Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N
Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.
Tan, Sin Yee; Hatah, Ernieda
Background Research utilization is part of evidence-based practice referring to the process of reviewing and critiquing scientific research and applying the findings to one's own clinical practice. Many studies on research utilization have been conducted with doctors and nurses, but to our knowledge, none have been investigated amongst pharmacists. Objective To assess research utilization and its barriers among pharmacists and identify potential influencing factors. Setting Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional survey was administered online and by mail to a convenient sample of pharmacists working in hospitals, health clinics, and retail pharmacies in rural and urban areas. Main outcome measure Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results Six hundred surveys were mailed to potential respondents, and 466 were returned (77.7% response rate). Twenty-eight respondents completed the survey online. The respondents' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices were found to be moderate. Research utilization was associated with respondents' knowledge and attitude scores (P < 0.001). When factors related to research utilization were modelled, higher educational level was associated with higher level of research utilization (P < 0.001) while less involvement in journal clubs, more years of service (3-7 years and more than 7 years) were associated with low and moderate research utilization, respectively. The main reported barrier to research utilization was lack of sufficient authority to change patient care procedures. Conclusion Pharmacists' research utilization knowledge, attitudes, and practices can be improved by encouraging pharmacists to pursue higher degrees, promoting active participation in institutions' journal clubs, and introducing senior clinical pharmacist specialization.
Afroz, Rafia; Rahman, Ataur; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi; Akhtar, Rulia
The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.
Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Sze Fang, Kelly Num; Lui, Lai Yun
This study was conducted to evaluate knowledge of undergraduate pharmacy students about human papillomavirus infection and their attitude towards its prevention. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 270 undergraduate pharmacy students using a validated questionnaire to assess knowledge about human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer and their attitudes towards human papillomavirus vaccines. Eighty-one percent of the respondents knew that human papillomavirus is a cause of cervical cancer, and 87.8 % knew that this infection is preventable. The gender of the respondents showed the strongest correlations with human papillomavirus knowledge. There were no significant correlations between the ethnic group of the respondents and their human papillomavirus-related knowledge. Higher perceptions of risk were associated with relationship status, and respondents who were in a relationship showed greater interest in vaccinating themselves; relationship status emerged as a unique predictor. The results indicated a moderately high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards human papillomavirus vaccination with few disagreements. The results of this study will help to develop and plan appropriate education campaigns for pharmacy students that aim to reduce human papillomavirus infection and, consequently, the incidence of and mortality caused by cervical cancer in Malaysia.
Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin
Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness
Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A Syed; Hassali, Mohamed A; Anwar, Mudassir; Wasif, G; Khan, Amer H
This study was intended to evaluate the mental health literacy vis-à-vis depression among inhabitants of Penang state in North Malaysia. Using a clustered random sampling method, 1,855 respondents were approached to participate in the survey. A total of 1,149 respondents actually participated, for a 61.9% response rate. Face to face interviews were then conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD +/-11.5). The majority (n = 884; 76.9%) could recognize three or more symptoms of depression. Chinese and/or female respondents performed the best in this domain. Respondents with a personal experience of depression displayed a significantly better knowledge of symptoms of and therapies for depression than those who did not (t = -35.745, P = <0.001). Overall, a moderate knowledge level of the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge towards therapy were observed among the general population in Penang. Notably, respondents were generally inclined towards the use of alternative medicine. The study suggests that strong beliefs in alternative and traditional medicines could undermine the respondents' willingness and ability to seek evidence-based mental health care.
De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896
De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa
Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.
Background There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population. Methods Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers. Results Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (± SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 ± 2.66 (maximum possible score
Tee, Yvonne; Huang, Mary
Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV have been widely documented, and have extended their impact into the workplace. Stigmatising attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the workplace significantly hinder HIV prevention efforts and indirectly affect national development. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and assess attitudes towards PLHIV among the general staff of Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), as well as to identify factors that are associated with it. Self-administered questionnaires were posted to a total of 344 general staff from six randomly selected faculties, and they were a given a week to return the questionnaires. The response rate was 38%. Data were analysed using Pearson's correlation, independent t-test and multiple linear regression. The respondents showed a considerably high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (mean knowledge score of 15.57+/-1.93 out of 18 points) although there were some misconceptions (N=129). Likert scale responses to 20 attitude statements revealed that respondents generally had moderately positive attitudes toward PLHIV (average score of 69.65+/-10.08 out of 100 points). Attitudes were inconsistent when it involved direct contact and interaction with PLHIV. Factors significantly associated with level of knowledge and attitudes included age, education and income. There was no difference in mean score for knowledge and attitudes by gender. Further efforts are necessary to improve attitudes of the general staff towards PLHIV, particularly in areas of direct contact with PLHIV.
Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman
This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…
Lugova, H; Wallis, S
Behavioural impact programmes are especially effective for dengue control and prevention. Universities are key settings for health promotion, so understanding factors that influence the practice of dengue prevention within a university community becomes important. This study aimed to examine the factors affecting dengue knowledge, attitude and preventive practices amongst students and staff of a public university. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 372 students and staff of the NDUM were recruited by stratified sampling method. Data were collected via self-administered pre-tested structured questionnaires covering socio-demography and dengue KAP. Data were analysed descriptively. For bivariate analysis, Chi square test was applied. To explore the factors independently associated with the practice of dengue prevention, a logistic regression model was introduced. Overall, the participants had moderate dengue-related knowledge, good attitudes and good preventive practices. The majority had misconceptions about mosquito biting habits (83.8 %), seasonality of dengue epidemics (73.2 %), and mosquito breeding sites (70.3 %). Staff were more likely to have good dengue-related knowledge (p < 0.001) and attitudes (p = 0.008) than students. There was statistically significant positive association between the level of dengue knowledge and monthly average household income (p = 0.008), age (p < 0.001) and education (p < 0.001). Having good attitudes towards dengue was associated with being a non-Malay (p = 0.034), having higher monthly average household income (p = 0.047) and tertiary education (p < 0.001). In regression analysis, only dengue knowledge and dengue attitudes were significantly and positively associated with practice of dengue prevention. Dengue preventive strategies amongst university students and staff should focus on maintaining good dengue-related preventive practices
Kamaluddin, Megat Ahmad; Abdul Razak, Ahmad Zabidi; Abdul Wahid, Afiq Athari
Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the study were reported in the form of descriptive statistics involving frequencies and percentages. Data from 400 respondents were analyzed. Results Our findings showed that the students understood the definition of healthy food and the types of food that are considered healthy. Although the students knew that food such as deep-fried drumsticks and hamburgers contain a high amount of saturated fat and cholesterol, these foods were still consumed by them. There was also a high consumption of foods that are fried and contain sugar, salt and saturated fat. In choosing food, two major factors contributed to the students’ decisions: cleanliness (65.8%) and the preference of their parents (12.3%). Discussion Our findings indicate that by implementing the Integrated School Health Program (ISHP) properly, students’ eating habits can be improved by creating a school with a healthy environment. PMID:27904803
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05). Most of them (88.8%) were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%). The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5%) and their partners (87.4%) have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24–30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377–0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019–8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented. PMID:28208724
Assessing the Knowledge Level, Attitudes, Risky Behaviors and Preventive Practices on Sexually Transmitted Diseases among University Students as Future Healthcare Providers in the Central Zone of Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Folasayo, Adigun Temiloluwa; Oluwasegun, Afolayan John; Samsudin, Suhailah; Saudi, Siti Nor Sakinah; Osman, Malina; Hamat, Rukman Awang
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms. HIV remains the best known STD (83.6%) by the students, while chlamydia (26%) and trichomoniasis (21.0%) were rarely known. Gender, age group, educational level and faculty type were strongly associated with knowledge level (p-values < 0.05). Most of them (88.8%) were aware that STD screening was important while use of condoms was protective (63.8%). The majority of them strongly felt that treatment should be sought immediately if they (85.5%) and their partners (87.4%) have symptoms. Among the sexually-active students, 66.7% and 18% had sexual intercourse with multiple partners and commercial sex workers, while 17.4% and 9.4% took alcohol and drugs before having sex, respectively. By logistic regression analysis, students aged 24-30 years old (an odds ratio (AOR) = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.377-0.859) and faculty type (AOR = 5.69, 95% CI = 4.019-8.057) were the significant predictors for the knowledge level. Knowledge on the non-HIV causes of STDs is still lacking, and the risky behavior practiced by the sexually-active students in this study is alarming. There is a need to revisit the existing STD education curriculum in both schools and universities so that appropriate intervention on STDs can be implemented.
Olesen, Angelina Patrick; Nor, Siti Nurani Mohd; Amin, Latifah
While pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is available and legal in Malaysia, there is an ongoing controversy debate about its use. There are few studies available on individuals' attitudes toward PGD, particularly among those who have a genetic disease, or whose children have a genetic disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is, in fact, the first study of its kind in Malaysia. We conducted in-depth interviews, using semi-structured questionnaires, with seven selected potential PGD users regarding their knowledge, attitudes and decisions relating to the use PGD. The criteria for selecting potential PGD users were that they or their children had a genetic disease, and they desired to have another child who would be free of genetic disease. All participants had heard of PGD and five of them were considering its use. The participants' attitudes toward PGD were based on several different considerations that were influenced by various factors. These included: the benefit-risk balance of PGD, personal experiences of having a genetic disease, religious beliefs, personal values and cost. The study's findings suggest that the selected Malaysian participants, as potential PGD users, were supportive but cautious regarding the use of PGD for medical purposes, particularly in relation to others whose experiences were similar. More broadly, the paper highlights the link between the participants' personal experiences and their beliefs regarding the appropriateness, for others, of individual decision-making on PGD, which has not been revealed by previous studies.
Michaud, Lois I.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes held by counseling psychologists about alcoholics and alcoholism, and to determine the relationship between these attitudes and the individual's level of experience, knowledge and training in the alcoholism domain. Although counseling psychologists typically deal with developmental issues,…
Taherpour, M; Sefidi, F; Afsharinia, S; Hamissi, JH
Objective: The present study was done to assess the effects of training on knowledge and attitude level promotion of post menopause women about menopause. Methods & Material: The research communication included 100 menopausal women aged 45-60 years, who were selected in a stratified manner (according to the economic status: poor, average, and good). The tool used was an examiners-made questionnaire, which contained 3 parts: demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude measurement. Results: Eleven percent of the studied women had a low knowledge regarding menopause and 1% was good. After training, 27% got a good knowledge and no one remained at the low level. The attitude of 59% of the studied women regarding menopause was positive and 80% got a positive attitude after training. A significant relation was found between knowledge and attitude, before and after training. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the majority of women judge menopause as a positive incident, it seems that paying attention to their training caused the bringing to their knowledge of the natural menopause and having a healthy and jolly life. PMID:28255401
Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'
Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…
Zaidi, Mohd Azian; Baharuddin, Mohd Nurfaisal; Bahardin, Nur Fadhilah; Yasin, Mohd Fadzil Mat; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Deraman, Rafikullah
The aims of this paper is to identify a key dimension of knowledge transfer component to improve construction organization performance. It investigates the effectiveness of present knowledge transfer practices currently adopted by the Malaysian construction organizations and examines the relationship between knowledge transfer factors and organizational factors. A survey among 151 respondents including a different contractor registration grade was employed for the study. The survey shows that a seven-teen (17) factors known as creating shared awareness for information sharing, communication, personal skills,individual attitude,training, organizational culture, information technology,motivation, monitoring and supervision, service quality,information accessibility, information supply, socialization process,knowledge tools, coaching and monitoring, staff briefing and information sharing were identify as a key dimension for knowledge transfer success. This finding suggest that through improvement of each factor, the recognition of the whole strategic knowledge transfer process can be increase thus helping to strengthen the Malaysian construction organization for competitive advantages.
Shafaei, Azadeh; Abd Razak, Nordin; Nejati, Mehran
Based on Berry's seminal work on the acculturation process, this study examines the pattern of acculturation attitude among international postgraduate students in Malaysia, an emerging education hub in Asia. It also investigates the influence of several demographic factors (gender, geographical region, marital status, and education level) and…
Mansbridge, B; Fisher, S
A total of 147 outpatients waiting for a prescription to be filled at a hospital pharmacy were tested on their knowledge about diazepam (Valium). Subjects scored highest on questions about the effects of a small overdose, the drug's interaction with alcohol and hypnotics, and the relative contraindications of pregnancy and breast-feeding. Subjects were least knowledgeable about the drug's generic name, side effects, and interaction with minor stimulants (coffee, tea, cola, and cigarettes). Subjects who had previously used diazepam (N = 97) knew significantly more than subjects who had never taken it, but subjects waiting for a diazepam prescription to be filled (N = 40) were not more knowledgeable than subjects having another type of prescription filled. In contrast to recent findings that increasing patients' drug knowledge via "Patient Package Inserts" (PPIs) may also create an overcautious attitude toward the drug, the present study finds that diazepam knowledge gained experimentally is accompanied by an attitude shift away from such overcautiousness.
The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…
Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Srikanth, Akshaya B.; Abdurhaman, Norny Syafinase; Jamshed, Shazia Q.; Awad, Ammar Ihsan; Binti Ab Hadi, Hazrina
Objective: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students’ demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception. Conclusion: Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results. PMID:25984548
Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah
Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sylvester, Michele; Zakuan, Norhayati; Ismail, Khalid; Mat Ali, Kamarudin
The development of e-commerce has increased the popularity of online shopping worldwide. In Malaysia, it was reported that online shopping market size was RM1.8 billion in 2013 and it is estimated to reach RM5 billion by 2015. However, online shopping was rated 11th out of 15 purposes of using internet in 2012. Consumers' perceived risks of online shopping becomes a hot topic to research as it will directly influence users' attitude towards online purchasing, and their attitude will have significant impact to the online purchasing behaviour. The conceptualization of consumers' perceived risk, attitude and online shopping behaviour of this study provides empirical evidence in the study of consumer online behaviour. Four types of risks - product risk, financial, convenience and non-delivery risks - were examined in term of their effect on consumers' online attitude. A web-based survey was employed, and a total of 300 online shoppers of a Malaysia largest online marketplace participated in this study. The findings indicated that product risk, financial and non-delivery risks are hazardous and negatively affect the attitude of online shoppers. Convenience risk was found to have positive effect on consumers' attitude, denoting that online buyers of this site trusted the online seller and they encountered less troublesome with the site. It also implies that consumers did not really concern on non-convenience aspect of online shopping, such as handling of returned products and examine the quality of products featured in the online seller website. The online buyers' attitude was significantly and positively affects their online purchasing behaviour. The findings provide useful model for measuring and managing consumers' perceived risk in internet-based transaction to increase their involvement in online shopping and to reduce their cognitive dissonance in the e-commerce setting.
Takeshita, Y J; Tan Boon Ann; Arshat, H
The data for this study are from the 1974 Malaysian Fertility and Family Survey. The analysis focuses on the responses given by about 6000 women to the question whether they would approve or disapprove of induced abortion under each of the following conditions: poor health, contraceptive failure, unwanted pregnancy, lack of finances, rape, and unmarried status. There was substantial endorsement of induced abortion if the pregnancy is due to rape (71%) but a progressively diminishing amount of endorsement of all other conditions: unmarried (54.3%), health (52.2%), lack of finances (34.5%), contraceptive failure (19%), and unwanted pregnancy (12.3%). A Guttman scale analysis is applied to the responses, coded "1" if "yes" or "depends" and as "0" if "no". A set of attitude items is said to form a Guttman scale if the items fall along a contimuum in a cumulative manner such that an endorsement of any 1 item implies endorsement of all items falling below it. The application of Guttman scale analysis reveals tht the 6 items do arrange themselves in this order. This study demonstrates that there was in the mid-1970s a fairly consistent patern of attitudes with respect to induced abortin in Peninsular Malaysia. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of the Guttman scale analysis. A replication of this study with more recent data would be useful in documenting any changes in attitudes towards induced abortion in Malaysia.
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Glenn, Cherie; Dattilo, John
Survey of therapeutic recreation professionals' attitudes toward persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and knowledge of AIDS found no significant relationship between knowledge and attitudes but a positive relationship between attendance at workshops and knowledge. Professionals who knowingly cared for persons with AIDS expressed…
Stone, R; Waszak, C
A focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the United States revealed that they lacked accurate knowledge about abortion and the laws governing it. Most expressed erroneous beliefs about abortion, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging and widely illegal. The study also revealed that antiabortion views, conservative morality and religious beliefs were the primary sources of these adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. In general, the participants in the study said they were personally opposed to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful, and in some cases could cause harm.
Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H
Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Bentley, Kia J.; And Others
A survey of 260 graduate social work students found their knowledge of and attitudes toward psychotropic medication uneven and lower than desirable. Results also suggest personal and professional experiences influence knowledge and attitudes. It is recommended that social work course content be expanded to include relevant information on these…
Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.
The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…
Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla
This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…
Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.
This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Simon, Richard M
The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.
The 1984 Current Population Estimates on 2 Malaysian states, Sabah and Sarawak, has just been published by the Department of Statistics. This report, which describes population trends between 1980-84, is part of a new series aimed at providing information on current population estimates. The population of Sabah grew at an annual rate of 3.7% in 1980-84, while growth rates were 2.4% for Sarawak and 2.5% for Peninsular Malaysia. Of sabah's 1984 population of 1.2 million, 1 million were classified as indigenous persons and .2 million were Chinese. In Sarawak the population was 1.4 million, 1 million of whom were indigenous and .4 million were Chinese. 39% of Sarawak's 1984 population consisted of persons below 15 years of age and 4% were age 65 years or over. In Sabah, these proportions were 44% and 2%, respectively. Also recently published is a population report for the state of Melake based on data from the 1980 Census. According to the Census, Melaka had a population of 464,754 persons, representing 3.4% of Malaysia's total population of 13.7 million. The Census enumerated 81,102 households, with an average of 5.4 persons in each. During the 1970-80 intercensal period, Melaka's annual growth rate was 1%. About 23% of the population lived in urban areas. The median age of the population was 19.4 years in 1980, which is 2.9 years older than in 1970. The total fertility rate was 4/woman in 1980. 65% of those aged 12 years and over had completed a primary education, and 77% of those aged 10 years and over were literate.
Rashwan, Hesham H; Saat, Nur Zakiah N Mohd; Abd Manan, Dahlia Nadira
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students.
Ling, Chen Wai; Sandhu, Manjit S.; Jain, Kamal Kishore
Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the views of executives working in an American based multinational company (MNC) about knowledge sharing, barriers to knowledge sharing, and strategies to promote knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: This study was carried out in phases. In the first phase, a topology of organizational mechanisms for…
The official government policy in Malaysia is to reduce the rate of population growth through decreasing fertility levels and a program of economic and social restructuring. Population policy was conceived as encompassing wider dimensions than family planning, with emphasis on spatial distribution policies. The first Population and Housing Census was undertaken by the government in 1970. Regular decennial census taking occurred between 1891 and 1957. Birth and death registrations are considered incomplete. Population issues are integrated by various organizations into their ongoing programs such as those of the Ministries of Health, Education or Agriculture. The National Family Planning Board, an interministerial body in the Prime Minister's Department, has input from development planning units. A population studies group was established within the Economic Planning Unit. The total 1980 population was 13,640,000; the rate of population growth was 2.6 from 1975-80. Life expectancy was 61.3. Morbidity and mortality rates have dropped because of disease control and malnutrition reduction. 7.4% of the population are foreign born. Spatial distribution is to be adjusted through rural land development and resettlement; promotion of industrial development in low-income states; development of new growth centers and towns; and, urban development and renewal.
Marko, George Franklin
The study aimed at constructing, validating, and testing two instruments, one of which measured attitude change toward Civil Defense adult education, and one which measured level of knowledge about Civil Defense practices; and evaluating the effectiveness of the Personal and Family Survival (PFS) Course in terms of attitude change and knowledge…
Levine, Tamar; Donitsa-Schmidt, Smadar
Introduces a causal model which links measures of computer experience, computer-related attitudes, computer-related confidence, and perceived computer-based knowledge. The causal model suggests that computer use has a positive effect on perceived computer self-confidence, as well as on computer-related attitudes. Questionnaires were administered…
Simon, Richard M
Research into the public understanding of science has revealed that the effect of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science is contextualized by gender; however there has not yet been an account of how gender contextualizes knowledge. This paper investigates how gender identification affects attitudes toward science, and tempers the effects of scientific knowledge on attitudes toward science. Utilizing data from the Eurobarometer 52.1, it is predicted that when males perceive a threat to their masculinity (as measured by a perceived threat to their financial security) they will become more likely to be aversive to biotechnology, and that increased levels of perceived threat will reduce the effects of knowledge on attitudes toward biotechnology. Moreover, it is predicted that these effects will be smaller than their female counterparts. All predictions are affirmed.
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Samsiah, A.; Othman, Noordin; Jamshed, Shazia; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi
Objective To explore and understand participants’ perceptions and attitudes towards the reporting of medication errors (MEs). Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interviews of 31 healthcare practitioners from nine publicly funded, primary care clinics in three states in peninsular Malaysia was conducted for this study. The participants included family medicine specialists, doctors, pharmacists, pharmacist assistants, nurses and assistant medical officers. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the data was guided by the framework approach. Results Six themes and 28 codes were identified. Despite the availability of a reporting system, most of the participants agreed that MEs were underreported. The nature of the error plays an important role in determining the reporting. The reporting system, organisational factors, provider factors, reporter’s burden and benefit of reporting also were identified. Conclusions Healthcare practitioners in primary care clinics understood the importance of reporting MEs to improve patient safety. Their perceptions and attitudes towards reporting of MEs were influenced by many factors which affect the decision-making process of whether or not to report. Although the process is complex, it primarily is determined by the severity of the outcome of the errors. The participants voluntarily report the errors if they are familiar with the reporting system, what error to report, when to report and what form to use. PMID:27906960
de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth
Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice.
Mustapha, Ramlee; Abdullah, Abu
The emergence of a knowledge-based economy (k-economy) has spawned a "new" notion of workplace literacy, changing the relationship between employers and employees. The traditional covenant where employees expect a stable or lifelong employment will no longer apply. The retention of employees will most probably be based on their skills…
Ahmad, B; Ramadas, A; Quek, K F
The study's aim was to construct and validate a diabetes mellitus knowledge questionnaire in Bahasa Malaysia for Orang Asli (OA-DKQ). The questionnaire was administered to; case (Orang Asli) and control (administrative staff) groups at baseline and retested two weeks later. The Cronbach's Alpha was used to determine internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine test-retest reliability. The OA-DKQ has an internal consistency of 0.806. These findings suggest the OA-DKQ is an acceptable instrument to assess knowledge and preventive behaviour in Orang Asli (86 words).
Rashwan, Hesham; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Ni, Kiat Aun
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women in peninsular Malaysia and very prevalent worldwide. HPV vaccination and routine Pap smear testing are the best preventive measures. The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge level of secondary school students from Sarawak, East Malaysia regarding cervical cancer and its prevention. Multistage random sampling with various methods in each step was employed to select the sample of 76 students. Results showed that 61.8% had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer and its prevention. There were 60.5% of students who were aware of cervical cancer with Chinese and form four students showing significantly the highest awareness (p<0.05). The main source of cervical cancer information was from their parents (25.9%). HPV vaccination acceptance among students was 22.3% and an association was found between knowledge of cervical cancer with race and HPV vaccination acceptance (p<0.05). In conclusion, the students had poor knowledge level of cervical cancer, its prevention and HPV vaccination acceptance. More efforts should be made to improve cervical cancer knowledge and awareness of the public especially secondary school students in Sarawak. This in turn will enhance the practice of prevention against cervical cancer among students.
Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili
The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.
Helmi, Asleena; Ahmad, Zainal Ariffin; Hung, Daisy Kee Mui
The knowledge management or KM discipline conjures a host of understanding and impact upon the global business community albeit commercially or socially. Regardless of the different approach to KM, it has inarguably brought about changes in viewing the knowledge capabilities and capacities of organizations. Peter Drucker (1998) argued that knowledge has become the key economic resource and the only source of competitive advantage. Hence organizational learning is an integral part of KM initiatives and has been widely practiced in many large organizations and across nations such as Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Thus, this paper explores the KM initiatives of government link companies (GLCs) in Malaysia via synergizing knowledge strategy and capabilities in order to achieve competitive advantage.
Parsa, Parisa; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Rahman, Hejar Abdul
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the knowledge and practices of 425 female secondary school teachers from 20 selected secondary schools in Selangor, Malaysia on breast cancer screening (BCS). A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. This study showed moderate to low knowledge on breast cancer (BC) and BCS among teachers. Only 19%, 25% and 13.6% eligible women performed breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography respectively, on a regular basis. Level of breast cancer knowledge was significantly associated with BSE (p<0.001). Having heard/ read about BCS, and regular visit with a physician were associated with BCS behaviors (P<0.05). There was no association between BCS behaviors (P>0.05) and age, family history of breast cancer, marital status or having health insurance. Efforts are needed to increase knowledge and remove misconceptions about breast cancer and screening practices among Malaysian women.
Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh
Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548
Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.
Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and…
Discussion of knowledge management focuses on a case study of an organizational research department that began implementing information management initiatives. Highlights include the role of the department, including organizing and disseminating different types of information; identifying stakeholders; upgrading skills; communications to all…
Alkandari, Sarah A.; Alyahya, Lolwa; Abdulwahab, Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Dentists as health care providers should maintain a competence in resuscitation. This cannot be overemphasized by the fact that the population in our country is living longer with an increasing proportion of medically compromised persons in the general population. This preliminary study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of general dentists towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 licensed general dental practitioners working in ministry of health. Data were obtained through electronic self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data of general dentists, and their experience, attitude and knowledge about CPR based on the 2010 American Heart Association guidelines update for CPR. RESULTS: Totally 208 general dentists took part in the present study giving a response rate of 83.2%. Only 36% of the participants demonstrated high knowledge on CPR, while 64% demonstrated low knowledge. Participants’ age, gender, nationality, years of experience, career hierarchy, and formal CPR training were associated significantly with CPR knowledge. Almost all the participants (99%) felt that dentists needed to be competent in basic resuscitation skills and showed a positive attitude towards attending continuing dental educational programs on CPR. CONCLUSION: This study showed that majority of general dental practitioners in Kuwait had inadequate knowledge on CPR. It was also found that CPR training significantly influenced the CPR knowledge of the participants. Therefore, training courses on CPR should be regularly provided to general dentists in the country. PMID:28123615
Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki
This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia.
Nazni, Peerkhan; Vimala, Srinivasan
Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60–69per cent) compared to weight lifters (43per cent) who had satisfactory (50–59per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70–79per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. Conclusion The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements. PMID:22375196
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael
This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Grant, John A.
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad
This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…
Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.
Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.
Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866
Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly
Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.
Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…
Matthews, Elizabeth; Malcolm, Colette
Nursing a patient in pain is a challenging task requiring up-to-date knowledge, skilled interventions and attitudes that convey trust, care and an honest belief in what the patient says (Carr, 1997). This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of nurses who have completed a knowledge and competency training programme within an orthopaedic centre (Group one) against a group of nurses who were attending a pain conference who had not completed this programme (Group two). The questionnaire used was the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (Ferrell and McCaffery, 2002). Findings from the survey revealed that there was no significant difference in the total correct responses between the two groups and there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to questions about non-pharmacological methods of treating pain and opioid use in chronic pain conditions. However Group one had a higher correct response rate (p=0.001) in the vignettes that are based on daily nursing practice.
Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ≤35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ≤5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980
Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija
This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…
Menke, J. Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M.; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman
Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Results. Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (±10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care. PMID:24701573
This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)
Jackey, Beverly A; Cotugna, Nancy; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth
Few recent studies have investigated food label practices in older adults. This cross-sectional study surveyed adults, 60 years and older in Delaware (n = 100, 82% female, 74% between 60 and 79 years, 49% Caucasian, 45% African Americans) to examine associations between food label knowledge, attitudes, and usage patterns. A 28-item questionnaire assessed knowledge, attitudes, usage, and demographic information. Bivariate analysis results showed food label knowledge was associated with education and monthly income. Those reporting a high school education or less incorrectly identified calorie (P < 0.05) and carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Monthly income ≤$2000 was associated with incorrectly interpreting carbohydrate information (P < 0.03). Label usage was associated with being female (P < 0.001), having a high school education or less (P < 0.000), being 70 years or older (P < 0.05), and having a monthly income ≤$2000 (P < 0.001). Respondent's usage and perceived label comprehension was high; however less than half could correctly interpret label information. When shown samples of the US Food and Drug Administration's proposed new labels, subjects had a very favorable attitude toward the new changes. Increasing nutrition knowledge through education interventions appropriate for older adult consumers may improve comprehension of information on the food labels.
Vijay, Aishwarya; Bazazi, Alexander R.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.
Background Little is known about attitudes toward and experiences with opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) among people who inject drugs in Malaysia, a country where people who inject drugs comprise 1.3% of the adult population. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs in Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were surveyed to evaluate attitudes toward and experience with OMT and treatment readiness. Attitudes towards OMT with both methadone and buprenorphine were assessed using an opinions scale. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess correlates of treatment readiness, measured with the 19-item Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Few had had previous experience with methadone (9.3%) or buprenorphine (12.6%) maintenance therapy, yet many had used methadone (55.2%) or buprenorphine (51.7%) outside of treatment settings. Fifteen percent had injected buprenorphine in the past month, and of the few that were currently receiving buprenorphine maintenance therapy, almost all were injecting it. The majority of subjects exhibited a moderate level of treatment readiness and a preference for methadone over buprenorphine. Those with low treatment readiness scores were more likely to have previous experience with compulsory drug detention centers (p<0.01), needle/syringe exchange programs (p<0.005), or be of Indian ethnicity (p<0.001). Past use of methadone (p<0.01), older age (p<0.001), stress symptom severity (p<0.001), and sharing of needles or syringes (p<0.05) were associated with higher treatment readiness scores. Conclusion There are suboptimal levels of OMT experience among people who inject drugs that may be improved by addressing factors that influence patient attitudes. Those individuals with moderate treatment readiness may be targeted by brief motivational and cognitive interventions in primary care, prisons or OMT clinics
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272
Maring, W; van Schagen, I
A number of factors related to bicycle accidents were studied, namely, knowledge of priority rules, attitude and self-reported behavior regarding traffic rules, and general opinions about the safety of the traffic behavior of cyclists and drivers. In order to get an indication of the influence of these factors at different stages of the life span, subjects ranging from 9 to 83 years of age were represented in the study. The relationship between age and the various measures was found to be U-shaped in most cases. The older cyclists and the 9 to 11 year olds, the two groups that are most at risk, were deficient regarding knowledge while showing the most positive attitudes. Implications with respect to possible counter measures are discussed.
Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark
Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674
Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers.
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes and…
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Johnson, Faye C. Stucy
A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)
Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam
Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897
Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah
This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind. PMID:20186642
Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T
Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (p<0.01). Percutaneous injuries occurred in 87.5 percent of those exposed. All students (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools.
Daud, Nurul Ain Mohd; Bond, Tim
This narrative ethnographic study aims to explore students' attitudes towards guidance and counselling services in one secondary school in Malaysia. Semi-structured individual interviews, group interviews and observations were conducted with school students of different racial backgrounds. They were identified as referred clients, self-referred…
Ortiz, Mario I.; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.
Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643
Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A
Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.
Chia, Patricia Ching Yen; Lian, Wee Bin
INTRODUCTION Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in children is rare but significant, with poor survival rates and high morbidity. Asystole is the most common dysrhythmia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is of great importance in such cases. We aimed to survey the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of parents in Singapore regarding infant basic life support (IBLS). METHODS A questionnaire survey was administered to parents of children managed at the Neonatal Department of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between 1 September and 31 December 2008. The questionnaire consisted of three sections – section A collected demographic data, section B included questions on knowledge, and section C explored attitudes and perceptions. Knowledge T-scores were analysed for the entire cohort and subanalysed with respect to prior IBLS training. RESULTS In our study cohort (n = 375), the median Basic Knowledge (BK) T-score was 7 (range 1–9) and the pass rate was 55%. Median BK T-scores were significantly different between untrained (6; range 3 –9) and previously trained (8; range 3–9) participants. A majority of the trained participants obtained pass marks. Median Total Knowledge T-score, involving advanced questions, for previously trained participants was 11 (range 3–14), but pass rate was low (35.7%). Higher educational qualification was a significant factor impacting all scores. Untrained participants indicated interest in attending IBLS courses, while trained participants were interested in refresher courses. CONCLUSION IBLS training, as part of basic cardiac life support training, is important given that CPR can significantly alter the outcome in children with CPA. Our survey revealed knowledge gaps that could be bridged through formal training. Refresher courses to regularly update parents’ knowledge are recommended. PMID:24664380
Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C; Cheung, Mary Mae M; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A
Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.
Chen, C J; Jallaludin, R L
In recent years, the concept of a Health-Promoting School has received much interest. In Malaysia, dental nurses are ideally placed to play a lead role in promoting Oral Health within the school setting. This study aims to provide information on the knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion in schools, among dental nurses. A postal questionnaire was used to measure dental nurses' knowledge, perception and perceived role of Oral Health Promotion. The majority (60%) of dental nurses had good knowledge of Oral Health Promotion. Generally, they perceived that they play an important role in promoting Oral Health in schools. However, a sizeable proportion (25%) did not think they had a role to play in working together with school authorities to provide children with healthy food choices in school canteens. The majority (60%) of dental nurses did not perceive Oral Health Promotion to be important as a whole. They had a good perception of the concepts: it supports behaviour change, it has appropriate goals, it integrates oral health and general health and relieves anxiety. However, they had a poorer perception of the concepts; diverse educational approaches, participation, focus on prevention, early intervention, "spread of effect" of dental health education and "make healthier choices the easier choices". Years of service was not significantly associated with knowledge and perception of Oral Health Promotion. Dental nurses should be reoriented towards a more holistic practice of Oral Health Promotion. Workshops that invite active participation from dental nurses should be conducted to equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills.
The study focused on the effects of the Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Park's (DWNP) environmental education program on the environmental knowledge and attitudes of the secondary school students. Conducted between May 11, 1998 and August 11, 1998, this study was designed to reflect three objectives: (1) to determine the effect of participation in the DWNP's environmental education program on environmental knowledge and attitudes of 13--17 year old Malaysian students, (2) to identify demographic factors that contribute to the change of environmental knowledge and attitudes, and (3) to establish base line data for future evaluation of the effectiveness of DWNP's environmental education program. The sample was comprised of 806 randomly selected students from 10 different schools, with 402 randomly assigned to the experimental grouped and 404 to the control group. Pretest and post-tests were administered at the schools. The experimental group was exposed to the Environmental Education Program (EEP) at the Environmental Education Center (EEC) at Bukit Rengit, Lanchang, Pahang, Malaysia sometime between May 14, 1998 and August 8, 1998. At the EEC, the experimental group was again divided, with half receiving the pretest and post-test, while the other half were given only the post-test. The instrument used in this study was a modification of the Children's Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge Scale (CHEAKS) developed by Leeming, et al. (1995). This instrument had sound psychometric properties suitable for this research setting, and allowed comparisons of results with previous studies. T-tests, ANOVA, and ANCOVA were used to determine group differences. Overall, secondary school students in the experimental group showed a significantly greater change in environmental knowledge than did students in the control group. Significant differences were also found on the Attitude sub-scale, with the control group exhibiting negative change in attitude, and slightly
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians' attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of 'accidents' and fatalism. Participants were 14-26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah ('accident') signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah ('injury') was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.
Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei
In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies.
Sabran, Siti Fatimah; Mohamed, Maryati; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzelly
This study documented ethnomedical knowledge of plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and its related symptoms as practiced by the Jakun community of Kampung Peta, situated in Endau Rompin Johor National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Eight key informants were selected by snowball sampling technique and data about medicinal plants were collected by semistructured interviews, participatory observations, and focus group. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using thematic analysis. There were 23 species of plants (22 genera, 20 families) documented and herbarium specimens were deposited at the UTHM Herbarium. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus was recorded for the first time with ethnomedical uses while other species were previously reported. The qualitative approach employed in this study demonstrates the emic perspective in terms of perceptions on traditional herbal medicine, transfer of knowledge, significant taboos related with medicinal plants, and their conservation efforts. Local and biomedical terminology in treatment of TB showed substantial correspondence. The outcomes obtained in the study are worth being further investigated for conservation strategies and are worthy of verifying their ethnomedical claims scientifically. PMID:26881002
Noraddin, Enas Mohamed; Kian, Neo Tse
Digital (or computer) games have been extremely attractive to gamers of all ages, especially the young ones. They spend much time playing such games for pleasure and entertainment. Harnessing digital games for education has been attempted in some advanced countries where teachers seemed to be receptive to the idea. In Malaysia no major study has…
Said, Abdul Hadi
Objectives Dyslipidaemia is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in Malaysia. This study assessed the awareness, knowledge and practice of lipid management among primary care physicians undergoing postgraduate training in Malaysia. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Postgraduate primary care trainees in Malaysia. Participants 759 postgraduate primary care trainees were approached through email or hard copy, of whom 466 responded. Method A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their awareness, knowledge and practice of dyslipidaemia management. The total cumulative score derived from the knowledge section was categorised into good or poor knowledge based on the median score, where a score of less than the median score was categorised as poor and a score equal to or more than the median score was categorised as good. We further examined the association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data. Associations were considered significant when p<0.05. Results The response rate achieved was 61.4%. The majority (98.1%) were aware of the national lipid guideline, and 95.6% reported that they used the lipid guideline in their practice. The median knowledge score was 7 out of 10; 70.2% of respondents scored 7 or more which was considered as good knowledge. Despite the majority (95.6%) reporting use of guidelines, there was wide variation in their clinical practice whereby some did not practise based on the guidelines. There was a positive significant association between awareness and the use of the guideline with knowledge score (p<0.001). However there was no significant association between knowledge score and sociodemographic data (p>0.05). Conclusions The level of awareness and use of the lipid guideline among postgraduate primary care trainees was good. However, there were still gaps in their knowledge and practice which are not in accordance with standard guidelines. PMID:28249849
Shiota, M; Matsubara, S; Kamei, M; Iwamoto, K
A questionnaire on smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking-related diseases and attitudes toward the passive exposure to smoking was administered and results analyzed for differences in (1) region, (2) major area of study in the university, (3) grade and (4) date of survey on smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude of the freshmen students. (1) 294 urban and 217 provincial university students, (2) 138 freshmen at the Department of Pharmacology and 156 freshmen at the Department of Technology, (3) 136 freshmen of Y. University and 158 freshmen in senior high school of Yamaguchi prefecture, and (4) 217 freshmen surveyed in 1990 and 136 freshmen surveyed in 1995 were the subjects. The results were as follows; 1) The percentage who had smoked once ranged from 0 to 3% among the senior high school girls and female students at minor universities. However, the percentage for male students ranged from 26% to 44% in each survey. There were clear gender differences in smoking behavior. 2) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 30.9% for urban students and 38.6% for provincial university students, but was not a significant difference. There were no significant differences between urban and provincial students regarding knowledge of smoking-related diseases or attitudes toward passive smoke. 3) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 44.0% for the Department of Pharmacology and 26.2% for the Department of Technology, a significant difference. There were no significant differences between pharmaceutical and engineering students in knowledge of smoking-related diseases or attitudes toward passive smoke. 4) The proportion of students who admitted that they had smoked cigarettes was 27.4% for university freshmen and 1.6% for senior high school freshmen. There was a significant difference between the two. The percentage who replied that the smoker must be considerate to non-smokers tended to be higher in the
Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597
Lee, Hui Key; Abdul Halim, Hishamuddin; Thong, Kwai Lin; Chai, Lay Ching
Institutional foodborne illness outbreaks continue to hit the headlines in the country, indicating the failure of food handlers to adhere to safe practices during food preparation. Thus, this study aimed to compare the knowledge, attitude, and self-reported practices (KAP) of food safety assessment and microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands as an indicator of hygiene practices in food premises. This study involved 85 food handlers working in a university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The food safety KAP among food handlers (n = 67) was assessed using a questionnaire; while the hand swabs (n = 85) were tested for the total aerobic count, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The food handlers had moderate levels of food safety knowledge (61.7%) with good attitude (51.9/60) and self-reported practices (53.2/60). It is noteworthy that the good self-reported practices were not reflected in the microbiological assessment of food handlers’ hands, in which 65% of the food handlers examined had a total aerobic count ≥20 CFU/cm2 and Salmonella was detected on 48% of the food handlers’ hands. In conclusion, the suggestion of this study was that the food handlers had adequate food safety knowledge, but perceived knowledge failed to be translated into practices at work.
Giddings, L S; Wood, P J
All nurses should be adequately prepared for assisting clients with issues relating to sexuality. This article describes a descriptive study undertaken between 1988 and 1991 which used a questionnaire to survey the knowledge and attitudes of New Zealand pre- and post-registration nursing students regarding sexuality. The results of this study have previously been available only in an unpublished report. As interest in this area of research is increasing overseas, and as it is now time to consider resurveying New Zealand nurses, it is useful to have a summary of the findings available to a wider audience. Phase One analysed the responses of a convenience sample of 319 registered nurses undertaking a one-year post-registration programme in four New Zealand schools of nursing in either 1988 or 1989. Phase Two analysed 575 questionnaires completed by a convenience sample of nursing students in their first and/or third years of a three-year programme leading to nursing registration. Analysis of the 35 true/false items showed that students near the completion of their programme were as knowledgeable or more knowledgeable than registered nurses, although there were areas where both groups lacked information. Analysis of the 33 items measuring attitudes on a 5-point Likert scale suggested that the attitudes of both pre- and post-registration students were more liberal than conservative, but with some differences discernible when participants were grouped by demographic variables. Importantly, the study found that 55% of pre-registration students, and 88% of registered nurse participants, felt that nurses were inadequately prepared for helping clients with concerns about sexual matters. The findings are compared with those of studies undertaken overseas this decade.
Kopp, Steven W
End of life decisions, such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS), have continued to be controversial as health care policy, moral, and individual health care issues. This study considers knowledge of end of life options and death attitudes as predictors of attitudes toward PAS. Data were gathered from approximately 300 adults through a mailing sent to a household research panel. Validated measures of attitudes toward PAS, knowledge about that state's assisted suicide laws, demographics, and attitudes toward death as measured through the Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAP-R) were collected and analyzed. The data indicate that attitudes toward PAS are a function of knowledge of end of life options as well as death attitudinal factors.
Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909
Shabudin, Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad; Said, Noor Azzah; Rahim, Rashidah Abdul; Ng, Theam Foo
This study aims to examine Malaysia's involvement in the Polar Regions, in the context of education, outreach, and communication (EOC), and consequently, to determine the effectiveness of these initiatives. Using qualitative and quantitative research analyses, this study found that Malaysia's experiences in EOC can be used to increase public…
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions.
The use of cannabis for medical purposes remains controversial. Since support from general practitioners would be needed for the successful operation of a legalised prescription regime, New South Wales Northern Rivers general practitioners were surveyed on their attitudes to and knowledge of medicinal cannabis. A representative random sample of general practitioners, stratified by age and gender, was derived and interviewed. Results indicated generally high levels of knowledge of cannabis's medical uses. The mean number of patients seen in 2004 with medicinal cannabis-treatable conditions was 66.8, with chronic pain patients accounting for 36.7. Overwhelming majorities of respondents reported they would prescribe medicinal cannabis if it were legal, professionally supported and backed by research and that they would approve of clinical trials and a legalised regulatory scheme under such conditions. These results suggest the need to conduct a Statewide general practitioners' survey to confirm or refute the present findings.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive
Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.
Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371
Awan, K.H.; Khan, S.; Abadeen, Z.; Khalid, T.
Aims Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity. Material and methods Second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students completed a self-administered questionnaire. An ethics committee approved the study. Participants were asked questions focused on three areas: (i) knowledge, (ii) perceptions, and (iii) attitudes about obesity. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20. Results Among the dental students, 78.9% received 0–1 h of formal education about obesity. The mean score of the total time allocated for obesity-related education was 1.31 ± 0.23 h. Eighty-nine percent of the dental students agreed that obesity is a chronic medical condition, 30% agreed that they would modify their equipment and office furniture to accommodate obese patients, and 46.8% were interested in learning more about obesity in dental school. Conclusion Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health. PMID:26792969
This study questions the presumed relation between formal schooling and scientific literacy about biotechnologies. Comparing science and nonscience majors' knowledge of and attitudes toward biotechnological applications, conclusions are drawn if their formal learnings improve pupils' understandings of and attitudes toward biotechnology applications. Sample of the study consists of 403 undergraduate and graduate students, 198 nonscience, and 205 science majors. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire and the Biotechnology Attitude Questionnaire were administered. Descriptive statistics (mean and percentages), t test, and correlations were used to examine the participants' knowledge of biotechnology and attitudes toward biotechnological applications and differences as regards their majors. Although the science majors had higher knowledge and attitude scores than the nonscience majors, it is not possible to say that they have sufficient knowledge of biotechnologies. Besides, the participants' attitudes toward biotechnological applications were not considerably related to their knowledge of biotechnology. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2016.
Markovic, Nina; Muratbegovic, Amra Arslanagic; Kobaslija, Sedin; Bajric, Elmedin; Selimovic-Dragas, Mediha; Huseinbegovic, Amina; Cuković-Bagic, Ivana
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) regarding signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect (CAN), reporting procedure and level of education. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administrated structured questionnaire adopted and modified from previous studies. It was administrated to 300 dentists out of which a total number of 210 subjects were in final sample for statistical analyses. Response rate was seventy percent. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze statistical differences in responses. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dentists in BH are very rarely provided (80%) with training related to recognition and reporting of CAN. Sixty six percent of dentists had never suspected CAN in their practice. Only nine percent of dentists would report suspicious of CAN. Prevailing reasons for not reporting suspected case of CAN was lack of knowledge of the reporting procedure (43%), and combination of indicated answers that never had a case and lack of knowledge about the procedure (31%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that dentists need an effective education to increase their knowledge and awareness of all aspects of CAN. PMID:26889093
Pulford, Andrew; Malcolm, William
The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals forms an important component of ongoing surveillance of post-marketing drug safety. The extension of responsibility for all health professionals to report ADRs has coincided with national immunization programmes, such as the national childhood immunization, human papillomavirus (HPV), and seasonal and H1N1 influenza programmes. The study objective was to evaluate knowledge of, and attitudes to, reporting ADRs among the professional groups most likely to see suspected reactions to vaccines. This included nursing professionals, whose views have not been included in previous studies. A survey of 91 practice nurses, health visitors, school nurses and GPs working in Ayrshire and Arran during June, July and August 2007 was undertaken. The respondents' knowledge of ADR reporting varied considerably. Although the majority of respondents recognized that it is the responsibility of health professionals to report suspected ADRs, there were lower levels of knowledge about the purpose of the Yellow Card system specifically; less than 50% of the respondents reported good knowledge about the system. The study suggests implications for practice with regard to the implementation of large-scale immunization programmes and potential solutions to under-reporting among these professional groups.
Snyder, Rachel J; Zweig, Richard A
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and sexuality, and contact with elders. The current study found that psychology students demonstrated greater aging knowledge than medical students; however, both groups showed gaps in knowledge about sexuality. Married students had greater academic/clinical exposure and greater knowledge about aging but less permissive attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Generally, knowledge about aging was the strongest correlate of knowledge about sexuality. Level of knowledge about sexuality was not associated with attitudes. Attitudes toward sexuality and aging may be more strongly tied to demographic variables reflective of religious beliefs or adherence to sociocultural norms.
Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.
Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…
Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bin Zakaria, Nazrin; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim
Objective. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer in the early identification of risk factors among undergraduate dental students. Methods. A total of 162 undergraduate (third, fourth, and fifth year) dental students at International Islamic University, Malaysia, were approached to participate in the study, and those who agreed were administered. A 9-item pretested questionnaire contains questions on oral examination, oral cancer risk factors, and requests for further information. Descriptive statistics were conducted using chi-square testing. Results. The response rate of the study was 70.3% (114/162), with 26 (22.8%) males and 88 (77.2%) females. All undergraduate dental students were familiar with examining the oral mucosa of their patients and most were likely to advise patients about the risk factors for developing oral cancer (98.2%). Nearly one-third (32.4%) of students reported examining patients with oral lesions as early signs for oral cancer (P < 0.001) and nearly 70% agreed that they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer (P < 0.001). In addition, more than 95.6% agreed that there is a need for additional information/teaching regarding oral cancer. Further, 61.3% and 14.1% identified tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol as major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Conclusion. This study demonstrated lack of awareness about risk factors among undergraduate dental students regarding oral cancer. Reinforcing awareness and enhancing the benefits of early detection on prevention of oral cancer should be done through training and/or educational intervention. PMID:26839548
Wong, Li Ping; Raja Muhammad Yusoff, Raja Nur Amalina; Edib, Zobaida; Sam, I-Ching; Zimet, Gregory D.
The National HPV Immunization Programme, which offers free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to teenaged female students, was launched in Malaysia in 2010. HPV vaccination paired with adequate knowledge about HPV infection provides the best protection against cervical cancer. To identify the level of knowledge and the health beliefs towards HPV and the HPV vaccine among HPV-vaccinated female students in Malaysia. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among 14 years old female students who had received three doses of the HPV vaccine was conducted in 32 randomly selected schools from 13 states and 3 federal territories in Malaysia between February 2013 and April 2013. Among 2482 respondents, knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was extremely poor. The mean total knowledge score was only 3.56 (SD ± 1.76), out of a possible score of 10. The majority of respondents were unaware that vaccinating boys with HPV can help protect girls against HPV infection (91.6%), HPV cannot be cured (81.6%) and that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (70.3%). Most of the respondents had the misconception that only females get HPV (95.1%), and that the HPV vaccine eliminates the need for Pap smear tests (68.3%). Most respondents (91.6%) believed that they would not get an HPV infection. Almost half of the respondents (42.9%) held the misconception that HPV infection could not lead to serious illness. Findings revealed poor knowledge about both HPV and the HPV vaccine, low perceived susceptibility to HPV infection and misinformation about HPV infection among HPV-vaccinated girls. Therefore, it is essential to increase the knowledge and awareness of health risks regarding HPV infection among teenaged girls who have received the HPV vaccine. PMID:27656876
Wong, Li Ping; Raja Muhammad Yusoff, Raja Nur Amalina; Edib, Zobaida; Sam, I-Ching; Zimet, Gregory D
The National HPV Immunization Programme, which offers free human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines to teenaged female students, was launched in Malaysia in 2010. HPV vaccination paired with adequate knowledge about HPV infection provides the best protection against cervical cancer. To identify the level of knowledge and the health beliefs towards HPV and the HPV vaccine among HPV-vaccinated female students in Malaysia. A nationwide cross-sectional survey among 14 years old female students who had received three doses of the HPV vaccine was conducted in 32 randomly selected schools from 13 states and 3 federal territories in Malaysia between February 2013 and April 2013. Among 2482 respondents, knowledge about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine was extremely poor. The mean total knowledge score was only 3.56 (SD ± 1.76), out of a possible score of 10. The majority of respondents were unaware that vaccinating boys with HPV can help protect girls against HPV infection (91.6%), HPV cannot be cured (81.6%) and that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (70.3%). Most of the respondents had the misconception that only females get HPV (95.1%), and that the HPV vaccine eliminates the need for Pap smear tests (68.3%). Most respondents (91.6%) believed that they would not get an HPV infection. Almost half of the respondents (42.9%) held the misconception that HPV infection could not lead to serious illness. Findings revealed poor knowledge about both HPV and the HPV vaccine, low perceived susceptibility to HPV infection and misinformation about HPV infection among HPV-vaccinated girls. Therefore, it is essential to increase the knowledge and awareness of health risks regarding HPV infection among teenaged girls who have received the HPV vaccine.
Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…
Almutairi, Aqeel Munahi; Ansari, Tahir; Sami, Waqas; Baz, Salah
Objectives: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occurring in 6.54 out of every 1000 individuals. The current study was conducted to determine the level of public awareness of and attitudes toward epilepsy in the city of Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Majmaah, Saudi Arabia. The study population included respondents derived from preselected public places in the city. Stratified random sampling was used, and the sample size was made up of 706 individuals. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection from respondents after receiving their verbal consent. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 2.0. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of Majmaah University. Results: The results showed that 575 (81.4%) of the respondents had heard or read about epilepsy. Almost 50% of the respondents knew someone who had epilepsy, and 393 (55.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure. Results showed that 555 (78.6%) respondents believed that epilepsy was neither a contagious disease nor a type of insanity. It was found that 335 (47.5%) stated that epilepsy was a brain disease, and almost one-quarter of the respondents said that the manifestation of an epileptic episode is a convulsion. Regarding attitude, 49% and 47.3% of respondents stated that they would not allow their children to interact with individuals with epilepsy and would object to marrying an individual with epilepsy, respectively. Conclusion: Although knowledge about epilepsy is improving, it is still not adequate. The study showed that the attitude toward epilepsy is poor. PMID:27695227
National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.
This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…
Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.
The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512
Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf
The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Rose, Ryda Dwarys
Relationships of science attitudes, science content, and process knowledge to initial science teaching behaviors were studied among 25 student teachers of a liberal arts college. The 13-subject experimental group was subjected to an elementary school methods course with emphases upon positive attitudes and process knowledge. The control group was…
Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.
The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…
Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan
International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen
In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…
Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…
Napier, John D.
