of inflammation and a lower rate of complications. PMID:28149777

  9. [Air bags and eye injuries: chemical burns and major traumatic ocular lesions--a case study].

    PubMed

    Bendeddouche, K; Assaf, E; Emadisson, H; Forestier, F; Salvanet-Bouccara, A

    2003-10-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral eye lesions with extended visual sequelae after the inflation of a driver's airbag during a head-on collision. The superficial facial lesions were accompanied by bilateral eye lesions, reaching both the anterior and posterior segments. Bilateral periorbital palpebral hematomas; voluminous bipalpebral edema combined with severe -conjunctival edema, corneal erosions, and edema; bilateral hyphema; pupillary changes with multiple iris sphincter breaks and weak pupillary light reflex only on the right eye; retrocession of the iridocorneal angle; and on fundus examination both retinas had posterior and peripheral hemorrhages and Berlin retinal edema. Five years after the trauma and 4 years after posttraumatic surgery for cataract that had progressively appeared on the left eye, the visual acuity is 25/20 in both eyes notwithstanding a small paracentral scotoma related to a break in the Bruch membrane. A review of the literature shows several types of ophthalmological lesions related to the airbag mechanism, which after combustion of an alkaline powder inflates at a very high speed, resulting in a risk of corneal-conjunctive-palpebral alkaline burns added to an eye contusion, which may be responsible for severe lesions. The American studies distinguish three factors affecting the seriousness of these airbag accidents: (a) wearing glasses, (b) position and size of the driver, and (c) inflation force of the airbag. Wearing a seatbelt is mandatory to minimize the violence of the oculofacial impact. After facial trauma from an airbag, an ophthalmological examination is necessary to assess of the chemical burns of the tissues exposed to the alkaline powder and possible major ocular lesions.

  10. Perceived Stress and Coping Styles among Malay Caregivers of Children with Learning Disabilities in Kelantan

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Siti Nor Ismalina; Ishak, Ismarulyusda; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Saat, Nur Zakiah Mohd; Din, Normah Che; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ismail, Muhammad Faiz Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Background Caregivers of children with learning disabilities have been shown to experience increased stress and greater negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There remains a lack of studies focusing on stress and coping mechanisms among caregivers of a wider age group and diagnosis of individuals with disabilities in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and associated child and caregiver factors among caregivers of children with learning disabilities in the Malaysian context. An additional aim was to determine whether caregiver coping styles may be predictors of perceived stress. Methods The Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale with 10 items and the Brief COPE Scale were administered to a sample of 190 Malay caregivers of children with learning disabilities registered with community-based rehabilitation centres in Kelantan, a state in Peninsular Malaysia. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress. Results The mean total perceived stress score of caregivers was 16.96 (SD = 4.66). The most frequently used coping styles found among caregivers included religion, acceptance and positive reframing, while substance use and behavioural disengagement were least frequently used. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers with fewer children, frequent use of instrumental support and behavioural disengagement coping, and lack of emotional support and religious coping. Conclusion Findings indicate that the perceived stress levels among caregivers were significantly predicted by different coping styles. It is vital to help the caregivers improve their good coping styles in order to reduce their stress levels. PMID:28381931

  11. Advanced Clinical Imaging and Tissue-based Biomarkers of the Eye for Toxicology Studies in Minipigs.

    PubMed

    Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid; Jacobsen, Bjoern; Funk, Juergen; Altmann, Bernd; Silva Munoz, Manuel A; Singer, Thomas; Gyger, Cyrill; Hasler, Pascal; Maloca, Peter

    2016-04-01

    There is increased interest to use minipigs in ocular toxicology studies due to their anatomical similarities with human eyes and as a substitute for nonhuman primates. This requires adaptation of enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) techniques and of ocular relevant immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH) markers to porcine eyes. In this study, OCT and OCT angiography (AngioOCT) were performed on adult Göttingen minipigs. To increase structural information on retinal and choroidal vasculature, OCT data were speckle denoized and choroidal blood vessels were segmented with threshold filtering. In addition, we established a set of IHC and ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded minipig eyes: neurofilament-160, neuronal nuclei, calretinin, protein kinase C-α, vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1, rhodopsin, synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein-95, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-specific protein-65, von Willebrand factor, α-smooth muscle actin, desmin, and Ki-67, thus enabling visualization of retinal neuronal and glial cells, photoreceptors, synapses, RPE, blood vessels, myocytes, macrophages, or cell proliferation. Using ISH, transcripts of vascular endothelial growth factor A, angiopoietin-2, and endothelial tyrosine kinase were visualized. This article describes for the first time in minipig eyes speckle noise-free OCT, AngioOCT, and a set of IHC/ISH markers on Davidson's fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and helps to establish the minipig for ocular toxicology and pharmacology studies.

  12. Laser Induced Damage in the Eye: Study of Energy Deposition in the Retina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    retinitis pigmentosa , pigment granules accumulate around the blood vessels and in the inner retinal layers (Yanoff & Fine, 1975), (Reese 1960). The pigment...Scanning Electron Microscopic Studies of Laser Lesions in the Rabbit Retina 45 6. The Study of the Vitreal- Retinal Junction 46 7. Detailed Studies of...eye is particularly susceptible to light- induced damage. Considerable research has gone into a study of retinal damaqe and its repair. However, the

  13. Systematic Pharmacogenomics Analysis of a Malay Whole Genome: Proof of Concept for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Teh, Lay Kek; Lee, Lian Shien; Ismet, Rose Iszati; Patowary, Ashok; Joshi, Kandarp; Pasha, Ayesha; Ahmed, Azni Zain; Janor, Roziah Mohd; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Adam, Aishah; Yusoff, Khalid; Hoh, Boon Peng; Hatta, Fazleen Haslinda Mohd; Ismail, Mohamad Izwan; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    Background With a higher throughput and lower cost in sequencing, second generation sequencing technology has immense potential for translation into clinical practice and in the realization of pharmacogenomics based patient care. The systematic analysis of whole genome sequences to assess patient to patient variability in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics responses towards drugs would be the next step in future medicine in line with the vision of personalizing medicine. Methods Genomic DNA obtained from a 55 years old, self-declared healthy, anonymous male of Malay descent was sequenced. The subject's mother died of lung cancer and the father had a history of schizophrenia and deceased at the age of 65 years old. A systematic, intuitive computational workflow/pipeline integrating custom algorithm in tandem with large datasets of variant annotations and gene functions for genetic variations with pharmacogenomics impact was developed. A comprehensive pathway map of drug transport, metabolism and action was used as a template to map non-synonymous variations with potential functional consequences. Principal Findings Over 3 million known variations and 100,898 novel variations in the Malay genome were identified. Further in-depth pharmacogenetics analysis revealed a total of 607 unique variants in 563 proteins, with the eventual identification of 4 drug transport genes, 2 drug metabolizing enzyme genes and 33 target genes harboring deleterious SNVs involved in pharmacological pathways, which could have a potential role in clinical settings. Conclusions The current study successfully unravels the potential of personal genome sequencing in understanding the functionally relevant variations with potential influence on drug transport, metabolism and differential therapeutic outcomes. These will be essential for realizing personalized medicine through the use of comprehensive computational pipeline for systematic data mining and analysis. PMID:24009664

  14. First reported case of Haemoglobin-M Hyde Park in a Malay family living in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Loong, Tang Yee; Chong, Doris Lau Sie; Jamal, A. Rahman A.; Murad, Nor Azian Abdul; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Fun, Leong Chooi

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb)-M Hyde Park, also known as Hb-M Akita is a rare type of hereditary Hb M due to autosomal dominant mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 of β globin gene resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine on β globin chain. This variant Hb has a tendency to form methaemoglobin (metHb). The iron ion in metHb is oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) which is unable to carry oxygen and the patients manifest as cyanosis clinically. A 9-year-old Malay girl was incidentally found to be cyanotic when she presented to a health clinic. Laboratory investigations revealed raised methaemoglobin levels and Hb analysis findings were consistent with Hb-M Hyde Park. β gene sequencing confirmed a point mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 in one of the β genes. The family study done on the individuals with cyanosis showed similar findings. A diagnosis of heterozygous Hb-M Hyde Park was made. Patients with this variant Hb usually presented with cyanosis with mild haemolysis and maybe misdiagnosed as congenital heart disease. No further treatment is needed as patients are relatively asymptomatic. Although the disease is harmless in the heterozygous carriers but the offspring of the carriers may suffer severe haemolytic anaemia when the offspring also inherit other β haemoglobinopathies/thalassemia. This can happen due to high prevalence of β thalassemia carrier (3.5-4 %) found in Malaysia. At the time of writing, this is the first case of hereditary Hb-M Hyde Park diagnosed in a Malay family living in Malaysia. PMID:28096792

  15. First reported case of Haemoglobin-M Hyde Park in a Malay family living in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loong, Tang Yee; Chong, Doris Lau Sie; Jamal, A Rahman A; Murad, Nor Azian Abdul; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Fun, Leong Chooi

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb)-M Hyde Park, also known as Hb-M Akita is a rare type of hereditary Hb M due to autosomal dominant mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 of β globin gene resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine on β globin chain. This variant Hb has a tendency to form methaemoglobin (metHb). The iron ion in metHb is oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) which is unable to carry oxygen and the patients manifest as cyanosis clinically. A 9-year-old Malay girl was incidentally found to be cyanotic when she presented to a health clinic. Laboratory investigations revealed raised methaemoglobin levels and Hb analysis findings were consistent with Hb-M Hyde Park. β gene sequencing confirmed a point mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 in one of the β genes. The family study done on the individuals with cyanosis showed similar findings. A diagnosis of heterozygous Hb-M Hyde Park was made. Patients with this variant Hb usually presented with cyanosis with mild haemolysis and maybe misdiagnosed as congenital heart disease. No further treatment is needed as patients are relatively asymptomatic. Although the disease is harmless in the heterozygous carriers but the offspring of the carriers may suffer severe haemolytic anaemia when the offspring also inherit other β haemoglobinopathies/thalassemia. This can happen due to high prevalence of β thalassemia carrier (3.5-4 %) found in Malaysia. At the time of writing, this is the first case of hereditary Hb-M Hyde Park diagnosed in a Malay family living in Malaysia.

  16. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  17. A pilot study: the efficacy of virgin coconut oil as ocular rewetting agent on rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  18. Twins eye study in Tasmania (TEST): rationale and methodology to recruit and examine twins.

    PubMed

    Mackey, David A; Mackinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2009-10-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause of morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: (1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited, (2) utilizing the national twin registry, (3) word-of-mouth and local media publicity, (4) directly approaching schools, and finally (5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins.

  19. Twins Eye Study in Tasmania (TEST): Rationale and Methodology to Recruit and Examine Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, David A; MacKinnon, Jane R; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Sun, Cong; Hammond, Christopher J; Young, Terri L; Martin, Nicholas G; Hewitt, Alex W

    2013-01-01

    Visual impairment is a leading cause for morbidity and poor quality of life in our community. Unravelling the mechanisms underpinning important blinding diseases could allow for preventative or curative steps to be implemented. Twin siblings provide a unique opportunity in biology to discover genes associated with numerous eye diseases and ocular biometry. Twins are particularly useful for quantitative trait analysis through genome-wide association and linkage studies. Although many studies involving twins rely on twin registries, we present our approach to the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania to provide insight into possible recruitment strategies, expected participation rates and potential examination strategies that can be considered by other researchers for similar studies. Five separate avenues for cohort recruitment were adopted: 1) piggy-backing existing studies where twins had been recruited; 2); utilising the national twin registry; 3) word of mouth and local media publicity; 4) directly approaching schools; and finally 5) collaborating with other research groups studying twins. PMID:19803772

  20. Learning from Concept Mapping and Hypertext: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amadieu, Franck; Salmerón, Ladislao; Cegarra, Julien; Paubel, Pierre-Vincent; Lemarié, Julie; Chevalier, Aline

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prior domain knowledge and learning sequences on learning with concept mapping and hypertext. Participants either made a concept map in a first step and then read the hypertext's contents combined with concept mapping (high activating condition), or they read the hypertext's contents first and then made a concept…

  1. PTSD and Impaired Eye Expression Recognition: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jakob Zeuthen; Zachariae, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This preliminary study examined whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was related to difficulties in identifying the mental states of others in a group of refugees. Sixteen Bosnian refugees, referred to treatment in an outpatient treatment center for survivors of torture and war-related trauma in Denmark (CETT), were compared to 16 non-PTSD…

  2. Mahjong playing and eye-hand coordination in older adults—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W.N.; Wong, Gloria C.K.; Gao, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Eye-hand coordination declines with age, but physical activity is known to slow down the degeneration. Playing mahjong involves lots of eye-hand coordination. The objective was to investigate the relationship between playing mahjong and eye-hand coordination in older adults using a fast finger-pointing paradigm. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one community dwelling older adults aged sixty or above were recruited by convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. They were tested on their ability to point quickly and accurately 1) toward a stationary visual target and 2) toward a moving visual target. [Results] The mahjong players demonstrated significantly better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hand toward a stationary target. They also demonstrated significantly faster movement of their dominant hands; shorter reaction times and better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hands toward a moving target. [Conclusion] Mahjong players have better eye-hand coordination than non-players. Playing mahjong could usefully be introduced to older adults as a leisure time activity. PMID:27821969

  3. Eye-tracking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A longitudinal study of saccadic and cognitive tasks.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Menke, Ricarda A L; Sharma, Rakesh; Berna, Claire M; Hicks, Stephen L; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    A relative preservation of eye movements is notable in ALS, but saccadic functions have not been studied longitudinally. ALS overlaps with FTD, typically involving executive dysfunction, and eye-tracking offers additional potential for the assessment of extramotor pathology where writing and speaking are both impaired. Eye-tracking measures (including anti-saccade, trail-making and visual search tasks) were assessed at six-monthly intervals for up to two years in a group of ALS (n = 61) and primary lateral sclerosis (n = 7) patients, compared to healthy age-matched controls (n = 39) assessed on a single occasion. Task performance was explored speculatively in relation to resting-state functional MRI (R-FMRI) network connectivity. Results showed that ALS patients were impaired on executive and visual search tasks despite normal basic saccadic function, and impairments in the PLS patients were unexpectedly often more severe. No significant progression was detected longitudinally in either group. No changes in R-FMRI network connectivity were identified in relation to patient performance. In conclusion, eye-tracking offers an objective means to assess extramotor cerebral involvement in ALS. The relative resistance of pure oculomotor function is confirmed, and higher-level executive impairments do not follow the same rate of decline as physical disability. PLS patients may have more cortical dysfunction than has been previously appreciated.

  4. Eye-tracking in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A longitudinal study of saccadic and cognitive tasks

    PubMed Central

    Proudfoot, Malcolm; Menke, Ricarda A.L.; Sharma, Rakesh; Berna, Claire M.; Hicks, Stephen L.; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    A relative preservation of eye movements is notable in ALS, but saccadic functions have not been studied longitudinally. ALS overlaps with FTD, typically involving executive dysfunction, and eye-tracking offers additional potential for the assessment of extramotor pathology where writing and speaking are both impaired. Eye-tracking measures (including anti-saccade, trail-making and visual search tasks) were assessed at six-monthly intervals for up to two years in a group of ALS (n = 61) and primary lateral sclerosis (n = 7) patients, compared to healthy age-matched controls (n = 39) assessed on a single occasion. Task performance was explored speculatively in relation to resting-state functional MRI (R-FMRI) network connectivity. Results showed that ALS patients were impaired on executive and visual search tasks despite normal basic saccadic function, and impairments in the PLS patients were unexpectedly often more severe. No significant progression was detected longitudinally in either group. No changes in R-FMRI network connectivity were identified in relation to patient performance. In conclusion, eye-tracking offers an objective means to assess extramotor cerebral involvement in ALS. The relative resistance of pure oculomotor function is confirmed, and higher-level executive impairments do not follow the same rate of decline as physical disability. PLS patients may have more cortical dysfunction than has been previously appreciated. PMID:26312652

  5. An fMRI study of training voluntary smooth circular eye movements.

    PubMed

    Kleiser, Raimund; Stadler, Cornelia; Wimmer, Sibylle; Matyas, Thomas; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2017-03-01

    Despite a large number of recent studies, the promise of fMRI methods to produce valuable insights into motor skill learning has been restricted to sequence learning paradigms, or manual training paradigms where a relatively advanced capacity for sensory-motor integration and effector coordination already exists. We therefore obtained fMRIs from 16 healthy adults trained in a new paradigm that demanded voluntary smooth circular eye movements without a moving target. This aimed to monitor neural activation during two possible motor learning processes: (a) the smooth pursuit control system develops a new perceptual-motor relationship and successfully becomes involved in voluntary action in which it is not normally involved or (b) the saccadic system normally used for voluntary eye movement and which only exhibits linear action skill develops new dynamic coordinative control capable of smooth circular movement. Participants were able to improve within half an hour, typically demonstrating saccadic movement with progressively reduced amplitudes, which better approximated smooth circular movement. Activity in the inferior premotor cortex was significantly modulated and decreased during the progress of learning. In contrast, activations in dorsal premotor and parietal cortex along the intraparietal sulcus, the supplementary eye field and the anterior cerebellum did not change during training. Thus, the decrease of activity in inferior premotor cortex was critically related to the learning progress in visuospatial eye movement control.

  6. Classroom Misbehavior in the Eyes of Students: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rachel C. F.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed. PMID:22919316

  7. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rachel C F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2012-01-01

    Using individual interviews, this study investigated perceptions of classroom misbehaviors among secondary school students in Hong Kong (N = 18). Nineteen categories of classroom misbehaviors were identified, with talking out of turn, disrespecting teacher, and doing something in private being most frequently mentioned. Findings revealed that students tended to perceive misbehaviors as those actions inappropriate in the classroom settings and even disrupting teachers' teaching and other students' learning. Among various misbehaviors, talking out of turn and disrespecting teacher were seen as the most disruptive and unacceptable. These misbehaviors were unacceptable because they disturbed teaching and learning, and violated the values of respect, conformity, and obedience in the teacher-student relationship within the classroom. The frequency and intensity of misbehaviors would escalate if students found it fun, no punishment for such misbehaviors, or teachers were not authoritative enough in controlling the situations. Implications for further research and classroom management are discussed.

  8. Introduction of the Utrecht Tasks for Attention in Toddlers Using Eye Tracking (UTATE): A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Marjanneke; Verhoeven, Marjolein; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Attention capacities underlie everyday functioning from an early age onwards. Little is known about attentional processes at toddler age. A feasible assessment of attention capacities at toddler age is needed to allow further study of attention development. In this study, a test battery is piloted that consists of four tasks which intend to measure the attention systems orienting, alerting, and executive attention: the Utrecht Tasks of Attention in Toddlers using Eye tracking [UTATE]. The UTATE assesses looking behavior that may reflect visual attention capacities, by using eye-tracking methods. This UTATE was studied in 16 Dutch 18-month-old toddlers. Results showed that the instrument is feasible and generates good quality data. A first indication of sufficient reliability was found for most of the variables. It is concluded that the UTATE can be used in further studies. Further evaluation of the reliability and validity of the instrument in larger samples is worthwhile. PMID:27199880

  9. Urut Melayu, the Traditional Malay Massage, as a Complementary Rehabilitative Care in Postpartum Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anuar, Haniza Mohd; Ismail, Suhaila; Abd Ghani, Norsuria; Ahmad, Norlaili

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The case of a 32-year-old Malay woman who developed postpartum stroke is reported. Methods The patient received a series of urut Melayu, the traditional Malay massage, sessions at one of the newly established integrated hospitals in the country. Results After 14 urut Melayu sessions, she improved tremendously in her speech and fine motor skills and regained her activities of daily living. Conclusions This use of urut Melayu to complement rehabilitation care in patients poststroke is promising. PMID:22401300

  10. Individual Differences in Fifth Graders' Literacy and Academic Language Predict Comprehension Monitoring Development: An Eye-Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth graders' (n = 52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children…

  11. How dogs scan familiar and inverted faces: an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Hänninen, Laura; Krause, Christina M; Vainio, Outi

    2014-05-01

    Faces play an important role in communication and identity recognition in social animals. Domestic dogs often respond to human facial cues, but their face processing is weakly understood. In this study, facial inversion effect (deficits in face processing when the image is turned upside down) and responses to personal familiarity were tested using eye movement tracking. A total of 23 pet dogs and eight kennel dogs were compared to establish the effects of life experiences on their scanning behavior. All dogs preferred conspecific faces and showed great interest in the eye area, suggesting that they perceived images representing faces. Dogs fixated at the upright faces as long as the inverted faces, but the eye area of upright faces gathered longer total duration and greater relative fixation duration than the eye area of inverted stimuli, regardless of the species (dog or human) shown in the image. Personally, familiar faces and eyes attracted more fixations than the strange ones, suggesting that dogs are likely to recognize conspecific and human faces in photographs. The results imply that face scanning in dogs is guided not only by the physical properties of images, but also by semantic factors. In conclusion, in a free-viewing task, dogs seem to target their fixations at naturally salient and familiar items. Facial images were generally more attractive for pet dogs than kennel dogs, but living environment did not affect conspecific preference or inversion and familiarity responses, suggesting that the basic mechanisms of face processing in dogs could be hardwired or might develop under limited exposure.

  12. Evaluation of Color Settings in Aerial Images with the Use of Eye-Tracking User Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirijovsky, J.; Popelka, S.

    2016-06-01

    The main aim of presented paper is to find the most realistic and preferred color settings for four different types of surfaces on the aerial images. This will be achieved through user study with the use of eye-movement recording. Aerial images taken by the unmanned aerial system were used as stimuli. From each image, squared crop area containing one of the studied types of surfaces (asphalt, concrete, water, soil, and grass) was selected. For each type of surface, the real value of reflectance was found with the use of precise spectroradiometer ASD HandHeld 2 which measures the reflectance. The device was used at the same time as aerial images were captured, so lighting conditions and state of vegetation were equal. The spectral resolution of the ASD device is better than 3.0 nm. For defining the RGB values of selected type of surface, the spectral reflectance values recorded by the device were merged into wider groups. Finally, we get three groups corresponding to RGB color system. Captured images were edited with the graphic editor Photoshop CS6. Contrast, clarity, and brightness were edited for all surface types on images. Finally, we get a set of 12 images of the same area with different color settings. These images were put into the grid and used as stimuli for the eye-tracking experiment. Eye-tracking is one of the methods of usability studies and it is considered as relatively objective. Eye-tracker SMI RED 250 with the sampling frequency 250 Hz was used in the study. As respondents, a group of 24 students of Geoinformatics and Geography was used. Their task was to select which image in the grid has the best color settings. The next task was to select which color settings they prefer. Respondents' answers were evaluated and the most realistic and most preferable color settings were found. The advantage of the eye-tracking evaluation was that also the process of the selection of the answers was analyzed. Areas of Interest were marked around each image in the

  13. A clinical study on “Computer vision syndrome” and its management with Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha

    PubMed Central

    Gangamma, M. P.; Poonam; Rajagopala, Manjusha

    2010-01-01

    American Optometric Association (AOA) defines computer vision syndrome (CVS) as “Complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use”. Most studies indicate that Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators report more eye related problems than non-VDT office workers. The causes for the inefficiencies and the visual symptoms are a combination of individual visual problems and poor office ergonomics. In this clinical study on “CVS”, 151 patients were registered, out of whom 141 completed the treatment. In Group A, 45 patients had been prescribed Triphala eye drops; in Group B, 53 patients had been prescribed the Triphala eye drops and Saptamrita Lauha tablets internally, and in Group C, 43 patients had been prescribed the placebo eye drops and placebo tablets. In total, marked improvement was observed in 48.89, 54.71 and 06.98% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. PMID:22131717

  14. Prescription of atropine eye drops among children diagnosed with myopia in Taiwan from 2000 to 2007: a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Y-T; Chou, Y-J; Pu, C; Lin, P-J; Liu, T-L; Huang, N; Chou, P

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the atropine eye drop prescription trend for children diagnosed with myopia, and to determine the factors associated with the prescription of atropine eye drops. Design This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Methods This study was conducted using a national representative sample from the National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data. All school children between 4 and 18 years of age who had visited an ophthalmologist and were diagnosed with myopia between 2000 and 2007 were included herein. The main outcome measure was the proportion of subjects who were prescribed atropine eye drops in each year. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with atropine eye drops being prescribed. Results The prescription of atropine eye drops for children diagnosed with myopia increased significantly from the school years 2000 (36.9%) to 2007 (49.5%). There was also a shift from prescribing high concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of atropine eye drops to lower concentration ones (0.3, 0.25, and 0.1%) within this period. Atropine eye drops were more frequently prescribed to 9–12-year-old children (OR=1.26–1.42, compared with those 7–8 years old), and to children from families with a high socioeconomic status (OR=1.19–1.25); however, they were less prescribed to those living in mid to low urbanized areas (OR=0.65–0.84). Conclusions This study revealed an increasing trend of atropine eye drop prescription for children with myopia in Taiwan. Our study provides eye-care professionals worldwide a reference for the potential integration of atropine eye drops into their clinical practice toward children with myopia. PMID:23288141

  15. Attention for emotional facial expressions in dysphoria: an eye-movement registration study.

    PubMed

    Leyman, Lemke; De Raedt, Rudi; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M

    2011-01-01

    Former research demonstrated that depression is associated with dysfunctional attentional processing of emotional information. Most studies examined this bias by registration of response latencies. The present study employed an ecologically valid measurement of attentive processing, using eye-movement registration. Dysphoric and non-dysphoric participants viewed slides presenting sad, angry, happy and neutral facial expressions. For each type of expression, three components of visual attention were analysed: the relative fixation frequency, fixation time and glance duration. Attentional biases were also investigated for inverted facial expressions to ensure that they were not related to eye-catching facial features. Results indicated that non-dysphoric individuals were characterised by longer fixating and dwelling on happy faces. Dysphoric individuals demonstrated a longer dwelling on sad and neutral faces. These results were not found for inverted facial expressions. The present findings are in line with the assumption that depression is associated with a prolonged attentional elaboration on negative information.

  16. Studying nanostructured nipple arrays of moth eye facets helps to design better thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Rahul; Fischer, Stefan; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Özdemir, Yasemin; Hamraz, Saeed; Knipp, Dietmar

    2012-03-01

    Nipples on the surface of moth eye facets exhibit almost perfect broadband anti-reflection properties. We have studied the facet surface micro-protuberances, known as corneal nipples, of the chestnut leafminer moth Cameraria ohridella by atomic force microscopy, and simulated the optics of the nipple arrays by three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. The influence of the dimensions and shapes of the nipples on the optics was studied. In particular, the shape of the nipples has a major influence on the anti-reflection properties. Furthermore, we transferred the structure of the almost perfect broadband anti-reflection coatings to amorphous silicon thin film solar cells. The coating that imitates the moth-eye array allows for an increase of the short circuit current and conversion efficiency of more than 40%.

  17. Pioneering Studies on Cephalopod's Eye and Vision at the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn (1883-1977)

    PubMed Central

    Dröscher, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century onwards, the phenomena of vision and the anatomy and physiology of the eye of marine animals induced many zoologists, ethologists, physiologists, anatomists, biochemists, and ophthalmologists to travel to the Zoological Station in Naples. Initially, their preferred research objects were fish, but it soon became evident that cephalopods have features which make them particularly suited to research. After the first studies, which outlined the anatomical structure of cephalopods' eyes and optic nerves, the research rapidly shifted to the electrophysiology and biochemistry of vision. In the twentieth century these results were integrated with behavioral tests and training techniques. Between 1909 and 1913 also the well-known debate on color vision between ophthalmologist Carl von Hess and zoologist Karl von Frisch took place in Naples. Largely unknown is that the debate also concerned cephalopods. A comparative historical analysis of these studies shows how different experimental devices, theoretical frameworks, and personal factors gave rise to two diametrically opposing views. PMID:28066256

  18. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  19. Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. Eye Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  1. Watery eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most common causes of excess tearing is dry eyes . Drying causes the eyes to become uncomfortable, which stimulates the body to produce too many tears. One of the main tests for tearing is to check whether the eyes ...

  2. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  3. Treatment of retinal tears and lattice degenerations in fellow eyes in high risk patients suffering retinal detachment: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Mastropasqua, L.; Carpineto, P.; Ciancaglini, M.; Falconio, G.; Gallenga, P.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Fellow eye prophylaxis for retinal detachment (RD) is still a controversial issue since opinions are not unanimous regarding the kind of lesions to be treated or the method of treatment. This prospective clinical study aimed to follow the course of vitreoretinal conditions in 150 high risk fellow eyes.
METHODS—150 consecutive patients with unilateral rhegmatogenous RD were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were good explorability of fellow eye retinal periphery and one of the following conditions in the fellow eye—aphakia, pseudophakia with capsulotomy, high myopia (>−6D), contralateral eye to a giant retinal tear. Prophylactic treatment (photocoagulation or scleral buckling) was performed in the presence of retinal tears and lattice degenerations. The state of the vitreous body was determined at the beginning of the study and at the end, when RD occurred.
RESULTS—Follow up ranged from 36 to 132 months. 95 fellow eyes were subjected to laser treatment; five eyes underwent prophylactic surgical treatment. Initially, in the treated group posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) was present in 100 eyes (100% of cases), but as a complete PVD only in 42 of them (42%). 10 eyes in the treated group developed RD during the follow up period. In five of these cases the partial PVD had progressed and a retinal tear in a previously healthy area was the cause of the retinal detachment. In the other five eyes RD apparently developed from previously treated lesions. Progression of PVD was evident in four out of these five eyes. The untreated eyes had no visible degenerative lesions. During follow up eight eyes developed RD. These eyes had no PVD at the beginning of the study, but showed a partial PVD at the time of the diagnosis of RD.
CONCLUSION—Fellow eyes with pre-existing retinal tears and PVDs can go on to retinal detachment in spite of laser prophylactic treatment. When PVD is not detectable or a partial PVD is present, the

  4. Analysis of the Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) Among Postpartum Women in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wan Mahmud, Wan Mohd Rushidi; Awang, Amir; Herman, Iran; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar

    2004-07-01

    Increased international collaboration in clinical trials has created a need for cross culturally valid instruments to assess the quality of life and behavioural disorders. Cross cultural studies of depressive symptomatology, in particular, must be preceded by an exhaustive study of the psychometric properties of the instruments to ensure the validity of the comparison. In this article, we examined the validity, reliability and factor structure of the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) among Malay postpartum women attending selected health centres in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Our findings indicated that the current version of the BDI-II is psychometrically strong and appropriate for use in assessing depressive symptomatology among this group of women.

  5. Eye Movements and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Larry L.

    Research on the use of eye movement indices (such as number of fixations, the average fixation duration, and saccadic movements) as a measure of cognitive processing is reviewed in this paper. Information is provided on the physiology of the eye, computer applications to eye movement study, the influence of stimulus materials and intelligence on…

  6. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Barsingerhorn, A D; Boonstra, F N; Goossens, H H L M

    2017-02-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea.

  7. Optics of the human cornea influence the accuracy of stereo eye-tracking methods: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Barsingerhorn, A. D.; Boonstra, F. N.; Goossens, H. H. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Current stereo eye-tracking methods model the cornea as a sphere with one refractive surface. However, the human cornea is slightly aspheric and has two refractive surfaces. Here we used ray-tracing and the Navarro eye-model to study how these optical properties affect the accuracy of different stereo eye-tracking methods. We found that pupil size, gaze direction and head position all influence the reconstruction of gaze. Resulting errors range between ± 1.0 degrees at best. This shows that stereo eye-tracking may be an option if reliable calibration is not possible, but the applied eye-model should account for the actual optics of the cornea. PMID:28270978

  8. Posterior rat eye during acute intraocular pressure elevation studied using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fialová, Stanislava; Augustin, Marco; Fischak, Corinna; Schmetterer, Leopold; Handschuh, Stephan; Glösmann, Martin; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Baumann, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) operating at 840 nm with axial resolution of 3.8 µm in tissue was used for investigating the posterior rat eye during an acute intraocular pressure (IOP) increase experiment. IOP was elevated in the eyes of anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats by cannulation of the anterior chamber. Three dimensional PS-OCT data sets were acquired at IOP levels between 14 mmHg and 105 mmHg. Maps of scleral birefringence, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) retardation and relative RNFL/retina reflectivity were generated in the peripapillary area and quantitatively analyzed. All investigated parameters showed a substantial correlation with IOP. In the low IOP range of 14-45 mmHg only scleral birefringence showed statistically significant correlation. The polarization changes observed in the PS-OCT imaging study presented in this work suggest that birefringence of the sclera may be a promising IOP-related parameter to investigate. PMID:28101419

  9. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021

  10. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study.

    PubMed

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Van't Noordende, Jaccoline E; Leseman, Paul P M

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R (2)) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures.

  11. The added value of eye-tracking in diagnosing dyscalculia: a case study

    PubMed Central

    van Viersen, Sietske; Slot, Esther M.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; van't Noordende, Jaccoline E.; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared eye movements and performance of a 9-year-old girl with Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) on a series of number line tasks to those of a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 10), in order to answer the question whether eye-tracking data from number line estimation tasks can be a useful tool to discriminate between TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Quantitative results indicated that the child with dyscalculia performed worse on all symbolic number line tasks compared to the control group, indicated by a low linear fit (R2) and a low accuracy measured by mean percent absolute error. In contrast to the control group, her magnitude representations seemed to be better represented by a logarithmic than a linear fit. Furthermore, qualitative analyses on the data of the child with dyscalculia revealed more unidentifiable fixation patterns in the processing of multi-digit numbers and more dysfunctional estimation strategy use in one third of the estimation trials as opposed to ~10% in the control group. In line with her dyscalculia diagnosis, these results confirm the difficulties with spatially representing and manipulating numerosities on a number line, resulting in inflexible and inadequate estimation or processing strategies. It can be concluded from this case study that eye-tracking data can be used to discern different number processing and estimation strategies in TD children and children with a number processing deficit. Hence, eye-tracking data in combination with number line estimation tasks might be a valuable and promising addition to current diagnostic measures. PMID:24098294

  12. Petroleum systems of the Malay Basin Province, Malaysia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2002-01-01

    The offshore Malay Basin province is a Tertiary oil and gas province composed of a complex of half grabens that were filled by lacustrine shales and continental clastics.These deposits were overlain by clastics of a large delta system that covered the basin.Delta progradation was interupted by transgressions of the South China Sea to the southeast, which finally flooded the basin to form the Gulf of Thailand.Oil and gas from the Oligocene to Miocene lacustrine shales and Miocene deltaic coals is trapped primarily in anticlines formed by inversion of the half grabens during the late Miocene.Hydrocarbon reserves that have been discovered amount to 12 billion barrels of oil equivalent.The U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the estimated quantities of conventional oil, gas and condensate that have the potential to be added to reserves by the year 2025 for this province is 6.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BBOE) (U. S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000).