The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie
Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…
Huerta-Franco, Raquel; And Others
Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…
A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge…
Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela
The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly
Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
Edmonson, Barbara; And Others
The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Wong, Kwan Yie; Pan, Kok Chang; Shah, Shahanum Mohd
This study examined the utilisation of multicultural music education by Malaysian music teachers, with an emphasis on the relationship between music teachers' attitudes and their subsequent degree of effort in developing and implementing multicultural music education in their music classes. Respondents for the study were 456 music teachers;…
Sivagnanam, G; Bairy, K L; D'Souza, Urban
The global statistics reveal that at least one in every five women experiences rape or attempted rape during her lifetime. Rape myths encompass a set of (false) beliefs. Adolescents have high rates of rape victimization than other age groups. Rape myths among health care providers may have a negative influence on proper care of the victims. A total of 422 medical undergraduates of both sexes, studying at two Malaysian Institutes took part in the study. A validated questionnaire used in an earlier study was used for the present study, with a slight modification of scoring system. The age range of medical students was 17 to 34 years: mean +/- SD of men and women, were 20.6 +/- 2.1 and 20.3 +/- 2 respectively. Only about 19% of women and 11% of men had a very good positive attitude. Nearly 1/3 of women and 1/2 of men had a more negative attitude. On the whole the average total score of women was significantly higher (p=0.0004) than men. Nearly 50% of candidates with a village background carried more negative attitude. Violence against women is a significant public health problem. The major revelation of the present study is that only less than 20% of the medical undergraduates had a more positive attitude towards rape. Introduction of courses on 'sexual violence' in medical curriculum is likely to increase a) awareness, b) skills in management, c) in providing support and care for the victims and d) in implementing preventive actions.
Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai
Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651–6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration. PMID:27447655
Donati, S; Grandolfo, M; Spinelli, A; Medda, E
During 1993-94, 5 sex information programs were conducted in various secondary schools in Rome, involving a total of 292 students whose age ranged from 14 to 21 years. The courses were organized in 5 sessions lasting 2 hours each and were held by a specialist in obstetrics and gynecology. Visual teaching materials were presented, followed by discussions. The initiative was evaluated by means of 3 questionnaires: the pretest questionnaire on attitudes and knowledge about reproductive health; the second was administered at the end of the course about recommendations; and the third one verified the modification of the knowledge level 4 months later. 20-50% of the students answered correctly all questions about reproductive health before the course and 70-100% of them at the end of 4 months. 95% of the sample thought that the school should provide information about sexuality and 74% of the students suggested that it should be introduced in the lower grades of secondary schools. The major subjects requested were hygiene and sexually transmitted diseases (75%), sexuality and psychological aspects (68%), and infections (65%). Information about reproductive physiology and contraception among young people was obtained from friends (74%), books and journals (57%), parents (42% for boys and 56% for girls), the school (25%), family counseling (4%), and the family physician (3%). The fertile period of the menstrual cycle was correctly stated by 48% in the pretest sample, 88% after the course, and 93% 4 months later. 87% of the subjects knew that the condom also offers protection against sexually transmitted diseases, but 25% said that it has no expiration date. 23% of the students did not know that abortion is legal in Italy. Family counseling should focus on prevention activities for the school-age population.
La Torre, Giuseppe; Scalingi, Stefania; Garruto, Veronica; Siclari, Marco; Chiarini, Massimiliano; Mannocci, Alice
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group of professionals exposed to biological risk during their work activities. So, the aim of this study is to perform a survey on the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Italian HCWs towards the vaccinations recommended by the Ministry of Health. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period September 2014–August 2015 in the Lazio region. The study was conducted by recruiting HCWs and biomedical students. The sample was comprised of 571 responders, of whom 12.4% were physicians, 18.9% were nurses, 34.3% were other HCW, and 34.3% were biomedical students (medical and nurses students). Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is perceived as a risk for personal health by 457 (80%) participants; TB is also worrying (434; 76%). Moreover, HBV (70.9%) and tuberculosis (TB) (79.2%) are perceived as a risk for health, while influenza is not considered so by most participants (46.2%). There is an underestimation of the role of influenza, perceived as a risk for 137 respondents (24%). The vaccination rate among these HCWs is highest for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (82%), and lowest for influenza (28.5%) and varicella (40.3%). The vast majority of responders are in favour of HBV (77.8%) and TB (64.8%) vaccines. For other vaccinations there is less interest (between 33% and 40% for measles, mumps, rubella, pertussis and influenza). This study shows that knowledge of recommended occupational vaccinations is insufficient in HCWs, with few exceptions represented by HBV and TB. There is a need for novel approaches in this field, with the aim of enhancing vaccine coverage among HCW. PMID:28272332
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals.
Domínguez-Carral, J; López-Pisón, J; Macaya, A; Bueno Campaña, M; García-Pérez, M A; Natera-de Benito, D
Advances in genetic testing applied to child neurology have enabled the development of genetic tests with greater sensitivity in elucidating an etiologic diagnosis for common neurological conditions. The objective of the current study was to examine child neurologists' perspectives and insights into genetic testing. We surveyed 118 Spanish child neurologists, exploring their knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning genetic tests. All of them had requested at least one genetic test in the past six months. Global developmental delay or intellectual disability in absence of a strong specific etiologic suspicion and autism spectrum disorders were the disorders for which genetic testing was most frequently requested. The most commonly requested genetic test was CGH-array. Overall, child neurologist perception of readiness for making genetic-related decisions was not bad, although many would like to have a greater support from geneticists and were interested in increasing the time dedicated to genetics within their continuing education program. These data have important implications for future practice, research, and education.
Olesen, A; Nor, S N; Amin, L
Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) represents the first fusion of genomics and assisted reproduction and the first reproductive technology that allows prospective parents to screen and select the genetic characteristics of their potential offspring. However, for some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be, at a minimum, worrying and, at most, repugnant. Religious doctrines particularly are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. This paper focuses on opinions and arguments of selected religious scholars regarding ethical issues pertaining to PGD. In-depth interviews were conducted with religious scholars from three different religious organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Findings showed that Christian scholars are very sceptical of the long-term use of PGD because of its possible effect on the value of humanity and the parent-children relationship. This differs from Islamic scholars, who view PGD as God-given knowledge in medical science to further help humans understand medical genetics. For Buddhist scholars, PGD is considered to be new medical technology that can be used to save lives, avoid suffering, and bring happiness to those who need it. Our results suggest that it is important to include the opinions and views of religious scholars when it comes to new medical technologies such as PGD, as their opinions will have a significant impact on people from various faiths, particularly in a multi-religious country like Malaysia where society places high value on marital relationships and on the traditional concepts of family.
Beauvais, Audrey; Foito, Kim; Pearlin, Nina; Yost, Eileen
Relatively few nursing students choose to specialize in geriatric nursing. While increased clinical exposure and improved knowledge of the elderly have been proposed to manage this staffing dilemma, successful strategies have not been identified. This study examined nursing students' attitudes and knowledge about the elderly, before and after service learning experiences in Senior Citizen Centers. Through these interventions, students had significantly improved attitudes and knowledge about the elderly.
Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi
Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed.
Chan, M F
Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.
López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J
Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results.
Rwiza, H T; Matuja, W B; Kilonzo, G P; Haule, J; Mbena, P; Mwang'ombola, R; Jilek-Aall, L
Before a health education program can be established, one must first know what the target population believes and does with respect to the disease in question. Therefore, we performed a study among Tanzanian rural inhabitants to identify their knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward epilepsy: 3,256 heads of households (mean age 40.2 years, range 15-90 years; M/F ratio 1:1) were interviewed. Of the respondents, 32.9% said they had never seen a seizure; 67.7% said they did not know the cause of epilepsy; 33.3% mentioned various causes including heredity, witchcraft, infection of the spinal cord, hernia; 40.6% believed epilepsy was infectious through physical contact, flatus, breath, excretions, sharing food; 36.8% believed epilepsy could not be cured and 17.1% believed it could not even be controlled; 45.3% believed epilepsy could be treated by traditional healers, and only 50.8% believed hospital drugs were of any use; and 62.7% of the respondents would not allow an epileptic child to go to school for various reasons, including mental subnormality (54.0%), fear of the child falling while alone (65.9%), and fear that the epileptic child would infect other children (11.2%). Concerning what is to be done when a seizure occurs, 33.5% of the respondents would keep away and not touch the person; 16.5% would take some potentially harmful measure such as forcing a mouth gag or forcing a drink such as water (1 even mentioned urine); 5.2% would take unnecessary measures such as rushing the patient to a hospital. Only 35.7% of respondents would perform at least some of the currently recommended first-aid measures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila
Introduction Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Results Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31–40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Conclusion Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations. PMID:26813231
The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay translation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 among a community sample of 554 Malaysian women. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors, two of which (Information and Internalization-Athlete) mirrored those found among Western samples. An additional factor was an amalgamation of two factors reported in the West, namely Pressure and Internalization-General. A fourth factor consisted of six items, four of which cross-loaded onto previous factors, and was consequently dropped from analyses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three retained factors were all above .82, and the three factors were significantly correlated with each other and with participants' body mass index. The results of this study stress the need for locally developed scales in the study of body image and a shift away from reliance on scales developed in the West.
Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Denby, Ramona W.; Brinson, Jesse A.; Ayala, Jessica
This study examined community-based clinicians' (N = 294) attitudes, background/experiences, values, and knowledge relating to issues of co-occurring disorders, which occur at a high rate among adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Study results reveal that clinicians self-rate their clinical values and attitudes at or above the…
Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.
This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…
Golding, Natalie S.; Rose, John
Background: The aim of this study is to explore support workers' attitudes and knowledge towards individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to see whether a new attitude scale needs to be developed. Method: Support workers from a charitable organization located in the West Midlands in the United Kingdom participated in one of four focus…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.
Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…
Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.
Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…
Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…
Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant
Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management.
Shepherd, R; Towler, G
Validated questionnaires eliciting information on nutrition knowledge and attitudes, related to fat intake from meat, meat products, dairy products and fried foods, were completed by 538 subjects. There were high correlations (ranging from 0.40 to 0.77) between the sums of belief-evaluations, attitudes, intention and self-reported behaviour, with similar correlations for a subgroup of males aged 35-54 years. Nutrition knowledge, showed some statistically significant (but small) negative correlations with components of attitudes. Females had higher nutrition knowledge scores and more negative views of the foods than did males. Fat intake, measured using 3 day weighed intakes, correlated with self-reported behaviour (r = 0.55, p<0.01) in a subsample of 30 males, aged 35-54 years. Thus, nutrition knowledge seems less clearly related to consumption of these foods than are more specific beliefs and attitudes.
Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio
Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)
Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra
Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183
Kim, Bryan S. K.; D'Andrea, Michael J.; Gaughen, Kiaka J. S.; Sahu, Poonam K.
This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports significant results and discusses the implications of findings for educational and counseling practice. (Author/MKA)
The aim of this study was to develop two new scales for assessing Turkish public's knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes toward it. A 26-item knowledge scale and a 15-item attitude scale were first developed and then tested using a random selection of adults aged 18 n = 613) from different parts of Istanbul. After item and factor analyses of the knowledge scale, 10 items were omitted. Varimax rotation resulted in three underlying components that explained 35.7% of the variance. As a reliability assessment, the Kuder-Richardson-20 coefficient was 0.72. For the attitude scale one item was excluded after factor analyses. Varimax rotation revealed two underlying components that explained 46.31% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was found to be 0.84. Additionally, it was found that subjects with more knowledge of epilepsy had more positive attitudes toward epilepsy (r = .36, P<0.01).
Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K
This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area.
Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF
ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688
Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.
Bihari, James; White, Arthur
Pre and posttests were given over a three year period to students in an introductory university physics course, a two-quarter, hands-on, laboratory-based, science literacy course with a focus on energy. Attitude items on the tests related to student anxiety and efficacy, discovery, relevance, enjoyment, and interest. Knowledge items on the tests related to course subject matter. Quantitative analysis was used to study relationships between attitude variables, age, gender, subject matter knowledge, and performance in the course.
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It
Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that
Petersen, Cheryl L; Callahan, Margaret Faut; McCarthy, Donna O; Hughes, Ronda G; White-Traut, Rosemary; Bansal, Naveen K
This study evaluated the potential impact of an online spiritual care educational program on pediatric nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. It was hypothesized that the intervention would increase nurses' positive attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and increase nurses' level of perceived spiritual care competence. A positive correlation was expected between change in nurses' perceived attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and change in nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. A prospective, longitudinal design was employed, and analyses included one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, linear regression, and partial correlation. Statistically significant differences were found in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' perceived spiritual care competence. There was a positive relationship between change scores in nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and nurses' spiritual care competence. Online spiritual care educational programs may exert a lasting impact on nurses' attitudes toward and knowledge of spiritual care and their competence to provide spiritual care to children with cancer at the end of life. Additional studies are required to evaluate the direct effects of educational interventions patient outcomes.
Karimi, Narges; Heidari, Mohammad
Background: Epilepsy comprised the highest proportion of neurological problem of childhood stage, which observed mostly in the first decade of life. The dramatic effect of having a seizure in the classroom can be very traumatic for any child. The knowledge and attitude of teachers toward epilepsy have a direct impact on the life of students with epilepsy. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in Kermanshah (West of Iran). 305 teachers from 25 public schools were randomly participated in this study. The questionnaire included 39 items and three sections (demographic information, knowledge, and attitude about epilepsy). Results: In this study, 97% participants had heard or read about epilepsy. Attitude and knowledge about epilepsy was positive in weighted sum of the item responses, but there were deficits in individual items and first-aid management of seizure attacks. There was no meaningful relationship between attitude scores and demographic items, but higher level of education, female gender, and marital status had a positive influence on teachers’ knowledge toward children with epilepsy. Conclusion: The main findings indicated a good knowledge and positive attitude about epilepsy among school’s teachers. Nevertheless, there is still a need to improve certain aspects of knowledge and attitude and first aid management of an epileptic attack among teachers. PMID:26622977
Vereecken, Carine; Maes, Lea
The study investigates the dietary habits of Flemish preschoolers and associations of these habits with both sociodemographic characteristics and the mother's nutritional knowledge and attitudes. A sample of 862 parents of preschoolers from 56 schools completed a questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children's dietary intake, and a nutritional knowledge-and-attitude questionnaire. Regression analysis showed a lower dietary adequacy in children of mothers with low and medium level of education, medium-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food-related health attitude. The highest excess score (representing items that should be avoided or moderated) was found in children of mothers with low education level, without a job, with three or more children, of age less than 30 years, and possessing lower levels of nutritional knowledge and attitude scores for health and taste. The associations of the dietary adequacy and excess scores with sociodemographic background can help practitioners to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions. The associations with the mothers' nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Siebelink, Eline M; de Jong, Menno D T; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show that sexuality and romantic relationships are important aspects in the lives of many persons with intellectual disabilities. Male respondents generally reported more sexual needs than did females. Correlations were found between sexual knowledge and attitudes and between attitudes and experience or needs, suggesting that general behavioral models may be fruitfully used to further explore the topic of sexuality among people with intellectual disabilities.
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.
Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit
This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex.
Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique
Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass
An abortion-attitude scale and an abortion knowledge inventory that may be used by health educators, counselors, and researchers in order to assess attitudes toward abortion, knowledge of abortion, and to determine the relationship between these 2 factors was developed. The information obtained can be used to assist in the development of educati onal programs and curricula and to aid counselors in becoming more helpf ul to the students. The instruments were constructed from a sample of undergraduate students at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. All students were from randomly selected classes and participated voluntarily. The instruments were completed during the summer of 1973. The Abortion-Attitude Scale is a 5-point summated rating scale designed to determine each subject's positive or negative attitude toward abortion as a birth control method. The Abortion-Knowledge Inventory has a 4-option multiple choice format, designed to determine each subject's knowledge about abortion. The mean attitude score for the final administration to 527 students was 116.6 which falls almost halfway between 90 (undecided) and 150 (fully in favor), indicating a generally liberal attitude. The mean knowledge scores for the 527 students was 16.1 which is equal to a percentage score of 54%. In order to determine the relationship between attitudes toward and knowledge of abortion as birth control, scores on the 2 scales were correlated. The results indicate a moderate and statistically significant relationship. It appears that with more knowledge about abortion the students tended to have more favorable attitudes.
There is a paucity of studies that have systematically and comprehensively investigated the knowledge level, attitudes and the pattern of sexual behaviours related to HIV and AIDS in higher education settings in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. This study attempted to fill a void in knowledge. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used, employing a self-administered questionnaire as the main data collection tool. More than 400 higher education students completed a questionnaire assessing their knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS. About three quarters of respondents demonstrated comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS, and the majority of respondents expressed positive attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS. Despite demonstrating high knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, the results show that sexual behaviours among students in higher education are characteristically risky, and do not significantly differ from youth in the general population.
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila
The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119
Longshore, D; Hsieh, S C; Anglin, M D
Among injection drug users (IDUs), AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes have not consistently predicted AIDS risk behavior. This may be due in part to the limited reliability of indexes used to measure drug users' AIDS knowledge and attitudes. In addition, the substantive interpretation of findings is confounded if index reliability is lower for particular demographic groups (e.g., ethnic populations and women). This report is based on 8 measures of AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes in a sample of 332 injection drug users in Los Angeles. The reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes for the overall sample is generally acceptable for the purpose of group comparison (average alpha = .60). But reliability is consistently lower for respondents who are Hispanic (average alpha = .49) and respondents with less formal education (alpha = .56). The reliability of 2 measures of sex-related attitudes is lower for female respondents. It is therefore important that the reliability of knowledge and attitude indexes be assessed not just for drug-user samples as a whole, but also within demographic groups of substantive interest.
Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania
Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills.
Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents' knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
Rahman, Norshariani Abd
This study determined the contribution of predictor factors (i.e. knowledge about the environment as well as internal and environmental factors) on environmental care behaviour among aboriginal students. The knowledge about the environment that was investigated in this research includes environmental knowledge and environmental action knowledge.…
Stalder, Laura D.; And Others
A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)
O'Hanlon, Ann M.; And Others
Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, Knowledge of Aging and the Elderly scale, and Aging Semantic Differential were completed by 387 college students aged 17-85. Knowledge scores were not related to measures of attitudes toward older adults. Older students had higher knowledge scores and more positive attitudes. (SK)
Background Mothers’ poor knowledge and negative attitude towards breastfeeding may influence practices and constitute barriers to optimizing the benefits of the baby-friendly initiative. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and techniques of postures, positioning, hold practice and latch-on among Nigerian mothers from a Semi-Urban community. Methods Three hundred and eighty three consenting lactating mothers who have breastfed for 6 months and up to two years volunteered for this cross-sectional survey, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. A self-administered questionnaire that sought information on maternal socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and breastfeeding techniques of mothers was employed. Results Based on cumulative breastfeeding knowledge and attitude scores, 71.3% of the respondents had good knowledge while 54.0% had positive attitude. Seventy one point three percent practiced advisable breastfeeding posture. Sitting on a chair to breastfeed was common (62.4%); and comfort of mother/baby (60.8%) and convenience (29.5%) were the main reasons for adopting breastfeeding positions. Cross-cradle hold (80.4%), football hold technique (13.3%), breast-to-baby (18.0%) and baby-to-breast latch-on (41.3%) were the common breastfeeding techniques. A majority of the respondents (75.7%) agreed that neck flexion, slight back flexion, arm support with pillow and foot rest was essential during breastfeeding. There was no significant association between breastfeeding posture practice and each of cumulative breastfeeding knowledge score levels (X2 = 0.044; p = 0.834) and attitude score levels (X2 = 0.700; p = 0.403). Conclusion Nigerian mothers demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitude towards breastfeeding. Most of the mothers practiced advisable breastfeeding postures, preferred sitting on a chair to breastfeed and utilized cross-cradle hold and baby-to-breast latch-on. PMID:24359943
Chakradhar, K.; Doshi, D.; Srikanth Reddy, B.; Kulkarni, S.; Padma Reddy, M.; Sruthi Reddy, S.
Background: Of the overall 9.5 million deaths annually in India, nearly 100,000 are due to organ failure. To save and extend lives, organ donation and organ transplantation have become the only hope. Health care professionals (HCPs) are a key element in facilitating cadaveric organ donation process. Objective: To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding organ donation among undergraduate dental students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 298 undergraduate dental students of the Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Hyderabad, India. A 27-item self-administered questionnaire, which assessed the levels of knowledge (Q1–13), positive attitude (Q14–24) and practice habits (Q25–27) regarding organ donation with dichotomous scale (Yes/No). Results: As compared to males, females reported better mean±SD scores in knowledge (8.22±1.51) and practice (0.91±0.8); higher mean±SD attitude scores (8.55±1.56) were reported among males (p<0.001). While second year dental students had higher scores for their knowledge (8.55±1.56) and practice (1.02±0.44) compared to other year of training, third year students showed a significant higher mean attitude score (1.73±1.17) (p=0.02). Hindus and Muslims scored significantly lower mean knowledge, attitude and practice habits compared to others (Christians, Jains and Athesists) (p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between mean knowledge, attitude, and practice habits. Conclusion: There are an average level of knowledge and low levels of positive attitude and practice habits among studied dental students towards organ donation and transplantation. PMID:26889371
Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.
We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…
Nigro, Rogerio Goncalves; Trivelato, Silvia Frateschi
The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other…
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to post test and also retained much of what…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.
Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge, role…
Mousouli, Maria; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Angelopoulou-Sakadami, Nicoletta; Aristotelous, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitudes of physical education undergraduate students towards children with special needs. A questionnaire of seven questions was submitted to 140 physical education students. Questions concerned the knowledge about the different kinds of disability, the acceptance of children with…
McCartney, Kathleen Perry
This study examined the effects of a short-term professional development on the mathematical knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes of intermediate teachers. Participants in the control and experimental groups were pre-tested for knowledge using the eighth grade TCAP Item Sampler. Anxiety was measured through the use of Suinn and Winston's (2003)…
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Sizemore, O. J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.
Students completed surveys at the beginning and end of a sophomore-level course on research and statistics. We hypothesized that the course would produce advances in knowledge of research and statistics and that those changes would be accompanied by more favorable attitudes toward the subject matter. Results showed that knowledge did increase…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R:…
Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James
Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Kotecki, Jerome E.; Torabi, Mohammad R.
Analysis of data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey examined relationships among knowledge, attitude, and behaviors related to interpersonal and self-directed violence. Results found significant relationships among self-directed violence and knowledge, belief, feeling, and intention to act and between interpersonal violent…
Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…
Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly
Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed.
Grabovac, Igor; Abramović, Marija; Komlenović, Gordana; Milosević, Milan; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.
Popovich, D M
This exploratory study assessed pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and patient care practices related to the sexuality of hospitalized preschool and early school-age children. Sexuality was defined as the sum of the physical, emotional, and psychologic attributes that are expressed in gender identity and behavior. For this study, a questionnaire containing 24 attitude, 20 knowledge, and 29 nursing practice Likert-scale items was used to survey 45 pediatric nurses in a southeastern tertiary care teaching hospital. Results indicated that, in general, the nurses surveyed had positive attitudes, sound knowledge, and appropriate practice with regard to the sexuality-related needs of their patients. However, there appeared to be some attitudinal biases and knowledge gaps that could adversely affect nursing practice. These findings were used to alter the content in pediatric nursing education at the study institution.
Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed
This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged < or =6 years in selected kindergartens. The overall knowledge of the parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged <2 years. Age of the parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (p<0.05). Spearman's rank-order correlation between knowledge and attitude scores showed a statistically significant positive linear relationship (r(s), = 0.290, p<0.05). The study provides some insights into the use of cough and cold medications in children from the parents' perspectives.
The Influence of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Abilities, Attitudes towards Science, and Locus of Control on Science Achievement among Form 4 Students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia
Fah, Lay Yoon
The purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of science process skills, logical thinking abilities, attitudes towards science, and locus of control on science achievement among Form 4 students in the Interior Division of Sabah, Malaysia. Research findings showed that there were low to moderate, positive but significant…
Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart
This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child
Sharma, Ankur; Jain, Vishal; Virjee, Karim; Singh, Shilpi
Introduction Role of dentists in prevention and sustainable care of leprosy is known. Changing leprosy scenario has led to requirement of change in leprosy education. However, knowledge and attitude of dental students on leprosy remains unknown. Aim Hence a study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of dental students about Leprosy. Materials and Methods A questionnaire based, cross-sectional survey was conducted among 350 undergraduate and the postgraduate dental students of two dental colleges in Faridabad, India. The score for knowledge ranged from 0 to 16 and scores for attitude ranged from 0 to 26. These scores were further coded as poor, fair and good. Results Mean knowledge score for the sample was 7.64±3.23. A total of 32.29% participants were under poor knowledge category; 57.42% had fair knowledge about Leprosy while 10.29% had good knowledge. Mean attitude score was 15.5 ± 5.98. A total of 30.57% had poor attitude scores, 42.57% had fair scores while 26.86% had good attitude scores. Univariate analysis showed year of training to be a significant predictor for knowledge level (t=7.12; p<0.001). Conclusion The results indicate need for three important changes towards Leprosy in Dentistry. These changes are need for incorporation of leprosy education in Dentistry, need for incorporation of problem based as well as evidence based learning in Dentistry integrated with general health and need for reestablishing public health programs for Leprosy utilizing dental workforce. PMID:27135001
Muller, M T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Kriegsman, D M; van der Wal, G
The objective of the study was to gain insight into the knowledge of and attitudes towards voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide (EEDAS) of Dutch medical students, and to determine whether knowledge and attitudes change after a 1-day informative conference about EDAS. Data were collected by means of two self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 had to be completed before the start of the conference and questionnaire 2 after the conference. In both questionnaires, students were asked by means of two open-ended questions to define euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide. They were also asked to indicate which of eight statements met with the requirements for prudent practice. Finally, the students were asked to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of seven statements about attitudes towards EDAS. To determine if a selection occurred among students who returned both questionnaires, their background characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes towards EDAS were compared with those who returned only the first questionnaire. Forty-seven students returned only the first questionnaire, while both questionnaires were returned by 137 students. No differences were found between students who returned both questionnaires and those who returned only the first questionnaire with regard to age, religion, knowledge of and attitudes towards EDAS. Students' knowledge of the definitions of EDAS and the requirements for prudent practice improved significantly. Students' reactions to the statements on attitudes towards EDAS showed that a large majority had a fairly positive attitude towards EDAS. There was no significant difference before and after the conference. Male students and students with a religion were more opposed to EDAS than female students and students without a religion. The fact that the students' knowledge of EDAS improved after a 1-day conference does not imply sufficient understanding of the issue. Because EDAS is allowed only under
Al-Maskari, Fatma; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Al-Kaabi, Juma M.; Afandi, Bachar; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Yeatts, Karin B.