  13. Gaps in Educational Outcomes: Analysing National Examination Performance of Singaporean Malay and Non-Malay Students in the Past 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Farhan

    2016-01-01

    Singaporean students generally perform very well in international tests of mathematics and science. Nonetheless, in multi-cultural Singapore, there exist gaps with the Malays, a minority group in Singapore, systematically lagging behind the other ethnic groups of the Chinese and Indians in many educational performance indicators. While there have…

  14. Evaluation of the association of plasma pentraxin 3 levels with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in a Malay population.

    PubMed

    Abu Seman, Norhashimah; Witasp, Anna; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Anderstam, Björn; Brismar, Kerstin; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gu, Harvest F

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated that elevated plasma long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) levels are associated with cardiovascular and chronic kidney diseases. In the current study, we investigated the plasma PTX3 levels in 296 Malay subjects including the subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients with or without DN by using an enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. Results showed that in males, plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients without DN were lower than that in the subjects with NGT (2.78 versus 3.98 ng/mL; P = 0.021). Plasma PTX3 levels in T2DM patients with DN were decreased compared to the patients without DN (1.63 versus 2.78 ng/mL; P = 0.013). In females, however, no significant alteration of plasma PTX3 levels among NGT subjects and T2DM patients with and without DN was detected. Furthermore, an inverse correlation between PTX3 and body mass index was found in male subjects with NGT (P = 0.012; r = -0.390), but not in male T2DM patients, neither in all females. The current study provided the first evidence that decreased plasma PTX3 levels are associated with T2DM and DN in Malay men and also suggested that PTX3 may have different effects in DN and chronic kidney diseases.

  15. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  16. An In Vitro Perfusion System to Enhance Outflow Studies in Mouse Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Chlebowski, Arthur; Tolman, Nicholas G.; Freeburg, Nelson F.; Ryan, Margaret M.; Shaw, Nicholas N.; Kokini, Alexander D. M.; Marchant, Jeffrey K.; John, Simon W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The molecular mechanisms controlling aqueous humor (AQH) outflow and IOP need much further definition. The mouse is a powerful system for characterizing the mechanistic basis of AQH outflow. To enhance outflow studies in mice, we developed a perfusion system that is based on human anterior chamber perfusion culture systems. Our mouse system permits previously impractical experiments. Methods We engineered a computer-controlled, pump-based perfusion system with a platform for mounting whole dissected mouse eyes (minus lens and iris, ∼45% of drainage tissue is perfused). We tested the system's ability to monitor outflow and tested the effects of the outflow-elevating drug, Y27632, a rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Finally, we tested the system's ability to detect genetically determined decreases in outflow by determining if deficiency of the candidate genes Nos3 and Cav1 alter outflow. Results Using our system, the outflow facility (C) of C57BL/6J mouse eyes was found to range between 7.7 and 10.4 nl/minutes/mm Hg (corrected for whole eye). Our system readily detected a 74.4% Y27632-induced increase in C. The NOS3 inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and a Nos3 null mutation reduced C by 28.3% and 35.8%, respectively. Similarly, in Cav1 null eyes C was reduced by 47.8%. Conclusions We engineered a unique perfusion system that can accurately measure changes in C. We then used the system to show that NOS3 and CAV1 are key components of mechanism(s) controlling outflow. PMID:27701632

  17. Self-Face Recognition in Schizophrenia: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N.; Raffard, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Self-face recognition has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia (SZ), according to studies using behavioral tasks implicating cognitive demands. Here, we employed an eye-tracking methodology, which is a relevant tool to understand impairments in self-face recognition deficits in SZ because it provides a natural, continuous and online record of face processing. Moreover, it allows collecting the most relevant and informative features each individual looks at during the self-face recognition. These advantages are especially relevant considering the fundamental role played by the patterns of visual exploration on face processing. Thus, this paper aims to investigate self-face recognition deficits in SZ using eye-tracking methodology. Visual scan paths were monitored in 20 patients with SZ and 20 healthy controls. Self, famous, and unknown faces were morphed in steps of 20%. Location, number, and duration of fixations on relevant areas were recorded with an eye-tracking system. Participants performed a passive exploration task (no specific instruction was provided), followed by an active decision making task (individuals were explicitly requested to recognize the different faces). Results showed that patients with SZ had fewer and longer fixations compared to controls. Nevertheless, both groups focused their attention on relevant facial features in a similar way. No significant difference was found between groups when participants were requested to recognize the faces (active task). In conclusion, using an eye tracking methodology and two tasks with low levels of cognitive demands, our results suggest that patients with SZ are able to: (1) explore faces and focus on relevant features of the face in a similar way as controls; and (2) recognize their own face. PMID:26903833

  18. The effect of human image in B2C website design: an eye-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Yang, Yi; Wang, Qi; Ma, Qingguo

    2014-09-01

    On B2C shopping websites, effective visual designs can bring about consumers' positive emotional experience. From this perspective, this article developed a research model to explore the impact of human image as a visual element on consumers' online shopping emotions and subsequent attitudes towards websites. This study conducted an eye-tracking experiment to collect both eye movement data and questionnaire data to test the research model. Questionnaire data analysis showed that product pictures combined with human image induced positive emotions among participants, thus promoting their attitudes towards online shopping websites. Specifically, product pictures with human image first produced higher levels of image appeal and perceived social presence, thus stimulating higher levels of enjoyment and subsequent positive attitudes towards the websites. Moreover, a moderating effect of product type was demonstrated on the relationship between the presence of human image and the level of image appeal. Specifically, human image significantly increased the level of image appeal when integrated in entertainment product pictures while this relationship was not significant in terms of utilitarian products. Eye-tracking data analysis further supported these results and provided plausible explanations. The presence of human image significantly increased the pupil size of participants regardless of product types. For entertainment products, participants paid more attention to product pictures integrated with human image whereas for utilitarian products more attention was paid to functional information of products than to product pictures no matter whether or not integrated with human image.

  19. Visual disruption using the thermal lensing effect in the human eye: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Towle, Erica L; Garcia, Paul V; Smith, Peter A; Thomas, Robert J; Dunn, Andrew K; Welch, Ashley J; Foutch, Brian K

    2012-10-01

    At select wavelengths, near infrared (IR) light is absorbed in the preretinal media of the eye. This produces small transient increases in temperature that temporarily alter the local index of refraction. If the IR exposure is sufficiently high, a momentary reduction in the focusing power of the eye can be induced through an effect known as thermal lensing. Fundamental optical interaction and safety aspects of this phenomenon have been demonstrated previously in animal and artificial eye models. However, whether the effect will induce an observable visual change in human subjects has not been explored. Here, results of a pilot study are shown where eight human subjects were exposed to an IR laser at levels that were below the safe exposure limit. The exposures did induce a transient visual distortion if sufficiently high levels were used. While the description of the visual change varied between subjects, this experiment was able to determine a general guideline for power needed to induce significant effects in human subjects.

  20. Narrative comprehension and production in children with SLI: An eye movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MONICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates narrative comprehension and production in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twelve children with SLI (mean age 5; 8 years) and 12 typically developing children (mean age 5; 6 years) participated in an eye-tracking experiment designed to investigate online narrative comprehension and production in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with SLI. The comprehension task involved the recording of eye movements during the visual exploration of successive scenes in a story, while listening to the associated narrative. With regard to production, the children were asked to retell the story, while once again looking at the scenes, as their eye movements were monitored. During narrative production, children with SLI look at the most semantically relevant areas of the scenes fewer times than their age-matched controls, but no differences were found in narrative comprehension. Moreover, the analyses of speech productions revealed that children with SLI retained less information and made more semantic and syntactic errors during retelling. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed. PMID:21453036

  1. Visual social attention in autism spectrum disorder: insights from eye tracking studies.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Quentin; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Baduel, Sophie; Rogé, Bernadette

    2014-05-01

    We review different aspects of visual social attention in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from infancy to adulthood in light of the eye-tracking literature. We first assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate a deficit in social orienting together with decreased attention to socially relevant stimuli such as faces compared to TD individuals. Results show that social orienting is actually not qualitatively impaired and that decreased attention to faces does not generalized across contexts. We also assess the assumption that individuals with ASD demonstrate excess mouth and diminished eye gaze compared to TD individuals. We find that this assumption receives little support across ages and discuss some factors that might have initially lead to this conjecture. We report that the assessment of the ability to follow the direction of another person's gaze needs to be further examined and that eye-tracking studies add to the evidence that individuals with ASD demonstrate difficulties in interpreting gaze cues. Finally, we highlight innovative data acquisition and analyses that are increasingly shedding light on the more subtle nature of the profound social difficulties experienced by individuals with ASD.

  2. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Nur Azwani Mohd Nor; Jalaludin, Juliana; Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents.

  3. Indoor Air Quality and Respiratory Health among Malay Preschool Children in Selangor

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Poh Choo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been the object of several studies due to its adverse health effects on children. Methods. A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out among Malay children in Balakong (2 studied preschools) and Bangi (2 comparative preschools), Selangor, with the aims of determining IAQ and its association with respiratory health. 61 and 50 children aged 5-6 years were selected as studied and comparative groups. A questionnaire was used to obtain an exposure history and respiratory symptoms. Lung function test was carried out. IAQ parameters obtained include indoor concentration of particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature, air velocity (AV), and relative humidity. Results. There was a significant difference between IAQ in studied and comparative preschools for all parameters measured (P < 0.001) except for CO2 and AV. Studied preschools had higher PM and CO concentration. FVC, FEV1, FVC% and FEV1% predicted values were significantly lower among studied group. Exposures to PM, VOCs, and CO were associated with wheezing. Conclusion. The finding concluded that exposures to poor IAQ might increase the risk of getting lung function abnormality and respiratory problems among study respondents. PMID:25984527

  4. Eye Movement Training and Suggested Gaze Strategies in Tunnel Vision - A Randomized and Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Iliya V.; Mackeben, Manfred; Vollmer, Annika; Martus, Peter; Nguyen, Nhung X.; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases, especially retinitis pigmentosa (RP), lead to severe peripheral visual field loss (tunnel vision), which impairs mobility. The lack of peripheral information leads to fewer horizontal eye movements and, thus, diminished scanning in RP patients in a natural environment walking task. This randomized controlled study aimed to improve mobility and the dynamic visual field by applying a compensatory Exploratory Saccadic Training (EST). Methods Oculomotor responses during walking and avoiding obstacles in a controlled environment were studied before and after saccade or reading training in 25 RP patients. Eye movements were recorded using a mobile infrared eye tracker (Tobii glasses) that measured a range of spatial and temporal variables. Patients were randomly assigned to two training conditions: Saccade (experimental) and reading (control) training. All subjects who first performed reading training underwent experimental training later (waiting list control group). To assess the effect of training on subjects, we measured performance in the training task and the following outcome variables related to daily life: Response Time (RT) during exploratory saccade training, Percent Preferred Walking Speed (PPWS), the number of collisions with obstacles, eye position variability, fixation duration, and the total number of fixations including the ones in the subjects' blind area of the visual field. Results In the saccade training group, RTs on average decreased, while the PPWS significantly increased. The improvement persisted, as tested 6 weeks after the end of the training. On average, the eye movement range of RP patients before and after training was similar to that of healthy observers. In both, the experimental and reading training groups, we found many fixations outside the subjects' seeing visual field before and after training. The average fixation duration was significantly shorter after the training, but only in the

  5. Heritability of the Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy: The FIND-Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Arar, Nedal H.; Freedman, Barry I.; Adler, Sharon G.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Chew, Emily Y.; Davis, Mathew D.; Satko, Scott G.; Bowden, Donald W.; Duggirala, Ravi; Elston, Robert C.; Guo, Xiuxing; Hanson, Robert L.; Igo, Robert P.; Ipp, Eli; Kimmel, Paul L.; Knowler, William C.; Molineros, Julio; Nelson, Robert G.; Pahl, Madeleine V.; Quade, Shannon R. E.; Rasooly, Rebekah S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saad, Mohammed F.; Scavini, Marina; Schelling, Jeffrey R.; Sedor, John R.; Shah, Vallabh O.; Zager, Philip G.; Abboud, Hanna E.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) are serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Correlations between severity of DR and DN and computed heritability estimates for DR were determined in a large, multiethnic sample of diabetic families. The hypothesis was that (1) the severity of DR correlates with the presence and severity of nephropathy in individuals with diabetes mellitus, and (2) the severity of DR is under significant familial influence in members of multiplex diabetic families. METHODS The Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) was designed to evaluate the genetic basis of DN in American Indians, European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. FIND enrolled probands with advanced DN, along with their diabetic siblings who were concordant and discordant for nephropathy. These diabetic family members were invited to participate in the FIND-Eye study to determine whether inherited factors underlie susceptibility to DR and its severity. FIND-Eye participants underwent eye examinations and had fundus photographs taken. The severity of DR was graded by using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Classification (ETDRS). Sib–sib correlations were calculated with the SAGE 5.0 program FCOR, to estimate heritability of retinopathy severity. RESULTS This report summarizes the results for the first 2368 diabetic subjects from 767 families enrolled in FIND-Eye; nearly 50% were Mexican American, the largest single ethnicity within FIND. The overall prevalence of DR was high; 33.4% had proliferative DR; 7.5%, 22.8%, and 9.5% had severe, moderate, and mild nonproliferative DR, respectively; 26.6% had no DR. The severity of DR was significantly associated with severity of DN, both by phenotypic category and by increasing serum creatinine concentration (χ2 = 658.14, df = 20; P < 0.0001). The sib–sib correlation for DR severity was 0.1358 in the total sample and 0.1224 when limited to the

  6. HPV-16 Detected in One-Fourth Eyes With Retinoblastoma: A Prospective Case-control Study From North India.

    PubMed

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Singh, Usha; Kakkar, Nandita; Bansal, Deepak

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of nonfamilial retinoblastoma (RB) is believed to be higher in developing countries. The reports on association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with RB are limited and contradictory. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of HPV in RB tumor tissue. In the prospective study, consecutive eyes enucleated for RB from patients lacking a family history of RB were enrolled as cases over a 3-year period. Controls included donor eyes obtained from the eye bank. Normal retinal tissue from the donor eyes and tumor tissue from eyes with RB was subjected to DNA isolation. Polymerase chain reaction followed by dot-blot hybridization was performed to detect 21 HPV genotypes. The study cohort included 39 RB and 42 normal retinal tissues. A positive result for HPV-polymerase chain reaction was obtained in 10 (25.6%) tumor tissues and none of the control eyes. HPV-16 was the only subtype detected. Socioeconomic status (P=0.58) or maternal age (P=0.58) was not associated with presence of HPV. All HPV-positive patients had undergone a vaginal delivery (P=0.60). HPV-16 was detected in one-fourth cases of nonfamilial RB. None of the control cases (donor eyes) tested positive. Implication of the presence of HPV in RB tissue and role in carcinogenesis needs further elucidation.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves dry eye symptoms in patients with glaucoma: results of a prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Vazquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement with a combination of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye symptoms caused by chronic instillation of antihypertensive eye drops in patients with glaucoma. Patients and methods A total of 1,255 patients with glaucoma and dry eye symptoms related to antiglaucoma topical medication participated in an open-label, uncontrolled, prospective, and multicenter study and were instructed to take three capsules a day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudypio® 1.5 g) for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (graded as 0–3 [none to severe, respectively]), conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, Oxford grading scheme, and intraocular pressure were assessed. Results After 12 weeks of administration of the dietary supplement, all dry eye symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001) (mean 1.3 vs 0.6 for scratching, 1.4 vs 0.7 for stinging sensation, 1.6 vs 0.7 for grittiness, 1.0 vs 0.4 for tired eyes, 1.1 vs 0.5 for grating sensation, and 0.8 vs 0.3 for blurry vision). The Schirmer test scores and the tear breakup time also increased significantly. There was an increase in the percentage of patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease in those grading IV–V. Compliance was recorded in 62.5% of patients. In compliant patients, the mean differences at 12 weeks vs baseline of dry eye symptoms were statistically significant as compared to noncompliant patients. Conclusion Dietary supplementation with Brudypio® may be a clinically valuable additional option for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in patients with glaucoma using antiglaucoma eye drops. These results require confirmation with an appropriately designed randomized controlled study. PMID:27103781

  8. Analysis of consonant /s/ and syllables in Malay language using electropalatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Syatirah Mat; Suhaimi, Fatanah M.; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd; Ismail, Nurul Iffah; Zali, Nurulakma

    2016-12-01

    During articulation and speech, tongue is in contact with hard palate. This contact can be measured using an Electropalatography (EPG). EPG is widely used for speech therapy among subjects having cleft palate, congenital aglossia, and phonemic paraphasic disorder, and also for language analysis and therapy. This study aims to analyse the production of /s/ and syllables by a Malay adult speaker using the Reading EPG palate with 62 electrodes that are built to match the tongue-palate contact. The vowel used in this study are /a/, /i/ and /u/. Data was analysed using Articulate Assist 1.18 software. There are four parts of palate zones, namely alveolar, post-alveolar, palatal and velar. In this study, there are three normal Malay-speaking adults with age ranging from 30 to 35 years old (mean age of 32 years). In the production of /s/, the percentage contact for subject 1 is 16% at the left side and 32% at the right side. For subject 2, there is 39% in the left side and 32% in the right side. Subject 3 has 13% contact in the left side and 29% in the right side. In the production of /as/ percentage contact is 19% at the left side and 29% at the right side for subject 1.19% at the left side and 16% at the right side for subject 2. While subject 3 has 23% contact at the left side and 35% at the right side. In the production of /is/, subject 1 has shown 32% at both side, 3% at the left side and 10 at the right side for subject 2, and 19% at the left side and 32% at the right side for subject 3. In the production of /us/, percentage contact for left and right side are 42% and 26% for subject 1. Subject 2 showed a symmetrical contact at both side whereas subject 3 has 16% at the left side and 26% at the right side. Results indicate that combination of consonant /s/ with different vowels produce different tongue and palate contacts patttern.

  9. Is the Thatcher Illusion Modulated by Face Familiarity? Evidence from an Eye Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thompson (1980) first detected and described the Thatcher Illusion, where participants instantly perceive an upright face with inverted eyes and mouth as grotesque, but fail to do so when the same face is inverted. One prominent but controversial explanation is that the processing of configural information is disrupted in inverted faces. Studies investigating the Thatcher Illusion either used famous faces or non-famous faces. Highly familiar faces were often thought to be processed in a pronounced configural mode, so they seem ideal candidates to be tested in one Thatcher study against unfamiliar faces–but this has never been addressed so far. In our study, participants evaluated 16 famous and 16 non-famous faces for their grotesqueness. We tested whether familiarity (famous/non-famous faces) modulates reaction times, correctness of grotesqueness assessments (accuracy), and eye movement patterns for the factors orientation (upright/inverted) and Thatcherisation (Thatcherised/non-Thatcherised). On a behavioural level, familiarity effects were only observable via face inversion (higher accuracy and sensitivity for famous compared to non-famous faces) but not via Thatcherisation. Regarding eye movements, however, Thatcherisation influenced the scanning of famous and non-famous faces, for instance, in scanning the mouth region of the presented faces (higher number, duration and dwell time of fixations for famous compared to non-famous faces if Thatcherised). Altogether, famous faces seem to be processed in a more elaborate, more expertise-based way than non-famous faces, whereas non-famous, inverted faces seem to cause difficulties in accurate and sensitive processing. Results are further discussed in the face of existing studies of familiar vs. unfamiliar face processing. PMID:27776145

  10. Influence of Eye Gaze on Spoken Word Processing: An ERP Study with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D.

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n = 15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with…

  11. A Review on Eye Movement Studies in Childhood and Adolescent Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommelse, Nanda N. J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The neural substrates of eye movement measures are largely known. Therefore, measurement of eye movements in psychiatric disorders may provide insight into the underlying neuropathology of these disorders. Visually guided saccades, antisaccades, memory guided saccades, and smooth pursuit eye movements will be reviewed in various childhood…

  12. DNA Barcoding Reveals Cryptic Diversity within Commercially Exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Mat Jaafar, Tun Nurul Aimi; Taylor, Martin I.; Mohd Nor, Siti Azizah; de Bruyn, Mark; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA barcodes, typically focusing on the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) in many animals, have been used widely as a species-identification tool. The ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species from a range of taxa and to reveal cryptic species has been well documented. Despite the wealth of DNA barcode data for fish from many temperate regions, there are relatively few available from the Southeast Asian region. Here, we target the marine fish Family Carangidae, one of the most commercially-important families from the Indo-Malay Archipelago (IMA), to produce an initial reference DNA barcode library. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, a 652 bp region of COI was sequenced for 723 individuals from 36 putative species of Family Carangidae distributed within IMA waters. Within the newly-generated dataset, three described species exhibited conspecific divergences up to ten times greater (4.32–4.82%) than mean estimates (0.24–0.39%), indicating a discrepancy with assigned morphological taxonomic identification, and the existence of cryptic species. Variability of the mitochondrial DNA COI region was compared within and among species to evaluate the COI region's suitability for species identification. The trend in range of mean K2P distances observed was generally in accordance with expectations based on taxonomic hierarchy: 0% to 4.82% between individuals within species, 0% to 16.4% between species within genera, and 8.64% to 25.39% between genera within families. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distance between individuals, between species within genera, and between genera within family were 0.37%, 10.53% and 16.56%, respectively. All described species formed monophyletic clusters in the Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, although three species representing complexes of six potential cryptic species were detected in Indo-Malay Carangidae; Atule mate, Selar crumenophthalmus and Seriolina nigrofasciata. Conclusion/Significance This study confirms

  13. Ocular Axial Length and Its Associations in Chinese: The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guo; Wang, Ya Xing; Zheng, Zhi Yun; Yang, Hua; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the normative data of ocular axial length and its associations in Chinese. Method The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 is a cross-sectional study performed in Greater Beijing. The study included 3468 individuals (1963 (56.6%) women) with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Axial length was measured by optical low-coherence reflectometry. Results Axial length measurements were available for 3159 (91.1%) study participants. Mean axial length was 23.25±1.14 mm (range: 18.96–30.88 mm). In multivariate analysis, axial length was significantly associated with the systemic parameters of higher age (P<0.001), higher body height (P = 0.003), higher level of education (P<0.001) and urban region of habitation (P<0.001), and with the ocular parameters of thicker central cornea (P = 0.001), higher corneal curvature radius (P<0.001), deeper anterior chamber (P<0.001), thicker lens (P<0.001), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), larger pupil diameter (P = 0.018), and higher best corrected visual acuity (P<0.001). It was additionally and negatively associated with the lens vault (P<0.001). In highly myopic eyes, axial length was significantly associated with lower level of education (P = 0.008), more myopic refractive error (P<0.001), and lower best corrected visual acuity (P = 0.034). Conclusions Mean ocular axial length in the older adult population of Greater Beijing (23.25±1.14 mm) was similar to the value measured in other urban populations and was higher than in a rural Central Indian population. The association between axial length and older age may potentially be associated with a survival artifact. The association between axial length and body height agrees with the general association between anthropomorphic measures and eye globe size. The association with the level of education and urban region of habitation confirms with previous

  14. Association of Visual Acuity and Cognitive Impairment in Older Individuals: Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Mine, Masashi; Miyata, Kimie; Morikawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Tomo; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Ryo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Kurumatani, Norio; Ogata, Nahoko

    2016-01-01

    Both visual impairment and cognitive impairment are essential factors that determine the quality of life in the aged population. The aim of this study was to determine if a correlation existed between visual acuity and cognitive impairment in an elderly Japanese population. The Fujiwara-kyo Eye Study was a cross-sectional study of individuals aged ≥68 years who lived in Nara Prefecture of Japan. Participants underwent ophthalmological examinations and cognitive function test. A mild visual impairment was defined as having a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) >0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) units in the better eye. Cognitive impairment was defined as having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of ≤23 points. A total to 2818 individuals completed the examinations. The mean age of the participants was 76.3 ± 4.8 years (mean ± standard deviation). The mean BCVA of the better eye was -0.02 ± 0.13 logMAR units and 6.6% subjects were classified as being mildly visually impaired. The mean MMSE score was 27.3 ± 2.3 and 5.7% subjects were classified as being cognitively impaired. The proportion of subjects with cognitive or moderate visual impairment increased with age, and there was a significant correlation between the visual acuity and MMSE score (r = -0.10, p < 0.0001). Subjects with mild visual impairments had 2.4 times higher odds of having cognitive impairment than those without visual impairment (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.8, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, and length of education. We conclude that it may be important to maintain good visual acuity to reduce the risk of having cognitive impairment.

  15. Effects of anger and sadness on attentional patterns in decision making: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Xing, Cai

    2014-02-01

    Past research examining the effect of anger and sadness on decision making has associated anger with a relatively more heuristic decision-making approach. However, it is unclear whether angry and sad individuals differ while attending to decision-relevant information. An eye-tracking experiment (N=87) was conducted to examine the role of attention in links between emotion and decision making. Angry individuals looked more and earlier toward heuristic cues while making decisions, whereas sad individuals did not show such bias. Implications for designing persuasive messages and studying motivated visual processing were discussed.

  16. The Maxillary Arch and its Relationship to Cephalometric Landmarks of Selected Malay Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Khin Myo; Winn, Than; Abdullah, Nizam; Jayasinghe, J.A.P.; Chandima., G.L.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the maxillary arch measurements, to assess the validity of Pont’s & Korkhaus’ Indices; to determine the relationship between maxillary arch form with head form; and to estimate the cephalic index (CI) of the study population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 85 mature Malay students, 28 male students (32.98%), 57 females (67.02%) attending Teachers’ Training College. Their mean age was 23.9 yr, and Cephalic Index (CI) 86.4 (95% Confidence Interval 85.5–87.3). Arch and head dimensions were significantly larger in males than in females. CI was not significantly different between males and females. Means of anterior arch width (AAW), posterior-arch-width (PAW) and arch-length (Lu) were 35.57mm, 47.3mm and 18.01mm respectively. They were significantly different from their corresponding Indices. Correlation Coefficient between bizygomatic width and anterior-arch-width was 0.18 and was not significant in both sexes of the present population. PMID:22605945

  17. Long-Term Follow-up Investigation of Isolated Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Without Atonia Without Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Ambra; Gabelia, David; Högl, Birgit; Mitterling, Thomas; Mahlknecht, Philipp; Stockner, Heike; Poewe, Werner; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a harbinger of synuclein-mediated neurodegenerative diseases. It is unknown if this also applies to isolated REM sleep without atonia (RWA). We performed a long-term follow-up investigation of subjects with isolated RWA. Methods: Participants were recruited from 50 subjects with isolated RWA who were identified at the sleep laboratory of the Department of Neurology at the Medical University of Innsbruck between 2003 and 2005. Eligible subjects underwent follow-up clinical examination, polysomnography, and assessment of neurodegenerative biomarkers (cognitive impairment, finger speed deficit, impaired color vision, olfactory dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). Results: After a mean of 8.6 ± 0.9 y, 1 of 14 participating subjects (7.3%) progressed to RBD. Ten of 14 RWA subjects (71.4%) were positive for at least one neurodegenerative biomarker. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity and presence of mild cognitive impairment were both present in 4 of 14 subjects with isolated RWA. Electromyographic activity measures increased significantly from baseline to follow-up polysomnography (“any” mentalis and both anterior tibialis muscles: 32.5 ± 9.4 versus 52.2 ± 16.6%; p = 0.004). Conclusion: This study provides first evidence that isolated RWA is an early biomarker of synuclein-mediated neurodegeneration. These results will have to be replicated in larger studies with longer observational periods. If confirmed, these disease findings have implications for defining at-risk cohorts for Parkinson disease. Citation: Stefani A, Gabelia D, Högl B, Mitterling T, Mahlknecht P, Stockner H, Poewe W, Frauscher B. Long-term follow-up investigation of isolated rapid eye movement sleep without atonia without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(11):1273–1279. PMID:26156949

  18. Using an eye tracker during medication administration to identify gaps in nursing students' contextual knowledge: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Amster, Brian; Marquard, Jenna; Henneman, Elizabeth; Fisher, Donald

    2015-01-01

    In this clinical simulation study using an eye-tracking device, 40% of senior nursing students administered a contraindicated medication to a patient. Our findings suggest that the participants who did not identify the error did not know that amoxicillin is a type of penicillin. Eye-tracking devices may be valuable for determining whether nursing students are making rule- or knowledge-based errors, a distinction not easily captured via observations and interviews.

  19. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A.; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma’anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  20. Analysis of Malay Word Structure by Pre-Service Special Education Teachers: Foundation-Level Knowledge for Remedial Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min

    2014-01-01

    Pre-service special educators' Malay word structure knowledge was assessed through their analysis of words. A total of 69 participants analysed a vocabulary list based on a set of criteria formulated from the Malay language word structure. Results indicated that they were able to count syllables and phonemes, and identify types of affixations;…

  1. The effect of faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Suriani; Abdul Rahman, Hejar; Abidin, Emelia Zainal; Isha, Ahmad Sharul Nizam; Abu Bakar, Sallehuddin; Zulkifley, Nur Aishah; Fuad, Ahmad Farhan Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of a faith-based smoking cessation intervention during Ramadan among Malay male smokers working in public offices. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted during Ramadan 2015. The intervention was developed based on the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The intervention intended to increase the intention and the perceived behaviour control to stop smoking among Muslim smokers during Ramadan. The outcomes measured were changes in the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence score and saliva cotinine levels. Data were collected at baseline (5 days before Ramadan), during Ramadan (21st day of Ramadan) and post-Ramadan (21 days after Ramadan). Statistical tests to examine changes within and between groups were carried out and the significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: During Ramadan, the saliva cotinine level decreased significantly in both groups (p = 0.001 in the control group and p = < 0.001 in the intervention group). However, after Ramadan, it remained significant only in the intervention group (p = 0.025). A significant change between the groups was only noticed during Ramadan (p = 0.049). Conclusion: The reduction in the saliva cotinine level was found to be more sustainable post-Ramadan in the intervention group. This finding could indicate the positive effect of using this culturally-competent intervention to encourage smoking cessation during Ramadan. PMID:28293538

  2. TU-E-201-01: Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionists

    SciTech Connect

    Rehani, M.

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  3. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential.

    PubMed

    Greco, G; Lanero, T Svaldo; Torrassa, S; Young, R; Vassalli, M; Cavaliere, A; Rolandi, R; Pelucchi, E; Faimali, M; Davenport, J

    2013-07-06

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection.