Introduction Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. Methods A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006–2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. Results Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA1c levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA1c. Conclusions The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease. PMID:23341913
Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Amrollahimishvan, Fatemeh; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah
Purpose: Nurses and physicians must be competent enough to provide care for the clients. As a lack of knowledge and a poor attitude result in a low performance of delivering care, this study aimed to explore the nurses versus physicians’ knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the family members of dying patients (FMDPs). Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at the educational hospitals in Isfahan, Iran. The samples were 110 nurses and 110 physicians. The data were collected through a convenience sampling method and using a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The average knowledge, attitude, and performance on care for the FMDPs were not significantly different between nurses and physicians (p>0.05). The majority of nurses (55.4%) and physician (63.6%) were at a moderate and a fair level of knowledge of care for the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (81%) and physicians (87.3%) had a positive attitude towards caring the FMDPs. Most of the nurses (70%) and physicians (86.3%) had a moderate and fair performance. Conclusion: Having enough knowledge and skills, and a positive attitude are necessary for caring the FMDPs. Nurses’ and physicians' competencies must be improved through continuing educational programs and holding international and national conferences with a focus on the palliative care. PMID:26838571
Brook, U; Geva, D
The purpose of this study was to investigate pupils' knowledge and attitudes in the areas of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). One hundred and four high school pupils in Holon (Israel) were interviewed and anonymously completed a questionnaire on these conditions. Pupils' knowledge on the topic of ADHD was low (62%); they showed a better knowledge about LD (75%). They showed a partially tolerant attitude (62.7%) towards pupils suffering from ADHD; on the other hand, they had a somewhat more positive and perceptive attitude (74.1%) towards peers diagnosed as learning disabled. Pupils' attitudes became more perceptive with increasing age. There was no correlation between pupils' knowledge and attitude. Pupils had learned about these two handicapped conditions from various sources; TV (66.3%), newspapers (63.5%) and school (53.8%), while physicians and nurses occupied the 5th and last place. Information about these two disabilities (ADHD and LD) should be added to the curriculum and be taught by qualified specialists, as there is an obvious statistically deficient knowledge in these areas.
Marlow, L A V
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Studies suggest that knowledge and attitudes about the vaccine are likely to influence uptake. One limitation of most studies assessing HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and acceptability is their under representation of ethnic minorities. It is important to ensure that our understanding of HPV knowledge and attitudes include all ethnic groups in the UK. This article reviews research that has considered knowledge, acceptability and attitudes about HPV and the HPV vaccine among ethnic minorities in the UK. Methods: Articles in Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO (January 2000–March 2010) were searched. Results: A total of 17 UK-based papers examined knowledge, attitudes or acceptability related to HPV vaccination in the ‘lay' population (parents, adolescents or the general population as opposed to health professionals) and reported findings by ethnicity. Conclusion: Findings seem to suggest lower awareness of HPV and lower acceptability of the vaccination, which could be important if they are reflected in uptake. More research is needed with ethnic minority groups, particularly in the context of the vaccination programme. PMID:21829204
Mohamed, Mohamed M G; Shwaib, Hussam M; Fahim, Monica M; Ahmed, Elhamy A; Omer, Mawadda K; Monier, Islam A; Balla, Siham A
Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an emerging threat to public health. The last epidemic in West Africa had a great effect on the affected communities. Timely and effective interventions were necessary in addition to community participation to control the epidemic. The knowledge, attitude and practices of vulnerable communities remain unknown, particularly in Sudan. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of rural residents in Sudan regarding Ebola hemorrhagic fever. We conducted a cross sectional, community-based large-scale study in Al Gaziera state in rural Sudan in eight localities. In total, 1500 random adult participants were selected. The participants were assessed by a predesigned pretested questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Ebola. Their sources of information were determined, and we assessed demographic factors as predictors of knowledge. We found poor knowledge, a fair attitude and suboptimal practices among the participants. The main sources of information were the press and media. Education was the only predictor of knowledge regarding Ebola. A lack of knowledge and suboptimal preventive practices mandates orientation and education programs to raise public awareness. Health care providers are advised to engage more in educating the community.
Ahamed, Shabeer; Moyin, Shabna; Punathil, Sameer; Patil, Neha A; Kale, Vishwajeet Tulshidas; Pawar, Ganesh
Background: Dentists play very important role in the oral health education of the community. Thus it is important to know the status of knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward the maintenance of oral health at the student level. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior among preclinical and clinical dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 147 dental students from 1st to 4th year of Malabar Dental College, Kerala, in the year of March-June 2010 and was carried out with the help of 30 questionnaires. Age, gender and academic year data were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 20 using the Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA tests. Results: The difference in scores of oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior between preclinical and clinical dental students was found statistically highly significant (Student’s t-test, P < 0.001). The variation of scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior also showed highly significant increase with the year of study (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.001). While the difference in scores between males and females showed that females have better oral health knowledge than males, but the difference was not statistically significant (Student’s t-test, P > 0.01). The present study thus showed improvement of knowledge, attitude and behavior with the academic years and there was no bias of gender with reference to oral health. Conclusions: Although oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior showed improved results from 1st to 4th year dental students, it should be improved in order to serve better for the community in the future. PMID:26124603
Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno
Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha
Shamsipour, Mansour; Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Setayesh, Hamidreza; KarimanMajd, Sajjad; Mostafavi, Ehsan
In this study, knowledge and attitude of Iranian clerical students toward HIV and AIDS was assessed. Through a cross-sectional study, 367 clerical students were surveyed, in convenience sampling method, in the Qom seminary in 2011, utilizing a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted on 20 clerical student volunteers, internal consistency measured with Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. Participants' scores of knowledge and attitude were calculated out of 100. The level of knowledge in 37.33 % of participants was good (scores >80), whereas 46.05 and 16.62 % had moderate (40 < scores ≤ 80) and poor (scores ≤40) levels of knowledge, respectively. The mean score of knowledge and attitude was 58.29 (95 % CI 56.11-60) and 77.26 (95 % CI 75.92-78.59) out of 100, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between level of knowledge and attitude (r = 0.33, P < 0.001). Knowledge score appeared to be significantly higher in women compared to men (p = 0.04). With an increase in age, the level of knowledge significantly decreased (r = -0.10, P = 0.02). We could also detect a statistically significant relationship between attending educational courses on HIV/AIDS and inclusion of HIV/AIDS topics in the individual's sermons (P < 0.001). Although clerical students had shown some sort of positive attitudes toward HIV, their knowledge still needs to be improved to enable them to deliver more accurate information to the community during the course of their speeches. Having HIV-related courses as part of their curriculum or aside may contribute a lot to this.
Alobuia, Wilson M; Missikpode, Celestin; Aung, Maung; Jolly, Pauline E
Background Outbreaks of vector-borne diseases such as dengue, and malaria can overwhelm health systems in resource-poor countries. Environmental management strategies that reduce/eliminate vector breeding sites combined with improved personal prevention strategies can help to significantly reduce transmission of these infections. Objective This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of residents in Western Jamaica regarding control of mosquito vectors and protection from mosquito bites. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2010 among patients or family members of patients waiting to be seen at hospitals in Western Jamaica. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors and KAPs regarding vector-borne diseases. KAP scores were calculated and categorized as high or low based on number of correct/positive responses. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of KAP and linear regression analysis conducted to determine if knowledge and attitude scores predicted practice scores. Results Three-hundred and sixty-one people (85 males and 276 females) participated in the study. Most participants (87%) scored low on knowledge and practice items (78%). Conversely, 78% scored high on attitudes items. By multivariate logistic regression, housewives were 82% less likely to have high attitude scores than laborers, and homeowners were 65% less likely to have high attitude scores than renters. Participants from households with 1–2 children were 3.4 times more likely to have high attitude scores compared to those from households with no children. Participants from households ≥5 people were 65% less likely to have high practice scores compared to those from households with <5. By multivariable linear regression knowledge and attitude scores were significant predictors of practice score. Conclusion The study revealed poor knowledge of vector
Sherriff, Karen L; Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy
The study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational programme on attitudes and perceptions of knowledge and skills, of registered nurses, towards EBP. The study was conducted using a quasiexperimental interrupted time series design. Participants were clinical nurses in educational and leadership roles within a Health Service District in south-east Queensland. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three points. Nurses' belief in the value of EBP for practice was high prior to the programme and did not change subsequently. There was an improvement following the intervention in nurses' attitudes to organizational support for EBP and their perceptions of their knowledge and skills in locating and evaluating research reports. Providing educational courses in a clinical setting is useful in improving clinicians' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills related to EBP.
Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.
Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L
Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs.
Denys Colclough, Nicholas; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan
This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in Education course at a university in central England. A novel research tool, involving interviews about real concrete contexts and first-hand data collection with radioactive sources, was employed to gain insights into a sub-set of the sample (n = 12) of pre-service teachers' subject knowledge of and attitudes towards risk. The subject knowledge of all the pre-service teachers was also measured using a Certainty of Response Index instrument; multiple-choice questions with associated confidence indicators. Although the physicists displayed the higher levels of knowledge, they also demonstrated limitations in their knowledge and held misconceptions such as irradiation being confused with contamination. Physics graduates hold more rational attitudes and a greater willingness to accept risk while the attitudes of graduates in the other subject disciplines are more disparate. These findings raise questions about the extent to which pre-service science and history teachers have the knowledge necessary to teach this topic. The article concludes with discussion of the implications these findings have for initial teacher training, continuing professional development needs for teachers already in the profession, and curriculum developers.
Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps.
Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite
Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.
Resistance increases with the use and abuse of antibiotics. Since physicians are primarily responsible for the decision to use antibiotics, ascertaining the attitudes and knowledge that underlie their prescribing habits is thus a prerequisite for improving prescription. Three-year follow-up cohort study (2008–2010) targeting primary-care physicians (n = 2100) in Galicia, a region in NW Spain. We used data obtained from a postal survey to assess knowledge and attitudes. A physician was deemed to have demonstrated Appropriate Quality Prescription of Antibiotics (dependent variable) in any case where half or more of the indicators proposed by the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption had values that were better than the reference values for Spain. The mail-questionnaire response rate was 68·0% (1428/2100). The adjusted increase in the interquartile OR of displaying good prescribing of antibiotics for each attitude was: 205% for fear ("When in doubt, it is better to ensure that a patient is cured of an infection by using a broad-spectrum antibiotic"; 95%CI: 125% to 321%); 119% for better knowledge ("Amoxicillin is useful for resolving most respiratory infections in primary care"; 95%CI: 67% to 193%); and 21% for complacency with patients' demands ("Antibiotics are often prescribed due to patients' demands"; 95%CI: 0% to 45%). Due to the fact that physicians' knowledge and attitudes are potentially modifiable, the implementation of purpose-designed educational interventions based on the attitudes identified may well serve to improve antibiotic prescription. PMID:26509966
AlMuzaini, Anwar A A Y; Yahya, Asmaa S Y S; Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sharma, Prem N
Although several studies have been conducted to assess dentists' knowledge of and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), few have targeted dental assistants. The main aims of this study were to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among dental assistants in Kuwait and to compare the knowledge and attitudes of dental assistants at Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) with those of dental assistants in Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals. The secondary objective was to determine if any intervention was needed to provide more information to dental assistants on HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing questionnaires. The study sample included 85 dental assistants from each of KUDC and the MoH. The questionnaire included questions to assess the assistants' knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Qualitative data were analysed using the Pearson chi-square text for any association or the Z-test for proportion to test the significance of differences. A total of 167 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed. KUDC dental assistants were found to have significantly more knowledge about HIV/AIDS than their MoH counterparts, whereas the assistants at the MoH clinics displayed a more positive attitude towards patients with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05). Although dental assistants at KUDC were more knowledgeable than those at the MoH clinics, there are still some misconceptions that need to be addressed, in addition to the negative attitudes displayed by some of the respondents. It would therefore be beneficial to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS patients through lectures, seminars and workshops targeting dental assistants.
Soon, Jan Mei; Baines, Richard; Seaman, Phillip
Research has shown that traditional food safety training programs and strategies to promote hand hygiene increases knowledge of the subject. However, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the impact of food safety training on food handlers' attitudes about good hand hygiene practices. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to assess the extent to which food safety training or intervention strategies increased knowledge of and attitudes about hand hygiene. A systematic review of food safety training articles was conducted. Additional studies were identified from abstracts from food safety conferences and food science education conferences. Search terms included combinations of "food safety," "food hygiene," "training," "education," "hand washing," "hand hygiene," "knowledge," "attitudes," "practices," "behavior," and "food handlers." Only before- and after-training approaches and cohort studies with training (intervention group) and without training (control group) in hand hygiene knowledge and including attitudes in food handlers were evaluated. All pooled analyses were based on a random effects model. Meta-analysis values for nine food safety training and intervention studies on hand hygiene knowledge among food handlers were significantly higher than those of the control (without training), with an effect size (Hedges' g) of 1.284 (95% confidence interval [CI] ∼ 0.830 to 1.738). Meta-analysis of five food safety training and intervention studies in which hand hygiene attitudes and self-reported practices were monitored produced a summary effect size of 0.683 (95% CI ∼ 0.523 to 0.843). Food safety training increased knowledge and improved attitudes about hand hygiene practices. Refresher training and long-term reinforcement of good food handling behaviors may also be beneficial for sustaining good hand washing practices.
Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob
This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…
Kooler, J M; Bruvold, W H
The Contra Costa County educational program for juveniles found guilty of driving under the influence (DUI) was evaluated. Over 600 juveniles convicted of DUI from 1983 to 1988 formed the study group for this research and of these over 100 participated in the educational program. Assessment of program participants was conducted for knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge, stronger attitudes against driving under the influence, and less risky alcohol and automobile related behaviors. County juvenile records analyzed by the logit procedure showed that class participants had a significantly lower number of repeat offenses compared to non-program participants that could not be explained by race, offense severity, age or gender.
Santos, José Carlos; Simões, Rosa Maria Pereira; Erse, Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo; Façanha, Jorge Daniel Neto; Marques, Lúcia Amélia Fernandes Alves
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention. PMID:25296153
Fah, Lay Yoon
The science curriculum in Malaysia emphasizes the acquisition of scientific skills, thinking skills, and the inculcation of scientific attitudes and noble values. Besides that, the acquisition of scientific and technological knowledge and its application to the natural phenomena and students' daily experiences are also equally emphasized. The…
Dawood, Omar T.; Ibrahim, Mohamed I. M.; Palaian, Subish
Minor ailments like sore throat, fever, cough and diarrhea can be relieved with over-the-counter (OTC) medications such as paracetamol or other traditional remedies, without seeking for consultation from general practitioners. Parents usually take the responsibility to come up with some kind of treatment for their children. Objective (1) to evaluate the parents’ medical knowledge about OTC medicines which are usually used by the parents to treat their children and (2) to evaluate the parents’ management in dealing with their children’s ailments, and (3) to evaluate the association between medical knowledge and the management of children’s ailments related to medicine use among the parents. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to measure the parents’ knowledge about their children’s ailments. Subjects were selected and information was obtained in September 2008. Non-probability convenient sampling method was used. Parents were recruited from the general public to answer the questionnaires. Results 197 parents filled in the questionnaires. From the total respondents, 48.2% of them were male. This study showed that most respondents have medium knowledge (6.11 SD=3.6) and a moderate management (4.39 SD=2.7). The results showed that there is a significant difference between the knowledge and the management level of ailments (P=0.033). Regarding the education level of the parents and the socioeconomic status, the p-value showed there was a significant difference between parents’ knowledge and their education level (P=0.012). Conclusion This study showed that parents have inadequate knowledge and some misconception about how to go about treating their children when they are unwell. It is hoped that by identifying weak areas in parents’ management to their children’s ailments, better planned educational and behavioral modification efforts can be made to elevate the knowledge level among the parents when they medically treat their children. PMID
Al-Hashemi, Eman; Ashkanani, Abdullatif; Al-Kabbani, Majd; Al-Juhaidli, Abdulaziz; Jaafar, Ahmad
Background and Objectives. Attitudes toward students with epilepsy and epilepsy-related knowledge of teachers are crucial for child's safety in the school. The aim of this study was to evaluate teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 824 teachers from 24 randomly selected middle and high schools. Scale of Attitudes Toward Persons with Epilepsy (ATPE) was modified to assess teachers' knowledge about epilepsy and attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Results. Median knowledge score about epilepsy was 5 (out of 13), while median attitude score was 10 (out of 15). Both knowledge and attitude median scores were significantly higher in senior teachers with longer teaching experience and in respondents who dealt with a person with epilepsy. There was significant association between knowledge score and attitude score (p < 0.01). Logistic regression showed that significant variables, independently associated with poor knowledge after adjusting for possible confounders, were not having a family member with epilepsy (p = 0.009), unawareness of life circumstances of persons with epilepsy (p = 0.048), and a poor attitude score (p < 0.001). Conclusion. School teachers in Kuwait have relatively poor knowledge about epilepsy but have positive attitudes toward students with epilepsy. A number of historical and stigmatizing ideas about epilepsy still exist. It is recommended to provide teachers with information about handling seizures in the educational setting through development and implementation of epilepsy education programs. PMID:27403170
Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin
The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education.
Eskandari, Amir; Abolfazli, Nader; Lafzi, Ardeshir; Golmohammadi, Shima
Statement of the Problem: Prevention is the key factor in acquiring dental and oral health. Community health workers, as a part of health care networks in Iran, play an important role in delivering primary care and their knowledge and attitude directly affect the population whom they interact with in their service scope. Purpose: The aim of this research was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude level of community health workers regarding oral health. Materials and Method: This descriptive analytical study was carried out on 1170 community health workers who were employed in health offices in East Azerbaijan to evaluate their knowledge and attitude level about oral health. Data were acquired through filled out questionnaires and were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and gender (p= 0.063), level of education (p= 0.08) and the period spent from the last continuing education course (p= 0.148).However, by increasing age (p= 0.016), work experience (p=0.083) and number of attended continuing education courses (p= 0.023), the knowledge scores were reduced. No statistically significant relationships were found between attitude and any of research variables. Conclusion: The level of knowledge and attitude of community health workers in East Azerbaijan regarding oral health was good. There was a reverse relationship between age, work experience, and frequency of participation in continuing education courses and knowledge scores which emphasizes the necessity of continuous training and revising the method of training in education of community health workers and other staffs of health care system. PMID:27942544
AlHadi, Ahmad N.; AlShiban, Abdulrahman M.; Alomar, Majed A.; Aljadoa, Othman F.; AlSayegh, Ahmed M.; Jameel, Mohammed A.
Objectives The aims of this study were to assess psychiatrists' knowledge of and attitudes toward repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in Saudi Arabia and to determine the contributing factors. Methods A quantitative observational cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey. The sample consisted of 96 psychiatrists in Saudi Arabia. A new valid and reliable questionnaire was developed. Results A total of 96 psychiatrists enrolled in the study, 81% of whom were men. Half of the participants were consultants. The sample mainly consisted of general psychiatrists (65%). The mean age of the participants was 37 years. The results showed that 80% of the psychiatrists had a sufficient level of knowledge about rTMS. Consultants had greater knowledge than residents. Training abroad was not significantly associated with the level of knowledge or the type of attitude. Most psychiatrists (79%) had a positive attitude toward rTMS. Only 53% of the psychiatrists said they would agree to receive rTMS if they experienced a psychotic depressive condition. A minority of psychiatrists (7%) said they would not refer their patients for rTMS. Conclusions Most of the psychiatrists surveyed had good knowledge of and a positive attitude toward rTMS. Those who had a high level of training and experience showed higher levels of knowledge. Articles were reported to be a better source for improving physician knowledge than textbooks. Having a family member or relative who was treated with rTMS positively affected psychiatrists' attitudes toward rTMS. PMID:27564426
Bahreini Moghadam, Seyed Ali; Hamzeh pour, Siavash; Toorchi, Mahmoud; Sefidi Heris, Youssof
Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male). 2 (1.7%) volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3%) had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%) volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0%) stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7%) indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers. PMID:26862544
Christina, Juliana; Abigail, Wendy; Cuthbertson, Lesley A.
Complementary therapies (CTs) are nonconventional supportive therapies, which are used by the patients with cancer. The use of CTs has been known to alleviate symptoms as a result of chemotherapy and to improve quality of life. However, if CTs are inappropriately used, there may be adverse reactions or no effect resulting in poor support of the cancer treatment. Nurses play an important role in supporting patients with cancer who often seek information regarding CTs. Within their scope of practice, it is expected that nurses have sufficient knowledge about the safety and effective use of CTs, and positive attitudes toward supporting patients who wish to use CTs. This review aims to examine existing literature regarding nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward CTs for patients with cancer. English language articles obtained from recognized nursing and midwifery databases such as CINAHL, Google Scholar, Medline, ProQuest Central, and Scopus for the period between 2002 and 2015 were searched. A total of 96 articles were retrieved using the search terms with only 13 eligible articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Three major themes were identified by the thematic analysis of reviewed studies: nurses’ knowledge about CTs, nurses’ attitudes toward CTs, and sources information about CTs. The majority of studies investigating nurses’ knowledge and attitudes toward the use of CTs for oncology was conducted in developed countries. Overall, it was identified that nurses need to improve their knowledge and skills about CTs so that they were more confident to assist patients in integrating conventional treatment and CTs for cancer management. PMID:27981167
Cann, K; Withnell, S; Shakespeare, J; Doll, H; Thomas, J
The objective of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitudes, responses and levels of detection of domestic violence among a variety of healthcare workers in different specialities.Self-administered questionnaires were sent to community and hospital based healthcare workers in Oxfordshire working in primary care, obstetrics and gynaecology, mental health and accident and emergency. These comprised all principal general practitioners and general practitioner registrars, 50% of practice/district nurses and health visitors in each practice, and all healthcare workers in obstetrics and gynaecology, community mental health teams and accident and emergency in one trust. The amount of domestic violence detected in different healthcare settings was far less than indicated by anonymous surveys and crime figures. Knowledge about many of the issues surrounding domestic violence was inconsistent and there were fundamental deficiencies. The attitudes of healthcare workers to domestic violence were generally sympathetic and supportive. Women, nurses and community mental health workers reported significantly better knowledge and more positive attitudes than other respondents. Gender, role and speciality were independently associated with more positive attitudes and the latter two were independently associated with good knowledge. The response that healthcare workers make when they uncover domestic violence is confused and often inappropriate. In conclusion, most healthcare workers accept that domestic violence is a healthcare issue but lack fundamental knowledge about the issues surrounding domestic violence itself and appropriate agencies that can offer help. They also lack skills in identifying and discussing this issue with patients/clients. A large, unfulfilled training need has been identified.
The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.
Alzghoul, Bashar I; Abdullah, Nor Azimah Chew
Pain is one of the most common reasons that drive people to go to hospitals. It has been found that several factors affect the practices of pain management. In this regard, this study aimed at investigating the underlying determinants in terms of pain management practices. Based on reviewing the previous studies and the suggestions of the KAP model, it was hypothesized that the main elements of the KAP model (attitudes and knowledge) significantly predict the variation in the practices of nurses regarding pain management. A questionnaire comprising the KAP model' s constructs, i.e. knowledge and attitude towards pain management, as well as pain management practices, was used to collect data from 266 registered nurses (n=266) who are deemed competent in the management of patients' pain in the Jordanian public hospitals. The two constructs, attitude and knowledge, which are the main determinants of the KAP model were found to independently predict nurses' practices of managing patients' pain. Knowledge of pain management was found to be the strongest predictor. Additionally, it was found that about 69% of the variance in pain management could be explained by the constructs of the KAP model. Therefore, it is recommended that the Jordanian hospitals and universities focus on nurses' knowledge and attitude towards pain management in order to enhance their practices in the field of pain management.
Allendorff, Sibylle; And Others
The Chicago Heart Health Curriculum Program (CHHCP) is a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program designed for students and families. Results of a study of CHHCP suggest that future programs conveying heart health knowledge should consider student learning in the context of self-esteem, independence of peers, and teacher humanism. (Author/MT)
Salehi, Saeed; And Others
A survey was conducted of 817 high school students in representative school districts in Maryland to: determine AIDS-related knowledge, beliefs and practices of high school students by grade, sex, age, and race; assess the perceived behavior of their peers and themselves; and assess the level of students interest in, and effectiveness of, AIDS…
Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.
Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. PMID:26556558
Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W
Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.
Salleh, N M; Peng, T N; Arshat, H
Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socioeconomic variables. A total of 2567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least 1 contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socioeconomic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives.
Choon, S E; Sapiah, W; Ismail, Z; Balan, V
A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
Chen, Meng; Wang, Yue; Li, Xuan; Hou, Lina; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Jie
The rate of bystander CPR is much lower in China than in developed countries. This survey was implemented to assess the current status of layperson CPR training, to analyze the willingness of bystanders to perform CPR, and to identify barriers to improving bystander CPR rates. The questionnaire included individual information, current status of bystander CPR training, and individual's willingness and attitude towards performing CPR. There were 25.6% laypersons who took CPR training. The majority (98.6%) of laypersons would perform CPR on their family members, but fewer laypersons (76.3%) were willing to perform CPR on strangers. Most respondents (53.2%) were worried about legal issues. If laws were implemented to protect bystanders who give aid, the number of laypersons who were not willing to perform CPR on strangers dropped from 23.7% to 2.4%. An increasing number of people in China know CPR compared with the situation in the past. CPR training in China is much less common than in many developed countries. The barriers are that laypersons are not well-trained and they fear being prosecuted for unsuccessful CPR. More accredited CPR training courses are needed in China. The laws should be passed to protect bystanders who provide assistance. PMID:28367441
As the budget for the scientific exploration of space shrinks, the need for more autonomous spacecraft increases. For a spacecraft with a star tracker, the ability to determinate attitude from a lost in space state autonomously requires the capability to identify the stars in the field of view of the tracker. Although there have been efforts to produce autonomous star trackers which perform this function internally, many programs cannot afford these sensors. The author previously presented a method for identifying stars without a priori attitude knowledge specifically targeted for onboard computers as it minimizes the necessary computer storage. The method has previously been tested with simulated data. This paper provides results of star identification without a priori attitude knowledge using flight data from two 8 by 8 degree charge coupled device star trackers onboard the X-Ray Timing Experiment.
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers.
Crnica, Vanja; Mujkić, Aida; Young, Tracy; Miškulin, Maja; Peek-Asa, Corinne
Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia.
Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Klima, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly; Chisolm, Deena; McBride, Kim L
Clinical genetic testing for specific isolated congenital heart defects (CHD) is becoming standard of care in pediatric cardiology practice. Both genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing are associated with an increased utilization of genetic testing, but these factors have not been evaluated in parents of children with CHD. We mailed a survey to measure the demographics, genetic knowledge, and attitudes towards genetic testing of parents of children with CHD who previously consented to participate in a separate research study of the genetic etiology of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (LVOT). Of the 378 eligible families, 190 (50%) returned surveys with both parents completing surveys in 97 (51%) families, resulting in 287 participants. Genetic knowledge was assessed on an adapted measure on which the mean percent correct was 73.8%. Educational attainment and household income were directly and significantly associated with genetic knowledge (P < 0.001). Attitudes about the health effects of genetic testing were favorable with at least 57% agreeing that genetic testing would be used for managing health care and finding cures for disease. Conversely, a minority of participants found it likely that genetic testing would be used for insurance (up to 39.9%), employment (15.8%), or racial/social discrimination (up to 11.2%). Parents of younger children were less likely to endorse employment or racial/social discrimination. Genetic knowledge was not correlated with specific attitudes. Among parents of children with CHD, genetic knowledge was directly associated with household income and education, but additional research is necessary to determine what factors influence attitudes towards genetic testing.
Padmanabhan, Ramya; Chinnakalai, Palnivel
Introduction Breastfeeding is important for promoting child’s health. Since, breastfeeding decisions are made before pregnancy and are strongly influenced by women’s knowledge and attitude, it is important to identify knowledge gaps in youth girls. Aim To assess the knowledge, attitude and future intention regarding infant feeding among female college students in Puducherry, India. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was done among 307 college going female students. Their knowledge, attitude and future intention was assessed using structured questions and Likert’s scale. Data were summarized as percentages with 95% confidence interval. Responses to Likert’s scale were analyzed using consensus index. Results Around 98% (95% CI: 96.5%, 99.6%) and 86.3% (95% CI: 82.5%, 90.2%) knew that breast milk and colostrum respectively is good for the child. However, students had poor knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding, the age of starting supplementation, recommended duration of breastfeeding. Noteworthy, 15% and 38% of them thought that breastfeeding spoils the mother’s beauty and interferes with mother’s employment respectively. Around 98% (95% CI: 97.0%, 100.0%) wanted to breastfeed their child in future. A high proportion of students, 20.5% (95% CI: 16.0%, 25.0%) wanted to give formula feed before 6 months. Knowledge and future intention to breastfeed was better among ‘arts and science’ students than engineering students. Conclusion The knowledge and attitude of female college students on breastfeeding is good. Almost all students wanted to breastfeed their children in future. However, the study has identified knowledge gaps and misconceptions which need to be stressed during the health education activity to promote optimal breastfeeding practices. PMID:28050407
Woolcock, Andrew D; Creevy, Kate E; Coleman, Amanda E; Moore, James N; Brown, Scott A
Academic self-efficacy affects the success of students in the sciences. Our goals were to develop an instrument to assess the self-efficacy and attitudes toward science of students in an undergraduate physiology course. We hypothesized 1) that our instrument would demonstrate that students taking this course would exhibit greater self-efficacy and more positive attitudes toward science than students in a non-science undergraduate course, and 2) that the physiology students' self-efficacy and attitudes would improve after completing the course. A 25-question survey instrument was developed with items investigating demographic information, self-efficacy, content knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding science. Students in either an undergraduate physiology course (Group P) or a history course (Group H) completed the survey. Forty-eight students in Group P completed both PRE- and POST-class surveys, while 50 students in Group H completed the pre-class survey. The academic self-efficacy of Group P as assessed by the PRE-survey was significantly higher than Group H (p=0.0003). Interestingly, there was no significant difference between groups in content knowledge in the PRE-survey. The self-efficacy of Group P was significantly higher as assessed by the POST-survey, when compared to the PRE-survey (p<0.0001) coincident with an improvement (p<0.001) in content knowledge for Group P in the POST-survey. This study established a survey instrument with utility in assessing self-efficacy, attitudes, and content knowledge. Our approach has applicability to studies designed to determine the impact of instructional variables on academic self-efficacy, attitudes, and confidence of students in the sciences.
This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…
Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…
Mabiala Babela, Jean Robert; Nika, Evrard Romaric; Nkounkou Milandou, Kadidja Grâce Cléona; Missambou Mandilou, Steve Vassili; Bouangui Bazolana, Succes Brege Albert; Monabeka, Henri Germain; Moyen, Georges
The study aimed to assess obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents when facing child and adolescent obesity in order to improve the quality of care. A case-control study was conducted from February 1 to July 1, 2013. The study compared parents of obese school children (group 1 or cases; n = 254) and those school children without obesity (group 2 or controls; n = 254). These children were drawn from public and private primary schools of Brazzaville (Congo). Obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory in 83.5% of the cases, attitudes were correct in 29% of the cases, and the practices good in 25.6% of the cases. The parents’ obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory when the socioeconomic level of the family was high (P < .02), the mothers’ educational level greater than primary (P < .001), and the fathers’ educational level was greater than primary (P < 10−4). The same observation was obtained with obesity-related attitudes and practices of the parents when correct. This influence remained after the adaptation of fathers’ educational level. In conclusion, the disease-related knowledge of parents can be considered satisfactory in the majority of the cases; however, obesity-related attitudes and practices remain incorrect in most of the cases. PMID:27868082
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
... payments for ecosystem services, and attitudes and interest toward a payment for ecosystem services... payments for ecosystem services. The survey will improve landowner knowledge on these issues and will inform our evaluation of the practicality of a payment for ecosystem services for the benefit of...
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Kooler, James M.; Bruvold, William H.
Evaluated educational program for juveniles found guilty of driving under the influence (DUI). Of 600 juveniles convicted of DUI, 100 participated in program. Participants demonstrated increased knowledge, stronger attitudes against DUI, and less risky alcohol- and automobile-related behaviors following intervention. Class participants had…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.
A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
Gellis, Zvi D.; Sherman, Susan; Lawrance, Frances
Results of the Aging Semantic Differential and Facts on Aging Quiz II for 96 social work graduate students indicated they had limited contact with older adults and knowledge of aging; they displayed negative attitudes about older adults' productivity, adaptability, independence, and optimism. Multivariate analysis showed male and younger students'…
Peralta, Felipe; And Others
Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…
Metzger, Mitchell M
Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Glaser, Daniel; Snow, Mary
The New York State Narcotic Addiction Control Commission undertook a survey of the state to gather information on community attitudes and knowledge of drugs and drug abuse. An extensive questionnaire (see TM 001 085) was administered to a sample of 6105 persons, representative of the state, who were 13 years old or older. The research findings and…
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Heppner, Mary J.; And Others
Evaluates whether type of programming differentially affects the processing of rape prevention messages, attitudes, knowledge, behaviors, and stability of change. Participants (n=258) were assigned to a didactic-video program, an interactive drama, or control. Results indicated that the interactive video was most effective in central route…
Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald
The purpose of this study was to ascertain teachers' multicultural knowledge, cross-cultural perceptions, and attitudes about different cultures as a function of both pre-service professional preparation and graduate education curriculum. Accomplishing this goal required administration of the Multicultural/Diversity Scale?Revised (MCR) at…
Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.
A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…
Mifsud, Mark C.
There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…
Marcotte, D. B.; And Others
Results from a sample of 160 medical and 79 law students revealed that medical students know less about sex and hold less tolerant views towards others' sexual behavior. Evidence of a double standard was not found, but the data reinforce the need for medical sex education to equip doctors with both knowledge and a tolerant attitude. (Author/LBH)
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Torney, Judith V.
Data concerning political attitudes and knowledge were collected for 30,000 adolescents in nine countries. Findings indicate that students in countries with a high degree of international contact were more internationally minded. Sampling procedures are described. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The…
Amr, Muna; Al-Natour, Mayada; Al-Abdallat, Bassam; Alkhamra, Hatem
This study explores teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward the inclusion of students with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream schools in Jordan. It also examines the barriers the teachers perceived to hinder successful inclusions. The study sample consisted of 87 primary school teachers who responded to an open-ended questionnaire asking…
Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.
This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…
Bond, Mary Lou; Kardong-Edgren, Suzan; Jones, Mary Elaine
The Ethnic Attitude Scale and Transcultural Questionnaire were administered to 152 bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) students, registered nurses in transition to BSN, and masters's students. All three groups had low knowledge about cultural groups. The only significant difference was BSN students' understanding of such concepts as…
Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…
Newman, Beverly Cumberland
The overall purpose of this study was to investigate physical therapists attitudes and knowledge toward research and evidence-based practice (EBP). The research design was based on a realist theoretical framework. Twenty-five interviews were conducted asking standardized open-end questions which allowed the participants to relate their real world…
Rasouli-Ghahroudi, Amir Alireza; Khorsand, Afshin; Yaghobee, Siamak; Rokn, Amirreza; Jalali, Mohammad; Masudi, Sima; Rahimi, Hamed; Kabir, Ali
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients about their oral health status. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data of 150 CVD patients that collected by a self-administered questionnaire consists of demographic characteristics and KAP. Oral health indicators calculated based on the results of oral examination by an expert dentist. RESULTS CVD patients had an overall moderate level of knowledge and attitude, but their practice was lower than moderate. There were important associations between knowledge scores with gender, education, residential area and financial status, between attitude scores with education and residential area, and between practice scores with education and financial status. There were no associations between KAP and age, marital status or job. Significant positive correlations were found between KAP components. Significant negative correlations were found between oral hygiene index with knowledge and practice. CONCLUSION The practice of heart disease patients about their oral health was poor, and declares that increasing awareness and attitude may not promote practice. Efficient programs are needed to promote oral health practice of adult populations in special groups. PMID:27114731
Naquin, Millie; Cole, Diane; Bowers, Ashley; Walkwitz, Ed
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental health knowledge, attitudes and practices of children enrolled in grades four through eight at a university laboratory school in southeast Louisiana, U.S.A. Quantitative and qualitative questions were completed through an online survey. The children's written responses to the survey…
Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Turocy, Paula S.; Pribesh, Shana; Hankemeier, Dorice
Context: While evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts are being taught in health profession education programs, models of instruction and effectiveness of these models are not evident in athletic training. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Teaching Model (EBTM) in increasing student knowledge, attitudes, and use of…
Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.
Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…
Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan
This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh
Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…
Dogan, Soner; Yigit, Yakup
The aim of this study is to investigate attitudes of school administrators and teachers working in Turkish schools towards knowledge management. In this research, an explanatory design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used. The quantitative strand of the study was designed as a survey model, and the data was collected from…
Zeller, Cynthia Lee
Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a school health module on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of middle school students. Method: A convenience sample of 39 middle school students received education related to breastfeeding and completed a pre-test and a post-test. The School Survey on Breastfeeding…
Newman, Ian M.; And Others
This report presents information from a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Nebraska adolescents (N=1,240) in grades 9-12 related to the Human-Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Schools were selected at random from each of the six classifications of Nebraska schools, and two or three…
Fitzgerald, James T.; Williams, Brent C.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Persky, Neal W.; Shay, Barbara R.
This study examines the impact of an interdisciplinary training program on knowledge and attitudes of learners from four health care programs: medicine, pharmacy, social work, and nursing. Sixty-two learners participated in a 4-day educational program (one day each week for 4 weeks) focusing on interdisciplinary geriatric care. After completing…
Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930
Mansour, Suzan E.; Mohamed, Hanan E.
Sexuality is an important part of normal human functioning. Gynecological cancer diagnosis and treatment has devastating effect on Sexual issues. Study aim was to investigate Oncology Nurses knowledge and attitudes in Relation to Provision of Sexual Health Care to Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer. The study setting was conducted at…
Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl
Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Guthrie, Joanne F.; Morton, Joan F.
Compared the level of nutrition knowledge of low- and higher-income American consumers with children, and their nutrition attitudes and practices. Found that both groups had Body Mass Indexes above the range of a healthy weight, but that low-income participants were less likely to know nutrition specifics such as diet/disease relationships or…
Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…
Vallejos, Irma Conejeros; Sánchez, Helga Emig; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Valdés, Báltica Cabieses; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli
Objective To describe attitudes, knowledge and perceptions of nurses and nursing students towards the people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methodology Bibliographic study in which six electronic databases were searched using the key words: “attitude”, “knowledge”, “nursing”, perceptions”, “HIV/AIDS”. Publications between 1998 and 2007 were considered. Results 560 articles limited by scientific researches or ministerial reports membership were retrieved. Finally a total of 38 publications were selected, the analysis showed that the level of knowledge of nurses and nursing students about PLWHA is good and the attitudes towards HIV/AIDS have improved over time. Nurses and nursing students have been able to identify both positive and negative aspects in the PLWHA care personally and professionally because there is a more favourable perception. Conclusion There are few studies in Latin America and Chile that study the attitudes and knowledge of the studied population towards PLWHA. According to publications found the knowledge and attitudes have improved because the perception is more favourable. PMID:27499563
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…
Ata, Abe W.
The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…
Ford, Phyllis M.; Payne, Philip G.
Compares effect of two different outdoor education programs (Van Matre's Sunship Earth and a traditional nature study program focusing on plants, animals, water, and soil) on attitudes and knowledge of 266 selected Washington County (Oregon) sixth graders attending a five-day residential outdoor school program. (NEC)
Lui, Ming; Sin, Kuen-Fung; Yang, Lan; Forlin, Chris; Ho, Fuk-Chuen
Parents are key stakeholders in education and their support is pivotal to policy implementation. Through a large-scale survey, the present study investigated the validity of a structural model describing the relationship between attitude, knowledge, and perceived social norm among parents of children with special needs. Results revealed that…
Walker, Bonnie L.; Harrington, Donna
Four learning modules on elderly sexuality were pilot tested with 109 long-term care staff. On pretests men and whites scored higher than women and African-Americans. Knowledge and attitude improvements resulted from use of modules on the need for sexuality/intimacy, sex and dementia, and sex and aging, but not the family/personal issues module.…
Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…
Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice
Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…
DeBarr, Kathy; Pettit, Michele
Background: Weight bias has been documented throughout society among clinicians as well as obese persons. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess Health Educators' professional philosophies, knowledge of obesity, and beliefs in a just world (meaning that people get what they deserve) in relation to their attitudes toward people who are…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian; Bhattacharya, Devarati; Varma, Keisha
This study explores in-service teachers' attitudes and knowledge about a pressing environmental issue, "global climate change" (GCC), and how these may relate to their classroom teaching. In this work, nineteen teachers from Native American communities attended a professional development workshop that focused on enhancing their…
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…
Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia
Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Lass, Norman J.; And Others
A questionnaire concerned with various aspects of hearing aids and hearing aid wearers was completed by 113 West Virginia teachers. Results indicated some deficiencies in knowledge of, and academic and experiential exposure to, as well as attitudes toward, hearing aids and hearing aid wearers. (Author/DB)
Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.
Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…
Green, Edward C.
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…
Johnson, Nancy L.
The focus of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between generalized multicultural awareness and knowledge as measured by the "Attitudes toward Multicultural Children Scale" ("AMCS") and the "Multicultural Counseling Vignette" ("MCV"). How race, gender, education, and years of experience…
This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using…
Kruse, Cara K.; Card, Jaclyn A.
In this study, the authors examined the effects of a conservation education camp program offered through one zoo education department. The conservation education program included 4 levels of camps with increasing levels of animal husbandry. Campers rated their conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior prior to, immediately after, and 1 month…
Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.
Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…
Incantalupo, Lisa; Treagust, David F.; Koul, Rekha
The use of technology in schools is now ubiquitous, but the effectiveness on the learning environment has mixed results. This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward and knowledge of technology with the aim of investigating any differences based on gender after a course where the…
Mosher, Deborah J.
A program was designed and implemented to improve vocabulary knowledge and attitudes toward reading by focusing on direct vocabulary instruction. The targeted population consisted of 23 fourth grade students in a middle-class suburb north of Chicago. The community is very multicultural, so many of the students speak English as a second language.…
Latin American Research and Service Agency, Denver, CO.
This document comprises a report on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of Hispanic Americans residing in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. A total of 2,400 people (600 per state) were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and January 1989. The following sample characteristics are…
Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David
This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…
Kubiatko, Milan; Balatova, Kristyna
The water birds are inseparable part of the environment and ecosystems. This group of birds has got an important role in the functioning of aquatic ecosystems make them sensitive indicators of the health of these environments. The main aim of the study was to find out the attitudes toward and knowledge about water birds among lower secondary…
Mifsud, Mark C.
Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…
Valutis, Stephanie; Rubin, Deborah
The philosophical basis for the federal human subject protection policy is congruent with the values of the social work profession. The pragmatics are more complicated. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes toward, knowledge about, and practices of institutional review boards (IRBs) across colleges and universities as reported by…
Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra
The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons.
Khan, Sara; Malik, Saad M; Haris Iqbal, Muhammad; Aadil, Muhammad
Aim Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a blood-borne infectious disease. It is one of the most common causes of end-stage liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Healthcare professionals, including medical and dental students, are at a high risk of acquiring this infection. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast the knowledge and attitudes toward HBV infection amongst doctors, dentists, nurses, and undergraduate final year medical and dental students. Subjects and method A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample size of 381 medical professionals, which included doctors (59), dentists (77), nurses (71), final year medical students (126), and final year dental students (48) at Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry (CMH LMC). A questionnaire comprising 27 multiple choice questions was distributed amongst the groups mentioned above. The questionnaire aimed to assess basic knowledge, attitudes towards those infected, and knowledge about vaccination against HBV. Results The total response rate was 88.8% (382/430 respondents returned the questionnaire). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) score for all healthcare professionals in knowledge was 15.54 ± 3.69 and attitude were 4.67 ± 1.37, which indicated that majority of the healthcare professionals were well informed about hepatitis B and generally exhibited positive attitudes. However, results revealed that medical students lacked adequate knowledge about various aspects of HBV infection, including modes of transmission and prevention methods against the disease. On the other hand, dental students were better informed and exhibited a more positive attitude towards the disease. Conclusion According to the results of our study, medical students showed poor knowledge about hepatitis B disease, including its modes of transmission and the option of vaccination. Lack of knowledge contributed significantly to their negative attitudes towards those
Valente, Thomas W.; Paredes, Patricia; Poppe, Patricia R.
Reconsiders hierarchy models positing a learning model of behavior change wherein knowledge precedes attitudes, thus influencing behavior. Considers case of contraception in Peru; develops six possible knowledge, attitude, and practice permutations. Finds assessing the fit of such models consistent with emerging work in development communication…
Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.
This study compared 248 graduating seniors with 301 beginning juniors at 10 bachelor's-level social work programs in the Northeast concerning their knowledge and attitudes regarding working with substance-abusing clients. Graduating seniors demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge and only slightly more positive attitudes toward working…
Chan, M F
To determine whether definable subtypes exist within a cohort of Hong Kong nurses as related to the clinical management system use in their clinical practices based on their knowledge, attitudes, skills, and background factors. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The sample of 242 registered nurses was recruited from three hospitals in Hong Kong. The study employs personal and demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes, and skills scale. A cluster analysis yielded two clusters. Each cluster represents a different profile of Hong Kong nurses on the clinical management system use in their clinical practices. The first group (Cluster 1) was labeled 'lower attitudes, less skilful and average knowledge' group, and represented 55.4% of the total respondents. The second group (Cluster 2) was labeled as 'positive attitudes, good knowledge but less skilful'. They comprised almost 44.6% of this nursing sample. Cluster 2 had more older nurses, the majority were educated to the baccalaureate or above level, with more than 10 years working experience, and they held a more senior ranking then Cluster 1. A clear profile of Hong Kong nurses may benefit healthcare professionals in making appropriate education or assistance to prompt the use of the clinical management system by nurses an officially recognized profession. The findings were useful in determining nurse-users' specific needs and their preferences for modification of the clinical management system. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills toward such system.
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support.
Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Upadhyay, Dinesh K; Subish, P; Mishra, Pranaya
Knowledge of science and the scientific method are important in learning about and using evidence-based medicine in practice. Courses in research methodology have been introduced for both medical students and practicing doctors. In Pokhara, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Studies on students' attitudes towards and knowledge of science are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Hence the study was carried out to obtain information on students' attitude towards and knowledge of science and scientific methodology among preclinical medical students and note the association, if any, of students' attitudes and their demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in March 2005 among the students of the first four semesters at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using a questionnaire developed by Hren and coworkers. Two hundred and twenty students (overall response rate 73.3%) successfully completed the questionnaire. Seventy-five respondents were Nepalese, 115 were Indians, 27 were Sri Lankans and 3 belonged to other nationalities. The X +/- SD total attitude score was 147.4 +/- 10.8 (neutral score 135). The X +/- SD scores on the subscales, value of science to humanity, value of scientific methodology and value of science to medicine were 51.3 +/- 5.4, 39.6 +/- 3.7 and 58.5 +/- 5.9 (neutral scores were 36, 51 and 48 respectively). The knowledge score measured using a set of 8 multiple choice questions was 3.3 +/- 1.4. The attitude scores were lower and the knowledge score was comparable to that reported previously in a study in Croatia but higher than that reported from Southeast Europe.
Miller, Lance Joseph
Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these goals. A multi-institutional study was conducted at six different facilities throughout the United States. A repeated measures design was used to examine the knowledge, attitude and behavior of visitors before, immediately after and three months following participation in dolphin shows or interaction programs. Participants of dolphin shows reflected a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions. These participants' attitudes and behavioral intentions returned to entry levels three months following the shows. However, knowledge and reported behavior were significantly higher three months following the show compared to entry levels. Participants of interaction programs had a short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions immediately following the program and levels were significantly higher three months following the program when compared to entry levels. Additionally, these participants also reported engaging in more conservation-related behavior than during the entry surveys. Results from the current study suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program within zoological facilities. Understanding the aspects of these types of programs that lead people to conservation action will help zoological facilities in meeting their goals.
Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama
Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.
Van Eyndhoven, Lisa; Chussid, Steven; Yoon, Richard K
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine pediatric dentists' attitudes about speech evaluation in the dental setting and assess their knowledge of speech development and pathology. In October 2013, members of the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry were invited to participate in an electronic questionnaire. Categories of questions were demographics, attitudes and confidence in speech pathology, and theoretical and practical knowledge of speech development and speech pathology. Theoretical knowledge was assessed using questions about phonetics and speech milestones. Practical knowledge was determined with three 30-second interview-style video clips. A total of 539 responses were received for a response rate of 10.4%. The majority of respondents reported feeling that speech evaluation should be part of the pediatric dental visit (72.8%) and felt confident in their ability to detect speech issues (73.2%). However, they did poorly on the theoretical knowledge questions (41.9%) as well as the practical knowledge questions (8.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in theoretical score between gender and type of occupation (p<0.05). This difference was not observed when examining practical knowledge. This study suggests that although pediatric dentists are in an ideal position to aid in the detection of speech issues, they currently have insufficient training and knowledge to do so.
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother's education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students.
McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth
A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.
Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Bai, Ruixue; Zhang, Fan; Sharma, Manoj; Shi, Zumin; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Abdullah, Abu S.; Zhao, Yong
In many countries the frequency of eating out has steadily increased over the last few decades, and this behavioris often associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. This study aimed to describe the levels of knowledge, attitude, and behaviors (KAB) related to eating out among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the college town in Chongqing, China with a total of 1634 participants. The mean eating out related KAB scores were: knowledge 11.5 ± 2.9, attitude 17.0 ± 2.8, and behaviors 24.2 ± 4.8 (possible total scores: 20, 24, 40 respectively). As the level of knowledge increased, the percentage of highly satisfactory attitude and behaviors increased. Only 10% of the participants did not eat out for lunch and dinner during weekends in the last month. Gender, ethnicity, mother’s education, monthly boarding expenses, living place during the study, and the frequency of eating out for breakfast were statistically associated with the scores of KAB. In conclusion, Chinese junior students had poor knowledge of and behaviors towards eating out and ate out frequently. Educational interventionsto improve knowledge related eating out are needed in order to promote healthy eating out behaviors among Chinese university students. PMID:27420075
Gonçalves Nigro, Rogerio; Frateschi Trivelato, Silvia
The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other half to read an excerpt from a textbook addressing the same topic. Readers took knowledge and application tests immediately after the reading and again 15 days later. Students also took knowledge and reading proficiency pre-tests, and attitude tests related to the selected texts. Overall, girls scored higher than boys and readers of the popular scientific text scored higher than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. We noted interaction between 'reader gender' and 'genre of the text read' in terms of long-term learning based on the reading. Attitude regarding the text read appears as an important factor in explaining behavior of boys who read the popular scientific text. Surprisingly, knowledge and application test scores were not statistically different among girls with different degrees of reading proficiency who read the textbook excerpt. In addition, on the application tests, among the boys who read the popular scientific text, good readers scored lower than their colleagues who read the textbook excerpt. In our opinion, this study can serve to show that 'reading in science education' is not a trivial matter and we feel that the subject merits more in-depth investigation.
Alshamsan, Fatimah M.; Bin-Abbas, Bassam S.
Objectives: To examine the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources among Saudi Arabian children. Methods: One hundred patients (vitamin D-deficient children) and 100 healthy children participated in the study. Participants were interviewed separately on topics including their awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D using multiple-choice, and short-answer questions. This prospective, cross-sectional study was performed on children and adolescents between January 2011 and December 2011 at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Results: Only 28% were aware of the sources of vitamin D, while 64% of healthy subjects were aware. Similarly, only 50% of patients and their parents knew of the health benefits of vitamin D, while 70% of healthy subjects had knowledge. Hence, our findings agree with previous findings that low levels of awareness and knowledge regarding vitamin D and its sources persist. Conclusion: Most vitamin D deficient cases were unaware of vitamin D sources. However, half of the patient/parents were aware of benefits of vitamin D. Hence, we recommend that an improved campaign for awareness, knowledge, and attitudes regarding vitamin D and its sources are needed. PMID:27146624
Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.; Hoffman, Benjamin D.; Durbin, Dennis R.
Objective To evaluate pediatricians’ self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and dissemination practices regarding the new American Academy of Pediatrics’ (AAP) child passenger safety (CPS) policy recommendations. Study design A cross-sectional survey was distributed to pediatric primary care physicians via AAP e-mail distribution lists. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to current AAP CPS recommendations and the revised policy statement were ascertained. Results There were 718 respondents from 3497 physicians with active e-mail addresses, resulting in a 20.5% response rate, of which 533 were eligible based on the initial survey question. All 6 CPS knowledge and scenario-based items were answered correctly by 52.9% of the sample; these respondents were identified as the “high knowledge” group. Pediatricians with high knowledge were more likely to be female (P < .001), to have completed a pediatrics residency (vs medicine-pediatrics) (P = .03), and have a child between 4 and 7 years of age (P = .001). CPS information was distributed more frequently at routine health visits for patients 0-2 years of age vs those 4-12 years of age. Those with high knowledge were less likely to report several specific barriers to dissemination of CPS information, more likely to allot adequate time and discuss CPS with parents, and had greater confidence for topics related to all CPS topics. Conclusions Although CPS knowledge is generally high among respondents, gaps in knowledge still exist. Knowledge is associated with attitudes, practices, barriers, and facilitators of CPS guideline dissemination. These results identify opportunities to increase knowledge and implement strategies to routinely disseminate CPS information in the primary care setting. PMID:25195160
Rieman, Mary T; Gordon, Mary
Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain management affect their capability to attend to children in pain. A modified version of the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS--Manworren and Shriners Hospitals for Children Version, 2002) was used to evaluate nursing competency to manage pain at eight pediatric hospitals. A convenience sample of 295 nurses attained a mean individual test score of 74% correct. Scores were correlated with demographic data. The novice group with 0-2 years nursing experience had significantly (p<0.05) lower scores (fewer correct answers) than the other five groups with more than 2 years of nursing experience. The nurses who participated in professional nursing organizations or nursing committees had significantly higher scores than those who did not participate. Nursing education, professional activity, and years of clinical experience contribute to the knowledge necessary for competency in pain management, as evidenced by higher scores using this survey tool.
Shakoor, M A; Jaigirdar, Q H; Ullah, M A; Yunus, A B; Rashid, H A
A prospective experimental study was conducted in a postgraduate institute in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from April '05 to September '05. A total of 214 doctors of a postgraduate medical institute were included in the study who was involved in research works. A written questionnaire was given to the respondents to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice about informed consent (IC). The data was analyzed statistically. Chi-Square test was done to see the level of significance. Regarding knowledge of IC, we found maximum participants were more or less knowledgeable about it. The attitude of the respondents was also in favour of taking IC. In practice, most of them had taken informed consent that was verbal (39.3%) and written (47.6%). But some of the researcher (13.1%) had not taken any informed consent. By the present study, it may be concluded that the researchers of the concerned institute were aware of IC.
Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M
To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area.
Rahimi-Madiseh, Mohammad; Tavakol, Mohsen; Dennick, Reg
It is well documented that pain management and pain assessment is an indispensible part of the nursing care of patients. This study sought to quantify the current knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Iran about pain management. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a well-validated questionnaire entitled the 'Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Tool', previously used to evaluate undergraduate nursing students. Results from the survey questionnaire showed that there was a severe deficit in knowledge relating to pain and its management. It is argued that there is a real need for improving the content of pain and its management in the undergraduate nursing education curriculum, which might improve the delivery of optimal nursing care of patients. The limitations of the study are discussed and some recommendations are made for reforming pain management education for future practice.
Ng’etich, Arthur S.; Owino, Claudio; Juma, Ahmad; Khisa, Kevin N.
Trachoma is responsible for the visual impairment of about two million people worldwide, out of which a majority are irreversibly blind. The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and eye care seeking practices of the community regarding the available trachoma eye care services. Community members aged eighteen and over participated. Descriptive cross-sectional study design was adapted. Data analysis was performed using Stata. The level of awareness of trachoma disease in the study area was high (95%). About three quarters (71%) of the respondents were knowledgeable of the available trachoma eye care services. A majority had a positive attitude towards the available services and expressed need for the services. Public health facilities were mostly preferred. The study concluded that the community was knowledgeable of the available trachoma eye care services and had a positive attitude towards the services. Concerned stakeholders should reinforce the positive attitudes through community based educational programs and improve eye care seeking practices through community participation in education and outreach services. PMID:28299140
Wahab, Farhanah Abd; Abdullah, Sarimah; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Jaafar, Hasnan; Noor, Siti Suraiya Md; Mohammad, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan; Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Mohamed; Tharakan, John; Bhaskar, Shalini; Sangu, Muthuraju; Mahmood, Mohd Shah; Kassim, Fauziah; Rafia, Md. Hanip; Haspani, Mohammed Safari Mohammed; Alias, Azmi; Pando, Rogelio Hernández
Ranking as the most communicable disease killer worldwide, tuberculosis, has accounted with a total of 9.6 million new tuberculosis cases with 1.5 million tuberculosis-related deaths reported globally in 2014. Tuberculosis has remain as an occupational hazard for healthcare workers since 1920s and due to several tuberculosis outbreaks in healthcare settings in the early 1990s, the concern about the transmission to both patients and healthcare workers has been raised. Healthcare workers have two to three folds greater the risk of active tuberculosis than the general population. Several studies on knowledge, attitude and practices on tuberculosis among healthcare workers worldwide have revealed that majority of the participated healthcare workers had good knowledge on tuberculosis. Most of the healthcare workers from South India and South Africa also reported to have positive attitude whereas a study in Thailand reported that most of the healthcare providers have negative attitude towards tuberculosis patients. Nevertheless, majority of the healthcare workers have low level of practice on tuberculosis prevention. An improved communication between healthcare workers and the patients as well as their families is the key to better therapeutic outcomes with good knowledge, attitude and preventive practice towards tuberculosis. PMID:28090176
Simkhada, Prakash; Poobalan, Amudha; Simkhada, Padam P; Amalraj, Raja; Aucott, Lorna
Obesity threatens developing countries as urbanization increases, with civil servants being particularly vulnerable. The authors assess overweight/obesity prevalence among Nepalese civil servants along with their knowledge and attitudes. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted among 341 participants (97.4% response rate) also recorded height and weight. Participants were 40 ± 6.6 years, mostly males, married, and from a single ethnic group. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 33.4%. Knowledge of obesity was good. However, some attitudes toward obese people were negative, despite half of the participants believing obesity to indicate prosperity. Logistic regression indicated marriage and/or having a better job increased the overweight/obese risk by nearly 8 and 9 times, respectively. Heavier people were more likely to disagree with attitudes that obese people were "lazier" and "untidy." Obesity prevalence among Nepalese civil servants is already higher than the general population level. Health education and interventions are needed to translate knowledge into attitude and behavior changes in order to prevent this becoming an epidemic.
Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen
We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals.
Kroshus, Emily; Sherman, Roberta T; Thompson, Ron A; Sossin, Karen; Austin, S Bryn
The objective of this study was to assess high school coaches' knowledge, attitudes, communication, and management decisions with respect to the Female Athlete Triad and to determine whether results are patterned by coach gender. Data were obtained through an online survey of high school coaches (n = 227). Significant differences were found between male and female coaches in certain attitudes and communication behaviors related to eating and menstrual irregularity. School or district level policies may help reduce these differences and may help mitigate the health consequences for athletes related to possible differential prevention and detection of the comorbidities of the Female Athlete Triad.
Santos, Solange Laurentino Dos; Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Silva, Mírcia Betânia Costa E; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva
Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Brook, U; Watemberg, N; Geva, D
The aims of the study were to investigate teachers' knowledge and attitudes towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). Forty-six high school teachers were interviewed in this regard. The 46 teachers were divided into two groups: 25 teachers taught at an academic school (School 1); and 21 teachers taught at special education school (School 2) and dealt with ADHD/LD cases regularly. General knowledge about ADHD (71%) and about LD (74%) was relatively low among both groups. Thirteen percent of all teachers considered LD to be the result of parental attitudes, namely 'spoiling' the children. The score for attitude and understanding of ADHD children was relatively low (72.5%) for both groups, whereas Group B teachers scored higher regarding LD cases. Almost 40% considered that ADHD children should be rebuked and/or punished in a manner similar to non-ADHD kids. Regarding long-term outcome, 45.7% of the teachers expected ADHD children to experience multiple difficulties in family life during adulthood. In relation to LD cases, the overall scoring for positive attitude was 75%. However, this score was higher for Group B teachers. Three-quarters of the teachers favored increasing peer awareness and comprehension as to the problems LD kids encounter at school. Ninety-five percent believed LD patients should enjoy a more lenient school education. There was no correlation between teachers, knowledge of ADHD and LD and their attitude. The main sources for this knowledge were: specialized textbooks, continuous education, TV shows, journals and newspapers, and medical personnel.
Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard
Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and
Elkalmi, Ramadan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omar Qutaiba; Jawad Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Al-Shami, Abdul Kareem; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim
Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge of the general population towards ADR and their reporting system. Methods: An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire (15 items) was designed. The questionnaire was subjected to face validity and content validity. The reliability coefficient was found to be 0.71. This study recruited proportionately large convenience sample of the general public in Penang. Interviews using a structured questionnaire were conducted over a week period in August 2009. The recommended sample size was calculated to be 368. Results: Three hundred thirty-four responses were received. Slightly more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 18-25 years (53.6%; n = 179). When asked about the sources of their medication majority of them reported medical doctor (85.6%), whereas small number (34.7%) reported community pharmacists as sources of medications. Three-quarter of the respondents (77.2%) get their information about the side-effects of drugs from physicians, followed by pharmacist (44.6%). More than half of the respondents (65.6%, n = 219) reported unawareness about the existence of ADR center set up by the Ministry of Health. Conclusion: Respondents reflected inadequate knowledge on ADR reporting. This needs to be corrected as the trend of future pharmacovigilance is toward the patient. Moreover, the new trend seems to be more appropriate as the patient is the group of the people who are directly affected from the ADR of a particular drug and not the health-care providers. Furthermore, the patient will be informed about the economic implications of not reporting ADR. It is recommended that government agencies, like MADRAC needs to find ways to increase patient- reported ADR cases. PMID:24082699
Najafi-Sharjabad, Fatemeh; Hajivandi, Abdollah; Rayani, Mohammad
Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women's contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women's contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05) and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs) (p<0.001). The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program.
Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.
A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life. PMID:24847376
McClement, Susan E; Care, Dean; Dean, Ruth; Cheang, Mary
Our study was an evaluation of a pilot course in palliative nursing care designed to improve practising nurses' knowledge regarding cancer pain management and attitudes toward care of the dying patient. The course involved 12 weeks (36 hours) of systematic classroom instruction for registered nurses, and a one-day observational experience on a designated palliative care unit. A total of 16 nurses participated in the study. A repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the course. Attitudes toward care of the dying patient and his/her family were also evaluated. Results showed that nurses' attitudes improved significantly from Time 1 (first day of course) to Time 2 (last day of course) (p=0.0007), and that this improvement was maintained at Time 3 (three months later) (p=0.064). The observational experience on a palliative care unit held in conjunction with the course was reported to be helpful to students in consolidating theoretical instruction.
Althaus, D; Stefanek, J; Hasford, J; Hegerl, U
Within the German research network on depression, the Nuremberg Alliance against Depression aims at informing the public about depressive illness and preventing suicidality by carrying out a city-wide information campaign. Before the prevention program started, public attitudes and knowledge had been assessed in a public opinion survey in Nuremberg and in a control region. A total of 1426 randomly chosen inhabitants of Nuremberg and Würzburg completed a computer-assisted telephone interview during November and December 2000. They were asked about their knowledge and attitudes towards symptoms, causes, and treatment of depression. No relevant differences between Nuremberg and Würzburg were found. Depression is regarded as a serious illness. People seemed to be more knowledgeable as compared to the results of earlier surveys, but there are still important information deficits. This is especially true for males over 60, who show unfavorable attitudes. Eighty percent of the population consider antidepressants to be addictive, and 69% were convinced that the use of antidepressants would lead to personality changes. Future information campaigns should aim at describing depression as an often chronic disease similar to hypertonia or diabetes. Public knowledge about antidepressants must be improved.
Teltscher, B; Polgar, S
The task of genetic counselling of people at risk for Huntington's disease might be facilitated by increased knowledge of relevant population characteristics. The aim of the present study was to clarify select socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge concerning the disease, and attitudes towards predictive tests of people at 50% risk of inheriting Huntington's disease in the state of Victoria. A random sample of subjects was drawn from the Huntington's disease register and 50 questionnaires were analysed. Respondents completed three questionnaires which covered their socioeconomic characteristics, the extent and accuracy of their knowledge about the genetic, progress, and treatment of Huntington's disease, and their attitude and acceptance of predictive tests as well as their intentions about future reproduction. A very positive attitude was found to be held by the respondents towards a predictive test if it was safe, reliable, and non-invasive. Resultant problems which would arise, should a reliable test be found, are discussed. The respondent's knowledge concerning the disease was found to be adequate generally. PMID:6454786
Abdullah, Nurfarhana Farah; Roslan, Husniyati; Noor, Siti Noor Fazliah Mohd
Tooth wear is an oral lesion with multifactorial causes. The prevalence is increasing with an increasing age. Knowledge of tooth wear is part of oral health and essential requirements are needed to modify health related behaviors. This study was aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of tooth wear and to compare with the socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study using a modified version of self-administered questionnaire was distributed among 390 adults (aged more than 18 years old) from three government institutions in Bertam, Penang. A total of 349 (89.5%) subjects had participated in this study with 55.3% were males and majority of the subjects were Malays. About 58.2% had low level of knowledge with mean score at 20.8. Meanwhile, 93.4% subjects had a positive attitude and 84.2% had poor level of practice on oral hygiene. The low mean score of knowledge among subjects was not necessary an indicator that attitude and practice were affected. However, identification of etiological factors emphasizes on educational approaches, and empowerment of patients and community towards awareness are the most important factors for preventive strategies.
Satish, V; Marwah, Nikhil; Vishwas, TD; Dayanand, MC
Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school teachers toward oral health. Settings and design Descriptive study. Materials and methods School teachers (n = 150) of Davangere city were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices on oral health. Statistical analysis The results were statistically analyzed and percentage was calculated. Results and conclusion The participants’ oral hygiene habits were found to be regular. The majority of teachers showed good knowledge on oral health. Most of the teachers in this study recognized the importance of oral health. The majority of teachers did incorporate the importance of oral health in teaching and educating children in the school. But, not all teachers are involved effectively. So, the teachers should be trained comprehensively regarding importance of oral health and creating awareness on oral health promotion for their students in combination with health care personnel. How to cite this article Maganur PC, Satish V, Marwah N, Vishwas TD, Dayanand MC. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of School Teachers toward Oral Health in Davangere, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):89-95. PMID:28377662
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.
Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech
Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN). Before the programme, students' knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p); DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p), and, in addition, there were differences (P < 0.001) between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p). Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation. PMID:24501581
Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M
The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women. A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with a 2-3 month retest of the experimental group. The sample consisted of 506 experimental and 206 control group women who were clients of the Public Health Foundation's Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County. The program included a slide-tape presentation, and educational and resource brochures in English and Spanish. Knowledge, attitudes, and sexual and drug use practices were measured using a structured questionnaire that was developed in English and Spanish. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in pretest-posttest knowledge, attitudes, and practices for experimental and control groups and for both racial/ethnic groups. The experimental group made significant gains over the control group on pretest-posttest measures of knowledge and attitudes. Both experimental and control groups made significant changes in practice. Changes in knowledge were retained on retest; changes in practices came close to significance on retest. Blacks and Latinas differed on pretest knowledge and attitudes but not practices. Blacks had more knowledge and positive attitudes on pretest. However, posttest improvements for both knowledge and attitudes were greater in Latinas than in blacks. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of knowledge, attitudes and practices were racial/ethnic group, education, and religion. It is concluded that a didactic audio visual program can positively affect the knowledge and possibly the practices of participants and that these are retained over time but that changes in attitudes will take further efforts.
Sahu, Amitkumar; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V; Panchakshari, Bharath Kashetty; Jain, Manish
Introduction Prevention at primary level is of great value in Paediatric Dentistry. Since use of preventive measures can prevent future complications, dental professionals share an important responsibility toward early screening, prompt referral and treatment and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. Aim To evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among dental practitioners in Bhopal city (central part of India) pertaining to sealants, topical fluorides usage and orthodontic consideration in paediatric patients. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 20-item self-administered, closed ended, structured questionnaire. A total of 200 available private dental practitioners of Bhopal city made up the sampling frame of study. Results Out of 200 practicing dentists, 147 participated with response rate of 73.5% in which 69.4% were males and 30.6% were females. A total of 83% dentists were less than 35 years of age, while 17% were equal to or more than 35 years of age. Qualification distribution revealed 67.3% dental graduate and 32.6% dental specialist. A highly significant difference in knowledge in relation to age was observed. The mean±SD were found for Knowledge as 8.46±1.82, Attitude as 2.65±0.780, and Practice as 1.66±1.57. Statistically significant correlations were found between attitude and practice (r=0.58, p<0.001). Conclusion Dentists in Bhopal city have vast knowledge towards preventive dentistry. The attitude is highly commendable but underutilized in practice, which needs to be improved. PMID:28209009
Affognon, Hippolyte; Mburu, Peter; Hassan, Osama Ahmed; Kingori, Sarah; Ahlm, Clas; Sang, Rosemary; Evander, Magnus
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, affecting humans and livestock. For spread of infectious diseases, including RVF, knowledge, attitude and practices play an important role, and the understanding of the influence of behavior is crucial to improve prevention and control efforts. The objective of the study was to assess RVF exposure, in a multiethnic region in Kenya known to experience RVF outbreaks, from the behavior perspective. We investigated how communities in Isiolo County, Kenya were affected, in relation to their knowledge, attitude and practices, by the RVF outbreak of 2006/2007. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 698 households selected randomly from three different ethnic communities. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes and practices that could affect the spread of RVF. In addition, information was collected from the communities regarding the number of humans and livestock affected during the RVF outbreak. This study found that better knowledge about a specific disease does not always translate to better practices to avoid exposure to the disease. However, the high knowledge, attitude and practice score measured as a single index of the Maasai community may explain why they were less affected, compared to other investigated communities (Borana and Turkana), by RVF during the 2006/2007 outbreak. We conclude that RVF exposure in Isiolo County, Kenya during the outbreak was likely determined by the behavioral differences of different resident community groups. We then recommend that strategies to combat RVF should take into consideration behavioral differences among communities. PMID:28273071
El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.
Arevalo, Mariana; Jacobsen, Paul B; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Luque, John S; Miguel, Gloria San; Watson, Dale; Wells, Kristen J
Few research studies with non-English-speaking audiences have been conducted to explore community members' views on biospecimen donation and banking, and no validated Spanish-language multi-scale instruments exist to measure community perspectives on biobanking. This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Biobanking Attitudes aNd Knowledge Survey-Spanish (BANKS-SP). The BANKS was translated into Spanish using the Brislin method of translation. Draft BANKS-SP items were refined through cognitive interviews, and psychometric properties were assessed in a sample of 85 Spanish-speaking individuals recruited at various community events in a three county area in central west Florida, USA. The final BANKS-SP includes three scales: attitudes, knowledge, and self-efficacy; as well as three single items, which evaluated receptivity and intention to donate a biospecimen for research. The final Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the two scales that use a Likert response format indicated adequate internal consistency (attitudes, α = .79; self-efficacy, α = .91). Intention to donate blood and intention to donate urine were positively correlated with attitudes, self-efficacy, and receptivity to learning more about biobanking (all p's < .001). BANKS-SP-Knowledge was not statistically significantly correlated with other BANKS-SP scales or single items measuring intention to donate a biospecimen for research and receptivity for learning more about biospecimen research. The BANKS-SP attitudes and self-efficacy scales show evidence of satisfactory reliability and validity. Additional research should be conducted with larger samples to assess the BANKS-SP instrument's reliability and validity. A valid and reliable Spanish-language instrument measuring Spanish-speaking community members' views about biobanking may help researchers evaluate relevant communication interventions to enhance understanding, intention, and actual biospecimen donation
Al-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and attitude with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken with a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Center at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The EuroQoL-five-dimensional (EQ-5D) scale was used to assess HRQoL. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. The brief diabetic knowledge test in questionnaire format developed by the University of Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center and the attitude toward self-care questionnaire based on the diabetic care profile were used. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of a history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were in the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. A moderate level of HRQoL (0.71 ± 0.22) was recorded in the study cohort. The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs. 0.74 ± 0.20). The mean score of Michigan Diabetic Knowledge Test was 8.96 ± 2.1 and the median score was 9.00. Of 75 diabetic patients, 14.7% had poor knowledge; 72% had moderate knowledge, and only 13.3% had good knowledge. The average attitude score of all respondents was 6.38 ± 2.11. There was a significant positive association between attitude and EQ-5D score. Conclusion: HRQoL and knowledge scores were moderate in type 2 diabetic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patient attitude toward the disease was positive, and this was positively associated with HRQoL; most respondents believed they are responsible for their care. It is likely that a high quality of diabetes self-management education program will provide benefits and affect significantly on type 2 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27413347
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice.
Reddy, Veera; Bennadi, Darshana; Gaduputi, Satish; Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Siluvai, Sibyl; Reddy, Chava Venkata Konda
Objectives: To determine the oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of pre-university students of Mysore city. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1000 pre-university students of Mysore city. Results: Statistical tests such as percentage distribution and Chi-square were used. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Most of the students (88%, n = 880) knew that dental health reflects on the general health. Eighty-nine percent (n = 890) of students were aware that sweets and sticky food cause dental decay. Majority of the students (90%, n = 900) agreed that they visited dentist only when they had pain and cleaned their teeth once daily using toothbrush and tooth paste in vertical and horizontal motion. Conclusion: The study showed that the students had good knowledge about the basic oral health measures necessary to maintain proper oral health, but their attitude and practices toward oral health was relatively poor. PMID:25374832
Al Taweel, Sara Mohammad; Al Shehri, Huda Ahmed
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of dental interns at King Saud University College of Dentistry (KSUCD) regarding denture adhesives (DAs). Materials and Methods: Surveys were distributed to dental interns at KSUCD (n = 100). Cross-tabulations with the Pearson-™s Chi-square test were used to compare variables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Approximately, 85.5% of the respondents had learned about DAs as part of their undergraduate curriculum, 71% agree that DAs can be a beneficial adjunct in the fabrication of dentures, and 87% agree that dentists should routinely inform all denture patients of the proper use and misuse of DAs. Conclusion: Most of the participants have adequate knowledge and attitude toward DAs. PMID:28042271
Sadeghi, Mahshid; Rabiepoor, Soheila; Forough, Aida Sefidani; Jabbari, Shiva; Shahabi, Shahram
Personal beliefs of medical students may interfere with their tendency for learning Complementary and Alternative Medicine concepts. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of medical students toward complementary and alternative medicine in Urmia, Iran. A structured questionnaire was used as data collection instrument. One hundred questionnaires were returned. Thirty-one percent of students reported use of alternative medicine for at least once. Iranian Traditional Medicine was the main type of alternative medicine used by medical students (93.5%). Neuromuscular disorders were the main indication of alternative medicine use among students (34.4%). Ninety percent of participants demonstrated competent knowledge about acupuncture while the lowest scores belonged to homeopathy (12%). Study results showed that 49% of medical students had positive attitudes and demonstrated a willingness to receive training on the subject. Thus, there appears a necessity to integrate complementary and alternative medicine into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations and feedbacks of medical students into consideration.
Austein, C. F.; Seashore, M. R.; Mick, S. S.
To assess the feasibility of screening the single Jewish population for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a questionnaire examining the knowledge of and attitudes toward TSD and genetic screening was sent to 348 Yale University Jewish undergraduates. Of those students responding (63 percent), 78 percent were able to answer general genetic questions correctly while only 1.9 percent could answer specific Tay-Sachs questions correctly. A majority of the students (93.9 percent) indicated some concern about being a carrier for TSD, believed that carrier status would affect future social and reproductive behavior, and expressed an interest in having TS carrier status determined while still single (77.4 percent). Strong correlations were found between knowledge and attitudes, but no significant differences appeared between male and female respondents. In addition to leading to improvements in Tay-Sachs screening programs, the observations have led to suggestions that may be generalized to other genetic screening programs. PMID:7336765
McCartan, B E; Samaranayake, L P
As the numbers of people with HIV infection and AIDS increase, so will the contribution required from dental practitioners. A postal questionnaire survey was therefore conducted among dental practitioners in Ireland to determine their knowledge and attitudes towards HIV infection and the issues it raises for them. Although a majority of dentists were aware of the facts related to AIDS and the spread and oral manifestations of HIV infection, there were considerable gaps in their knowledge with regard to dental management. Only 41% were prepared to be engaged in continued care of HIV infected patients while contradicting opinions were expressed on the risk of HIV transmission in dentistry and attitudes towards HIV seropositive patients and staff. Further educational efforts on HIV infection and its implications in dentistry should be directed towards dentists in Ireland.
Al-Sulaiman, Ayman; Kondkar, Altaf A.; Saeedi, Mohammad Y.; Saadallah, Amal; Al-Odaib, Ali; Abu-Amero, Khaled K.
Objective. To assess the attitude and knowledge of the Saudi mothers toward newborn screening (NBS) program. Methods. A total of 425 Saudi women (only mothers who have at least one pregnancy) participated in the study from different regions in Saudi Arabia and completed the structured questionnaire which sought their views on the NBS services. Results. A majority of the participating women (91.1%) supported the NBS program and felt it was very important and useful. However, knowledge of NBS was found to be very limited and only 34.6% knew that NBS was a test to detect genetic disorders. A lack of communication and counseling to NBS clients by health authorities offering screening is implied. Conclusion. In general, there is a positive attitude towards the NBS program among Saudi women. However, they have several concerns to improve the availability of medication and formulas, genetic counseling, medical interventions, communication, education materials, and awareness. PMID:26543864
Lipson, Amy R; Hausman, Alice J; Higgins, Patricia A; Burant, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences regarding advance directives. A secondary purpose was to examine predictors of advance directive discussions between nurses and patients. Seven-hundred and nineteen respondents, randomly selected from a list of registered nurses in the state of Ohio, completed mailed questionnaires. Descriptive t test, chi-square, and logistic regression statistics were used in the data analyses. The respondents were knowledgeable and possessed positive attitudes about advance directives. Higher self-perceived confidence in advance directive discussion skills and the experience of caring for at least one patient with a current advance directive were found to be significant predictors of advance directive discussions. These findings suggest that experience with advance directives documents is critical for nurses' comfort and that developing interventions to further nurses' confidence in their discussion skills may increase advance directive discussions.
Wittig, Deborah R
The provision of culturally congruent care for Native Americans can improve health care compliance and outcomes. The purpose of this survey was to determine the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students deem essential to provide culturally competent healthcare for Native American clients. This information provides nurse educators with critical information regarding the cultural competence of nursing students and may be used to direct curriculum development. An open-ended survey was administered to associate degree nursing students, and conceptual analysis was used for data analysis. The researcher identified four knowledge themes, two skill themes, and two attitude themes. These themes were interrelated and connected. Findings from this study indicate that the current nursing curriculum supports the development of cultural competence among the student nurses who will practice in a multicultural climate. Practice implications include the use of a cultural assessment tool by the students.
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice.
Torkar, Gregor; Mohar, Petra; Gregorc, Tatjana; Nekrep, Igor; Adamic, Marjana Honigsfeld
This study focused on human-otter interactions in Slovenia. The aim of the study was to obtain data about secondary-school students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and its conservation. The survey was carried out in fall 2008 and winter 2008-09 and included 273 teenagers. Their average age was 15.57 (SD = 1.01,…
Lamb, B.L.; Cline, Kurt; Brinson, Ayeisha; Sexton, N.R.; Ponds, P.D.
In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-sate short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitude about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation towards the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs are less inclined to view them as beneficial to society than are those who infrequently see or come in contact with the animals. When asked about prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.