  4. The formulation of argument structure in SLI: an eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    ANDREU, LLORENÇ; SANZ-TORRENT, MÒNICA; OLMOS, JOAN GUÀRDIA; MACWHINNEY, BRIAN

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the formulation of verb argument structure in Catalan- and Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing age-matched controls. We compared how language production can be guided by conceptual factors, such as the organization of the entities participating in an event and knowledge regarding argument structure. Eleven children with SLI (aged 3;8 to 6;6) and eleven control children participated in an eye-tracking experiment in which participants had to describe events with different argument structure in the presence of visual scenes. Picture descriptions, latency time and eye movements were recorded and analyzed. The picture description results showed that the percentage of responses in which children with SLI substituted a non-target verb for the target verb was significantly different from that for the control group. Children with SLI made more omissions of obligatory arguments, especially of themes, as the verb argument complexity increased. Moreover, when the number of arguments of the verb increased, the children took more time to begin their descriptions, but no differences between groups were found. For verb type latency, all children were significantly faster to start describing one-argument events than two- and three-argument events. No differences in latency time were found between two- and three-argument events. There were no significant differences between the groups. Eye-movement showed that children with SLI looked less at the event zone than the age-matched controls during the first two seconds. These differences between the groups were significant for three-argument verbs, and only marginally significant for one- and two-argument verbs. Children with SLI also spent significantly less time looking at the theme zones than their age-matched controls. We suggest that both processing limitations and deficits in the semantic representation of verbs may play a role in these difficulties

  5. Scanning Strategies Do Not Modulate Face Identification: Eye-Tracking and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Yosuke; Gunji, Atsuko; Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi; Kaga, Makiko; Nakagawa, Eiji; Hosokawa, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Background During face identification in humans, facial information is sampled (seeing) and handled (processing) in ways that are influenced by the kind of facial image type, such as a self-image or an image of another face. However, the relationship between seeing and information processing is seldom considered. In this study, we aimed to reveal this relationship using simultaneous eye-tracking measurements and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in face identification tasks. Methodology/Principal Findings 22 healthy adult subjects (8 males and 14 females) were shown facial morphing movies in which an initial facial image gradually changed into another facial image (that is, the subject's own face was changed to a familiar face). The fixation patterns on facial features were recorded, along with changes in oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) levels in the frontal lobe, while the subjects identified several faces. In the self-face condition (self-face as the initial image), hemodynamic activity around the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly greater than in the familiar-face condition. On the other hand, the scanning strategy was similar in almost all conditions with more fixations on the eyes and nose than on other areas. Fixation time on the eye area did not correlate with changes in oxyHb levels, and none of the scanning strategy indices could estimate the hemodynamic changes. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that hemodynamic activity, i.e., the means of processing facial information, is not always modulated by the face-scanning strategy, i.e., the way of seeing, and that the right IFG plays important roles in both self-other facial discrimination and self-evaluation. PMID:20548791

  6. Neural Control of Voluntary Eye Closure: A Case Study and an fMRI Investigation of Blinking and Winking

    PubMed Central

    van Koningsbruggen, Martijn G.; Peelen, Marius V.; Davies, Eilir; Rafal, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The current paper describes a rare case of a patient who suffered from unilateral apraxia of eye closure as a result of a bilateral stroke. Interestingly, the patient’s ability to voluntarily close both eyelids (i.e. blinking) was not affected, indicating that different neural mechanisms control each type of eye closure. The stroke caused damage to a large part of the right frontal cortex, including the motor cortex, pre-motor cortex and the frontal eye field (FEF). The lesion in the left hemisphere was restricted to the FEF. In order to further study the neural mechanisms of eye closure, we conducted an fMRI study in a group of neurological healthy subjects. We found that all areas of the oculomotor cortex were activated by both left and right winking, including the FEF, supplementary eye field (SEF), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Blinking activated FEF and SEF, but not PPC. Both FEF and PPC were significantly more active during winking than blinking. Together, these results provide evidence for a critical role of the FEF in voluntary unilateral eye closure. PMID:22530264

  7. [Studies on clinical pathophysiology of pseudophakic/aphakic eyes--a journey of 4 decades].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kensaku

    2008-03-01

    My prime years as an ophthalmologist began as intraocular lenses (IOLs) were just entering into the developmental stage, and I took on as my mission to contribute to perfecting safe and reproducible cataract/IOL implantation surgery. Identifying surgical and/or IOL-related complications consumed time; however, these complications soon became predictable and even preventable with the use of sensitive biological parameters and preclinical evaluation. This was a simple goal for me to pursue my studies on cataract/IOL implantation surgery. I discuss in this review article, based on my previous research, clinico-pathophysiological problems of these intra- and postoperative eyes. The early phase of cataract/IOL implantation surgery development began with a debate as to which is physiologically superior: intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) or extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE). From the perspective of transporting substances from intraocular fluids to extraocular space, which we studied using a nonphysiological substance, fluorescein, ECCE was confirmed to be physiologically superior to ICCE. The transport mechanism of both physiological and nonphysiological substances from intraocular fluids (such as vitreous and aqueous humor) is believed to be related to the pathogenesis of various ocular disorders. Following the fluorescein study, I next focused my attention on biosynthesis and active transport of prostaglandin (PG), which are inflammatory mediators. My studies revealed that PG were more likely to accumulate in ICCE eyes than in ECCE eyes; higher intraocular concentration of PG was also confirmed in eyes with persistent aphakic or pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME). While conducting the above studies and having made some observations, I postulated another hypothesis on the pathogenesis of aphakic or pseudophakic CME as follows: topical application of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to eyes with PG, which are biosynthesized intra- and

  8. Cue strength in second-language processing: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Tuninetti, Alba; Warren, Tessa; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking and grammaticality judgement measures to examine how second-language (L2) learners process syntactic violations in English. Participants were native Arabic and native Mandarin Chinese speakers studying English as an L2, and monolingual English-speaking controls. The violations involved incorrect word order and differed in two ways predicted to be important by the unified competition model [UCM; MacWhinney, B. (2005). A unified model of language acquisition. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 49-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press.]. First, one violation had more and stronger cues to ungrammaticality than the other. Second, the grammaticality of these word orders varied in Arabic and Mandarin Chinese. Sensitivity to violations was relatively quick overall, across all groups. Sensitivity also was related to the number and strength of cues to ungrammaticality regardless of native language, which is consistent with the general principles of the UCM. However, there was little evidence of cross-language transfer effects in either eye movements or grammaticality judgements.

  9. Emotional information processing in depression and burnout: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Renzo; Laurent, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Whether burnout is a form of depression is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relevance of the burnout-depression distinction by comparing attentional processing of emotional information in burnout and depression. Eye-tracking technology was employed for assessing overt attentional deployment. The gaze of 54 human services employees was monitored as they freely viewed a series of emotional images, labeled as dysphoric, positive, anxiogenic, and neutral. Similar to depression, burnout was associated with increased attention for dysphoric stimuli and decreased attention for positive stimuli. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that burnout no longer predicted these attentional alterations when depression was controlled for and vice versa, suggesting interchangeability of the two entities in this matter. To our knowledge, this study is the first to (a) investigate emotional attention in burnout and (b) address the issue of the burnout-depression overlap at both cognitive and behavioral levels using eye movement measurement. Overall, our findings point to structural similarities between burnout and depression, thus deepening concerns regarding the singularity of the burnout phenomenon.

  10. The bacterial etiology of conjunctivitis in early infancy. Eye Prophylaxis Study Group.

    PubMed

    Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Bell, T A; Kronmal, R A; Grayston, J T

    1993-09-01

    The authors conducted this study to determine the etiologic agents of conjunctivitis in early infancy. From 1985 to 1990, 630 infants enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-masked study of eye prophylaxis were observed for 60 days after delivery for signs of conjunctivitis. The following isolates were categorized as pathogens: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria cinerea, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Using conditional logistic regression for analysis of 97 infant pairs, the authors identified isolates categorized as pathogens almost exclusively among cases (odds ratio (OR) = 18.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-128). Among the microorganisms which have not usually been regarded as pathogens in the etiology of infant conjunctivitis, Streptococcus mitis was the only microorganism associated with an increased risk of conjunctivitis (OR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.8-15.0). The findings concerning the species of bacteria most often associated with conjunctivitis, as well as the finding that method of delivery is unimportant, suggest that bacteria were transmitted to the infants' eyes after birth and not from the birth canal.

  11. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye and keeps it healthy. previous continue Light, Lens, Action These next parts are really cool, ... the eye. previous continue Rods and Cones Process Light The retina uses special cells called rods and ...

  12. Eye emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue covering the front of the eye. Dust, sand, and other debris can easily enter the eye. ... clear itself of tiny objects, like eyelashes and sand, through blinking and tearing. If not, don't ...

  13. Eye Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fight for victory. Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  14. Eye Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  15. Autologous serum eyedrops for dry eyes and epithelial defects: clinical and in vitro toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Poon, A.; Geerling, G.; Dart, J.; Fraenkel, G.; Daniels, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Autologous serum drops have been reported to be beneficial in keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) and persistent epithelial defects (PED). A clinical pilot study was carried out to examine these potential uses and in vitro toxicity testing on corneal epithelial cell cultures was performed to compare the effect of serum drops with unpreserved hypromellose (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 0.3%).
METHODS—Patients with KCS and PED, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Patients were examined before treatment, at 1 and 2 weeks after initiation, and then 2 weekly until treatment ceased. Symptoms were assessed at each visit. Clinical examination included Schirmer's test without anaesthesia, rose bengal staining, and fluorescein staining. Epithelial defects were measured with the slit beam. In the laboratory, cultured human corneal epithelial cells were exposed to serum drops and hypromellose, and their viability evaluated with fluorescent viability staining (Calcein AM ethidium homodimer) and an ATP assay.
RESULTS—Autologous serum was used in 15 eyes of 13 patients with PED and 11 eyes of nine patients with KCS. In two patients serum drops were started after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). The PKs were performed for perforations secondary to PEDs. Of the 15 eyes with PED, nine healed at a mean of 29 days and six failed. The mean duration of PED before the use of serum drops was 48.2 days. Of the 11 eyes with KCS, six had improved subjective scores and fluorescein scores, and five had improved rose bengal scores after the use of serum drops. For the two patients who used serum eyedrops post-PK, there was a stable and intact epithelium at 1 week. Cessation of serum drops during the postoperative period led to deterioration in the subjective and objective scores in both patients. One developed a PED that responded to reinstitution of serum drops. The morphology and ATP levels of cultured epithelial cells exposed to serum were

  16. Elastic and Electrical Properties Evaluation of Low Resistivity Pays in Malay Basin Clastics Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almanna Lubis, Luluan; Ghosh, Deva P.; Hermana, Maman

    2016-07-01

    The elastic and electrical properties of low resistivity pays clastics reservoirs in Malay Basin are strongly dependent on the complex nature of the clay content, either dispersed or laminated/layered. Estimating the hydrocarbon pore volume from conventional electrical log, i.e. resistivity log, is quite a challenge. The low elastic impedance contrast also found as one of the challenge thus create a problem to map the distribution of the low resistivity reservoirs. In this paper, we evaluate the electrical properties and elastic rock properties to discriminate the pay from the adjacent cap rock or shale. Forward modeling of well log responses including electrical properties are applied to analyze the nature of the possible pays on laminated reservoir rocks. In the implementation of rock properties analysis, several conventional elastic properties are comparatively analyzed for the sensitivity and feasibility analysis on each elastic parameters. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each elastic parameters in detail. In addition, cross-plots of elastic and electrical properties attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional elastic parameter crossplots attributes. The possible relationship on electrical and elastic properties are discussed for further studies.

  17. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar; Wahid, Ali; Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I -Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well - log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  18. Juxtarenal/pararenal Wilms' tumour in a six-year-old Malay girl.

    PubMed

    Ngan, K W; Shaari, S; Subramaniam, T

    2009-09-01

    We report a six-year-old Malay girl who presented with a right retroperitoneal tumour that measured 7.5 cm in diameter. A wide excision of the lesion was performed. The tumour was separated from a normal-appearing right kidney by a capsule. Microscopically, this well-encapsulated tumour was composed of classical triphasic components: epithelial, mesenchymal and blastemal areas. The immunohistochemical study showed WT1 expression in the blastemal area. Thus, a diagnosis of Wilms' tumour with favourable histology was made. The patient was well for 12 months. Extrarenal Wilms' tumour is uncommon, with the majority of cases occurring in the retroperitoneal and inguinal areas. Wilms' tumour that is not arising from the intrarenal area but shares a common capsule with the ipsilateral kidney, is even rarer. Indeed, our case would be more appropriately classified as juxtarenal/pararenal Wilms' tumour. Despite its rarity, an extrarenal or even juxtarenal/pararenal Wilms' tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumour.

  19. Prospect evaluation of shallow I-35 reservoir of NE Malay Basin offshore, Terengganu, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Janjua, Osama Akhtar Wahid, Ali Salim, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed; Rahman, M. Nasir B. A.

    2016-02-01

    A potential accumulation of hydrocarbon that describes significant and conceivable drilling target is related to prospect. Possibility of success estimation, assuming discovery of hydrocarbons and the potential recoverable quantities range under a commercial development program are the basis of Prospect evaluation activities. The objective was to find the new shallow prospects in reservoir sandstone of I –Formation in Malay basin. The prospects in the study area are mostly consisting of faulted structures and stratigraphic channels. The methodology follows seismic interpretation and mapping, attribute analysis, evaluation of nearby well data i.e., based on well – log correlation. The petrophysical parameters analogue to nearby wells was used as an input parameter for volumetric assessment. Based on analysis of presence and effectiveness, the prospect has a complete petroleum system. Two wells have been proposed to be drilled near the major fault and stratigraphic channel in I-35 reservoir that is O-1 and O-2 prospects respectively. The probability of geological success of prospect O-1 is at 35% while for O-2 is 24%. Finally, for hydrocarbon in place volumes were calculated which concluded the best estimate volume for oil in O-1 prospect is 4.99 MMSTB and O-2 prospect is 28.70 MMSTB while for gas is 29.27 BSCF and 25.59 BSCF respectively.

  20. An accurate and portable eye movement detector for studying sleep in small animals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Álvaro; Escudero, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Although eye movements are a highly valuable variable in attempts to precisely identify different periods of the sleep-wake cycle, their indirect measurement by electrooculography is not good enough. The present article describes an accurate and portable scleral search coil that allows the detection of tonic and phasic characteristics of eye movements in free-moving animals. Six adult Wistar rats were prepared for chronic recording of electroencephalography, electromyography and eye movements using the scleral search coil technique. We developed a miniature magnetic field generator made with two coils, consisting of 35 turns and 15 mm diameter of insulated 0.2 mm cooper wire, mounted in a frame of carbon fibre. This portable scleral search coil was fixed on the head of the animal, with each magnetic coil parallel to the eye coil and at 5 mm from each eye. Eye movements detected by the portable scleral search coil were compared with those measured by a commercial scleral search coil requiring immobilizing the head of the animal. No qualitative differences were found between the two scleral search coil systems in their capabilities to detect eye movements. This innovative portable scleral search coil system is an essential tool to detect slow changes in eye position and miniature rapid eye movements during sleep. The portable scleral search coil is much more suitable for detecting eye movements than any previously available system because of its precision and simplicity, and because it does not require immobilization of the animal's head.

  1. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is usually a temporary condition associated with seasonal allergies. You can get eye allergies from pet dander, ... Privacy Policy Related Is El Niño Making Your Allergies Worse? May 16, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Eye ...

  2. Exploring Responses to Art in Adolescence: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813

  3. Exploring Text and Icon Graph Interpretation in Students with Dyslexia: An Eye-tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunjung; Wiseheart, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research suggests that individuals with dyslexia struggle to use graphs efficiently. Given the persistence of orthographic processing deficits in dyslexia, this study tested whether graph interpretation deficits in dyslexia are directly related to difficulties processing the orthographic components of graphs (i.e. axes and legend labels). Participants were 80 college students with and without dyslexia. Response times and eye movements were recorded as students answered comprehension questions about simple data displayed in bar graphs. Axes and legends were labelled either with words (mixed-modality graphs) or icons (orthography-free graphs). Students also answered informationally equivalent questions presented in sentences (orthography-only condition). Response times were slower in the dyslexic group only for processing sentences. However, eye tracking data revealed group differences for processing mixed-modality graphs, whereas no group differences were found for the orthography-free graphs. When processing bar graphs, students with dyslexia differ from their able reading peers only when graphs contain orthographic features. Implications for processing informational text are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Beetsma, Daniel J. V.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2014-01-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome (TS) are often preceded by “premonitory urges”: annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2 × 2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs + blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response. PMID:24899785

  5. Investigating graph comprehension in students with dyslexia: an eye tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunjung; Lombardino, Linda J; Cowles, Wind; Altmann, Lori J

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine graph comprehension in college students with developmental dyslexia. We investigated how graph types (line, vertical bar, and horizontal bar graphs), graphic patterns (single and double graphic patterns), and question types (point locating and comparison questions) differentially affect graph comprehension of students with and without dyslexia. Groups were compared for (1) reaction times for answering comprehension questions based on graphed data and (2) eye gaze times for specific graph subregions (x-axis, y-axis, pattern, legend, question, and answer). Dyslexic readers were significantly slower in their graph comprehension than their peers with group differences becoming more robust with the increasing complexity of graphs and tasks. In addition, dyslexic readers' initial eye gaze viewing times for linguistic subregions (question and answer) and total viewing times for both linguistic (question and answer) and nonlinguistic (pattern) subregions were significantly longer than their control peers' times. In spite of using elementary-level paragraphs for comprehension and simple graph forms, young adults with dyslexia needed more time to process linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. These findings are discussed relative to theories proposed to address fundamental processing deficits in individuals with dyslexia.

  6. Does Repeated Ticking Maintain Tic Behavior? An Experimental Study of Eye Blinking in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Beetsma, Daniel J. V.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Rijkeboer, Marleen M.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2013-01-01

    Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS) are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response. PMID:23187147

  7. Feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis: a retrospective study of 45 cases (56 eyes).

    PubMed

    Dean, Eric; Meunier, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    The medical records of 45 cases (56 eyes) of feline eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) diagnosed between 2005 and 2011 were reviewed. Cats were included if a clinical diagnosis of EKC was recorded and eosinophils were found on corneal cytology. Median age at presentation was 5 years (interquartiles 5-9 years) for both males and females. Domestic shorthair was the predominant breed, accounting for 77.8% of the cats. The condition was unilateral in 75.6% of cases, with the superotemporal quadrant of the cornea the most frequently affected position (76.8% of eyes). A history of corneal ulceration was recorded in 37.8% of cases, and corneal ulcers were present at or before diagnosis in 66.7% of the cats. Eosinophils were found in 92.0% of conjunctival scrapings. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) for 33/45 cats. Viral DNA was detected in 54.5% of these cats. FHV-1 DNA was detected by PCR in 66.7% of cats with a history and/or presence of a corneal ulcer at first presentation, which is significantly more than those with no corneal ulcer at any time (22.2% FHV-1 DNA detected). Our findings suggest that a corneal ulcer can be present prior to the development of eosinophilic keratitis. Further studies are mandatory to explore the role that FHV-1 could play in EKC-associated corneal ulceration.

  8. A vision for eye care: a brief study of the change process.

    PubMed

    Laight, S E

    1995-08-01

    Eye care is recognised as a basic nursing care procedure required by critically ill patients, to prevent complications such as eye infection or injury (Lloyd 1990). There is scanty literature available on the subject, with little evidence to support the action advised (Smith 1983, Lloyd 1990). Despite this, critically ill patients are given eye care by nurses, but the practical application varies widely (Farrell & Wray 1993). Selection of eye care techniques is based on the individual nurses' beliefs and values, and established largely by tradition. This article describes how this haphazard system of eye care was standardised in a general intensive care unit using the Dynamic Standard Setting System format for standard construction (RCN 1990). This formulation of a standard for eye care was used to explore the process of planned change underpinned by Lewin's theoretical model of change (Lewin 1964).

  9. Reliability and validity of abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gergana, Kodjebacheva; Coleman, Anne L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Yu, Fei; Stone, Katie L.; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the reliability and validity of questionnaires shortened from the National Eye Institute 25-item Vision Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-9 and NEI VFQ-8). Design A cross-sectional multi-center cohort study. Methods Reliability was assessed by Cronbach alpha coefficients. Validity was evaluated by studying the association of vision-targeted quality-of-life composite scores with objective visual function measurements. Study population: A total of 5,482 women between the ages of 65 and 100 years participated in the Year-10 clinic visit in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). A total of 3,631 women with complete data were included in the visual acuity (VA) and visual field (VF) analysis of the NEI VFQ-9, which is defined for those who care to drive. and 5,311 in the analysis of the NEI VFQ-8. To assess differences in prevalent eye diseases, which were ascertained for a random sample of SOF participants, 853 and 1,237 women were included in the NEI VFQ-9 and the NEI VFQ-8 analyses, respectively. Results Cronbach alpha coefficient for the NEI VFQ-9 scale was 0.83 and that of the NEI VFQ-8 was 0.84. Using both questionnaires, women with VA worse than 20/40 had lower composite scores compared to those with VA 20/40 or better (p<0.001). Participants with mild, moderate, and severe binocular VF loss had lower composite scores compared to those with no binocular VF loss (p<0.001).Compared to women without chronic eye diseases in both eyes, women with at least one chronic eye disease in at least one eye had lower composite scores. Conclusions Both questionnaires showed high reliability across items and validity with respect to clinical markers of eye disease Future research should compare the properties of these shortened surveys to those of the NEI VFQ-25. PMID:20103058

  10. STUDIES OF ORAL READING--XII. EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONS ON THE EYE-VOICE SPAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHN, JULIE A.; LEVIN, HARRY

    ONE MEASURE CURRENTLY USED TO DESCRIBE THE READING PROCESSES IS THE EYE-VOICE SPAN OR EVS. THE EVS IS DEFINED AS THE DISTANCE OR SPAN OF WORDS THAT THE EYE IS AHEAD OF THE VOICE IN ORAL READING. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT INSTRUCTIONALLY-INDUCED SETS UPON THE EYE-VOICE SPANS OF READERS AT VARIOUS ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS WERE INVESTIGATED.…

  11. Degrading traumatic memories with eye movements: a pilot functional MRI study in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Engelhard, Iris M.; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cath, Danielle C.; Van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, the patient recalls traumatic memories while making eye movements (EMs). Making EMs during recall is associated with decreased vividness and emotionality of traumatic memories, but the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Recent studies support a “working-memory” (WM) theory, which states that the two tasks (recall and EMs) compete for limited capacity of WM resources. However, prior research has mainly relied on self-report measures. Methods Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested whether “recall with EMs,” relative to a “recall-only” control condition, was associated with reduced activity of primary visual and emotional processing brain regions, associated with vividness and emotionality respectively, and increased activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), associated with working memory. We used a randomized, controlled, crossover experimental design in eight adult patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD. A script-driven imagery (SDI) procedure was used to measure responsiveness to an audio-script depicting the participant's traumatic memory before and after conditions. Results SDI activated mainly emotional processing-related brain regions (anterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex), WM-related (DLPFC), and visual (association) brain regions before both conditions. Although predicted pre- to post-test decrease in amygdala activation after “recall with EMs” was not significant, SDI activated less right amygdala and rostral ACC activity after “recall with EMs” compared to post-“recall-only.” Furthermore, functional connectivity from the right amygdala to the rostral ACC was decreased after “recall with EMs” compared with after “recall-only.” Conclusions These preliminary results in a small sample suggest that

  12. Adverse Reaction to Nicotine Gum in Malay Female Smoker: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noorzurani, Md Haris Robson; Bond, Alyson; Wolff, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are prescribed in smoking cessation programmes to help smokers stop smoking. The ideal dosage of NRT should control cravings and withdrawal symptoms but avoid adverse reactions. This report describes a case of adverse reaction to nicotine gum in a female Malay smoker. Assays taken 2 h after the gum, showed that…

  13. Proposing a Web-Based Tutorial System to Teach Malay Language Braille Code to the Sighted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wah, Lee Lay; Keong, Foo Kok

    2010-01-01

    The "e-KodBrailleBM Tutorial System" is a web-based tutorial system which is specially designed to teach, facilitate and support the learning of Malay Language Braille Code to individuals who are sighted. The targeted group includes special education teachers, pre-service teachers, and parents. Learning Braille code involves memorisation…

  14. Upholding the Malay Language and Strengthening the English Language Policy: An Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamat, Hamidah; Umar, Nur Farita Mustapa; Mahmood, Muhammad Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Today's global economy and dependency on technology has led to educational reforms in Malaysia, which includes language policies; namely the Upholding the Malay Language, and Strengthening the English Language ("MBMMBI") policy. This policy underpins the project presented and discussed in this paper; on the development of a bilingual…

  15. Metalinguistic Awareness and Semi-Syllabic Scripts: Children's Spelling Errors in Malay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liow, Susan J. Rickard; Lee, Lay Choo

    2004-01-01

    The Malay language has a transparent morphological system and, unlike English, it is written in a very shallow alphabetic-syllabic script. We predicted that beginner spellers (six-to eight-year-olds) of this Rumi script would encode words at the level of the syllable and morpheme, rather than the phoneme. Using the results of a 75-item spelling…

  16. Acquisition of Malay Word Recognition Skills: Lessons from Low-Progress Early Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lay Wah; Wheldall, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Malay is a consistent alphabetic orthography with complex syllable structures. The focus of this research was to investigate word recognition performance in order to inform reading interventions for low-progress early readers. Forty-six Grade 1 students were sampled and 11 were identified as low-progress readers. The results indicated that both…

  17. Malay in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore: Three Faces of a National Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenberg, Peter

    Malay's long use as the dominant linga franca throughout modern Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore is partly responsible for its current status as the national language of all three countries. However, political and economic developments during and since the colonial era have created sociolinguistic contexts, motives, and results of the language's…

  18. Bilingual Chinese, Malay and Tamil Children's Language Choices in a Multi-lingual Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1999-01-01

    Examined language choice for three bilingual families in the context of Singapore's bilingual policy for preschool children. Found that Chinese families prefer English for all activities; Malay families prefer the Malayan language for worship and interaction with family; and Tamil families choose the Tamil language for worship but prefer English…

  19. Azelastine eye-drops in seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhinoconjunctivitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Giede-Tuch, C; Westhoff, M; Zarth, A

    1998-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy of 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis of > or = 1 year's duration. A total of 151 patients received 0.025% or 0.05% azelastine eye-drops or placebo b.i.d. for 14 days according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-dosing design; 129 patients completed the study as planned. The three target symptoms, scored on 4-point scales, were itching, lacrimation, and redness of the eyes; responders were patients whose symptom sum score decreased by > or = 3 from a baseline score of > or = 6 by day 3. Mean scores of these and five other symptoms were recorded also on days 7 and 14, and patients kept daily diaries of the three main symptoms and swollen eyelids. Responder rates were 73% for 0.025% (P=0.115 vs placebo) and 82% for 0.05% azelastine eye-drops (P=0.011 vs placebo) and 56% for placebo. The time courses of the mean (investigators' and patients') scores for the three main symptoms reflected the dose-dependent effect of azelastine eye-drops. One patient each from the two azelastine groups and three from the placebo group withdrew because of inefficacy. Adverse drug reactions were reported by 14 and 24 patients receiving 0.025% and 0.05% azelastine eye-drops, respectively, and by eight placebo patients. These reactions were mainly slight application site reactions and taste perversion (bitter or unpleasant taste). Azelastine eye-drops are effective and well tolerated at a dose of 0.05% for the treatment of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

  20. OCT Study of Mechanical Properties Associated with Trabecular Meshwork and Collector Channel Motion in Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Chen; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of a high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging platform to identify and quantify pressure-dependent aqueous outflow system (AOS) tissue relationships and to infer mechanical stiffness through examination of tissue properties in ex vivo human eyes. Five enucleated human eyes are included in this study, with each eye prepared with four equal-sized quadrants, each encompassing 90 degrees of the limbal circumference. In radial limbal segments perfusion pressure within Schlemm’s canal (SC) is controlled by means of a perfusion cannula inserted into the canal lumen, while the other end of the cannula leads to a reservoir at a height that can control the pressure in the cannula. The OCT system images the sample with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm from the trabecular meshwork (TM) surface. Geometric parameters are quantified from the 2D OCT images acquired from the sample subjected to controlled changes in perfusion pressures; parameters include area and height of the lumen of SC, collector channel entrances (CCE) and intrascleral collector channels (ISCC). We show that 3D OCT imaging permits the identification of 3-D relationships of the SC, CCE and ISCC lumen dimensions. Collagen flaps or leaflets are found at CCE that are attached or hinged at only one end, whilst the flaps are connected to the TM by cylindrical structures spanning SC. Increasing static SC pressures resulted in SC lumen enlargement with corresponding enlargement of the CCE and ISCC lumen. Pressure-dependent SC lumen area and height changes are significant at the 0.01 levels for ANOVA, and at the 0.05 for both polynomial curves and Tukey paired comparisons. Dynamic measurements demonstrate a synchronous increase in SC, CCE and ISCC lumen height in response to pressure changes from 0 to 10, 30 or 50 mm Hg, respectively, and the response time is within the 50-millisecond range. From the measured SC volume and corresponding IOP values, we demonstrate that an

  1. The Feasibility of Capturing Learner Interactions Based on Logs Informed by Eye-Tracking and Remote Observation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Diego, Jonathan P.; McAndrew, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Two small studies, one an "eye-tracking" study and the other a "remote observation" study, have been conducted to investigate ways to identify two kinds of online learner interactions: users flicking through the web pages in "browsing" action, and users engaging with the content of a page in "learning"…

  2. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. "promise" in "Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself") or recipient control nominals (e.g. "plea"…

  3. Tracking Eye Movements Proves Informative for the Study of Gaze Direction Detection in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been dedicated to exploring how well children with autistic spectrum disorders infer eye gaze direction from the face of an actor. Here we combine task performance (accuracy to correctly label a target item) and eye movement information ("where" the participant fixates when completing the task) to understand more…

  4. Removal of the eye in a tertiary care center of China: a retrospective study on 573 cases in 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Wang, Xin; Chen, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the original protopathy, direct indications, clinical characteristics, complications of orbit plants and visual conditions of eye enucleation/evisceration. METHODS A retrospective study of 573 eyes removed (573 inpatients) at Ophthalmology Department in a tertiary care center of China from January 1993 to December 2012 was completed. RESULTS Cases underwent removal of the eye accounted for 2.15% of total ophthalmology inpatients, whose annual frequency declined from 3.80% to 0.52%. There were 167 eyes (29.14%) being enucleated and 406 (70.86%) eviscerated. Annual proportion of evisceration rose from 16.67% in 1993 to 90.48% in later years. Trauma was the top one (65.62%) in original protopathies followed by neoplasm (13.44%) and ocular infections (5.76%). Phthisis bulbi (45.20%) was the most common direct indication, succeeded by malignant tumor (12.57%), loss/unreconstructed of intraocular tissues due to trauma (11.00%), untreatable inflammation (9.60%), intractable glaucoma (8.55%) and sclerocorneal staphyloma (5.24%). Exenteration was underwent in 20 (25.97%) cases (40% for recurrent carcinoma). Following evisceration, secondary prosthesis implantation was more and earlier, implant exposure occurred in less but earlier and infection and extraction/exchange of implants were more than those following enucleation. Male, phthisis bulbi, evisceration and secondary implantation meant lower risk of implant exposure; eyes removed within 24h following trauma was an independent risk factor. There were 14.37% of eyes with vision of light perception at least as been removed. In the residual contralateral eyes, low vision accounted 5.58% and blindness 3.14%. CONCLUSION Ocular trauma, tumor and infections were great threats to eyeball preservation. Early and effective controlling of any original protopathies was vital. Generally evisceration presented more superior and safe outcomes than enucleation did. Visual conditions of the sufferers should be focused

  5. Study of cosmic rays and light flashes on board Space Station MIR: the SilEye experiment.

    PubMed

    Bidoli, V; Casolino, M; De Pascale, M P; Furano, G; Morselli, A; Narici, L; Picozza, P; Reali, E; Sparvoli, R; Galper, A M; Ozerov YuV; Popov, A V; Vavilov, N R; Alexandrov, A P; Avdeev, S V; Baturin, Y u; Budarin, Y u; Padalko, G; Shabelnikov, V G; Barbellini, G; Bonvicini, W; Vacchi, A; Zampa, N; Bartalucci, S; Mazzenga, G; Ricci, M; Adriani, O; Spillantini, P; Boezio, M; Carlson, P; Fuglesang, C; Castellini, G; Sannita, W G

    2000-01-01

    The SilEye experiment aims to study the cause and processes related to the anomalous Light Flashes (LF) perceived by astronauts in orbit and their relation with Cosmic Rays. These observations will be also useful in the study of the long duration manned space flight environment. Two PC-driven silicon detector telescopes have been built and placed aboard Space Station MIR. SilEye-1 was launched in 1995 and provided particles track and LF information; the data gathered indicate a linear dependence of FLF(Hz) ( 4 2) 10(3) 5.3 1.7 10(4) Fpart(Hz) if South Atlantic Anomaly fluxes are not included. Even though higher statistic is required, this is an indication that heavy ion interactions with the eye are the main LF cause. To improve quality and quantity of measurements, a second apparatus, SilEye-2, was placed on MIR in 1997, and started work from August 1998. This instrument provides energetic information, which allows nuclear identification in selected energy ranges; we present preliminary measurements of the radiation field inside MIR performed with SilEye-2 detector in June 1998.

  6. Obstacle Avoidance, Visual Detection Performance, and Eye-Scanning Behavior of Glaucoma Patients in a Driving Simulator: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Prado Vega, Rocío; van Leeuwen, Peter M.; Rendón Vélez, Elizabeth; Lemij, Hans G.; de Winter, Joost C. F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in driving performance, visual detection performance, and eye-scanning behavior between glaucoma patients and control participants without glaucoma. Glaucoma patients (n = 23) and control participants (n = 12) completed four 5-min driving sessions in a simulator. The participants were instructed to maintain the car in the right lane of a two-lane highway while their speed was automatically maintained at 100 km/h. Additional tasks per session were: Session 1: none, Session 2: verbalization of projected letters, Session 3: avoidance of static obstacles, and Session 4: combined letter verbalization and avoidance of static obstacles. Eye-scanning behavior was recorded with an eye-tracker. Results showed no statistically significant differences between patients and control participants for lane keeping, obstacle avoidance, and eye-scanning behavior. Steering activity, number of missed letters, and letter reaction time were significantly higher for glaucoma patients than for control participants. In conclusion, glaucoma patients were able to avoid objects and maintain a nominal lane keeping performance, but applied more steering input than control participants, and were more likely than control participants to miss peripherally projected stimuli. The eye-tracking results suggest that glaucoma patients did not use extra visual search to compensate for their visual field loss. Limitations of the study, such as small sample size, are discussed. PMID:24146975

  7. The Melaka Hospital cataract complications study analysis of 12,992 eyes

    PubMed Central

    Thevi, Thanigasalam; Maizura, Zin; Abas, Adinegara Lutfi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: As in all surgeries, complications during cataract surgery are unavoidable and cause distress to the surgeon and the patient. This study was conducted to know the factors contributing to complications in our settings, to be able to counsel patients about complications and outcomes and to reduce litigations. Materials and Methods: The secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Eye Database from 2007 to 2014. Demographic features, ocular comorbidities, technique of surgery, grade of surgeons, types of intraoperative complications, and reasons for not obtaining good visual acuity following intraoperative complications were studied. Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. Results: Out of 12,992 eyes, 6.1% had intraoperative complications. The highest rate of complications was when more trainees (medical officers [MOs] and gazetting specialists) operated. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) was the most common complication followed by vitreous loss and zonular dehiscence. Those aged below 40 years had more complications (P < 0.05), and females had more complications. Ethnicity did not affect complications. Pseudoexfoliation was the only comorbidity causing complications (P < 0.05). Phacolytic lenses had 8.118 times the odds of getting intraoperative complications. MOs and gazetting specialists got more complications. Good outcomes were obtained in cases without complications and those operated by specialists. High astigmatism was the main reason for poorer outcomes. Conclusion: Intraoperative complications were caused mostly by less experienced doctors and had poorer outcomes. Age below 40 years, females, the presence of pseudoexfoliation and phacolytic lenses had more complications. PCR was the most common complication. PMID:28300736

  8. Population and High-Risk Group Screening for Glaucoma: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Brian A.; Vigen, Cheryl; Lai, Mei-Ying; Winarko, Jonathan; Nguyen, Betsy; Azen, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the ability of various screening tests, both individually and in combination, to detect glaucoma in the general Latino population and high-risk subgroups. Methods. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study is a population-based study of eye disease in Latinos 40 years of age and older. Participants (n = 6082) underwent Humphrey visual field testing (HVF), frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry, measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), and independent assessment of optic nerve vertical cup disc (C/D) ratio. Screening parameters were evaluated for three definitions of glaucoma based on optic disc, visual field, and a combination of both. Analyses were also conducted for high-risk subgroups (family history of glaucoma, diabetes mellitus, and age ≥65 years). Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those continuous parameters independently associated with glaucoma. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to develop a multivariate algorithm for glaucoma screening. Results. Preset cutoffs for screening parameters yielded a generally poor balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity for IOP ≥21 mm Hg and C/D ≥0.8 was 0.24/0.97 and 0.60/0.98, respectively). Assessment of high-risk subgroups did not improve the sensitivity/specificity of individual screening parameters. A CART analysis using multiple screening parameters—C/D, HVF, and IOP—substantially improved the balance of sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity/specificity 0.92/0.92). Conclusions. No single screening parameter is useful for glaucoma screening. However, a combination of vertical C/D ratio, HVF, and IOP provides the best balance of sensitivity/specificity and is likely to provide the highest yield in glaucoma screening programs. PMID:21245400

  9. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  10. Processing Rhythmic Pattern during Chinese Sentence Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yingyi; Duan, Yunyan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Prosodic constraints play a fundamental role during both spoken sentence comprehension and silent reading. In Chinese, the rhythmic pattern of the verb-object (V-O) combination has been found to rapidly affect the semantic access/integration process during sentence reading (Luo and Zhou, 2010). Rhythmic pattern refers to the combination of words with different syllabic lengths, with certain combinations disallowed (e.g., [2 + 1]; numbers standing for the number of syllables of the verb and the noun respectively) and certain combinations preferred (e.g., [1 + 1] or [2 + 2]). This constraint extends to the situation in which the combination is used to modify other words. A V-O phrase could modify a noun by simply preceding it, forming a V-O-N compound; when the verb is disyllabic, however, the word order has to be O-V-N and the object is preferred to be disyllabic. In this study, we investigated how the reader processes the rhythmic pattern and word order information by recording the reader's eye-movements. We created four types of sentences by crossing rhythmic pattern and word order in compounding. The compound, embedding a disyllabic verb, could be in the correct O-V-N or the incorrect V-O-N order; the object could be disyllabic or monosyllabic. We found that the reader spent more time and made more regressions on and after the compounds when either type of anomaly was detected during the first pass reading. However, during re-reading (after all the words in the sentence have been viewed), less regressive eye movements were found for the anomalous rhythmic pattern, relative to the correct pattern; moreover, only the abnormal rhythmic pattern, not the violated word order, influenced the regressive eye movements. These results suggest that while the processing of rhythmic pattern and word order information occurs rapidly during the initial reading of the sentence, the process of recovering from the rhythmic pattern anomaly may ease the reanalysis processing at the

  11. One-year visual outcome of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery in high myopic eyes: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjing; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jiamei; Li, Hua; Dou, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the long-term visual outcome of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery is consistent with the short-term results in high myopic eyes. Design Retrospective cohort study; data collected from 8 August 2011 to 31 August 2015. Setting Single refractive surgery centre. Participants A total of 156 eyes were studied: 65 eyes of 39 subjects (22 female/17 male) in the high myopic group (manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) ≥−6.0 D), and 91 eyes of 54 subjects (29 female/25 male) in the control group (MRSE <−6.0 D). The inclusion criteria were subjects who had follow-ups after 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3, 6 months and 1 year with the manifest refraction, uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA/CDVA). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the subjects' gender, age, or cylindrical dioptre, preoperatively (p=0.835, p=0.055, p=0.341, respectively). Primary and secondary outcome measures UDVA, refractive stability, safety index (postoperative CDVA/preoperative CDVA), and predictability (the percentage of eyes within ±0.50 D). Results In both groups, the 1-year UDVA and safety index were significantly better than results at 1 day (high myopic group: p=0.035, p<0.001; control group: p<0.016, p<0.001); the 1-year predictability showed no significant difference with the short-term results (p=1.00 in both groups). In the high myopic eyes, the 1-year MRSE was significantly worse than the short-term result (p=0.048). To correct it, the added magnitude (D) for the high myopic eyes may equal 0.13×Attempted SE (D)−0.66 D. However, the postoperative MRSE showed no differences from 1 day to 1 year (p=0.612) in the control group. Conclusions The 1-year visual outcomes were better than the short-term results after the SMILE surgery on the visual acuity and safety. However, the high myopic eyes suffered a significant regression at 1 year, which may be

  12. A comparative study of iron-related metabolic parameters in the eye of three animal species.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Quiñones, Luis E; García-Castiñeiras, Sixto

    2007-12-01

    In order to obtain a wider perspective of iron homeostasis in the eye, a comparative study was undertaken of several iron-related parameters (Total Iron, TI; Total Iron Binding Capacity, TIBC; Transferrin, Tf; and saturation of Tf) both in blood serum and in ocular tissues (lens, cornea, iris-ciliary body, retina) and fluids (vitreous body, aqueous humor) of several animal species (pig, cow and rat). The relative degree of oxidative stress of tissues and fluids was evaluated based on the criteria that high values of TI and Tf saturation, and low values of TIBC and Tf, would promote iron-related oxidative stress. The inclusion of both diurnal (pig, cow) and nocturnal (rat) animal species in this comparative work provided the opportunity to explore if iron homeostasis parameters are in some way influenced by the higher oxidative stress level expected in animals with diurnal living habits. This project involved also the design of new and very sensitive methods of analyses, given the fact that in many cases very small amounts of sample (i.e., aqueous humor), and/or low concentration of analytes (i.e., transferrin) are available. All results were expressed as concentration relative to mg protein as determined with the Bradford method (microplate assay). When analyzing TI/TIBC it was possible to define a loosely bound iron pool (LBIP) in ocular tissues that was proportional to the degree of vascularization of the tissues analyzed. The comparison of iron related parameters patterns within the eye and among species allowed us to reach the following conclusions: (1) The aqueous humor and vitreous body of cow and pig exhibited highest concentration of Tf and a very low saturation of Tf, while the lowest value of Tf was detected in all species in the lens; (2) TI showed the tendency to be highest in the vitreous body of cow and pig, and lowest in the lens of all three species. The very low iron concentration in the lens may effectively counteract the risk of having a low Tf

  13. Reduction of eye lens radiation dose by orbital bismuth shielding in pediatric patients undergoing CT of the head: A Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Raissaki, Maria; Tzedakis, Antonis; Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2005-04-01

    Our aim in the study was to assess the eye lens dose reduction resulting from the use of radioprotective bismuth garments to shield the eyes of pediatric patients undergoing head CT. The Monte Carlo N-particle transport code and mathematical humanoid phantoms representing the average individual at different ages were used to determine eye lens dose reduction accomplished with bismuth shielding of the eye in the following simulated CT scans: (a) scanning of the orbits, (b) scanning of the whole head, and (c) 20 deg. angled scanning of the brain excluding the orbits. The effect of bismuth shielding on the eye lens dose was also investigated using an anthropomorphic phantom and thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). Eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding was measured in 16 patients undergoing multiphase CT scanning of the head. The patient's scans were divided in the following: CT examinations where the eye globes were entirely included (n=5), partly included (n=6) and excluded (n=5) from the scanned region. The eye lens dose reduction depended mainly on the scan boundaries set by an operator. The average eye lens dose reduction determined by Monte Carlo simulation was 38.2%, 33.0% and <1% for CT scans of the orbits, whole head, and brain with an angled gantry, respectively. The difference between the Monte Carlo derived eye lens dose reduction factor values and corresponding values determined directly by using the anthropomorphic phantom head was found less than 5%. The mean eye lens dose reduction achieved by bismuth shielding in pediatric patients were 34%, 20% and <2% when eye globes were entirely included, partly included and excluded from the scanned region, respectively. A significant reduction in eye lens dose may be achieved by using superficial orbital bismuth shielding during pediatric head CT scans. However, bismuth garments should not be used in children when the eyes are excluded from the primarily exposed region.

  14. Accessibility of Referent Information Influences Sentence Planning: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y.; Konopka, Agnieszka E.; Chen, Yiya

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the time-course of online sentence formulation (i.e., incrementality in sentence planning) as a function of the preceding discourse context. In two eye-tracking experiments, participants described pictures of transitive events (e.g., a frog catching a fly). The accessibility of the agent (Experiment 1) and patient (Experiment 2) was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where the agent or patient was mentioned explicitly (fly, frog). In the Associative condition, the agent or patient was not mentioned but was primed by the story (via semantically or associatively related words such as insect, small, black, wings). In the No Mention condition, the stories did not explicitly mention or prime either character. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (SVO sentences: The frog catches the fly). The results showed that participants generally looked first at the agent, before speech onset, regardless of condition, and then at the patient around and after speech onset. Analyses of eye movements in time window associated with linguistic planning showed that formulation was sensitive mainly to whether the agent was literally mentioned in the context or not and to lesser extent to conceptual accessibility (Experiment 1). Furthermore, accessibility of the patient (be it literal mention of its name or only availability of the concept) showed no effect on the time-course of utterance planning (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that linguistic planning before speech onset was influenced only by the accessibility of the first character name in the sentence, providing further evidence for highly incremental planning in sentence production. PMID:28293201

  15. [N-acetyl-aspartylglutamic acid eye drops in allergic-type conjuctivitis. Double-blind comparative clinical study].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M; Ducournau, D; Lumbroso, P; Serpin, G

    1985-01-01

    Fifty patients with allergic conjunctivitis were included in a double-blind randomized clinical trial designed to compare the efficiency and tolerance of two antiallergic eye-drops: one containing NAAGA (22 patients), the other one containing disodium Cromoglycate (28 patients). Both treatments were used at a dosage of 1 drop 4 times per day. Ocular symptoms, conjunctivo-corneal signs and the subjective ocular condition assessed by the patients themselves with visual analogue scales, were all significantly improved by both eye-drops during the first month of treatment. Statistical analysis showed that patient ocular condition improved more rapidly with NAAGA eye-drops. In 25 patients (12 in the NAAGA group and 13 in the Cromoglycate group), the study was continued for an additional month according to a cross-over protocol. During the 2nd month of treatment, additional improvement of ocular symptoms and signs were observed with both eye-drops but more markedly in those patients who received NAAGA after Cromoglycate. Ocular tolerance was good for both eye-drops.

  16. What you learn is what you see: using eye movements to study infant cross-situational word learning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies show that both adults and young children possess powerful statistical learning capabilities to solve the word-to-world mapping problem. However, the underlying mechanisms that make statistical learning possible and powerful are not yet known. With the goal of providing new insights into this issue, the research reported in this paper used an eye tracker to record the moment-by-moment eye movement data of 14-month-old babies in statistical learning tasks. Various measures are applied to such fine-grained temporal data, such as looking duration and shift rate (the number of shifts in gaze from one visual object to the other) trial by trial, showing different eye movement patterns between strong and weak statistical learners. Moreover, an information-theoretic measure is developed and applied to gaze data to quantify the degree of learning uncertainty trial by trial. Next, a simple associative statistical learning model is applied to eye movement data and these simulation results are compared with empirical results from young children, showing strong correlations between these two. This suggests that an associative learning mechanism with selective attention can provide a cognitively plausible model of cross-situational statistical learning. The work represents the first steps in using eye movement data to infer underlying real-time processes in statistical word learning.

  17. What You Learn is What You See: Using Eye Movements to Study Infant Cross-Situational Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show that both adults and young children possess powerful statistical learning capabilities to solve the word-to-world mapping problem. However, the underlying mechanisms that make statistical learning possible and powerful are not yet known. With the goal of providing new insights into this issue, the research reported in this paper used an eye tracker to record the moment-by-moment eye movement data of 14-month-old babies in statistical learning tasks. Various measures are applied to such fine-grained temporal data, such as looking duration and shift rate (the number of shifts in gaze from one visual object to the other) trial by trial, showing different eye movement patterns between strong and weak statistical learners. Moreover, an information-theoretic measure is developed and applied to gaze data to quantify the degree of learning uncertainty trial by trial. Next, a simple associative statistical learning model is applied to eye movement data and these simulation results are compared with empirical results from young children, showing strong correlations between these two. This suggests that an associative learning mechanism with selective attention can provide a cognitively plausible model of cross-situational statistical learning. The work represents the first steps to use eye movement data to infer underlying real-time processes in statistical word learning. PMID:22213894

  18. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia.

  19. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Manaf, Zahara Abd; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60–74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (−2.1% body weight, −1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (−4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05). The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the PrG (73.2%) and ExG (47.6%), respectively. In addition, the ExG showed a reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels, and both interventions did not alter either lipid or protein oxidation. In conclusion, the exercise program was found to improve muscle strength and body composition, while protein supplementation reduced body weight and increased upper body strength, among sarcopenic elderly in Malaysia. PMID:24143082

  20. Modelling sea level data from China and Malay-Thailand to estimate Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Sarah L.; Milne, Glenn A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Zong, Yongqiang

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a new model of Holocene ice-volume equivalent sea level (ESL), extending a previously published global ice sheet model (Bassett et al., 2005), which was unconstrained from 10 kyr BP to present. This new model was developed by comparing relative sea level (RSL) predictions from a glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) model to a suite of Holocene sea level index points from China and Malay-Thailand. Three consistent data-model misfits were found using the Bassett et al. (2005) model: an over-prediction in the height of maximum sea level, the timing of this maximum, and the temporal variation of sea level from the time of the highstand to present. The data-model misfits were examined for a large suite of ESL scenarios and a range of earth model parameters to determine an optimum model of Holocene ESL. This model is characterised by a slowdown in melting at ∼7 kyr BP, associated with the final deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, followed by a continued rise in ESL until ∼1 kyr BP of ∼5.8 m associated with melting from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. It was not possible to identify an earth viscosity model that provided good fits for both regions; with the China data preferring viscosity values in the upper mantle of less than 1.5 × 1020 Pa s and the Malay-Thailand data preferring greater values. We suggest that this inference of a very weak upper mantle for the China data originates from the nearby subduction zone and Hainan Plume. The low viscosity values may also account for the lack of a well-defined highstand at the China sites.

  1. Optic Disc - Fovea Distance, Axial Length and Parapapillary Zones. The Beijing Eye Study 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, Rahul Arvo; Wang, Ya Xing; Yang, Hua; Li, Jian Jun; Xu, Liang; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Jonas, Jost Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To measure the distance between the optic disc center and the fovea (DFD) and to assess its associations. Methods The population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals aged 50+ years. The DFD was measured on fundus photographs. Results Readable fundus photographs were available for 2836 (81.8%) individuals. Mean DFD was 4.76 ± 0.34mm (median: 4.74 mm; range: 3.76–6.53mm). In multivariate analysis, longer DFD was associated with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.62), higher prevalence of axially high myopia (P<0.001; beta:0.06), shallower anterior chamber depth (P<0.001; beta:-0.18), thinner lens thickness (P = 0.004; beta: -0.06), smaller optic disc-fovea angle (P = 0.02; beta: -0.04), larger parapapillary alpha zone (P = 0.008; beta: 0.05), larger parapapillary beta/gamma zone (P<0.001; beta: 0.11), larger optic disc area (P<0.001; beta: 0.08), lower degree of cortical cataract (P = 0.002; beta: -0.08), and lower prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.001; beta: -0.06). Bruch´s membrane opening-fovea distance (DFD minus disc radius minus parapapillary beta/gamma zone width) in non-glaucomatous eyes was not significantly (P = 0.60) related with axial length in emmetropic or axially myopic eyes (axial length ≥23.5 mm), while it increased significantly (P<0.001; r: 0.32) with longer axial length in eyes with an axial length of <23.5mm. Ratio of mean DFD to disc diameter was 2.65 ± 0.30. If the ratio of disc-fovea distance to disc diameter was considered constant and if the individual disc diameter was calculated as the individual disc-fovea distance divided by the constant factor of 2.65, the resulting calculated disc diameter differed from the directly measured disc diameter by 0.16 ±0.13 mm (median: 0.13 mm, range: 0.00–0.89 mm) or 8.9 ± 7.3% (median: 7.4%; range: 0.00–70%) of the measured disc diameter. Conclusions DFD (mean: 4.76mm) increases with longer

  2. Histopathological Study of a Mummified Eye and Optic Nerve from a Strangled Peruvian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Jordi; Cases-Mérida, Sandra; Tortosa, Montserrat; Marzal, Berta; Fernández, Arabel; Gálvez, Cesar; Franco, Regulo; Fernández, Pedro Luis

    2015-01-01

    We present the histopathological findings of a naturally mummified eye from the Peruvian Lambayeque culture (900-1,200 AD), in which rehydration, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy allowed a detailed analysis of several eye tissues including the eyelids, sclera, and optic nerve, the latter showing evidence of hemorrhage likely related to the documented strangulation as the cause of death. We conclude that histopathological analysis of rehydrated mummified tissues can provide valuable information from fragile eye structures including the optic nerve, and these findings can be useful from a forensic point of view.

  3. Benefits of Motion in Animated Storybooks for Children’s Visual Attention and Story Comprehension. An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Takacs, Zsofia K.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides experimental evidence regarding 4–6-year-old children’s visual processing of animated versus static illustrations in storybooks. Thirty nine participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker. Outcomes corroborate the hypothesis that specifically motion is what attracts children’s attention while looking at illustrations. It is proposed that animated illustrations that are well matched to the text of the story guide children to those parts of the illustration that are important for understanding the story. This may explain why animated books resulted in better comprehension than static books. PMID:27790183

  4. Diabetes eye exams

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  5. The Effectiveness of Panoramic Maps Design: a Preliminary Study Based on Mobile Eye-Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzarini, R.; Murat, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of visual attention through mobile eye-tracking techniques. The visual-cognitive approach investigates the reading-comprehension of a particular territorial representation: ski trails maps. The general issue of the study is to provide insights about the effectiveness of panoramic ski maps and more broadly, to suggest innovative efficient representation of the geographic information in mountain. According to some mountain operators, the information provided by paper ski maps no longer meets the needs of a large part of the customers; the question now arises of their adaptation to new digital practices (iPhone, tablets). In a computerized process perspective, this study particularly focuses on the representations, and the inferred information, which are really helpful to the users-skiers to apprehend the territory and make decisions, and which could be effectively replicated into a digital system. The most interesting output relies on the relevance of the panorama view: panorama still fascinates, but contrary to conventional wisdom, the information it provides does not seem to be useful to the skier. From a socio-historical perspective this study shows how empirical evidence-based approach can support the change: our results enhance the discussion on the effectiveness of the message that mountain operators want to convey to the tourist and therefore, on the renewal of (geographical) information in ski resorts.

  6. Validation study on the Ocular Irritection assay for eye irritation testing.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Facchini, Davide; Ulmer, Rich; Wang, Amy; Flego, Manuela; Vassallo, Marco; Bufo, Monica; van Vliet, Erwin; d'Abrosca, Federica; Wilt, Nathan

    2014-08-01

    Both a prospective and a retrospective validation study were undertaken to assess the suitability of the Ocular Irritection assay to discriminate ocular hazards as defined by the OECD and UN Globally Harmonized System (UN GHS) for classification. The primary focus of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Ocular Irritection assay to reliably discriminate chemicals not requiring classification (UN GHS non-classified), from classified chemicals (UN GHS Categories 1 and 2). Furthermore a post-hoc evaluation was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of the assay to discriminate chemicals inducing serious eye damage (UN GHS Category 1) from other classes. The prospective validation study was conducted between 2009 and 2012 following internationally agreed principles. A set of 56 coded test chemicals for which quality and/or peer-reviewed in vivo data were available were used to obtain prospective data on the assay's reliability (reproducibility within and between laboratories) and relevance (predictive capacity). The assay showed good within-laboratory variability, transferability including to a naïve laboratory, and between-laboratory concordance of classifications (82% for the discrimination of non-classified from classified chemicals, and 83% for the discrimination of Category 1 from other classes). The obtained prospective data were then combined with existing data on the Ocular Irritection collected from various sources, totaling 88 chemicals with parallel in vivo and in vitro data to obtain a comprehensive assessment of the test method performances. The enlarged dataset comprised 43 non-classified, 25 Category 2 and 20 Category 1 chemicals according to the UN GHS classification. When used for the identification of UN GHS non-classified versus classified materials (based on the existing cut-off of 12.5) the Ocular Irritection assay showed an overall a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 58%. An evaluation on possible reasons for misclassification

  7. Eye Health

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M. S.

    1988-01-01

    The status of eye care in the Caribbean is discussed. Methods of primary eye care providers at all levels from primary to tertiary in the region are presented against a background of the major causes of blindness, cataract, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Epidemiological surveys examining prevalence, risk factors, and intervention programs are being undertaken. PMID:3404562

  8. Eye Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Eye Infections in Infants & Children Page Content ​​​If the ... must be treated early to prevent serious complications. Eye infections that occur after the newborn period: These ...

  9. Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... sense combinations of light waves that enable our eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones ... the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  10. Eyes - bulging

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  11. Multi-breed genome-wide association study reveals heterogeneous loci associated with loin eye area in pigs.

    PubMed

    He, Yuna; Ma, Junwu; Zhang, Feng; Hou, Lijuan; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuanmei; Zhang, Zhiyan

    2016-11-01

    Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) for loin eye area had been identified by linkage mapping studies, but the lack of their precise position hinders their application in the pig breeding industry. To map QTL for loin eye area to a precise genomic region, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using Illumina 60 K PorcineSNP60 Beadchip in four swine populations: 819 F2 pigs, 273 Laiwu pigs, 434 Sutai pigs, and 326 Erhualian pigs. In total, 26 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) deposited on seven chromosomes associated with loin eye area were identified, 11 of which surpassed the genome-wide significant threshold; of the 11 SNPs, seven located on SSC2 in F2 pigs and four located on SSC12 and SSC18 in Laiwu pigs. Of note, all of the identified QTL were breed specific and no common QTL was identified across the four populations in our study. These findings not only confirmed a previous QTL on SSC2 harboring the candidate gene insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), but also identified some novel candidate genes, far upstream element binding protein 3 (FUBP3), myosin heavy chain (MYH) family, leucine-rich repeats and guanylate kinase domain containing (LRGUK). Our study will contribute to the further identification of the causal mutation underlying these QTL and improve our knowledge of the complex genetic architecture for loin eye area in pigs.

  12. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  13. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  14. Uncovering the Effect of Text Structure in Learning from a Science Text: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariasi, Nicola; Mason, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether reading a refutational or non-refutational text would induce different cognitive processing, as revealed by eye-movement analyses. Unlike a standard expository text, a refutational text acknowledges a reader's alternative conceptions about a topic, refutes them, and then introduces scientific conceptions as viable…

  15. Eye gaze performance for children with severe physical impairments using gaze-based assistive technology—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gaze-based assistive technology (gaze-based AT) has the potential to provide children affected by severe physical impairments with opportunities for communication and activities. This study aimed to examine changes in eye gaze performance over time (time on task and accuracy) in children with severe physical impairments, without speaking ability, using gaze-based AT. A longitudinal study with a before and after design was conducted on 10 children (aged 1–15 years) with severe physical impairments, who were beginners to gaze-based AT at baseline. Thereafter, all children used the gaze-based AT in daily activities over the course of the study. Compass computer software was used to measure time on task and accuracy with eye selection of targets on screen, and tests were performed with the children at baseline, after 5 months, 9–11 months, and after 15–20 months. Findings showed that the children improved in time on task after 5 months and became more accurate in selecting targets after 15–20 months. This study indicates that these children with severe physical impairments, who were unable to speak, could improve in eye gaze performance. However, the children needed time to practice on a long-term basis to acquire skills needed to develop fast and accurate eye gaze performance. PMID:26496529

  16. Orienting and maintenance of attention to threatening facial expressions in anxiety--an eye movement study.

    PubMed

    Holas, Pawel; Krejtz, Izabela; Cypryanska, Marzena; Nezlek, John B

    2014-12-15

    Cognitive models posit that anxiety disorders stem in part from underlying attentional biases to threat. Consistent with this, studies have found that the attentional bias to threat-related stimuli is greater in high vs. low anxious individuals. Nevertheless, it is not clear if similar biases exist for different threatening emotions or for any facial emotional stimulus. In the present study, we used eye-tracking to measure orienting and maintenance of attention to faces displaying anger, fear and disgust as threats, and faces displaying happiness and sadness. Using a free viewing task, we examined differences between low and high trait anxious (HTA) individuals in the attention they paid to each of these emotional faces (paired with a neutral face). We found that initial orienting was faster for angry and happy faces, and high trait anxious participants were more vigilant to fearful and disgust faces. Our results for attentional maintenance were not consistent. The results of the present study suggest that attentional processes may be more emotion-specific than previously believed. Our results suggest that attentional processes for different threatening emotions may not be the same and that attentional processes for some negative and some positive emotions may be similar.

  17. Estimation of Flavonoid Intake in Older Australians: Secondary Data Analysis of the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Mitchell, Paul; Flood, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids, consumed in plant-based foods, have been linked to risk reduction of cancers, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The paucity of information on dietary sources and quantities of flavonoid intake in older adults limits interpretation of epidemiological studies that link flavonoid intake with health outcomes in this population. It was our aim to describe total flavonoid intake, including flavonoid subclasses, in older Australians and to identify rich and commonly consumed sources of flavonoids in this age group. Twelve days of weighed food record dietary data from a subsample of the Blue Mountains Eye Study baseline cohort study of older Australians (n = 79) was analyzed using the US Department of Agriculture flavonoid database. Mean intake of flavonoids was estimated to be 683 mg/day (SD = 507) of which flavan-3-ols contributed 92%, followed by flavonols (4%), flavanones (3%), and flavones (<1%). Black tea was the major flavonoid source, providing 89% of total flavonoid intake. No differences in intake between genders were identified. Dietary intake of flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses in older Australians is similar to the one other estimation of intake in Australian older adults and confirms the types of foods that contribute to flavonoid intake among this sample of older Australians.

  18. Two Eyes, 3D: A New Project to Study Stereoscopy in Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; SubbaRao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2012-01-01

    "Two Eyes, 3D" is a 3-year NSF funded research project to study the educational impacts of using stereoscopic representations in informal settings. The project funds two experimental studies. The first is focused on how children perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects displayed in static 2D and 3D formats. The second is focused on how adults perceive various spatial qualities of scientific objects and processes displayed in 2D and 3D movie formats. As part of the project, two brief high-definition films about variable stars will be developed. Both studies will be mixed-method and look at prior spatial ability and other demographic variables as covariates. The project is run by the American Association of Variable Star Observers, Boston Museum of Science and the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum with consulting from the California Academy of Sciences. Early pilot results will be presented. All films will be released into the public domain, as will the assessment software designed to run on tablet computers (iOS or Android).

  19. Inflammation in dry eye associated with rheumatoid arthritis: cytokine and in vivo confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Villani, Edoardo; Galimberti, Daniela; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Nucci, Paolo; Ratiglia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study ocular surface inflammation in relation to systemic disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with or without secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SSII and non-SSII respectively). The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, 12 patients with active RA SSII and 12 with active RA non-SSII were consecutively enrolled. Each completed an Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and underwent a full eye exam and in vivo confocal microscopy examination of the cornea. Tear fluid samples were collected in sponges and analyzed for IL-1α, -6, and -8, and TNF-α. When RA activity was suppressed by systemic treatment the patients entered phase II of the study in which all of the phase I examinations were repeated. In RA SSII patients, OSDI, fluorescein staining dendritic cell density, and concentrations of IL-1α and IL-6 decreased significantly (P < 0.01) between phases I and II. Tear breakup time scores increased significantly. For RA non-SSII patients, there were no significant differences between phases I and II. Differences in the clinical, cellular and cytokine responsiveness to systemic RA treatments show that the ocular surface pathology is dissimilar for RA SSII and RA non-SSII patients.

  20. Our experience with Solcoseryl Eye-Gel in the treatment of corneal lesions. A randomised double-blind study (with 1 color plate).

    PubMed

    Erbe, W; Herrmann, R; Körner, W F; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel versus a 2.4% cysteine eye-gel was carried out under controlled conditions (randomised and double-blind) on a total of 61 patients with corneal lesions (52 foreign body injuries, 9 corneal erosions). The results showed a marked superiority of Solcoseryl Eye-Gel with respect to more rapid healing and also with respect to the possible subsequent development of a corneal macula.

  1. Eye-tracking computer systems for inpatients with tetraplegia: findings from a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, J J; Watkins, F; Park, C; Landymore, H

    2014-12-02

    Study design:A longitudinal, prospective, self-controlled cohort study.Objectives:To determine (1) the preliminary benefits of using eye-tracking computer systems (ETCSs) among inpatients with tetraplegia and (2) the feasibility of carrying out a well-powered randomized controlled trial.Setting:Specialist Spinal Cord Injuries Centre, United Kingdom; 6 months during 2013-2014.Methods:Individuals with tetraplegia who were admitted to the center and enrolled in this study were trained and allowed to use the ETCS (Tobii Eyegaze C15 System) twice a week for a duration of 10 weeks. Standardized training modules were developed and offered to all study participants. Study feasibility indicators as well as the Appraisals of Disability: Primary and Secondary Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment questionnaire scores were taken before and after study enrollment.Results:A total of 31 inpatients with tetraplegia were screened. Although 14 patients (45%) met the study eligibility criteria, 6 patients (19%) consented to be enrolled in the study. Three participants did not complete the planned training schedule because of medical, technical and logistic reasons. Although half of the participants agreed that the ETCS under study was easy to use, no substantial improvements were seen in terms of psychological outcomes, appraisals of disability or independence.Conclusions:The conduct of a controlled trial evaluating the benefits of using ETCSs among newly injured patients with tetraplegia comes with considerable feasibility challenges. Until substantial technical improvements of ETCSs have been implemented, future research should initially focus on those individuals with tetraplegia who are living in the community and who have expressed a need to enhance their computer access and communication skills.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 2 December 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.219.

  2. Rapid eye movement-sleep is reduced in patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis-an observational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sleep disturbances are commonly found in patients in the postoperative period. Sleep disturbances may give rise to several complications including cardiopulmonary instability, transient cognitive dysfunction and prolonged convalescence. Many factors including host inflammatory responses are believed to cause postoperative sleep disturbances, as inflammatory responses can alter sleep architecture through cytokine-brain interactions. Our aim was to investigate alteration of sleep architecture during acute infection and its relationships to inflammation and clinical symptoms. Materials & Methods. In this observational study, we included patients with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis as a model to investigate the isolated effects of inflammatory responses on sleep. Eleven patients completed the study. Patients were admitted and treated with antibiotics for two nights, during which study endpoints were measured by polysomnography recordings, self-reported discomfort scores and blood samples of cytokines. One month later, the patients, who now were in complete remission, were readmitted and the endpoints were re-measured (the baseline values). Results. Total sleep time was reduced 4% and 7% the first (p = 0.006) and second (p = 0.014) nights of diverticulitis, compared to baseline, respectively. The rapid eye movement sleep was reduced 33% the first night (p = 0.016), compared to baseline. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were correlated to non-rapid eye movement sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and fatigue. Conclusion. Total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep were reduced during nights with active diverticulitis and correlated with markers of inflammation.

  3. A Monte Carlo study on the effect of the orbital bone to the radiation dose delivered to the eye lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratis, Andreas; Zhang, Guozhi; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Bogaerts, Ria; Bosmans, Hilde

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of backscatter radiation from the orbital bone and the intraorbital fat on the eye lens dose in the dental CBCT energy range. To this end we conducted three different yet interrelated studies; A preliminary simulation study was conducted to examine the impact of a bony layer situated underneath a soft tissue layer on the amount of backscatter radiation. We compared the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curves in soft tissue with and without the bone layer and we estimated the depth in tissue where the decrease in backscatter caused by the presence of the bone is noticeable. In a supplementary study, an eye voxel phantom was designed with the DOSxyznrc code. Simulations were performed exposing the phantom at different x-ray energies sequentially in air, in fat tissue and in realistic anatomy with the incident beam perpendicular to the phantom. Finally, a virtual head phantom was implemented into a validated hybrid Monte Carlo (MC) framework to simulate a large Field of View protocol of a real CBCT scanner and examine the influence of scattered dose to the eye lens during the whole rotation of the paired tube-detector system. The results indicated an increase in the dose to the lens due to the fatty tissue in the surrounding anatomy. There is a noticeable dose reduction close to the bone-tissue interface which weakens with increasing distance from the interface, such that the impact of the orbital bone in the eye lens dose becomes small.