Radke, Taylor J.; Brown, Laura G.; Hoover, E. Rickamer; Faw, Brenda V.; Reimann, David; Wong, Melissa R.; Nicholas, David; Barkley, Jonathan; Ripley, Danny
Dining outside of the home can be difficult for persons with food allergies who must rely on restaurant staff to properly prepare allergen-free meals. The purpose of this study was to understand and identify factors associated with food allergy knowledge and attitudes among restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. This study was conducted by the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal, state, and local environmental health specialists working to understand the environmental factors associated with food safety issues. EHS-Net personnel collected data from 278 randomly selected restaurants through interviews with restaurant managers, food workers, and servers. Results indicated that managers, food workers, and servers were generally knowledgeable and had positive attitudes about accommodating customers’ food allergies. However, we identified important gaps, such as more than 10% of managers and staff believed that a person with a food allergy can safely consume a small amount of that allergen. Managers and staff also had lower confidence in their restaurant’s ability to properly respond to a food allergy emergency. The knowledge and attitudes of all groups were higher at restaurants that had a specific person to answer food allergy questions and requests or a plan for answering questions from food allergic customers. However, food allergy training was not associated with knowledge in any of the groups but was associated with manager and server attitudes. Based on these findings, we encourage restaurants to be proactive by training staff about food allergies and creating plans and procedures to reduce the risk of a customer having a food allergic reaction. PMID:28221943
Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.
This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…
Fotedar, Shailee; Gupta, Manish; Manchanda, Kavita; Sharma, Mukesh
Background Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cancer among Indian females. Early detection of oral cancers makes them more amenable to treatment and allows the greatest chance of cure. Lack of awareness among the health care providers is the most significant factor in delaying diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. So the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of oral cancer among undergraduate medical students in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 186 undergraduate medical students between the third to fifth years in Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions, five each on knowledge, attitudes and practices. The data were analysed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16. Test used were t-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results The response rate of the study was 96.5%. The mean knowledge percent of the sample was good. Mean knowledge percent was higher in females than males. Higher percentage of students in 5th year (internship) had excellent knowledge. The knowledge and practices about risk factors was not satisfactory. One hundred and twenty four (66.6%) of the subjects disagreed/strongly disagreed that their knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer is current adequate. One hundred and seventy six and (94.6%) agreed/strongly agreed that there is need for additional training/information regarding oral cancer. Conclusion It can be concluded that though the mean knowledge of the population was good but the knowledge and practices about risk factors had to be reinforced among these students so that they can help the patients in tobacco and alcohol cessation and contribute in prevention of oral cancers. PMID:26436029
Laur, Celia; Marcus, Hannah; Ray, Sumantra; Keller, Heather
Understanding the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of hospital staff is needed to improve care activities that support the detection/prevention/treatment of malnutrition, yet quality measures are lacking. The purpose was to develop (study 1) and assess the administration and discriminative potential (study 2) of using such a KAP measure in acute care. In study 1, a 27-question KAP questionnaire was developed, face validated (n = 5), and tested for reliability (n = 35). Kappa and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) were determined. In study 2, the questionnaire was sent to staff at five diverse hospitals (n = 189). Administration challenges were noted and analyses completed to determine differences across sites, professions, and years of practice. Study 1 results demonstrate that the knowledge/attitude (KA) and the practice (P) subscales are reliable (KA: ICC = 0.69 95% CI 0.45–0.84, F = 5.54, p < 0.0001; P: ICC = 0.84 95% CI 0.68−0.92, F = 11.12, p < 0.0001). Completion rate of individual questions in study 2 was high and suggestions to improve administration were identified. The KAP mean score was 93.6/128 (range 51–124) with higher scores indicating more knowledge, better attitudes and positive practices. Profession and years of practice were associated with KAP scores. The KAP questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure that can be used in needs assessments to inform improvements to nutrition care in hospital. PMID:27775604
Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.
Homi Bhesania, Nasha; Rehman, Anaya; Saleh Savul, Ilma; Zehra, Nosheen
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of school teachers towards an epileptic child. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers of primary, middle and high schools from different communities in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 120 self-administered KAP questionnaires were distributed in schools selected through convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: Out of the total sample size, 90.9% (n=100) had heard about epilepsy. Sixteen (14.5%) teachers considered epilepsy to be contagious while 72.7% (n=80) teachers were of the view that epileptics can succeed as other normal children and sixty nine (62.7%) teachers were willing to help a child experiencing a fit, though only 15.5% (n=17) received knowledge about epilepsy during their training years. Conclusion: The research was conclusive for assessing the knowledge and attitude of teachers towards epileptic children. It highlighted the lack of awareness and negative attitude still existing among teachers. However, many were in the favor of mass education through awareness programs. PMID:24639865
Park, Seon-Cheol; Lee, Hwa-Young; Lee, Dong-Woo; Hahn, Sang-Woo; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yeo-Ju; Choi, Jae Sung; Lee, Ho-Sung; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Jung, Sung Won; Shim, Se-Hoon; Choi, Joonho; Paik, Jong-Woo; Kwon, Young-Joon
Our study aimed to examine the knowledge and attitude of nursing personnel toward depression in general hospitals of Korea. A total of 851 nursing personnel enrolled at four university-affiliated general hospitals completed self-report questionnaires. Chi-square tests were used to compare the knowledge and attitude of registered or assistant nurses toward depression. In addition, binary logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for the following confounders: age-group and workplace. Registered and assistant nurses differed in their knowledge and attitude toward depression. The proportion of rational and/or correct responses were higher in registered nurses than assistant nurses for the following: constellation of depressive symptoms defined by DSM-IV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.876; P<0.001); suicide risk in depression recovery (aOR, 3.223; P=0.001) and psychological stress as a cause of depression (aOR, 4.370; P<0.001); the relationship between chronic physical disease and depression (aOR, 8.984; P<0.001); and other items. Our results suggest that in terms of the biological model of depression, the understanding of registered nurses is greater than that of assistant nurses. Moreover, specific psychiatric education programs for nursing personnel need to be developed in Korea. Our findings can contribute to the development of a general hospital-based model for early detection of depression in patients with chronic medical diseases.
Brabcová, Dana; Kohout, Jiří; Kršek, Pavel
The aim of this study was to compare knowledge about, confidence with, and attitudes towards epilepsy and affected people between groups of freshmen and senior teachers in training (preservice teachers) at the Faculty of Education in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Two hundred thirty-six freshmen and 138 seniors completed the 21-item Scale of Attitudes Towards People with Epilepsy (ATPE), an 18-item multiple-choice test measuring their knowledge about epilepsy, and a 5-item questionnaire focused on confidence with epilepsy in a school environment. We found that despite a higher level of knowledge about epilepsy among seniors (mean score of 9.6 points compared with 8.48 points for freshmen, p<0.001), attitudes towards epilepsy, and also confidence in how to manage children affected with this disease did not differ significantly. The presented findings suggest that epilepsy-related training of preservice teachers should be more effective especially with respect to their ability to resolve problems that may happen to children with epilepsy in a class.
Patil, Sandya; Thakur, Rachna; K, Madhu; Paul, Santhosh T; Gadicherla, Prahlad
Objectives: Every expectant mother should receive a comprehensive oral health education & risk assessment. Numerous reports have shown association between oral diseases and preterm, low birth weight and gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study is to understand the attitude, knowledge regarding prenatal and perinatal oral health care among obstetricians and knowledge, attitude & practice skills of dental professionals. Materials and Methods: The study involved a survey of 36 each gynaecologists and general dental practitioners. The pre tested questionnaire on oral health for expectant mothers was used to collect data related. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using frequency of responses and standard deviation. Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that 98% of general dental practitioners felt that delay in dental treatment effect both the mother and the child. 85.7% (p>0.05) of gynaecologist never examined the oral cavity of the patient during routine checkup. Conclusion: The findings of this survey with dentists and gynaecologist showed that dental management during pregnancy still presents some deviations from scientific literature recommendations, indicating the need to update these health care professionals in order to establish guidelines for prenatal dental care. How to cite this article: Patil S, Thakur R, Madhu K, Paul S T, Gadicherla P. Oral Health Coalition: Knowledge, Attitude, Practice Behaviours among Gynaecologists and Dental Practitioners. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):8-15. PMID:24155572
Doshi, Dolar; Reddy, B Srikanth; Kulkarni, Suhas; Karunakar, P
Aim: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior. PMID:22837614
Mecarelli, Oriano; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Romeo, Antonino; Rubboli, Guido; Tinuper, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore
A nationwide telephone interview was conducted on a random sample of Italian schoolteachers (300 from primary and 300 from secondary schools) to ascertain knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Included were 516 women and 84 men aged 22 to 70 years. Thirty-seven percent of the teachers believed epilepsy starts only in childhood, 55% considered it hereditary, 46.8% declared it incurable, and only 10.5% knew surgery is a therapeutic option. Thirty-three percent considered epilepsy a moderate-to-strong limitation for marriage, 24.6% for having children, 39.7% for regular employment, and 32.8% for sports and leisure activities. Among the teachers, 66.4% declared they were unable to manage a seizing child, 24.7% were convinced that epilepsy impairs learning, 26.0% believed that it carries mental/behavioral alterations, and 36.4% thought it requires support at school. Differences in knowledge and attitudes were predicted by teachers' age and area of residency. There were no major differences between teachers and the Italian population in their knowledge and attitudes.
Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith
A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p<0.01). Cyclist-drivers had better knowledge of the road rules related to cycling infrastructure than drivers; however knowledge of road rules related to bike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists.
Akbarian, Seyyed Ali
Background. Knowledge and attitudes are required for relatives of people with epilepsy to allow them to better understand and cope with this condition. This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of family members of people with epilepsy about the disease. Methods. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire completed by close family members of people with epilepsy at the outpatient clinic of a medical university. The questionnaire included 25 items that determined the demographics and information on the level of knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Results. The 124 participants had an average age of 36.88 ± 10.68 years. The mean knowledge score was 10.32 ± 2.25 (range: 4 to 15). 87.1% of respondents answered that epilepsy is a brain disorder, 39 (31.5%) said epilepsy is inherited. As a whole, 62 (50%) had good knowledge about the disease. The mean score of attitude was 7.25 ± 1.54 (range: 2 to 10). 83.9% of respondents believed that a person with epilepsy can get married and get pregnant (76.6%). Overall, 15 (12.1%) had negative attitudes and 109 (87.9%) had positive attitudes. Conclusion. The main findings of this study indicated good knowledge and a positive attitude about epilepsy among family members of people with epilepsy. PMID:28116347
Karimi, Narges; Akbarian, Seyyed Ali
Background. Knowledge and attitudes are required for relatives of people with epilepsy to allow them to better understand and cope with this condition. This study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of family members of people with epilepsy about the disease. Methods. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire completed by close family members of people with epilepsy at the outpatient clinic of a medical university. The questionnaire included 25 items that determined the demographics and information on the level of knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Results. The 124 participants had an average age of 36.88 ± 10.68 years. The mean knowledge score was 10.32 ± 2.25 (range: 4 to 15). 87.1% of respondents answered that epilepsy is a brain disorder, 39 (31.5%) said epilepsy is inherited. As a whole, 62 (50%) had good knowledge about the disease. The mean score of attitude was 7.25 ± 1.54 (range: 2 to 10). 83.9% of respondents believed that a person with epilepsy can get married and get pregnant (76.6%). Overall, 15 (12.1%) had negative attitudes and 109 (87.9%) had positive attitudes. Conclusion. The main findings of this study indicated good knowledge and a positive attitude about epilepsy among family members of people with epilepsy.
Jiang, Lin; He, Hong-Gu; Zhou, Wen-Guang; Shi, Su-Hua; Yin, Ting-Ting; Kong, Yue
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards and level of competence in nursing practice, as well as factors influencing nurses' competence in nursing practice, in typhoon disaster relief work. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire to obtain data from 607 nurses working in four tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals in Fujian, China, in November 2011. Our findings show that the nurses' average percentage scores on their responses to questions in the domains of knowledge, attitudes and practice were 66.33%, 68.87% and 67.60%, respectively. The findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between nurses' attitudes and their practice. Nurses' working unit, prior training in typhoon disaster relief, current position of employment and attitudes were significant predictors of nurses' competence in practice. The results indicate that strategies need to be developed for nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practice.
Owoaje, E T; Oyemade, A; Kolude, O O
The UNICEF/WHO Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) programme was developed to train health workers and equip them with the required knowledge and skills to protect, promote and support breastfeeding among mothers through the implementation of the "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding". This study was conducted to assess the effect of BFHI training on knowledge, attitudes and support practices of nurses with regards to exclusive breastfeeding. A total of 298 nurses in maternal and child health care units were interviewed, of these 113 (37.1%) had participated in the BFHI training workshop. Significantly higher proportions of the BFHI trained nurses had the correct knowledge regarding the causes and management of common breastfeeding problems. The overall knowledge scores of the BFHI trained nurses was significantly higher than that of the untrained (11.9 +/- 1.8 versus 10.7 +/- 2.4 P < 0.01). Higher proportions of BFHI trained nurses reported correct support practices for the initiation and establishment of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers. The findings show that nurses who had participated in the BFHI training workshop were significantly more knowledgeable about some aspects of exclusive breastfeeding, they had more positive attitudes and were more likely to employ correct practices for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding.
Bal-Yılmaz, Hatice; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is transmitted through sexual contact and can cause cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV) in nursing students in a baccalaureate program. This study was conducted with a sample of 624 students. Data were collected via questionnaires administered during the first class time. Students' knowledge about HPV was high; 90.5% knew HPV can cause cervical cancer; 94.6% recognized it as a sexually transmitted disease. Although; 87.7% stated a vaccine is available to protect women from HPV, nearly all participants (98.1%) had not received HPV vaccination. Findings show students' level of knowledge about HPV's risk factors and modes of transmission were high. However, this knowledge did not translate into engagement in health related behaviors such as being vaccinated against HPV.
Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ≤ 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.
Kassim, Abd. Latif; Raman, Arumugam; Don, Yahya; Daud, Yaakob; Omar, Mohd Sofian
This study was aimed to identify the association of teachers' attitude towards the implementation of Staff Development Training with Knowledge Sharing Practices among the lecturers of the Teacher Training Institution (TTI). In addition, this study was also to examine the differences in attitudes towards the implementation of Staff Development…
Alufohai, P. J.; Akinlosotu, T. N.
The study investigated knowledge and attitude of secondary school teachers towards continuous assessment (CA) practices in Edo Central Senatorial District, Nigeria. The study was undertaken to determine the influence of gender, age, years of experience and area of educational specialization on teachers' attitude towards CA practices in secondary…
Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.
Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…
National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.
This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. Public attitudes as they exist today and how they have changed over the past seven years are evaluated. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 Americans aged 18 and older were surveyed by Roper Starch Worldwide in May, 1998. Part 1 presents…
Brook, Uzi; Galili, A.
Surveys high school students (N=171) regarding their attitudes towards chronically disabled individuals who have special needs. Determined that previous personal knowledge of a child with a chronic disability influenced understanding of the particular ailment; and attitudes became more tolerant as students got older. Presents conclusions for…
Garcia-Alonso, Francisco J.; Tejero, María Hernández; Cambrodón, Daniel Bonillo; Bermejo, Fernando
Background Introducing shared decision making (SDM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening requires patients to acquire appropriate knowledge. We aimed to describe the knowledge attained by subjects with a family history of CRC. Methods Consecutive patients attending the gastroenterology clinic for a CRC family history were invited to take part in a cross-sectional survey. Attitudes towards SDM, satisfaction with the information received, knowledge currently achieved, and relevant influencing factors were evaluated. Satisfaction and attitudes towards SDM were evaluated with Likert scale questions. Knowledge was surveyed with closed (80%) and open (20%) questions. Results Of the 160 patients, 42.7% were male and the median age was 51.8 years (interquartile range: 43.9-58.5). Most subjects favored SDM; only 12.8% (8.4-19.1%) favored passive attitudes. Satisfaction with the information received about what a colonoscopy is and why it is recommended was adequate in 83.1% (76.4-88.2%). Information about risks satisfied 62.9% (55-70.1%) and about alternatives to colonoscopy only 30.6% (23.8-38.3%). The benefits of screening were better known than its risks and alternatives. The CRC decrease associated with screening was known to 71.3% (63.7-77.8%), but only 38.5% (31.1-46.4%) knew that a reduced risk still exists. Just 21.2% (15.5-26.9%) could mention an alternative screening method to colonoscopy and only 42.5% (35-50.4%) were aware of any associated harm. On multivariate analysis, higher educational level and younger age of the attending physician were associated with higher knowledge scores. Conclusion SDM is considered favorably by most patients. Although information about the benefits of CRC screening is transmitted adequately, risks and alternatives should be better addressed. PMID:28042241
Sohan, Donna Elizabeth
Biotechnology is the latest in a series of technological innovations that have revolutionized such fields as agriculture and the health sciences. However, along with the benefits of biotechnology are concerns. For biotechnology's potential to be realized, it must be accepted on public and governmental levels. Although many studies focus on adult consumer attitudes, it will be the students of today who will be the consumers and leaders of tomorrow. Therefore, this study focused on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of college students regarding biotechnology. More than 3,000 undergraduate students were surveyed from a variety of undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas during the 1997-1998 academic year. Information sought included students' knowledge regarding recent applications of biotechnology, demographic information, and their agreement or disagreement with statements regarding different aspects and applications of biotechnology. This study found that despite a low awareness or knowledge of biotechnology, students were accepting of specific applications or products of biotechnology. Those applications or products viewed as beneficial without involving animals had the highest acceptance levels. A majority of the students identified mass media as their major source of biotechnology while also indicating a high level of distrust of the media. Students also indicated that biotechnology information is needed and that such information is appropriate for high school students. Relationships between knowledge and attitudes were also investigated. A greater knowledge level correlated with a more favorable view of biotechnology. In addition, relationships between demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated. Individuals who identified themselves as scientists were found more accepting of biotechnology while females in general were found less accepting. Females majoring in education were found to be the least
Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A
Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams
Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.
Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…
Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.
Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats
Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261
Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2 %), acupuncture (80.8 %), hypnosis (78.8 %), body-based practices including massage (77 %) and meditation (65.2 %), respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p < 0.05). Females and first year students, generally had more positive attitudes. A larger proportion of female students compared to male students reported that a doctor should be knowledgeable about CAM (p = 0.001), and this knowledge would be helpful in their future professional lives (p = 0.015). Positive attitudes towards and willingness to receive training declined as the number of years spent in the faculty of medicine increased. Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards. PMID:22862993
Background The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers’ knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage. The aim of the study was to compile and analyze the areas of disagreement in the existing evidence about the relationship between healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate the populations they serve. Methods We conducted a systematic search in four electronic databases for studies published in any of seven different languages between February 1998 and June 2009. We included studies conducted in developed countries that used statistical methods to relate or associate the variables included in our research question. Two independent reviewers verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality of the studies and extracted their relevant characteristics. The data were descriptively analyzed. Results Of the 2354 references identified in the initial search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The diversity in the study designs and in the methods used to measure the variables made it impossible to integrate the results, and each study had to be assessed individually. All the studies found an association in the direction postulated by the SIEVE experts: among healthcare workers, higher awareness, beliefs that are more aligned with scientific evidence and more favorable attitudes toward vaccination were associated with greater intentions to vaccinate. All the studies included were cross-sectional; thus, no causal relationship between the variables was established. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions aimed at improving healthcare workers’ knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines should be encouraged, and their impact on vaccination coverage should be assessed. PMID:23421987
Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor
Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.
Rivera Alvarado, Ivelisse; Vázquez García, Virginia; Dávila Torres, René R; Parrilla Rodríguez, Ana M
Identify the breastfeeding knowledge, the attitudes towards sexuality and breastfeeding and the disposition towards supporting breastfeeding in future fathers were the aims of this study. A non-probabilistic sample (n = 100) of future Puerto Rican male parents was used in this study. A self-administered questionnaire was used consisting of four sections. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and t-test to the inferential analysis. 88.8% of the participants presented a low level of knowledge. However, 81.6% had a positive attitude toward sexuality and breastfeeding. Also, 92.0% of the participants indicated much/enough willingness to support their partners in exclusively breastfeeding. Disposition to support the breastfeeding was associated with knowledge towards breastfeeding (p = 0.04) and attitudes toward sexuality and breastfeeding (p = 0.00). The knowledge and the attitudes, in this study, are strongly related with the disposition of the father to supporting the breastfeeding in the future.
Njie-Carr, Veronica P.S.
HIV/AIDS continues to grow exponentially in sub-Saharan Africa. Early HIV/AIDS care is essential for early interventions to increase quality of life and reduce mortality. The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship among attitudes, spiritual beliefs, cultural beliefs, social beliefs and knowledge on health-seeking behaviors (HSB) of Gambian adults living with HIV/AIDS; and (2) to provide preliminary data on psychometric characteristics of the newly developed HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire. The descriptive design included 93 adults aged 21 to 65 years. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used. Bivariate analyses demonstrated significant relationships between all five variables and HSB at p ≤.03. Additionally, 11% of the variance in HSB was explained by the combined contribution of the five variables. Attitudes significantly contributed to the variance, F(1, 90) =4.865; p =.03; spiritual beliefs, though not statistically significant, had clinical significance. The unique contributions of this study are the separation of the variable attitudes from beliefs and knowledge, which independently explained HSB. Spiritual beliefs and attitudes are critical in developing appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions. Furthermore, the HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire provides a valid means for measuring attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HIV/AIDS for use in future research. PMID:20740045
Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément
People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.
Blaggana, Anshu; Anjali; Kapoor, Anoop; Blaggana, Vikram; Tanwar, Renu; Kaur, Harleen; Haneet, Ryana Kaur
Introduction Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related practices and better oral health. Healthy practices adopted at young age are more sustainable. Aim Present cross-sectional exploratory study was planned to assess oral health knowledge and practices of secondary school students in Chandigarh, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was under-taken amongst 1027 secondary level school students, in Chandigarh, India. After obtaining informed consent subjects were administered pretested self administered questionnaire addressing demographics, knowledge, attitude and practice behaviour of participants. Frequency analysis was done using descriptive statistics. Results Survey revealed that only 40% subjects brushed twice daily. About 17% reported use of dental floss and 20% used either mouthwash or tongue cleaner as adjuncts. A total of 58% had knowledge that infrequent brushing led to dental caries, staining of teeth, dental plaque and bleeding from gums. Most of them knew sweets (92.7%) and soft drinks (67.8%) affected dental health. Only 12.9% visited dentist regularly after every 6-12 months. Conclusion Efficacy of dental health education can be increased only if health programs are tailored to directly impinge on attitudes of targeted population, especially school children in whom healthy practices can be inculcated easily and be sustained for long times. PMID:27891447
Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; Versi, Bashir; DePaul, Vincent G
Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area.
Short, Stephen D; Hawley, Patricia H
The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed.
Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Anjana; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishan
Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners. PMID:26346646
Doehring, Karly; Durno, Scott; Pakenham, Catherine; DePaul, Vincent G.
Purpose: To describe the knowledge, attitudes, and current practices of Canadian physiotherapists in preventing and managing diabetes. Methods: Members of the Canadian Physiotherapy Association were recruited by email to participate in a Web-based survey. The survey contained 40 items in four domains: demographics and education, attitudes and beliefs, current practices, and knowledge of diabetes. A descriptive analysis was completed for all the response variables from the survey. Results: A total of 401 physiotherapists from 10 provinces and 2 territories participated. Respondents were most confident in providing education about exercise and had decreasing confidence in providing education about managing secondary complications, weight management, blood sugar control, and nutrition, respectively. Only 32.4% of participants offered diabetes management counselling, citing lack of training. Knowledge was generally good, except for activity guidelines. Conclusions: A significant proportion of physiotherapists lack confidence in providing key aspects of care to patients with diabetes. Gaps in clinical practice and knowledge of activity guidelines were also observed. This study highlights the need to review entry-level physiotherapy training and to develop continuing educational opportunities in this area. PMID:27909380
Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jamshed, Shazia; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.; Hadi, Hazrina
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, perception, and practice of medical and pharmacy students toward the usage of sunscreen as protection for the skin against ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among final year medical and pharmacy undergraduates at the International Islamic University Malaysia. Validated questionnaires were distributed to 134 medical students and 100 pharmacy students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used where appropriate. Findings: One hundred and sixty-one out of 234 participants completed the questionnaires. The participants comprised 101 medical students (75.4%) and sixty pharmacy students (60.0%). The majority of the respondents were females (102; 63.4%), and 59 (36.6%) were males. The median of the knowledge scores of the final year medical students was significantly lower than that of the final year pharmacy students (P < 0.001). The female students showed significantly higher knowledge scores than the male students (P = 0.027). This study reported that 24 (39.3%) pharmacy students were influenced by the media to use sunscreen, whereas 35 (34.7%) medical students were influenced the most by friends to use sunscreen. The final year pharmacy students had a better perception compared to the medical students, with the total perception score of the final year pharmacy students being significantly higher than that of the final year medical students (P = 0.020). Most of the participants were also aware of the harmful effects of UV radiation and had a positive reaction toward the usage of sunscreen to prevent those harmful effects. Conclusion: The knowledge and perception of final year pharmacy students were significantly higher than the knowledge and perception of final year medical students with regard to the usage of sunscreen. PMID:27512711
Gardiner, Paula; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Lebensohn, Patricia; Bonakdar, Robert
Context Little is known about the incorporation of integrative medicine (IM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into family medicine residency programs. Objective The Society for Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) approved a set of CAM/IM competencies for family medicine residencies. We hope to evaluate with an online survey tool, whether residency programs are implementing such competencies into their curriculum. We also hope to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Residency Directors (RDs) on the CAM/IM competencies. Design A survey was distributed by the CAFM (Council of Academic Family Medicine) Educational Research Alliance to RDs via email. The survey was distributed to 431 RDs. Of those who received it, 212 responded for a response rate of 49.1%. Questions assessed the knowledge and attitudes of CAM/IM competencies and incorporation of CAM/IM into residency curriculum. Results Forty-five percent of RDs were aware of the competencies. In term of RD attitudes, 58% reported that CAM/IM is an important component of residents' curriculum yet, 60% report not having specific learning objectives for CAM/IM in their residency curriculum. Among all programs, barriers to CAM/IM implementation included: time in residents' schedules (77%); faculty training (75%); access to CAM experts (43%); lack of reimbursement (43%), and financial resources (29%). Conclusions While many RDs are aware of the STFM CAM/IM competencies and acknowledge their role in residence education, there are many barriers preventing residencies to implementing the STFM CAM/IM competencies. PMID:24021471
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
BACKGROUND Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012–2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt. METHODS We surveyed 412 (49%) of 841 employees at 1 suburban Ohio school district in March 2013. The Web-based survey assessed personal and work characteristics, vaccine receipt, and knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine. RESULTS Overall, 238 (58%) respondents reported getting the 2012–2013 influenza vaccine. The most common reason for getting the vaccine was to protect oneself or one’s family (87%). Beliefs that the vaccine was not needed (32%) or that it was not effective (21%) were the most common reasons for not getting it. Factors independently associated with vaccine receipt were having positive attitudes toward the vaccine, feeling external pressure to get it, and feeling personal control over whether to get it. CONCLUSIONS Influenza vaccine coverage among school employees should be improved. Messages encouraging school employees to get the vaccine should address misconceptions about the vaccine. Employers should use methods to maximize employee vaccination as part of a comprehensive influenza prevention program. PMID:25117893
Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424
Tsai, Dean C.