  4. Role of muscle pulleys in producing eye position-dependence in the angular vestibuloocular reflex: a model-based study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurtell, M. J.; Kunin, M.; Raphan, T.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    It is well established that the head and eye velocity axes do not always align during compensatory vestibular slow phases. It has been shown that the eye velocity axis systematically tilts away from the head velocity axis in a manner that is dependent on eye-in-head position. The mechanisms responsible for producing these axis tilts are unclear. In this model-based study, we aimed to determine whether muscle pulleys could be involved in bringing about these phenomena. The model presented incorporates semicircular canals, central vestibular pathways, and an ocular motor plant with pulleys. The pulleys were modeled so that they brought about a rotation of the torque axes of the extraocular muscles that was a fraction of the angle of eye deviation from primary position. The degree to which the pulleys rotated the torque axes was altered by means of a pulley coefficient. Model input was head velocity and initial eye position data from passive and active yaw head impulses with fixation at 0 degrees, 20 degrees up and 20 degrees down, obtained from a previous experiment. The optimal pulley coefficient required to fit the data was determined by calculating the mean square error between data and model predictions of torsional eye velocity. For active head impulses, the optimal pulley coefficient varied considerably between subjects. The median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.5, the pulley coefficient required for producing saccades that perfectly obey Listing's law when using a two-dimensional saccadic pulse signal. The model predicted the direction of the axis tilts observed in response to passive head impulses from 50 ms after onset. During passive head impulses, the median optimal pulley coefficient was found to be 0.21, when roll gain was fixed at 0.7. The model did not accurately predict the alignment of the eye and head velocity axes that was observed early in the response to passive head impulses. We found that this alignment could be well predicted if

  5. Polarimetric Studies of Solar Light Scattered by Interplanetary Dust Particles and the Eye-Sat Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Lasue, J.

    2014-12-01

    Studying intensity and linear polarization of the solar light scattered by interplanetary dust is of interest for various reasons. This so-called zodiacal light constitutes a faint polarized glow that constitutes a changing foreground for observations of faint extended astronomical sources. Besides, analysis of its polarization provides information on properties of the dust particles, such as spatial density, morphology and complex refractive index. Previous observations, mostly from the Earth and with a resolution in the 10° range, have been used to infer that the local polarization at 90° phase angle increases with increasing solar distance. Numerical simulations suggest that, in the inner solar system, interplanetary dust particles consist of a mixture of absorbing and less absorbing materials, and that radial changes originate in a decrease of organic materials with decreasing solar distance under alteration or evaporation processes. To improve the quality of data on zodiacal light polarimetry, Eye-Sat nanosat is being developed in the context of the JANUS CNES cubesats program for students. The project is now in phase C-D, for a piggy-back launch in 2016. Eye-Sat triple cubesat is anticipated to demonstrate the feasibility of a series of new on-board technologies. Moreover, during its one-year mission, zodiacal light intensity and polarization are to be measured, for the first time with a spatial resolution of about 1° over a wide portion of the sky and in four different wavelengths (visible to near-IR), leading to a better assessment of interplanetary dust properties. Finally, a significant fraction of the interplanetary dust is estimated to come from comets, the most pristine objects to be found in the inner solar system. While similarities have indeed been noticed between polarimetric properties of interplanetary and cometary dust particles, the latter being currently extensively documented by the Rosetta mission to comet 67P

  6. A study of the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in Qatar and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Andrew D; Farrant, Alexander J; Rollinson, Gavyn; Barss, Peter; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2008-01-01

    This study looks at the chemical composition of traditional eye cosmetics ("kohls") used in Qatar and Yemen. Of especial interest was how many samples in each country contain the toxic element lead. In Qatar 19 observably different kohl samples were obtained, and in Yemen ten such samples obtained. The analytical techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) were used to study the samples. For the samples from Qatar, six of the 19 (32%) contained galena (lead sulfide, PbS)--all as the main component. However, for the samples from Yemen, five of the ten (50%) samples contained galena as the main component, with another three having it present as a minor component. Overall, the other main components were found to be: amorphous carbon (3), iron oxides (hematite, Fe2O3; and goethite, FeO(OH)) (1), quartz (SiO2) (1), sassolite (H3BO3) (5), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2) (1), and zincite (ZnO) (7).

  7. Using Eye Movement Analysis to Study Auditory Effects on Visual Memory Recall

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Ramtin Zargari; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojjat

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in affective computing are focused on sensing human cognitive context using biosignals. In this study, electrooculography (EOG) was utilized to investigate memory recall accessibility via eye movement patterns. 12 subjects were participated in our experiment wherein pictures from four categories were presented. Each category contained nine pictures of which three were presented twice and the rest were presented once only. Each picture presentation took five seconds with an adjoining three seconds interval. Similarly, this task was performed with new pictures together with related sounds. The task was free viewing and participants were not informed about the task's purpose. Using pattern recognition techniques, participants’ EOG signals in response to repeated and non-repeated pictures were classified for with and without sound stages. The method was validated with eight different participants. Recognition rate in “with sound” stage was significantly reduced as compared with “without sound” stage. The result demonstrated that the familiarity of visual-auditory stimuli can be detected from EOG signals and the auditory input potentially improves the visual recall process. PMID:25436085

  8. A pilot study on using eye tracking to understand assessment of surgical outcomes from clinical photography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soon; Burgess, Angela; Waters, Andrew J; Reece, Gregory P; Beahm, Elisabeth K; Crosby, Melissa A; Basen-Engquist, Karen M; Markey, Mia K

    2011-10-01

    Appearance changes resulting from breast cancer treatment impact the quality of life of breast cancer survivors, but current approaches to evaluating breast characteristics are very limited. It is challenging, even for experienced plastic surgeons, to describe how different aspects of breast morphology impact overall assessment of esthetics. Moreover, it is difficult to describe what they are looking for in a manner that facilitates quantification. The goal of this study is to assess the potential of using eye-tracking technology to understand how plastic surgeons assess breast morphology by recording their gaze path while they rate physical characteristics of the breasts, e.g., symmetry, based on clinical photographs. In this study, dwell time, transition frequency, dwell sequence conditional probabilities, and dwell sequence joint probabilities were analyzed across photographic poses and three observers. Dwell-time analysis showed that all three surgeons spent the majority of their time on the anterior-posterior (AP) views. Similarly, transition frequency analysis between regions showed that there were substantially more transitions between the breast regions in the AP view, relative to the number of transitions between other views. The results of both the conditional and joint probability analyses between the breast regions showed that the highest probabilities of transitions were observed between the breast regions in the AP view (APRB, APLB) followed by the oblique views and the lateral views to complete evaluation of breast surgical outcomes.

  9. Face in profile view reduces perceived facial expression intensity: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kun; Shaw, Heather

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies measuring the facial expressions of emotion have focused primarily on the perception of frontal face images. As we frequently encounter expressive faces from different viewing angles, having a mechanism which allows invariant expression perception would be advantageous to our social interactions. Although a couple of studies have indicated comparable expression categorization accuracy across viewpoints, it is unknown how perceived expression intensity and associated gaze behaviour change across viewing angles. Differences could arise because diagnostic cues from local facial features for decoding expressions could vary with viewpoints. Here we manipulated orientation of faces (frontal, mid-profile, and profile view) displaying six common facial expressions of emotion, and measured participants' expression categorization accuracy, perceived expression intensity and associated gaze patterns. In comparison with frontal faces, profile faces slightly reduced identification rates for disgust and sad expressions, but significantly decreased perceived intensity for all tested expressions. Although quantitatively viewpoint had expression-specific influence on the proportion of fixations directed at local facial features, the qualitative gaze distribution within facial features (e.g., the eyes tended to attract the highest proportion of fixations, followed by the nose and then the mouth region) was independent of viewpoint and expression type. Our results suggest that the viewpoint-invariant facial expression processing is categorical perception, which could be linked to a viewpoint-invariant holistic gaze strategy for extracting expressive facial cues.

  10. New insights into autoantibody profiles from immune privileged sites in the eye: a glaucoma study.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Nils; Wolters, Dominik; Thiel, Uta; Lossbrand, Ulrike; Wiegel, Nelli; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Grus, Franz H

    2012-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and one of the leading causes of blindness. Autoantibody based immune processes are assumed to be involved in its pathogenesis. However, it is still unclear to what extent autoantibody patterns found in the eye (aqueous humor) are congruent to systemic autoantibodies (blood). Consistency would underline the specificity of known serum antibody markers for glaucoma. In this study we used antigen microarrays to analyze autoantibody reactivities in sera and corresponding aqueous humor samples of primary open-angle glaucoma patients (N=37) and non-glaucomatous controls (N=31). Compared to control subjects several divergent immunoreactivities were identified for the glaucoma group in both body fluids. Interestingly, 20% of the tested antigens revealed increased immunoreactivities (e.g., against HSP27, MBP, and α-1-antitrypsin) and 7.5% decreased immunoreactivities (e.g., against GFAP and β-L-crystallin), thus demonstrating a significant alteration of the autoantibody profiles in glaucoma patients. Using an artificial neural network in combination with a unique serum autoantibody pattern on prospective sera we were able to detect glaucoma with a specificity and sensitivity of approximately 93%. The intraindividual comparison revealed a strong correlation of detected immunoreactivities in sera and comparative aqueous humor samples in both study groups. These results emphasize the specificity of immunoreactions found in blood samples of glaucoma patients. Furthermore they indicate the necessity of analyzing not only up-regulated but also down-regulated antibody reactivities, which might be likewise relevant for the understanding of other diseases.

  11. Posterior segment eye disease in sub-Saharan Africa: review of recent population-based studies

    PubMed Central

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Burgess, Philip I; Mahdi, Abdull M; Kyari, Fatima; Burton, Matthew J; Kuper, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the burden of posterior segment eye diseases (PSEDs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods We reviewed published population-based data from SSA and other relevant populations on the leading PSED, specifically glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, as causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults. Data were extracted from population-based studies conducted in SSA and elsewhere where relevant. Results PSEDs, when grouped or as individual diseases, are a major contributor to blindness and visual impairment in SSA. PSED, grouped together, was usually the second leading cause of blindness after cataract, ranging as a proportion of blindness from 13 to 37%. Conclusions PSEDs are likely to grow in importance as causes of visual impairment and blindness in SSA in the coming years as populations grow, age and become more urban in lifestyle. African-based cohort studies are required to help estimate present and future needs and plan services to prevent avoidable blindness. PMID:24479434

  12. The lens of the eye: exposures in the UK medical sector and mechanistic studies of radiation effects.

    PubMed

    Bouffler, S D; Peters, S; Gilvin, P; Slack, K; Markiewicz, E; Quinlan, R A; Gillan, J; Coster, M; Barnard, S; Rothkamm, K; Ainsbury, E

    2015-06-01

    The recommendation from the International Commission on Radiological Protection that the occupational equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over 5 years with no year exceeding 50 mSv, has stimulated a discussion on the practicalities of implementation of this revised dose limit, and the most appropriate risk and protection framework to adopt. This brief paper provides an overview of some of the drivers behind the move to a lower recommended dose limit. The issue of implementation in the medical sector in the UK has been addressed through a small-scale survey of doses to the lens of the eye amongst interventional cardiologists and radiologists. In addition, a mechanistic study of early and late post-irradiation changes in the lens of the eye in in-vivo-exposed mice is outlined. Surveys and studies such as those described can contribute to a deeper understanding of fundamental and practical issues, and therefore contribute to a robust evidence base for ensuring adequate protection of the eye while avoiding undesirable restrictions to working practices.

  13. Does it make a difference if I have an eye contact with you or with your picture? An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Pönkänen, Laura M; Alhoniemi, Annemari; Leppänen, Jukka M; Hietanen, Jari K

    2011-09-01

    Several recent studies have begun to examine the neurocognitive mechanisms involved in perceiving and responding to eye contact, a salient social signal of interest and readiness for interaction. Laboratory experiments measuring observers' responses to pictorial instead of live eye gaze cues may, however, only vaguely approximate the real-life affective significance of gaze direction cues. To take this into account, we measured event-related brain potentials and subjective affective responses in healthy adults while viewing live faces with a neutral expression through an electronic shutter and faces as pictures on a computer screen. Direct gaze elicited greater face-sensitive N170 amplitudes and early posterior negativity potentials than averted gaze or closed eyes, but only in the live condition. The results show that early-stage processing of facial information is enhanced by another person's direct gaze when the person is faced live. We propose that seeing a live face with a direct gaze is processed more intensely than a face with averted gaze or closed eyes, as the direct gaze is capable of intensifying the feeling of being the target of the other's interest and intentions. These results may have implications for the use of pictorial stimuli in the social cognition studies.

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous

  15. The Impact of Language Opacity and Proficiency on Reading Strategies in Bilinguals: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    de León Rodríguez, Diego; Buetler, Karin A.; Eggenberger, Noëmi; Laganaro, Marina; Nyffeler, Thomas; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Reading strategies vary across languages according to orthographic depth – the complexity of the grapheme in relation to phoneme conversion rules – notably at the level of eye movement patterns. We recently demonstrated that a group of early bilinguals, who learned both languages equally under the age of seven, presented a first fixation location (FFL) closer to the beginning of words when reading in German as compared with French. Since German is known to be orthographically more transparent than French, this suggested that different strategies were being engaged depending on the orthographic depth of the used language. Opaque languages induce a global reading strategy, and transparent languages force a local/serial strategy. Thus, pseudo-words were processed using a local strategy in both languages, suggesting that the link between word forms and their lexical representation may also play a role in selecting a specific strategy. In order to test whether corresponding effects appear in late bilinguals with low proficiency in their second language (L2), we present a new study in which we recorded eye movements while two groups of late German–French and French–German bilinguals read aloud isolated French and German words and pseudo-words. Since, a transparent reading strategy is local and serial, with a high number of fixations per stimuli, and the level of the bilingual participants’ L2 is low, the impact of language opacity should be observed in L1. We therefore predicted a global reading strategy if the bilinguals’ L1 was French (FFL close to the middle of the stimuli with fewer fixations per stimuli) and a local and serial reading strategy if it was German. Thus, the L2 of each group, as well as pseudo-words, should also require a local and serial reading strategy. Our results confirmed these hypotheses, suggesting that global word processing is only achieved by bilinguals with an opaque L1 when reading in an opaque language; the low level in the L2

  16. Eye care infrastructure and human resources for managing diabetic retinopathy in India: The India 11-city 9-state study

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Clare E.; Babu, R. Giridhara; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sai Venkat; Anchala, Raghupathy; Shukla, Rajan; Ballabh, Pant Hira; Vashist, Praveen; Ramachandra, Srikrishna S.; Allagh, Komal; Sagar, Jayanti; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Murthy, G. V. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information on the availability of services for diagnosis and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in India. Objectives: The study was undertaken to document existing healthcare infrastructure and practice patterns for managing DR. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 cities and included public and private eye care providers. Both multispecialty and stand-alone eye care facilities were included. Information was collected on the processes used in all steps of the program, from how diabetics were identified for screening through to policies about follow-up after treatment by administering a semistructured questionnaire and by using observational checklists. Results: A total of 86 eye units were included (31.4% multispecialty hospitals; 68.6% stand-alone clinics). The availability of a dedicated retina unit was reported by 68.6% (59) facilities. The mean number of outpatient consultations per year was 45,909 per responding facility, with nearly half being new registrations. A mean of 631 persons with sight-threatening-DR (ST-DR) were registered per year per facility. The commonest treatment for ST-DR was laser photocoagulation. Only 58% of the facilities reported having a full-time retina specialist on their rolls. More than half the eye care facilities (47; 54.6%) reported that their ophthalmologists would like further training in retina. Half (51.6%) of the facilities stated that they needed laser or surgical equipment. About 46.5% of the hospitals had a system to track patients needing treatment or for follow-up. Conclusions: The study highlighted existing gaps in service provision at eye care facilities in India. PMID:27144134

  17. Neural systems underlying lexical competition: an eye tracking and fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Righi, Giulia; Blumstein, Sheila E; Mertus, John; Worden, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated the neural bases of phonological onset competition using an eye tracking paradigm coupled with fMRI. Eighteen subjects were presented with an auditory target (e.g., beaker) and a visual display containing a pictorial representation of the target (e.g., beaker), an onset competitor (e.g., beetle), and two phonologically and semantically unrelated objects (e.g., shoe, hammer). Behavioral results replicated earlier research showing increased looks to the onset competitor compared to the unrelated items. fMRI results showed that lexical competition induced by shared phonological onsets recruits both frontal structures and posterior structures. Specifically, comparison between competitor and no-competitor trials elicited activation in two nonoverlapping clusters in the left IFG, one located primarily within BA 44 and the other primarily located within BA 45, and one cluster in the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG) extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. These results indicate that the left IFG is sensitive to competition driven by phonological similarity and not only to competition among semantic/conceptual factors. Moreover, they indicate that the SMG is not only recruited in tasks requiring access to lexical form but is also recruited in tasks that require access to the conceptual representation of a word.

  18. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Jaakko O; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-08-05

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive-negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection-a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies-was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits.

  19. Light scattering study of the normal human eye lens: Elastic properties and age dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Sheldon T.; Twa, Michael D.; Gump, Jared C.; Venkiteshwar, Manoj; Bullimore, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    The human ocular lens is a tissue capable of changing its shape to dynamically adjust the optical power of the eye, a function known as accommodation, which gradually declines with age. This capability is the response of the lens tissue to external forces which, in turn, is modulated by the biomechanical characteristics of lens tissues. In order to investigate the contributions of lens sclerosis to loss of accommodation, we report on in vitro confocal Brillouin light scattering studies of human ocular lenses spanning over a 30-70 year age range. Using this non-destructive measurement method, we determined that the longitudinal bulk modulus (average ± SD) of the lens nucleus (2.79±0.14 GPa) was consistently greater than the bulk modulus of the lens cortex (2.36±0.09 GPa). Moreover, our results showed that these differences were not age dependent over the 40 year age range that we evaluated using healthy lens tissues. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that an age-dependent change in the bulk modulus of lens tissues does not fully account for the natural decline of accommodation. PMID:20529725

  20. Structure Modulates Similarity-Based Interference in Sluicing: An Eye Tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jesse A.

    2015-01-01

    In cue-based content-addressable approaches to memory, a target and its competitors are retrieved in parallel from memory via a fast, associative cue-matching procedure under a severely limited focus of attention. Such a parallel matching procedure could in principle ignore the serial order or hierarchical structure characteristic of linguistic relations. I present an eye tracking while reading experiment that investigates whether the sentential position of a potential antecedent modulates the strength of similarity-based interference, a well-studied effect in which increased similarity in features between a target and its competitors results in slower and less accurate retrieval overall. The manipulation trades on an independently established Locality bias in sluiced structures to associate a wh-remnant (which ones) in clausal ellipsis with the most local correlate (some wines), as in The tourists enjoyed some wines, but I don't know which ones. The findings generally support cue-based parsing models of sentence processing that are subject to similarity-based interference in retrieval, and provide additional support to the growing body of evidence that retrieval is sensitive to both the structural position of a target antecedent and its competitors, and the specificity or diagnosticity of retrieval cues. PMID:26733893

  1. Background Speech Effects on Sentence Processing during Reading: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Hyönä, Jukka; Ekholm, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Effects of background speech on reading were examined by playing aloud different types of background speech, while participants read long, syntactically complex and less complex sentences embedded in text. Readers’ eye movement patterns were used to study online sentence comprehension. Effects of background speech were primarily seen in rereading time. In Experiment 1, foreign-language background speech did not disrupt sentence processing. Experiment 2 demonstrated robust disruption in reading as a result of semantically and syntactically anomalous scrambled background speech preserving normal sentence-like intonation. Scrambled speech that was constructed from the text to-be read did not disrupt reading more than scrambled speech constructed from a different, semantically unrelated text. Experiment 3 showed that scrambled speech exacerbated the syntactic complexity effect more than coherent background speech, which also interfered with reading. Experiment 4 demonstrated that both semantically and syntactically anomalous speech produced no more disruption in reading than semantically anomalous but syntactically correct background speech. The pattern of results is best explained by a semantic account that stresses the importance of similarity in semantic processing, but not similarity in semantic content, between the reading task and background speech. PMID:27003410

  2. Comprehension of Co-Speech Gestures in Aphasic Patients: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Noëmi; Preisig, Basil C.; Schumacher, Rahel; Hopfner, Simone; Vanbellingen, Tim; Nyffeler, Thomas; Gutbrod, Klemens; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Cazzoli, Dario; Müri, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Co-speech gestures are omnipresent and a crucial element of human interaction by facilitating language comprehension. However, it is unclear whether gestures also support language comprehension in aphasic patients. Using visual exploration behavior analysis, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of congruence between speech and co-speech gestures on comprehension in terms of accuracy in a decision task. Method Twenty aphasic patients and 30 healthy controls watched videos in which speech was either combined with meaningless (baseline condition), congruent, or incongruent gestures. Comprehension was assessed with a decision task, while remote eye-tracking allowed analysis of visual exploration. Results In aphasic patients, the incongruent condition resulted in a significant decrease of accuracy, while the congruent condition led to a significant increase in accuracy compared to baseline accuracy. In the control group, the incongruent condition resulted in a decrease in accuracy, while the congruent condition did not significantly increase the accuracy. Visual exploration analysis showed that patients fixated significantly less on the face and tended to fixate more on the gesturing hands compared to controls. Conclusion Co-speech gestures play an important role for aphasic patients as they modulate comprehension. Incongruent gestures evoke significant interference and deteriorate patients’ comprehension. In contrast, congruent gestures enhance comprehension in aphasic patients, which might be valuable for clinical and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26735917

  3. Infant and adult perceptions of possible and impossible body movements: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Slaughter, Virginia; Katayama, Nobuko; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Itakura, Shoji

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated how infants perceive and interpret human body movement. We recorded the eye movements and pupil sizes of 9- and 12-month-old infants and of adults (N=14 per group) as they observed animation clips of biomechanically possible and impossible arm movements performed by a human and by a humanoid robot. Both 12-month-old infants and adults spent more time looking at the elbows during impossible compared with possible arm movements, irrespective of the appearance of the actor. These results suggest that by 12 months of age, infants recognize biomechanical constraints on how arms move, and they extend this knowledge to humanoid robots. Adults exhibited more pupil dilation in response to the human's impossible arm movements compared with the possible ones, but 9- and 12-month-old infants showed no differential pupil dilation to the same actions. This finding suggests that the processing of human body movements might still be immature in 12-month-olds, as they did not show an emotional response to biomechanically impossible body movements. We discuss these findings in relation to the hypothesis that perception of others' body movements relies upon the infant's own sensorimotor experience.

  4. Gonioscopy findings and prevalence of occludable angles in a Burmese population: the Meiktila Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Casson, R J; Newland, H S; Muecke, J; McGovern, S; Abraham, L M; Shein, W K; Selva, D; Aung, T

    2007-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of preglaucomatous angle‐closure disease in central Myanmar. Methods A population‐based survey of inhabitants ⩾40 years in the Meiktila District was carried out; 2481 subjects were identified, 2076 participated and 2060 underwent gonioscopy of at least one eye. Eyes with angles traditionally described as “occludable” were recorded as primary angle‐closure suspects (PACS); eyes with PACS and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), or an increased intraocular pressure but without primary angle‐closure glaucoma, were recorded as primary angle closure (PAC). Results The prevalence of PACS in at least one eye was 5.7% (95% CI 4.72 to 6.62); prevalence increased with age and was more common in women (p<0.001). The prevalence of PAC in at least one eye was 1.50% (95% CI 1.47 to 1.53). All participants with PAS had at least 90° of closure (range 90–360°). Conclusion The prevalence of preglaucomatous angle‐closure disease (PACS and PAC) in this population was 5.7% and 1.5%, respectively. PACS was more common in women, and its prevalence increased with age. PMID:17576708

  5. The association between socioeconomic status and overweight/obesity in a Malay population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Shankar, Anoop; Saw, Seang Mei; Tai, E Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin

    2009-10-01

    In developed countries in the West, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. The authors examined the association between SES defined by education and income and overweight/obesity in a population-based cohort of 2807 individuals of Malay ethnicity (age 40-80 years, 51% women) in Singapore. The prevalence of overweight/ obesity (body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) in men and women was 50.4% and 65.1%, respectively. In women, the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased with lower levels of education and income. Compared with the higher categories of SES, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of overweight/obesity in women was 1.42 (1.06-1.89) for education and 2.08 (1.33-3.26) for income. In contrast, in men, the prevalence of overweight/obesity decreased with lower levels of education and income (P interaction by gender <.05 for all SES variables). Lower SES was positively associated with overweight/obesity in Malay women, and the association was in the opposite direction in Malay men.

  6. Rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma among Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wong, T. Y.; Foster, P.; Seah, S.; Chew, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To estimate the rates of hospital admissions for primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore
METHODS—A population-wide hospital discharge database in Singapore was used to identify all hospital admissions with a primary discharge diagnosis of PACG (International Classification of Disease—CM code: 365.2). The Singapore census was used for denominator data.
RESULTS—Between 1993 and 1997 there were 894 hospital admissions for PACG. The mean annual rate of PACG admissions was 11.1 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI), 10.4, 11.8) among people aged 30 years and over. The annual rate was highest for Chinese (age and sex adjusted rate: 12.2 per 100 000), which was twice that of Malays (6.0 per 100 000) and Indians (6.3 per 100 000). Females had two times higher rates than males in all three races (age adjusted relative risk: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 2.3).
CONCLUSION—Malay and Indian people had identical rates of hospital admissions for PACG, which were only half the rates compared with Chinese.

 PMID:10966951

  7. Substance P and opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior eye segment of the rat: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Selbach, J Michael; Buschnack, Samia H; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; Kremmer, Stephan; Muth-Selbach, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Recently discovered endogenous opioid peptides such as nociceptin are known to modulate neurotransmitter release of primary afferent neurons (especially substance P, SP) and they have also been demonstrated in peripheral nerve fibres. The aim of this study was to investigate the opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior eye segment and to compare it with the innervation pattern of SP in order to shed light on the functional relationship between these peptides. Anterior eye segments of 20 rat eyes were cut in a tangential plane and the sections stained with antibodies against SP, nociceptin, nocistatin, endomorphin 1 and 2, leu-enkephalin and met-enkephalin. Sections of the spinal cord or brain were used as positive controls. Numerous SP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the conjunctiva, cornea, episclera, trabecular meshwork, iris and ciliary body. A weak staining for met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin could only be found in the iris and anteriormost ciliary body. Nerve fibres immunoreactive for nociceptin, nocistatin, and endomorphin 1 or 2 could not be detected in any part of the anterior eye segment. It is tempting to speculate that the opioid peptidergic innervation of the anterior ciliary body may play a role in the modulation of intraocular inflammation. PMID:15733295

  8. Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential

    PubMed Central

    Greco, G.; Lanero, T. Svaldo; Torrassa, S.; Young, R.; Vassalli, M.; Cavaliere, A.; Rolandi, R.; Pelucchi, E.; Faimali, M.; Davenport, J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biofouling causes problems for technologies based on the sea, including ships, power plants and marine sensors. Several antifouling techniques have been applied to marine sensors, but most of these methodologies are environmentally unfriendly or ineffective. Bioinspiration, seeking guidance from natural solutions, is a promising approach to antifouling. Here, the eye of the green crab Carcinus maenas was regarded as a marine sensor model and its surface characterized by means of atomic force microscopy. Engineered surface micro- and nanotopography is a new mechanism found to limit biofouling, promising an effective solution with much reduced environmental impact. Besides giving a new insight into the morphology of C. maenas eye and its characterization, our study indicates that the eye surface probably has antifouling/fouling-release potential. Furthermore, the topographical features of the surface may influence the wettability properties of the structure and its interaction with organic molecules. Results indicate that the eye surface micro- and nanotopography may lead to bioinspired solutions to antifouling protection. PMID:23635491

  9. Effect of birth parameters on retinal vascular caliber: the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cong; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Wong, Tien Y; Brown, Shayne A; Kearns, Lisa S; Cochrane, Jenny; MacKinnon, Jane R; Ruddle, Jonathan B; Hewitt, Alex W; Liew, Gerald; Dwyer, Terence; Scurrah, Katrina; Mackey, David A

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies reported an association between smaller birth size and narrower retinal vascular caliber, but it remains unclear whether this association is attributed to confounding by shared environment or genetic factors. At a mean age of 9.3 years, 266 twins (49 monozygotic and 84 dizygotic pairs) in the Twins Eye Study in Tasmania underwent an ophthalmic examination including retinal photography. Retinal vascular caliber was measured using a validated protocol. The majority of these twins were also in the Tasmanian Infant Health Study, which prospectively collected data on birth parameters and antenatal maternal factors. We conducted the main analysis using linear mixed models, accounting for birth set clustering. Both the within-pair (-9.73; 95% CI: -14.68 to -4.77 microm per 5-cm decrease in birth length) and between-pair associations (-7.15; 95% CI: -11.54 to -3.01) with retinal arteriolar caliber were significant and of similar magnitude (difference in effect, P=0.61), after adjusting for age, sex, maternal smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, and other confounders. These associations remained within dizygotic and monozygotic pairs. Analyses of head circumference and retinal arteriolar caliber were similar to those of birth length (within-pair regression coefficient: -2.41; 95% CI: -5.09 to 0.28; between-pair regression coefficient: -2.60; 95% CI: -5.00 to -0.19). For birth weight, only a between-pair association was evident (-7.28; 95% CI: -13.07 to -1.48). This study demonstrates a consistent association between smaller birth size and narrower retinal arterioles in twins. The independent effect of shorter birth length on retinal arteriolar caliber supports a role for twin-specific supply line factors affecting fetal growth on vascular structure.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa’ A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

  11. Electron dose distributions caused by the contact-type metallic eye shield: Studies using Monte Carlo and pencil beam algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sei-Kwon; Yoon, Jai-Woong; Hwang, Taejin; Park, Soah; Cheong, Kwang-Ho; Jin Han, Tae; Kim, Haeyoung; Lee, Me-Yeon; Ju Kim, Kyoung Bae, Hoonsik

    2015-10-01

    A metallic contact eye shield has sometimes been used for eyelid treatment, but dose distribution has never been reported for a patient case. This study aimed to show the shield-incorporated CT-based dose distribution using the Pinnacle system and Monte Carlo (MC) calculation for 3 patient cases. For the artifact-free CT scan, an acrylic shield machined as the same size as that of the tungsten shield was used. For the MC calculation, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc were used for the 6-MeV electron beam of the Varian 21EX, in which information for the tungsten, stainless steel, and aluminum material for the eye shield was used. The same plan was generated on the Pinnacle system and both were compared. The use of the acrylic shield produced clear CT images, enabling delineation of the regions of interest, and yielded CT-based dose calculation for the metallic shield. Both the MC and the Pinnacle systems showed a similar dose distribution downstream of the eye shield, reflecting the blocking effect of the metallic eye shield. The major difference between the MC and the Pinnacle results was the target eyelid dose upstream of the shield such that the Pinnacle system underestimated the dose by 19 to 28% and 11 to 18% for the maximum and the mean doses, respectively. The pattern of dose difference between the MC and the Pinnacle systems was similar to that in the previous phantom study. In conclusion, the metallic eye shield was successfully incorporated into the CT-based planning, and the accurate dose calculation requires MC simulation.

  12. Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Visual Impairment in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Chung, Jessica; Foong, Althena W.P.; Torres, Mina; Choudhury, Farzana; Azen, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the 4-year incidence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness and worsening of visual acuity in adult Latinos/Hispanics aged 40 years and older. Design Population-based, longitudinal study. Methods Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination including assessing both presenting binocular (PVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) in both eyes using a standard ETDRS protocol. The main outcome measures are 4-year incidence of visual impairment and blindness based on PVA or BCVA in the better seeing eye and defined as 1) baseline visual acuity (PVA or BCVA)≥20/40 and a follow-up PVA or BCVA<20/40 but better than 20/200, and 2) baseline PVA>20/200 and a follow-up PVA≤20/200 respectively. Monocular worsening was defined as a decrease of ≥5, 10, and 15 letters in either eye. Results Four thousand six hundred and fifty eight participants were examined at baseline and the 4-year follow-up. The 4-year incidence of presenting binocular VI and blindness was 2.9% and 0.3%. The 4-year incidence of best corrected VI and blindness was 1.2% and 0.3%. The 4-year incidence of monocular worsening by ≥5, 10, and 15 letters was 24.8%, 8.5% and 3.1% respectively. The incidence of VI and blindness increased with age at baseline (P<0.01). The incidence of VI in the second eye (12.2%) was significantly higher than incidence of VI in the first eye (2.9%)(P<0.001). Conclusion Overall, the annual incidence of VI in Latinos/Hispanics was higher than that reported in non-Hispanic white persons and the highest reported in a population-based study in the U.S. Screening and intervention programs to reduce visual impairment and blindness should focus on the older Latino population. PMID:20399925

  13. Risk of Flood-Related Diseases of Eyes, Skin and Gastrointestinal Tract in Taiwan: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Ya; Wang, Yu-Chun; Wu, Chin-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Floods are known to cause serious environmental damage and health impacts. Studies on flood-related diseases have been primarily on individual events, and limited evidence could be drawn on potential health impacts from floods using large population data. This study used reimbursement records of one million people of the Taiwan National Health Insurance program to compare incident diseases of the eyes, skin and gastrointestinal (GI) tract associated with floods. Incidence rates for the selected diseases were calculated according to outpatient/emergency visit data. The incidence rates were evaluated by flood status: in 10 days before floods, during floods and within 10 days after the floods receded. Outpatient/emergency visit rates for the eye, skin and GI tract diseases were highest after floods and lowest during floods. Results from multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that, when compared with the incidence in 10 days before floods, the incidence rate ratios (IRR) of diseases within 10 days after floods were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10–1.20) for eyes, 1.08 (95% C.I. = 1.05–1.10) for skin, and 1.11 (95% CI = 1.08–1.14) for GI tract, after controlling for covariates. All risks increased with ambient temperature. V-shaped trends were found between age and eye diseases, and between age and GI tract diseases. In contrast, the risk of skin diseases increased with age. In conclusion, more diseases of eyes, skin and GI tract could be diagnosed after the flood. PMID:27171415

  14. Genome-wide association studies of quantitatively measured skin, hair, and eye pigmentation in four European populations.

    PubMed

    Candille, Sophie I; Absher, Devin M; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Li, Jun Z; Myers, Richard M; Barsh, Gregory S; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world.

  15. Influence of eye gaze on spoken word processing: an ERP study with infants.

    PubMed

    Parise, Eugenio; Handl, Andrea; Palumbo, Letizia; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-01-01

    Eye gaze is an important communicative signal, both as mutual eye contact and as referential gaze to objects. To examine whether attention to speech versus nonspeech stimuli in 4- to 5-month-olds (n=15) varies as a function of eye gaze, event-related brain potentials were used. Faces with mutual or averted gaze were presented in combination with forward- or backward-spoken words. Infants rapidly processed gaze and spoken words in combination. A late Slow Wave suggests an interaction of the 2 factors, separating backward-spoken word+direct gaze from all other conditions. An additional experiment (n=15) extended the results to referential gaze. The current findings suggest that interactions between visual and auditory cues are present early in infancy.

  16. Black Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  17. Eye Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  18. Dry Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... Courier services use: Rockville, MD 20852) 301-451-2020 Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director ... Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging ...

  19. Healthy Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > Healthy Eyes Healthy Vision Diabetes Diabetes Home How Much Do You Know? ... seeing your best. Read more. What are common vision problems? Some of the most common vision problems ...

  20. Histoanatomical study of the lens and ciliary body in ostrich eye

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Saadatlou, Mohammad Ali; Shahrouz, Rasoul

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the lenses and ciliary bodies of 20 ostrich eyes were studied macroscopically and microscopically. The histological slides were studied after staining by hematoxylin and eosin, Verhoeff, Van Gieson, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). Posterior surface of lens was more convex than its anterior surface. The average lens diameter and thickness were respectively measured as 1.43 ± 0.00 and 0.85 ± 0.00 cm. The average ciliary body thickness was measured as 1.48 ± 0.01 cm. In addition, the ciliary body was seen annular with mean horizontal and vertical external diameters as 4.80 ± 0.07 and 4.36 ± 0.06 cm, respectively. The retina is extended on ciliary body in this bird. The number of ciliary body processes was about 120. The epithelium of lens was cuboidal and the lens capsule had intense positive PAS reaction. Also, the anterior surface of capsule was thicker than its posterior surface. The lens fibers in the central part were thicker than other parts. Elastic and collagen fibers were not observed in the lens. The epithelium of ciliary processes had two layers; superficial cuboidal non-pigmented layer, and deep heavily pigmented layer. The ciliary body was supported by a hyaline cartilage. In addition to the smooth muscle fibers, many isolated skeletal muscle fibers were also seen in ciliary body. In conclusion, the lens and ciliary body of ostrich were similar to other birds, although there were little differences in anatomical dimensions and histological characteristics. PMID:27872718

  1. The perceptual saliency of fearful eyes and smiles: A signal detection study

    PubMed Central

    Saban, Muhammet Ikbal; Rotshtein, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Facial features differ in the amount of expressive information they convey. Specifically, eyes are argued to be essential for fear recognition, while smiles are crucial for recognising happy expressions. In three experiments, we tested whether expression modulates the perceptual saliency of diagnostic facial features and whether the feature’s saliency depends on the face configuration. Participants were presented with masked facial features or noise at perceptual conscious threshold. The task was to indicate whether eyes (experiments 1-3A) or a mouth (experiment 3B) was present. The expression of the face and its configuration (i.e. spatial arrangement of the features) were manipulated. Experiment 1 compared fearful with neutral expressions, experiments 2 and 3 compared fearful versus happy expressions. The detection accuracy data was analysed using Signal Detection Theory (SDT), to examine the effects of expression and configuration on perceptual precision (d’) and response bias (c), separately. Across all three experiments, fearful eyes were detected better (higher d’) than neutral and happy eyes. Eyes were more precisely detected than mouths, whereas smiles were detected better than fearful mouths. The configuration of the features had no consistent effects across the experiments on the ability to detect expressive features. But facial configuration affected consistently the response bias. Participants used a more liberal criterion for detecting the eyes in canonical configuration and fearful expression. Finally, the power in low spatial frequency of a feature predicted its discriminability index. The results suggest that expressive features are perceptually more salient with a higher d’ due to changes at the low-level visual properties, with emotions and configuration affecting perception through top-down processes, as reflected by the response bias. PMID:28267761

  2. Preformulation Studies of a Liposomal Formulation Containing Sirolimus for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Alba, Mónica Anayántzin; Gómez-Guajardo, Magda Berenice; Fonzar, Joice Furtado; Brooks, Dennis E.; García-Sánchez, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a liposomal product containing sirolimus to be administered subconjunctivally for the treatment of nonresponsive keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) or dry eye. Methods: Formulations were prepared using an ethanol injection method and an adaptation of the heating method in pursuance of the most suitable methodology for future industrial production. Liposomes were loaded with either a high dose of 1 mg/mL of sirolimus or a less toxic dose of 0.4 mg/mL. The effects of critical process and formulation parameters were investigated. Liposomes were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, polydispersity, differential scanning calorimetry, morphology, entrapment efficiency, phospholipid content, thermal stability, and sterility. The formulation was evaluated clinically in dogs with spontaneous KCS. Results: Sterile liposomal dispersions with sizes ranging from 140 to 211 nm, were successfully obtained. High entrapment efficiency of 93%–98% was achieved. The heating method allowed an easier production of liposomes with high entrapment efficiency, to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. The poor stability of the obtained liposomes in aqueous dispersion made the inclusion of a lyophilization step necessary to the manufacturing process. In vivo testing of the liposomal sirolimus formulations in the spontaneous KCS dog model have produced promising results, particularly with a sirolimus dose of 1 mg/mL, indicating the need for further development and study of proposed formulations in the treatment of canine KCS. Clinical improvement in tear production in dogs with spontaneous KCS treated with the 1 mg/mL dose product was observed. Conclusions: The heating method allowed easier production of high entrapment efficiency liposomes to significantly shorten production time and the elimination of the use of alcohol. Tear production was increased in dogs

  3. Desired and Undesired Effects of Energy Labels--An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Waechter, Signe; Sütterlin, Bernadette; Siegrist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Saving energy is an important pillar for the mitigation of climate change. Electric devices (e.g., freezer and television) are an important player in the residential sector in the final demand for energy. Consumers' purchase decisions are therefore crucial to successfully reach the energy-efficiency goals. Putting energy labels on products is often considered an adequate way of empowering consumers to make informed purchase decisions. Consequently, this approach should contribute to reducing overall energy consumption. The effectiveness of its measurement depends on consumers' use and interpretation of the information provided. Despite advances in energy efficiency and a mandatory labeling policy, final energy consumption per capita is in many countries still increasing. This paper provides a systematic analysis of consumers' reactions to one of the most widely used eco-labels, the European Union (EU) energy label, by using eye-tracking methodology as an objective measurement. The study's results partially support the EU's mandatory policy, showing that the energy label triggers attention toward energy information in general. However, the energy label's effect on consumers' actual product choices seems to be rather low. The study's results show that the currently used presentation format on the label is insufficient. The findings suggest that it does not facilitate the integration of energy-related information. Furthermore, the current format can attract consumers to focus more on energy-efficiency information, leading them to disregard information about actual energy consumption. As a result, the final energy consumption may increase because excellent ratings on energy efficiency (e.g., A++) do not automatically imply little consumption. Finally, implications for policymakers and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  4. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Kensaku; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms), and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT) six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036), fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012), but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (P<0.001). The majority of postoperative dry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%). The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7%) compared with before surgery (69.7%). Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015), but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001). Total subjective symptom score was significantly decreased in the AT group (P<0.001), but not in the DQS group. Conclusion Our study suggests that cataract surgery has harmful effects on tear film stability and ocular surface, and DQS has a capability to improve them

  5. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  6. Link between interplanetary & cometary dust: Polarimetric observations and space studies with Rosetta & Eye-Sat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Gaboriaud, Alain; Buil, Christian; Ressouche, Antoine; Lasue, J.; Palun, Adrien; Apper, Fabien; Elmaleh, Marc

    Intensity and linear polarization observations of the solar light scattered by interplanetary dust, the so-called zodiacal light, provide information on properties of the dust particles, such as their spatial density, local changes, morphology and albedo. Earth-based polarimetric observations, with a resolution of 5° or more, have been used to derive the polarization phase curve of interplanetary dust particles and to establish that the polarization at 90° phase angle increases with increasing solar distance, at least up to 1.5 au in the ecliptic, while the albedo decreases [1, 2]. Analysis of such studies will be revisited. Numerical simulations of the polarimetric behavior of interplanetary dust particles strongly suggest that, in the inner solar system, interplanetary dust particles consist of absorbing (e.g., organic compounds) and less absorbing (e.g., silicates) materials, that radial changes originate in a decrease of organics with decreasing solar distance (probably due to alteration processes), and that a significant fraction of the interplanetary dust is of cometary origin, in agreement with dynamical studies [3, 4]. The polarimetric behaviors of interplanetary dust and cometary dust particles seem to present striking similarities. The properties of cometary dust particles, as derived from remote polarimetric observations of comets including 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta rendezvous mission, at various wavelengths, will be summarized [5, 6]. The ground truth expected from Rosetta dust experiments, i.e., MIDAS, COSIMA, GIADA, about dust particles’ morphology, composition, and evolution (with distance to the nucleus before Philae release and with distance to the Sun before and after perihelion passage) over the year and a half of nominal mission, will be discussed. Finally, the Eye-Sat nanosatellite will be presented. This triple cubesat, developed by students from engineering schools working as interns at CNES, is to be launched

  7. A pilot study to evaluate incorporating eye care for children into reproductive and child health services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania: a historical comparison study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many blinding eye conditions of childhood are preventable or treatable, particularly in developing countries. However, primary eye care (PEC) for children is poorly developed, leading to unnecessary visual loss. Activities for control by health workers entail interventions for systemic conditions (measles, vitamin A deficiency), identification and referral of children with sight threatening conditions and health education for caregivers. This pilot study evaluated integrating a package of activities to promote child eye health into Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) services in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Design: historical comparison study. Fifteen Clinical Officers and 15 nurses in 15 randomly selected RCH clinics were trained in PEC for children in July 2010. They were given educational materials (poster and manual) and their supervisors were orientated. Knowledge and practices were assessed before and 3 weeks after training. One year later their knowledge and practices were compared with a different group of 15 Clinical Officers and 15 nurses who had not been trained. Results Before training staff had insufficient knowledge to identify, treat and refer children with eye diseases, even conjunctivitis. Some recommended harmful practices or did not know that cataract requires urgent referral. Eye examination, vitamin A supplementation of mothers after delivery and cleaning the eyes at birth with instillation of antibiotics (Crede’s prophylaxis) were not routine, and there were no eye-specific educational materials. Three weeks after training several clinics delivering babies started Crede’s prophylaxis, vitamin A supplementation of women after delivery increased from 83.7% to 100%, and all staff included eye conditions in health education sessions. At one year, trained staff were more likely to correctly describe, diagnose and treat conjunctivitis (z=2.34, p=0.04)(30%-vs-60.7%). Mystery mothers observed health education sessions in 7/10 RCH

  8. Semantic Preview Benefit in Eye Movements during Reading: A Parafoveal Fast-Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenstein, Sven; Laubrock, Jochen; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements in reading are sensitive to foveal and parafoveal word features. Whereas the influence of orthographic or phonological parafoveal information on gaze control is undisputed, there has been no reliable evidence for early parafoveal extraction of semantic information in alphabetic script. Using a novel combination of the gaze-contingent…

  9. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Fea, Antonio M.; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications. PMID:27200376

  10. How Young Children View Mathematical Representations: A Study Using Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, David; Barmby, Patrick; Raine, Stephanie; Gardner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children's understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children's focus of attention and…

  11. Eye-Movement Patterns of Readers with Down Syndrome during Sentence-Processing: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Zardan, Nathalie; Colas, Annie; Ghio, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Eye movements were examined to determine how readers with Down syndrome process sentences online. Participants were 9 individuals with Down syndrome ranging in reading level from Grades 1 to 3 and a reading-level-matched control group. For syntactically simple sentences, the pattern of reading times was similar for the two groups, with longer…

  12. Effects of Saccadic Bilateral Eye Movements on Memory in Children and Adults: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The effects of saccadic bilateral (horizontal) eye movements on true and false memory in adults and children were investigated. Both adults and children encoded lists of associated words in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm followed by a test of recognition memory. Just prior to retrieval, participants were asked to engage in 30 s of bilateral…

  13. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while sixty-two 1-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with…

  14. The Effect of Autologous Platelet Lysate Eye Drops: An In Vivo Confocal Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Fea, Antonio M; Aragno, Vittoria; Testa, Valeria; Machetta, Federica; Parisi, Simone; D'Antico, Sergio; Spinetta, Roberta; Fusaro, Enrico; Grignolo, Federico M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet lysate (APL) eye drops in patients with primary Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye, refractory to standard therapy, in comparison with patients treated with artificial tears. We focused on the effect of APL on cornea morphology with the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A used autologous platelet lysate QID, and group B used preservative-free artificial tears QID, for 90 days. Ophthalmological assessments included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Schirmer test, fluorescein score, and breakup time (BUT). A subgroup of patients in group A underwent IVCM: corneal basal epithelium, subbasal nerves, Langerhans cells, anterior stroma activated keratocytes, and reflectivity were evaluated. Results. 60 eyes of 30 patients were enrolled; in group A (n = 20 patients) mean OSDI, fluorescein score, and BUT showed significant improvement compared with group B (n = 10 patients). The IVCM showed a significant increase in basal epithelium cells density and subbasal nerve plexus density and number and a decrease in Langerhans cells density (p < 0.05). Conclusion. APL was found effective in the treatment of SS dry eye. IVCM seems to be a useful tool to visualize cornea morphologic modifications.

  15. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  16. Morphosyntactic Development in a Second Language: An Eye-Tracking Study on the Role of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Issa, Bernard Ibrahim, II

    2015-01-01

    One common claim in second language (L2) acquisition research is that attention is crucial for development to occur. Although previous empirical research supports this claim, methodological approaches have not been able to directly measure attention. This thesis utilized eye-tracking to directly measure attention and thus provide converging…

  17. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Malay language version of the TZO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life questionnaire: A health-related quality of life instrument for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Geap; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Low, Wah Yun; Lim, Chin Theam

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the translated Malay language version of TZO-AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life (TAPQOL) questionnaire in preschool children. Preterm children and term children aged between two and five years were enrolled into the study. The Malay language version of TAPQOL and a set of questions regarding the child's health status were answered by the caregivers. The internal consistency, Spearman's correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and Mann-Whitney U test for group comparison were employed to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. A total of 258 children (120 preterm children and 138 term children) were recruited to this study with a response rate of 94%. All (sub)domains except one had Cronbach's α coefficients of more than .7. The Spearman's correlation coefficients between 12 subdomains were generally low. PCA supported the structural unidimensionality of the items in the instrument. Preterm children had lower quality of life scores than that of term children. Malay version of TAPQOL has multidimensional construct. It is a reliable and valid instrument for preschool children, with almost similar psychometric properties to the original version.

  19. Ocular Risk Factors for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Bell, Samantha; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley; Varma, Rohit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess the association of ocular factors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Latinos. Design Population-based, cross-sectional study of 6357 self-identified Latinos aged 40 years and older. Methods Ophthalmic examination included subjective refraction, measurement of axial length, evaluation of iris color, Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II) grading of cataracts, and stereoscopic macular photographs for AMD lesions. Generalized estimating equation analysis incorporated data from both eyes to estimate odds ratios adjusted for covariates. Results After controlling for confounders (age, gender and smoking), prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD (OR: 2.8, 95% CI 1.0, 7.8), increased retinal pigment (OR: 1.6, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (OR: 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.4). The presence of any lens opacity was associated with soft drusen (OR: 1.2; 95% CI 1.0, 1.5). Longer axial length (per mm) was associated with a decreased odds of soft drusen, increased retinal pigment, and geographic atrophy (GA) (ORs: 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.8 [95% CI 0.7, 0.9], 0.7 [95% CI 0.5, 0.9], respectively. Myopia was inversely associated with soft drusen (OR: 0.8; 95% CI 0.7, 1.0). Lighter colored irises were associated with GA (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 1.0, 25.3). Conclusions Cross-sectional associations of ocular factors such as cataract, cataract surgery, and refractive errors with early AMD lesions found in Latinos were consistent with those in whites. Additionally, prior cataract surgery was associated with advanced AMD. PMID:20138605

  20. Color vision deficiency in a middle-aged population: the Shahroud Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Hassan; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of color vision defects in the middle-age population of Shahroud, Iran. We selected 6,311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population through random cluster sampling. Color vision testing was performed with the Farnsworth D-15. Cases with similar and symmetric results in both eyes were classified as hereditary, and those with asymmetric results were considered acquired. Cases that did not conform to standard patterns were classified as unknown category. Of 5,190 respondents (response rate 82.2 %), 5,102 participants underwent the color vision test. Of these, 14.7 % (95 % confidence interval 13.7-15.6) had some type of color vision deficiency. Of the 2,157 male participants, 6.2 % were hereditary and 10.2 % were acquired and of the 2,945 female participants, 3.1 % were hereditary and 10 % were acquired. Hereditary color deficiencies were mostly of the deutan form (63.8 %), and acquired deficiencies were mostly tritan (66.1 %). The prevalence of hereditary and acquired color vision deficiency, as well as different types of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the pattern of color vision defects among the middle-aged population of Shahroud was significantly different from that seen in the younger population. This could be due to changes associated with age, gender, medical and ocular conditions, and differences in race and environment. Thus, results of previous examinations and the overall health status should be considered before making any judgment about the status of color vision in middle-aged people.

  1. Observing Third-Party Attentional Relationships Affects Infants' Gaze Following: An Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xianwei; Uto, Yusuke; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    Not only responding to direct social actions toward themselves, infants also pay attention to relevant information from third-party interactions. However, it is unclear whether and how infants recognize the structure of these interactions. The current study aimed to investigate how infants' observation of third-party attentional relationships influence their subsequent gaze following. Nine-month-old, 1-year-old, and 1.5-year-old infants (N = 72, 37 girls) observed video clips in which a female actor gazed at one of two toys after she and her partner either silently faced each other (face-to-face condition) or looked in opposite directions (back-to-back condition). An eye tracker was used to record the infants' looking behavior (e.g., looking time, looking frequency). The analyses revealed that younger infants followed the actor's gaze toward the target object in both conditions, but this was not the case for the 1.5-year-old infants in the back-to-back condition. Furthermore, we found that infants' gaze following could be negatively predicted by their expectation of the partner's response to the actor's head turn (i.e., they shift their gaze toward the partner immediately after they realize that the actor's head will turn). These findings suggested that the sensitivity to the difference in knowledge and attentional states in the second year of human life could be extended to third-party interactions, even without any direct involvement in the situation. Additionally, a spontaneous concern with the epistemic gap between self and other, as well as between others, develops by this age. These processes might be considered part of the fundamental basis for human communication. PMID:28149284

  2. Does physical education influence eye-hand coordination? The Lifestyles of our Kids intervention study.

    PubMed

    Wicks, L J; Telford, R M; Cunningham, R B; Semple, S J; Telford, R D

    2016-12-28

    In Australian government-funded primary schools, the responsibility for physical education (PE) falls mainly on general classroom teachers, many of whom possess limited PE training. This study sought to examine the impact of specialist-taught PE on eye-hand coordination (EHC) development. In this 4-year cluster-randomized intervention, participants were 187 boys and 172 girls initially in grade 2 in 29 primary schools, where no school employed university-trained specialist PE teachers. In 13 (intervention) schools, specialist PE teachers conducted 268 PE classes (two 45-minute sessions/wk) from grade 2 to grade 6. The intervention was based on traditional PE educational objectives, including fundamental motor skills, but did not specifically focus on EHC. The remaining 16 (control) schools continued with common-practice PE taught by general classroom teachers (30-60 min/wk). EHC was measured by a ball throw and wall-rebound catch test and recorded at ages 8, 10, and 12 (SD 0.3) at ends of grades 2, 4, and 6, respectively. There was steady yearly improvement of EHC in both groups, but no evidence of any intervention effect in boys (P=.88) or girls (P=.20). The introduction of specialist-taught PE during 4 years of primary school did not influence EHC development. Considering evidence that classroom teachers make little contribution to PE in this jurisdiction, together with the steady progression of EHC over the 4 years, other influences such as organized sport, after-school activities, natural development, and parental instruction are conceivably more influential factors in EHC development during primary school years.

  3. Increased Focus on the Mouth among Infants in the First Year of Life: A Longitudinal Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenbaum, Elena J.; Shah, Rajesh J.; Sobel, David M.; Malle, Bertram F.; Morgan, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines face-scanning behaviors of infants at 6, 9, and 12 months as they watched videos of a woman describing an object in front of her. The videos were created to vary information in the mouth (speaking vs. smiling) and the eyes (gazing into the camera vs. cueing the infant with head turn or gaze direction to an object being…

  4. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) System for Classifying Cataracts From Photographs: AREDS Report No. 4

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    • PURPOSE: To describe the system for grading cataracts from photographs in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). • METHODS: The system for grading cataracts in AREDS uses photographs taken in a standardized fashion with specially modified cameras at 11 clinical centers. The photographs are evaluated by graders for quality and cataract severity at a central reading center. The area of lens involvement is used to assess the severity of cortical and posterior subcapsular opacities. Optical density of nuclear opacity is graded against a series of seven standard photographs. Contemporaneous variability in grading is evaluated periodically by having a second examiner regrade a subset of the photographs. Temporal variability is assessed by annually regrading a subset of photographs. • RESULTS: Photographs of 925 eyes, most with no or early lens opacities, were regraded to assess intergrader reliability. For cortical opacities, there was an absolute difference of 10% or greater of area involved in 1.9% of the replicate gradings. For posterior subcapsular opacities an absolute difference of 5% of area involved was noted in 2.8% of the regraded photographs. For nuclear opacities, absolute differences of 1.5 or more steps were observed in 0.6% of eyes. There was little evidence of temporal drift in grading any of the three types of opacity during four annual regrades. • CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated a high degree of reliability in grading the severity of lens opacities in a large study cohort with mostly early lens changes, the type of cohort most likely to be entered in clinical trials involving cataract prevention. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study System for Classifying Cataracts From Photographs could be useful in studies where there is a need to standardize data collection over time and across different data collection sites. Limitations of the system include the cost of implementation and, currently, the limited amount of data on grading

  5. Effect of Various Eye Exercise Techniques along with Pranayama on Visual Reaction Time: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gosewade, Nitin B.; Shende, Vinod S.; Kashalikar, Shriniwas J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We depend on eyesight more than any other of our senses to maneuver through the space around us. In a fraction of a second, our eyes work with our brain to tell us the size, shape, colour, and texture of an object. Our eyes are body’s most highly developed sensory organs. The use of computers and television in the era of information technology has given new heights to the professional success rate and it saves time but on the other hand, it has led to an increase in the number of patients with ocular complaints. Aims: The objective of the study was to study the effect of eye exercise techniques along with kapalbhati pranayama on Visual Reaction Time (VRT). Material & Methods: Total 60 subjects in an age group of 18–30 were recruited in the study. All the subjects were divided into two equal groups (study group and control group) containing 30 subjects (18 male & 12 female) each. Both the male and female subjects were selected on the basis of their voluntary involvement. Visual reaction time for red and green light was recorded from all 60 subjects before the start of the study. Study group subjects were trained to practice various eye exercise techniques and kapalbhati pranayama for 8 weeks regularly whereas control group were busy with their routine activities. After 8 weeks, visual reaction time was measured for red and green light from all 60 subjects. Statistical Analysis: Data expressed as Mean ± S.D, Student t –test was applied for analysis of data, p value <0.05 is taken as statistically significant. Results: Statistical analysis of data shows that there is a significant decrease in the visual reaction time for red and green light after intervention in study group (p value <0.05). Whereas there is no significant decrease in VRT in control group (p value >0.05). Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that simple eye exercises along with pranayama helps in improvement of visual reaction time. PMID:24179885

  6. Preliminary study on differentiation between glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes on stereo fundus images using cup gradient models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Ishida, Kyoko; Sawada, Akira; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness in Japan and the US. One of the indices for diagnosis of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR). We have been developing a computerized method for measuring CDR on stereo fundus photographs. Although our previous study indicated that the method may be useful, cup determination was not always successful, especially for the normal eyes. In this study, we investigated a new method to quantify the likelihood of glaucomatous disc based on the similarity scores to the glaucoma and non-glaucoma models. Eighty-seven images, including 40 glaucomatous eyes, were used in this study. Only one eye from each patient was used. Using a stereo fundus camera, two images were captured from different angles, and the depth image was created by finding the local corresponding points. One of the characteristics of a glaucomatous disc can be not only that the cup is enlarged but it has an acute slope. On the other hand, a non-glaucomatous cup generally has a gentle slope. Therefore, our models were constructed by averaging the depth gradient images. In order to account for disc size, disc outline was automatically detected, and all images were registered by warping the disc outline to a circle with a predetermined diameter using thin plate splines. Similarity scores were determined by multiplying a test case with both models. At the sensitivity of 90.0%, the specificity was improved from 83.0% using the CDR to 97.9% by the model-based method. The proposed method may be useful for differentiation of glaucomatous eyes.

  7. Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye in Korean Adults: A Study Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease. Many patients continue to experience residual symptoms despite optimal treatment. Thus, new treatment options are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dry eye. Methods This study was performed using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is a cross-sectional study of the Korean population that was conducted from 2010 to 2011. We included adults aged >19 years who underwent ophthalmologic interviews and examinations. We excluded subjects who had comorbid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, or depression) that are associated with dry eye. The subjects were divided into normal and dry eye groups. The dry eye group consisted of those who had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and dry eye. Results In the univariate model, the 25(OH)D levels were lower in the dry eye group than in the normal group (P=0.01). A significant association was found between severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) and dry eye (P=0.04). However, after multivariate adjustment, the statistical significance of the association disappeared (P-values= 0.49, vitamin D insufficiency; P=0.33, vitamin D deficiency; P=0.18, severe vitamin D deficiency). Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with dry eye in an unadjusted model, but the association was not statistically significant after adjustment. PMID:28360983

  8. Evaluation of Monocular Treatment for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction with an Automated Thermodynamic System in Elderly Chinese Patients: A Contralateral Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinying; Xie, Jialu; Li, Junhua; Fu, Yana; Lin, Xiaolei; Wang, Shangrong; Ma, Jiling

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the safety and efficacy of monocular treatment for elderly Chinese patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) with an automated thermodynamic system. Methods. This study was a prospective, examiner-masked, contralateral eye clinical trial. The eye perceived by the patient to be worse (test eye) received a 12-minute LipiFlow treatment, while the other eye served as control. All patients were examined before treatment and one week, one month, and three months after treatment. Clinical parameters included dry eye symptoms, lipid layer thickness (LLT), partial blink (PB) ratio, invasive tear breakup time (ITBUT) and cornea staining, Schirmer I test, meibomian glands yielding liquid secretion (MGYLS), and meibomian gland dropout. Results. A total of 29 patients were examined during the three-month follow-up. At each posttreatment visit, they had a significant reduction in dry eye symptoms accompanied by an increase of ITBUT and MGYLS and a reduction in corneal staining compared with the baseline parameters. There was a significant improvement in MGYLS and ITBUT in the test eye compared with the control eye. Other clinical parameters were not statistically significant. Conclusion. LipiFlow is an effective treatment for patients with MGD. Monocular treatment with LipiFlow may be a cost-effective treatment option to those afflicted with MGD in the developing world. PMID:28116143

  9. The influences of working memory representations on long-range regression in text reading: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Teppei; Sugimoto, Masashi; Tanida, Yuki; Saito, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between verbal and visuospatial working memory (WM) capacity and long-range regression (i.e., word relocation) processes in reading. We analyzed eye movements during a “whodunit task”, in which readers were asked to answer a content question while original text was being presented. The eye movements were more efficient in relocating a target word when the target was at recency positions within the text than when it was at primacy positions. Furthermore, both verbal and visuospatial WM capacity partly predicted the efficiency of the initial long-range regression. The results indicate that WM representations have a strong influence at the first stage of long-range regression by driving the first saccade movement toward the correct target position, suggesting that there is a dynamic interaction between internal WM representations and external actions during text reading. PMID:25324760

  10. The effect of constraining eye-contact during dynamic emotional face perception - an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Zurcher, Nicole; Lassalle, Amandine; Hippolyte, Loyse; Ward, Noreen; Åsberg Johnels, Jakob

    2017-04-11

    Eye-contact modifies how we perceive emotions and modulates activity in the social brain network. Here, using fMRI, we demonstrate that adding a fixation cross in the eye region of dynamic facial emotional stimuli significantly increases activation in the social brain of healthy, neurotypical participants when compared with activation for the exact same stimuli observed in a free-viewing mode. In addition, using PPI analysis, we show that the degree of amygdala connectivity with the rest of the brain is enhanced for the constrained view for all emotions tested except for fear, and that anxiety and alexithymia modulate the strength of amygdala connectivity for each emotion differently. Finally, we show that autistic traits have opposite effects on amygdala connectivity for fearful and angry emotional expressions, suggesting that these emotions should be treated separately in studies investigating facial emotion processing.

  11. Individual differences in fifth graders’ reading and language predict their comprehension monitoring development: An eye-movement study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Radach, Ralph; Vorstius, Christian; Day, Stephanie L.; McLean, Leigh; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated fifth-graders’ (n=52) fall literacy, academic language, and motivation, and how these skills predicted fall and spring comprehension monitoring on an eye movement task. Comprehension monitoring was defined as the identification and repair of misunderstandings when reading text. In the eye movement task, children read two sentences; the second included either a plausible or implausible word in the context of the first sentence. Stronger readers had shorter reading times overall suggesting faster processing of text. Generally fifth-graders reacted to the implausible word (i.e., longer gaze duration on the implausible v. the plausible word, which reflects lexical access). Students with stronger academic language, compared to those with weaker academic language, generally spent more time re-reading the implausible target compared to the plausible target. This difference increased from fall to spring. Results support the centrality of academic language for meaning integration, setting standards of coherence, and utilizing comprehension repair strategies. PMID:27065721

  12. Selenium Preferentially Accumulates in the Eye Lens Following Embryonic Exposure: A Confocal X-ray Fluorescence Imaging Study

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sanjukta; Thomas, Jith; Sylvain, Nicole J.; Ponomarenko, Olena; Gordon, Robert A.; Heald, Steve M.; Janz, David M.; Krone, Patrick H.; Coulthard, Ian; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2015-02-17

    Maternal transfer of elevated selenium (Se) to offspring is an important route of Se exposure for fish in the natural environment. However, there is a lack of information on the tissue specific spatial distribution and speciation of Se in the early developmental stages of fish, which provide important information about Se toxicokinetics. The effect of maternal transfer of Se was studied by feeding adult zebrafish a Se-elevated or a control diet followed by collection of larvae from both groups. Novel confocal synchrotron-based techniques were used to investigate Se within intact preserved larvae. Confocal X-ray fluorescence imaging was used to compare Se distributions within specific planes of an intact larva from each of the two groups. The elevated Se treatment showed substantially higher Se levels than the control; Se preferentially accumulated to highest levels in the eye lens, with lower levels in the retina, yolk and other tissues. Confocal X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to determine that the speciation of Se within the eye lens of the intact larva was a selenomethionine-like species. Preferential accumulation of Se in the eye lens may suggest a direct cause-and-effect relationship between exposure to elevated Se and Se-induced ocular impairments reported previously. This study illustrates the effectiveness of confocal X-ray fluorescence methods for investigating trace element distribution and speciation in intact biological specimens

  13. Psychophysiological Responsivity to Script-Driven Imagery: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Eye Movements on Public Speaking Flashforwards

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2015-01-01

    A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such “flashforwards” can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants’ self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties. PMID:26321964

  14. Psychophysiological Responsivity to Script-Driven Imagery: An Exploratory Study of the Effects of Eye Movements on Public Speaking Flashforwards.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Michelle; Engelhard, Iris M

    2015-01-01

    A principle characteristic of public speaking anxiety relates to intrusive mental images of potential future disasters. Previous research has found that the self-reported emotionality of such "flashforwards" can be reduced by a cognitively demanding, dual-task (e.g., making eye movements) performed whilst holding the mental image in-mind. The outcome measure in these earlier studies was participants' self-reported emotional intensity of the mental image. The current study (N = 34) explored whether an objective measure of emotionality would yield similar results in students with public speaking anxiety. A script-driven imagery procedure was used to measure psychophysiological responsivity to an audio script depicting a feared (public speaking) scenario before and after an eye movement intervention. Relative to the control condition (imagery only), those who made eye movements whilst holding a mental image of this scenario in-mind demonstrated a significant decrease in heart rate, which acted as a measure of emotionality. These findings add to a previous body of research demonstrating the beneficial qualities of dual-tasks and their potential for treatment of both past and future-oriented anxieties.

  15. FOUR-YEAR INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: THE LOS ANGELES LATINO EYE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Foong, Athena W.P.; Lai, Mei-Ying; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate 4-year incidence and progression of early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Population-based cohort study. Methods A comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including stereoscopic fundus photography was performed on adult Latinos at baseline and follow-up. Photographs were graded using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. For estimations of incidence and progression of AMD, the Age Related Eye Disease Study Scale was used. Main outcome measures are incidence and progression of early AMD (drusen type, drusen size, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities) and advanced AMD (exudative AMD and geographic atrophy). Results 4,658/6100 (76%) completed the follow-up examination. The 4-year incidence of early AMD was 7.5% (95%CI:6.6,8.4) and advanced AMD was 0.2% (95%CI:0.1,0.4). Progression of any AMD occurred in 9.3% (95%CI:8.4,10.3) of at-risk participants. Incidence and progression increased with age. Incidence of early AMD in the second eye (10.8%) was higher than incidence in the first eye (6.9%). Baseline presence of soft indistinct large drusen≥250μm in diameter was more likely to predict the 4-year incidence of pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy, and exudative AMD than smaller or hard or soft distinct drusen. Conclusions Age-specific incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos are lower than in non-Hispanic whites. While incident early AMD is more often unilateral, the risk of its development in the second is higher than in the first eye. Older persons and those with soft indistinct large drusen had a higher risk of developing advanced AMD compared to those who were younger and did not have soft indistinct large drusen. PMID:20399926

  16. Pioneers of eye movement research

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  17. Hidden communicative competence: case study evidence using eye-tracking and video analysis.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Andrew; Emerson, Anne; Howard-Jones, Patricia; O'Neil, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    A facilitated communication (FC) user with an autism spectrum disorder produced sophisticated texts by pointing, with physical support, to letters on a letterboard while their eyes were tracked and while their pointing movements were video recorded. This FC user has virtually no independent means of expression, and is held to have no literacy skills. The resulting data were subjected to a variety of analyses aimed at describing the relationship between the FC user's looking and pointing behaviours, in order to make inferences about the complex question of 'authorship'. The eye-tracking data present a challenge to traditional 'facilitator influence' accounts of authorship, and are consistent with the proposition that this FC user does indeed author the sophisticated texts that are attributed to him; he looks for longer at to-be-typed letters before typing them, and looks ahead to subsequent letters of words before the next letter of the word is typed.