The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission will use a formation of four spinning spacecraft to study the Earth s magnetosphere. The science objectives of MMS require a near-regular tetrahedron formation to be maintained with side lengths ranging from ten kilometers to several thousand kilometers at orbit apogee. To reduce spacecraft complexity and cost, the current mission concept assumes MMS can achieve its formation goals through open-loop orbit control from the ground, rather than in-flight, closed-loop formation control that has been the subject of recent study. Significant analysis has been performed to provide optimal reference orbit and relative orbit designs. However, the feasibility of achieving these orbits, and maintaining them for an extended period of time in the presence of real world errors and perturbations has not been investigated. In particular, attitude knowledge and control errors, which may have a negligible effect on orbit control for conventional missions with spinning spacecraft, can contribute significant errors to the MMS orbits. In this work, a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) simulation is developed and used to analyze the effects of realistic errors on formation maintenance maneuver accuracy. Several realistic considerations including a finite-burn model, attitude perturbations, and thrust uncertainty are studied. The primary objective is to quantify the effects of realistic attitude and orbit control, knowledge, and actuator errors on the formation geometry by observing representative maneuver errors of a single spacecraft.
Elias, Elionora; Mauka, Wilhellmuss; Philemon, Rune N; Damian, Damian J; Mahande, Michael J; Msuya, Sia E
Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation.
McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Massey, Robin; Hay, Phillipa J; Mond, Jonathan M; Rodgers, Bryan
Addressing stigma through social marketing campaigns has the potential to enhance currently low rates of treatment seeking and improve the well-being of individuals with the eating disorder bulimia nervosa. This study aimed to evaluate the persuasiveness of health messages designed to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy about this disorder. A community sample of 1,936 adults (48.2% male, 51.8% female) from Victoria, Australia, provided (a) self-report information on knowledge and stigma about bulimia nervosa and (b) ratings of the persuasiveness of 9 brief health messages on dimensions of convincingness and likelihood of changing attitudes. Messages were rated moderately to very convincing and a little to moderately likely to change attitudes toward bulimia nervosa. The most persuasive messages were those that emphasized that bulimia nervosa is a serious mental illness and is not attributable to personal failings. Higher ratings of convincingness were associated with being female, with having more knowledge about bulimia nervosa, and with lower levels of stigma about bulimia nervosa. Higher ratings for likelihood of changing attitudes were associated with being female and with ratings of the convincingness of the corresponding message. This study provides direction for persuasive content to be included in social marketing campaigns to reduce stigma toward bulimia nervosa.
Elias, Elionora; Philemon, Rune N.; Damian, Damian J.; Msuya, Sia E.
Background. Understanding the knowledge and awareness of blood donation among potential blood donors in the population, like young people, and the associated attitudes and practices is important. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study whereby a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from the consenting participants. Results. A total of 422 participants were enrolled. Their mean age was 24.2 (SD 3.6) years. Of the 422, 30% have ever donated blood. 55% of those who had ever donated were repeated blood donors. Majority of the participants (93%) had positive attitudes towards blood donation and 88% were willing to donate in the future. Factors that were significantly associated with ever donating blood were male gender, knowing a person who has donated blood, knowledge of the amount of blood donated, willingness to donate in the future, and not expecting any postdonation reward. Discussion. High awareness, positive attitude, and high intention to donate in the future should be used to underscore the need to educate the young people on the value of blood donation in saving lives and to give them correct information on overall requirements for blood donation. PMID:28070449
Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung
The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students' attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = -1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = -1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R² = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject.
Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N
Anatomy education in most African countries is limited by an insufficient number of cadavers for students to undertake dissection. This already significant shortage is exacerbated by an increasing number of medical schools and students. Virtual dissections are impractical in alleviating such a shortfall in African anatomy education, and further cadaver supply is challenged by unethical and dubious sources. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of whole body and organ donation by Nigerian anatomists with the aim of finding solutions to the problems associated with the availability of cadavers in Nigerian medical schools. Out of 46 anatomists that participated in the survey, only 23.9% would consider donating their whole bodies and 60.9% their organs. More than 95% of respondents did not believe that body bequests could become the sole source of cadavers for anatomic dissection in Nigeria. Age and gender were not statistically significant in the choice of being a body or organ donor. The unacceptability to one's family members regarding body donation was the major reason for respondents' unwillingness to make a whole body donation. None of the 14 medical schools sampled in this study have yet instituted a body registration and donation program. The anatomists showed a high level of knowledge and awareness of body bequest programs, which were not reflected by their attitudes and practice. The authors recommend proactive measures aimed at improving the perception and attitudes of Nigerian anatomists.
Raja, Emans Evangel Joel; Mahal, Rajinder; Masih, Veena Barkat
Explorative study conducted to assess and identify deficit areas of computer knowledge, attitudes and skills among nurses working in the hospital and to examine the relationship among these factors. 120 staff nurses were surveyed by systematic random sampling. Computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were measured by a self-structured computer knowledge questionnaire, computer attitude and skill scale respectively. Data analysis showed that the majority 75% staff nurses had good computer knowledge. 100% of nurses had positive attitudes towards computer utilization. 50.8% and 30.8% had average and fair computer skills respectively. No significant correlation was found between nurses' computer knowledge, attitude and skills. The relationships of computer knowledge, attitude and skill were analyzed among nurses with the selected variables like age, sex, designation, years of nursing service, professional qualification, area of nursing service, type of computer training received, frequency of computer usage and monthly family income. Strategies to enhance nurses' computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were proposed.
Mah, Z; Bryant, H
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there are age-related differences in knowledge, attitudes and behaviour with respect to breast cancer and whether the differences reflect the age-specific Canadian recommendations on breast cancer screening. DESIGN: Telephone survey. SETTING: Two cities and five towns and their surrounding areas in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS: The age-specific, randomly selected sample comprised 1284 women aged 40 to 75 years who did not have breast cancer. Of the 1741 eligible women who were contacted, 1350 (78%) agreed to participate; 66 were excluded because of age ineligibility or a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Frequency of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour with respect to breast cancer, by age group. RESULTS: Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was generally low and decreased with age. Few women were aware of the Canadian recommendations on breast self-examination, physical examination of the breasts by a health care practitioner and mammographic screening. Older women believed they were less susceptible to breast cancer than younger women and were less likely to have positive attitudes toward screening. Self-examination was performed 9 to 15 times per year by 424 women (33%), and 810 (63%) had been examined by a health care professional in the past year. Although 664 (52%) had undergone mammography, the proportion decreased with age after age 59. The main barriers to mammography were lack of physician referral and the woman's belief that the procedure is unnecessary if she is healthy. CONCLUSIONS: Education is needed to increase breast cancer knowledge, promote the Canadian recommendations for early detection of breast cancer and decrease negative beliefs about the disease. Changes in the behaviour of women and physicians are needed to increase the use of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination by a health care professional and mammographic screening. Reaching women in the upper range (60 to 69 years) of the
Dongara, Ashish R; Shah, Shail N; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Archana S
Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care.
Al-Hooli, Abeer Abdullah
The present study, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, examined Kuwaiti kindergarten teachers' attitudes toward teaching science, their understanding of science content and pedagogical knowledge, and the role that using children's literature in science teaching plays in those relationships. Three hundred kindergarten teachers responded to the researcher-developed questionnaire entitled "Teaching Science and Using Children's Literature for Science Instruction." Additionally, six in-service teachers were purposely selected for the follow-up interviews. The quantitative data were analyzed through appropriate descriptive statistics including Pearson Product Moment correlations, ANOVA, Tukey Post Hoc tests, Eta, and Eta squared. The data analysis revealed that a large percentage of teachers reported high levels of comfort and enjoyment as well as little anxiety about teaching science. Teachers indicated that they had sufficient background and strong pedagogical knowledge to teach required kindergarten science themes. Moreover, teachers reported a positive perception of teaching science with children's literature, indicating its usefulness in science instruction. Fifty-five percent of the teachers indicated however, that there was a need for more training in how best to use children's literature for science instruction. The qualitative data was systematically analyzed through a process of content analysis. It revealed that the six selected Kuwaiti kindergarten teachers had varying interests and ideas about teaching of science with children's literature; these seemed to be linked to their principal-reported low, average, and high levels of knowledge about and attitudes toward science. Furthermore, the six case studies suggest a pattern of relationships between background and classroom success and the suggestions and complaints made by the teachers regarding their ongoing training and support. The interview data analysis suggested that that there
Newell, Alana D.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Moreno, Nancy P.; Zientek, Linda R.
High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students’ science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Due to the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students’ content knowledge acquisition and attitudes toward science may aid in the development of effective science-related interventions. We investigated the impact of a semester-long after-school intervention utilizing an inquiry-based infectious diseases curriculum (designed for use after-school) on 63 urban students’ content knowledge and aspects of their attitudes towards science. Content knowledge increased 24.6% from pre- to posttest. Multiple regression analyses indicated suggested that the “self-directed effort” subscale of the Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire - Revised best predicted increases in students’ science content knowledge. The construct “science is fun for me” served as a suppressor effect. These findings suggest that future after-school programs focusing on aspects of attitudes toward science most closely associated with gains in content knowledge might improve students’ enthusiasm and academic preparedness for additional science coursework by improving student attitudes towards their perceptions of their self-directed effort. PMID:26778859
Newell, Alana D; Tharp, Barbara Z; Vogt, Gregory L; Moreno, Nancy P; Zientek, Linda R
High-quality after-school programs devoted to science have the potential to enhance students' science knowledge and attitudes, which may impact their decisions about pursuing science-related careers. Due to the unique nature of these informal learning environments, an understanding of the relationships among aspects of students' content knowledge acquisition and attitudes toward science may aid in the development of effective science-related interventions. We investigated the impact of a semester-long after-school intervention utilizing an inquiry-based infectious diseases curriculum (designed for use after-school) on 63 urban students' content knowledge and aspects of their attitudes towards science. Content knowledge increased 24.6% from pre- to posttest. Multiple regression analyses indicated suggested that the "self-directed effort" subscale of the Simpson-Troost Attitude Questionnaire - Revised best predicted increases in students' science content knowledge. The construct "science is fun for me" served as a suppressor effect. These findings suggest that future after-school programs focusing on aspects of attitudes toward science most closely associated with gains in content knowledge might improve students' enthusiasm and academic preparedness for additional science coursework by improving student attitudes towards their perceptions of their self-directed effort.
Budimir, Vice; Cerjan-Letica, Gordana; Budimir, Jozo; Macan, Darko
Confidentiality and privacy have always been a vital part of the health care provider-patient relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the knowledge, attitudes, and awareness of dentists in Croatia concerning patients' confidentiality and privacy and to determine the degree to which they were protecting patients' confidentiality and privacy in everyday practice. Survey data were collected from seventy of the approximately 4,000 dentists in Croatia who had been randomly selected using the registry of the Croatian Chamber of Dental Medicine. Our strategy for data collection included visits to the dental offices and clinics. The data showed that dentists displayed a lack of awareness and had a poor attitude toward respecting patients' rights to confidentiality and privacy. This study indicated the need to educate dentists about their responsibilities and legal obligations.
The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood. PMID:23843795
Alavi, S S; Dabbagh, S T; Abbasi, M; Mehrdad, R
This study aimed to find the association between job satisfaction and radiation protection knowledge, attitude and practice of medical radiation workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. In this crosssectional study, 530 radiation workers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences completed a knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire on protecting themselves against radiation and Job Descriptive Index as a job satisfaction measure during May to November 2014. Opportunities for promotion (84.2%) and payment (91.5%) were the most important factors for dissatisfaction. Radiation workers who were married, had more positive attitudes toward protecting themselves against radiation, and had higher level of education accounted for 15.8% of the total variance in predicting job satisfaction. In conclusion, medical radiation workers with a more positive attitude toward self-protection against radiation were more satisfied with their jobs. In radiation environments, improving staff attitudes toward their safety may be considered as a key strategy to increase job satisfaction.
This article reviews qualitative research on public knowledge and attitudes to HPV vaccines, focusing on socio-economically challenged populations. Keyword searches were conducted on MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for relevant peer-reviewed literature in English. A high acceptance of HPV vaccines was found despite low knowledge about HPV (types, prevalence, transmission, health risks, and cervical screening). Facilitators of HPV vaccine uptake included fear of cancer and desire to protect children's health. Barriers included low knowledge levels, perception of HPV vaccines as potential causes of sexual disinhibition, concerns about vaccine costs, social stigma, adverse effects, and parental unwillingness to permit vaccination of pre-adolescent children. Despite acceptance of HPV vaccines, implementation in low-resource settings faces social and economic difficulties. To pursue and strengthen cervical screening in these settings, public education about HPV is key.
Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.
Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits. PMID:24587498
Rosales-Klintz, Senia; Tegmark Wisell, Karin; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia
Background In 2006, a study investigating knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic use and resistance in Sweden, indicated high level of knowledge but also areas in need of improvement. Objective (i) To provide an update on the knowledge and attitudes to antibiotic use and resistance of the Swedish population, and (ii) to identify which groups within the population are in particular need of improved knowledge or attitudes. Methods A questionnaire was sent by post in 2013 to 2,500 randomly-selected individuals aged 18–74, living in Sweden. Latent class analyses were conducted to group respondents based on their responses. The association between socio-demographic characteristics and the probability of belonging to each latent class was assessed. Results The response rate was 57%. Ninety-four per cent of the responders knew that bacteria could become resistant to antibiotics and the majority answered correctly to the questions regarding antibiotic resistance development. The respondents expressed confidence in doctors who decided not to prescribe antibiotics. Three latent classes related to ‘knowledge regarding antibiotic use and resistance’, two regarding ‘attitudes towards antibiotic accessibility and infection prevention’ and three regarding ‘attitudes towards antibiotic use and effects’ were revealed. Men, younger and more educated people were more knowledgeable but males had a less restrictive attitude. Respondents with high levels of knowledge on antibiotics were more likely to have appropriate restrictive attitudes to antibiotics. Conclusion Knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance is maintained high and has improved in Sweden compared to 2006. People with lower education and elderly are especially in need of improved knowledge about antibiotic use and resistance. PMID:27096751
Chen, J X; Zhang, T M; Lim, F L; Wu, H C; Lei, T F; Yeong, P K; Xia, S J
Current attitudes toward organ donation among university students in mainland China and the differences in attitudes between Chinese students in mainland China versus overseas are unknown. To address these issues, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires among 922 Chinese undergraduates from mainland China and overseas regions of the world. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Student t tests, chi-square tests, and a logistic regression analysis. We found that blood donors showed significantly better awareness of heart, liver, lung, skin, and tendon donation among commonly transplanted organs/tissues. As to the willingness for cadaveric organ donation, 61.3% of respondents consented, 8.5% objected, and 30.3% answered "not sure." The percentage holding an organ donor card was 15.7% among students from Hong Kong; 3.0%, mainland China; 2.8%, Macau; 2.6%, Taiwan, and 4.0%, other regions of the world. In a logistic regression analysis, female students (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 3.72) and blood donors (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.32) did, but age and study specialty (medical vs nonmedical) did not show significantly more positive attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. Compared with students from mainland China, overseas Chinese students from various regions did not show significantly different attitudes toward cadaveric organ donation. In summary, blood donors among university students have a greater knowledge of transplantation and a more positive attitude toward organ donation. Since university students are an important source of blood donors in China, they will be a potential pool of organ donors in the future.
Krishnaiah, Balaji; Alwar, Seenivasan P.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi N.
Introduction: People living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings that have persisted for many years. In the last decade, there has been an increase in individual literacy rate and increased access to technology in rural population. However, it is unclear if this has any effect on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) attitude toward epilepsy. Objective: Our primary aim is to evaluate KAP toward epilepsy. In addition, we also estimated the prevalence of stroke and epilepsy in rural South India. Materials and Methods: Using a 14-item questionnaire, we assessed KAP toward epilepsy and identified determinants of inappropriate attitudes toward people with epilepsy and 10-item questionnaires to assess the prevalence of epilepsy and stroke among 500 randomly selected populations in a Pattaravakkam village (Tamil Nadu, India). Results: About 87.7% of the people had heard or read about epilepsy. Negative attitudes appeared to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (23.1%), kind of insanity (22.6%), or as contagious (12.0%). The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and first aid to a person during a seizure was 25.8%. About 36.5% of people think that society discriminates people with epilepsy. Moreover, our prevalence study showed that 8.7% people are suffering from epilepsy and 3.7% had stroke previously and at the day of survey, the stroke prevalence is 3.3%. Conclusion: Even with increased literacy, technology, and communication devices, the KAP of people toward epilepsy is relatively low. General public education campaigns and specific school education campaigns children should be encouraged to increase the KAP toward epilepsy. The prevalence and pattern of epilepsy and stroke is on the higher side in the village of Pattaravakkam. Future research regarding the value of targeted education in improving KAP will be worthwhile. PMID:27365954
Gürdil Yilmaz, Seher; Opak Yücel, Burcu; Çuhadar, Döndü
The objective in this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the Faculty of Theology students on organ transplantation. The study that was planned as a descriptive study took place between March-May 2014 with the participation of 119 students enrolled at the Faculty of Theology. It was determined as a result of the study that the students see lack of knowledge (49.6%) as the top obstacle for organ transplantation followed by religion (21%), that 52.1% accept that organ transplantation is not forbidden in Islam; that 27.7% agree with the thought that considers it disturbing and unnerving to carry an organ or tissue from another body; that 80.7% agree with the idea stating that organ transplantation should be carried out even if it provides only a possibility for treatment or for prolonging one's life and that 82.4% agree with the opinion that statements in favor of organ transplantation to be declared by the Directorate of Religious Affairs will increase organ transplantation. Clergymen play an important role in affecting the behavior and attitudes of large public masses, and thus it is important that the positive ideas of these individuals with regard to organ donation will thus have indirect but positive effects on the attitudes of the public with regard to organ transplantation. Hence, it is thought that determining the attitudes of clergymen candidates who will educate the public both at schools and at places of prayer and increasing their awareness in this subject will contribute to increasing the awareness of the public with regard to organ donation.
Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383
Mtengezo, Jasintha; Lee, Haeok; Ngoma, Jonathan; Kim, Susie; Aronowitz, Teri; DeMarco, Rosanna; Shi, Ling
Objective: The highest prevalence of HIV infection occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa and hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence are the second highest in Sub-Saharan Africa including Malawi. Health-care workers (HCWs) play an important role in the prevention of, response to, and management of these infectious diseases. There is, however, no published research about the level of knowledge and attitudes toward HIV, HBV, and HCV infection among Malawian HCWs. The purpose of this study was to explore and determine the knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV, HBV, and HCV among a targeted population of Malawian HCWs. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based participatory research with 194 HCWs was completed employing health survey method. The project was a collaborative effort between nursing faculties in the USA and Malawian. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to assess the differences in knowledge and attitude among three subgroups of HCWs. Results: Of 194 of Malawian HCWs surveyed, 41% were support staff, 37% were nursing students, and 22% were health-care professionals. Both health-care professionals and support staff had high knowledge scores related to HIV/AIDS, and their attitudes were mainly positive. However, a series of one-way ANOVAs revealed significant differences in knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDs, HBV, and HCV among HCWs (P < 0.01). The majority had less knowledge about HBV and HCV and more negative attitudes toward hepatitis. Conclusions: This study highlights the ongoing need for reducing negative attitudes toward HIV, HBV, and HCV; and providing health education among HCWs, especially focusing on HBV and HCV prevention. The findings of the research project can be used to develop interventions addressing low HBV- and HCV-related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:28083551
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude–behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice. PMID:28286489
Kumar, Harish; Behura, Shyam Sundar; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Nishat, Roquaiya; Dash, Kailash C.; Mohiddin, Gouse
Objectives: To compare oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices among dental and medical students in a Health care centre at Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty BDS and MBBS students each from Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences and Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences of KIIT University, Bhubaneswar respectively, were invited to participate in this survey using a self-administered structured questionnaire in English comprising 27 questions, which was designed to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and practices. The obtained data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 software. Results: On comparison of the scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice, the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among dental students than medical students. The study also showed that female students (both dental and medical) had better oral health knowledge and showed better oral health practices than male students. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient test showed that, although dental students had better knowledge and attitude towards oral health, there was a lack of adequate practice among them. Conclusion: Further emphasis on oral health is necessary in undergraduate training to improve oral health knowledge, attitude, and practice among dental and medical students as they will act as role models for oral health education among individuals and community at large. PMID:28316951
Bränström, R; Brandberg, Y; Holm, L; Sjöberg, L; Ullén, H
In 1996, a random population sample of 2615 adolescents completed a questionnaire concerning habitual sun-related behaviours, attitudes towards sunbathing, and knowledge about skin cancer. Females, older adolescents, those with less sun-sensitive skin, those with higher knowledge and those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing were more likely to be frequent sunbathers. Younger adolescents, those who today sunbathe moderately, and those with sensitive skin were more likely to believe that they would sunbathe more often in the future. Males, adolescents with less sensitive skin, those with a positive attitude towards sunbathing and those sunbathing often, were less likely to use protection when sunbathing. Interventions to decrease sun exposure among adolescents should focus on changing attitudes toward sunbathing and having a tan, since knowledge of skin cancer and the damaging affect of sunbathing did not seem to effect current sunbathing habits, or use of sun protection.
Chung, Kenny; Ivey, Susan L; Guo, Wenting; Chung, Kevin; Nguyen, Catherine; Nguyen, Christine; Chung, Corina; Tseng, Winston
We conducted, in four languages, the first national cross-sectional survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practice with respect to epilepsy of Chinese- and Vietnamese-American adults. We used a convenience sampling method to recruit 2831 adults in seven states. Eighty-four percent had heard or read of epilepsy and 58% had seen a seizure, whereas only 34% knew someone with epilepsy. Forty-two percent would object to their children marrying a person with epilepsy, and 43% would not knowingly hire someone with epilepsy. We examined bivariate associations for questions of knowledge, attitudes, and practice with age, gender, ethnicity, nativity, language, and education. chi(2) analyses showed differences in knowledge of and attitudes toward epilepsy by age group, gender, ethnicity, and education. Although misconceptions and negative views about epilepsy are held by Chinese and Vietnamese populations living in the United States, our results show noteworthy differences in attitudes and practice in relation to previous studies in Asian countries.
Kim, Eunjung; Im, Eun-Ok
The purpose of this pilot study was to explore first-generation Korean-Americans’ knowledge about depression and attitudes about depression treatment options. Self-report survey data were gathered from 73 first-generation Korean-Americans (KAs) using instruments developed for this study. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including t-tests. Data indicated participants lacked knowledge about depression. Among all depression treatment options, exercise was the option that first-generation KAs were most willing to try and was rated as having the least shame attached to it. Taking an antidepressant was the option KAs reported being most unwilling to try and had the highest shame attached to it. No significant differences in knowledge about depression and attitudes about depression treatment options were found between low and high acculturation groups, with the exception that the high acculturation group demonstrated more agreement than the low acculturation group with the item that emotional symptoms, such as mood changes, can be depression symptoms. These results suggest that initiating depression treatment with exercise may be the most acceptable starting point in treating depression in first-generation KA immigrants. PMID:26241572
Smith, Annetta; Gray, Alexandra; Atherton, Iain; Pirie, Elizabeth; Jepson, Ruth
The Scottish National Blood Transfusion service have developed an educational programme aimed at ensuring a high standard of care for blood transfusions to minimise risk to patients and healthcare practitioners. This paper investigates whether knowledge and understanding of, and attitudes towards, safe practice declined over time following completion of module 1 of the programme. An online survey was administered to a range of healthcare practitioners who had completed the module. The survey tool tested knowledge and ascertained views on blood transfusion practice and perceptions of the module's importance. Comparisons were made between participants 6-8 weeks, 12-14 months and 22-24 months since module completion. In-depth interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of survey respondents to explore attitudes in more detail. Findings indicate evidence of a slight though statistically significant reduction in the degree of emphasis respondents placed on the importance of understanding aspects of transfusions as time lapsed, but no difference was found in knowledge between those who took the course more recently and those who were up to two years post-module. The study's findings indicate that recognition of the importance of safe practice declines over time and thus also suggests that frequent refresher courses are important to maintain safe practice.
Panda, Sudhansu Bhusan; Prabhu, Krishnananda; Rao, Suryanarayana; Rao, Anjali; Rao, Gayathri; Datta, Abhinandya; Ramanan, Harini; Kamath, Asha
This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to epilepsy among health science students of Manipal University. The study was conducted among first-year health science students of Kasturba Medical College on the Manipal and Mangalore campuses of Manipal University. All students willing to participate (n=587) were asked to answer a standardized questionnaire on epilepsy. Our study group included educated urban people from various ethnic backgrounds of various countries who chose health science as a career, which makes the study different from others. Even though most of the students had heard about epilepsy, very few knew about the underlying cause. Most of the students were ignorant about the drugs and ways to deal with epileptic seizures. Questions related to community and religion were deliberately avoided as some subjects found such questions offensive, which may have resulted in a difference in response as compared with previously published studies. It was observed that a large number of students were not aware of the nuances of epilepsy. However, we expect the knowledge, attitudes and awareness to improve considerably with time and increased exposure. These findings support a need to promote epilepsy awareness programs as a means of increasing public knowledge of epilepsy.
ABSTRACT Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of school children towards oral health. Settings and design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: School children (n=700) aged between 10 to 14 years in a Davangere school were recruited into this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire that aimed to evaluate young school children’s behavior, knowledge, and perception of their oral health and dental treatment. Statistical analysis: The results were statistically analysed and percentage was calculated. Results and conclusion: The participant oral hygiene habits (such as tooth brushing) were found to be irregular, and parent role in the oral hygiene habits of their children was limited. The study population showed higher awareness of caries than periodontal conditions. The children in this study also recognized the importance of oral health. The results of this study indicate that Comprehensive oral health educational programs for both children and their parents are required to achieve this goal. How to cite this article: Vishwanathaiah S. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Oral Health Practices of School Children in Davangere. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):172-176. PMID:27365943
Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V
OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442