  18. Macular Bruch´s Membrane Length and Axial Length. The Beijing Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yi; Xu, Liang; Wei, Wen Bin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether macular Bruch´s membrane gets lengthened in axial myopia. Methods Using the enhanced depth imaging mode of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and examining a subgroup of participants of the population-based cross-sectional Beijing Eye Study, we measured the length of Bruch´s membrane (“MacBMLength”) from the fovea to the temporal edge of parapapillary gamma zone, and the distance between the fovea and the temporal optic disc border. Parapapillary gamma zone was defined as the parapapillary region without Bruch´s membrane. We additionally measured ocular biometric parameters and assessed non-ophthalmologic variables. Results Measurements of MacBMLength were performed on 322 individuals. MacBMLength (mean: 3.99±0.33 mm; range: 3.17–4.93 mm) was not significantly associated with any systemic parameter or ocular biometric parameter. Gamma zone width (mean: 0.18±0.30mm; range: 0.00–2.61mm) was associated (multivariate analysis; correlation coefficient r:0.80) with longer axial length (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.60; non-standardized correlation coefficient B:0.11; 95%CI: 0.09,0.14) and with longer fovea-optic disc border distance (P<0.001; beta:0.28; B:0.19; 95%CI:0.14,0.25), but not with MacBMLength (P = 0.42). Fovea-temporal disc border distance (mean: 4.16±0.44mm; range: 3.17–5.86mm) was associated (overall correlation coefficient: 0.68) with longer axial length (P<0.001; beta: 0.36; B: 0.10; 95%CI: 0.06, 0.13), after adjusting for flatter anterior chamber depth (P = 0.003; beta:-0.14; B:-0.14; 95%CI: -0.23,-0.05) and wider parapapillary gamma zone (P<0.001; beta:0.42; B:0.62; 95%CI:0.44,0.81). Conclusions In contrast to parapapillary gamma zone width and fovea-disc border distance, MacBMLength was not significantly associated with axial length. Axial elongation associated increase in fovea-disc distance may predominantly occur through development or elongation of parapapillary gamma zone

  19. A Relationship Between Visual Complexity and Aesthetic Appraisal of Car Front Images: An Eye-Tracker Study.

    PubMed

    Chassy, Philippe; Lindell, Trym A E; Jones, Jessica A; Paramei, Galina V

    2015-01-01

    Image aesthetic pleasure (AP) is conjectured to be related to image visual complexity (VC). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether (a) two image attributes, AP and VC, are reflected in eye-movement parameters; and (b) subjective measures of AP and VC are related. Participants (N=26) explored car front images (M=50) while their eye movements were recorded. Following image exposure (10 seconds), its VC and AP were rated. Fixation count was found to positively correlate with the subjective VC and its objective proxy, JPEG compression size, suggesting that this eye-movement parameter can be considered an objective behavioral measure of VC. AP, in comparison, positively correlated with average dwelling time. Subjective measures of AP and VC were related too, following an inverted U-shape function best-fit by a quadratic equation. In addition, AP was found to be modulated by car prestige. Our findings reveal a close relationship between subjective and objective measures of complexity and aesthetic appraisal, which is interpreted within a prototype-based theory framework.

  20. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  1. Modern sports eye injuries

    PubMed Central

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Methods: Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Results: Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Conclusions: Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory. PMID:14609827

  2. Are higher blood mercury levels associated with dry eye symptoms in adult Koreans? A population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, So-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether blood mercury concentrations associated with the presence of dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. Methods Population-based prospective cross-sectional study using the heavy metal data set of the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 4761 adult Koreans were the eligible population in this study. Of the 7162 survey participants, 2401 were excluded because they were <19 years of age, there were missing data in the heavy metal data set, or they had diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, asthma, depression and/or under-the-eye surgery. Blood mercury levels were measured on the day the participants completed a questionnaire regarding the presence of dry eye symptoms (persistent dryness or eye irritation). The population was divided into low and high groups by median level (4.26 and 2.89 µg/L for males and females, respectively). Results Self-reported dry eye symptoms were present in 13.0% of the cohort. Participants with dry eye symptoms were significantly more likely to have blood mercury levels exceeding the median than those without dry eye symptoms (45.7% vs 51.7%, p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjusting for age, gender, education, total household income, smoking status, heavy alcohol use, sleep time, perceived stress status, total cholesterol levels and atopy history, dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with blood mercury levels that exceeded the median (reference: lower mercury group; OR, 1.324; 95% CI 1.059 to 1.655; p<0.05). Conclusions High blood mercury levels were associated with dry eye symptoms in a nationally representative Korean population. PMID:27121705

  3. The perception of heading during eye movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royden, Constance S.; Banks, Martin S.; Crowell, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Warren and Hannon (1988, 1990), while studying the perception of heading during eye movements, concluded that people do not require extraretinal information to judge heading with eye/head movements present. Here, heading judgments are examined at higher, more typical eye movement velocities than the extremely slow tracking eye movements used by Warren and Hannon. It is found that people require extraretinal information about eye position to perceive heading accurately under many viewing conditions.

  4. The Malay version of the brief questionnaire on smoking urge: translation and psychometric properties of the questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Blebil, Ali Qais; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Dujaili, Juman Abdulelah; Zin, Alfian Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Malay translated version of the brief questionnaire of smoking urges (QSU-Brief). The translation procedure was done following the standard guidelines. The reliability and validity of the Malaysian version scale were evaluated based on the data collected from 133 Malaysian smokers. The internal consistency was calculated to assess the reliability. Factor analysis and construct validity were performed to validate psychometric properties of the scale. Total Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0.806. The exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors that accounted for 66.15% of the explained total variance. The first component consisted of items 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10, while the second component included the rest. The QSU-Brief total score had a significant positive relationship with exhaled CO level (r=0.24; P=0.005), number of cigarettes smoked per day (r=0.30; P<0.001) and other clinical factors. Items 2 and 5 loaded strongly on factor 2, whereas both items loaded ambivalently on two factors in the previous studies. This discrepancy might be clarified by language differences. The Malaysian QSU-Brief is a good candidate for evaluating urge to smoke in both clinical practice and clinical trials.

  5. Multiplex amplification refractory mutation system (MARMS) for the detection of β-globin gene mutations among the transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia Malay patients in Kelantan, Northeast of Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hanafi, Sarifah; Hassan, Rosline; Bahar, Rosnah; Abdullah, Wan Zaidah; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Rashid, Noor Diana; Azman, Nurul Fatihah; Nasir, Ariffin; Hassan, Syahzuwan; Ahmad, Rahimah; Othman, Azizah; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Sukeri, Surianti; Sulong, Sarina; Yusoff, Surini; Mohamad, Nor Sarwany; Hussein, Adil; Hassan, Rozita; Yusoff, Narazah; Yahaya, Badrul Hisyam; Ismail, Endom; Yussof, Nik Khairuddin Nik; Salleh, Sinari; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt MARMS with some modifications to detect beta mutation in our cohort of thalassemia patients. We focused only on transfusion-dependent thalassemia Malay patients, the predominant ethnic group (95%) in the Kelantanese population. Eight mutations were identified in 46 out of 48 (95.83%) beta thalassemia alleles. Most of the patients (54.2%) were compound heterozygous with co-inheritance Cd 26 (G>A). The frequencies of spectrum beta chain mutation among these patients are presented in Table 2. Among the transfusion dependent beta thalassemia Malay patients studied, 26 patients were found to be compound heterozygous and the main alleles were Cd 26 (G>A). Compound heterozygous mutation of Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 12 (46.2%), Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 41/42 (TTCT) were 9 (34.6%), Cd 26 (G>A) and IVS 1-1 (G>C) were 2 (7.7%) respectively. Meanwhile the minority were made of a single compound heterozygous of Cd 26 (G>A) and Cd 71/72, Cd 26 (>A) and Cd 17 (A>T), Cd 26 (G>A) and -28 (G>A) respectively. Twenty out of forty six patients were shown to have homozygous of IVS 1-5 (G>C) were 2 (10.0%), Cd 26 (G>A) were 15 (75.0%), Cd 19 (A>G) were 1 (5.0%), and IVS 1-1 (G>T) were 2 (10.0%). The beta chain mutations among the Kelantanese Malays followed closely the distribution of beta chain mutations among the Thais and the Malays of the Southern Thailand. The G-C transition at position 5 of the IVS 1-5 mutation was predominant among the Malay patients. In conclusion, this method has successfully identified the mutation spectrum in our cohort of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients, and this method is equally effective in screening for mutation among thalassemia patients. PMID:25232503

  6. Development of online use of theory of mind during adolescence: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Symeonidou, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Chow, Wing-Yee; Breheny, Richard

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the development of theory of mind use through eye-tracking in children (9-13years old, n=14), adolescents (14-17.9years old, n=28), and adults (19-29years old, n=23). Participants performed a computerized task in which a director instructed them to move objects placed on a set of shelves. Some of the objects were blocked off from the director's point of view; therefore, participants needed to take into consideration the director's ignorance of these objects when following the director's instructions. In a control condition, participants performed the same task in the absence of the director and were told that the instructions would refer only to items in slots without a back panel, controlling for general cognitive demands of the task. Participants also performed two inhibitory control tasks. We replicated previous findings, namely that in the director-present condition, but not in the control condition, children and adolescents made more errors than adults, suggesting that theory of mind use improves between adolescence and adulthood. Inhibitory control partly accounted for errors on the director task, indicating that it is a factor of developmental change in perspective taking. Eye-tracking data revealed early eye gaze differences between trials where the director's perspective was taken into account and those where it was not. Once differences in accuracy rates were considered, all age groups engaged in the same kind of online processing during perspective taking but differed in how often they engaged in perspective taking. When perspective is correctly taken, all age groups' gaze data point to an early influence of perspective information.

  7. Prevalence of Lens Opacities in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study (CHES)

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Sun, Jie; Torres, Mina; Wu, Shuang; Hsu, Chunyi; Azen, Stanley Paul; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We determined the age- and sex-specific prevalence of posterior subcapsular (PSC), nuclear, cortical, and mixed lens opacities in a population-based sample of Chinese-American adults. Methods A population-based sample of Chinese-Americans 50 years and older, from 10 census tracts in Monterey Park, CA, USA, underwent a detailed interview and a comprehensive clinical examination that included assessment of different types of lens opacities by the slit-lamp–based Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II). All lens changes (including pseudophakia/aphakia), PSC, nuclear, and/or cortical opacities, were evaluated and graded. Results Of the 5782 eligible subjects, 4582 (79.2%) Chinese Americans aged 50 years and older completed a comprehensive eye examination. Of the participants with LOCS II grading (n = 4234/4582, 92%), 3.0% had PSC opacities, 38.1% had nuclear opacities, and 23.4% had cortical opacities. The prevalence of all lens changes was 48.0% for all age groups and was higher by 10-year increasing age groups (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of visual impairment in the better-seeing eye with cortical only, nuclear only, PSC only, and mixed opacities was 3.9%, 5.0%, 14.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. A total of 454 (9.9%) individuals had undergone cataract extraction in at least one eye. Conclusions Chinese Americans have a high prevalence of visual impairment associated with lens opacities, and a high prevalence of nuclear opacities. Public health policies and programs designed to improve cataract detection and treatment could help reduce the burden of visual impairment in Chinese Americans. PMID:27936471

  8. Macular Pigment Imaging in AREDS2 Participants: An Ancillary Study of AREDS2 Subjects Enrolled at the Moran Eye Center

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Paul S.; Ahmed, Faisal; Liu, Aihua; Allman, Susan; Sheng, Xiaoming; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Ermakov, Igor; Gellermann, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) is a randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to determine whether supplementation with 10 mg of lutein and 2 mg of zeaxanthin per day can slow the rate of progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although some biomarkers of response to carotenoid supplementation such as serum concentrations are part of the AREDS2 protocol, measurement of carotenoid concentrations in the eye and other tissues is not. In this approved ancillary study, macular pigment optical density (MPOD), macular pigment distributions, and skin carotenoid levels at enrollment and at each annual visit were measured to assess baseline carotenoid status and to monitor response to assigned interventions. Methods. All subjects enrolled at the Moran Eye Center had MPOD and macular pigment spatial distributions measured by dual-wavelength autofluorescence imaging and total skin carotenoids measured by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Results. Baseline MPOD in enrolled subjects was unusually high relative to an age-matched control group that did not consume carotenoid supplements regularly, consistent with the high rate of habitual lutein and zeaxanthin consumption in Utah AREDS2 subjects prior to enrollment. MPOD did not correlate with serum or skin carotenoid measurements. Conclusions. Useful information is provided through this ancillary study on the ocular carotenoid status of AREDS2 participants in the target tissue of lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: The macula. When treatment assignments are unmasked at the conclusion of the study, unique tissue-based insights will be provided on the progression of AMD in response to long-term, high-dose carotenoid supplementation versus diet alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.) PMID:22879423

  9. Eye Complications in IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  10. Eye Injuries at Work

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  11. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  12. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  13. Eye Injuries at Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran ...

  14. Eye Involvement in TSC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  15. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  18. About the Eye

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  19. Sports and Your Eyes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids > Sports and Your Eyes All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  20. Processing Control Information in a Nominal Control Construction: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    In an eye-tracking experiment, we examined the processing of the nominal control construction. Participants' eye-movements were monitored while they read sentences that included either giver control nominals (e.g. promise in Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph himself) or recipient control nominals (e.g. plea in Luke's plea to Sophia to photograph herself). In order to examine both the initial access of control information, and its later use in on-line processing, we combined a manipulation of nominal control with a gender match/mismatch paradigm. Results showed that there was evidence of processing difficulty for giver control sentences (relative to recipient control sentences) at the point where the control dependency was initially created, suggesting that control information was accessed during the early parsing stages. This effect is attributed to a recency preference in the formation of control dependencies; the parser prefers to assign a recent antecedent to PRO. In addition, readers slowed down after reading a reflexive pronoun that mismatched with the gender of the antecedent indicated by the control nominal (e.g. Luke's promise to Sophia to photograph herself). The mismatch cost suggests that control information of the nominal control construction was used to constrain dependency formation involving a controller, PRO and a reflexive, confirming the use of control information in on-line interpretation.

  1. Stereo-PIV study of flow inside an eye under cataract surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Jun; Yamashita, Masaki; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2012-04-01

    We measured velocity distributions in the anterior chamber of porcine eyes under simulated cataract surgery using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). The surface of the cornea was detected based on the images of laser-induced fluorescent light emitted from fluorescent dye solution introduced in a posterior chamber. A coaxial phacoemulsification procedure was simulated with standard size (standard coaxial phacoemulsification) and smaller (micro coaxial phacoemulsification) surgical instruments. In both cases, an asymmetric flow rate of irrigation was observed, although both irrigation ports had the same dimensions prior to insertion into the eye. In cases where the tip of the handpiece was placed farther away from the top of the cornea, i.e., closer to the crystalline lens, direct impingement of irrigation flow onto the cornea surface was avoided and the flow turned back toward the handpiece along the surface of the corneal endothelium. Viscous shear stress on the corneal endothelium was computed based on the measured mean velocity distribution. The maximum shear stress for most cases exceeded 0.1 Pa, which is comparable to the shear stress that caused detachment of the corneal endothelial cells reported by Kaji et al. in Cornea 24:S55-S58, (2005). When direct impingement of the irrigation flow was avoided, the shear stress was reduced considerably.

  2. The integration of figurative language and static depictions: an eye movement study of fictive motion.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Daniel; Matlock, Teenie

    2007-01-01

    Do we view the world differently if it is described to us in figurative rather than literal terms? An answer to this question would reveal something about both the conceptual representation of figurative language and the scope of top-down influences on scene perception. Previous work has shown that participants will look longer at a path region of a picture when it is described with a type of figurative language called fictive motion (The road goes through the desert) rather than without (The road is in the desert). The current experiment provided evidence that such fictive motion descriptions affect eye movements by evoking mental representations of motion. If participants heard contextual information that would hinder actual motion, it influenced how they viewed a picture when it was described with fictive motion. Inspection times and eye movements scanning along the path increased during fictive motion descriptions when the terrain was first described as difficult (The desert is hilly) as compared to easy (The desert is flat); there were no such effects for descriptions without fictive motion. It is argued that fictive motion evokes a mental simulation of motion that is immediately integrated with visual processing, and hence figurative language can have a distinct effect on perception.

  3. Social attention in ASD: A review and meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies.

    PubMed

    Chita-Tegmark, Meia

    2016-01-01

    Determining whether social attention is reduced in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and what factors influence social attention is important to our theoretical understanding of developmental trajectories of ASD and to designing targeted interventions for ASD. This meta-analysis examines data from 38 articles that used eye-tracking methods to compare individuals with ASD and TD controls. In this paper, the impact of eight factors on the size of the effect for the difference in social attention between these two groups are evaluated: age, non-verbal IQ matching, verbal IQ matching, motion, social content, ecological validity, audio input and attention bids. Results show that individuals with ASD spend less time attending to social stimuli than typically developing (TD) controls, with a mean effect size of 0.55. Social attention in ASD was most impacted when stimuli had a high social content (showed more than one person). This meta-analysis provides an opportunity to survey the eye-tracking research on social attention in ASD and to outline potential future research directions, more specifically research of social attention in the context of stimuli with high social content.

  4. Reading during the composition of multi-sentence texts: an eye-movement study.

    PubMed

    Torrance, Mark; Johansson, Roger; Johansson, Victoria; Wengelin, Åsa

    2016-09-01

    Writers composing multi-sentence texts have immediate access to a visual representation of what they have written. Little is known about the detail of writers' eye movements within this text during production. We describe two experiments in which competent adult writers' eye movements were tracked while performing short expository writing tasks. These are contrasted with conditions in which participants read and evaluated researcher-provided texts. Writers spent a mean of around 13 % of their time looking back into their text. Initiation of these look-back sequences was strongly predicted by linguistically important boundaries in their ongoing production (e.g., writers were much more likely to look back immediately prior to starting a new sentence). 36 % of look-back sequences were associated with sustained reading and the remainder with less patterned forward and backward saccades between words ("hopping"). Fixation and gaze durations and the presence of word-length effects suggested lexical processing of fixated words in both reading and hopping sequences. Word frequency effects were not present when writers read their own text. Findings demonstrate the technical possibility and potential value of examining writers' fixations within their just-written text. We suggest that these fixations do not serve solely, or even primarily, in monitoring for error, but play an important role in planning ongoing production.

  5. Elasticity of the eye's crystalline lens: A Brillouin light scattering study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, S.; Gump, J.; Sooryakumar, R.; Jayaprakash, C.; Venkiteshwar, M. S.; Bullimore, M.; Twa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Focusing the eye on a near object results in an increase in its optical power brought about by contraction of the ciliary muscles and an increase in the lens surface curvature. Distant vision occurs when the muscular force flattens the lens. Central to the ability of the lens to alter shape are its mechanical properties. Thus, given that hardening of the lens would impede deformation and reduce its ability to undergo the changes required for accommodation, a noninvasive approach to measure the elastic properties of the lens is valuable. We present results of Brillouin scattering from bovine and human lenses (from the organ donor program at The Ohio State University) that measure their high frequency acoustic response. These measurements are conducted with a few milli-watts of laser power and, in the case of bovine lenses, from entire intact eye globes, allow the stiffness of the lens to be mapped across its cross-section. The results will be compared to values of the shear- and bulk-moduli determined from other techniques and the implications of differences in these moduli discussed.

  6. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness among Malay patients: impact on treatment.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M; Khan, U A; Hasanah, C I

    1996-10-01

    The concept of aetiology of mental illness in 134 Malay patients was investigated by means of a 20-item checklist. About 53% of the patients attributed their illnesses to supernatural agents. Witchcraft and possession by evil spirits were regarded as common causes of illness. The number of patients who believed in supernatural causes of their mental illness was significantly higher among those who had consulted bomohs (Malay traditional healers) than among those who had not consulted them. The belief that mental illness is caused by supernatural agents is firmly held by bomohs, who reinforce this notion in those who seek their advice. Belief in supernatural causes of mental illness was not significantly associated with age, gender, level of education or occupation of the patients. Patients who believed in supernatural causes of mental illness were also found to show poor drug compliance, and the number of such patients at 6 months follow-up was significantly lower than the corresponding figure for those who did not believe in supernatural causes. The importance of understanding the patients' cultural background when treating psychiatric patients is highlighted.

  7. Ethical Concerns About Human Genetic Enhancement in the Malay Science Fiction Novels.

    PubMed

    Isa, Noor Munirah; Hj Safian Shuri, Muhammad Fakhruddin

    2017-03-09

    Advancements in science and technology have not only brought hope to humankind to produce disease-free offspring, but also offer possibilities to genetically enhance the next generation's traits and capacities. Human genetic enhancement, however, raises complex ethical questions, such as to what extent should it be allowed? It has been a great challenge for humankind to develop robust ethical guidelines for human genetic enhancement that address both public concerns and needs. We believe that research about public concerns is necessary prior to developing such guidelines, yet the issues have not been thoroughly investigated in many countries, including Malaysia. Since the novel often functions as a medium for the public to express their concerns, this paper explores ethical concerns about human genetic enhancement expressed in four Malay science fiction novels namely Klon, Leksikon Ledang, Transgenesis Bisikan Rimba and Transgenik Sifar. Religion has a strong influence on the worldview of the Malays therefore some concerns such as playing God are obviously religious. Association of the negative image of scientists as well as the private research companies with the research on human genetic enhancement reflects the authors' concerns about the main motivations for conducting such research and the extent to which such research will benefit society.

  8. Eye contricks

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons? PMID:23145240

  9. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral antioxidant supplement therapy in patients with dry eye syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jehn-Yu; Yeh, Po-Ting; Hou, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of oral antioxidant supplementation in the treatment of patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). Methods A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study compared the effects of an antioxidant supplement (containing anthocyanosides, astaxanthin, vitamins A, C, and E, and several herbal extracts, including Cassiae semen and Ophiopogonis japonicus) with placebo on patients with DES. We assessed dry eye symptoms, visual acuity, Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, cornea and conjunctiva fluorescein staining, serum anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibodies, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tears. The supplementation period was 8 weeks and patients were followed up every 4 weeks for 16 weeks. A linear mixed model was used to compare the groups, while within-group differences were tested by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Forty-three patients, 20 and 23 in treatment and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study. Liver and renal functions were normal. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, dry eye symptoms, serum anti-SSA and anti-SSB, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, or fluorescein corneal staining between the groups. Tear film breakup time scores and Schirmer’s test without topical anesthesia significantly improved in the treatment group. Tear ROS level differed between the groups and decreased after treatment. Overall subjective impression revealed a significant improvement with treatment compared with placebo. Conclusion Oral antioxidant supplementations may increase tear production and improve tear film stability by reducing tear ROS. The vegetable-based antioxidant supplement used in this study is safe and can be utilized as an adjuvant therapy to conventional artificial tear therapy for patients with DES. PMID:27274185

  10. On biometrics with eye movements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2016-04-07

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In the present article, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  11. About the effect of eye blinking on drug release from pHEMA-based hydrogels: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Galante, R; Paradiso, P; Moutinho, M G; Fernandes, A I; Mata, J L G; Matos, A P A; Colaço, R; Saramago, B; Serro, A P

    2015-01-01

    The development of new ophthalmic drug delivery systems capable of increasing the residence time of drugs in the eye and improve its bioavailability relatively to eyedrops has been object of intense research in recent years. Several studies have shown that drug-loaded therapeutic soft contact lenses (SCLs) constitute a promising approach, with several potential advantages as compared with collyria. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of repetitive load and friction cycles caused by the eye blinking, on the drug release from hydrogels used in SCLs which, as far as we know, was never investigated before. Two poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate-based hydrogels, pHEMA-T and pHEMA-UV, were used as model materials. Levofloxaxin was chosen as model drug. The hydrogels were fully characterized in what concerns structural and physicochemical properties. pHEMA-UV revealed some superficial porosity and a lower short-range order than pHEMA-T. We observe that the load and friction cycles enhanced the drug release from pHEMA-UV hydrogels. The application of a simple mathematical model, which takes into account the drug dilution caused by the tear flow, showed that the enhancement of the drug release caused by blinking on this hydrogel may be relevant in in vivo conditions. Conversely, the more sustained drug release from pHEMA-T is not affected by load and friction cycles. The conclusion is that, depending on the physicochemical and microstructural characteristics of the hydrogels, blinking is a factor that may affect the amount of drug delivered to the eye by SCLs and should thus be considered.

  12. National Burden of Eye Diseases in Iran, 1990–2010; Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010

    PubMed Central

    Hatef, Elham; Mohammadi, Seyed-Farzad; Alinia, Cyrus; Ashrafi, Elham; Mohammadi, S-Mehrdad; Lashay, Alireza; Sadeghi-Tari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost due to eye diseases and trends in DALYs in Iran has not been previously reported. The object of this study is to report the burden of eye diseases in Iran and to compare changes from 1990 to 2010 based on age and gender. Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) are used to report DALYs for cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Results: Cataract, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders, macular degeneration, and glaucoma were the 84th, 87th, 138th, and 151st causes of DALY in 1990 and the 89th, 72nd, 99th, and 137th in 2010, respectively. Cataract accounted for 0.085% of national DALY in 1990 and 0.09% in 2010, refraction/accommodation (functional) disorders accounted for 0.42% in 1990 and 0.47% in 2010, macular degeneration accounted for 0.017% in 1990 and 0.071% in 2010 and glaucoma accounted for 0.0099% in 1990 and 0.025% in 2010. There was a steady increase in DALY with age for each eye disease for both genders and dichotomized for males and females from 1990 to 2010. Conclusions: Epidemiologic transition is reflected in major ophthalmic and blinding diseases in the GBD data for Iran. The burden of macular degeneration is rising, followed by glaucoma. The burden of presbyopia affected individuals past their middle age. The burden of cataract manifested as a slower increase that could be attributable to better access to treatment. PMID:26957846

  13. Second-phase validation study of short time exposure test for assessment of eye irritation potency of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Omori, Takashi; Otoizumi, Takuya; Sozu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Mayumi; Toyoda, Akemi; Goto, Haruka; Watanabe, Shinichi; Ahiko, Kyoko; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Morimoto, Takashi

    2013-09-01

    A Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test that uses SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) to assess eye irritation potency following a 5-min chemical exposure. This second-phase validation study assessed the predictive capacity of the STE test using 40 coded test substances at three laboratories. A Validation Management Team (VMT) then evaluated the predictivity of the STE test for United Nation (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) categories using 63 test substances including the results of the first-phase validation study. The STE test can assess not only the severe or corrosive ocular irritants (corresponding to the UN GHS Category 1) but also non-irritant (corresponding to UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. The predictivity by STE test, however, was insufficient for identification of UN GHS categories (Category 1, Category 2, or Non Category). These results suggest that the STE test can be recommended as an initial step in a top-down approach to identification of severe irritants and test substances that require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Category 1) as well as an initial step in a bottom-up approach to identification of test substances that do not require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. On the other hand, the STE test is not considered adequate for the identification of mild or moderate irritants (i.e., UN GHS Categories 2A and 2B) and severe irritants (UN GHS Category 1).

  14. Cyclosporine 0.05% Ophthalmic Emulsion for Dry Eye in Korea: A Prospective, Multicenter, Open-Label, Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yong-Soo; Rho, Chang Rae; Cho, Kyungjin; Choi, Jin A; Na, Kyung Sun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effectiveness and tolerability of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion (CsA) 0.05% in patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease in Korea. Methods This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, surveillance study of 392 Korean patients with moderate to severe dry eye disease who were treated with CsA 0.05% for three months. An assessment of effectiveness was performed at baseline, and after 1, 2, and 3 months. The primary effectiveness outcomes were changes in ocular symptoms and Schirmer score. The secondary effectiveness outcomes were a change in conjunctival staining, use of artificial tears, global evaluation of treatment, and patient satisfaction. The primary safety outcome was the incidence and nature of adverse events. Results A total of 362 patients completed the study. After three months, all ocular symptom scores were significantly reduced compared to the baseline values, while the Schirmer scores were significantly increased relative to baseline (p < 0.0001). After three months, there were significant reductions from baseline in conjunctival staining (p < 0.01) and use of artificial tears (p < 0.0001). According to clinicians' global evaluations, most patients (>50%) experienced at least a 25% to 50% improvement in symptoms from baseline at each follow-up visit. The majority of patients (72.0%) were satisfied with the treatment results, and 57.2% reported having no or mild symptoms after treatment. The most common adverse events were ocular pain (11.0%). Conclusions Our findings indicate that CsA 0.05% is an effective and tolerable treatment for dry eye disease in Korean clinical practice. PMID:22131772

  15. Development of an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire as a tool to study eye diseases patients in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Nizar Saleh; Amgad, Mohamed; Salama, Ahmed A; Israel, Marina E; Elhawary, Ghada A; Radwan, Ahmed E; Elgayar, Mohamed M; EL Nakhal, Tamer M; Elkhateb, Islam T; Hashem, Heba A; Embaby, Doha K; Elabd, Amira A; Elwy, Reem K; Yacoub, Magdi S; Salem, Hamdy; Abdel-Baqy, Mohamed; Kassem, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    AIM To develop and test an Arabic version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI-VFQ-25). METHODS NEI-VFQ-25 was translated into Arabic according to WHO translation guidelines. We enrolled adult consenting patients with bilateral chronic eye diseases who presented to 14 hospitals across Egypt from October to December 2012, and documented their clinical findings. Psychometric properties were then tested using STATA. RESULTS We recruited 379 patients, whose mean age was (54.5±15)y. Of 46.2% were males, 227 had cataract, 31 had glaucoma, 23 had retinal detachment, 37 had diabetic retinopathy, and 61 had miscellaneous visual defects. Non-response rate and the floor and ceiling numbers of the Arabic version (ARB-VFQ-25) were calculated. Internal consistency was high in all subscales (except general health), with Cronbach-α ranging from 0.702-0.911. Test-retest reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.79). CONCLUSION ARB-VFQ-25 is a reliable and valid tool for assessing visual functions of Arabic speaking patients. However, some questions had high non-response rates and should be substituted by available alternatives. Our results support the importance of including self-reported visual functions as part of routine ophthalmologic examination. PMID:25349812

  16. Age Differences in Online Processing of Video: An Eye Movement Study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Anderson, Daniel R.; Keen, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while 62 one-year-olds, four-year-olds, and adults watched television. Of interest was the extent to which viewers looked at the same place at the same time as their peers because high similarity across viewers suggests systematic viewing driven by comprehension processes. Similarity of gaze location increased with age. This was particularly true immediately following a cut to a new scene, partly because older viewers (but not infants) tended to fixate the center of the screen following a cut. Conversely, infants appear to require several seconds to orient to a new scene. Results are interpreted in the context of developing attention skills. Findings have implications for the extent to which infants comprehend and learn from commercial video. PMID:22288510

  17. [Effect of welding arcs on the eyes of patients with contact lenses (literature study)].

    PubMed

    Stahler, D; Teubel, H; Karsten, H

    1989-01-01

    Two accidents had been reported from abroad, within which contact lense users grew blind after staying quite near at electrical arcs. It is supposed that the contact lenses had been "welded" with the cornea by influence of the electromagnetic radiation. Removal of lenses shall have caused the cornea "ablation" and thus the subjects permanent blindness. Nilsson et al. (1, 2, 5) performed intensive animal tests which proved, that contact lenses get hot in special spectral ranges thus underlying a certain drying up. The "welding" between contact lenses and the cornea could not be confirmed by test animals, but partial glueing of contact lenses and cornea and surface lesions of the epithelium as well in some cases. Hüer and Conrads (3, 4) experimenting on enucleated pigs' eyes, reported on similar results.

  18. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention.

  19. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant's visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes.

  20. The Fixation Distance to the Stimulus Influences ERP Quality: An EEG and Eye Tracking N400 Study

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Parise, Eugenio; Strandvall, Tommy; Reid, Vincent M.

    2015-01-01

    In a typical visual Event Related Potential (ERP) study, the stimulus is presented centrally on the screen. Normally an ERP response will be measured provided that the participant directs their gaze towards the stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess how the N400 component of an ERP was affected when the stimulus was presented in the foveal, parafoveal or peripheral vision of the participant’s visual field. Utilizing stimuli that have previously produced an N400 response to action incongruities, the same stimuli sequences were presented at 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° of visual angle from a fixation location. In addition to the EEG data, eye tracking data were recorded to act as a fixation control method and to allow for eye artifact detection. The results show a significant N400 effect in the right parieto-temporal electrodes within the 0° visual angle condition. For the other conditions, the N400 effect was reduced (4°) or not present (8° and 12°). Our results suggest that the disappearance of the N400 effect with eccentricity is due to the fixation distance to the stimulus. However, variables like attentional allocation could have also had an impact on the results. This study highlights the importance of presenting a stimulus within the foveal vision of the participant in order to maximize ERP effects related to higher order cognitive processes. PMID:26222059

  1. Negotiating Discourses of Gender, Ethnicity and Schooling: Ways of Being Malay, Chinese and Indian Schoolgirls in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the notion of resistance as an analytical tool, emphasizing its sociopolitical significance and multidimensionality, to understand the complex link between ways of being Malay, Chinese and Indian schoolgirls, schooling and the wider Malaysian society. The macro and micro dynamics of the Malaysian ethnoscape, namely the ethnic…

  2. The Significance of Bilingual Chinese, Malay, and Tamil Children's English Network Patterns on Community Language Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed groups of Chinese, Malay and Tamil families, their use of community languages or mother tongue, and their speaking, reading, and writing proficiency. Found that when parents' community language proficiency in speaking is lower they tend to choose English as preferred language. Children's language confidence affected their language choice.…

  3. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F; Raso, Rossella; Ruta, Liliana; Rossi, Ilaria; Ballarani, Agnese; Fulceri, Francesca; Darini, Alessandra; Maroscia, Emilia; Lattarulo, Caterina; Tortorella, Gaetano; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Comminiello, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action. PMID:27187230

  4. Disentangling the initiation from the response in joint attention: an eye-tracking study in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Billeci, L; Narzisi, A; Campatelli, G; Crifaci, G; Calderoni, S; Gagliano, A; Calzone, C; Colombi, C; Pioggia, G; Muratori, F

    2016-05-17

    Joint attention (JA), whose deficit is an early risk marker for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), has two dimensions: (1) responding to JA and (2) initiating JA. Eye-tracking technology has largely been used to investigate responding JA, but rarely to study initiating JA especially in young children with ASD. The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the visual patterns of toddlers with ASD and those with typical development (TD) during both responding JA and initiating JA tasks. Eye-tracking technology was used to monitor the gaze of 17 children with ASD and 15 age-matched children with TD during the presentation of short video sequences involving one responding JA and two initiating JA tasks (initiating JA-1 and initiating JA-2). Gaze accuracy, transitions and fixations were analyzed. No differences were found in the responding JA task between children with ASD and those with TD, whereas, in the initiating JA tasks, different patterns of fixation and transitions were shown between the groups. These results suggest that children with ASD and those with TD show different visual patterns when they are expected to initiate joint attention but not when they respond to joint attention. We hypothesized that differences in transitions and fixations are linked to ASD impairments in visual disengagement from face, in global scanning of the scene and in the ability to anticipate object's action.

  5. Studies of the Ability to Hold the Eye in Eccentric Gaze: Measurements in Normal Subjects with the Head Erect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, Millard F.; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Leigh, R. John; Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, William H.; Kornilova, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    We studied the ability to hold the eyes in eccentric horizontal or vertical gaze angles in 68 normal humans, age range 19-56. Subjects attempted to sustain visual fixation of a briefly flashed target located 30 in the horizontal plane and 15 in the vertical plane in a dark environment. Conventionally, the ability to hold eccentric gaze is estimated by fitting centripetal eye drifts by exponential curves and calculating the time constant (t(sub c)) of these slow phases of gazeevoked nystagmus. Although the distribution of time-constant measurements (t(sub c)) in our normal subjects was extremely skewed due to occasional test runs that exhibited near-perfect stability (large t(sub c) values), we found that log10(tc) was approximately normally distributed within classes of target direction. Therefore, statistical estimation and inference on the effect of target direction was performed on values of z identical with log10t(sub c). Subjects showed considerable variation in their eyedrift performance over repeated trials; nonetheless, statistically significant differences emerged: values of tc were significantly higher for gaze elicited to targets in the horizontal plane than for the vertical plane (P less than 10(exp -5), suggesting eccentric gazeholding is more stable in the horizontal than in the vertical plane. Furthermore, centrifugal eye drifts were observed in 13.3, 16.0 and 55.6% of cases for horizontal, upgaze and downgaze tests, respectively. Fifth percentile values of the time constant were estimated to be 10.2 sec, 3.3 sec and 3.8 sec for horizontal, upward and downward gaze, respectively. The difference between horizontal and vertical gazeholding may be ascribed to separate components of the velocity position neural integrator for eye movements, and to differences in orbital mechanics. Our statistical method for representing the range of normal eccentric gaze stability can be readily applied in a clinical setting to patients who were exposed to environments

  6. Use of Cooking Fuels and Cataract in a Population-Based Study: The India Eye Disease Study

    PubMed Central

    Ravilla, Thulasiraj D.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Vashist, Praveen; Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Maraini, Giovanni; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Biomass cooking fuels are commonly used in Indian households, especially by the poorest socioeconomic groups. Cataract is highly prevalent in India and the major cause of vision loss. The evidence on biomass fuels and cataract is limited. Objectives: To examine the association of biomass cooking fuels with cataract and type of cataract. Methods: We conducted a population-based study in north and south India using randomly sampled clusters to identify people ≥ 60 years old. Participants were interviewed and asked about cooking fuel use, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended hospital for digital lens imaging (graded using the Lens Opacity Classification System III), anthropometry, and blood collection. Years of use of biomass fuels were estimated and transformed to a standardized normal distribution. Results: Of the 7,518 people sampled, 94% were interviewed and 83% of these attended the hospital. Sex modified the association between years of biomass fuel use and cataract; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 1-SD increase in years of biomass fuel use and nuclear cataract was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.23) for men and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.48) for women, p interaction = 0.07. Kerosene use was low (10%). Among women, kerosene use was associated with nuclear (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) and posterior subcapsular cataract (OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.64). There was no association among men. Conclusions: Our results provide robust evidence for the association of biomass fuels with cataract for women but not for men. Our finding for kerosene and cataract among women is novel and requires confirmation in other studies. Citation: Ravilla TD, Gupta S, Ravindran RD, Vashist P, Krishnan T, Maraini G, Chakravarthy U, Fletcher AE. 2016. Use of cooking fuels and cataract in a population-based study: the India Eye Disease Study. Environ Health Perspect 124:1857–1862; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP193 PMID:27227523

  7. Clinical Evaluation of a Royal Jelly Supplementation for the Restoration of Dry Eye: A Prospective Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study and an Experimental Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Sachiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Hisamura, Ryuji; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Nakamura, Shigeru; Ito, Masataka; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a multifactorial disease characterized by ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Lacrimal gland function has been shown to decrease with aging, a known potent risk factor for dry eye. We have previously found that orally administrated royal jelly (RJ) restored tear secretion in a rat model of dry eye. Methods and Findings We examined the effects of RJ oral administration on dry eye in this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Forty-three Japanese patients aged 20–60 years with subjective dry eye symptoms were randomized to an RJ group (1200 mg/tablet, six tablets daily) or a placebo group for 8 weeks. Keratoconjunctival epithelial damage, tear film break-up time, tear secretion volume, meibum grade, biochemical data, and subjective dry eye symptoms based on a questionnaire were investigated at baseline, and at 4 and 8 weeks after intervention. Adverse events were reported via medical interviews. In the RJ group, tear volume significantly increased after intervention (p = 0.0009). In particular, patients with a baseline Schirmer value of ≤10 mm showed a significant increase compared with baseline volume (p = 0.0005) and volume in the placebo group (p = 0.0051). No adverse events were reported. We also investigated the effect of RJ (300 mg/kg per day) administration using a mouse model of dry eye. Orally repeated administration of RJ preserved tear secretion, potentially through direct activation of the secretory function of the lacrimal glands. Conclusion Our results suggest that RJ improves tear volume in patients with dry eye. Trial Registration Registered NO. the University Hospital Medical Information Network in Japan (UMIN000014446) PMID:28060936

  8. Attentional biases toward emotional images in the different episodes of bipolar disorder: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Ana; Salmerón, Ladislao; Perea, Manuel; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2014-03-30

    Attentional biases toward emotional information may represent vulnerability and maintenance factors in bipolar disorder (BD). The present experimental study examined the processing of emotional information in BD patients using the eye-tracking technology. Bipolar patients in their different states (euthymia, mania, depression) simultaneously viewed four pictures with different emotional valence (happy, neutral, sad, threatening) for 20s while their eye movements were monitored. A group of healthy individuals served as the control. The data revealed the following: (i) a decrease in attention to happy images in BD patients in their depressive episodes compared to healthy individuals, and (ii) an increase in attention to threatening images in BD patients (regardless of their episode) relative to the healthy controls. These biases appeared in the late stages of information processing and were sustained over the 20s interval. Thus, the present findings reveal that attentional biases toward emotional information can be a key feature of BD, in that: (i) an anhedonic lack of sensitivity to positive stimuli during the bipolar depressive episode may be considered a maintaining factor of this clinical state, and (ii) the trait-bias toward threat, even in asymptomatic patients, may reflect a marker of vulnerability in BD.

  9. Hand washing induces a clean slate effect in moral judgments: a pupillometry and eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-05-21

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the "Macbeth effect" direct links between bodily cleansing and one's own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon.

  10. Hand Washing Induces a Clean Slate Effect in Moral Judgments: A Pupillometry and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai; Krapp, Vanessa; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical cleansing is commonly understood to protect us against physical contamination. However, recent studies showed additional effects on moral judgments. Under the heading of the “Macbeth effect” direct links between bodily cleansing and one’s own moral purity have been demonstrated. Here we investigate (1) how moral judgments develop over time and how they are altered by hand washing, (2) whether changes in moral judgments can be explained by altered information sampling from the environment, and (3) whether hand washing affects emotional arousal. Using a pre-post control group design, we found that morality ratings of morally good and bad scenes acquired more extreme values in the control group over time, an effect that was fully counteracted by intermediate hand washing. This result supports the notion of a clean slate effect by hand washing. Thereby, eye-tracking data did not uncover differences in eye movement behavior that may explain differences in moral judgments. Thus, the clean slate effect is not due to altered information sampling from the environment. Finally, compared to the control group, pupil diameter decreased after hand washing, thus demonstrating a direct physiological effect. The results shed light on the physiological mechanisms behind this type of embodiment phenomenon. PMID:25994083

  11. Strabismus and eye muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar

    2007-11-01

    Studies of external eye muscle morphology and physiology are reviewed, with respect to both motor and sensory functions in concomitant strabismus. The eye muscles have a more complex fibre composition than other striated muscle, and they are among the fastest and most fatigue-resistant muscles in the body. However, it is not generally believed that concomitant strabismus is due to a primary abnormality of the eye muscles or the ocular motor system. The gross anatomy of eye muscles, including the shape and position of the eye muscle pulleys, was not changed in strabismus. The histology of the eye muscle fibres was also basically the same, but changes have been observed in the cellular and biochemical machinery of the fibres, most notably in the singly innervated orbital fibres. Functionally, this was seen as slower contractions and reduced fatigue resistance of eye muscles in animals with strabismus and defects of binocular vision. Most likely the changes represented an adaptation to modified visual demands on the ocular motor control, because of the defects of binocular vision in strabismus from an early age. Adaptation of eye muscle function to visual demands could be seen also in the adult human ocular motor system, but here the effects could be reversed with treatment in some conditions. External eye muscles in the human have sensory organs, muscle spindles and tendon organs, responding to changes in muscle force and length. It is not known how these proprioceptors are used more specifically in ocular motor control, and there is no stretch reflex in the external eye muscles. However, a clear influence on space localization and eye position can be demonstrated with vibratory stimulation of the eye muscles, presumably activating muscle spindles. Different effects were observed in normal subjects and in adult patients with strabismus, which would indicate that the proprioceptive input from one eye of strabismic patients could be suppressed by the other eye, similar

  12. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Stonecipher, Karl G; Torkildsen, Gail L; Ousler, George W; Morris, Scot; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye. Methods This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer’s score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®) was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events. Results A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40–78 years) were enrolled; 35 (87.5%) were female and 37 (92.5%) completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001). Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041). At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup time improved by >50% in both eyes (P>0.001). Patients reported significant improvement in ocular discomfort and dry eye symptoms (P<0.001). No patients discontinued treatment because of stinging or any other ocular adverse event. Conclusion Dry eye patients with difficulties with day-to-day visual function demonstrated improvement in both signs and symptoms of dry eye and

  13. Evolution: convergent eye losses in fishy circumstances.

    PubMed

    Niven, Jeremy E

    2008-01-08

    Eye loss has occurred independently several times in Mexican cavefish. A new study shows that some aspects of vision can be restored by crossing cavefish from different populations, suggesting that changes at multiple loci contribute to eye loss.

  14. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-03-08

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not. Next, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a different video story, in which a human grabbed one of two objects to hit back at the character. In their second viewing after a 24-hour delay, 18- and 24-month-old infants increased viewing time on the objects before the character grabbed one. In this viewing, 24-month-old infants preferentially looked at the object that the human had used, but 18-month-old infants did not show such preference. Our results show that infants at 18 months of age have developed long-term event memory, an ability to encode and retrieve a one-time event and this ability is elaborated thereafter.

  15. Development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Tamami; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The development of long-term event memory in preverbal infants remains elusive. To address this issue, we applied an eye-tracking method that successfully revealed in great apes that they have long-term memory of single events. Six-, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a video story in which an aggressive ape-looking character came out from one of two identical doors. While viewing the same video again 24 hours later, 18- and 24-month-old infants anticipatorily looked at the door where the character would show up before it actually came out, but 6- and 12-month-old infants did not. Next, 12-, 18- and 24-month-old infants watched a different video story, in which a human grabbed one of two objects to hit back at the character. In their second viewing after a 24-hour delay, 18- and 24-month-old infants increased viewing time on the objects before the character grabbed one. In this viewing, 24-month-old infants preferentially looked at the object that the human had used, but 18-month-old infants did not show such preference. Our results show that infants at 18 months of age have developed long-term event memory, an ability to encode and retrieve a one-time event and this ability is elaborated thereafter. PMID:28272489

  16. The processing of raising and nominal control: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Sturt, Patrick; Kwon, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of sentence processing, the memory retrieval processes involved in dependency formation may differ as a function of the type of dependency involved. For example, using closely matched materials in a single experiment, Dillon et al. (2013) found evidence for retrieval interference in subject-verb agreement, but not in reflexive-antecedent agreement. We report four eye-tracking experiments that examine examine reflexive-antecedent dependencies, combined with raising (e.g., “John seemed to Tom to be kind to himself…”), or nominal control (e.g., “John's agreement with Tom to be kind to himself…”). We hypothesized that dependencies involving raising would (a) be processed more quickly, and (b) be less subject to retrieval interference, relative to those involving nominal control. This is due to the fact that the interpretation of raising is structurally constrained, while the interpretation of nominal control depends crucially on lexical properties of the control nominal. The results showed evidence of interference when the reflexive-antecedent dependency was mediated by raising or nominal control, but very little evidence that could be interpreted in terms of interference for direct reflexive-antecedent dependencies that did not involve raising or control. However, there was no evidence either for greater interference, or for quicker dependency formation, for raising than for nominal control. PMID:25852629

  17. Consciousness and cortical responsiveness: a within-state study during non-rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Gosseries, Olivia; Massimini, Marcello; Saad, Elyana; Sheldon, Andrew D.; Boly, Melanie; Siclari, Francesca; Postle, Bradley R.; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    When subjects become unconscious, there is a characteristic change in the way the cerebral cortex responds to perturbations, as can be assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS–EEG). For instance, compared to wakefulness, during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep TMS elicits a larger positive–negative wave, fewer phase-locked oscillations, and an overall simpler response. However, many physiological variables also change when subjects go from wake to sleep, anesthesia, or coma. To avoid these confounding factors, we focused on NREM sleep only and measured TMS-evoked EEG responses before awakening the subjects and asking them if they had been conscious (dreaming) or not. As shown here, when subjects reported no conscious experience upon awakening, TMS evoked a larger negative deflection and a shorter phase-locked response compared to when they reported a dream. Moreover, the amplitude of the negative deflection—a hallmark of neuronal bistability according to intracranial studies—was inversely correlated with the length of the dream report (i.e., total word count). These findings suggest that variations in the level of consciousness within the same physiological state are associated with changes in the underlying bistability in cortical circuits. PMID:27491799

  18. Ciliary body and choroidal melanomas treated by proton beam irradiation. Histopathologic study of eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Seddon, J.M.; Gragoudas, E.S.; Albert, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Proton beam irradiation resulted in clinical and/or histopathological regression of large ciliary body and choroidal melanomas in three eyes. Enucleations were performed 6 1/2 weeks, five months, and 11 months after irradiation for angle-closure glaucoma from total retinal detachment, increase in retinal detachment, and neovascular glaucoma, respectively. A direct relationship was found between the length of the interval from irradiation to enucleation and the degree of histologic changes. Vascular changes in the tumors included endothelial cell swelling and decreased lumen size, basement membrane thickening, collapse of sinusoidal vessels, and thrombosis of vessels. Although apparently unaltered tumor cells remained, degenerative changes occurred in some melanoma cells, including lipid vacuoles in cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and balloon cell formation. Patchy areas of necrosis and proteinaceous exudate were present. Pigment-laden macrophages were found near tumor vessels and all had a substantial chronic inflammatory infiltrate. The effect of proton beam irradiation on tumor vessels probably plays an important role in uveal melanoma regression.

  19. Benefits of early development of eye-hand coordination: evidence from the LOOK longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Telford, R D; Cunningham, R B; Telford, R M; Olive, L S; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P

    2013-10-01

    We investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between eye-hand coordination (EHC) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multistage run), physical activity (pedometers), percent body fat (%BF, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), body image, and organized sport participation (questionnaires) in 406 boys and 384 girls at 8 and 10 years of age. EHC was measured by a throw and wall-rebound catch test involving 40 attempts of increasing difficulty. Median EHC improved during two years from 18 to 32 (boys) and 9 to 24 (girls), and gender differences and improvements were both significant (P < 0.001). Cross-sectional analyses showed that boys and girls with better EHC were fitter (P < 0.001), and a longitudinal relationship showed that girls who improved their EHC over the two years became fitter (P < 0.001). There was also evidence that children with better EHC possessed a more positive body image (P = 0.05 for combined sex data), but there was no evidence of any relationships between EHC and %BF or PA (both P > 0.3). Finally, even at age 8 years, boys and girls participating in organized sport possessed better EHC than non-participants. These data provide evidence for the premise that early acquisition of this single motor skill promotes the development of a child's fitness, body image, and participation in sport.

  20. An eye movement study on the role of the visual field defect in pure alexia.

    PubMed

    Bormann, Tobias; Wolfer, Sascha A; Hachmann, Wibke; Lagrèze, Wolf A; Konieczny, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Pure alexia is a severe impairment of word reading which is usually accompanied by a right-sided visual field defect. Patients with pure alexia exhibit better preserved writing and a considerable word length effect, claimed to result from a serial letter processing strategy. Two experiments compared the eye movements of four patients with pure alexia to controls with simulated visual field defects (sVFD) when reading single words. Besides differences in response times and differential effects of word length on word reading in both groups, fixation durations and the occurrence of a serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy were investigated. The analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between pure alexic patients and unimpaired individuals reading with sVFD. The patients with pure alexia read words slower and exhibited more fixations. The serial, letter-by-letter fixation strategy was observed only in the patients but not in the controls with sVFD. It is argued that the VFD does not cause pure alexic reading.

  1. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in addiction continuing care: a phenomenological study of women in recovery.

    PubMed

    Marich, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Traditional models of addiction treatment and relapse prevention fail to consider the role that unresolved trauma plays in an addicted woman's recovery experience. Implementing Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) into the treatment process offers a potential solution to this problem. Ten women (alumnae of an extended-care treatment facility) participated in a semistandardized interview to share their experiences with active addiction, treatment, EMDR therapy, and recovery. With the use of A. P. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method for analysis, four major thematic areas emerged from the interview data: the existence of safety as an essential crucible of the EMDR experience, the importance of accessing the emotional core as vital to the recovery experience, the role of perspective shift in lifestyle change, and the use of a combination of factors for successful treatment. All 10 women, to some degree, credited EMDR treatment as a crucial component of their addiction continuing-care processes, especially in helping with emotional core access and perspective shift. Implications emerge from the data on how to best implement EMDR into a comprehensive addiction treatment program.

  2. Histological study of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser trabeculoplasty on monkey eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zi-kui; Wang, Kang-sun; Shi, Hai-yun

    1998-11-01

    Two eyes of a rhesus monkey subject to frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser LTP were examined by light and electron microscopy twenty-four hours and four weeks postoperatively. Light microscopy demonstrated trabecular meshwork edema, acute inflammatory changes such as the presence of polymorphonuclears and amorphous eosinphilous substance of the Schlemm's canal in the specimen 24 hours after surgery, otherwise, membrane-like extension over the surface of uveal meshwork was found in the tissue four weeks after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the specimens excited at earlier stage after irradiation revealed evidences of disruption, coalescence of the trabecular beams and the exudation of deformed erythrocytes among intertrabecular spaces; the specimens excited at later stage showed partial or total occlusion of intertrabecular spaces at laser burn site by a membrane like layer which probably originate from so called trabecular stem cell near the Schwalbe's line. Transmission electron microscopy of the tissue excited at 24 hours post laser showed necrosis of the trabecular cells, collagen fibrils edema, as well a macrophages and pigment cells among intertrabecular spaces; the tissues excited at 4 weeks post laser showed degenerated collagen fibrils and denuded collagen core without superficial trabecular cells.

  3. Formation of the hurricane eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigh, Jonathan L.

    This dissertation consists of three distinct studies which investigate aspects of eye formation. The first study reviews eye phenomenon in a variety of vortices ranging from simple vortices to the menagerie of geophysical vortices, emphasizing similarities and differences to the eyes formed in hurricanes. The hurricane eye is found to be a paradoxical structure imposed by conservation of angular momentum and the boundaries of the vortex. A comprehensive definition for hurricane eye formation is proposed and various eye formation mechanisms are summarized. The next study presents a simple theoretical argument to isolate the conditions under which a tropical cyclone can rapidly develop a warm-core thermal structure and subsequently approach a steady state. The theoretical argument is based on the balanced vortex model and, in particular, on the associated transverse circulation equation and the geopotential tendency equation. The transverse circulation and the temperature tendency in a tropical vortex depend not only on the diabatic forcing, but also on the spatial distributions of the static stability, the baroclinity, and the inertial stability. The vortex response to diabatic heating depends critically on whether the heating occurs in the low inertial stability region outside the radius of maximum wind or in the high inertial stability region inside the radius of maximum wind. This result suggests that rapid intensification is favored for storms which have at least some of the eyewall convection inside the radius of maximum wind. The development of an eye partially removes diabatic heating from the high inertial stability region of the storm center, yet rapid intensification may continue if the eyewall heating continues to become more efficient. As the warm core matures and static stability increases over the inner core, conditions there become less favorable for deep upright convection and the storm tends to approach a steady state. The final study characterizes

  4. How do neural responses to eyes contribute to face-sensitive ERP components in young infants? A rapid repetition study.

    PubMed

    Hoehl, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    Several face-sensitive components of the event-related potential (ERP) have been identified in infants, such as the posterior N290 and P400 components. The contribution of eye-sensitive neurons to these components is still unclear, however. A rapid repetition ERP paradigm was used to test 4-month-olds' responses to faces with and without eyes (preceded by houses, i.e., unprimed) and faces with eyes that were preceded by faces with or without eyes (i.e., primed). N290 latency was reduced and P400 amplitude was increased for unprimed faces without eyes compared to intact faces. In addition, N290 latency was reduced for faces preceded by intact faces compared to faces preceded by faces without eyes. Thus, processing speed at the level of the N290 and amplitude of the P400 are affected by the absence of eyes in a face supporting the notion that eye-sensitive neurons contribute to these components in infancy. Findings are discussed in relation to the early development of face processing and infant and adult ERP responses to faces and eyes.

  5. Disease, disorder, or deception? Latah as habit in a Malay extended family.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, R E

    1994-06-01

    Thirty-seven cases of latah are examined within the author's Malay extended family (N = 115). Based on ethnographic data collected and a literature review, cases are readily divisible into two broad categories: habitual (N = 33) and performance (N = 4). The first form represents an infrequent, culturally conditioned habit that is occasionally used as a learned coping strategy in the form of a cathartic stress response to sudden startle with limited secondary benefits (i.e., exhibiting brief verbal obscenity with impunity). In this sense, it is identical to Western swearing. Performers are engaged in conscious, ritualized social gain through the purported exploitation of a neurophysiological potential. The latter process is essentially irrelevant, akin to sneezing or yawning. It is concluded that latah is a social construction of Western-trained universalist scientists. The concept of malingering and fraud in anthropology is critically discussed.

  6. Visual Acuity after Cataract Surgery in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report No. 5

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Nancy; Nicholson, Benjamin P.; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Bressler, Susan B.; Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate visual acuity outcomes after cataract surgery in persons with varying severity of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 1232 eyes of 793 participants who underwent cataract surgery during the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of nutritional supplements for treatment of AMD. Methods Preoperative and postoperative characteristics of participants who underwent cataract extraction during the 5 year trial were analyzed. Both clinical data and standardized red-reflex lens and fundus photographs were obtained at baseline and annually. Photographs were graded by a centralized reading center for cortical and posterior subcapsular lens opacities and for AMD severity. Cataract surgery was documented at annual study visits or by history during the 6 month telephone calls. Analyses were conducted using multivariate repeated-measures regression. Main Outcome Measures Change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after cataract surgery compared with preoperative BCVA. Results Adjusting for age at time of surgery, gender, interval between preoperative and postoperative visits, and type and severity of cataract, the mean changes in visual acuity were as follows: eyes with mild AMD (n=30) gained 11.2 letters (95% confidence interval (CI), 6.9-15.5), eyes with moderate AMD (n=346) gained 11.1 letters (95% CI, 9.1-13.2), eyes with severe AMD (n=462) gained 8.7 letters (95% CI, 6.7-10.7), eyes with non-central geographic atrophy (n=70) gained 8.9 letters (95% CI, 5.8-12.1), and eyes with advanced AMD (central geographic atrophy and/or neovascular) AMD (n=324) gained 6.8 letters (95% CI, 4.9-8.8). The visual acuity gain across all AMD severity groups was statistically significant from pre-operative state (P<0.0001). Conclusions Mean visual acuities improved significantly after cataract surgery across varying degrees of AMD severity. PMID:24613825

  7. Benefit of Measuring Anterior Segment Structures Using an Increased Number of Optical Coherence Tomography Images: The Chinese American Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Benjamin Y.; Israelsen, Paul; Pan, Billy X.; Wang, Dandan; Jiang, Xuejuan; Varma, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the benefit of analyzing an increased number of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images on measurement values of various anterior segment parameters. Methods Subjects for this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based study in Los Angeles, CA. Thirty-two AS-OCT images were acquired from one eye each of 83 consecutive subjects. Sixteen parameters were analyzed in each image, including angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular iris space area (TISA), trabecular iris angle (TIA), scleral spur angle (SSAngle), lens vault (LV), pupillary diameter (PD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), iris area (IA), and anterior chamber area (ACA). Data from 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 OCT images were averaged across subjects to calculate the range and mean of measurement values for each parameter. Results Anatomical variations were poorly captured with fewer OCT images for AOD, ARA, TISA, SSAngle, IA, and LV. For these parameters, the range and mean of measurement values obtained from one OCT image deviated from 32-image values by up to 43.9% and 13.3% of the 32-image mean, respectively. These deviations decreased when additional OCT images were analyzed. Deviations from 32-image range and mean values were less pronounced regardless of image number for PD, ACD, ACW, and ACA, measuring up to 3.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Conclusions A multi-image approach should be the standard in OCT-based studies of AOD, ARA, TISA, TIA, SSAngle, IA, and LV. PMID:27893097

  8. An excerpt from an eye-tracking comparative study between Poland and Japan with the use of Force Concept Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosiek, Roman; Sajka, Mirosława; Ohno, Eizo; Shimojo, Atsushi; Iwata, Michiru; Wcisło, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a comparative Polish-Japanese study. The research was conducted at the Department of Mathematics, Physics and Technical Science at the Pedagogical University of Cracow and at the University of Hokkaido. The participants of the study were university students of humanistic courses. The research concerns the comparison of the respondents' knowledge and understanding of the concept of force in mechanics and their ways of solving problems in the field of a basic mechanics course. A special theoretical tool was used. It was the standardized, international test diagnosing the understanding of the concept of force - the so-called "Force Concept Inventory" (FCI), in its official Polish and Japanese translations. The eye-tracking method was combined with structured interviews and discussions with all the respondents.

  9. Asian population frequencies and haplotype distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes among Chinese, Malay, and Indian in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi Chuan; Chan, Soh Ha; Ren, Ee Chee

    2008-11-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) gene frequencies have been shown to be distinctly different between populations and contribute to functional variation in the immune response. We have investigated KIR gene frequencies in 370 individuals representing three Asian populations in Singapore and report here the distribution of 14 KIR genes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1) with two pseudogenes (2DP1, 3DP1) among Singapore Chinese (n = 210); Singapore Malay (n = 80), and Singapore Indian (n = 80). Four framework genes (KIR3DL3, 3DP1, 2DL4, 3DL2) and a nonframework pseudogene 2DP1 were detected in all samples while KIR2DS2, 2DL2, 2DL5, and 2DS5 had the greatest significant variation across the three populations. Fifteen significant linkage patterns, consistent with associations between genes of A and B haplotypes, were observed. Eighty-four distinct KIR profiles were determined in our populations, 38 of which had not been described in other populations. KIR haplotype studies were performed using nine Singapore Chinese families comprising 34 individuals. All genotypes could be resolved into corresponding pairs of existing haplotypes with eight distinct KIR genotypes and eight different haplotypes. The haplotype A2 with frequency of 63.9% was dominant in Singapore Chinese, comparable to that reported in Korean and Chinese Han. The A haplotypes predominate in Singapore Chinese, with ratio of A to B haplotypes of approximately 3:1. Comparison with KIR frequencies in other populations showed that Singapore Chinese shared similar distributions with Chinese Han, Japanese, and Korean; Singapore Indian was found to be comparable with North Indian Hindus while Singapore Malay resembled the Thai.

  10. Geological history and oceanography of the Indo-Malay Archipelago shape the genetic population structure in the false clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris).

    PubMed

    Timm, Janne; Kochzius, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Like many fishes on coral reefs, the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, has a life history with two different phases: adults are strongly site attached, whereas larvae are planktonic. Therefore, the larvae have the potential to disperse, but the degree of dispersal potential depends primarily on the period of the larval stage, which is only 8-12 days in A. ocellaris. In this study, we investigated the genetic population structure and gene flow in A. ocellaris across the Indo-Malay Archipelago by analysing a fragment of the mitochondrial control region. Population genetic analysis, using AMOVA, revealed a significant and high overall phi(ST)-value of 0.241 (P < 0.001), clearly showing limited gene flow. Haplotype network analysis detected eight distinct clades corresponding mainly to different geographical areas, which were most probably separated during sea level low stands in the Pleistocene. The distribution of the clades among the different populations indicated slow partial re-mixing mainly in the central region of the archipelago. Major surface currents seem to facilitate larval dispersal, indicated by higher connectivity along major surface currents in the region (e.g. Indonesian Throughflow). Four main groups were found by the hierarchical AMOVA within the archipelago. These different genetic lineages should be managed and protected as separate ornamental fishery stocks and resource contributing to the genetic diversity of the area. Regarding the high diversity and the differentiation among areas within the Indo-Malay Archipelago of A. ocellaris populations, the centre-of-origin theory is supported to be the main mechanism by which the high biodiversity evolved in this area.

  11. Dose-dependent protection by azelastine eye drops against pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Horak, F; Berger, U E; Menapace, R; Toth, J; Stübner, P U; Marks, B

    1998-04-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) eye drops at three different doses (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.1%) were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 24 subjects with a history of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis, who were challenged, out of season, by airbone allergen in the "Vienna Challenge Chamber" (VCC). Subjects received a single dose of azelastine eye drops 60 min before the start of a 4 h challenge in the VCC. Additional local challenge, mimicking a gust of wind, was administered 15 min before the end of the session. Each of the 4 study days was separated by a 2 week washout period. Azelastine eye drops showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the development of itching of the eyes. The effect was most pronounced 15 min after the additional local challenge. A maximal effect was achieved at a dose of 0.05%. Similar effects were observed on lacrimation. Azelastine eye drops also dose-dependently inhibited the degree of conjunctival redness, measured by digital imaging, and tended to reduce the low incidence of chemosis observed. Ranking of the results of all symptoms for each treatment group confirmed the optimal effect at a dose of 0.05%. Azelastine eye drops had no effect on nasal and bronchial symptoms or on measurements of airways function (FEV1). No adverse effects of the treatments were reported. The data support the use of 0.05% azelastine eye drops in the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis/rhinoconjunctivitis.

  12. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  13. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  14. A thermographic study on eyes affected by Age-related Macular Degeneration: Comparison among various forms of the pathology and analysis of risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Biagini, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Sodi, Andrea; Corvi, Andrea; Virgili, Gianni; Rizzo, Stanislao

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate (1) the ocular thermographic profiles in eyes affected by Age related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities that could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, (2) whether any risk factors associated with the disease could affect the development of a form of AMD rather than another. Thirty-four eyes with Age-Related Maculopathy (ARM), 41 eyes with dry AMD, 60 eyes affected by wet AMD, and 74 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included in the study. The control group consisted of 48 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, systemic diseases and a body temperature higher than 37.5 °C. A total of 210 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The Ocular Surface Temperature (OST) of five ocular areas was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test, one-way ANOVA test and multivariate analysis were used for statistical analyses. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P-value > 0.05), however, OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P-value < 0.0001). Smokers showed higher possibility (P-value = 0.012) of developing wet AMD instead of dry AMD. Infrared thermography may be a helpful, non-invasive and not time-consuming method to be used in the management of patients with this common degenerative maculopathy.

  15. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students